WorldWideScience

Sample records for current dietary recommendations

  1. Dietary fibre in Europe: current state of knowledge on definitions, sources, recommendations, intakes and relationships to health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Alison M; Champ, Martine M-J; Cloran, Susan J; Fleith, Mathilde; van Lieshout, Lilou; Mejborn, Heddie; Burley, Victoria J

    2017-12-01

    Research into the analysis, physical properties and health effects of dietary fibre has continued steadily over the last 40-50 years. From the knowledge gained, countries have developed guidelines for their populations on the optimal amount of fibre to be consumed each day. Food composition tables from many countries now contain values for the dietary fibre content of foods, and, from these, combined with dietary surveys, population intakes have been determined. The present review assessed the uniformity of the analytical methods used, health claims permitted, recommendations and intakes, particularly from national surveys across Europe and around the world. It also assessed current knowledge on health effects of dietary fibre and related the impact of different fibre types on health. The overall intent was to be able to provide more detailed guidance on the types of fibre which should be consumed for good health, rather than simply a total intake figure, the current situation. Analysis of data indicated a fair degree of uniformity in the definition of dietary fibre, the method used for analysis, the recommended amount to be consumed and a growing literature on effects on digestive health and disease risk. However, national dietary survey data showed that intakes do not reach recommendations and very few countries provide guidance on the types of fibre that are preferable to achieve recommended intakes. Research gaps were identified and ideas suggested to provide information for more detailed advice to the public about specific food sources that should be consumed to achieve health benefits.

  2. [Current dietary exposure to mercury during pregnancy and childhood, and public health recommendations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llop, Sabrina; Ibarlucea, Jesús; Sunyer, Jordi; Ballester, Ferran

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to high levels of mercury during vulnerable periods (such as pregnancy and childhood) may have serious consequences for cognitive development, as observed after acute poisoning episodes in Japan and Irak. The main source of mercury exposure in the general population is consumption of certain types of fish. There is growing concern about the possible neurotoxic effects of mercury, especially in younger children in populations where fish intake is moderate to high. The scientific evidence to date is inconclusive. In Spain, the Childhood and Environment (Infancia y Medio Ambiente [INMA]) project has provided information on levels of prenatal exposure to mercury among 1800 newborns from Valencia, Sabadell, Asturias and Guipúzcoa. In general, levels were high, being above the World Health Organization's recommended dose in 24% of children and above the recommended levels of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in 64%. However, the results did not indicate a significant association between prenatal mercury exposure and delayed cognitive development during the second year of life. Various agencies have developed recommendations on fish consumption for pregnant women and children, due to the presence of mercury. These recommendations should be strengthened, since there is general consensus among all regional and national public administrations that fish is an essential source of nutrients for development in the early stages of life. Copyright © 2012 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Dietary macronutrient recommendations for optimal Dietary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both resistance and endurance-trained athletes have a higher dietary protein requirement of between 1.2 and 1.8 g protein/kg body weight (BW)/day, with an upper limit of 2 g protein/kg BW/day. To increase the rate of protein synthesis during the recovery period, immediate ingestion of protein postexercise is recommended ...

  4. Indicator Amino Acid-Derived Estimate of Dietary Protein Requirement for Male Bodybuilders on a Nontraining Day Is Several-Fold Greater than the Current Recommended Dietary Allowance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandegan, Arash; Courtney-Martin, Glenda; Rafii, Mahroukh; Pencharz, Paul B; Lemon, Peter Wr

    2017-05-01

    Background: Despite a number of studies indicating increased dietary protein needs in bodybuilders with the use of the nitrogen balance technique, the Institute of Medicine (2005) has concluded, based in part on methodologic concerns, that "no additional dietary protein is suggested for healthy adults undertaking resistance or endurance exercise." Objective: The aim of the study was to assess the dietary protein requirement of healthy young male bodybuilders ( with ≥3 y training experience) on a nontraining day by measuring the oxidation of ingested l-[1- 13 C]phenylalanine to 13 CO 2 in response to graded intakes of protein [indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) technique]. Methods: Eight men (means ± SDs: age, 22.5 ± 1.7 y; weight, 83.9 ± 11.6 kg; 13.0% ± 6.3% body fat) were studied at rest on a nontraining day, on several occasions (4-8 times) each with protein intakes ranging from 0.1 to 3.5 g · kg -1 · d -1 , for a total of 42 experiments. The diets provided energy at 1.5 times each individual's measured resting energy expenditure and were isoenergetic across all treatments. Protein was fed as an amino acid mixture based on the protein pattern in egg, except for phenylalanine and tyrosine, which were maintained at constant amounts across all protein intakes. For 2 d before the study, all participants consumed 1.5 g protein · kg -1 · d -1 On the study day, the protein requirement was determined by identifying the breakpoint in the F 13 CO 2 with graded amounts of dietary protein [mixed-effects change-point regression analysis of F 13 CO 2 (labeled tracer oxidation in breath)]. Results: The Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) of protein and the upper 95% CI RDA for these young male bodybuilders were 1.7 and 2.2 g · kg -1 · d -1 , respectively. Conclusion: These IAAO data suggest that the protein EAR and recommended intake for male bodybuilders at rest on a nontraining day exceed the current recommendations of the Institute of Medicine by ∼2.6-fold

  5. A diet quality index for American preschoolers based on current dietary intake recommendations and an indicator of energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranz, Sibylle; Hartman, Terryl; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Herring, Amy H

    2006-10-01

    Based on current dietary intake recommendations and a recommendation to limit sedentary activity in preschoolers, an overall diet quality index for preschoolers (RC-DQI) incorporating a component for energy balance to measure adequacy of nutrition for growth, development, and disease prevention was developed. The newly developed index was used in nationally representative samples of 2- to 5-year-olds in the US Department of Agriculture Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals 1994-96 and 1998 (n=5,437). Index components included added sugar, total fat, polyunsaturated fatty acids, total and whole grains, fruits, vegetables, excess fruit juice, dairy, iron, and an interaction term of total daily energy intake and sedentary behavior (television time). Points were allocated to reflect deficient or excessive intakes. Means and standard errors were used to describe food intakes and RC-DQI scores. Ability to differentiate diets was ascertained using mean intakes of food groups/nutrients followed by a nonparametric test of trends across ordered groups. Correlation coefficients measured dependence among RC-DQI components, nutrients, and overall energy intakes. Component scores of the highest and lowest quartile of RC-DQI were compared. Mean RC-DQI score was 64 points (range=28 to 93). Increasing RC-DQI scores were associated with improved diet quality. Children in the lowest RC-DQI quartile scored lower in all components. The RC-DQI successfully differentiated diets by level of diet quality. Increasing scores were associated with decreasing consumption of added sugar and juices, and increasing intakes of fiber, essential fatty acids, fruits, and vegetables. The RC-DQI can be used to determine diet quality in groups of preschool-age children.

  6. Current perspectives on the health risks associated with the consumption of advanced glycation end products: recommendations for dietary management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palimeri S

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sotiria Palimeri,* Eleni Palioura,* Evanthia Diamanti-KandarakisEndocrine Unit, Medical School University of Athens, Athens, Greece*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Advanced glycation end products (AGEs constitute a complex group of compounds produced endogenously during the aging process and under conditions of hyperglycemia and oxidative stress. AGEs also have an emerging exogenous origin. Cigarette smoke and diet are the two main exogenous sources of AGEs (glycotoxins. Modern Western diets are rich in AGEs which have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several metabolic and degenerative disorders. Accumulating evidence underlies the beneficial effect of the dietary restriction of AGEs not only in animal studies but also in patients with diabetic complications and metabolic diseases. This article reviews the evidence linking dietary glycotoxins to several disorders from diabetic complications and renal failure to liver dysfunction, female reproduction, eye and cognitive disorders as well as cancer. Furthermore, strategies for AGE reduction are discussed with a focus on dietary modification.Keywords: AGEs, dietary glycotoxins, dietary restriction, PCOS, MSR-1, RAGE

  7. Dietary fibre in Europe: current state of knowledge on definitions, sources, recommendations, intakes and relationships to health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephen, Alison M; Champ, Martine M-J; Cloran, Susan J

    2017-01-01

    Research into the analysis, physical properties and health effects of dietary fibre has continued steadily over the last 40-50 years. From the knowledge gained, countries have developed guidelines for their populations on the optimal amount of fibre to be consumed each day. Food composition table...

  8. Dietary Quality and Adherence to Dietary Recommendations in Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis, Desiree; Zlatkis, Karyn; Comenge, Beatriz; García, Zoraida; Navarro, Juan F; Lorenzo, Victor; Carrero, Juan Jesús

    2016-05-01

    The multiple dietary restrictions recommended to hemodialysis patients may be difficult to achieve and, at the same time, may result in nutritional deficiencies rendering a poor dietary quality. We here assess the dietary quality and adherence to renal-specific guideline recommendations among hemodialysis patients from a single center in Canary Islands, Spain. Cross-sectional study, including 91 patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis. Clinical data and 3-day dietary records were collected. We compared patient's reported nutrients intake with guideline recommendations. We also evaluated their alignment with current American Heart Association dietary guidelines for cardiovascular prevention. Seventy-seven percent and 50% of patients consumed less than the recommended daily energy and protein, respectively. Although half of the patients met the recommendations for dietary fat intake, this was accounted by an excess of saturated fat in 92% of them. Only 22% consumed sufficient fiber. A very small proportion of patients (less than 50%) met the requirements for vitamins and other micronutrients. Insufficient dietary intake was observed in most patients for all vitamins except for cobalamin. Similarly, inadequate dietary intake was observed for many minerals, by both excess (phosphorus, calcium, sodium, and potassium) and defect (magnesium). Most patients met the recommendations for iron and zinc in their diets. A large proportion of hemodialysis patients at our center did not meet current renal-specific dietary recommendations. The quality of the diet was considered poor and proatherogenic according to American Heart Association guidelines. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of dietary profile of a rural south Indian population with the current dietary recommendations for prevention of non-communicable diseases (CURES 147

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narasimhan Sowmya

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: The dietary profile of this rural south Indian population reflected unhealthy choices, with the high consumption of refined cereals in the form of polished white rice and low intake of protective foods like fruits, vegetables, n-3 poly and monounsaturated fatty acids. This could potentially contribute to the increase in prevalence of NCDs like diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases in rural areas and calls for appropriate remedial action.

  10. 9691 KNOWLEDGE OF RECOMMENDED DIETARY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mimi

    and obese body weight categories. Thus, this investigation indicated an ... understand the role of dietary cholesterol in disease progression or prevention. In addition, some consumers may regard all fats ... frequency of consumption of food rich in cholesterol, and medical check-up was used as an instrument for this study.

  11. Americans do not meet federal dietary recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs-Smith, Susan M; Guenther, Patricia M; Subar, Amy F; Kirkpatrick, Sharon I; Dodd, Kevin W

    2010-10-01

    A longstanding goal of dietary surveillance has been to estimate the proportion of the population with intakes above or below a target, such as a recommended level of intake. However, until now, statistical methods for assessing the alignment of food intakes with recommendations have been lacking. The purposes of this study were to demonstrate the National Cancer Institute's method of estimating the distribution of usual intake of foods and determine the proportion of the U.S. population who does not meet federal dietary recommendations. Data were obtained from the 2001-2004 NHANES for 16,338 persons, aged 2 y and older. Quantities of foods reported on 24-h recalls were translated into amounts of various food groups using the MyPyramid Equivalents Database. Usual dietary intake distributions were modeled, accounting for sequence effect, weekend/weekday effect, sex, age, poverty income ratio, and race/ethnicity. The majority of the population did not meet recommendations for all of the nutrient-rich food groups, except total grains and meat and beans. Concomitantly, overconsumption of energy from solid fats, added sugars, and alcoholic beverages ("empty calories") was ubiquitous. Over 80% of persons age ≥ 71 y and over 90% of all other sex-age groups had intakes of empty calories that exceeded the discretionary calorie allowances. In conclusion, nearly the entire U.S. population consumes a diet that is not on par with recommendations. These findings add another piece to the rather disturbing picture that is emerging of a nation's diet in crisis.

  12. Are Malaysian Children Achieving Dietary Guideline Recommendations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Hui Chin; Poh, Bee Koon; Lee, Shoo Thien; Chong, Kar Hau; Bragt, Marjolijn C E; Abd Talib, Ruzita

    2016-07-01

    A large body of epidemiological data has demonstrated that diet quality follows a sociodemographic gradient. Little is known, however, about food group intake patterns among Malaysian children. This study aimed to assess consumption pattern of 7 food groups, including cereals/grains, legumes, fruits, vegetables, fish, meat/poultry, and milk/dairy products, among children 7 to 12 years of age. A total of 1773 children who participated in SEANUTS Malaysia and who completed the Food Frequency Questionnaire were included in this study. A greater proportion of children aged 10 to 12 years have an inadequate intake of cereals/grains, meat/poultry, legumes, and milk/dairy products compared with children 7 to 9 years old. With the exception of meat/poultry, food consumption of Malaysian children did not meet Malaysian Dietary Guidelines recommendations for the other 6 food groups, irrespective of sociodemographic backgrounds. Efforts are needed to promote healthy and balanced dietary habits, particularly for foods that fall short of recommended intake level. © 2016 APJPH.

  13. Evaluating the environmental impacts of dietary recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Paul; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; Bosker, Thijs; Rodrigues, João F D; de Koning, Arjan; Tukker, Arnold

    2017-12-19

    Dietary choices drive both health and environmental outcomes. Information on diets come from many sources, with nationally recommended diets (NRDs) by governmental or similar advisory bodies the most authoritative. Little or no attention is placed on the environmental impacts within NRDs. Here we quantify the impact of nation-specific NRDs, compared with an average diet in 37 nations, representing 64% of global population. We focus on greenhouse gases (GHGs), eutrophication, and land use because these have impacts reaching or exceeding planetary boundaries. We show that compared with average diets, NRDs in high-income nations are associated with reductions in GHG, eutrophication, and land use from 13.0 to 24.8%, 9.8 to 21.3%, and 5.7 to 17.6%, respectively. In upper-middle-income nations, NRDs are associated with slight decrease in impacts of 0.8-12.2%, 7.7-19.4%, and 7.2-18.6%. In poorer middle-income nations, impacts increase by 12.4-17.0%, 24.5-31.9%, and 8.8-14.8%. The reduced environmental impact in high-income countries is driven by reductions in calories (∼54% of effect) and a change in composition (∼46%). The increased environmental impacts of NRDs in low- and middle-income nations are associated with increased intake in animal products. Uniform adoption of NRDs across these nations would result in reductions of 0.19-0.53 Gt CO 2 eq⋅a -1 , 4.32-10.6 Gt [Formula: see text] eq⋅a -1 , and 1.5-2.8 million km 2 , while providing the health cobenefits of adopting an NRD. As a small number of dietary guidelines are beginning to incorporate more general environmental concerns, we anticipate that this work will provide a standardized baseline for future work to optimize recommended diets further. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  14. [Compliance with current dietary recommendations and geographical variability of diet in women participating in 7 screening programs for breast cancer in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Arenzana, N; Navarrete-Muñoz, E M; Vázquez-Carrete, J A; Moreno, M P; Vidal, C; Salas, D; Ederra, M; Pedraz, C; Collado-García, F; Sánchez-Contador, C; González-Román, I; García-López, M; Miranda, J; Peris, M; Moreo, P; Santamariña, C; Pérez-Gómez, B; Vioque, J; Pollán, M

    2011-01-01

    A healthy diet is especially important during menopause, a period which increases the risk of various health problems. We analyzed the diet of periand postmenopausal Spanish women and the degree of compliance with current recommendations. We studied 3574 women 45-68 years old who attended breast cancer screening programmes in 7 centres (A Coruña, Barcelona, Burgos, Palma de Mallorca, Pamplona, Valencia and Zaragoza). Diet information was collected using a food frequency questionnaire validated for the Spanish population. For the assessment of compliance with current guidelines we used the recommendations by the Spanish Society of Community Nutrition for food groups intake and by the Spanish Federation of Nutrition, Food and Dietetics for energy, vitamins and minerals intake. The 29% of women were obese and 42% overweight. The average caloric intake was 2.053 kcal (SD 480). The general energy profile was: 43% of the energy from the carbohydrates, 36% from fats, and 20% from proteins. There was a low vitamin D intake in all centres of the study, with an overall mean intake of 2.14 mg/day. A deficit of vitamin E intake in A Coruña and Burgos was also detected. Intake of dairy products and vegetables was high in all the study centers. The consumption of fruits and vegetables was very heterogeneous, with high intakes observed in Mallorca and Valencia and low for both food groups in A Coruña. The olive oil intake was high in all centers except Burgos with 74.3% of the women studied below the recommended 3 servings per day. A diet with less fat and protein and a higher consumption of vegetables, nuts and foods rich in carbohydrate might balance the energy intake and improve the quality of the diet correcting the low intakes of vitamins D and E. These recommendations are especially important in cities far from the Mediterranean coast where more breaches have been detected over the current recommendations with a lower adherence to the Mediterranean diet.

  15. Adherence to Dietary Recommendations in Maintenance Phase Kidney Transplant Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichimaru, N; Nakazawa, S; Yamanaka, K; Kakuta, Y; Abe, T; Kaimori, J-Y; Imamura, R; Nonomura, N; Takahara, S

    2016-04-01

    Current adherence to dietary recommendations for chronic kidney disease was evaluated in kidney transplant patients in the maintenance phase. A total of 268 maintenance phase kidney transplant patients were included in the study. Estimated daily intakes of oral protein and salt were calculated from 24-h urinary excretion of nitrogen and sodium, respectively. Dietary recommendations for chronic kidney disease, as issued in 2014 by the Japanese Society of Nephrology, were used as the basis for assessing diet. The study included 114 female patients and 154 male patients. The mean age, posttransplantation years, body mass index, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and 24-h urinary excretion of protein were 56.3 years, 11.2 years, 22.0 kg/m(2), 42.6 mL/min/1.73 m(2), and 321 mg/d, respectively. Estimated daily protein and salt intakes were 0.98 ± 0.26 g/kg/d and 9.3 ± 3.9 g/d. Only 47 patients (17.5%) in the case of salt intake and 105 patients (39.2%) in the case of protein intake were within reference values. The 24-h urinary protein excretion of the daily salt intake-adherent group (adherence rate to dietary recommendations for chronic kidney disease in kidney transplant patients was low. The 24-h urinary protein excretion of the daily salt intake-adherent group was significantly less than that of the nonadherent group. Dietary therapy for these patients may have the potential to improve kidney graft function and survival. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The potential impact of compositional changes in farmed fish on its health-giving properties : Is it time to reconsider current dietary recommendations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Roos, Baukje; Sneddon, Alan A.; Sprague, Matthew; Horgan, Graham W.; Brouwer, Ingeborg A.

    2017-01-01

    Assessment of national dietary guidelines in a number of European countries reveals that some are based on cohort studies, focusing on total seafood consumption, while others are based on the content of EPA and DHA, distinguishing between oily and other fish. The mean actual intake of fish in most

  17. Dietary Recommendations for Cyclists during Altitude Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalczyk, Małgorzata; Czuba, Miłosz; Zydek, Grzegorz; Zając, Adam; Langfort, Józef

    2016-01-01

    The concept of altitude or hypoxic training is a common practice in cycling. However, several strategies for training regimens have been proposed, like “live high, train high” (LH-TH), “live high, train low” (LH-TL) or “intermittent hypoxic training” (IHT). Each of them combines the effect of acclimatization and different training protocols that require specific nutrition. An appropriate nutrition strategy and adequate hydration can help athletes achieve their fitness and performance goals in this unfriendly environment. In this review, the physiological stress of altitude exposure and training will be discussed, with specific nutrition recommendations for athletes training under such conditions. However, there is little research about the nutrition demands of athletes who train at moderate altitude. Our review considers energetic demands and body mass or body composition changes due to altitude training, including respiratory and urinary water loss under these conditions. Carbohydrate intake recommendations and hydration status are discussed in detail, while iron storage and metabolism is also considered. Last, but not least the risk of increased oxidative stress under hypoxic conditions and antioxidant supplementation suggestions are presented. PMID:27322318

  18. Dietary Recommendations for Cyclists during Altitude Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalczyk, Małgorzata; Czuba, Miłosz; Zydek, Grzegorz; Zając, Adam; Langfort, Józef

    2016-06-18

    The concept of altitude or hypoxic training is a common practice in cycling. However, several strategies for training regimens have been proposed, like "live high, train high" (LH-TH), "live high, train low" (LH-TL) or "intermittent hypoxic training" (IHT). Each of them combines the effect of acclimatization and different training protocols that require specific nutrition. An appropriate nutrition strategy and adequate hydration can help athletes achieve their fitness and performance goals in this unfriendly environment. In this review, the physiological stress of altitude exposure and training will be discussed, with specific nutrition recommendations for athletes training under such conditions. However, there is little research about the nutrition demands of athletes who train at moderate altitude. Our review considers energetic demands and body mass or body composition changes due to altitude training, including respiratory and urinary water loss under these conditions. Carbohydrate intake recommendations and hydration status are discussed in detail, while iron storage and metabolism is also considered. Last, but not least the risk of increased oxidative stress under hypoxic conditions and antioxidant supplementation suggestions are presented.

  19. Dietary Recommendations for Cyclists during Altitude Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Michalczyk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of altitude or hypoxic training is a common practice in cycling. However, several strategies for training regimens have been proposed, like “live high, train high” (LH-TH, “live high, train low” (LH-TL or “intermittent hypoxic training” (IHT. Each of them combines the effect of acclimatization and different training protocols that require specific nutrition. An appropriate nutrition strategy and adequate hydration can help athletes achieve their fitness and performance goals in this unfriendly environment. In this review, the physiological stress of altitude exposure and training will be discussed, with specific nutrition recommendations for athletes training under such conditions. However, there is little research about the nutrition demands of athletes who train at moderate altitude. Our review considers energetic demands and body mass or body composition changes due to altitude training, including respiratory and urinary water loss under these conditions. Carbohydrate intake recommendations and hydration status are discussed in detail, while iron storage and metabolism is also considered. Last, but not least the risk of increased oxidative stress under hypoxic conditions and antioxidant supplementation suggestions are presented.

  20. Americans Do Not Meet Federal Dietary Recommendations1

    OpenAIRE

    Krebs-Smith, Susan M.; Guenther, Patricia M.; Subar, Amy F.; Kirkpatrick, Sharon I.; Dodd, Kevin W.

    2010-01-01

    A longstanding goal of dietary surveillance has been to estimate the proportion of the population with intakes above or below a target, such as a recommended level of intake. However, until now, statistical methods for assessing the alignment of food intakes with recommendations have been lacking. The purposes of this study were to demonstrate the National Cancer Institute’s method of estimating the distribution of usual intake of foods and determine the proportion of the U.S. population who ...

  1. Students' adherence to dietary recommendations and their food consumption habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroebele-Benschop, Nanette; Dieze, Anastasia; Hilzendegen, Carolin

    2018-01-01

    Habitual behavior rather than intention has been linked to food intake patterns. The purpose of this study was to examine the adherence to dietary recommendations in university students and to analyze whether habit strength predicts food consumption. A student sample of the University (University of Hohenheim) was recruited ( n = 103; age range 18-30 years). Habit strength for consuming the food groups fruits, vegetables, whole grains, milk, meat, convenience foods, sugary and savory snacks, water and sugar-sweetened beverages was measured using a questionnaire. Food intake was measured via a self-administered online food frequency survey two weeks later, which was then compared to dietary recommendations. For associations of habit strength and consumption, Kendall's Tau-c correlation coefficient was calculated. The majority of students failed to meet the recommendations for all food groups except meat, eggs, oil, fat, and water. Only 4.2% of men (15.4% of women) consumed the recommended daily amount of vegetables. Fruit recommendations were met by 20.8% of men (43.6% of women). Habit strength was significantly associated with the consumption of most food groups. Adhering to dietary recommendations appeared to be difficult. Educational efforts should be undertaken to improve students' diet considering habit strength as an important determinant of food intake.

  2. Omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid intake of children and older adults in the U.S.: dietary intake in comparison to current dietary recommendations and the Healthy Eating Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Kelly W; Cheatham, Carol L

    2018-03-09

    Omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) and their ratio have been shown to affect cognitive function in children and older adults. With these analyses, we aimed to describe omega-6 and omega-3 FA intake among children and older adults in light of FA intake recommendations and with consideration of overall diet. Data were merged from two cross-sectional studies with 219 children 7 to 12 years old and one longitudinal study with 133 adults 65 to 79 years old. Demographic data, anthropometric data, and Healthy Eating Index scores were used to study relations among the omega-6 to omega-3 FA ratio and age, education, body mass index, and diet quality. FA intake, demographic, and anthropometric data were examined using partial correlations, t-tests, and analysis of variance. Most children and adults consumed at least the recommended amount of alpha-linolenic acid (LNA; omega-3) for their age and gender without consuming high amounts of linoleic acid (LA; omega-6), but did not consume sufficient eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; omega-) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; omega-3). The average omega-6 to omega-3 ratios in both groups were lower than previously reported. Eating lower ratios was associated with healthier diets and consuming adequate amounts of several other nutrients. No demographic or anthropometric variables were related to FA intake in children. Adults with a college degree had significantly lower ratios than those without a college degree. American children and older adults are able to consume more balanced omega-6 to omega-3 ratios than has been indicated by commodity data. However, very few American children met even the lowest recommendations for EPA and DHA intake. Research is needed to clarify recommendations for the optimal ratio across development, which may aid in increasing EPA and DHA intake and improving health outcomes in the United States. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02199808 13 July 2014, NCT01823419 (retrospectively registered) 20 March 2013, and NCT

  3. Dietary recommendations: comparing dietary guidelines from Brazil and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sichieri, Rosely; Chiuve, Stephanie E; Pereira, Rosângela Alves; Lopes, Aline Cristine Souza; Willett, Walter C

    2010-11-01

    The Brazilian dietary guidelines are based in part on mainstream United States' recommendations, in spite of the criticisms and shortcomings of the American guidelines. In this paper, Brazilian food guidelines are summarized and discussed in comparison with the USA recommendations. American and Brazilian dietary recommendations are quite similar in many aspects, particularly those related to variety in the diet, the importance of physical activity and weight management. Different to American guidelines, those from Brazil advise people to choose fresh foods, to prefer healthier types of fat, to limit trans fat intake and to eat good sources of protein, but does not recommend the consumption of whole grains. Besides the challenges related to their implementation, indicators for the evaluation of the effectiveness of these guidelines should be established from the beginning, particularly those related to changes in dietary habits and the prevalence of obesity.

  4. Pregnant Women in Louisiana Are Not Meeting Dietary Seafood Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Drewery

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend that pregnant women and women of childbearing ages consume 8–12 oz. of seafood per week. Fish are the major dietary source of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which have benefits for the mother and fetus. Methods. In this observational study, we investigated dietary habits of pregnant women in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA, to determine if they achieve recommended seafood intake. A print survey, which included commonly consumed foods from protein sources (beef, chicken, pork, and fish, was completed by pregnant women at a single-day hospital convention for expecting families in October 2015. Women (n=221 chose from six predefined responses to answer how frequently they were consuming each food. Results. Chicken was consumed most frequently (75% of women, followed by beef (71%, pork (65%, and fish (22%, respectively. Consumption frequency for the most consumed fish (catfish, once per month was similar to or lower than that of the least consumed beef, chicken, and pork foods. Consumption frequency for the most consumed chicken and beef foods was at least once per week. Conclusion. Our data indicate that pregnant women in Louisiana often consume protein sources other than fish and likely fail to meet dietary seafood recommendations.

  5. Vitamin D in adolescents: Are current recommendations enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Taryn J; Lanham-New, Susan A; Hart, Kathryn H

    2017-10-01

    Vitamin D is essential for bone development during adolescence and low vitamin D status during this critical period of growth may impact bone mineralization, potentially reducing peak bone mass and consequently increasing the risk of osteoporosis in adulthood. Therefore, the high prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy and deficiency in adolescent populations is of great concern. However, there is currently a lack of consensus on the 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration, the widely accepted biomarker of vitamin D status, that defines adequacy, and the vitamin D intake requirements to maintain various 25(OH)D thresholds are not well established. While the current intake recommendations of 10-15μg/day may be sufficient to prevent vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D50nmol/l). This review will address these concerns and consider if the current dietary recommendations for vitamin D in adolescents are sufficient. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Critical evaluation of lowering the recommended dietary intake of folate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeid, Rima; Koletzko, Berthold; Pietrzik, Klaus

    2014-04-01

    We evaluated the recommendation of the Austrian, German, and Swiss Societies for Nutrition of lowering dietary folate intake from 400 to 300 μg dietary folate equivalents/d. A dose-response relation exists between folate intake or plasma level and disease risk within the normal range. Improving folate status can prevent between 30% and 75% of neural tube defects. A prepregnancy plasma folate of >18.0 nmol/L (mean 26.1 nmol/L) is associated with low total homocysteine (tHcy) (folate intake cannot achieve maximal risk reduction. The Austrian, German, and Swiss Societies for Nutrition recommend that young women should additionally supplement with 400 μg folic acid at least 4 weeks before conception. This short time window is not sufficient to achieve optimal plasma folate and tHcy levels in the majority of women. Factors affecting the relation between folate intake and blood biomarkers are total folate intake, baseline plasma folate, time available for supplement use, dose and form (folic acid or methyl folate), genetic polymorphisms, physiological and lifestyle factors. Lowering the recommended dietary folate intake may have important public health consequences. Elderly people and young women are at risk for diseases related to folate shortage. Reducing birth defects through supplementation of folic acid remains a poor option, as folate intake is crucial for reaching the target protective plasma folate levels in the population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  7. Americans Do Not Meet Federal Dietary Recommendations1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs-Smith, Susan M.; Guenther, Patricia M.; Subar, Amy F.; Kirkpatrick, Sharon I.; Dodd, Kevin W.

    2010-01-01

    A longstanding goal of dietary surveillance has been to estimate the proportion of the population with intakes above or below a target, such as a recommended level of intake. However, until now, statistical methods for assessing the alignment of food intakes with recommendations have been lacking. The purposes of this study were to demonstrate the National Cancer Institute’s method of estimating the distribution of usual intake of foods and determine the proportion of the U.S. population who does not meet federal dietary recommendations. Data were obtained from the 2001–2004 NHANES for 16,338 persons, aged 2 y and older. Quantities of foods reported on 24-h recalls were translated into amounts of various food groups using the MyPyramid Equivalents Database. Usual dietary intake distributions were modeled, accounting for sequence effect, weekend/weekday effect, sex, age, poverty income ratio, and race/ethnicity. The majority of the population did not meet recommendations for all of the nutrient-rich food groups, except total grains and meat and beans. Concomitantly, overconsumption of energy from solid fats, added sugars, and alcoholic beverages (“empty calories”) was ubiquitous. Over 80% of persons age ≥71 y and over 90% of all other sex-age groups had intakes of empty calories that exceeded the discretionary calorie allowances. In conclusion, nearly the entire U.S. population consumes a diet that is not on par with recommendations. These findings add another piece to the rather disturbing picture that is emerging of a nation’s diet in crisis. PMID:20702750

  8. Practical Dietary Recommendations for the Prevention and Management of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Elena S; Forsyth, Adrienne; Itsiopoulos, Catherine; Nicoll, Amanda J; Ryan, Marno; Sood, Siddharth; Roberts, Stuart K; Tierney, Audrey C

    2018-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease worldwide. In the absence of effective pharmacotherapies, clinical guidelines focus primarily on weight loss to treat this condition. Established consensus, evidence-based, and clinical dietary recommendations for NAFLD are currently lacking. The aim of this paper is to provide evidence-based practical dietary recommendations for the prevention and management of NAFLD in adults. A literature review focusing on established principles for the development of clinical practice recommendations was employed using the following criteria: based on substantial evidence, ensures risk minimization, is flexible for an individual patient approach, and is open to further modification as evidence emerges. The Practice-based Evidence in Nutrition classification system was used to grade these principles. Five key dietary recommendations were developed: 1) follow traditional dietary patterns, such as the Mediterranean diet; 2) limit excess fructose consumption and avoid processed foods and beverages with added fructose; 3) PUFAs, especially long-chain omega-3 rich foods and MUFAs, should replace SFAs in the diet; 4) replace processed food, fast food, commercial bakery goods, and sweets with unprocessed foods high in fiber, including whole grains, vegetables, fruits, legumes, nuts, and seeds; and 5) avoid excess alcohol consumption. Improving diet quality may reduce the incidence and progression of NAFLD and associated risk factors. Many of the benefits are likely to result from the collective effect of dietary patterns. High-quality research-in particular, randomized clinical trials assessing dietary interventions that focus on liver-specific endpoints-are needed as a priority. © 2018 American Society for Nutrition. All rights reserved.

  9. Adherence to Dietary Recommendations for Food Group Intakes Is Low in the Mexican Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batis, Carolina; Aburto, Tania C; Sánchez-Pimienta, Tania G; Pedraza, Lilia S; Rivera, Juan A

    2016-09-01

    Given the high prevalence of obesity and noncommunicable diseases in Mexico and the key role of dietary quality in these conditions, it is important to determine Mexicans' adherence to dietary recommendations. Our aim was to estimate the percentage of the Mexican population who adhere to dietary recommendations for key food groups. We analyzed 7983 participants aged ≥5 y from the nationally representative Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012. Dietary intake data were collected by using one 24-h recall and a repeated 24-h recall in 9% of the sample. We used the National Cancer Institute method for episodically consumed foods, which uses a 2-part (probability and amount) mixed regression model to estimate the usual intake distribution and its association with sociodemographic variables. For the food groups that are encouraged, only 1-4% of the population (range across sex and age groups) reached the recommended intake of legumes, 4-8% for seafood, 7-16% for fruit and vegetables, and 9-23% for dairy. For food groups that are discouraged, only 10-22% did not exceed the recommended upper limit for sugar-sweetened beverages, 14-42% for high saturated fat and/or added sugar (HSFAS) products, and 9-50% for processed meats, whereas the majority (77-93%) did not exceed the limit for red meat. A lower proportion of adolescents than children and adults adhered to recommendations for several food groups. Participants with higher socioeconomic status (SES) and living in urban areas consumed more (probability of consuming and/or amount consumed) fruit and vegetables, dairy, and HSFAS products, but they consumed fewer legumes than those of lower SES and living in rural areas. These results reveal the poor dietary quality of the Mexican population and the urgent need to shift these habits. If current intakes continue, the burden of disease due to obesity and noncommunicable chronic diseases will likely remain elevated in the Mexican population. © 2016 American

  10. Insulin resistance as key factor for linking modulation of gut microbiome to health claims and dietary recommendations to tackle obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loman, S.; Kamp, J.W. van der

    2016-01-01

    Background: Current dietary and public health recommendations addressing obesity do not as yet include recommendations pertaining to the gut microbiome. As a corollary, no microbiome-related health claims made on foods have as yet been proposed. Scope: The MyNewGut project aims, amongst others, to

  11. Current Trends in Radiation Protection Recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomaa, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    The third generation of the ICRP recommendations was adopted in April 2007. The recommendations rely on situations (planned, emergency and existing), individual (occupational, public and patient) and radiation protection system (justification, optimization and dose limits). In the present work attention is paid to discuss the new recommendations and role of IAEA in updating its Basic Safety Standards for protection against ionizing radiation and safety of radiation sources and its impact for the national regulations

  12. Adherence to dietary recommendations for Swedish adults across categories of greenhouse gas emissions from food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjörs, Camilla; Hedenus, Fredrik; Sjölander, Arvid; Tillander, Annika; Bälter, Katarina

    2017-12-01

    To explore associations between diet-related greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE), nutrient intakes and adherence to the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations among Swedish adults. Diet was assessed by 4d food records in the Swedish National Dietary Survey. GHGE was estimated by linking all foods to carbon dioxide equivalents, using data from life cycle assessment studies. Participants were categorized into quartiles of energy-adjusted GHGE and differences between GHGE groups regarding nutrient intakes and adherence to nutrient recommendations were explored. Sweden. Women (n 840) and men (n 627) aged 18-80 years. Differences in nutrient intakes and adherence to nutrient recommendations between GHGE groups were generally small. The dietary intake of participants with the lowest emissions was more in line with recommendations regarding protein, carbohydrates, dietary fibre and vitamin D, but further from recommendations regarding added sugar, compared with the highest GHGE group. The overall adherence to recommendations was found to be better among participants with lower emissions compared with higher emissions. Among women, 27 % in the lowest GHGE group adhered to at least twenty-three recommendations compared with only 12 % in the highest emission group. For men, the corresponding figures were 17 and 10 %, respectively. The study compared nutrient intakes as well as adherence to dietary recommendations for diets with different levels of GHGE from a national dietary survey. We found that participants with low-emission diets, despite higher intake of added sugar, adhered to a larger number of dietary recommendations than those with high emissions.

  13. Dietary recommendations for patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitetta L

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Luis Vitetta,1 Samantha Coulson,1 Janet Schloss,1 Shoshannah L Beck,1 Robert Allen,2 Avni Sali21Centre for Integrative Clinical and Molecular Medicine, The University of Queensland School of Medicine, Brisbane, 2National Institute of Integrative Medicine, Melbourne, AustraliaAbstract: Dietary interventions can assist with the management of disease symptoms that accompany rheumatoid arthritis (RA, such as pain, tender swollen joints, stiffness, and associated disability and disease progression. Dietary interventions have gained widespread appeal for both clinicians and RA patients. Interventions that promote self-help through education can have significant benefits for patients as they negotiate pain and musculoskeletal disability. There is substantial scientific evidence that demonstrates patients diagnosed with RA may benefit from dietary interventions; however, recent systematic reviews remain uncertain about the therapeutic efficacy of dietary manipulation for RA due to clinical trials with a high risk of bias. However, dietary interventions with plausible therapeutic activity may be indicated for reducing RA-associated symptoms, including elimination of foods that may trigger an allergic or intolerant response, introduction of known anti-inflammatory dietary compounds and correction of food, or drug-induced gastrointestinal tract microbiota abnormalities and permeability.Keywords: diet, rheumatoid arthritis, vegetarian, vegan, Mediterranean, fish oils, probiotics

  14. Recommended Feeding and Dietary Practices To Improve Infant and Maternal Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Academy for Educational Development, Washington, DC.

    The LINKAGES Project is intended to improve breastfeeding and related complementary feeding and maternal dietary practices. The project, in consultation with technical experts and program managers, identified a set of recommended feeding and dietary practices intended to break the cycle of poor health and nutrition that passes from generation to…

  15. Knowledge of recommended dietary cholesterol allowance in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (51.5%), respectively were aware of the negative effect of excess dietary cholesterol consumption. In addition, 35(36.1%), 64(66%) and 40(41.2%) of females, non- vegetarians and respondents in sciences consumed poultry eggs at least once ...

  16. Beyond Wishful Thinking: Integrating Consumer Preferences in the Assessment of Dietary Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Convenience, taste, and prices are the main determinants of food choices. Complying with dietary recommendations therefore imposes a “taste cost” on consumers, potentially hindering adoption of those recommendations. The study presents and applies a new methodology, based on economic theory, to quantify this taste cost and assess the health and welfare effects of different dietary recommendations. Then, by comparison of those effects, we identify socially desirable recommendations that are most compatible with consumer preferences (i.e., that best balance health benefits against”taste cost”) and should be prioritized for promotion. The methodology proceeds in three-steps: first, an economic-behavioral model simulates how whole diets would change if consumers complied with dietary recommendations; second, an epidemiological model estimates the number of deaths avoided (DA) due to the dietary change; third, an efficiency analysis weighs the health benefits against the taste and policy costs of each recommendation. The empirical model is calibrated using French data. We find that recommendations to reduce consumption of red meat and soft-drinks, or raise consumption of milk products and fish/seafood impose relatively moderate taste costs. By comparison, recommendations related to F&V consumption and, to a lesser extent, butter/cream/cheese, snacks, and all meats impose larger taste costs on consumers. The F&V recommendation is the costliest for consumers to comply with, but it also reduces diet-related mortality the most, so that a large budget could be allocated to promoting F&V consumption while keeping this policy cost-beneficial. We conclude that promotion of most dietary recommendations improves social welfare. Our framework complements the programming models available in nutrition and public health: those models are best used to identify dietary targets, following which our framework identifies cost-beneficial ways of moving towards those targets. PMID

  17. Beyond Wishful Thinking: Integrating Consumer Preferences in the Assessment of Dietary Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irz, Xavier; Leroy, Pascal; Réquillart, Vincent; Soler, Louis-Georges

    2016-01-01

    Convenience, taste, and prices are the main determinants of food choices. Complying with dietary recommendations therefore imposes a "taste cost" on consumers, potentially hindering adoption of those recommendations. The study presents and applies a new methodology, based on economic theory, to quantify this taste cost and assess the health and welfare effects of different dietary recommendations. Then, by comparison of those effects, we identify socially desirable recommendations that are most compatible with consumer preferences (i.e., that best balance health benefits against"taste cost") and should be prioritized for promotion. The methodology proceeds in three-steps: first, an economic-behavioral model simulates how whole diets would change if consumers complied with dietary recommendations; second, an epidemiological model estimates the number of deaths avoided (DA) due to the dietary change; third, an efficiency analysis weighs the health benefits against the taste and policy costs of each recommendation. The empirical model is calibrated using French data. We find that recommendations to reduce consumption of red meat and soft-drinks, or raise consumption of milk products and fish/seafood impose relatively moderate taste costs. By comparison, recommendations related to F&V consumption and, to a lesser extent, butter/cream/cheese, snacks, and all meats impose larger taste costs on consumers. The F&V recommendation is the costliest for consumers to comply with, but it also reduces diet-related mortality the most, so that a large budget could be allocated to promoting F&V consumption while keeping this policy cost-beneficial. We conclude that promotion of most dietary recommendations improves social welfare. Our framework complements the programming models available in nutrition and public health: those models are best used to identify dietary targets, following which our framework identifies cost-beneficial ways of moving towards those targets.

  18. Beyond Wishful Thinking: Integrating Consumer Preferences in the Assessment of Dietary Recommendations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Irz

    Full Text Available Convenience, taste, and prices are the main determinants of food choices. Complying with dietary recommendations therefore imposes a "taste cost" on consumers, potentially hindering adoption of those recommendations. The study presents and applies a new methodology, based on economic theory, to quantify this taste cost and assess the health and welfare effects of different dietary recommendations. Then, by comparison of those effects, we identify socially desirable recommendations that are most compatible with consumer preferences (i.e., that best balance health benefits against"taste cost" and should be prioritized for promotion. The methodology proceeds in three-steps: first, an economic-behavioral model simulates how whole diets would change if consumers complied with dietary recommendations; second, an epidemiological model estimates the number of deaths avoided (DA due to the dietary change; third, an efficiency analysis weighs the health benefits against the taste and policy costs of each recommendation. The empirical model is calibrated using French data. We find that recommendations to reduce consumption of red meat and soft-drinks, or raise consumption of milk products and fish/seafood impose relatively moderate taste costs. By comparison, recommendations related to F&V consumption and, to a lesser extent, butter/cream/cheese, snacks, and all meats impose larger taste costs on consumers. The F&V recommendation is the costliest for consumers to comply with, but it also reduces diet-related mortality the most, so that a large budget could be allocated to promoting F&V consumption while keeping this policy cost-beneficial. We conclude that promotion of most dietary recommendations improves social welfare. Our framework complements the programming models available in nutrition and public health: those models are best used to identify dietary targets, following which our framework identifies cost-beneficial ways of moving towards those

  19. Current IUBMB recommendations on enzyme nomenclature and kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athel Cornish-Bowden

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The International Union of Biochemistry (IUB, now IUBMB prepared recommendations for describing the kinetic behaviour of enzymes in 1981. Despite the more than 30 years that have passed since these have not subsequently been revised, though in various respects they do not adequately cover current needs. The IUBMB is also responsible for recommendations on the naming and classification of enzymes. In contrast to the case of kinetics, these recommendations are kept continuously up to date.

  20. Dietary assessment in children and adolescents: issues and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Rodrigo, Carmen; Artiach Escauriaza, Belén; Artiach Escauriaza, Javier; Polanco Allúe, Isabel

    2015-02-26

    The assessment of dietary intake in children and adolescents is of great interest for different purposes. The characteristics of each developmental stage and associated cognitive abilities are two factors that influence the ability of children to provide valid and reliable information on food consumption. The ability to remember, limitations of vocabulary or the ability to identify different foods are some of the relevant aspects. In addition, often parents or caregivers provide surrogate information and their degree of knowledge depends on the time they spend with the child and on whether they share meals. As children grow they become more independent and increasingly spend more time away from their parents. Children also have limitations to recognize food models and photographs and associate them with different amounts of food consumed. On the other hand, often children and adolescents perceive long interviews or self-administered questionnaires they as long and boring. The use of new technologies is contributing to the development of new tools adapting dietary assessment the methods to the cognitive abilities of children, introducing gaming environments and narrative structures that attract their interest and improve the quality of information they report.. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2015. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  1. Population compliance with national dietary recommendations and its determinants: findings from the ORISCAV-LUX study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkerwi, Ala'a; Sauvageot, Nicolas; Nau, Anne; Lair, Marie-Lise; Donneau, Anne-Françoise; Albert, Adelin; Guillaume, Michèle

    2012-12-14

    The objective of the present study was to determine the proportion of adults meeting national recommendations for food and nutrient intake and to identify the demographic, socio-economic and behavioural factors that may contribute to weaken dietary compliance. ORISCAV-LUX is a cross-sectional study that took place in Luxembourg (2007-8). A representative stratified random sample of 1352 adults aged 18-69 years participated in the nationwide cardiovascular health survey. A FFQ was used to estimate food intake. Radar charts were built to compare graphically the compliance of the participants with different key dietary guidelines on the same set of axes. The thirteen food- and nutrient-based recommendations were scored and summed to create a recommendation compliance index (range -0·5 to 14). Ordinal logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the factors contributing to poor dietary compliance. Several food- and nutrient-based guidelines were insufficiently respected compared with others. The greatest gaps occurred in the adherence to grain and dairy product consumption guidelines, as well as to total fat and notably to SFA recommendations. Age, country of birth, economic status, smoking status and subject's awareness of the importance of balanced meals emerged as independently associated with weak dietary compliance. Obese subjects conformed more to dietary recommendations compared with normal-weight subjects. The findings underscore the need for specific nutrition education messages along with targeted interventions. Efforts should be continued to increase population awareness of the importance of a healthy lifestyle and a balanced diet.

  2. Sex differences in macronutrient intake and adherence to dietary recommendations: findings from the UK Biobank

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett, E; Peters, SAE; Woodward, M

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: To characterise sex differences in macronutrient intakes and adherence to dietary recommendations in the UK Biobank population. Design: Cross-sectional population-based study. Setting: UK Biobank Resource. Participants: 210 106 (52.5% women) individuals with data on dietary behaviour. Main outcome measures: Women-to-men mean differences in nutrient intake in grams and as a percentage of energy and women-to-men ORs in non-adherence, adjusting for age, socioeconomic ...

  3. Comparison of current recommended regimens of atropinization in organophosphate poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Nicholas J; Harnett, Zachary H; Hoffman, Robert S

    2014-06-01

    Atropine is the mainstay of therapy in organophosphate (OP) toxicity, though research and consensus on dosing is lacking. In 2004, as reported by Eddleston et al. (J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 42(6):865-75, 2004), they noted variation in recommended regimens. We assessed revisions of original references, additional citations, and electronic sources to determine the current variability in atropine dosing recommendations. Updated editions of references from Eddleston et al.'s work, texts of Internal and Emergency Medicine, and electronic resources were reviewed for atropine dosing recommendations. For comparison, recommendations were assessed using the same mean dose (23.4 mg) and the highest dose (75 mg) of atropine as used in the original paper. Recommendations were also compared with the dosing regimen from the World Health Organization (WHO). Thirteen of the original recommendations were updated and 15 additional references were added giving a convenience sample of 28. Sufficient information to calculate time to targeted dose was provided by 24 of these samples. Compared to 2004, current recommendations have greatly increased the speed of atropinization with 13/24 able to reach the mean and high atropine dose within 30 min compared to 1/36 in 2004. In 2004, there were 13 regimens where the maximum time to reach 75 mg was over 18 h, whereas now, there are 2. While only one recommendation called for doubling the dose for faster escalation in 2004, 15 of the 24 current works include dose doubling. In 2004, Eddleston et al. called for an evidence-based guideline for the treatment of OP poisoning that could be disseminated worldwide. Many current recommendations can adequately treat patients within 1 h. While the WHO recommendations remain slow to treat patients with OP poisoning, other authorities are close to a consensus on rapid atropinization.

  4. Comparison of Current Recommended Regimens of Atropinization in Organophosphate Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Connors, Nicholas J.; Harnett, Zachary H.; Hoffman, Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    Atropine is the mainstay of therapy in organophosphate (OP) toxicity, though research and consensus on dosing is lacking. In 2004, as reported by Eddleston et al. (J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 42(6):865-75, 2004), they noted variation in recommended regimens. We assessed revisions of original references, additional citations, and electronic sources to determine the current variability in atropine dosing recommendations. Updated editions of references from Eddleston et al.’s work, texts of Internal ...

  5. Effective translation of current dietary guidance: understanding and communicating the concepts of minimal and optimal levels of dietary protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Nancy R; Miller, Sharon L

    2015-04-29

    Dietitians and health care providers have critical roles in the translation of the dietary guidance to practice. The protein content of diets for adults can be based on the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) of 0.80 g/kg per day. Alternatively, the most recent Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for macronutrients reflect expanded guidance for assessing protein needs and consider the relative relation of absolute amounts of protein, carbohydrate, and fat to total energy intake in the context of chronic disease prevention. The Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR) reflects the interrelation between the macronutrients and affords dietitians and clinicians additional flexibility in diet planning. Accounting for the caloric value of RDAs for carbohydrate and fat, "flexible calories" emerge as an opportunity to create varied eating plans that provide for protein intakes in excess of the RDA but within the AMDR. Protein Summit 2.0 highlighted the growing body of scientific evidence documenting the benefits of higher protein intakes at amounts approximating twice the RDA, which include promotion of healthy body weight and preservation of lean body mass and functional ability with age. The essential amino acid (EAA) density of a food also emerged as a novel concept analogous to "nutrient density," which can enable the practitioner to calculate the caloric cost associated with a specific protein source to attain the daily requirement of EAAs to accomplish various health outcomes because these indispensable nutrients have a significant role in protein utilization and metabolic regulation. Tailoring recommendations unique to an individual's varying goals and needs remains a challenge. However, flexibility within the application of DRIs to include consideration of the AMDR provides a sound framework to guide practitioners in effective translation of current dietary guidance with a specific regard for the documented benefits of higher protein intakes. © 2015

  6. Recommendations for a trans-European dietary assessment method in children between 4 and 14 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L. F.; Lioret, S.; Brants, H.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objectives: The main objective of European Food Consumption Validation (EFCOVAL)-child Project is to define and evaluate a trans-European methodology for undertaking national representative dietary surveys among children in the age group of 4-14 years. In the process of identifying...... was to investigate whether the method (two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDRs)) suggested for the adults in European Food Consumption Survey Method (EFCOSUM) would be usable for children in the age group between 4 and 14 years. However, all available dietary assessment methods were included...... of 4-14 years. Nevertheless, on the basis of the literature, the recommendations were separated for preschoolers (4-6 years) and schoolchildren (7-14 years). Conclusion: For preschoolers, two non-consecutive days of a structured food record are recommended, using a (for children adapted) picture...

  7. Current micronutrient recommendations in Europe: towards understanding their differences and similarities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doets, E.L.; Wit, de L.S.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Cavelaars, A.J.E.M.; Raats, M.M.; Timotijevic, L.; Brzozowska, A.; Wijnhoven, T.M.A.; Pavlovic, M.; Holm Totland, T.; Andersen, L.F.; Ruprich, J.; Pijls, L.T.J.; Ashwell, M.; Lambert, J.P.; Veer, van 't P.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2008-01-01

    Background Nowadays most countries in Europe have established their own nutrient recommendations to assess the adequacy of dietary intakes and to plan desirable dietary intakes. As yet there is no standard approach for deriving nutrient recommendations, they may vary from country to country. This

  8. [Dietary fiber and nutritional support in pediatrics: current understanding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C L

    2010-01-01

    The article summarizes the materials on the use of dietary fiber (DF) in the diet of children of different ages. According to the few studies that DF used in children's diets, play an important role in the prevention and treatment of obesity and in lowering serum cholesterol, which reduces the risk of children of cardiovascular disease. Given that children and adolescents consume food insufficient number of DF should be encouraged to increase in baby food for their consumption at the expense of fruit, vegetables and products prepared from cereals. A number of recommendations on the level of consumption of DF children and adolescents of all ages.

  9. Current micronutrient recommendations in Europe: towards understanding their differences and similarities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doets, Esmée L; de Wit, Liesbeth S; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A M; Cavelaars, Adriënne E J M; Raats, Monique M; Timotijevic, Lada; Brzozowska, Anna; Wijnhoven, Trudy M A; Pavlovic, Mirjana; Totland, Torunn Holm; Andersen, Lene F; Ruprich, Jiri; Pijls, Loek T J; Ashwell, Margaret; Lambert, Janet P; van 't Veer, Pieter; de Groot, Lisette C P G M

    2008-04-01

    Nowadays most countries in Europe have established their own nutrient recommendations to assess the adequacy of dietary intakes and to plan desirable dietary intakes. As yet there is no standard approach for deriving nutrient recommendations, they may vary from country to country. This results in different national recommendations causing confusion for policy-makers, health professionals, industry, and consumers within Europe. EURRECA (EURopean micronutrient RECommendations Aligned) is a network of excellence funded by the European Commission (EC), and established to identify and address the problem of differences between countries in micronutrient recommendations. The objective of this paper is to give an overview of the available micronutrient recommendations in Europe, and to provide information on their origin, concepts and definitions. Furthermore this paper aims to illustrate the diversity in European recommendations on vitamin A and vitamin D, and to explore differences and commonalities in approaches that could possibly explain variations observed. A questionnaire was developed to get information on the process of establishing micronutrient recommendations. These questionnaires were sent to key informants in the field of micronutrient recommendations to cover all European countries/regions. Also the latest reports on nutrient recommendations in Europe were collected. Standardisation procedures were defined to enable comparison of the recommendations. Recommendations for vitamin A and vitamin D were compared per sex at the ages 3, 9 months and 5, 10, 15, 25, 50 and 70 years. Information extracted from the questionnaires and reports was compared focusing on: (1) The concept of recommendation (recommended daily allowance (RDA), adequate intake (AI) or acceptable range), (2) The year of publication of the report (proxy for available evidence), (3) Population groups defined, (4) Other methodological issues such as selected criteria of adequacy, the type of

  10. Hunger and the Externalities of Dietary Preferences: Demand-Side Considerations of the Current Dietary Paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Anastasia Pseiridis

    2012-01-01

    World hunger and the latest increases in global food prices are mainly dealt with by measures aimed at boosting supply and allowing markets to function more effectively. Motivated by the persistence of world hunger, we do not intend to contribute to either theory or empirical analysis in economics; we rather aim to show that current research and policies are locked in a sort of scientific paradigm which takes as given our dietary preferences, which are in fact fundamental in creating resource...

  11. Measurement in Marketing: Current Scenario, Recommendations and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Zambaldi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to discuss about construct measurement in Marketing by summarizing the main considerations about the subject. First, it discusses the origins of the debates about the theme since the 1970s and describes its main consolidated models (the classical Churchill’s model, the COARSE model and the formative measurement model. Then it presents current concerns about the classical approach with relevant recommendations (particularly regarding multi-item measurement, single-item measurement, rating scales and cross-cultural aspects. At the end, it presents considerations about measurement trends in Marketing with emphasis on the Item Response Theory (IRT, Bayesian estimators and Partial Least Squares (PLS. The article updates the debate on the theme and contributes to Marketing experts and researchers who demand a current view about measurement and recommendations for research development. 

  12. Adherence to Dietary Recommendations Is Associated with Acculturation among Latino Farm Workers12

    OpenAIRE

    Matias, Susana L.; Stoecklin-Marois, Maria T.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Schenker, Marc B.

    2013-01-01

    We examined adherence to dietary recommendations on fruit/vegetable and fat intake and identified correlates with acculturation indicators as well as with family, lifestyle, and occupational factors in a farm worker cohort in central California. Interviewer-administered questionnaires for this cross-sectional study were completed from January 2006 to April 2007. Participants were 18- to 55-y-old Latinos living in Mendota in a farm worker household. We assessed fruit/vegetable consumption and ...

  13. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and the Australian Diet—Comparing Dietary Recommendations with Average Intakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilly A. Hendrie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition guidelines now consider the environmental impact of food choices as well as maintaining health. In Australia there is insufficient data quantifying the environmental impact of diets, limiting our ability to make evidence-based recommendations. This paper used an environmentally extended input-output model of the economy to estimate greenhouse gas emissions (GHGe for different food sectors. These data were augmented with food intake estimates from the 1995 Australian National Nutrition Survey. The GHGe of the average Australian diet was 14.5 kg carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e per person per day. The recommended dietary patterns in the Australian Dietary Guidelines are nutrient rich and have the lowest GHGe (~25% lower than the average diet. Food groups that made the greatest contribution to diet-related GHGe were red meat (8.0 kg CO2e per person per day and energy-dense, nutrient poor “non-core” foods (3.9 kg CO2e. Non-core foods accounted for 27% of the diet-related emissions. A reduction in non-core foods and consuming the recommended serves of core foods are strategies which may achieve benefits for population health and the environment. These data will enable comparisons between changes in dietary intake and GHGe over time, and provide a reference point for diets which meet population nutrient requirements and have the lowest GHGe.

  14. Reimmunization after bone marrow transplantation: Current recommendations and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machado Clarisse M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Autologous and allogeneic BMT recipients lose immune memory of exposition to infectious agents and vaccines accumulated throughout lifetime and therefore need to be revaccinated. Diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, pertussis vaccine (children < 7 years old, Haemophilus influenza type B (Hib conjugate, 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide, inactivated influenza vaccine, inactivated polio vaccine and live-attenuated measles-mumps-rubella vaccine are the currently recommended vaccines to be included in a vaccination program after BMT. For most of them, the best time of vaccination, the number of vaccine doses and/or the duration of immunity after vaccination have not been established. Vaccination protocols vary greatly among BMT centers suggesting that the lack of sufficient data has not permitted the establishment of solid recommendations. The use of other vaccines and the perspectives for different vaccination protocols are discussed in this review.

  15. Adherence to dietary recommendations in diabetes mellitus: disease acceptance as a potential mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworski, Mariusz; Panczyk, Mariusz; Cedro, Małgorzata; Kucharska, Alicja

    2018-01-01

    Adherence by diabetic patients to dietary recommendations is important for effective therapy. Considering patients' expectations in case of diet is significant in this regard. The aim of this paper was to analyze the relationship between selected independent variables (eg, regular blood glucose testing) and patients' adherence to dietary recommendations, bearing in mind that the degree of disease acceptance might play a mediation role. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 91 patients treated for type 2 diabetes mellitus in a public medical facility. Paper-and-pencil interviewing was administered ahead of the planned visit with a diabetes specialist. Two measures were applied in the study: the Acceptance and Action Diabetes Questionnaire and the Patient Diet Adherence in Diabetes Scale. Additionally, data related to sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle-related factors, and the course of the disease (management, incidence of complications, and dietician's supervision) were also collected. The regression method was used in the analysis, and Cohen's methodology was used to estimate partial mediation. Significance of the mediation effect was assessed by the Goodman test. P -values of diet and concomitant oral medicines and/or insulin therapy. Effective dietary education should include activities promoting a more positive attitude toward the disease. This may be obtained by individual counseling, respecting the patient's needs, and focus on regular blood glucose testing.

  16. Adherence to dietary recommendations in diabetes mellitus: disease acceptance as a potential mediator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaworski M

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Mariusz Jaworski,1 Mariusz Panczyk,1 Małgorzata Cedro,2 Alicja Kucharska3 1Division of Teaching and Outcomes of Education, Faculty of Health Sciences, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland; 2Faculty of Health Sciences, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland; 3Department of Human Nutrition, Faculty of Health Sciences, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland Background: Adherence by diabetic patients to dietary recommendations is important for effective therapy. Considering patients’ expectations in case of diet is significant in this regard. The aim of this paper was to analyze the relationship between selected independent variables (eg, regular blood glucose testing and patients’ adherence to dietary recommendations, bearing in mind that the degree of disease acceptance might play a mediation role.Subjects and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 91 patients treated for type 2 diabetes mellitus in a public medical facility. Paper-and-pencil interviewing was administered ahead of the planned visit with a diabetes specialist. Two measures were applied in the study: the Acceptance and Action Diabetes Questionnaire and the Patient Diet Adherence in Diabetes Scale. Additionally, data related to sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle-related factors, and the course of the disease (management, incidence of complications, and dietician’s supervision were also collected. The regression method was used in the analysis, and Cohen’s methodology was used to estimate partial mediation. Significance of the mediation effect was assessed by the Goodman test. P-values of <0.05 were considered statistically significant.Results: Patients’ non-adherence to dietary recommendations was related to a low level of disease acceptance (standardized regression coefficient =−0.266; P=0.010. Moreover, failure to perform regular blood glucose testing was associated with a lack of disease acceptance (standardized regression

  17. Dietary behaviors related to cancer prevention among pre-adolescents and adolescents: the gap between recommendations and reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Mary C

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diet is thought to play an important role in cancer risk. This paper summarizes dietary recommendations for cancer prevention and compares these recommendations to the dietary behaviors of U.S. youth ages 8-18. Methods We identified cancer prevention-related dietary recommendations from key health organizations and assessed dietary consumption patterns among youth using published statistics from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, the national Youth Risk Behavior Survey, and other supplemental sources. Results Cancer prevention guidelines recommend a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, recommend limiting sugary foods and beverages, red and processed meats, sodium, and alcohol, and recommend avoiding foods contaminated with carcinogens. However, youth typically do not meet the daily recommendations for fruit, vegetable, or whole grain consumption and are over-consuming energy-dense, sugary and salty foods. Conclusions A large discrepancy exists between expert recommendations about diet and cancer and actual dietary practices among young people and points to the need for more research to better promote the translation of science into practice. Future research should focus on developing and evaluating policies and interventions at the community, state and national levels for aligning the diets of youth with the evolving scientific evidence regarding cancer prevention.

  18. Ventilator-associated pneumonia: current status and future recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efrati, Shai; Deutsch, Israel; Antonelli, Massimo; Hockey, Peter M; Rozenblum, Ronen; Gurman, Gabriel M

    2010-04-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a common hazardous complication in ICU patients. The aim of the current review is to give an update on the current status and future recommendations for VAP prevention. This article gives an updated review of the current literature on VAP. The first part briefly reviews pathogenesis and epidemiology while the second includes an in-depth review of evidence-based practice guidelines (EBPG) and new technologies developed for prevention of VAP. VAP remains a frequent and costly complication of critical illness with a pooled relative risk of 9-27% and mortality of 25-50%. Strikingly, VAP adds an estimated cost of more than $40,000 to a typical hospital admission. An important aetiological mechanism of VAP is gross or micro-aspiration of oropharyngeal organisms around the cuff of the endotracheal tube (ETT) into the distal bronchi. Prevention of VAP is preferable. Preventative measures can be divided into two main groups: the implemen- tation of EBPGs and use of device-based technologies. EBPGs have been authored jointly by the American Thoracic Society and the Infectious Diseases Society of America. The Canadian Critical Care Trials group also published VAP Guidelines in 2008. Their recommendations are detailed in this review. The current device-based technologies include drainage of subglottic secretions, silver coated ETTs aiming to influence the internal bio-layer of the ETT, better sealing of the lower airways with ultrathin cuffs and loops for optimal cuff pressure control. EBPG consensus includes: elevation of the head of the bed, use of daily "sedation vacations" and decontamination of the oropharynx. Technological solutions should aim to use the most comprehensive combination of subglottic suction of secretions, optimization of ETT cuff pressure and ultrathin cuffs. VAP is a type of hospital-acquired pneumonia that develops more than 48 h after endotracheal intubation. Its incidence is estimated to be 9-27%, with a

  19. Components of an Anticancer Diet: Dietary Recommendations, Restrictions and Supplements of the Bill Henderson Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie Heilman Bell

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of complementary and alternative medicines including dietary supplements, herbals and special diets to prevent or treat disease continues to be popular. The following paper provides a description of an alternative dietary approach to the self-management and treatment of cancer, the Bill Henderson Protocol (BHP. This diet encourages daily intake of raw foods, a combination of cottage cheese and flaxseed oil and a number of supplements. Some foods and food groups are restricted (e.g., gluten, meat, dairy. Early background theory that contributed to the protocol’s development is presented as is a summary of relevant evidence concerning the anti-cancer fighting properties of the individual components. Supplement intake is considered in relation to daily recommended intakes. Challenges and risks to protocol adherence are discussed. As with many complementary and alternative interventions, clear evidence of this dietary protocol’s safety and efficacy is lacking. Consumers of this protocol may require guidance on the ability of this protocol to meet their individual nutritional needs.

  20. Greater dietary acculturation (dietary change) is associated with poorer current self-rated health among African immigrant adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, Maria-Theresa C; Carter-Pokras, Olivia D; Zhan, Min

    2014-01-01

    Investigate the relationship between dietary acculturation and current self-rated health (SRH) among African immigrants, by country or region of origin. Cross-sectional, mixed-methods design using baseline data from longitudinal study of immigrants granted legal permanent residence May to November, 2003, and interviewed June, 2003 to June, 2004. 2003 New Immigrant Survey. African immigrants from a nationally representative sample (n = 763) averaged 34.7 years of age and 5.5 years' US residency; 56.6% were male, 54.1% were married, 26.1% were Ethiopian, and 22.5% were Nigerian. Current SRH (dependent variable) was measured using 5-point Likert scale questions; dietary acculturation (independent variable) was assessed using a quantitative dietary change scale. Multivariate logistic regression tested the relationship of dietary acculturation with current SRH (α = .05; P food/beverages consumed pre-/post-migration. African immigrants reporting moderate dietary change since arrival in the US had higher odds of poorer SRH status than immigrants reporting low dietary change (odds ratio, 1.903; 95% confidence interval, 1.143-3.170; P = .01). Among most dietary change groups, there was an increase in fast food consumption and decrease in fruit and vegetable consumption. Nutrition educators and public health practitioners should develop targeted nutrition education for African immigrants who are older, less educated, and at increased health risk. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Four Models Including Fish, Seafood, Red Meat and Enriched Foods to Achieve Australian Dietary Recommendations for n-3 LCPUFA for All Life-Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Fayet-Moore

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Populations are not meeting recommended intakes of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA. The aim was (i to develop a database on n-3 LCPUFA enriched products; (ii to undertake dietary modelling exercise using four dietary approaches to meet the recommendations and (iii to determine the cost of the models. Six n-3 LCPUFA enriched foods were identified. Fish was categorised by n-3 LCPUFA content (mg/100 g categories as “excellent” “good” and “moderate”. The four models to meet recommended n-3 LCPUFA intakes were (i fish only; (ii moderate fish (with red meat and enriched foods; (iii fish avoiders (red meat and enriched foods only; and (iv lacto-ovo vegetarian diet (enriched foods only. Diets were modelled using the NUTTAB2010 database and n-3 LCPUFA were calculated and compared to the Suggested Dietary Targets (SDT. The cost of meeting these recommendations was calculated per 100 mg n-3 LCPUFA. The SDT were achieved for all life-stages with all four models. The weekly food intake in number of serves to meet the n-3 LCPUFA SDT for all life-stages for each dietary model were: (i 2 “excellent” fish; (ii 1 “excellent” and 1 “good” fish, and depending on life-stage, 3–4 lean red meat, 0–2 eggs and 3–26 enriched foods; (iii 4 lean red meat, and 20–59 enriched foods; (iv 37–66 enriched foods. Recommended intakes of n-3 LCPUFA were easily met by the consumption of fish, which was the cheapest source of n-3 LCPUFA. Other strategies may be required to achieve the recommendations including modifying the current food supply through feeding practices, novel plant sources and more enriched foods.

  2. Migration Background Influences Consumption Patterns Based on Dietary Recommendations of Food Bank Users in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroebele-Benschop, Nanette; Depa, Julia; Gyngell, Fiona; Müller, Annalena; Eleraky, Laila; Hilzendegen, Carolin

    2018-03-29

    People with low income tend to eat less balanced than people with higher income. This seems to be particularly the case for people with migration background. This cross-sectional study examined the relation of consumption patterns of 597 food bank users with different migration background in Germany. Questionnaires were distributed assessing sociodemographic information and consumption patterns. Analyses were conducted using binary logistic regressions. Models were controlled for age, gender, type of household and education. The group of German food bank users consumed fewer fruits and vegetables and less fish compared to all other groups with migration background (former USSR, Balkan region, Middle East). A significant predictor for fruit and vegetable consumption was migration status. Participants from the former USSR consumed less often SSBs compared to the other groups. Dietary recommendations for low income populations should take into consideration other aspects besides income such as migration status.

  3. Whither Strategic Communication? A Survey of Current Proposals and Recommendations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paul, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    ... are endorsed. Based on the recommendations put forth by the 36 selected documents and articulated in more than a dozen interviews with stakeholders and subject-matter experts, findings indicate that four core...

  4. Current evidence on dietary pattern and cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Bernice H K; Ho, Ivan C H; Chan, Ruth S M; Sea, Mandy M M; Woo, Jean

    2014-01-01

    With global aging population, age-related cognitive decline becomes epidemic. Lifestyle-related factor is one of the key preventative measures. Dietary pattern analysis which considers dietary complexity has recently used to examine the linkage between nutrition and cognitive function. A priori approach defines dietary pattern based on existing knowledge. Results of several dietary pattern scores were summarized. The heterogeneity of assessment methods and outcome measurements lead to inconsistent results. Posteriori approach derives a dietary pattern independently of the existing nutrition-disease knowledge. It showed a dietary pattern abundant with plant-based food, oily fish, lower consumption of processed food, saturated fat, and simple sugar which appears to be beneficial to cognitive health. Despite inconclusive evidence from both approaches, diet and exercise, beneficial for other diseases, remains to be the two key modifiable factors for cognitive function. Large-scale prospective studies in multiethics population are required to provide stronger evidence in the future. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Vegetable and Fruit Intakes of On-Reserve First Nations Schoolchildren Compared to Canadian Averages and Current Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian D. Martin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated, in on-reserve First Nations (FN youth in Ontario, Canada, the following: (a the intakes of vegetable and fruit, “other” foods and relevant nutrients as compared to current recommendations and national averages, (b current prevalence rates of overweight and obesity and (c the relationship between latitude and dietary intakes. Twenty-four-hour diet recalls were collected via the Waterloo Web-Based Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (WEB-Q (n = 443. Heights and weights of participants were self reported using measured values and Body Mass Index was categorized using the International Obesity Task Force cutoffs. Food group and nutrient intakes were compared to current standards, Southern Ontario Food Behaviour data and the Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 2.2, using descriptive statistics. Mean vegetable and fruit, fibre and folate intakes were less than current recommendations. Girls aged 14–18 years had mean intakes of vitamin A below current recommendations for this sub-group; for all sub-groups, mean intakes of vegetables and fruit were below Canadian averages. All sub-groups also had intakes of all nutrients and food groups investigated that were less than those observed in non-FN youth from Southern Ontario, with the exception of “other” foods in boys 12–18 years. Prevalence rates of overweight and obesity were 31.8% and 19.6%, respectively, exceeding rates in the general population. Dietary intakes did not vary consistently by latitude (n = 248, as revealed by ANOVA. This study provided a unique investigation of the dietary intakes of on-reserve FN youth in Ontario and revealed poor intakes of vegetables and fruit and related nutrients and high intakes of “other” foods. Prevalence rates of overweight and obesity exceed those of the general population.

  6. Vegetable and Fruit Intakes of On-Reserve First Nations Schoolchildren Compared to Canadian Averages and Current Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Allison; Hanning, Rhona M.; Gates, Michelle; Skinner, Kelly; Martin, Ian D.; Tsuji, Leonard J. S.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated, in on-reserve First Nations (FN) youth in Ontario, Canada, the following: (a) the intakes of vegetable and fruit, “other” foods and relevant nutrients as compared to current recommendations and national averages, (b) current prevalence rates of overweight and obesity and (c) the relationship between latitude and dietary intakes. Twenty-four-hour diet recalls were collected via the Waterloo Web-Based Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (WEB-Q) (n = 443). Heights and weights of participants were self reported using measured values and Body Mass Index was categorized using the International Obesity Task Force cutoffs. Food group and nutrient intakes were compared to current standards, Southern Ontario Food Behaviour data and the Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 2.2, using descriptive statistics. Mean vegetable and fruit, fibre and folate intakes were less than current recommendations. Girls aged 14–18 years had mean intakes of vitamin A below current recommendations for this sub-group; for all sub-groups, mean intakes of vegetables and fruit were below Canadian averages. All sub-groups also had intakes of all nutrients and food groups investigated that were less than those observed in non-FN youth from Southern Ontario, with the exception of “other” foods in boys 12–18 years. Prevalence rates of overweight and obesity were 31.8% and 19.6%, respectively, exceeding rates in the general population. Dietary intakes did not vary consistently by latitude (n = 248), as revealed by ANOVA. This study provided a unique investigation of the dietary intakes of on-reserve FN youth in Ontario and revealed poor intakes of vegetables and fruit and related nutrients and high intakes of “other” foods. Prevalence rates of overweight and obesity exceed those of the general population. PMID:22690200

  7. The Animal Sciences Academic Quadrathlon: history, current status, and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, R G; Jobsis, C T; Onan, G; Day, B N

    2011-07-01

    The Animal Sciences Academic Quadrathlon (AQ) provides opportunities for teams of undergraduate animal and dairy science students to participate in regional American Society of Animal Science (ASAS)/American Dairy Science Association (ADSA) meetings and to collectively exhibit their knowledge and talents competitively in 4 categories: 1) solving practical, hands-on, laboratory-type problems; 2) providing written answers to essay-type questions about principles and concepts; 3) preparing and communicating orally and extemporaneously topics of current animal science interest; and 4) quickly responding to short-answer questions provided in the form of double-elimination quiz bowls. Each team is selected by winning the local AQ at their university. Overall and individual category winning teams are recognized, but team rankings are not emphasized. The ASAS/ADSA members provide leadership for organizing and conducting the AQ, and ASAS and each university provide travel expenses for students. The ultimate purpose is to stimulate academic excellence among undergraduate students and for the students to attend ASAS/ADSA regional scientific meetings to meet faculty and students and to attend scientific research presentations. The purpose of this document was to provide a history of the event and to make recommendations for its improvement. The AQ was conceived in 1967. During the next 10 yr, an ASAS committee developed procedures for a trial AQ held in 1980 at the ASAS Midwestern Section, Kansas State University-Manhattan, and in the next year the first official AQ was held at the ASAS Midwestern Section at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. Starting in 1985, AQ programs were initiated at the other 3 ASAS sectional meetings, and an estimated 50,000 students representing 60 universities have participated in AQ programs since that time. If the AQ is to continue its improvement over time, it will greatly depend on sustained ASAS/ADSA faculty interest and support, as well as

  8. Dietary habits and supplement use in relation to national pregnancy recommendations: data from the EuroPrevall birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, E M; Grimshaw, K E C; Schoemaker, A A; Keil, T; McBride, D; Sprikkelman, A B; Ragnarsdottir, H S; Trendelenburg, V; Emmanouil, E; Reche, M; Fiocchi, A; Fiandor, A; Stanczyk-Przyluska, A; Wilczynski, J; Busacca, M; Sigurdardottir, S T; Dubakiene, R; Rudzeviciene, O; Vlaxos, G D; Beyer, K; Roberts, G

    2014-12-01

    Assessing maternal dietary habits across Europe during pregnancy in relation to their national pregnancy recommendations. A collaborative, multi-centre, birth cohort study in nine European countries was conducted as part of European Union funded EuroPrevall project. Standardised baseline questionnaire data included details of food intake, nutritional supplement use, exposure to cigarette smoke during pregnancy and socio-demographic data. Pregnancy recommendations were collected from all nine countries from the appropriate national organisations. The most commonly taken supplement in pregnancy was folic acid (55.6 % Lithuania-97.8 % Spain) and was favoured by older, well-educated mothers. Vitamin D supplementation across the cohort was very poor (0.3 % Spain-5.1 % Lithuania). There were significant differences in foods consumed in different countries during pregnancy e.g. only 2.7 % Dutch mothers avoided eating peanut, while 44.4 % of British mothers avoided it. Some countries have minimal pregnancy recommendations i.e. Lithuania, Poland and Spain while others have similar, very specific recommendations i.e. UK, the Netherlands, Iceland, Greece. Allergy specific recommendations were associated with food avoidance during pregnancy [relative rate (RR) 1.18 95 % CI 0.02-1.37]. Nutritional supplement recommendations were also associated with avoidance (RR 1.08, 1.00-1.16). Maternal dietary habits and the use of dietary supplements during pregnancy vary significantly across Europe and in some instances may be influenced by national recommendations.

  9. Online Student Services: Current Practices and Recommendations for Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Tabitha L.; Brown, Abbie

    2016-01-01

    Recommendations for planning and development of online student services based on a review of the literature on research conducted in a variety of college settings. Focus topics include the institutional website, help desks and information centers, student orientation, academic support, and library services.

  10. Fruit Juice in Infants, Children, and Adolescents: Current Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, Melvin B; Abrams, Steven A

    2017-06-01

    Historically, fruit juice was recommended by pediatricians as a source of vitamin C and as an extra source of water for healthy infants and young children as their diets expanded to include solid foods with higher renal solute load. It was also sometimes recommended for children with constipation. Fruit juice is marketed as a healthy, natural source of vitamins and, in some instances, calcium. Because juice tastes good, children readily accept it. Although juice consumption has some benefits, it also has potential detrimental effects. High sugar content in juice contributes to increased calorie consumption and the risk of dental caries. In addition, the lack of protein and fiber in juice can predispose to inappropriate weight gain (too much or too little). Pediatricians need to be knowledgeable about juice to inform parents and patients on its appropriate uses. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  11. Dietary Habits and Supplement Use in Relation to National Pregnancy Recommendations: Data from the EuroPrevall Birth Cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliver, E. M.; Grimshaw, K. E. C.; Schoemaker, A. A.; Keil, T.; McBride, D.; Sprikkelman, A. B.; Ragnarsdottir, H. S.; Trendelenburg, V.; Emmanouil, E.; Reche, M.; Fiocchi, A.; Fiandor, A.; Stanczyk-Przyluska, A.; Wilczynski, J.; Busacca, M.; Sigurdardottir, S. T.; Dubakiene, R.; Rudzeviciene, O.; Vlaxos, G. D.; Beyer, K.; Roberts, G.

    2014-01-01

    Assessing maternal dietary habits across Europe during pregnancy in relation to their national pregnancy recommendations. A collaborative, multi-centre, birth cohort study in nine European countries was conducted as part of European Union funded EuroPrevall project. Standardised baseline

  12. Evaluating Barriers to Adherence to Dietary Recommendations in Iranian Adults with Metabolic Syndrome: A Qualitative Study Using the Theory of Reasoned Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Naseh; Alizadeh, Mohammad; Tarighat Esfanjani, Ali; Kheirouri, Sorayya

    2016-07-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is defined as a pattern of metabolic disorders including central obesity, insulin resistance or hyperglycemia, high blood pressure, and dyslipidemia. Many studies show a clear relationship between diet and components of MS. The aim of the current study was to identify barriers to adherence to dietary recommendations among Iranian MS patients. The theory of reasoned action (TRA) served as the framework for this qualitative study. Data collection was conducted through six semi-structured focus group discussions, from Apr to Jun 2013. Subjects included 36 married men and women with different levels of education between the ages of 20-50 with MS diagnosed based on IDF's (International Diabetes federation) criteria. All focus group discussions were audio recorded and transcribed. The thematic content analysis method was used to analyze the study data. This study identified the most important barriers to adherence to dietary recommendations. MS patients have problems in their attitude toward MS components and their relationship to nutrition. They also had wrong attitudes toward fats and oils, salt, dairy products, cereals, and sugary drinks and sweets. Subjective norms that affects patient eating identifies too. We identified barriers to adherence to dietary recommendations in MS patients that could be used to prevent MS consequences and provide patients with nutrition education.

  13. Dietary transition and obesity in selected Arabicspeaking countries: a review of the current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboul-Enein, B H; Bernstein, J; Neary, A C

    2017-01-23

    Escalating obesity rates have become a significant public health problem in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region and have been associated with shifts towards a westernized diet. This integrative review aimed to examine the current dietary trends and transitions and their association with obesity in Arabic-speaking countries of the MENA region. Relevant databases were searched for studies in MENA countries between 1998 and 2014 that investigated obesity trends and changes in dietary patterns at the regional level in all age groups. A total of 39 articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria. All the articles noted that obesity was increasingly prevalent and that there was a significant dietary shift away from traditional dietary patterns; 51% reported a shift towards a westernized diet and half found that the western diet was correlated with increased obesity. Culturally relevant dietary health education and health promotion strategies are warranted to address both the dietary shifts towards the westernized diet and the increasing obesity.

  14. University Students Intend to Eat Better but Lack Coping Self-Efficacy and Knowledge of Dietary Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, June I; Doerr, Lisa; Dworatzek, Paula D N

    2016-01-01

    To assess university students' knowledge, intentions, and coping self-efficacy related to dietary recommendations. The study used a cross-sectional online survey. Large university campus. Students (n = 6,638; 22% response). Self-efficacy and intentions were measured using 11-point scales. Students' perceived dietary recommendations were evaluated as correct or incorrect. Categorical variables were analyzed using chi-square and continuous variables by t tests or ANOVAs. Significance was set at P ≤ .05 and multiple comparisons at P ≤ .01. Respondents believed that they need fewer vegetables and fruit and more milk or alternatives servings/d than recommended; eg, males aged ≥ 19 years perceived milk or alternatives recommendations to be 4.3 ± 2.1 servings/d, significantly more than the 2 servings/d recommended (P Students in health sciences or with a food or nutrition course were significantly more likely to claim that they met recommendations (eg, 56% with vs 47% without a food or nutrition course for vegetables and fruit; P Students do not have adequate knowledge of age- and sex-specific food guide recommendations. Simpler food guide recommendations or age- and sex-targeted campaigns may enhance knowledge. Students intend to consume more vegetables and less HCFB; however, they have low coping self-efficacy, all of which could be targeted in nutrition interventions. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Fractional lasers in dermatology - Current status and recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apratim Goel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fractional laser technology is a new emerging technology to improve scars, fine lines, dyspigmentation, striae and wrinkles. The technique is easy, safe to use and has been used effectively for several clinical and cosmetic indications in Indian skin. Devices: Different fractional laser machines, with different wavelengths, both ablative and non-ablative, are now available in India. A detailed understanding of the device being used is recommended. Indications: Common indications include resurfacing for acne, chickenpox and surgical scars, periorbital and perioral wrinkles, photoageing changes, facial dyschromias. The use of fractional lasers in stretch marks, melasma and other pigmentary conditions, dermatological conditions such as granuloma annulare has been reported. But further data are needed before adopting them for routine use in such conditions. Physician qualification: Any qualified dermatologist may administer fractional laser treatment. He/ she should possess a Master′s degree or diploma in dermatology and should have had specific hands-on training in lasers, either during postgraduation or later at a facility which routinely performs laser procedures under a competent dermatologist or plastic surgeon with experience and training in using lasers. Since parameters may vary with different systems, specific training tailored towards the concerned device at either the manufacturer′s facility or at another center using the machine is recommended. Facility: Fractional lasers can be used in the dermatologist′s minor procedure room for the above indications. Preoperative counseling and Informed consent: Detailed counseling with respect to the treatment, desired effects and possible postoperative complications should be provided to the patient. The patient should be provided brochures to study and also adequate opportunity to seek information. A detailed consent form needs to be completed by the patient. Consent form should

  16. Current NRPB recommendations on optimisation of protection of workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrixon, A.D.

    1994-01-01

    The National Radiological Protection Board is required by Ministerial Direction to provide advice on the relevance of the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection to the UK. Its advice was published in the Spring of 1993 after a period of consultation. In this article, which formed the basis of a presentation at an SRP Meeting on 29 April 1994, the Board's advice on the optimisation of protection of workers is explored and presented in the context of the developments in the understanding of the principle that have taken place in recent years. The most significant developments are the realisation that implementation of the principle is an essential function of good management and the recognition that the interests of the individual are not sufficiently taken into account by the dose limits alone but doses to individuals should be both constrained and optimised. (author)

  17. Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation: Current Strategies and Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald V. Naccarelli, MD

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is the most common complication of atrial fibrillation (AF. Guidelines recommend anticoagulant treatment in patients with CHA2DS2VASc scores of >2. Registry data suggests that almost half of patients who should be on therapeutic anticoagulation for stroke prevention in AF (SPAF are not. Warfarin and more recently developed agents, the “novel anticoagulants” (NOACs reduce the risk of embolic strokes. In addition, the NOACs also reduce intracranial hemorrhage (ICH by over 50% compared to warfarin. Anticoagulation and bridging strategies involving cardioversion, catheter ablation, and invasive/surgical procedures are reviewed. The development of reversal agents for NOACs and the introduction of left atrial appendage occluding devices will evolve the use of newer strategies for preventing stroke in high risk AF patients.

  18. Dietary Neurotransmitters: A Narrative Review on Current Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Briguglio

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Foods are natural sources of substances that may exert crucial effects on the nervous system in humans. Some of these substances are the neurotransmitters (NTs acetylcholine (ACh, the modified amino acids glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA, and the biogenic amines dopamine, serotonin (5-HT, and histamine. In neuropsychiatry, progressive integration of dietary approaches in clinical routine made it necessary to discern the more about some of these dietary NTs. Relevant books and literature from PubMed and Scopus databases were searched for data on food sources of Ach, glutamate, GABA, dopamine, 5-HT, and histamine. Different animal foods, fruits, edible plants, roots, and botanicals were reported to contain NTs. These substances can either be naturally present, as part of essential metabolic processes and ecological interactions, or derive from controlled/uncontrolled food technology processes. Ripening time, methods of preservation and cooking, and microbial activity further contributes to NTs. Moreover, gut microbiota are considerable sources of NTs. However, the significance of dietary NTs intake needs to be further investigated as there are no significant data on their bioavailability, neuronal/non neuronal effects, or clinical implications. Evidence-based interventions studies should be encouraged.

  19. DIETOS: A dietary recommender system for chronic diseases monitoring and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapito, Giuseppe; Simeoni, Mariadelina; Calabrese, Barbara; Caré, Ilaria; Lamprinoudi, Theodora; Guzzi, Pietro H; Pujia, Arturo; Fuiano, Giorgio; Cannataro, Mario

    2018-01-01

    Use of mobile and web-based applications for diet and weight management is currently increasing. However, the impact of known apps on clinical outcomes is not well-characterized so far. Moreover, availability of food recommender systems providing high quality nutritional advices to both healthy and diet-related chronic diseases users is very limited. In addition, the potentiality of nutraceutical properties of typical regional foods for improving app utility has not been exerted to this end. We present DIETOS, a recommender system for the adaptive delivery of nutrition contents to improve the quality of life of both healthy subjects and patients with diet-related chronic diseases. DIETOS provides highly specialized nutritional advices in different health conditions. DIETOS was projected to provide users with health profile and individual nutritional recommendation. Health profiling was based on user answers to dynamic real-time medical questionnaires. Furthermore, DIETOS contains catalogs of typical foods from Calabria, a southern Italian region. Several Calabrian foods have been inserted because of their nutraceutical properties widely reported in several quality studies. DIETOS includes some well known methods for user profiling (overlay profiling) and content adaptation (content selection) coming from general purpose adaptive web systems. DIETOS has been validated for usability for both patients and specialists and for assessing the correctness of the profiling and recommendation, by enrolling 20 chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients at the Department of Nephrology and Dialysis, University Hospital, Catanzaro (Italy) and 20 age-matched healthy controls. Recruited subjects were invited to register to DIETOS and answer to medical questions to determine their health status. Based on our results, DIETOS has high specificity and sensitivity, allowing to determine a medical-controlled user's health profile and to perform a fine-grained recommendation that is better

  20. Spine imaging after lumbar disc replacement: pitfalls and current recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandén Bengt

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most lumbar artificial discs are still composed of stainless steel alloys, which prevents adequate postoperative diagnostic imaging of the operated region when using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Thus patients with postoperative radicular symptoms or claudication after stainless steel implants often require alternative diagnostic procedures. Methods Possible complications of lumbar total disc replacement (TDR are reviewed from the available literature and imaging recommendations given with regard to implant type. Two illustrative cases are presented in figures. Results Access-related complications, infections, implant wear, loosening or fracture, polyethylene inlay dislodgement, facet joint hypertrophy, central stenosis, and ankylosis of the operated segment can be visualised both in titanium and stainless steel implants, but require different imaging modalities due to magnetic artifacts in MRI. Conclusion Alternative radiographic procedures should be considered when evaluating patients following TDR. Postoperative complications following lumbar TDR including spinal stenosis causing radiculopathy and implant loosening can be visualised by myelography and radionucleotide techniques as an adjunct to plain film radiographs. Even in the presence of massive stainless steel TDR implants lumbar radicular stenosis and implant loosening can be visualised if myelography and radionuclide techniques are applied.

  1. Power Testing in Basketball: Current Practice and Future Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Neal; Dalbo, Vincent J; Burgos, Bill; Pyne, David B; Scanlan, Aaron T

    2018-02-01

    Numerous foundational movements performed during basketball are predicated on underlying power-related attributes, including speed, change-of-direction, and jumping. Accordingly, fitness testing batteries for basketball have incorporated an assortment of linear speed tests, change-of-direction tests, and jump tests. However, due to the wide variety of testing options it is difficult for basketball practitioners to select appropriate testing protocols for the assessment of power-related attributes. As a result, there is a need to review the relevant literature to identify game-specific, power-related attributes important in basketball and the most appropriate tests available to assess power-related attributes for basketball practitioners. Therefore, the aims of this review were to: (1) identify essential power-related attributes important in basketball; (2) discuss the suitability of common and novel power-related tests; and (3) provide recommendations for future research and best practice approaches for basketball coaching staff. In this review, we propose a series of novel tests that are more targeted and specific to basketball movements including: (1) 5-m and 10-m linear sprints, (2) Modified Agility T-Test, (3) Change-of-Direction Deficit, (4) lateral bound, (5) Sargent jump, (6) one-step jump, and (7) isometric midthigh pull test. Improved testing of power-related attributes should enable basketball practitioners to develop targeted training plans for enhancing player performance.

  2. Designing Dietary Recommendations Using System Level Interactomics Analysis and Network-Based Inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Zheng

    2017-09-01

    diet in disease development. Due to the complexity of analyzing the food composition and eating patterns of individuals our in silico analysis, using large-scale gene expression datasets and network-based topological features, may serve as a proof-of-concept in nutritional systems biology for identifying diet-disease relationships and subsequently designing dietary recommendations.

  3. Adherence to dietary recommendations for preschoolers: clinical trial with teenage mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldateli, Betina; Vigo, Alvaro; Giugliani, Elsa Regina Justo

    2016-12-22

    To assess the effect of educational dietary intervention offered in the child's first year of life, as well as teenage mothers and grandmothers in carrying out the dietary recommendations at four to seven years. Randomized clinical trial initiated in 2006, in Porto Alegre, RS, involving 323 teenage mothers and grandmothers who cohabited. The intervention consisted of six counseling sessions on breastfeeding and healthy complementary feeding. The first session occurred in the maternity ward and the other ones in the households of mothers at seven, 15, 30, 60, and 120 days of the child's life. The information about the child's diet were obtained on a monthly basis in the first six months, every two months in the second half-year, and at four to seven years, using a food frequency questionnaire. To assess the adequacy of food consumption to the recommendations from the Ministry of Health, we elaborated a score system that would reflect the compliance with the Ten Steps for Healthy Toddlers from 2 to 10 Years. The average scores of intervention and control groups were compared using the t-test. Low adherence to recommendations on child nutrition was found in the study population, with no difference in implementation the steps between the groups. The score on the compliance with the steps was similar in both groups (9.6 [SD = 1.63] and 9.3 [SD = 1.60] in the intervention and control groups, respectively) and no influence of the cohabitation with the grandmother was found. Educational dietary intervention in the first four months of the child's life for teenage mothers and grandmothers had no effect on the compliance with the recommendations at four to seven years of the child's life. Avaliar o efeito de intervenção alimentar educativa oferecida, no primeiro ano de vida da criança, a mães adolescentes e avós maternas, no cumprimento das recomendações alimentares aos quatro a sete anos. Ensaio clínico randomizado iniciado em 2006, em Porto Alegre, RS, envolvendo

  4. INAA of trace elements in Indian vegetarian diet and its adequacy vis-a-vis Recommended Dietary Allowances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, V.; Garg, A.N.

    1997-01-01

    There has been an increasing awareness concerning the adequacy of trace elements in diet as their deficiency or excess may cause abnormal changes in the biochemical processes. Typical Indian vegetarian diet and dietary components such as cereals, grains, pulses, vegetables and spices have been analysed for 19 elements (Br, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mn, Mo, Na, P, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sr, Th and Zn) by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Several Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) were analysed for quality assurance. Based on the elemental contents, the daily dietary intake has been calculated and the data compared with those from other countries, Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) and permissible body burden. It has been observed that, although vegetarian, the Indian diet has an adequate content of essential trace elements compared to non-vegetarian oriental (Japan and Taiwan) and western (Germany, Denmark and USA) diets. (author)

  5. Translating MyPlate into Food Selections that Meet Dietary Guidelines Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Bachman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to determine if individuals could plan a diet that met the Dietary Guidelines (DG using MyPlate as a guide. Participants (n=73 were 38.9±17.0 years of age, with 97% being Non-Hispanic White, 95% having some college education, and Body Mass Index (BMI of 26.7±5.9. Participants used MyPlate to plan a one-day menu using food models. Nutrition literacy, nutrition scanning behavior, and nutrition information-seeking experience were assessed. Menus were analyzed using Nutrition Data Systems for Research and were compared to individualized DG recommendations. A multiple linear regression examined what characteristics predicted energy difference scores (difference between energy from menu and DG. Participant menus were lower in energy, grains, and dairy; and higher in fruits and vegetables than DGs (p < 0.001. The regression model was significant (R2 = 0.24; p < 0.01 with sex (B = -386.92; p < 0.05, BMI (B = 29.29; p < 0.05 with nutrition information-seeking experience (B = 44.90; p < 0.05 predicting energy difference score. Being male, having a higher BMI, and experiencing more frustration during nutrition informationseeking were associated with higher energy difference scores. It was challenging for this sample of well-educated individuals to make food selections that met the DGs using MyPlate. Extension professionals should not assume that consumers understand and can apply the key messages of MyPlate.

  6. Matrix- and tensor-based recommender systems for the discovery of currently unknown inorganic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seko, Atsuto; Hayashi, Hiroyuki; Kashima, Hisashi; Tanaka, Isao

    2018-01-01

    Chemically relevant compositions (CRCs) and atomic arrangements of inorganic compounds have been collected as inorganic crystal structure databases. Machine learning is a unique approach to search for currently unknown CRCs from vast candidates. Herein we propose matrix- and tensor-based recommender system approaches to predict currently unknown CRCs from database entries of CRCs. Firstly, the performance of the recommender system approaches to discover currently unknown CRCs is examined. A Tucker decomposition recommender system shows the best discovery rate of CRCs as the majority of the top 100 recommended ternary and quaternary compositions correspond to CRCs. Secondly, systematic density functional theory (DFT) calculations are performed to investigate the phase stability of the recommended compositions. The phase stability of the 27 compositions reveals that 23 currently unknown compounds are newly found to be stable. These results indicate that the recommender system has great potential to accelerate the discovery of new compounds.

  7. Breastfeeding in Iran: prevalence, duration and current recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strandvik Birgitta

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The need to promote breastfeeding is unquestionable for the health and development of infants. The aim of this study was to investigate prevalence, duration and promotion of breastfeeding status in Iran with respect to the Baby Friendly Hospital, government actions and activities by the Breastfeeding Promotion Society including comparison with European countries. Methods This retrospective study is based on data from 63,071 infants less than 24 months of age in all the 30 urban and rural provinces of Iran. The data of breastfeeding rates were collected in 2005–2006 by trained health workers in the Integrated Monitoring Evaluation System in the Family Health Office of the Ministry of Health to evaluate its subordinate offices. A translated version of a questionnaire, used to assess the current breastfeeding situation in Europe, was used. Results At a national level, 90% and 57% of infants were breastfed at one and two-years of age, respectively. Exclusive breastfeeding rates at 4 and 6 months of age at national level averaged 56.8% and 27.7%. Exclusive breastfeeding rates at 4 and 6 months of age in rural areas were 58% and 29%, and in urban areas 56% and 27%, respectively. The policy questionnaire showed that out of the 566 hospitals across the country 466 hospitals were accredited as Baby Friendly Hospitals, covering more than 80% of the births in 2006. A national board set standards and certified pre-service education at the Ministry of Health. Iran officially adopted the WHO International Code of Marketing of Breast Milk Substitutes in 1991. The legislation for working mothers met the International Labour Organization standards that cover women with formal employment. The Ministry of Health and Breastfeeding Promotion Society were responsible for producing booklets, pamphlets, breastfeeding journal, CD, workshops and websites. Monitoring of breastfeeding rates was performed every four years and funded by the Ministry of

  8. Dietary sodium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The 2013 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report "Sodium Intake in Populations: Assessment of Evidence" did not support the current recommendations of the IOM and the American Heart Association (AHA) to reduce daily dietary sodium intake to below 2,300 mg. The report concluded that the population...

  9. Genetic Variation in Choline-Metabolizing Enzymes Alters Choline Metabolism in Young Women Consuming Choline Intakes Meeting Current Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel B. Ganz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in choline metabolizing genes are associated with disease risk and greater susceptibility to organ dysfunction under conditions of dietary choline restriction. However, the underlying metabolic signatures of these variants are not well characterized and it is unknown whether genotypic differences persist at recommended choline intakes. Thus, we sought to determine if common genetic risk factors alter choline dynamics in pregnant, lactating, and non-pregnant women consuming choline intakes meeting and exceeding current recommendations. Women (n = 75 consumed 480 or 930 mg choline/day (22% as a metabolic tracer, choline-d9 for 10–12 weeks in a controlled feeding study. Genotyping was performed for eight variant SNPs and genetic differences in metabolic flux and partitioning of plasma choline metabolites were evaluated using stable isotope methodology. CHKA rs10791957, CHDH rs9001, CHDH rs12676, PEMT rs4646343, PEMT rs7946, FMO3 rs2266782, SLC44A1 rs7873937, and SLC44A1 rs3199966 altered the use of choline as a methyl donor; CHDH rs9001 and BHMT rs3733890 altered the partitioning of dietary choline between betaine and phosphatidylcholine synthesis via the cytidine diphosphate (CDP-choline pathway; and CHKA rs10791957, CHDH rs12676, PEMT rs4646343, PEMT rs7946 and SLC44A1 rs7873937 altered the distribution of dietary choline between the CDP-choline and phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT denovo pathway. Such metabolic differences may contribute to disease pathogenesis and prognosis over the long-term.

  10. Dietary intervention in the management of phenylketonuria: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocha JC

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Júlio César Rocha,1-3 Anita MacDonald4 1Centro de Genética Médica, Centro Hospitalar do Porto – CHP, 2Faculdade de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Fernando Pessoa, 3Center for Health Technology and Services Research (CINTESIS, Porto, Portugal; 4The Children’s Hospital, Birmingham, UK Abstract: Phenylketonuria (PKU is a well-described inborn error of amino acid metabolism that has been treated for >60 years. Enzyme deficiency causes accumulation of phenylalanine (Phe and if left untreated will lead to profound and irreversible intellectual disability in most children. Traditionally, it has been managed with a low-Phe diet supplemented with a Phe-free protein substitute although newer treatment options mainly in combination with diet are available for some subgroups of patients with PKU, for example, sapropterin, large neutral amino acids, and glycomacropeptide. The diet consists of three parts: 1 severe restriction of dietary Phe; 2 replacement of non-Phe L-amino acids with a protein substitute commonly supplemented with essential fatty acids and other micronutrients; and 3 low-protein foods from fruits, some vegetables, sugars, fats and oil, and special low-protein foods (SLPF. The prescription of diet is challenging for health professionals. The high-carbohydrate diet supplied by a limited range of foods may program food preferences and contribute to obesity in later life. Abnormal tasting and satiety-promoting protein substitutes are administered to coincide with peak appetite times to ensure their consumption, but this practice may impede appetite for other important foods. Intermittent dosing of micronutrients when combined with L-amino acid supplements may lead to their poor bioavailability. Much work is required on the ideal nutritional profiling for special SLPF and Phe-free L-amino acid supplements. Although non-diet treatments are being studied, it is important to continue to fully understand all the consequences of diet

  11. Preoperative predictors of adherence to dietary and physical activity recommendations and weight loss one year after surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergh, Irmelin; Lundin Kvalem, Ingela; Risstad, Hilde; Sniehotta, Falko F

    2016-05-01

    Weight loss and weight loss maintenance vary considerably between patients after bariatric surgery. Postoperative weight gain has partially been explained by lack of adherence to postoperative dietary and physical activity recommendations. However, little is known about factors related to postoperative adherence. The aim of this study was to examine psychological, behavioral, and demographic predictors of adherence to behavior recommendations and weight loss 1 year after bariatric surgery. Oslo University Hospital. In a prospective cohort study, 230 patients who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass were recruited from Oslo University hospital from 2011 to 2013. They completed a comprehensive questionnaire before and 1 year after surgery. Weight was measured preoperatively, on the day of surgery, and 1-year postoperatively. Mean body mass index was 44.9 kg/m(2) (standard deviation [SD] = 6.0) preoperatively and 30.6 kg/m(2) (SD = 5.2) 1 year after surgery. Patients lost on average 29.2 % (SD = 8.2) of their initial weight. Predictors of dietary adherence were years with dieting experience, readiness to limit food intake, and night eating tendency. Preoperative physical activity and planning predicted postoperative physical activity whereas predictors of weight loss were higher frequency of snacking preoperatively, greater past weight loss, and lower age. Several preoperative psychological predictors were related to postoperative adherence to dietary and physical activity recommendations but were not associated with weight loss. Interventions targeting psychological factors facilitating behavior change during the initial postoperative phase are recommended as this might improve long-term outcomes. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. From the Margins to the Center: Recommendations for Current and Aspiring Educational Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Tina R.

    2009-01-01

    Tina Nolan presents a call to action for current and future leaders to assume a new role as change leaders for the museum education profession. This article puts forth a series of recommendations and strategies for repositioning museum educators from the margins of their institutions to the center. Included among these recommendations are…

  13. Nutri-RecQuest: a web-based search engine on current micronutrient recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cavelaars, A.J.E.M.; Kadvan, A.; Doets, E.L.; Tepsic, J.; Novakovic, R.N.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Renkema, M.; Glibetic, M.; Bucchini, L.; Matthys, C.; Smith, R.; Veer, van 't P.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Gurinovic, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The EURRECA (EURopean micronutrient RECommendations Aligned) Network of Excellence collated current micronutrient recommendations. A user-friendly tool, Nutri-RecQuest, was developed to allow access to the collated data and to create a database source for use in other nutritional

  14. Whole dietary patterns to optimize cognitive function for military mission-readiness: a systematic review and recommendations for the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Lynn; Crawford, Cindy; Yehuda, Rachel; Jaghab, Danny; Bingham, John J; Gallon, Matthew D; O'Connell, Meghan L; Chittum, Holly K; Arzola, Sonya M; Berry, Kevin

    2017-06-01

    Optimizing cognitive performance, particularly during times of high stress, is a prerequisite to mission-readiness among military personnel. It has been of interest to determine whether such performance could be enhanced through diet. This systematic review assesses the quality of the evidence for whole dietary patterns across various outcomes related to cognitive function in healthy adult populations to develop research recommendations for the military. PubMed, CINAHL, Embase, PsycInfo, and the Cochrane Library were searched. Peer-reviewed randomized controlled trials published in the English language were eligible. Fifteen included trials were assessed for methodological quality, and descriptive data were extracted. Of the 6 acceptable-quality studies, 1 demonstrated statistically nonsignificant results, whereas the other 5 showed conflicting results across the cognitive outcomes assessed. Due to the heterogeneity across the included studies, no recommendations could be reached concerning whether certain whole dietary patterns have an effect on cognitive outcomes in healthy populations. Specific recommendations for future research are offered. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Does diet intervention in line with nutrition recommendations affect dietary carbon footprint? Results from a weight loss trial among lactating women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huseinovic, E; Ohlin, M; Winkvist, A; Bertz, F; Sonesson, U; Brekke, H K

    2017-10-01

    Results from studies evaluating the sustainability of diets combining environmental and nutritional aspects have been diverse; thus, greenhouse gas emissions (that is, carbon footprint (CF)) of diets in line with dietary recommendations in free-living individuals warrants further examination. Here, changes in dietary CF related to changes in food choice during a weight loss trial among lactating women who received a 12-week diet intervention based on the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR) 2004 were analyzed. The objective of this study was to examine if a diet intervention based on NNR 2004 results in reduced dietary CF. Changes in dietary CF were analyzed among 61 lactating women participating in a weight loss trial. Food intake data from 4-day weighed diet records and results from life cycle analyses were used to examine changes in dietary CF across eight food groups during the intervention, specified in the unit carbon dioxide equivalent (CO 2 eq/day). Differences in changes in dietary CF between women receiving diet treatment (D-group) and women not receiving it (ND-group) were compared. There was no difference in change in dietary CF of the overall diet between D- and ND-group (P>0.05). As for the eight food groups, D-group increased their dietary CF from fruit and vegetables (+0.06±0.13 kg CO 2 eq/day) compared with a decrease in ND-group (-0.01±0.01 kg CO 2 eq/day) during the intervention, P=0.01. A diet intervention in line with NNR 2004 produced clinically relevant weight loss, but did not reduce dietary CF among lactating women with overweight and obesity. Dietary interventions especially designed to decrease dietary CF and their coherence with dietary recommendations need further exploration.

  16. Cost-of-illness analysis reveals potential healthcare savings with reductions in type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease following recommended intakes of dietary fibre in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad eAbdullah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Consumption of fibre-rich diets is associated with favourable impacts on type 2 diabetes (T2D and cardiovascular disease (CVD, two of the most costly ailments worldwide, however the economic value of altered fibre intakes remains poorly understood. Methods: A cost-of-illness analysis was conducted to identify the percentage of adults expected to consume fibre-rich diets in Canada, estimate fibre intakes in relation to T2D and CVD reductions, and assess the potential annual savings in healthcare costs with reductions in rates of these two epidemics. Results: Non-trivial healthcare and related savings of CAD$35.9-$718.8 million in T2D costs and CAD$64.8-$1,295.7 million in CVD costs were calculated under a scenario where cereal fibre was used to increase current intakes of dietary fibre to the recommended levels of 38 g per day for men and 25 g per day for women. Each 1 g per day increase in fibre consumption resulted in annual CAD$2.6-$51.1 and $4.6-$92.1 million savings for T2D and CVD, respectively. Conclusions: Strategies to increase consumers’ knowledge of the recommended dietary fibre intakes, as part of healthy diet, and to facilitate stakeholder synergy are warranted to enable better management of costs associated with T2D and CVD in Canada.

  17. Predicting healthy eating intention and adherence to dietary recommendations during pregnancy in Australia using the Theory of Planned Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, Lenka; Umberger, Wendy J; Makrides, Maria; ShaoJia, Zhou

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to aid in the development of more effective healthy eating intervention strategies for pregnant women by understanding the relationship between healthy eating intention and actual eating behaviour. Specifically, the study explored whether Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) constructs [attitude, subjective-norm, perceived-behavioural-control (PBC)] and additional psychosocial variables (perceived stress, health value and self-identity as a healthy eater) are useful in explaining variance in women's 1) intentions to consume a healthy diet during pregnancy and 2) food consumption behaviour (e.g. adherence to food group recommendations) during pregnancy. A cross-sectional sample of 455 Australian pregnant women completed a TPB questionnaire as part of a larger comprehensive web-based nutrition questionnaire. Women's perceived stress, health value and self-identity as a healthy eater were also measured. Dietary intake was assessed using six-items based on the 2013 Australian Dietary Guidelines. Hierarchical multiple linear regression models were estimated (significance level healthy eating intention scores and 12% of the variance in adherence to food group recommendations. TPB constructs explained 66% of the total variance in healthy eating intention. Significant predictors of stronger healthy eating intention were greater PBC and subjective norm, followed by positive attitude and stronger self-identity as a healthy eater. Conversely, TPB constructs collectively explained only 3.4% of total variance in adherence to food group recommendations. These findings reveal that the TPB framework explains considerable variance in healthy eating intention during pregnancy, but explains little variance in actual food consumption behaviour. Further research is required to understand this weak relationship between healthy eating intention and behaviour during pregnancy. Alternative behavioural frameworks, particularly those that account for the automatic nature of most

  18. Cost-of-illness analysis reveals potential healthcare savings with reductions in type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease following recommended intakes of dietary fiber in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Mohammad M. H.; Gyles, Collin L.; Marinangeli, Christopher P. F.; Carlberg, Jared G.; Jones, Peter J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are leading causes of mortality and two of the most costly diet-related ailments worldwide. Consumption of fiber-rich diets has been repeatedly associated with favorable impacts on these co-epidemics, however, the healthcare cost-related economic value of altered dietary fiber intakes remains poorly understood. In this study, we estimated the annual cost savings accruing to the Canadian healthcare system in association with reductions in T2D and CVD rates, separately, following increased intakes of dietary fiber by adults. Methods: A three-step cost-of-illness analysis was conducted to identify the percentage of individuals expected to consume fiber-rich diets in Canada, estimate increased fiber intakes in relation to T2D and CVD reduction rates, and independently assess the potential annual savings in healthcare costs associated with the reductions in rates of these two epidemics. The economic model employed a sensitivity analysis of four scenarios (universal, optimistic, pessimistic, and very pessimistic) to cover a range of assumptions within each step. Results: Non-trivial healthcare and related savings of CAD$35.9-$718.8 million in T2D costs and CAD$64.8 million–$1.3 billion in CVD costs were calculated under a scenario where cereal fiber was used to increase current intakes of dietary fiber to the recommended levels of 38 g per day for men and 25 g per day for women. Each 1 g per day increase in fiber consumption resulted in annual CAD$2.6 to $51.1 million savings for T2D and $4.6 to $92.1 million savings for CVD. Conclusion: Findings of this analysis shed light on the economic value of optimal dietary fiber intakes. Strategies to increase consumers’ general knowledge of the recommended intakes of dietary fiber, as part of healthy diet, and to facilitate stakeholder synergy are warranted to enable better management of healthcare and related costs associated with T2D and CVD in Canada. PMID

  19. Are the current guideline recommendations for neonatal cardiopulmonary resuscitation safe and effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottenberg, Eric M

    2016-08-01

    A recently published review of approaches to optimize chest compressions in the resuscitation of asphyxiated newborns discussed the current recommendations and explored potential determinants of effective neonatal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). However, not all potential determinants of effective neonatal CPR were explored. Chest compression shallower than the current guideline recommendation of approximately 33% of the anterior-posterior (AP) chest diameter may be safer and more effective. From a physiological standpoint, high-velocity brief duration shallower compression may be more effective than current recommendations. The application of a 1- or 2-finger method of high-impulse CPR, which would depend on the size of the subject, may be more effective than using a 2-thumb (TT) encircling hands method of CPR. Adrenaline should not be used in the treatment of asphyxiated neonates and when necessary titrated vasopressin should be used. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Are n-3 PUFA dietary recommendations met in in-hospital and school catering?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molendi-Coste, O; Legry, V; Leclercq, I A

    2011-06-01

    Literature provides compelling evidence for the health benefits of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) consumption and low n-6/n-3 ratio, in particular, on inflammation and metabolic syndrome prevention and treatment. Consequently, recommendations were established for adequate n-3 PUFA supplies in the general population. The aim of our study was to evaluate the fatty acid (FA) profile in collective catering in relation to those recommendations. We obtained composition of lunches provided by the Township of Lille (France) to children and adults, and of "standard", "low-fat" and "for diabetic" menus from the catering service of St Luc university hospital (Brussels, Belgium). The average proportions of fish, meat, oils, and dairy were used to estimate total, saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated (n-6 and n-3) FA contents. We used official tables of foodstuffs composition provided by the French Agency for Food Safety, the project "Nutritional Composition of Aquatic Products", the French Institute for Nutrition, and the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference. French guidelines were taken as reference for daily recommended intakes. n-3 PUFA content in lunches provided by municipal catering and in in-hospital menus were slightly below recommended intakes. In the latter, n-3 PUFA enriched margarine contributed for 50% to daily intakes. Despite, the n-6/n-3 ratio was too high, especially in municipal catering (around 20), related to excessive n-6 PUFA supply. Our results highlight that meeting n-3 PUFA nutritional recommendation remains challenging for collective catering. A detailed analysis of provided menus represents a powerful tool to increase awareness and foster improvement in practice.

  1. [Reason for dietary salt reduction and potential effect on population health--WHO recommendation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaić-Rak, Antoinette; Pucarin-Cvetković, Jasna; Heim, Inge; Skupnjak, Berislav

    2010-05-01

    It is well known that reduction of salt results in lowering blood pressure and cardiovascular incidents. Daily salt is double the recommended daily quantity and mainly comes from processed food. The assessment of daily salt intake for Croatia is 12 g/day (WHO recommendation is restaurants (77%), natural content of sodium in food (12%), added salt at table (6%) and prepared meals at home (5%). Reduction of salt by 50% would save nearly 180,000 lives per year in Europe. It is necessary to establish better collaboration with food manufacturers in order to reduce the content of salt in processed food and to achieve appropriate salt intake per day in accordance with the WHO recommendation. Further, it is necessary to encourage food manufacturers to produce food and meals with low or reduced salt content (shops, catering, changes in recipes, offer salt substitutions). This kind of collaboration is based on bilateral interests that can result in positive health effects. One of the most important public health tasks is to educate consumers and to give them choice when buying food. This can be achieved by effective campaigns and social marketing, by ensuring a declaration of salt content on the product, or specially designed signs for food products with low or reduced salt content.

  2. Effect of past and current dietary Zn intake on Zn absorption and endogenous excretion in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.E.; Hunt, J.R.; Ralston, N.V.

    1988-01-01

    Effects of previous dietary Zn (or body Zn stores) and current dietary Zn intake on absorption and endogenous excretion of Zn were studied by using radioisotope dilution. Rats were fed diets containing 1.5, 12.6 or 50.3 mg Zn/kg for 19 d (dietary period I). Total body Zn in the three groups was 1870 +/- 340, 3953 +/- 698 and 4126 +/- 844 micrograms Zn/rat. Each group was divided into four subgroups fed 3.6, 12.6, 20.5 or 50.3 mg Zn/kg diet for 3 wk (dietary period II). Rats were injected intramuscularly with 65Zn after 7 d of dietary period II. True absorption and endogenous excretion were calculated by isotope dilution. Zinc intake, urinary and fecal excretion, balance and percent Zn absorption were significantly affected only by dietary Zn in dietary period II (P less than 0.01). Endogenous excretion was affected by both past dietary Zn deficiency (body Zn stores) and by dietary Zn in dietary period II (P = 0.0001). Total body Zn at the end of the experiment was significantly affected by both periods of dietary treatment (P less than 0.001), but total body Zn concentration was affected only by the final dietary treatment (P less than 0.05). These results show that Zn absorption is affected by the current diet, but that turnover of Zn (endogenous excretion) is regulated by both current Zn intake and past Zn intake, probably through an effect on body Zn stores

  3. Limited percentages of adults in Washington State meet the Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommended intakes of fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta, Myduc L; VanEenwyk, Juliet; Bensley, Lillian

    2012-05-01

    Nutritious diets that include sufficient intake of fruits and vegetables promote health and reduce risk for chronic diseases. The 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend four to 13 servings of fruits and vegetables daily for energy intake levels of 1,000 to 3,200 kcal, including seven to 13 servings for 1,600 to 3,000 kcal/day as recommended for adults aged ≥25 years. The 2006-2007 Washington Adult Health Survey, a cross-sectional study designed to measure risk factors for cardiovascular disease among a representative sample of Washington State residents aged ≥25 years, included a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The FFQ included approximately 120 food items and summary questions for fruits and vegetables that were used to compute energy intake and two measures of fruit and vegetable intake. Measure 1 was computed as the sum of intake of individual FFQ fruit and vegetable items; Measure 2 combined the summary questions with selected individual FFQ fruit and vegetable items. Depending on the measure used, approximately 14% to 22% of 519 participants with complete information met the guidelines for fruits, 11% to 15% for vegetables, and 5% to 6% for both fruits and vegetables. Participants aged ≥65 years and women were more likely to meet recommendations, compared with younger participants and men. Despite decades of public health attention, the vast majority of Washington State residents do not consume the recommended amount of fruits or vegetables daily. These findings underscore the need for developing and evaluating new approaches to promote fruit and vegetable consumption. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Dietary fiber and the glycemic index: a background paper for the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Cecilie Øverby

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to review recent data on dietary fiber (DF and the glycemic index (GI, with special focus on studies from the Nordic countries regarding cardiometabolic risk factors, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and total mortality. In this study, recent guidelines and scientific background papers or updates on older reports on DF and GI published between 2000 and 2011 from the US, EU, WHO, and the World Cancer Research Fund were reviewed, as well as prospective cohort and intervention studies carried out in the Nordic countries. All of the reports support the role for fiber-rich foods and DF as an important part of a healthy diet. All of the five identified Nordic papers found protective associations between high intake of DF and health outcomes; lower risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, colorectal and breast cancer. None of the reports and few of the Nordic papers found clear evidence for the GI in prevention of risk factors or diseases in healthy populations, although association was found in sub-groups, e.g. overweight and obese individuals and suggestive for prevention of type 2 diabetes. It was concluded that DF is associated with decreased risk of different chronic diseases and metabolic conditions. There is not enough evidence that choosing foods with low GI will decrease the risk of chronic diseases in the population overall. However, there is suggestive evidence that ranking food based on their GI might be of use for overweight and obese individuals. Issues regarding methodology, validity and practicality of the GI remain to be clarified.

  5. Current dietary supplement use of Australian military veterans of Middle East operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Pols, Jolieke C; Kanesarajah, Jeeva; Bell, Alison; Lui, Chi-Wai

    2017-12-01

    To assess patterns and levels of dietary supplement use among Australian Defence Forces, previously deployed to the Middle East Area of Operations. A cross-sectional study. Participants of a large survey self-completed questions about dietary supplement use, health status, personal and job-related characteristics, and lifestyle factors. Frequency of current use of supplements was assessed in three categories (bodybuilding, energy and weight loss). Middle East Area of Operations post-deployment health survey. Current and ex-serving Australian Defence Force personnel (n 14 032) who deployed to the Middle East between 2001 and 2009. Bodybuilding supplements were used by 17·5 % of participants, energy supplements by 24·5 % and weight-loss supplements by 7·6 %. Overall, 32·3 % of participants used any of these supplements. Bodybuilding and energy supplements were more often used by men, younger persons and those in the Army, while weight-loss supplements were more commonly used by women and Navy personnel. Supplements in all three categories were more commonly used by persons in lower ranks, active service and combat roles. Users of bodybuilding supplements had healthier lifestyles and better health status, while users of energy and weight-loss supplements had less healthy lifestyles and poorer mental and physical health status. Overall, 11·7 % of participants used supplements containing caffeine and 3·6 % used a creatine-containing product. Use of dietary supplements among Australian Defence Force personnel is common, and patterned by lifestyle factors and health status.

  6. Do current national and international guidelines have specific recommendations for older adults with bipolar disorder?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dols, Annemiek; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Strejilevich, Sergio A

    2016-01-01

    a variety of sources have become available in recent years. It is expected that at least some of this emerging information on OABD would be incorporated into treatment guidelines available to clinicians around the world. METHODS: The International Society of Bipolar Disorders OABD task force compiled...... and compared recommendations from current national and international guidelines that specifically address geriatric or older individuals with BD (from year 2005 onwards). RESULTS: There were 34 guidelines, representing six continents and 19 countries. The majority of guidelines had no separate section on OABD....... General principles for treating OABD with medication are recommended to be similar to those for younger adults, with special caution for side effects due to somatic comorbidity and concomitant medications. Therapeutic lithium serum levels are suggested to be lower but recommendations are very general...

  7. Health effects of different dietary iron intakes: a systematic literature review for the 5th Nordic Nutrition Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Domellöf

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background : The present literature review is part of the NNR5 project with the aim of reviewing and updating the scientific basis of the 4th edition of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR issued in 2004. Objective : The objective of this systematic literature review was to assess the health effects of different intakes of iron, at different life stages (infants, children, adolescents, adults, elderly, and during pregnancy and lactation, in order to estimate the requirement for adequate growth, development, and maintenance of health. Methods : The initial literature search resulted in 1,076 abstracts. Out of those, 276 papers were identified as potentially relevant. Of those, 49 were considered relevant and were quality assessed (A, B, or C. An additional search on iron and diabetes yielded six articles that were quality assessed. Thus, a total of 55 articles were evaluated. The grade of evidence was classified as convincing (grade 1, probable (grade 2, suggestive (grade 3, and inconclusive (grade 4. Results : There is suggestive evidence that prevention or treatment of iron deficiency (ID and iron deficiency anemia (IDA improves cognitive, motoric, and behavioral development in young children, and that treatment of IDA improves attention and concentration in school children and adult women. There is insufficient evidence to show negative health effects of iron intakes in doses suggested by the NNR 4. There is insufficient evidence to suggest that normal birth weight, healthy, exclusively breast-fed infants need additional dietary iron before 6 months of life in the Nordic countries.An iron concentration of 4–8 mg/L in infant formulas seems to be safe and effective for normal birth weight infants. There is probable evidence that iron supplements (1–2 mg/kg/day given up to 6 months of age to infants with low birth weight (<2,500 g prevents IDA and possibly reduce the risk of behavioral problems later on. There is probable evidence that

  8. Preconception care of women with diabetes: a review of current guideline recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazza Danielle

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM continues to rise worldwide. More women from developing countries who are in the reproductive age group have diabetes resulting in more pregnancies complicated by T2DM, and placing both mother and foetus at higher risk. Management of these risks is best achieved through comprehensive preconception care and glycaemic control, both prior to, and during pregnancy. The aim of this review was to compare the quality and content of current guidelines concerned with the preconception care of women with diabetes and to develop a summary of recommendations to assist in the management of diabetic women contemplating pregnancy. Methods Relevant clinical guidelines were identified through a search of several databases (MEDLINE, SCOPUS and The Cochrane Library and relevant websites. Five guidelines were identified. Each guideline was assessed for quality using the AGREE instrument. Guideline recommendations were extracted, compared and contrasted. Results All guidelines were assessed as being of high quality and strongly recommended for use in practice. All were consistent in counselling about the risk of congenital malformation related to uncontrolled blood sugar preconceptionally, ensuring adequate contraception until glycaemic control is achieved, use of HBA1C to monitor metabolic control, when to commence insulin and switching from ACE inhibitors to other antihypertensives. Major differences were in the targets recommended for optimal metabolic control and opinion regarding the usage of metformin as an adjunct or alternative treatment before or during pregnancy. Conclusions International guidelines for the care of women with diabetes who are contemplating pregnancy are consistent in their recommendations; however some are more comprehensive than others. Having established current standards for the preconception care of diabetic women, there is now a need to focus on guideline

  9. Adequacy of the dietary intake of total and added sugars in the Spanish diet to the recommendations: ANIBES study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Enma; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2017-10-15

    The WHO published in 2015 its recommendations for added sugars intake: sugar intake, mainly focused on added, and food and beverage sources. To analize fulfillment with WHO recommendations. The ANIBES Study of a representative sample of the Spanish population (9-75 yr) was used. Food and beverage records were obtained by a three-day dietary record by using a tablet device. The median total sugar intake was 17% Total TE: 7.3% for added, and 9.6% for the intrinsic sugar intake. Differences were observed for added sugar which was much higher in children and adolescents. For the intrinsic sugar, however, a higher contribution to TE was observed in the elderly. A 58.2% of children fullfill WHO recommndations (sugar were milk and dairy products (23.2%), non-alcoholic beverages (18.6%), fruits (16.8%) and sugars and sweets (15.1%) and grains (12.0%). The major sources of intrinsic sugars were fruits (31.8%), milks (19.6%), juices and nectars (11.1%), vegetables (9.89%), yogurt and fermented milk (7.18%), low-alcohol-content beverages (4.94%), bread (2.91%), and sugar soft drinks (2.24%). As for free sugars, sources were sugars and sweets (34.1%), non-alcoholic beverages (30.8%, mainly as sugar soft drinks, 25.5%) and grains (19.1%, principally as bakery and pastry, 15.2%). The present study demonstrates that only a moderate percentage of the Spanish population adhered to the present recommendations for total and added sugar intake, and urgent efforts are needed to improve diet quality in the youngest populations.

  10. Dietary recommendations regarding pilot whale meat and blubber in the Faroe Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pál Weihe

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available For centuries the pilot whale has been an important part Faroese life – both in regard to food and culture. However, studies dating back to 1977 have shown an increase in contamination of the meat, blubber, liver and kidneys of pilot whales. Several birth cohorts have been established in the Faroes in order to discover the health effects related to mercury and organchlorine exposure. In short the results have so far shown that: mercury from pilot whale meat adversely affects the foetal development of the nervous system; the mercury effect is still detectable during adolescence; the mercury from the maternal diet affects the blood pressure of the children; the contaminants of the blubber adversely affect the immune system so that the children react more poorly to immunizations; contaminants in pilot whales appear to increase the risk of developing Parkinson's disease in those who often eat pilot whale; the risk of hypertension and arteriosclerosis of the carotid arteries is increased in adults who have an increased exposure to mercury; septuagenarians with type 2 diabetes or impaired fasting glycaemia tended to have higher PCB concentrations and higher past intake of traditional foods, especially during childhood and adolescence. Also impaired insulin secretion appears to constitute an important part of the type 2 diabetes pathogenesis associated with exposure to persistent lipophilic food contaminants. From the latest research results, the authors consider that the conclusion from a human health perspective must be to recommend that pilot whale is no longer used for human consumption.

  11. [Current recommendations for basic/advanced life support : Addressing unanswered questions and future prospects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, K; Schmid, B; Busch, H-J

    2016-11-01

    The revised guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation were implemented by the European Resuscitation Council (ERC) in October 2015. There were few changes concerning basic and advanced life support; however, some issues were clarified compared to the ERC recommendations from 2010. The present paper summarizes the procedures of basic and advanced life support according to the current guidelines and highlights the updates of 2015. Furthermore, the article depicts future prospects of cardiopulmonary resuscitation that may improve outcome of patients after cardiac arrest in the future.

  12. Feeding practices of low-income mothers: how do they compare to current recommendations?

    OpenAIRE

    Power, Thomas G; Hughes, Sheryl O; Goodell, L Suzanne; Johnson, Susan L; Duran, J Andrea Jaramillo; Williams, Kimberly; Beck, Ashley D; Frankel, Leslie A

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite a growing consensus on the feeding practices associated with healthy eating patterns, few observational studies of maternal feeding practices with young children have been conducted, especially in low-income populations. The aim of this study was to provide such data on a low income sample to determine the degree to which observed maternal feeding practices compare with current recommendations. Methods Eighty low-income mothers and their preschool children were videotaped a...

  13. Reasons Low-Income Parents Offer Snacks to Children: How Feeding Rationale Influences Snack Frequency and Adherence to Dietary Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E. Blaine

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Although American children snack more than ever before, the parental role in promoting snacking is not well understood. In 2012–2013 at baseline in an intervention study to prevent childhood obesity in low-income Massachusetts communities, n = 271 parents of children aged 2–12 years completed surveys regarding nutritive and non-nutritive reasons they offered children snacks, demographics, and dietary factors. An analysis of variance demonstrated that parents reported offering snacks (mean/week; standard deviation (SD for nutritive reasons like promoting growth (x̄ = 2.5; SD 2.2 or satisfying hunger (x̄ = 2.4; SD 2.1 almost twice as often as non-nutritive reasons like keeping a child quiet (x̄ = 0.7; SD 1.5 or celebrating events/holidays (x̄ = 0.8; SD 1.1. Parents reported giving young children (2–5 years more snacks to reward behavior (1.9 vs. 1.1, p < 0.001, keep quiet (1.0 vs. 0.5, p < 0.001, and celebrate achievements (1.7 vs. 1.0, p < 0.001 than parents of older children (6–12 years. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to obtain adjusted odds ratios, which indicated reduced child adherence to dietary recommendations when parents offered snacks to reward behavior (Odds Ratio (OR = 0.83; 95% Confidence Interval (CI 0.70–0.99, celebrate events/holidays (OR = 0.72; 95% CI 0.52–0.99, or achievements (OR = 0.82; 95% CI 0.68–0.98. Parental intentions around child snacking are likely important targets for obesity prevention efforts.

  14. Reasons Low-Income Parents Offer Snacks to Children: How Feeding Rationale Influences Snack Frequency and Adherence to Dietary Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaine, Rachel E.; Fisher, Jennifer Orlet; Taveras, Elsie M.; Geller, Alan C.; Rimm, Eric B.; Land, Thomas; Perkins, Meghan; Davison, Kirsten K.

    2015-01-01

    Although American children snack more than ever before, the parental role in promoting snacking is not well understood. In 2012–2013 at baseline in an intervention study to prevent childhood obesity in low-income Massachusetts communities, n = 271 parents of children aged 2–12 years completed surveys regarding nutritive and non-nutritive reasons they offered children snacks, demographics, and dietary factors. An analysis of variance demonstrated that parents reported offering snacks (mean/week; standard deviation (SD)) for nutritive reasons like promoting growth (x̄ = 2.5; SD 2.2) or satisfying hunger (x̄ = 2.4; SD 2.1) almost twice as often as non-nutritive reasons like keeping a child quiet (x̄ = 0.7; SD 1.5) or celebrating events/holidays (x̄ = 0.8; SD 1.1). Parents reported giving young children (2–5 years) more snacks to reward behavior (1.9 vs. 1.1, p parents of older children (6–12 years). Multivariable logistic regression models were used to obtain adjusted odds ratios, which indicated reduced child adherence to dietary recommendations when parents offered snacks to reward behavior (Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.83; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.70–0.99), celebrate events/holidays (OR = 0.72; 95% CI 0.52–0.99), or achievements (OR = 0.82; 95% CI 0.68–0.98). Parental intentions around child snacking are likely important targets for obesity prevention efforts. PMID:26197335

  15. Altered Mental Status: Current Evidence-based Recommendations for Prehospital Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Sanello

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the United States emergency medical services (EMS protocols vary widely across jurisdictions. We sought to develop evidence-based recommendations for the prehospital evaluation and treatment of a patient with an acute change in mental status and to compare these recommendations against the current protocols used by the 33 EMS agencies in the State of California. Methods: We performed a literature review of the current evidence in the prehospital treatment of a patient with altered mental status (AMS and augmented this review with guidelines from various national and international societies to create our evidence-based recommendations. We then compared the AMS protocols of each of the 33 EMS agencies for consistency with these recommendations. The specific protocol components that we analyzed were patient assessment, point-of-care tests, supplemental oxygen, use of standardized scoring, evaluating for causes of AMS, blood glucose evaluation, toxicological treatment, and pediatric evaluation and management. Results: Protocols across 33 EMS agencies in California varied widely. All protocols call for a blood glucose check, 21 (64% suggest treating adults at <60mg/dL, and half allow for the use of dextrose 10%. All the protocols recommend naloxone for signs of opioid overdose, but only 13 (39% give specific parameters. Half the agencies (52% recommend considering other toxicological causes of AMS, often by using the mnemonic AEIOU TIPS. Eight (24% recommend a 12-lead electrocardiogram; others simply suggest cardiac monitoring. Fourteen (42% advise supplemental oxygen as needed; only seven (21% give specific parameters. In terms of considering various etiologies of AMS, 25 (76% give instructions to consider trauma, 20 (61% to consider stroke, and 18 (55% to consider seizure. Twenty-three (70% of the agencies have separate pediatric AMS protocols; others include pediatric considerations within the adult protocol. Conclusion: Protocols

  16. Adherence to the WCRF/AICR Dietary Recommendations for Cancer Prevention and Risk of Cancer in Elderly from Europe and the United States: A Meta-Analysis within the CHANCES Project.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jankovic, Nicole; Geelen, Anouk; Winkels, Renate M; Mwungura, Blaise; Fedirko, Veronika; Jenab, Mazda; Illner, Anne K; Brenner, Hermann; Ordóñez-Mena, José M; Kiefte de Jong, Jessica C; Franco, Oscar H; Orfanos, Philippos; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Boffetta, Paolo; Agudo, Antonio; Peeters, Petra H; Tjønneland, Anne; Hallmans, Göran; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Park, Yikyung; Feskens, Edith J; de Groot, Lisette C; Kampman, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    It is unknown whether dietary recommendations for cancer prevention are applicable to the elderly. We analyzed WCRF/AICR recommendations in cohorts of European and U.S. adults ages 60 years and above.

  17. Advance Care Planning Documentation in Electronic Health Records: Current Challenges and Recommendations for Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamas, Daniela; Panariello, Natalie; Henrich, Natalie; Hammes, Bernard; Hanson, Laura C; Meier, Diane E; Guinn, Nancy; Corrigan, Janet; Hubber, Sean; Luetke-Stahlman, Hannah; Block, Susan

    2018-04-01

    To develop a set of clinically relevant recommendations to improve the state of advance care planning (ACP) documentation in the electronic health record (EHR). Advance care planning (ACP) is a key process that supports goal-concordant care. For preferences to be honored, clinicians must be able to reliably record, find, and use ACP documentation. However, there are no standards to guide ACP documentation in the electronic health record (EHR). We interviewed 21 key informants to understand the strengths and weaknesses of EHR documentation systems for ACP and identify best practices. We analyzed these interviews using a qualitative content analysis approach and subsequently developed a preliminary set of recommendations. These recommendations were vetted and refined in a second round of input from a national panel of content experts. Informants identified six themes regarding current inadequacies in documentation and accessibility of ACP information and opportunities for improvement. We offer a set of concise, clinically relevant recommendations, informed by expert opinion, to improve the state of ACP documentation in the EHR.

  18. Meeting UK dietary recommendations is associated with higher estimated consumer food costs: an analysis using the National Diet and Nutrition Survey and consumer expenditure data, 2008-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Nicholas Rv; Tong, Tammy Yn; Monsivais, Pablo

    2018-04-01

    To test whether diets achieving recommendations from the UK's Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) were associated with higher monetary costs in a nationally representative sample of UK adults. A cross-sectional study linking 4 d diet diaries in the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) to contemporaneous food price data from a market research firm. The monetary cost of diets was assessed in relation to whether or not they met eight food- and nutrient-based recommendations from SACN. Regression models adjusted for potential confounding factors. The primary outcome measure was individual dietary cost per day and per 2000 kcal (8368 kJ). UK. Adults (n 2045) sampled between 2008 and 2012 in the NDNS. On an isoenergetic basis, diets that met the recommendations for fruit and vegetables, oily fish, non-milk extrinsic sugars, fat, saturated fat and salt were estimated to be between 3 and 17 % more expensive. Diets meeting the recommendation for red and processed meats were 4 % less expensive, while meeting the recommendation for fibre was cost-neutral. Meeting multiple targets was also associated with higher costs; on average, diets meeting six or more SACN recommendations were estimated to be 29 % more costly than isoenergetic diets that met no recommendations. Food costs may be a population-level barrier limiting the adoption of dietary recommendations in the UK. Future research should focus on identifying systems- and individual-level strategies to enable consumers achieve dietary recommendations without increasing food costs. Such strategies may improve the uptake of healthy eating in the population.

  19. Perspectives on Current Training Guidelines for Cardiac Imaging and Recommendations for the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrighi, James A; Kilic, Sena; Haines, Philip G

    2018-04-23

    To summarize current training guidelines for cardiac imaging and provide recommendations for future guidelines. The current structure of training in cardiac imaging is largely dictated by modality-specific guidelines. While there has been debate on how to define the advanced cardiac imager for over a decade, a uniform consensus has not emerged. We report the perspectives of three key stakeholders in this debate: a senior faculty member-former fellowship program director, a cardiology fellow, and an academic junior faculty imaging expert. The observations of these stakeholders suggest that there is no consensus on the definition of advanced cardiac imaging, leading to ambiguity in training guidelines. This may have negative impact on recruitment of fellows into cardiac imaging careers. Based on the current status of training in cardiac imaging, the authors suggest that the relevant professional groups reconvene to form a consensus in defining advanced cardiac imaging, in order to guide future revisions of training guidelines.

  20. EURRECA—Framework for Aligning Micronutrient Recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veer, van 't P.; Grammatikaki, E.; Matthys, C.; Raats, M.M.; Contor, L.

    2013-01-01

    There is currently no standard approach for deriving micronutrient recommendations, and large variations exist across Europe, causing confusion among consumers, food producers, and policy makers. More aligned information could influence dietary behaviors and potentially lead to a healthier

  1. Assessment of current NRC/IE professional training program and recommendations for improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartley, H.J.; Hagerup, J.E.; Harrison, O.J.; Heyer, F.H.K.; Kaas, I.W.; Schwartz, E.G.

    1978-05-01

    This document is the General Research Corporation (GRC) report on Task III: to assess the current NRC/IE professional training program and to provide recommendations for improvement. The major objectives of this task were to determine the overall effectiveness of the NRC/IE training program and to provide recommendations for improvements where appropriate. The research involved a review of course manuals and of student critiques, observation in the classroom and person to person interviews; it also included an evaluation of the assignment of instructors to the Career Management Branch. Findings addressed refresher training, retread training and initial training--with emphasis on the last of these. Conclusions are that: (1) The curriculum provides, in general, types and levels of training needed; (2) the mix of training methods used is correct; and (3) the training management is effective. However, the training facilities do not reflect a commitment to quality instruction nor is assignment as instructor to the Career Management Branch attractive to inspectors. Recommendations presented in the report are based upon the findings; all lie within the implementing authority of Headquarters NRC/IE

  2. Current status on preparation of dose conversion factors based on 1990 ICRP recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizawa, Michio

    1996-01-01

    The current status of arrangement of dose conversion factors for operational quantities are explained on the basis of 1995 ICRP-ICRU recommendations. The dose conversion factors of photon, neutron and electron were recommended by ICRP Publ. 74. It's contents are described. The relation between new dose conversion factors and the laws in connection with protecting radiation are explained. The dose conversion factors of 1 cm-, 3 mm- and 70 μm - dose equivalent which were introduced into the laws connected therewith in Japan are accepted the same values of ICRP Publ. 51 for photon and neutron. I mentioned the points of discussing about new dose conversion factors which are expected to be recommended. The laws have to show the dose conversion factors to be used by calculation and estimation of radiation shield, etc. The limit of energy of ICRU individual dose equivalent for photon is now until 1 MeV, but the value is insufficient and necessary to 10 MeV as same as the ambient dose equivalent in due consideration of atomic energy facilities. JAERI is preparing these dose conversion factors now. (S.Y.)

  3. The Current Recommended Vitamin D Intake Guideline for Diet and Supplements During Pregnancy Is Not Adequate to Achieve Vitamin D Sufficiency for Most Pregnant Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Aghajafari

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to determine if pregnant women consumed the recommended vitamin D through diet alone or through diet and supplements, and if they achieved the current reference range vitamin D status when their reported dietary intake met the current recommendations.Data and banked blood samples collected in second trimester from a subset of 537 women in the APrON (Alberta Pregnant Outcomes and Nutrition study cohort were examined. Frozen collected plasma were assayed using LC-MS/MS (liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to determine 25(OHD2, 25(OHD3, 3-epi-25(OHD3 concentrations. Dietary data were obtained from questionnaires including a Supplement Intake Questionnaire and a 24-hour recall of the previous day's diet.Participants were 87% Caucasian; mean (SD age of 31.3 (4.3; BMI 25.8 (4.7; 58% were primiparous; 90% had education beyond high school; 80% had a family income higher than CAN $70,000/year. 25(OHD2, 25(OHD3, and 3-epi-25(OHD3 were identified in all of the 537 plasma samples;3-epi-25(OHD3 contributed 5% of the total vitamin D. The median (IQR total 25(OHD (D2+D3 was 92.7 (30.4 nmol/L and 20% of women had 25(OHD concentration 75 nmol/L in some pregnant women who are residing in higher latitudes (Calgary, 51°N in Alberta, Canada and the current vitamin D recommendations for Canadian pregnant women need to be re-evaluated.

  4. eHealth in Saudi Arabia: Current Trends, Challenges and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsulame, Khaled; Khalifa, Mohamed; Househ, Mowafa

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the current status of eHealth in Saudi Arabia from the perspective of health informatics professionals. We used a case study approach and analyzed participant data using thematic analysis. The study took place between July and August 2013. Data collection included interviews with nine senior health information professionals in Saudi Arabia. The findings describe participant views on current eHealth trends in Saudi Arabia and show differences among Saudi healthcare organizations in terms of eHealth adoption. Participants also describe the challenges relating to organizational and cultural issues, end user attitudes towards eHealth projects, and the lack of specialized human resources to implement eHealth systems. Two main recommendations made by the participants were to form a new national body for eHealth and to develop a unified plan for the implementation of Saudi eHealth initiatives.

  5. Prevention of Backover Fatalities in Highway Work Zones: A Synthesis of Current Practices and Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Fan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to synthesize current practices and procedures on the prevention of backing fatalities in highway work zones. First, general work zone safety hazards are reviewed, particularly blind areas are identified. Second, engineering controls currently in use are examined and explained to help understand what steps can be taken to prevent future backing fatalities. Third, administrative controls (including signalers, drivers, and workers-on-foot training are also discussed. Fourth, existing technology controls are reviewed for use in aiding equipment operators in identifying when pedestrian personnel are in dangerous areas around their equipment (i.e., back-up camera, radar. Fifth, recommendations are made based on the comprehensive review of the backover fatality prevention techniques in construction work zones and the conducted testing results of several commercially available systems. Recommendations on engineering and technology controls are discussed, with detailed information such as improving internal traffic control plans, and integrating technology with traffic control plans. Information and drawings are provided to illustrate how to design work zones, and the internal traffic flow diagrams are created using the integrated technology available, and site specific characteristics. The drawings represent examples of using different types of technology, in different scenarios using the proper legend, as well as using the proper general and technology notes to help explain the traffic control plan, ensuring that full comprehension is made. Recommendations on administrative controls are also given such as how to conduct safety meetings, electing safety officers, how to set regulations and guidelines for workers, and how to handle training. Training should be used as a backover fatality prevention method for pedestrian workers, flaggers, spotters, and equipment operators. Finally, a summary and discussion of future research

  6. Feedback from physical activity monitors is not compatible with current recommendations: A recalibration study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Dylan; Batterham, Alan M; Peacock, Oliver J; Western, Max J; Booso, Rahuman

    2016-10-01

    Wearable devices to self-monitor physical activity have become popular with individuals and healthcare practitioners as a route to the prevention of chronic disease. It is not currently possible to reconcile feedback from these devices with activity recommendations because the guidelines refer to the amount of activity required on top of normal lifestyle activities (e.g., 150 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous intensity activity per week over-and-above normal moderate-to-vigorous lifestyle activities). The aim of this study was to recalibrate the feedback from self-monitoring. We pooled data from four studies conducted between 2006 and 2014 in patients and volunteers from the community that included both sophisticated measures of physical activity and 10-year risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes (n=305). We determined the amount of moderate-to-vigorous intensity activity that corresponded to FAO/WHO/UNU guidance for a required PAL of 1.75 (Total Energy Expenditure/Basal Metabolic Rate). Our results show that, at the UK median PAL, total moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity will be around 735 minutes per week (~11% of waking time). We estimate that a 4% increase in moderate-to-vigorous intensity activity will achieve standardised guidance from FAO/WHO/UNU and will require ~1000 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous intensity activity per week. This study demonstrates that feedback from sophisticated wearable devices is incompatible with current physical activity recommendations. Without adjustment, people will erroneously form the view that they are exceeding recommendations by several fold. A more appropriate target from self-monitoring that accounts for normal moderate-to-vigorous lifestyle activities is ~1000 minutes per week, which represents ~15% of waking time. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Developing a Standard Definition of Whole-Grain Foods for Dietary Recommendations: Summary Report of a Multidisciplinary Expert Roundtable Discussion12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferruzzi, Mario G.; Jonnalagadda, Satya S.; Liu, Simin; Marquart, Len; McKeown, Nicola; Reicks, Marla; Riccardi, Gabriele; Seal, Chris; Slavin, Joanne; Thielecke, Frank; van der Kamp, Jan-Willem; Webb, Densie

    2014-01-01

    Although the term “whole grain” is well defined, there has been no universal standard of what constitutes a “whole-grain food,” creating challenges for researchers, the food industry, regulatory authorities, and consumers around the world. As part of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, the U.S. Dietary Guidelines Technical Advisory Committee issued a call to action to develop definitions for whole-grain foods that could be universally accepted and applied to dietary recommendations and planning. The Committee’s call to action, and the lack of a global whole-grain food definition, was the impetus for the Whole Grain Roundtable held 3–5 December 2012 in Chicago, Illinois. The objective was to develop a whole-grain food definition that is consistent with the quartet of needs of science, food product formulation, consumer behavior, and label education. The roundtable’s expert panel represented a broad range of expertise from the United States and Europe, including epidemiology and dietary intervention researchers, consumer educators, government policy makers, and food and nutrition scientists from academia and the grain food industry. Taking into account the totality, quality, and consistency of available scientific evidence, the expert panel recommended that 8 g of whole grain/30 g serving (27 g/100 g), without a fiber requirement, be considered a minimum content of whole grains that is nutritionally meaningful and that a food providing at least 8 g of whole grains/30-g serving be defined as a whole-grain food. Having an established whole-grain food definition will encourage manufacturers to produce foods with meaningful amounts of whole grain, allow consistent product labeling and messaging, and empower consumers to readily identify whole-grain foods and achieve whole-grain dietary recommendations. PMID:24618757

  8. Adult Nutrient Intakes from Current National Dietary Surveys of European Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly L. Rippin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization (WHO encourages countries to undertake national dietary survey (NDS but implementation and reporting is inconsistent. This paper provides an up-to-date review of adult macro and micronutrient intakes in European populations as reported by NDS. It uses WHO Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNIs to assess intake adequacy and highlight areas of concern. NDS information was gathered primarily by internet searches and contacting survey authors and nutrition experts. Survey characteristics and adult intakes by gender/age group were extracted for selected nutrients and weighted means calculated by region. Of the 53 WHO Europe countries, over a third (n = 19, mainly Central & Eastern European countries (CEEC, had no identifiable NDS. Energy and nutrient intakes were extracted for 21 (40% countries but differences in age group, methodology, under-reporting and nutrient composition databases hindered inter-country comparisons. No country met more than 39% WHO RNIs in all age/gender groups; macronutrient RNI achievement was poorer than micronutrient. Overall RNI attainment was slightly worse in CEEC and lower in women and female elderly. Only 40% countries provided adult energy and nutrient intakes. The main gaps lie in CEEC, where unknown nutrient deficiencies may occur. WHO RNI attainment was universally poor for macronutrients, especially for women, the female elderly and CEEC. All countries could be encouraged to report a uniform nutrient set and sub-analyses of nationally representative nutrient intakes.

  9. Fatty acid intakes of children and adolescents are not in line with the dietary intake recommendations for future cardiovascular health: a systematic review of dietary intake data from thirty countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harika, Rajwinder K; Cosgrove, Maeve C; Osendarp, Saskia J M; Verhoef, Petra; Zock, Peter L

    2011-08-01

    Fatty acid composition of the diet may influence cardiovascular risk from early childhood onwards. The objective of the present study was to perform a systematic review of dietary fat and fatty acid intakes in children and adolescents from different countries around the world and compare these with the population nutrient intake goals for prevention of chronic diseases as defined by the WHO (2003). Data on fat and fatty acid intake were mainly collected from national dietary surveys and from population studies all published during or after 1995. These were identified by searching PubMed, and through nutritionists at local Unilever offices in different countries. Fatty acid intake data from thirty countries mainly from developed countries were included. In twenty-eight of the thirty countries, mean SFA intakes were higher than the recommended maximum of 10 % energy, whereas in twenty-one out of thirty countries mean PUFA intakes were below recommended (6-10 % energy). More and better intake data are needed, in particular for developing regions of the world, and future research should determine the extent to which improvement of dietary fatty acid intake in childhood translates into lower CHD risk in later life. Despite these limitations, the available data clearly indicate that in the majority of the countries providing data on fatty acid intake, less than half of the children and adolescents meet the SFA and PUFA intake goals that are recommended for the prevention of chronic diseases.

  10. Contrast media for fluoroscopic examinations of the GI and GU tracts: current challenges and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federle, Michael P; Jaffe, Tracy A; Davis, Peter L; Al-Hawary, Mahmoud M; Levine, Marc S

    2017-01-01

    One of the significant challenges facing radiologists who perform and interpret studies of the gastrointestinal and genitourinary systems have been periodic interruptions in the availability of barium and iodinated contrast media specially formulated for gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) studies. These interruptions are due to the US Food and Drug Administration's recent requirement for more stringent documentation of the safety and efficacy of contrast media and the consolidation among contrast manufacturers. Therefore, radiologists may be required to recommend an alternative means of evaluation, such as computed tomography, magnetic resonance, or endoscopy, or they may need to substitute a different formulation of a contrast agent not specifically developed for GI or GU use, for example the utilization of an agent designed and marketed for vascular use. This article reviews the current status of fluoroscopic contrast media, and provides suggestions and recommendations for the optimal and alternative use of contrast media formulations.

  11. Panel: Current Status of Knowledge and Recommendations for Further Related Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldarola, L.; Costa, J.; Fauske, Hans K.; Jakeman, D.; Mizuta, H.; Wright, R.W.; Stadie, K.B.

    1976-01-01

    This Panel consists of two parts, in the first part the participants attempt to summarise their views on the current status and knowledge of SFI and its importance for the LMFBR safety case and in the second part they try to agree on recommendations for future actions. The first question tackled was: what progress has been made since the Ispra meeting which was a little over two years ago - in answering the question: 'what role does SFI play in LMFBR safety'? The second question approached was: 'Is it possible to identify SFI areas which are not yet covered by the present research and development programme? Finally 4 recommendations were proposed: 1. to have another meeting of the same nature as this one and the previous ones in two years' time; 2. to create a group dealing with the fundamental science with a view to further the safety of the LMFBR. This group would meet more regularly and would not require, and that is the important thing, approval from-CSNI every time it meets; 3. to discontinue the group on calculational models; 4. to publish at least one to two newsletters between this SFI meeting and the next SFI meeting in two years

  12. Cardiorespiratory fitness and adiposity in breast cancer survivors: is meeting current physical activity recommendations really enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Ramos, Javier; Alvarez-Bustos, Alejandro; Cantos, Blanca; Alejo, Lidia B; Pagola, Itziar; Soria, Ana; Maximiano, Constanza; Fiuza-Luces, Carmen; Soares-Miranda, Luisa; Lucia, Alejandro; Ruiz-Casado, Ana

    2018-02-05

    Breast cancer (BC) survivors are becoming increasingly predisposed to cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. Low cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity (PA) levels, as well as high values of adiposity indices, contribute to CVD risk. We evaluated adiposity, cardiorespiratory profile, and PA levels in two independent cohorts of BC survivors. Data were collected from two groups (99% women) from different areas of Madrid (Spain): group 1, n = 110, age 51.4 ± 9.7 years, median time from diagnosis 365 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 354-401), and group 2, n = 93, age 54.7 ± 8.9 years, 1714 days (95% CI, 1502-1938). We estimated peak oxygen uptake (VO 2peak ) and measured body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip index, and accelerometry-determined PA. Both groups had values of BMI in the overweight range (25.3 ± 4.3 and 27.1 ± 5.1 kg/m 2 , p = 0.003). Estimated VO 2peak levels were lower in group 2 than in group 1 (28.1 ± 9.1 and 23.7 ± 8.8 ml/kg/min, p < 0.001), although levels in both groups were low. Yet, the majority of participants in both groups (81 and 88%, p = 0.234) met international PA recommendations (235 ± 196 and 351 ± 173 min/week of moderate-vigorous PA, p < 0.001). Both groups had very low levels of vigorous PA. These results were essentially independent of type of treatment (anthracycline/radiotherapy). We found a poor cardiorespiratory profile in two independent BC cohorts that differed in median time from diagnosis (as well in socioeconomic status), supporting the notion that implementation of PA (possibly focusing on vigorous PA) and dietary intervention is urgently needed in this patient population.

  13. Newborn screening for proximal urea cycle disorders: Current evidence supporting recommendations for newborn screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, J Lawrence; Brody, Linnea L; Pino, Gisele; Rinaldo, Piero

    2018-04-20

    Current newborn screening (NBS) for urea cycle disorders (UCD) is incomplete as only distal UCDs are included in most NBS programs by measuring elevated amino acid concentrations. NBS for the proximal UCDs involves the detection in NBS spots of low citrulline values, a finding which is often overlooked because it is considered to be inadequate. We retrospectively analyzed NBS blood spots from known UCD patients comparing the utility of the Region 4 Stork (R4S) interpretive tools to conventional cutoff based interpretation. This study shows the utility of R4S tools in detecting all UCDs, and provides evidence to support the nomination to add proximal UCDs to the recommended uniform screening panel. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Business intelligence and data warehouse programs in higher education institutions: current status and recommendations for improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Marinova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to explore the current situation and the main challenges in existing Business Intelligence (BI and Data Warehouse (DW curricula. On the base of this research, certain recommendations for their improvement are made. At the same time, the paper gives concrete guidelines for the development of a clear and comprehensive graduate profile with knowledge, skills and social competence in the field of BI and DW. This is particularly beneficial for universities and other higher education institutions, that seek to offer courses with high quality content and tendencies, adequate to the latest education, in the concerned area. The paper is written within the Erasmus plus KA2 project “Developing the innovative methodology of teaching Business Informatics” (DIMBI, 2015-1-PL01-KA203-0016636.

  15. Current recommendations for the study of carotid stenosis by doppler ultrasound and other imaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Matamoros, Angelica

    2012-01-01

    Ischemic cerebrovascular disease has been one of the most frequent causes of death from chronic disease, as well as cause of long-term disabilities, in both the United States, and in Latin American countries during recent years. It is therefore, important to know about it. An updated review of international recommendations to the Costa Rican health system is performed for carotid imaging study in patients at risk of accidents and ischemic cerebrovascular disease; with special emphasis on carotid Doppler ultrasonography, due to its wide availability in the medical field Costa Rican. Furthermore, certain relevant concepts of other imaging techniques currently available are listed to determine the appropriate choice of each method according to the individual patient's condition, such as conventional angiography and tomographic angiography [es

  16. Feeding practices of low-income mothers: how do they compare to current recommendations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Thomas G; Hughes, Sheryl O; Goodell, L Suzanne; Johnson, Susan L; Duran, J Andrea Jaramillo; Williams, Kimberly; Beck, Ashley D; Frankel, Leslie A

    2015-03-07

    Despite a growing consensus on the feeding practices associated with healthy eating patterns, few observational studies of maternal feeding practices with young children have been conducted, especially in low-income populations. The aim of this study was to provide such data on a low income sample to determine the degree to which observed maternal feeding practices compare with current recommendations. Eighty low-income mothers and their preschool children were videotaped at dinner in their homes. Mothers were chosen from a larger study to create a 2 X 2 X 2 design: maternal ethnicity (African American vs. Latina) by child gender by child weight status (healthy weight vs. overweight/obese). Observers coded videotapes for a range of maternal feeding strategies and other behaviors. Many mothers spent considerable time encouraging eating--often in spite of the child's insistence that he or she was finished. Mothers talked little about food characteristics, rarely referred to feelings of hunger and fullness, and made more attempts to enforce table manners than to teach eating skills. Latina mothers showed higher levels of teaching eating skills and encouraging their children to eat; African American mothers showed higher levels of enforcing table manners and getting children to clear their plates. Mothers of boys used more unelaborated commands and less questions/suggestions than mothers of girls. Finally, compared to mothers of overweight/obese children, mothers of healthy weight children showed higher levels of encouraging eating and lower levels of discouraging eating. Most of the mothers in this study did not engage in feeding practices that are consistent with current recommendations. They did this, despite the fact that they knew they were being observed. These results should be used to inform future research about the motivations behind mothers' feeding practices and the development of interventions by helping identify areas in greatest need of change.

  17. Fever and Pain Management in Childhood: Healthcare Providers’ and Parents’ Adherence to Current Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genny Raffaeli

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the adherence of healthcare providers and parents to the current recommendations concerning fever and pain management, randomized samples of 500 healthcare providers caring for children and 500 families were asked to complete an anonymous questionnaire. The 378 health care providers (HCPs responding to the survey (75.6% included 144 primary care pediatricians (38.1%, 98 hospital pediatricians (25.9%, 62 pediatric residents (16.4%, and 71 pediatric nurses (19.6%; the 464 responding parents (92.8% included 175 whose youngest (or only child was ≤5 years old (37.7%, 175 whose youngest (or only child was aged 6–10 years (37.7%, and 114 whose youngest (or only child was aged 11–14 years (24.6%. There were gaps in the knowledge of both healthcare providers and parents. Global adherence to the guidelines was lower among the pediatric nurses than the other healthcare providers (odds ratio 0.875; 95% confidence interval 0.795–0.964. Among the parents, those of children aged 6–10 and 11–14 years old, those who were older, and those without a degree answered the questions correctly significantly less frequently than the others. These findings suggest that there is an urgent need to improve the dissemination of the current recommendations concerning fever and pain management among healthcare providers and parents in order to avoid mistaken and sometimes risky attitudes, common therapeutic errors, and the unnecessary overloading of emergency department resources. Pediatric nurses and parents with older children, those who are older, and those with a lower educational level should be the priority targets of educational programmes.

  18. Prehospital Care for the Adult and Pediatric Seizure Patient: Current Evidence Based Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric C. Silverman

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We sought to develop evidence-based recommendations for the prehospital evaluation and treatment of adult and pediatric patients with a seizure and to compare these recommendations against the current protocol used by the 33 emergency medical services (EMS agencies in California. Methods: We performed a review of the evidence in the prehospital treatment of patients with a seizure, and then compared the seizure protocols of each of the 33 EMS agencies for consistency with these recommendations. We analyzed the type and route of medication administered, number of additional rescue doses permitted, and requirements for glucose testing prior to medication. The treatment for eclampsia and seizures in pediatric patients were analyzed separately. Results: Protocols across EMS Agencies in California varied widely. We identified multiple drugs, dosages, routes of administration, re-dosing instructions, and requirement for blood glucose testing prior to medication delivery. Blood glucose testing prior to benzodiazepine administration is required by 61% (20/33 of agencies for adult patients and 76% (25/33 for pediatric patients. All agencies have protocols for giving intramuscular benzodiazepines and 76% (25/33 have protocols for intranasal benzodiazepines. Intramuscular midazolam dosages ranged from 2 to 10 mg per single adult dose, 2 to 8 mg per single pediatric dose, and 0.1 to 0.2 mg/kg as a weight-based dose. Intranasal midazolam dosages ranged from 2 to 10 mg per single adult or pediatric dose, and 0.1 to 0.2 mg/kg as a weight-based dose. Intravenous/intrasosseous midazolam dosages ranged from 1 to 6 mg per single adult dose, 1 to 5 mg per single pediatric dose, and 0.05 to 0.1 mg/kg as a weight-based dose. Eclampsia is specifically addressed by 85% (28/33 of agencies. Forty-two percent (14/33 have a protocol for administering magnesium sulfate, with intravenous dosages ranging from 2 to 6 mg, and 58% (19/33 allow benzodiazepines to be

  19. Current limitations and recommendations to improve testing for the environmental assessment of endocrine active substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coady, Katherine K.; Biever, Ronald C.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Gross, Melanie; Guiney, Patrick D.; Holbech, Henrik; Karouna-Renier, Natalie K.; Katsiadaki, Ioanna; Krueger, Hank; Levine, Steven L.; Maack, Gerd; Williams, Mike; Wolf, Jeffrey C.; Ankley, Gerald T.

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, existing regulatory frameworks and test systems for assessing potential endocrine active chemicals are described, and associated challenges are discussed, along with proposed approaches to address these challenges. Regulatory frameworks vary somewhat across geographies, but all basically evaluate whether a chemical possesses endocrine activity and whether this activity can result in adverse outcomes either to humans or to the environment. Current test systems include in silico, in vitro, and in vivo techniques focused on detecting potential endocrine activity, and in vivo tests that collect apical data to detect possible adverse effects. These test systems are currently designed to robustly assess endocrine activity and/or adverse effects in the estrogen, androgen, and thyroid hormone signaling pathways; however, there are some limitations of current test systems for evaluating endocrine hazard and risk. These limitations include a lack of certainty regarding: 1) adequately sensitive species and life stages; 2) mechanistic endpoints that are diagnostic for endocrine pathways of concern; and 3) the linkage between mechanistic responses and apical, adverse outcomes. Furthermore, some existing test methods are resource intensive with regard to time, cost, and use of animals. However, based on recent experiences, there are opportunities to improve approaches to and guidance for existing test methods and to reduce uncertainty. For example, in vitro high-throughput screening could be used to prioritize chemicals for testing and provide insights as to the most appropriate assays for characterizing hazard and risk. Other recommendations include adding endpoints for elucidating connections between mechanistic effects and adverse outcomes, identifying potentially sensitive taxa for which test methods currently do not exist, and addressing key endocrine pathways of possible concern in addition to those associated with estrogen, androgen, and thyroid

  20. Hepatitis C in Pregnancy: Review of Current Knowledge and Updated Recommendations for Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Charlotte M; Hughes, Brenna L; Rhee, Eleanor H J; Kuller, Jeffrey A

    2017-06-01

    An estimated 1% to 2.5% of pregnant women in the United States are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), which carries approximately a 6% risk of mother-to-infant transmission. The aims of this article are to review the current evidence on HCV in pregnancy and to provide updated recommendations for management. Original research articles, review articles, and guidelines on HCV in general and specifically in pregnancy were reviewed, as were drug safety profiles from the Food and Drug Administration. Pregnancy appears to have a beneficial effect on the course of maternal chronic HCV infection. However, it is associated with an increased risk of adverse fetal outcomes, including fetal growth restriction and low birth weight, and can be transmitted to the infant in utero or during the peripartum period. No perinatal intervention has been shown to reduce the risk of vertical transmission, but some may increase this risk. To date, no treatment regimens for HCV have been approved for use in pregnancy, but the new ribavirin-free, direct-acting antiviral regimens are being used with high efficacy outside pregnancy. Hepatitis C virus infection in pregnancy generally does not adversely affect maternal well-being but is associated with adverse effects on the fetus because of pregnancy complications and vertical transmission. There are currently no approved treatment regimens for HCV in pregnancy; this should be an active area of research in obstetrics.

  1. Dental Student Academic Integrity in U.S. Dental Schools: Current Status and Recommendations for Enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Bruce S; Knight, G William; Graham, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Cheating incidents in 2006-07 led U.S. dental schools to heighten their efforts to enhance the environment of academic integrity in their institutions. The aims of this study were to document the measures being used by U.S. dental schools to discourage student cheating, determine the current incidence of reported cheating, and make recommendations for enhancing a culture of integrity in dental education. In late 2014-early 2015, an online survey was distributed to academic deans of all 61 accredited U.S. dental schools that had four classes of dental students enrolled; 50 (82%) responded. Among measures used, 98% of respondents reported having policy statements regarding student academic integrity, 92% had an Honor Code, 96% provided student orientation to integrity policies, and most used proctoring of final exams (91%) and tests (93%). Regarding disciplinary processes, 27% reported their faculty members only rarely reported suspected cheating (though required in 76% of the schools), and 40% disseminated anonymous results of disciplinary hearings. A smaller number of schools (n=36) responded to the question about student cheating than to other questions; those results suggested that reported cheating had increased almost threefold since 1998. The authors recommend that schools add cheating case scenarios to professional ethics curricula; disseminate outcomes of cheating enforcement actions; have students sign a statement attesting to compliance with academic integrity policies at every testing activity; add curricular content on correct writing techniques to avoid plagiarism; require faculty to distribute retired test items; acquire examination-authoring software programs to enable faculty to generate new multiple-choice items and different versions of the same multiple-choice tests; avoid take-home exams when assessing independent student knowledge; and utilize student assessment methods directly relevant to clinical practice.

  2. Hepatitis B vaccination of premature infants: a reassessment of current recommendations for delayed immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losonsky, G A; Wasserman, S S; Stephens, I; Mahoney, F; Armstrong, P; Gumpper, K; Dulkerian, S; West, D J; Gewolb, I H

    1999-02-01

    Current American Academy of Pediatrics and United States Public Health Service Immunization Practices Advisory Committee recommendations for hepatitis B immunization in premature infants weighing birth born to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBSAg)-negative mothers are to delay the initiation of vaccination until such infants reach 2 kg or until 2 months of age. This proposal to delay vaccination at birth in these low-risk infants was based on limited studies not conducted in the United States. We sought to reassess current recommendations to delay administration of hepatitis B vaccine in low-risk premature infants by determining the immunogenicity of early hepatitis B vaccination in a US population and identifying variables associated with poor immunogenicity. A total of 148 infants birth and stratified to three birth weight groups: 1500 g. Recombinant hepatitis B vaccine was administered within the first week of life, at 1 to 2 months of age, and at 6 to 7 months of age. Serum obtained at birth and after the second and third doses of vaccine was tested for antibody to HBSAg. Variables associated with poor response were sought prospectively by collecting demographic and clinical data. A total of 118 subjects (83%) completed the study. Postsecond dose sera were available for 117 infants and postthird dose sera were available for 112 infants. The seroprotection rate (attaining >/=10 mIU/mL HBS antibody) after two doses was low (25%) regardless of birth weight; infants weighing birth had the poorest response (11%). The seroprotection response rate after three doses of vaccine increased with birth weight; infants weighing birth (groups 1 and 2) had lower rates of response (52% and 68%, respectively) than did infants weighing >1500 g at birth (group 3; 84% response rate). The seroprotection response rate of group 3 infants after three doses of vaccine, although low, could not be differentiated from the response rates reported for full-term infants using 95% confidence

  3. Do Nutrient-Based Front-of-Pack Labelling Schemes Support or Undermine Food-Based Dietary Guideline Recommendations? Lessons from the Australian Health Star Rating System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Mark A; Dickie, Sarah; Woods, Julie L

    2018-01-05

    Food-based Dietary Guidelines (FBDGs) promote healthy dietary patterns. Nutrient-based Front-of-Pack Labelling (NBFOPL) schemes rate the 'healthiness' of individual foods. This study aimed to investigate whether the Australian Health Star Rating (HSR) system aligns with the Australian Dietary Guidelines (ADGs). The Mintel Global New Products Database was searched for every new food product displaying a HSR entering the Australian marketplace from 27 June 2014 (HSR system endorsement) until 30 June 2017. Foods were categorised as either a five food group (FFG) food or 'discretionary' food in accordance with ADG recommendations. Ten percent (1269/12,108) of new food products displayed a HSR, of which 57% were FFG foods. The median number of 'health' stars displayed on discretionary foods (2.5; range: 0.5-5) was significantly lower ( p stars across the two food categories was observed, with 56.7% of discretionary foods displaying ≥2.5 stars. The HSR system is undermining the ADG recommendations through facilitating the marketing of discretionary foods. Adjusting the HSR's algorithm might correct certain technical flaws. However, supporting the ADGs requires reform of the HSR's design to demarcate the food source (FFG versus discretionary food) of a nutrient.

  4. Adherence to the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations in a Nordic population with metabolic syndrome: high salt consumption and low dietary fibre intake (The SYSDIET study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svandis Erna Jonsdottir

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Nordic countries collaborate in setting recommendations for intake of nutrients by publishing the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR. Studies exploring how well the Nordic population adheres to the NNR are limited and none are available for the metabolic syndrome (MetS subgroup. Individuals with MetS are a large part of the adult Nordic population and their diet's nutritional quality is of great importance as it can affect the progression of MetS. Objective: To evaluate nutritional intake in a cohort of Nordic adults with MetS or MetS risk factors and their adherence to the NNR. Design: A multi-centre study was carried out in six centres in four Nordic countries (SYSDIET CoE. Participants (n=175 were 30–65 years of age, with BMI 27–38 kg/m2 and had at least two criteria for MetS. The NNR was used to evaluate the baseline nutrient intake calculated from the participants’ 4-day food diaries using national nutrient databases. Results: Less than 20% of participants consumed ≤10 E% from saturated fat as recommended in the NNR. Recommended intake (RI of polyunsaturated fat was met by approximately one-third of participants. Only 20% of men and 26% of women met the RI of dietary fibre. Intake below the defined lower intake level of 2.5 µg/day for vitamin D was observed in nearly 20% of participants. The daily median intake of salt was 8.8 g for men and 6.7 g for women. Conclusion: Dietary quality of this Nordic population with Mets or MetS risk factors is unsatisfactory and characterised by high intakes of SFA and sodium and low intakes of PUFA and dietary fibre. Vitamin D intake was below RI level in a large part of the population. Authorities in the Nordic countries are encouraged to develop intervention programmes for high-risk groups.

  5. Adherence to the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations in a Nordic population with metabolic syndrome: high salt consumption and low dietary fibre intake (The SYSDIET study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsdottir, Svandis Erna; Brader, Lea; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Kally Magnusdottir, Ola; Schwab, Ursula; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Risérus, Ulf; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Cloetens, Lieselotte; Helgegren, Hannah; Johansson-Persson, Anna; Hukkanen, Janne; Poutanen, Kaisa; Uusitupa, Matti; Hermansen, Kjeld; Thorsdottir, Inga

    2013-12-16

    The Nordic countries collaborate in setting recommendations for intake of nutrients by publishing the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR). Studies exploring how well the Nordic population adheres to the NNR are limited and none are available for the metabolic syndrome (MetS) subgroup. Individuals with MetS are a large part of the adult Nordic population and their diet's nutritional quality is of great importance as it can affect the progression of MetS. To evaluate nutritional intake in a cohort of Nordic adults with MetS or MetS risk factors and their adherence to the NNR. A multi-centre study was carried out in six centres in four Nordic countries (SYSDIET CoE). Participants (n=175) were 30-65 years of age, with BMI 27-38 kg/m(2) and had at least two criteria for MetS. The NNR was used to evaluate the baseline nutrient intake calculated from the participants' 4-day food diaries using national nutrient databases. Less than 20% of participants consumed ≤10 E% from saturated fat as recommended in the NNR. Recommended intake (RI) of polyunsaturated fat was met by approximately one-third of participants. Only 20% of men and 26% of women met the RI of dietary fibre. Intake below the defined lower intake level of 2.5 µg/day for vitamin D was observed in nearly 20% of participants. The daily median intake of salt was 8.8 g for men and 6.7 g for women. Dietary quality of this Nordic population with Mets or MetS risk factors is unsatisfactory and characterised by high intakes of SFA and sodium and low intakes of PUFA and dietary fibre. Vitamin D intake was below RI level in a large part of the population. Authorities in the Nordic countries are encouraged to develop intervention programmes for high-risk groups.

  6. Human-carnivore conflict in China: a review of current approaches with recommendations for improved management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Melissa; Xie, Yan; Kang, Aili; Rao, Madhu; Goodrich, John; Liu, Tong; Berger, Joshua

    2012-06-01

    Human-wildlife conflict (HWC) is a conservation concern that increasingly threatens the continued existence of some of the world's most endangered species. With an increase in human population, urban sprawl and subsequent encroachment on wild land, human and wildlife interaction has become inevitable. In the majority of cases, this interaction results in a negative outcome for humans, wildlife or both. In China, these key elements, along with a decrease in wild prey species, have resulted in the expansion of HWC encounters, and the need for alleviating this conflict has become a conservation priority. Loss of human life, livestock and/or crops is most often the catalysts that fuel HWC. Techniques to alleviate conflict around the world have included preventative measures and mitigation techniques, such as financial compensation and other incentive programs. Both types of measures have had variable success. We review the current status of human-carnivore conflict management in China, and, drawing lessons from around the globe, we make recommendations for improving conservation management in China. For example, an increase in law enforcement in nature reserves is vital to reducing human disturbance in prime carnivore habitat, thereby reducing conflict encounters. Also, modifications to current wildlife compensation programs, so that they are linked with preventative measures, will ensure that moral hazards are avoided. Furthermore, investigating the potential for a community self-financed insurance scheme to fund compensation and increasing efforts to restore wild prey populations will improve the outcome for wildlife conservation. Ultimately, HWC management in China will greatly benefit from an integrative approach. © 2012 ISZS, Blackwell Publishing and IOZ/CAS.

  7. Construct validity-Current issues and recommendations for future hand hygiene research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neo, Jun Rong Jeffrey

    2017-05-01

    Health care-associated infection is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Hand hygiene is widely regarded as an effective prevention strategy. Often, hand hygiene research is designed and conducted by health care practitioners who may lack formal training in research methods, particularly in the area of social science. In a research context, a construct is a concept that can be measured or observed in some way. A construct can be directly or indirectly measured. For example, height can be directly measured by centimeters, whereas depression can be indirectly measured by a scale of 20 items. Every construct needs to be operationalized by measure(s) to make it a variable. Hence, construct validity refers to the degree of fit between the construct of interest and its operational measure. However, issues with construct validity often weaken the translation from construct to measure(s). This article will (1) describe the common threats to construct validity pertaining to hand hygiene research, (2) identify practical limitations in current research design, and (3) provide recommendations to improve construct validity in future hand hygiene research. By understanding how construct validity may affect hand hygiene research design, there is great potential to improve the validity of future hand hygiene research findings. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Current Perspectives on Physical Activity and Exercise Recommendations for Children and Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Sudha M.; Pescatello, Linda S.

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that childhood obesity is increasing in children who are developing typically as well as in children with developmental disabilities such as autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Impairments specific to autism as well as general environmental factors could lead to an imbalance between the intake and expenditure of energy, leading to obesity. In this article, we describe the mechanisms by which autism-specific impairments contribute to obesity. The evidence on exercise interventions to improve physical fitness, address obesity, and reduce autism-specific impairments in children and adolescents with ASDs is discussed. Limited evidence is currently available for exercise interventions in individuals with ASDs. Therefore, literature on other pediatric developmental disabilities and children who are developing typically was reviewed to provide recommendations for clinicians to assess physical activity levels, to promote physical fitness, and to reduce obesity in children and adolescents with ASDs. There is a clear need for further systematic research to develop sensitive assessment tools and holistic multisystem and multifactorial obesity interventions that accommodate the social communication, motor, and behavioral impairments of individuals with ASDs. PMID:24525861

  9. Recommended Dietary Pattern to Achieve Adherence to the American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology (AHA/ACC) Guidelines: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Horn, Linda; Carson, Jo Ann S; Appel, Lawrence J; Burke, Lora E; Economos, Christina; Karmally, Wahida; Lancaster, Kristie; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Johnson, Rachel K; Thomas, Randal J; Vos, Miriam; Wylie-Rosett, Judith; Kris-Etherton, Penny

    2016-11-29

    In 2013, the American Heart Association and American College of Cardiology published the "Guideline on Lifestyle Management to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk," which was based on a systematic review originally initiated by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. The guideline supports the American Heart Association's 2020 Strategic Impact Goals for cardiovascular health promotion and disease reduction by providing more specific details for adopting evidence-based diet and lifestyle behaviors to achieve those goals. In addition, the 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans issued updated evidence relevant to reducing cardiovascular risk and provided additional recommendations for adopting healthy diet and lifestyle approaches. This scientific statement, intended for healthcare providers, summarizes relevant scientific and translational evidence and offers practical tips, tools, and dietary approaches to help patients/clients adapt these guidelines according to their sociocultural, economic, and taste preferences. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. What are the minimum requirements for ketogenic diet services in resource-limited regions? Recommendations from the International League Against Epilepsy Task Force for Dietary Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossoff, Eric H; Al-Macki, Nabil; Cervenka, Mackenzie C; Kim, Heung D; Liao, Jianxiang; Megaw, Katherine; Nathan, Janak K; Raimann, Ximena; Rivera, Rocio; Wiemer-Kruel, Adelheid; Williams, Emma; Zupec-Kania, Beth A

    2015-09-01

    Despite the increasing use of dietary therapies for children and adults with refractory epilepsy, the availability of these treatments in developing countries with limited resources remains suboptimal. One possible contributory factor may be the costs. There is often reported a significant perceived need for a large ketogenic diet team, supplements, laboratory studies, and follow-up visits to provide this treatment. The 2009 Epilepsia Consensus Statement described ideal requirements for a ketogenic diet center, but in some situations this is not feasible. As a result, the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) Task Force on Dietary Therapy was asked to convene and provide practical, cost-effective recommendations for new ketogenic diet centers in resource-limited regions of the world. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International League Against Epilepsy.

  11. Cancer Control in Central and Eastern Europe: Current Situation and Recommendations for Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrdoljak, Eduard; Bodoky, Gyorgy; Jassem, Jacek; Popescu, Razvan A; Mardiak, Jozef; Pirker, Robert; Čufer, Tanja; Bešlija, Semir; Eniu, Alexandru; Todorović, Vladimir; Kubáčková, Kateřina; Kurteva, Galia; Tomašević, Zorica; Sallaku, Agim; Smichkoska, Snezhana; Bajić, Žarko; Šikić, Branimir I

    2016-10-01

    : The incidence of many cancers is higher in Western European (WE) countries, but mortality is frequently higher in Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries. A panel of oncology leaders from CEE countries participating in the South Eastern European Research Oncology Group (SEEROG) was formed in 2015, aiming to analyze the current status and trends of oncology care in CEE and to propose recommendations leading to improved care and outcomes. The SEEROG panel, meeting during the 11th Central European Oncology Congress, proposed the following: (a) national cancer control plans (NCCPs) required in all CEE countries, defining priorities in cancer care, including finance allocation considering limited health care budgets; (b) national cancer registries, describing in detail epidemiological trends; (c) efforts to strengthen comprehensive cancer centers; (d) that multidisciplinary care should be mandated by the NCCPs; (e) that smaller hospitals should be connected to multidisciplinary tumor boards via the Internet, providing access to specialized expertise; (f) nationwide primary prevention programs targeting smoking, obesity, and alcohol consumption and centrally evaluated secondary prevention programs for cervical, colorectal, and breast cancers; (g) prioritize education for all involved in cancer care, including oncology nurses, general practitioners, and palliative care providers; (h) establish outpatient care in day hospitals to reduce costs associated with the current inpatient model of care in CEE countries and to improve patients' quality of life; (i) long-term pharmacoeconomic evaluations of new therapies in CEE countries; (j) increase national oncology budgets in view of the higher mortality rates in CEE compared with WE countries; and (k) CEE countries urgently need help from the European Union to increase and monitor overall investment in cancer care. Significant differences in cancer incidence and mortality have been observed between European countries

  12. Current Evidence on the Association of Dietary Patterns and Bone Health: A Scoping Review123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movassagh, Elham Z

    2017-01-01

    Nutrition is an important modifiable factor that affects bone health. Diet is a complex mixture of nutrients and foods that correlate or interact with each other. Dietary pattern approaches take into account contributions from various aspects of diet. Findings from dietary pattern studies could complement those from single-nutrient and food studies on bone health. In this study we aimed to conduct a scoping review of the literature that assessed the impact of dietary patterns (derived with the use of both a priori and data-driven approaches) on bone outcomes, including bone mineral status, bone biomarkers, osteoporosis, and fracture risk. We retrieved 49 human studies up to June 2016 from the PubMed, Embase, and CINAHL databases. Most of these studies used a data-driven method, especially factor analysis, to derive dietary patterns. Several studies examined adherence to a variety of the a priori dietary indexes, including the Mediterranean diet score, the Healthy Eating Index (HEI), and the Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI). The bone mineral density (BMD) diet score was developed to measure adherence to a dietary pattern beneficial to bone mineral density. Findings revealed a beneficial impact of higher adherence to a “healthy” dietary pattern derived using a data-driven method, the Mediterranean diet, HEI, AHEI, Dietary Diversity Score, Diet Quality Index–International, BMD Diet Score, Healthy Diet Indicator, and Korean Diet Score, on bone. In contrast, the “Western” dietary pattern and those featuring some aspects of an unhealthy diet were associated inversely with bone health. In both a priori and data-driven dietary pattern studies, a dietary pattern that emphasized the intake of fruit, vegetables, whole grains, poultry and fish, nuts and legumes, and low-fat dairy products and de-emphasized the intake of soft drinks, fried foods, meat and processed products, sweets and desserts, and refined grains showed a beneficial impact on bone health

  13. Sedentary behaviour and physical activity in South Asian women: time to review current recommendations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waidyatilaka, Indu; Lanerolle, Pulani; Wickremasinghe, Rajitha; Atukorala, Sunethra; Somasundaram, Noel; de Silva, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Our aims were to describe activity and sedentary behaviours in urban Asian women, with dysglycaemia (diagnosed at recruitment), and without dysglycaemia and examine the relative contribution of these parameters to their glycaemic status. 2800 urban women (30-45 years) were selected by random cluster sampling and screened for dysglycaemia for a final sample of 272 newly diagnosed, drug naive dysglycaemic and 345 normoglycaemic women. Physical activity and sedentary behaviours were assessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Demographic data, diet and anthropometry were recorded. Logistic regression analysis assessed contribution of all parameters to dysglycaemia and exposure attributable fractions were calculated. The mean energy expenditure on walking (2648.5±1023.7 MET-min/week) and on moderate and vigorous physical activity (4342.3±1768.1 MET-min/week) for normoglycemic women and dysglycaemic women (walking;1046.4±728.4 MET-min/week, moderate and vigorous physical activity; 1086.7±1184.4 MET-min/week) was above the recommended amount of physical activity per week. 94.3% of women spent >1000 MET-minutes/week on activity. Mean sitting and TV time for normoglycaemic and dysglycaemic women were 154.3±62.8, 38.4±31.9, 312.6±116.7 and 140.2±56.5 minutes per day respectively. Physical activity and sedentary behaviour contributed to dysglycaemia after adjustment for family history, diet, systolic blood pressure and Body Mass Index. Exposure attributable fractions for dysglycaemia were; lower physical activity: 78%, higher waist circumference: 94%, and TV viewing time: 85%. Urban South Asian women are at risk of dysglycaemia at lower levels of sedentary behaviour and greater physical activity than western populations, indicating the need for re-visiting current physical activity guidelines for South Asians.

  14. Sedentary behaviour and physical activity in South Asian women: time to review current recommendations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indu Waidyatilaka

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Our aims were to describe activity and sedentary behaviours in urban Asian women, with dysglycaemia (diagnosed at recruitment, and without dysglycaemia and examine the relative contribution of these parameters to their glycaemic status. METHODS: 2800 urban women (30-45 years were selected by random cluster sampling and screened for dysglycaemia for a final sample of 272 newly diagnosed, drug naive dysglycaemic and 345 normoglycaemic women. Physical activity and sedentary behaviours were assessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ. Demographic data, diet and anthropometry were recorded. Logistic regression analysis assessed contribution of all parameters to dysglycaemia and exposure attributable fractions were calculated. RESULTS: The mean energy expenditure on walking (2648.5±1023.7 MET-min/week and on moderate and vigorous physical activity (4342.3±1768.1 MET-min/week for normoglycemic women and dysglycaemic women (walking;1046.4±728.4 MET-min/week, moderate and vigorous physical activity; 1086.7±1184.4 MET-min/week was above the recommended amount of physical activity per week. 94.3% of women spent >1000 MET-minutes/week on activity. Mean sitting and TV time for normoglycaemic and dysglycaemic women were 154.3±62.8, 38.4±31.9, 312.6±116.7 and 140.2±56.5 minutes per day respectively. Physical activity and sedentary behaviour contributed to dysglycaemia after adjustment for family history, diet, systolic blood pressure and Body Mass Index. Exposure attributable fractions for dysglycaemia were; lower physical activity: 78%, higher waist circumference: 94%, and TV viewing time: 85%. CONCLUSIONS: Urban South Asian women are at risk of dysglycaemia at lower levels of sedentary behaviour and greater physical activity than western populations, indicating the need for re-visiting current physical activity guidelines for South Asians.

  15. Fatty acid dietary intake in the general French population: are the French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety (ANSES) national recommendations met?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tressou, Jessica; Moulin, Philippe; Vergès, Bruno; Le Guillou, Céline; Simon, Noémie; Pasteau, Stéphane

    2016-12-01

    Quantity and quality of fatty acids (FA) in diet influence CVD risk. Consequently, health authorities promote recommended dietary intakes for FA, looking for optimal intakes in a primary prevention of CVD perspective. In parallel, a few data are available detailing intakes in national populations. The objective of the present study was to perform a large analysis combining the data of the French National Survey INCA 2 on food consumption performed in 2006 and 2007, and the nutritional content of food consumed in France updated in 2013 by the French Information Centre on Food Quality, to explore in details the FA intakes in French adults using the most recent available data. To compare the discrepancies in the observed intake levels with the French recommended levels, a weighted fat adherence score was built combining intakes of the different FA. Individual scores were computed in relation to official recommendations, and potential explanatory factors were identified. These data show that SFA intakes are persistently higher than national recommendations, combined with low intakes of MUFA and PUFA, particularly long-chain n-3 FA. Only 14·6 % of the French population met DHA intake recommendation, 7·8 % for EPA and 21·6 % for SFA. This situation remains unfavourable in terms of primary prevention of CVD. Consuming fish and other sources of n-3 FA, living in the south of France, being female, having a higher education level, and low alcohol consumption were associated with a healthier fat adherence score.

  16. Traditional Dietary Recommendations for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease: Do They Meet the Needs of Our Patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Scholl

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of patients with CVD have changed: whereas smoking prevalence declines, obesity and metabolic syndrome are on the rise. Unfortunately, the traditional low-fat diet for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD still seems to be the “mainstream knowledge” despite contradicting evidence. But lowering LDL-cholesterol by the wrong diet even may be counterproductive, if sd-LDL is raised and HDL is lowered. New insights into the pathophysiology of insulin resistance and its influence on the effects of dietary changes have led to a better approach: (1 the higher a patient's insulin resistance, the more important is the glycemic load of the diet. (2 Fat quality is much more important than fat quantity. (3 The best principle for a reduced calorie intake is not fat counting, but a high volume diet with low energy density, which means fibre rich vegetables and fruits. (4 And finally, satiation and palatability of a diet is very important: there is no success without the patient's compliance. Thus, the best approach to the dietary prevention of CVD is a Mediterranean style low-carb diet represented in the LOGI pyramid. Dietary guidelines for the prevention of CVD should to be revised accordingly.

  17. The Intake of Energy and Selected Nutrients by Thai Urban Sedentary Workers: An Evaluation of Adherence to Dietary Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katiya Ivanovitch

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid changes in Thailand’s nutrition and lifestyles have led to increasing diet-related pathologies among people with sedentary occupations. This study examines the extent to which the dietary intake of nutrients and energy by a sample of Thai sedentary workers conforms to the Thai Dietary Reference Intakes (Thai DRIs. The nutrients and energy intake estimates were based on self-reported information collected with a single 24-hour dietary recall and nonweighed 2-day food record. The study participants were Thai adults aged 20–50 years employed in sedentary occupations. A convenience sample of 215 healthy individuals (75 males and 140 females was based on four randomly selected worksites in the Bangkok metropolitan area. For male participants, the study found a median energy intake of 1,485 kcal/day, with 54.4% of energy coming from carbohydrate, 15.9% from protein, and 29.6% from fat. Females’ median energy intake was 1,428 kcal/day, 56% of which came from carbohydrate, 16.2% from protein, and 28.6% from fat. Both genders showed insufficient intake of fiber and most micronutrients. This study provides the material for preventive public health interventions focusing on nutrition-related diseases affecting Thailand’s rapidly growing sedentary workforce.

  18. Is “Processed” a Four-Letter Word? The Role of Processed Foods in Achieving Dietary Guidelines and Nutrient Recommendations123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Johanna T.; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Clemens, Roger A.; Schmidt, David B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper, based on the symposium “Is ‘Processed’ a Four-Letter Word? The Role of Processed Foods in Achieving Dietary Guidelines and Nutrient Recommendations in the U.S.” describes ongoing efforts and challenges at the nutrition–food science interface and public health; addresses misinformation about processed foods by showing that processed fruits and vegetables made important dietary contributions (e.g., fiber, folate, potassium, vitamins A and C) to nutrient intake among NHANES 2003–2006 participants, that major sources of vitamins (except vitamin K) were provided by enrichment and fortification and that enrichment and fortification helped decrease the percentage of the population below the Estimated Average Requirement for vitamin A, thiamin, folate, and iron; describes how negative consumer perceptions and consumer confusion about processed foods led to the development of science-based information on food processing and technology that aligns with health objectives; and examines challenges and opportunities faced by food scientists who must balance consumer preferences, federal regulations, and issues surrounding food safety, cost, unintended consequences, and sustainability when developing healthful foods that align with dietary guidelines. PMID:22797990

  19. The Cross-Sectional Association between Consumption of the Recommended Five Food Group “Grain (Cereal)”, Dietary Fibre and Anthropometric Measures among Australian Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayet-Moore, Flavia; Petocz, Peter; McConnell, Andrew; Tuck, Kate; Mansour, Marie

    2017-01-01

    The Australian Dietary Guidelines recommended “grain (cereal)” core food group includes both refined and whole grain foods, but excludes those that are discretionary (i.e., cakes). We investigated the association between daily serves from the “grain (cereal)” group and its effect on fibre and adiposity. Data from Australian adults in the 2011–2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey were used (n = 9341). Participants were categorised by serves of core grain foods and general linear models were used to investigate the effect of demographic, socioeconomic, and dietary covariates on waist circumference, body mass index (BMI) and fibre intake. Compared to core grain avoiders (0 serves), high consumers (6+ serves/day) were: more likely male and socially advantaged, had a healthier dietary pattern, less likely dieting, overweight or obese, and were at lower risk of metabolic complications. After adjustment for age, sex and energy intake, there was an inverse relationship between core grain serves intake and BMI (p < 0.001), waist circumference (p = 0.001) and a positive relationship with fibre (p < 0.001). Model adjustments for diet and lifestyle factors resulted in a smaller difference in waist circumference (p = 0.006) and BMI (p = 0.006). Core grain serves was significantly associated with higher fibre, but marginally clinically significant for lower adiposity. PMID:28218715

  20. The Cross-Sectional Association between Consumption of the Recommended Five Food Group "Grain (Cereal)", Dietary Fibre and Anthropometric Measures among Australian Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayet-Moore, Flavia; Petocz, Peter; McConnell, Andrew; Tuck, Kate; Mansour, Marie

    2017-02-18

    The Australian Dietary Guidelines recommended "grain (cereal)" core food group includes both refined and whole grain foods, but excludes those that are discretionary (i.e., cakes). We investigated the association between daily serves from the "grain (cereal)" group and its effect on fibre and adiposity. Data from Australian adults in the 2011-2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey were used ( n = 9341). Participants were categorised by serves of core grain foods and general linear models were used to investigate the effect of demographic, socioeconomic, and dietary covariates on waist circumference, body mass index (BMI) and fibre intake. Compared to core grain avoiders (0 serves), high consumers (6+ serves/day) were: more likely male and socially advantaged, had a healthier dietary pattern, less likely dieting, overweight or obese, and were at lower risk of metabolic complications. After adjustment for age, sex and energy intake, there was an inverse relationship between core grain serves intake and BMI ( p < 0.001), waist circumference ( p = 0.001) and a positive relationship with fibre ( p < 0.001). Model adjustments for diet and lifestyle factors resulted in a smaller difference in waist circumference ( p = 0.006) and BMI ( p = 0.006). Core grain serves was significantly associated with higher fibre, but marginally clinically significant for lower adiposity.

  1. The diet of diabetic patients in Spain in 2008-2010: accordance with the main dietary recommendations--a cross-sectional study.

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    Maritza Muñoz-Pareja

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: No previous study has assessed the diet of the diabetic patients in the general population of an entire country in Europe. This study evaluates accordance of the diet of diabetic adults in Spain with nutritional recommendations of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD, American Diabetes Association (ADA, and the Mediterranean diet (MD. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Cross-sectional study conducted in 2008-2010 among 12,948 persons representative of the population aged ≥18 years in Spain. Usual food consumption was assessed with a dietary history. EASD accordance was defined as ≥6 points on a score of 12 nutritional goals, ADA accordance as ≥3 points on a score of 6 goals, and MD accordance as ≥7 points on the Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener. In the 609 diagnosed diabetic individuals, the diet was rich in saturated fat (11.2% of total energy, but trans fat intake was relatively low (1.1% energy and monounsaturated fat intake was high (16.1% energy. Carbohydrate intake was relatively low (41.1% energy, but sugar intake was high (16.9% energy. Intake of cholesterol (322 mg/day and sodium (3.1 g/day was also high, while fiber intake was insufficient (23.8 g/day. EASD accordance was observed in 48.7% diabetic patients, ADA accordance in 46.3%, and MD accordance in 57.4%. The frequency of EASD, ADA and MD accordance was not statistically different between diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetic individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Only about half of diabetic patients in Spain have a diet that is consistent with the major dietary recommendations. The lack of dietary differences between diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetic individuals reflects deficiencies in diabetes management.

  2. Revisiting safe sleep recommendations for African-American infants: why current counseling is insufficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaydos, Laura M; Blake, Sarah C; Gazmararian, Julie A; Woodruff, Whitney; Thompson, Winifred W; Dalmida, Safiya George

    2015-03-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that children be placed in the supine position on firm bedding and not bed share with parents or other children. Health professionals increasingly understand that many African-American parents do not follow these recommendations, but little research exists on provider reactions to this non-compliance. This study was intended to better understand how low-income, African-American mothers understand and act upon safe sleep recommendations for newborns and how providers counsel these mothers. We conducted focus groups with 60 African-American, low-income, first-time mothers and telephone interviews with 20 providers serving these populations to explore provider counseling and patient decision making. The large majority of mothers reported understanding, but not following, the safe-sleeping recommendations. Key reasons for non-compliance included perceived safety, convenience, quality of infant sleep and conflicting information from family members. Mothers often take measures intended to mitigate risk associated with noncompliance, instead increasing SIDS risk. Providers recognize that many mothers are non-compliant and attribute non-compliance largely to cultural and familial influence. However, few provider attempts are made to mitigate SIDS risks from non-compliant behaviors. We suggest that counseling strategies should be adapted to: (1) provide greater detailed rationale for SIDS prevention recommendations; and (2) incorporate or acknowledge familial and cultural preferences. Ignoring the reasons for sleep decisions by African-American parents may perpetuate ongoing racial/ethnic disparities in SIDS.

  3. Dietary recommendations: comparing dietary guidelines from Brazil and the United States Recomendações dietéticas: comparação entre os guias alimentares brasileiro e americano

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    Rosely Sichieri

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian dietary guidelines are based in part on mainstream United States' recommendations, in spite of the criticisms and shortcomings of the American guidelines. In this paper, Brazilian food guidelines are summarized and discussed in comparison with the USA recommendations. American and Brazilian dietary recommendations are quite similar in many aspects, particularly those related to variety in the diet, the importance of physical activity and weight management. Different to American guidelines, those from Brazil advise people to choose fresh foods, to prefer healthier types of fat, to limit trans fat intake and to eat good sources of protein, but does not recommend the consumption of whole grains. Besides the challenges related to their implementation, indicators for the evaluation of the effectiveness of these guidelines should be established from the beginning, particularly those related to changes in dietary habits and the prevalence of obesity.O guia alimentar brasileiro é baseado parcialmente nas recomendações americanas a despeito das críticas e problemas identificados no documento dos Estados Unidos. Neste artigo, as recomendações alimentares para o Brasil são resumidas e discutidas em comparação com as recomendações estadunidenses. Os guias alimentares brasileiro e americano são bastante similares em diversos aspectos, particularmente aqueles relacionados com a variação da dieta, a importância da atividade física e o gerenciamento do peso. Diferentemente dos Estados Unidos, o guia brasileiro estimula o consumo de alimentos frescos, aconselha o uso de fontes saudáveis de gorduras, a limitação do consumo de gordura trans, o consumo de boas fontes de proteínas, mas não indica o consumo de grãos integrais. Além dos desafios relacionados com a sua implantação, os indicadores para a avaliação da eficácia dos guias alimentares devem ser estabelecidos desde sua implantação, particularmente, os relacionados

  4. CAEP 2015 Academic Symposium: Current State and Recommendations to Achieve Adequate and Sustainable Funding for Emergency Medicine Academic Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Eddy S; Artz, Jennifer D; Wilkie, Ryan D; Stiell, Ian G; Topping, Claude; Belanger, François P; Afilalo, Marc; Renouf, Tia; Crocco, Anthony; Wyatt, Kelly; Christenson, Jim

    2016-05-01

    To describe the current state of academic emergency medicine (EM) funding in Canada and develop recommendations to grow and establish sustainable funding. A panel of eight leaders from different EM academic units was assembled. Using mixed methods (including a literature review, sharing of professional experiences, a survey of current EM academic heads, and data previously collected from an environmental scan), 10 recommendations were drafted and presented at an academic symposium. Attendee feedback was incorporated, and the second set of draft recommendations was further distributed to the Canadian Association Emergency Physicians (CAEP) Academic Section for additional comments before being finalized. Recommendations were developed around the funding challenges identified and solutions developed by academic EM university-based units across Canada. A strategic plan was seen as integral to achieving strong funding of an EM unit, especially when it aligned with departmental and institutional priorities. A business plan, although occasionally overlooked, was deemed an important component for planning and sustaining the academic mission. A number of recommendations surrounding philanthropy consisted of creating partnerships with existing foundations and engaging multiple stakeholders and communities. Synergy between academic and clinical EM departments was also viewed as an opportunity to ensure integration of common missions. Education and networking for current and future leaders were also viewed as invaluable to ensure that opportunities are optimized through strong leadership development and shared experiences to further the EM academic missions across the country. These recommendations were designed to improve the financial circumstances for many Canadian EM units. There is a considerable wealth of resources that can contribute to financial stability for an academic unit, and an annual networking meeting and continuing education on these issues will facilitate

  5. Have Recommended Book Lists Changed to Reflect Current Expectations for Informational Text in K-3 Classrooms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreher, Mariam Jean; Kletzien, Sharon B.

    2016-01-01

    Despite both longstanding and recent calls for more informational text in K-3 classrooms, research indicates that narrative text remains in the majority for read alouds, classroom libraries, and instruction, thus limiting children's opportunity to experience the demands of expository text. Because national associations' recommended book lists are…

  6. Equine pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction: current understanding and recommendations from the Australian and New Zealand Equine Endocrine Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secombe, C J; Bailey, S R; de Laat, M A; Hughes, K J; Stewart, A S; Sonis, J M; Tan, Rhh

    2018-06-03

    The purpose of this article is to provide a review of the current knowledge and opinions about the epidemiology, clinical findings (including sequelae), diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of equine pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction, particularly in the Australian context. This information and the recommendations provided will assist practitioners in making informed decisions regarding the diagnosis and management of this disorder. © 2018 Australian Veterinary Association.

  7. Could gestational diabetes mellitus be managed through dietary bioactive compounds? Current knowledge and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santangelo, Carmela; Zicari, Alessandra; Mandosi, Elisabetta; Scazzocchio, Beatrice; Mari, Emanuela; Morano, Susanna; Masella, Roberta

    2016-04-14

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a serious problem growing worldwide that needs to be addressed with urgency in consideration of the resulting severe complications for both mother and fetus. Growing evidence indicates that a healthy diet rich in fruit, vegetables, nuts, extra-virgin olive oil and fish has beneficial effects in both the prevention and management of several human diseases and metabolic disorders. In this review, we discuss the latest data concerning the effects of dietary bioactive compounds such as polyphenols and PUFA on the molecular mechanisms regulating glucose homoeostasis. Several studies, mostly based on in vitro and animal models, indicate that dietary polyphenols, mainly flavonoids, positively modulate the insulin signalling pathway by attenuating hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance, reducing inflammatory adipokines, and modifying microRNA (miRNA) profiles. Very few data about the influence of dietary exposure on GDM outcomes are available, although this approach deserves careful consideration. Further investigation, which includes exploring the 'omics' world, is needed to better understand the complex interaction between dietary compounds and GDM.

  8. Current issues in determining dietary protein and amino-acid requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pencharz, P; Jahoor, F; Kurpad, A

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy and the first two years of life are periods of rapid growth and yet the knowledge of requirements for protein and dietary indispensable amino acids is very limited. The development of carbon oxidation methods opens the way to studies that should fill these important gaps in knowledge.Eu.......European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 15 January 2014; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2013.297....

  9. Reasons Low-Income Parents Offer Snacks to Children: How Feeding Rationale Influences Snack Frequency and Adherence to Dietary Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaine, Rachel E; Fisher, Jennifer Orlet; Taveras, Elsie M; Geller, Alan C; Rimm, Eric B; Land, Thomas; Perkins, Meghan; Davison, Kirsten K

    2015-07-21

    Although American children snack more than ever before, the parental role in promoting snacking is not well understood. In 2012-2013 at baseline in an intervention study to prevent childhood obesity in low-income Massachusetts communities, n = 271 parents of children aged 2-12 years completed surveys regarding nutritive and non-nutritive reasons they offered children snacks, demographics, and dietary factors. An analysis of variance demonstrated that parents reported offering snacks (mean/week; standard deviation (SD)) for nutritive reasons like promoting growth (x̄ = 2.5; SD 2.2) or satisfying hunger (x̄ = 2.4; SD 2.1) almost twice as often as non-nutritive reasons like keeping a child quiet (x̄ = 0.7; SD 1.5) or celebrating events/holidays (x̄ = 0.8; SD 1.1). Parents reported giving young children (2-5 years) more snacks to reward behavior (1.9 vs. 1.1, p snacks to reward behavior (Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.83; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.70-0.99), celebrate events/holidays (OR = 0.72; 95% CI 0.52-0.99), or achievements (OR = 0.82; 95% CI 0.68-0.98). Parental intentions around child snacking are likely important targets for obesity prevention efforts.

  10. Energy sector assistance in developing countries: Current trends and policy recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tharakan, Pradeep J.; Castro, Julio de; Kroeger, Timm

    2007-01-01

    An estimated 2.5 billion people remain without access to modern energy supplies. This shortfall is expected to grow as the population in developing countries continues to grow rapidly and the existing infrastructure ages. The United Nations' goal of lowering poverty by half by 2015 will not be attained unless the poor in developing countries gain greater access to basic infrastructure and services, including energy services. The key objective of this paper is to analyze trends in overseas development assistance (ODA) to the energy sector in developing countries during the period 1990-2003, relative to realized private sector investments. This analysis then forms the basis for policy recommendations for consideration by decision makers within countries that are major contributors to ODA

  11. Current maternal age recommendations for prenatal diagnosis: a reappraisal using the expected utility theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicherman, N; Bombard, A T; Rappoport, P

    1995-01-01

    The expected utility theory suggests eliminating an age-specific criterion for recommending prenatal diagnosis to patients. We isolate the factors which patients and physicians need to consider intelligently in prenatal diagnosis, and show that the sole use of a threshold age as a screening device is inadequate. Such a threshold fails to consider adequately patients' attitudes regarding many of the possible outcomes of prenatal diagnosis; in particular, the birth of a chromosomally abnormal child and procedural-related miscarriages. It also precludes testing younger women and encourages testing in patients who do not necessarily require or desire it. All pregnant women should be informed about their prenatal diagnosis options, screening techniques, and diagnostic procedures, including their respective limitations, risks, and benefits.

  12. Methods for culturing retinal pigment epithelial cells: a review of current protocols and future recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron H Fronk

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The retinal pigment epithelium is an important part of the vertebrate eye, particularly in studying the causes and possible treatment of age-related macular degeneration. The retinal pigment epithelium is difficult to access in vivo due to its location at the back of the eye, making experimentation with age-related macular degeneration treatments problematic. An alternative to in vivo experimentation is cultivating the retinal pigment epithelium in vitro, a practice that has been going on since the 1970s, providing a wide range of retinal pigment epithelial culture protocols, each producing cells and tissue of varying degrees of similarity to natural retinal pigment epithelium. The purpose of this review is to provide researchers with a ready list of retinal pigment epithelial protocols, their effects on cultured tissue, and their specific possible applications. Protocols using human and animal retinal pigment epithelium cells, derived from tissue or cell lines, are discussed, and recommendations for future researchers included.

  13. High compliance with dietary recommendations in a cohort of meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians, and vegans: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Oxford study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobiecki, Jakub G; Appleby, Paul N; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Key, Timothy J

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate differences in dietary intakes between 30251 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Oxford study, comprising 18 244 meat eaters, 4 531 fish eaters, 6 673 vegetarians, and 803 vegans aged 30 to 90 years who completed semiquantitative food frequency questionnaires. We hypothesized that these groups characterized by varying degrees of animal product exclusion have significantly different intakes of many nutrients, with possible implications for dietary adequacy and compliance with population dietary goals. Nutrient intakes were estimated including fortification in foods, but excluding dietary supplements. Dietary supplementation practices were also evaluated. Highly significant differences were found in estimated nutrient intakes between meat eaters and vegans, with fish eaters and vegetarians usually having intermediate values. Meat eaters had the highest energy intakes, followed by fish eaters and vegetarians, whereas vegans had the lowest intakes. Vegans had the highest intakes of polyunsaturated fatty acids, dietary fiber, vitamins C and E, folate, magnesium, iron, and copper. Meat eaters had the highest intake of saturated fatty acids, protein, vitamin B2, vitamin B12, vitamin D, zinc, and iodine. Fish eaters had the highest intakes of calcium and selenium. There were no statistically significant differences in sodium and potassium intakes between dietary groups. With the exception of sodium intake, compliance with population dietary goals was high across diet groups. The results suggested a high prevalence of inadequacy for dietary vitamin B12 and iodine in vegans. The diet groups under study showed striking differences in dietary intakes, with possible implications for compliance with dietary recommendations, as well as cardiometabolic diseases risk. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. High compliance with dietary recommendations in a cohort of meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians, and vegans: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition–Oxford study☆☆☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobiecki, Jakub G.; Appleby, Paul N.; Bradbury, Kathryn E.; Key, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate differences in dietary intakes between 30 251 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition–Oxford study, comprising 18 244 meat eaters, 4 531 fish eaters, 6 673 vegetarians, and 803 vegans aged 30 to 90 years who completed semiquantitative food frequency questionnaires. We hypothesized that these groups characterized by varying degrees of animal product exclusion have significantly different intakes of many nutrients, with possible implications for dietary adequacy and compliance with population dietary goals. Nutrient intakes were estimated including fortification in foods, but excluding dietary supplements. Dietary supplementation practices were also evaluated. Highly significant differences were found in estimated nutrient intakes between meat eaters and vegans, with fish eaters and vegetarians usually having intermediate values. Meat eaters had the highest energy intakes, followed by fish eaters and vegetarians, whereas vegans had the lowest intakes. Vegans had the highest intakes of polyunsaturated fatty acids, dietary fiber, vitamins C and E, folate, magnesium, iron, and copper. Meat eaters had the highest intake of saturated fatty acids, protein, vitamin B2, vitamin B12, vitamin D, zinc, and iodine. Fish eaters had the highest intakes of calcium and selenium. There were no statistically significant differences in sodium and potassium intakes between dietary groups. With the exception of sodium intake, compliance with population dietary goals was high across diet groups. The results suggested a high prevalence of inadequacy for dietary vitamin B12 and iodine in vegans. The diet groups under study showed striking differences in dietary intakes, with possible implications for compliance with dietary recommendations, as well as cardiometabolic diseases risk. PMID:27101764

  15. [The suitability of the current recommendations for introducing gluten to the diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marugán de Miguelsanz, J M; Ochoa Sangrador, C

    2013-08-01

    The habits of introducing gluten and the implementation of the ESPGHAN-2008 recommendations are evaluated. A retrospective cohort study was conducted in 2011 using a questionnaire containing various epidemiological variables and supplementary feeding that was completed by the parents of children between 12-18 months who were seen by the pediatrician. Central tendency measures were calculated for the quantitative variables, and non-parametric tests used for comparison of means (Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis). The Chi-squared or exact tests were used for analyzing the qualitative variables, analysis of frequencies and comparisons. Multivariate adjustment techniques were used for the significant variables. A total of 46 primary care pediatricians, who collected 1,015 questionnaires, collaborated. The mean age of the introduction of gluten was 6.99 months (standard deviation 1.46, median 7). Only 45.1% (95% confidence interval [CI 95%]: 41.8-48.3) introduced it between 4-6 months, 0.2% before 4 months, and 54.7% after 7 months. Only 13.9% (CI 95% 11.6-16.1) introduced gluten between 4-6 months with breastfeeding. Multivariate analysis showed that the variables linked to lower compliance with the introduction between 4-6 months are mothers of 35 years of age or older (adjusted Odds ratio (aOR 1.44; CI95%: 1.11-1.88), celiac family (aOR 2.04; CI 95%: 1.11-3.72) and breastfeeding (aOR 1.55; CI 95%: 1.06-2.26), and for the introduction between 4-6 months coinciding with breastfeeding, breastfeeding and mothers who had studied at university (aOR 1.72; CI 95%: 1.17-2.53). The ESPGHAN recommendation on the introduction of gluten among pediatricians in our sector has not yet been sufficiently implemented. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. MRI technique for the preoperative evaluation of deep infiltrating endometriosis: current status and protocol recommendation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, C.; Oehmke, F.; Tinneberg, H.-R.; Krombach, G.A.

    2016-01-01

    Endometriosis is a common cause of chronic pelvic pain and infertility. It is defined as the occurrence of endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity and can manifest as a peritoneal, ovarian or infiltrating form, the latter being referred to as deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE). Surgery is essential in the treatment of DIE and depending on the severity of the disease, surgery can be difficult and extensive. Beside clinical examination and ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has proven its value to provide useful information for planning surgery in patients with suspected DIE. To optimise the quality of MRI examinations, radiologists have to be familiar with the capabilities and also the limitations of this technique with respect to the assessment of DIE. MRI yields morphological information by using mainly T1- and T2-weighted sequences, but can also provide functional information by means of intravenous gadolinium, diffusion-weighted imaging or cine-MRI. In this article, these techniques and also adequate measures of patient preparation, which are indispensable for successful MRI imaging for the preoperative evaluation of DIE, are reviewed and a comprehensive protocol recommendation is provided.

  17. Are current coaching recommendations for cricket batting technique supported by biomechanical research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Melissa J; Spratford, Wayne

    2012-09-01

    Coaching manuals are an invaluable tool for coaches, used in player skill and technique development, especially at grass-roots level. Commonly developed by former players and coaches, this information is generally based on anecdotal evidence and in general lacks the scientific rigour of a peer-reviewed journal. Thus there is a need to establish the level of agreement and support between the coaching and biomechanical literature. In doing so, evidence-based coaching practices can be optimally developed. Moreover, this will ensure the technique and skill development practices implemented at grass-roots level are supported by successful performance in the later stages of player development. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the latest batting biomechanics research, providing a comprehensive and up-to-date insight into the kinematic and kinetic aspects of batting in cricket. Furthermore, this review compared and contrasted this research with a selection of coaching literature, establishing a strong level of support and agreement between the coaching and biomechanical literature in recommendations for cricket batting technique. Although the ambiguity in a number of coaching concepts still exists, coaches and players can be confident in the successful implementation of both sources of information in a player's technical development.

  18. Forest Planning Heuristics—Current Recommendations and Research Opportunities for s-Metaheuristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pete Bettinger

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive forest management requires planning and implementation of activities designed to maintain or improve forest conditions, and in support of these endeavors knowledge of silviculture, economics, operations research, and other allied fields are necessary. With regard to forest planning, traditional (exact mathematical techniques along with heuristics have been demonstrated as useful in developing alternative courses of action for forest managers to consider. In this discussion paper, we present six areas of future work with regard to investigations into the development of heuristics, along with several recommendations that are based on our experiences. These areas include process improvements, reversion strategies, destruction and reconstruction strategies, intelligent or dynamic parameterization approaches, intelligent termination or transitioning approaches, and seeding strategies. We chose the six areas based on our experiences in developing forest planning heuristics. These areas reflect our opinion of where future research might concentrate. All of these areas of work have the potential to enhance the capabilities and effectiveness of heuristic approaches when applied to adaptive forest management problems.

  19. [Whooping cough in Spain. Current epidemiology, prevention and control strategies. Recommendations by the Pertussis Working Group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campins, Magda; Moreno-Pérez, David; Gil-de Miguel, Angel; González-Romo, Fernando; Moraga-Llop, Fernando A; Arístegui-Fernández, Javier; Goncé-Mellgren, Anna; Bayas, José M; Salleras-Sanmartí, Lluís

    2013-04-01

    A large increase of pertussis incidence has been observed in recent years in countries with high vaccination coverage. Outbreaks of pertussis are increasingly being reported. The age presentation has a bipolar distribution: infants younger 6months that have not initiated or completed a vaccination schedule, and adolescents and adults, due to the lost of natural or vaccine immunity over time. These epidemiological changes justify the need to adopt new vaccination strategies in order to protect young infants and to reduce pertussis incidence in all age groups. Adolescents and adults immunization must be a priority. In the first group, strategy is easy to implement, and with a very low additional cost (to replace dT vaccine by dTap one). Adult vaccination may be more difficult to implement; dT vaccine decennial booster should be replaced by dTap. The immunization of household contacts of newborn infants (cocooning) is the strategy that has a most important impact on infant pertussis. Recently, pregnant women vaccination (after 20weeks of gestation) has been recommended in some countries as the most effective way to protect the newborn. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  20. Current Limitations and Recommendations to Improve Testing for the Environmental Assessment of Endocrine Active Substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coady, Katherine K; Biever, Ronald C; Denslow, Nancy D

    2017-01-01

    In this paper existing regulatory frameworks and test systems for assessing potential endocrine-active chemicals are described, and associated challenges discussed, along with proposed approaches to address these challenges. Regulatory frameworks vary somewhat across geographies, but all basically...... evaluate whether a chemical possesses endocrine activity and whether this activity can result in adverse outcomes either to humans or the environment. Current test systems include in silico, in vitro and in vivo techniques focused on detecting potential endocrine activity, and in vivo tests that collect...... methods currently do not exist, and addressing key endocrine pathways of possible concern in addition to those associated with estrogen, androgen and thyroid signaling. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  1. Human resource aspects of antiretroviral treatment delivery models: current practices and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assefa, Yibeltal; Van Damme, Wim; Hermann, Katharina

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE OF VIEW: To illustrate and critically assess what is currently being published on the human resources for health dimension of antiretroviral therapy (ART) delivery models. The use of human resources for health can have an effect on two crucial aspects of successful ART programmes, namely the scale-up capacity and the long-term retention in care. Task shifting as the delegation of tasks from higher qualified to lower qualified cadres has become a widespread practice in ART delivery models in low-income countries in recent years. It is increasingly shown to effectively reduce the workload for scarce medical doctors without compromising the quality of care. At the same time, it becomes clear that task shifting can only be successful when accompanied by intensive training, supervision and support from existing health system structures. Although a number of recent publications have focussed on task shifting in ART delivery models, there is a lack of accessible information on the link between task shifting and patient outcomes. Current ART delivery models do not focus sufficiently on retention in care as arguably one of the most important issues for the long-term success of ART programmes. There is a need for context-specific re-designing of current ART delivery models in order to increase access to ART and improve long-term retention.

  2. Dietary nitrates, nitrites, and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hord, Norman G

    2011-12-01

    Dietary nitrate (NO(3)), nitrite (NO(2)), and arginine can serve as sources for production of NO(x) (a diverse group of metabolites including nitric oxide, nitrosothiols, and nitroalkenes) via ultraviolet light exposure to skin, mammalian nitrate/nitrite reductases in tissues, and nitric oxide synthase enzymes, respectively. NO(x) are responsible for the hypotensive, antiplatelet, and cytoprotective effects of dietary nitrates and nitrites. Current regulatory limits on nitrate intakes, based on concerns regarding potential risk of carcinogenicity and methemoglobinemia, are exceeded by normal daily intakes of single foods, such as soya milk and spinach, as well as by some recommended dietary patterns such as the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet. This review includes a call for regulatory bodies to consider all available data on the beneficial physiologic roles of nitrate and nitrite in order to derive rational bases for dietary recommendations.

  3. A critical appraisal of guidelines for electronic communication between patients and clinicians: the need to modernize current recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joy L; Matthias, Marianne S; Menachemi, Nir; Frankel, Richard M; Weiner, Michael

    2018-04-01

    Patient-provider electronic communication has proliferated in recent years, yet there is a dearth of published research either leading to, or including, recommendations that improve clinical care and prevent unintended negative consequences. We critically appraise published guidelines and suggest an agenda for future work in this area. To understand how existing guidelines align with current practice, evidence, and technology. We performed a narrative review of provider-targeted guidelines for electronic communication between patients and providers, searching Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, and PubMed databases using relevant terms. We limited the search to articles published in English, and manually searched the citations of relevant articles. For each article, we identified and evaluated the suggested practices. Across 11 identified guidelines, the primary focus was on technical and administrative concerns, rather than on relational communication. Some of the security practices recommended by the guidelines are no longer needed because of shifts in technology. It is unclear the extent to which the recommendations that are still relevant are being followed. Moreover, there is no guideline-cited evidence of the effectiveness of the practices that have been proposed. Our analysis revealed major weaknesses in current guidelines for electronic communication between patients and providers: the guidelines appear to be based on minimal evidence and offer little guidance on how best to use electronic tools to communicate effectively. Further work is needed to systematically evaluate and identify effective practices, create a framework to evaluate quality of communication, and assess the relationship between electronic communication and quality of care.

  4. Hematopoietic cell transplantation in Fanconi anemia: current evidence, challenges and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebens, Christen L; MacMillan, Margaret L; Wagner, John E

    2017-01-01

    Hematopoietic cell transplantation for Fanconi Anemia (FA) has improved dramatically over the past 40 years. With an enhanced understanding of the intrinsic DNA-repair defect and pathophysiology of hematopoietic failure and leukemogenesis, sequential changes to conditioning and graft engineering have significantly improved the expectation of survival after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) with incidence of graft failure decreased from 35% to 40% to <10%. Today, five-year overall survival exceeds 90% in younger FA patients with bone marrow failure but remains about 50% in those with hematologic malignancy. Areas covered: We review the evolution of alloHCT contributing to decreased rates of transplant related complications; highlight current challenges including poorer outcomes in cases of clonal hematologic disorders, alloHCT impact on endocrine function and intrinsic FA risk of epithelial malignancies; and describe investigational therapies for prevention and treatment of the hematologic manifestations of FA. Expert commentary: Current methods allow for excellent survival following alloHCT for FA associated BMF irrespective of donor hematopoietic cell source. Alternative curative approaches, such as gene therapy, are being explored to eliminate the risks of GVHD and minimize therapy-related adverse effects.

  5. Current Status of and Recommendations for Nutrition Education in Gastroenterology Fellowship Training in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jing; Raman, Maitreyi; Gramlich, Leah

    2018-04-01

    Knowledge and skill in the area of nutrition are a key competency for the gastroenterologist. However, standards for nutrition education for gastroenterology fellows in Canada do not exist, and gastroenterologists in training and in practice do not feel confident in their knowledge or skill as it relates to nutrition. This study was undertaken to identify the current status of nutrition education in gastroenterology (GI) fellowship training programs in Canada and to provide insight into the development of nutrition educational goals, processes, and evaluation. Using mixed methods, we did a survey of current and recent graduates and program directors of GI fellowship programs in Canada. We undertook a focus group with program directors and fellows to corroborate findings of the survey and to identify strategies to advance nutrition education, knowledge, and skill of trainees. In total, 89.3% of the respondents perceived that the nutrition education was important for GI training, and 82.1% of the respondents perceived nutrition care would be part of their practice. However, only 50% of respondents had a formal rotation in their program, and it was mandatory only 36% of the time. Of the respondents, 95% felt that nutrition education should be standardized within GI fellowship training. Significant gaps in nutrition education exist with GI fellowship programs in Canada. The creation of standards for nutrition education would be valued by training programs, and such a nutrition curriculum for GI fellowship training in Canada is proposed. © 2017 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  6. [Contemporary criteria of the diagnosis and current recommendations for nutritional therapy in anorexia nervosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrypnik, Damian; Bogdański, Paweł; Musialik, Katarzyna; Skrypnik, Katarzyna

    2014-05-01

    The basic criterion for the diagnosis of anorexia (AN - anorexia nervosa) by ICD-10 (International Classification of Diseases, version 10) is the body weight less than 15% of the expected normal body weight. According to DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, version IV) the basic feature of AN is a refusal to maintain body weight equal or greater than the minimal normal weight. The prevalence of anorexia nervosa is 0.3-0.5% or even 1.3-3.7% if include pre-anorexic states (eg. the phenomenon of pro-ana). The main feature of anorexia is a reduction of caloric intake. According to the recommendations of the American Psychiatric Association (APA) for nutritional treatment of patients with AN the main goals in therapy of AN are: restoration of body weight, normalization of eating patterns, achievement a normal feeling of hunger and satiety and correction of the consequences of improper nutrition. APA suggests that achievable weight gain is about 0.9-1.4 kg per week in the case of hospitalized patients and approximately 0.23-0.45 kg per week in the case of outpatients. During the nutritional treatment of AN numerous side effects including anxiety, phobia, occurrence of obsessive thoughts and compulsive behavior, suicidal thoughts and intentions may occur. According to National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) the most important goal of AN therapy is weight gain in the range of 0.5-1 kg per week in hospitalized patients and 0.5 kg per week for outpatients. A person suffering from anorexia in the initial period of nutritional treatment spends twice more energy to maintain elevated body temperature, which significantly increases during the night rest. This phenomenon is called nocturnal hyperthermia and has a negative effect on the healing process. "Refeeding syndrome" is an adverse effect of nutritional treatment in anorexia. It is caused by too rapid nutrition in a patient suffering from chronic starvation. It can endanger the patient

  7. MANAGEMENT OF DIABETES DURING AIR TRAVEL: A SYSTEMATIC LITERATURE REVIEW OF CURRENT RECOMMENDATIONS AND THEIR SUPPORTING EVIDENCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavela, James; Suresh, Rahul; Blue, Rebecca S; Mathers, Charles H; Belalcazar, L Maria

    2018-02-01

    Individuals with diabetes are increasingly seeking pretravel advice, but updated professional recommendations remain scant. We performed a systematic review on diabetes management during air travel to summarize current recommendations, assess supporting evidence, and identify areas of future research. A systematic review of the English literature on diabetes management during air travel was undertaken utilizing PubMed and MEDLINE. Publications regarding general travel advice; adjustment of insulin and noninsulin therapies; and the use of insulin pumps, glucometers and subcutaneous glucose sensors at altitude were included. Gathered information was used to create an updated summary of glucose-lowering medication adjustment during air travel. Sixty-one publications were identified, most providing expert opinion and few offering primary data (47 expert opinion, 2 observational studies, 2 case reports, 10 device studies). General travel advice was uniform, with increasing attention to preflight security. Indications for oral antihyperglycemic therapy adjustments varied. There were few recommendations on contemporary agents and on nonhypoglycemic adverse events. There was little consensus on insulin adjustment protocols, many antedating current insulin formulations. Most publications advocated adjusting insulin pump time settings after arrival; however, there was disagreement on timing and rate adjustments. Glucometers and subcutaneous glucose sensors were reported to be less accurate at altitude, but not to an extent that would preclude their clinical use. Recommendations for diabetes management during air travel vary significantly and are mostly based on expert opinion. Data from systematic investigation on glucose-lowering medication adjustment protocols may support the development of a future consensus statement. CSII = continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (device) DPP-4 = dipeptidyl peptidase 4 EGA = error grid analysis GDH = glucose dehydrogenase GOX = glucose

  8. Optimization of recommendations for abdomen computerized tomography based on reconstruction filters, voltage and tube current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira, Vinicius da Costa

    2015-01-01

    The use of computed tomography has increased significantly over the past decades. In Brazil the use increased more than twofold from 2008 to 2014, in the meantime the abdomen procedures have tripled. The high frequency of this procedure combined by the increasing collective radiation dose in medical exposures, has resulted development tools to maximize the benefit in CT images. This work aimed to establish protocols optimized in abdominal CT through acquisitions parameters and reconstructions techniques based on filters kernels. A sample of patients undergoing abdominal CT in a diagnostic center of Rio de Janeiro was assessed. Had been collected patients information and acquisitions parameters. The phantoms CT image acquisitions were performed by using different voltage values by adjusting the tube current (mAs) to obtain the same value from CTDI vol patients with normal BMI. Afterwards, the CTDIvol values were reduced by 30%, 50% and 60%. All images were reconstructed with low-contrast filters (A) and standard filters (B). The CTDIvol values for patients with normal BMI were 7% higher than in patients with underweight BMI and 30%, 50% and 60% lower than the overweight, obese I and III patients, respectively. The evaluations of image quality showed that variation of the current (mA) and the reconstruction filters did not affect the Hounsfield values. When the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was normalized to CTDIvol, the protocols acquired with 60% reduction of CTDIvol with 140 kV and 80 kV showed CNR 6% lower than the routine. Modifications of the acquisition parameters did not affect spatial resolution, but the post-processing with B filters reduced the spatial frequency by 16%. With reduced the dose of 30%, lesions in the spleen had the CNR higher than 10% routine protocols with 140 kV acquired and post-processed to filter A. The image post-processing with a filter A with a 80kV voltage provided CNR values equal to the routine for the liver lesions with a 30

  9. Dietary exposure to cadmium at close to the current provisional tolerable weekly intake does not affect renal function among female Japanese farmers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiguchi, Hyogo; Oguma, Etsuko; Sasaki, Satoshi; Miyamoto, Kayoko; Ikeda, Yoko; Machida, Munehito; Kayama, Fujio

    2004-01-01

    Dietary cadmium (Cd) exposure and renal tubular function were investigated in 1381 female farmers from five districts in Japan (Japanese Multi-centered Environmental Toxicant Study project; JMETS). Dietary Cd exposure of the five populations was assessed from the individual Cd concentrations of the rice consumed by the study participants and the quantities of rice consumed daily. The populations showed a sequential difference in dietary Cd exposure, ranging from a level as low as that of the general Japanese population to one close to the current provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI). The levels of urinary Cd excretion, an indicator of Cd accumulation in the kidneys, increased along the same sequential pattern as dietary Cd exposure. However, no differences were observed among the populations in levels of urinary α 1 -microglobulin and β 2 -microglobulin excretion, which are indicators of renal tubular function. These results indicate that the current PTWI is sufficient to prevent Cd-induced renal dysfunction among the general population

  10. Humpback Dolphins of Western Australia: A Review of Current Knowledge and Recommendations for Future Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanf, Daniella M; Hunt, Tim; Parra, Guido J

    2016-01-01

    Among the many cetacean species that occupy Australian coastal waters, Australian humpback dolphins, Sousa sahulensis, are one of the most vulnerable to extirpation due to human activities. This review summarises the existing knowledge, presently occurring and planned research projects, and current conservation measures for humpback dolphins in Western Australia (WA). Rapid and wide-scale coastal development along the northern WA coastline has occurred despite a lack of baseline data for inshore dolphins and, therefore, without a precautionary approach to their conservation. The distribution, abundance, habitat use, and population structure of humpback dolphins remain poorly understood. Less than 1% of their inferred distribution has so far been studied to understand local population demography. The sparse data available suggest that WA humpback dolphins occur as localised populations in low numbers within a range of inshore habitats, including both clear and turbid coastal waters. Marine protected areas cover a third of their inferred distribution in WA, but the efficacy of these reserves in protecting local cetacean populations is unknown. There is a pressing need for coordination and collaboration among scientists, government agencies, industry bodies, Traditional Owners, and local community groups to fill in the gaps of information on humpback dolphins in WA. The recently developed strategies and sampling guidelines developed by state and federal governments should serve as a best practise standard for collection of data aimed at assessing the conservation status of humpback dolphins in WA and Australia. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Mixed states in bipolar disorder - changes in DSM-5 and current treatment recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betzler, Felix; Stöver, Laura Apollonia; Sterzer, Philipp; Köhler, Stephan

    2017-11-01

    Mixed states in affective disorders represent a particular challenge in clinical routine, characterized by a complicated course of treatment and a worse treatment response. Clinical features of mixed states and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) criteria are presented and critical discussed. We then performed a systematic review using the terms 'bipolar', 'mixed' and 'randomized' to evaluate current treatment options. For pharmacological treatment of mixed states in total, there is still insufficient data from RCTs. However, there is some evidence for efficacy in mixed states from RCTs for atypical antipsychotics, especially olanzapine, aripiprazole and asenapine as well as mood stabilizers as valproate and carbamazepine. Mixed states are of a high clinical relevance and the DSM-5 criteria substantially reduced the diagnostic threshold. Besides advantages of a better characterization of patients with former DSM-IV-defined mixed episodes, disadvantages arise for example differential diagnoses with a substantial overlap in symptoms such as borderline personality disorders. Atypical antipsychotics, valproate and carbamazepine demonstrated efficacy in a limited sample of RCTs. The number of RCTs in the treatment of mixed states is highly limited. Furthermore, nearly all studies were funded by pharmaceutical companies which may lead to an underestimation of classical mood stabilizers such as lithium.

  12. High proportions of foods recommended for consumption by United States Dietary Guidance contain solid fats and added sugar: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007-2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) recommend that individuals older than one year reduce intakes of solid fats (SoF) and added sugars (AS; together SoFAS). MyPlate, illustrates the proportions of five major food groups to promote healthy eating (Vegetables, Grains, Protein Foods, Fruit...

  13. Rehabilitation for post-stroke cognitive impairment: an overview of recommendations arising from systematic reviews of current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, David C; Bowen, Audrey; Chung, Charlie S; Cockburn, Janet; Knapp, Peter; Pollock, Alex

    2015-02-01

    Although cognitive impairments are common following stroke, there is considerable uncertainty about the types of interventions that can reduce activity restrictions and improve quality of life. Indeed, a recent project to identify priorities for research into life after stroke determined that the top priority for patients, carers and health professionals was how to improve cognitive impairments. To provide an overview of the evidence for the effectiveness of cognitive rehabilitation for patients with stroke and to determine the main gaps in the current evidence base. Evidence was synthesised for the six Cochrane reviews relating to rehabilitation for post-stroke cognitive impairment and any subsequently published randomized controlled trials to February 2012. Data arising from 44 trials involving over 1500 patients was identified. Though there was support for the effectiveness of cognitive rehabilitation for some cognitive impairments, significant gaps were found in the current evidence base. All of the Cochrane reviews identified major limitations within the evidence they identified. There is currently insufficient research evidence, or evidence of insufficient quality, to support clear recommendations for clinical practice. Recommendations are made as to the research required to strengthen the evidence base, and so facilitate the delivery of effective interventions to individuals with cognitive impairment after stroke. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Current practice and recommendations in UK epilepsy monitoring units. Report of a national survey and workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamandi, Khalid; Beniczky, Sandor; Diehl, Beate; Kandler, Rosalind H; Pressler, Ronit M; Sen, Arjune; Solomon, Juliet; Walker, Matthew C; Bagary, Manny

    2017-08-01

    Inpatient video-EEG monitoring (VEM) is an important investigation in patients with seizures or blackouts, and in the pre-surgical workup of patients with epilepsy. There has been an expansion in the number of Epilepsy Monitoring Units (EMU) in the UK offering VEM with a necessary increase in attention on quality and safety. Previous surveys have shown variation across centres on issues including consent and patient monitoring. In an effort to bring together healthcare professionals in the UK managing patients on EMU, we conducted an online survey of current VEM practice and held a one-day workshop convened under the auspices of the British Chapter of the ILAE. The survey and workshop aimed to cover all aspects of VEM, including pre-admission, consent procedures, patient safety, drug reduction and reinstatement, seizure management, staffing levels, ictal testing and good data recording practice. This paper reports on the findings of the survey, the workshop presentations and workshop discussions. 32 centres took part in the survey and there were representatives from 22 centres at the workshop. There was variation in protocols, procedures and consent processes between units, and levels of observation of monitored patients. Nevertheless, the workshop discussion found broad areas of agreement on points. A survey and workshop of UK epilepsy monitoring units found that some variability in practice is inevitable due to different local arrangements and patient groups under investigation. However, there were areas of clear consensus particularly in relation to consent and patient safety that can be applied to most units and form a basis for setting minimum standards. Copyright © 2017 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Review of Current Experience on Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) and A Recommended Code Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duane Spencer; Kevin McCoy

    2010-02-02

    The purpose of the ASME/DOE Gen IV Task 7 Part I is to review the current experience on various high temperature reactor intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) concepts. There are several different IHX concepts that could be envisioned for HTR/VHTR applications in a range of temperature from 850C to 950C. The concepts that will be primarily discussed herein are: (1) Tubular Helical Coil Heat Exchanger (THCHE); (2) Plate-Stamped Heat Exchanger (PSHE); (3) Plate-Fin Heat Exchanger (PFHE); and (4) Plate-Machined Heat Exchanger (PMHE). The primary coolant of the NGNP is potentially subject to radioactive contamination by the core as well as contamination from the secondary loop fluid. To isolate the radioactivity to minimize radiation doses to personnel, and protect the primary circuit from contamination, intermediate heat exchangers (IHXs) have been proposed as a means for separating the primary circuit of the NGNP (Next Generation Nuclear Plant) or other process heat application from the remainder of the plant. This task will first review the different concepts of IHX that could be envisioned for HTR/VHTR applications in a range of temperature from 850 to 950 C. This will cover shell-and-tube and compact designs (including the platefin concept). The review will then discuss the maturity of the concepts in terms of design, fabricability and component testing (or feedback from experience when applicable). Particular attention will be paid to the feasibility of developing the IHX concepts for the NGNP with operation expected in 2018-2021. This report will also discuss material candidates for IHX applications and will discuss specific issues that will have to be addressed in the context of the HTR design (thermal aging, corrosion, creep, creep-fatigue, etc). Particular attention will be paid to specific issues associated with operation at the upper end of the creep regime.

  16. Review of Current Experience on Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) and A Recommended Code Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, Duane; McCoy, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the ASME/DOE Gen IV Task 7 Part I is to review the current experience on various high temperature reactor intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) concepts. There are several different IHX concepts that could be envisioned for HTR/VHTR applications in a range of temperature from 850C to 950C. The concepts that will be primarily discussed herein are: (1) Tubular Helical Coil Heat Exchanger (THCHE); (2) Plate-Stamped Heat Exchanger (PSHE); (3) Plate-Fin Heat Exchanger (PFHE); and (4) Plate-Machined Heat Exchanger (PMHE). The primary coolant of the NGNP is potentially subject to radioactive contamination by the core as well as contamination from the secondary loop fluid. To isolate the radioactivity to minimize radiation doses to personnel, and protect the primary circuit from contamination, intermediate heat exchangers (IHXs) have been proposed as a means for separating the primary circuit of the NGNP (Next Generation Nuclear Plant) or other process heat application from the remainder of the plant. This task will first review the different concepts of IHX that could be envisioned for HTR/VHTR applications in a range of temperature from 850 to 950 C. This will cover shell-and-tube and compact designs (including the platefin concept). The review will then discuss the maturity of the concepts in terms of design, fabricability and component testing (or feedback from experience when applicable). Particular attention will be paid to the feasibility of developing the IHX concepts for the NGNP with operation expected in 2018-2021. This report will also discuss material candidates for IHX applications and will discuss specific issues that will have to be addressed in the context of the HTR design (thermal aging, corrosion, creep, creep-fatigue, etc). Particular attention will be paid to specific issues associated with operation at the upper end of the creep regime.

  17. Isavuconazole for the treatment of invasive aspergillosis and mucormycosis: current evidence, safety, efficacy, and clinical recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natesan SK

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Suganthini Krishnan Natesan,1,2 Pranatharthi H Chandrasekar1 1Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Wayne State University, 2John D Dingell VA Medical Center, Detroit, MI, USA Abstract: The majority of invasive mold infections diagnosed in immunocompromised cancer patients include invasive aspergillosis (IA and mucormycosis. Despite timely and effective therapy, mortality remains considerable. Antifungal agents currently available for the management of these serious infections include triazoles, polyenes, and echinocandins. Until recently, posaconazole has been the only triazole with a broad spectrum of anti-mold activity against both Aspergillus sp. and mucorales. Other clinically available triazoles voriconazole and itraconazole, with poor activity against mucorales, have significant drug interactions in addition to a side effect profile inherent for all triazoles. Polyenes including lipid formulations pose a problem with infusion-related side effects, electrolyte imbalance, and nephrotoxicity. Echinocandins are ineffective against mucorales and are approved as salvage therapy for refractory IA. Given that all available antifungal agents have limitations, there has been an unmet need for a broad-spectrum anti-mold agent with a favorable profile. Following phase III clinical trials that started in 2006, isavuconazole (ISZ seems to fit this profile. It is the first novel triazole agent recently approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA for the treatment of both IA and mucormycosis. This review provides a brief overview of the salient features of ISZ, its favorable profile with regard to spectrum of antifungal activity, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters, drug interactions and tolerability, clinical efficacy, and side effects. Keywords: isavuconazole, aspergillosis, mucormycosis, efficacy, antifungal therapy, novel azole, tolerability, drug interactions

  18. Labeling programs and efficiency standards to control the energy consumption of household appliances: current situation, main results and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menanteau, Ph.

    2000-09-01

    To control the rise in electricity consumption for specific uses, the industrialized countries started by introducing special programs aimed at improving energy efficiency. Among the different instruments available, labeling programs and minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) have proved to be very effective. The first part of this document presents the current situation, the main results and recommendations concerning the labeling programs and efficiency standards to control the energy consumption of household appliances. This analyze is done for each country in details providing the name of the program or measure, the date of implementation, the objective and the main characteristics of the program, the impacts and evaluation. (A.L.B.)

  19. Modeling of novel diagnostic strategies for active tuberculosis - a systematic review: current practices and recommendations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Zwerling

    Full Text Available The field of diagnostics for active tuberculosis (TB is rapidly developing. TB diagnostic modeling can help to inform policy makers and support complicated decisions on diagnostic strategy, with important budgetary implications. Demand for TB diagnostic modeling is likely to increase, and an evaluation of current practice is important. We aimed to systematically review all studies employing mathematical modeling to evaluate cost-effectiveness or epidemiological impact of novel diagnostic strategies for active TB.Pubmed, personal libraries and reference lists were searched to identify eligible papers. We extracted data on a wide variety of model structure, parameter choices, sensitivity analyses and study conclusions, which were discussed during a meeting of content experts.From 5619 records a total of 36 papers were included in the analysis. Sixteen papers included population impact/transmission modeling, 5 were health systems models, and 24 included estimates of cost-effectiveness. Transmission and health systems models included specific structure to explore the importance of the diagnostic pathway (n = 4, key determinants of diagnostic delay (n = 5, operational context (n = 5, and the pre-diagnostic infectious period (n = 1. The majority of models implemented sensitivity analysis, although only 18 studies described multi-way sensitivity analysis of more than 2 parameters simultaneously. Among the models used to make cost-effectiveness estimates, most frequent diagnostic assays studied included Xpert MTB/RIF (n = 7, and alternative nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs (n = 4. Most (n = 16 of the cost-effectiveness models compared new assays to an existing baseline and generated an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER.Although models have addressed a small number of important issues, many decisions regarding implementation of TB diagnostics are being made without the full benefits of insight from mathematical

  20. Nutrition support and dietary interventions for patients with lung cancer: current insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiss N

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nicole Kiss1,2 1Nutrition and Speech Pathology Department, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 2Department of Cancer Experiences Research, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, VIC, Australia Abstract: Malnutrition and weight loss are prevalent in patients with lung cancer. The impact of malnutrition on patients with cancer, and specifically in patients with lung cancer, has been demonstrated in a large number of studies. Malnutrition has been shown to negatively affect treatment completion, survival, quality of life, physical function, and health care costs. Emerging evidence is providing some insight into which lung cancer patients are at higher nutritional risk. In lung cancer patients treated with radiotherapy, stage III or more disease, treatment with concurrent chemotherapy and the extent of radiotherapy delivered to the esophagus appear to confer a higher risk of weight loss during and post-treatment. Studies investigating nutrition interventions for lung cancer patients have examined intensive dietary counseling, supplementation with fish oils, and interdisciplinary models of nutrition and exercise interventions and show promise for improved outcomes from these interventions. However, further research utilizing these interventions in large clinical trials is required to definitively establish effective interventions in this patient group. Keywords: lung cancer, nutrition, malnutrition

  1. Sustainable weight loss among overweight and obese lactating women is achieved with an energy-reduced diet in line with dietary recommendations: results from the LEVA randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertz, Fredrik; Winkvist, Anna; Brekke, Hilde K

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate dietary changes during and after a dietary treatment shown to result in significant and sustained weight loss among lactating overweight and obese women. This is crucial before clinical implementation. Data were collected from the LEVA (in Swedish: Livsstil för Effektiv Viktminskning under Amning [Lifestyle for Effective Weight Loss During Lactation]) randomized controlled factorial trial with a 12-week intervention and a 1-year follow up. At 10 to 14 weeks postpartum, 68 lactating Swedish women with a prepregnancy body mass index (calculated as kg/m(2)) of 25 to 35 were randomized to structured dietary treatment, physical exercise treatment, combined treatment, or usual care (controls) for a 12-week intervention, with a 1-year follow-up. Dietary intake was assessed with 4-day weighed dietary records. Recruitment took place between 2007 and 2010. The main outcome measures were changes in macro- and micronutrient intake from baseline to 12 weeks and 1 year. Main and interaction effects of the treatments were analyzed by a 2×2 factorial approach using a General Linear Model adjusted for relevant covariates (baseline intake and estimated underreporting). It was found that at baseline, the women had an intake of fat and sucrose above, and an intake of total carbohydrates and fiber below, recommended levels. At 12 weeks and 1 year, the dietary treatment led to reduced intake of energy (Pfat (both P values carbohydrates were reduced (Pfat and carbohydrates. Diet composition changed to decreased proportions of fat and sucrose, and increased proportions of complex carbohydrates, protein and fiber. Weight loss through dietary treatment was achieved with a diet in line with macronutrient recommendations. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Do current national and international guidelines have specific recommendations for older adults with bipolar disorder? A brief report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dols, Annemiek; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Strejilevich, Sergio A; Rej, Soham; Tsai, Shang-Ying; Gildengers, Ariel G; Almeida, Osvaldo P; Shulman, Kenneth I; Sajatovic, Martha

    2016-12-01

    Older adults with bipolar disorder (OABD) are a growing segment of patients with bipolar disorder (BD) for which specific guidelines are warranted. Although, OABD are frequently excluded from randomized controlled trials due to their age or somatic comorbidity, more treatment data from a variety of sources have become available in recent years. It is expected that at least some of this emerging information on OABD would be incorporated into treatment guidelines available to clinicians around the world. The International Society of Bipolar Disorders OABD task force compiled and compared recommendations from current national and international guidelines that specifically address geriatric or older individuals with BD (from year 2005 onwards). There were 34 guidelines, representing six continents and 19 countries. The majority of guidelines had no separate section on OABD. General principles for treating OABD with medication are recommended to be similar to those for younger adults, with special caution for side effects due to somatic comorbidity and concomitant medications. Therapeutic lithium serum levels are suggested to be lower but recommendations are very general and mostly not informed by specific research evidence. There is a lack of emphasis of OABD-specific issues in existing guidelines. Given the substantial clinical heterogeneity in BD across the life span, along with the rapidly expanding population of older individuals worldwide, and limited mental health workforce with geriatric expertise, it is critical that additional effort and resources be devoted to studying treatment interventions specific to OABD and that treatment guidelines reflect research findings. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Current Status of Legislation on Dietary Products for Sportspeople in a European Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sanz, José Miguel; Sospedra, Isabel; Baladía, Eduard; Arranz, Laura; Ortiz-Moncada, Rocío; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel

    2017-11-08

    The consumption of nutritional ergogenic aids is conditioned by laws/regulations, but standards/regulations vary between countries. The aim of this review is to explore legislative documents that regulate the use of nutritional ergogenic aids intended for sportspeople in a Spanish/European framework. A narrative review has been developed from official websites of Spanish (Spanish Agency of the Consumer, Food Safety, and Nutrition) and European (European Commission and European Food Safety Authority) bodies. A descriptive analysis of documents was performed. Eighteen legislative documents have been compiled in three sections: (1) Advertising of any type of food and/or product; (2) Composition, labeling, and advertising of foods; (3) Nutritional ergogenic aids. In spite of the existence of these legal documents, the regulation lacks guidance on the use/application of nutritional ergogenic aids for sportspeople. It is essential to prevent the introduction or dissemination of false, ambiguous, or inexact information and contents that induce an error in the receivers of the information. In this field, it is worth highlighting the roles of the European Food Safety Authority and the World Anti-Doping Agency, which provide information about consumer guidelines, prescribing practices, and recommendations for the prudent use of nutritional ergogenic aids.

  4. Current Status of Legislation on Dietary Products for Sportspeople in a European Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Miguel Martínez-Sanz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of nutritional ergogenic aids is conditioned by laws/regulations, but standards/regulations vary between countries. The aim of this review is to explore legislative documents that regulate the use of nutritional ergogenic aids intended for sportspeople in a Spanish/European framework. A narrative review has been developed from official websites of Spanish (Spanish Agency of the Consumer, Food Safety, and Nutrition and European (European Commission and European Food Safety Authority bodies. A descriptive analysis of documents was performed. Eighteen legislative documents have been compiled in three sections: (1 Advertising of any type of food and/or product; (2 Composition, labeling, and advertising of foods; (3 Nutritional ergogenic aids. In spite of the existence of these legal documents, the regulation lacks guidance on the use/application of nutritional ergogenic aids for sportspeople. It is essential to prevent the introduction or dissemination of false, ambiguous, or inexact information and contents that induce an error in the receivers of the information. In this field, it is worth highlighting the roles of the European Food Safety Authority and the World Anti-Doping Agency, which provide information about consumer guidelines, prescribing practices, and recommendations for the prudent use of nutritional ergogenic aids.

  5. Current Status of Legislation on Dietary Products for Sportspeople in a European Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arranz, Laura; Ortiz-Moncada, Rocío

    2017-01-01

    The consumption of nutritional ergogenic aids is conditioned by laws/regulations, but standards/regulations vary between countries. The aim of this review is to explore legislative documents that regulate the use of nutritional ergogenic aids intended for sportspeople in a Spanish/European framework. A narrative review has been developed from official websites of Spanish (Spanish Agency of the Consumer, Food Safety, and Nutrition) and European (European Commission and European Food Safety Authority) bodies. A descriptive analysis of documents was performed. Eighteen legislative documents have been compiled in three sections: (1) Advertising of any type of food and/or product; (2) Composition, labeling, and advertising of foods; (3) Nutritional ergogenic aids. In spite of the existence of these legal documents, the regulation lacks guidance on the use/application of nutritional ergogenic aids for sportspeople. It is essential to prevent the introduction or dissemination of false, ambiguous, or inexact information and contents that induce an error in the receivers of the information. In this field, it is worth highlighting the roles of the European Food Safety Authority and the World Anti-Doping Agency, which provide information about consumer guidelines, prescribing practices, and recommendations for the prudent use of nutritional ergogenic aids. PMID:29117104

  6. Dietary Recommendations for Healthy Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Check Recipe Certification Program Nutrition Requirements Heart-Check Professional Resources Contact the Heart-Check Certification Program Simple Cooking and Recipes Dining Out Choosing a Restaurant Deciphering ...

  7. Current issues in dietary acrylamide:formation,mitigation and risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, F.; Salome Mariotti, M.; Granby, Kit

    2014-01-01

    content of browned food, while still maintaining its attractive organoleptic properties. Reducing sugars such as glucose and fructose are the major contributors to AA in potato-based products. On the other hand, the limiting substrate of AA formation in cereals and coffee is the free amino acid asparagine....... For some products the addition of glycine or asparaginase reduces AA formation during baking. Since, for potatoes, the limiting substrate is reducing sugars, increases in sugar content in potatoes during storage then introduce some difficulties and potentially quite large variations in the AA content...... of the final product. Sugars in potatoes may be reduced by blanching. Levels of AA in different foods show large variations and no general upper limit is easily applicable, since some formation will always occur. Current policy is that practical measures should be taken voluntarily to reduce AA formation...

  8. Dietary cholesterol, heart disease risk and cognitive dissonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Donald J

    2014-05-01

    In the 1960s, the thesis that dietary cholesterol contributes to blood cholesterol and heart disease risk was a rational conclusion based on the available science at that time. Fifty years later the research evidence no longer supports this hypothesis yet changing the dietary recommendation to limit dietary cholesterol has been a slow and at times contentious process. The preponderance of the clinical and epidemiological data accumulated since the original dietary cholesterol restrictions were formulated indicate that: (1) dietary cholesterol has a small effect on the plasma cholesterol levels with an increase in the cholesterol content of the LDL particle and an increase in HDL cholesterol, with little effect on the LDL:HDL ratio, a significant indicator of heart disease risk, and (2) the lack of a significant relationship between cholesterol intake and heart disease incidence reported from numerous epidemiological surveys. Over the last decade, many countries and health promotion groups have modified their dietary recommendations to reflect the current evidence and to address a now recognised negative consequence of ineffective dietary cholesterol restrictions (such as inadequate choline intake). In contrast, health promotion groups in some countries appear to suffer from cognitive dissonance and continue to promote an outdated and potentially hazardous dietary recommendation based on an invalidated hypothesis. This review evaluates the evidence for and against dietary cholesterol restrictions and the potential consequences of such restrictions.

  9. Dietary Magnesium and Genetic Interactions in Diabetes and Related Risk Factors: A Brief Overview of Current Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruby, Adela; McKeown, Nicola M.; Song, Yiqing; Djoussé, Luc

    2013-01-01

    Nutritional genomics has exploded in the last decade, yielding insights—both nutrigenomic and nutrigenetic—into the physiology of dietary interactions and our genes. Among these are insights into the regulation of magnesium transport and homeostasis and mechanisms underlying magnesium’s role in insulin and glucose handling. Recent observational evidence has attempted to examine some promising research avenues on interaction between genetics and dietary magnesium in relation to diabetes and diabetes risk factors. This brief review summarizes the recent evidence on dietary magnesium’s role in diabetes and related traits in the presence of underlying genetic risk, and discusses future potential research directions. PMID:24322525

  10. Is Meeting the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for Protein Related to Body Composition among Older Adults?: Results from the Cardiovascular Health of Seniors and Built Environment Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, J M; Deierlein, A L; Morland, K B; Granieri, E C; Spark, A

    2016-01-01

    Studies suggest protein intake may be associated with lower body weight, but protein has also been associated with preservation of lean body mass. Understanding the role of protein in maintaining health for older adults is important for disease prevention among this population. Cross-sectional study of the relationship of dietary protein on body composition. New York City community centers. 1,011 Black, White, and Latino urban men and women 60-99 years of age. Protein intake was assessed using two interviewer-administered 24-hour recalls, and body composition was assessed using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) of fat mass (kg) (FM), fat free mass (kg) (FFM), and impedance resistance (Ohms). Indices of FM and FFM were calculated by dividing BIA measurements by height squared (m2), and percent FFM was calculated by dividing FFM by the sum of FM and FFM. Log linear models adjusting for age (continuous), race/ethnicity, education, physical activity (dichotomized at the median), hypertension, diabetes, and total calories (continuous). Just 33% of women and 50% of men reported meeting the RDA for protein. Both fat free mass index (FFMI) and fat mass index (FMI) were negatively associated with meeting the RDA for protein (Women: FFMI -1.78 95%CI [-2.24, -1.33], FMI -4.12 95% CI [-4.82, -3.42]; Men: FFMI -1.62 95% CI [-2.32, -0.93] FMI -1.80 95% CI [-2.70, -0.89]). After accounting for confounders, women and men consuming at least 0.8 g/kg/day had a 6.2% (95% CI: 5.0%, 7.4%) and a 3.2% (95% CI 1.1%, 5.3%) higher percent fat free mass, respectively. FFM, FFMI, FM, and FMI were inversely related to meeting the RDA for protein. Meeting the RDA for protein of at least 0.8g/kg/day was associated with a higher percentage of fat free mass among older adults. These results suggest meeting the protein recommendations of at least 0.8 g/kg/day may help to promote lower overall body mass, primarily through loss of fat mass rather than lean mass.

  11. Infant feeding and allergy prevention: a review of current knowledge and recommendations. A EuroPrevall state of the art paper.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Grimshaw, K E C

    2009-10-01

    The relationship between infant feeding patterns and the later development of food allergies has been the focus of much debate and research over the last decade. National recommendations have been made by many countries on how to feed infants to reduce the risk of food allergy but due to the lack of firm evidence the recommendations differ widely. This review has been developed as part of EuroPrevall, a European multicentre research project funded by the European Union, to document the differing feeding recommendations made across Europe, to investigate the current evidence base for any allergy prevention feeding recommendations and to identify areas where further research is needed. This review will also provide information which, when combined with the infant feeding data collected as part of EuroPrevall, will give an indication of compliance to national feeding guidelines which can be utilised to assess the effectiveness of current dissemination and implementation strategies.

  12. Population pharmacokinetics of rifampicin, pyrazinamide and isoniazid in children with tuberculosis: in silico evaluation of currently recommended doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvada, Simbarashe P; Denti, Paolo; Donald, Peter R; Schaaf, H Simon; Thee, Stephanie; Seddon, James A; Seifart, Heiner I; Smith, Peter J; McIlleron, Helen M; Simonsson, Ulrika S H

    2014-05-01

    To describe the population pharmacokinetics of rifampicin, pyrazinamide and isoniazid in children and evaluate the adequacy of steady-state exposures. We used previously published data for 76 South African children with tuberculosis to describe the population pharmacokinetics of rifampicin, pyrazinamide and isoniazid. Monte Carlo simulations were used to predict steady-state exposures in children following doses in fixed-dose combination tablets in accordance with the revised guidelines. Reference exposures were derived from an ethnically similar adult population with tuberculosis taking currently recommended doses. The final models included allometric scaling of clearance and volume of distribution using body weight. Maturation was included for clearance of isoniazid and clearance and absorption transit time of rifampicin. For a 2-year-old child weighing 12.5 kg, the estimated typical oral clearances of rifampicin and pyrazinamide were 8.15 and 1.08 L/h, respectively. Isoniazid typical oral clearance (adjusted for bioavailability) was predicted to be 4.44, 11.6 and 14.6 L/h for slow, intermediate and fast acetylators, respectively. Higher oral clearance values in intermediate and fast acetylators also resulted from 23% lower bioavailability compared with slow acetylators. Simulations based on our models suggest that with the new WHO dosing guidelines and utilizing available paediatric fixed-dose combinations, children will receive adequate rifampicin exposures when compared with adults, but with a larger degree of variability. However, pyrazinamide and isoniazid exposures in many children will be lower than in adults. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings in children administered the revised dosages and to optimize pragmatic approaches to dosing.

  13. Testing Theories of Dietary Behavior Change in Youth Using the Mediating Variable Model with Intervention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerin, Ester; Barnett, Anthony; Baranowski, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To review and critique current experimentally-based evidence of theoretical mechanisms of dietary behavior change in youth and provide recommendations on ways to enhance theory evaluation. Methods: Interventions that examined mediators of dietary behavior change in youth (age 5-18 years) were identified via electronic database searches…

  14. Testing theories of dietary behavior change in youth using the mediating variable model with intervention programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our purpose was to review and critique current experimentally based evidence of theoretical mechanisms of dietary behavior change in youth, and provide recommendations on ways to enhance theory evaluation. Interventions that examined mediators of dietary behavior change in youth (age 5-18 years) wer...

  15. Letter to Veugelers, P.J. and Ekwaru, J.P., A Statistical Error in the Estimation of the Recommended Dietary Allowance for Vitamin D. Nutrients 2014, 6, 4472–4475; doi:10.3390/nu6104472

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Heaney

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently Veugelers and Ekwaru published data [1] indicating that, in its dietary reference intakes for calcium and vitamin D, the Institute of Medicine (IOM had made a serious calculation error [2]. Using the same data set as had the IOM panel, these investigators showed that the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA for vitamin D had been underestimated by an order of magnitude. Veugelers and Ekwaru, using the IOM’s data, calculated an RDA of 8895 IU per day. They noted that there was some uncertainty in that estimate, inasmuch as this value required an extrapolation from the available data, which did not include individuals receiving daily vitamin D inputs above 2400 IU/day.[...

  16. A study of the dietary intake of Cypriot children and adolescents aged 6-18 years and the association of mother's educational status and children's weight status on adherence to nutritional recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornaritis, Michael J; Philippou, Elena; Hadjigeorgiou, Charalambos; Kourides, Yiannis A; Panayi, Adamos; Savva, Savvas C

    2014-01-08

    A balanced diet is fundamental for healthy growth and development of children. The aim of this study was to document and evaluate the dietary intake of Cypriot children aged 6-18 years (y) against recommendations, and to determine whether maternal education and children's weight status are associated with adherence to recommendations. The dietary intake of a random sample of 1414 Cypriot children was assessed using a 3-day food diary. Adherence to recommendations was estimated and the association of their mother's education and their own weight status on adherence were explored. A large percentage of children consumed less than the minimum of 45% energy (en) of carbohydrate (18.4%-66.5% in different age groups) and exceeded the recommended intakes of total fat (42.4%-83.8%), saturated fatty acids (90.4%-97.1%) and protein (65.2%-82.7%), while almost all (94.7%-100%) failed to meet the recommended fibre intake. Additionally, a large proportion of children (27.0%-59.0%) consumed >300 mg/day cholesterol and exceeded the upper limit of sodium (47.5%-78.5%). In children aged 9.0-13.9y, there was a high prevalence of inadequacy for magnesium (85.0%-89.9%), in girls aged 14.0-18.9y, of Vitamin A (25.3%), Vitamin B6 (21.0%) and iron (25.3%) and in boys of the same group, of Vitamin A (35.8%). Children whose mother was more educated were more likely to consume >15%en from protein, Odds Ratio (OR) 1.85 (95% CI:1.13-3.03) for mothers with tertiary education and exceed the consumption of 300 mg/day cholesterol (OR 2.13 (95% CI:1.29-3.50) and OR 1.84 (95% CI:1.09-3.09) for mothers with secondary and tertiary education respectively). Children whose mothers were more educated, were less likely to have Vitamin B1 (pchildren were more likely to consume >15%en protein (OR 1.85 (95% CI:1.26-2.71) and have a children consume a low quality diet. Maternal education and children's own weight status are associated with children's adherence to recommendations. Public health policies

  17. Protein Requirements and Recommendations for Older People: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caryl Nowson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Declines in skeletal muscle mass and strength are major contributors to increased mortality, morbidity and reduced quality of life in older people. Recommended Dietary Allowances/Intakes have failed to adequately consider the protein requirements of the elderly with respect to function. The aim of this paper was to review definitions of optimal protein status and the evidence base for optimal dietary protein. Current recommended protein intakes for older people do not account for the compensatory loss of muscle mass that occurs on lower protein intakes. Older people have lower rates of protein synthesis and whole-body proteolysis in response to an anabolic stimulus (food or resistance exercise. Recommendations for the level of adequate dietary intake of protein for older people should be informed by evidence derived from functional outcomes. Randomized controlled trials report a clear benefit of increased dietary protein on lean mass gain and leg strength, particularly when combined with resistance exercise. There is good consistent evidence (level III-2 to IV that consumption of 1.0 to 1.3 g/kg/day dietary protein combined with twice-weekly progressive resistance exercise reduces age-related muscle mass loss. Older people appear to require 1.0 to 1.3 g/kg/day dietary protein to optimize physical function, particularly whilst undertaking resistance exercise recommendations.

  18. Infant feeding and allergy prevention: a review of current knowledge and recommendations. A EuroPrevall state of the art paper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, K.E.C.; Allen, K.; Edwards, C.A.

    2009-01-01

    of firm evidence the recommendations differ widely. This review has been developed as part of EuroPrevall, a European multicentre research project funded by the European Union, to document the differing feeding recommendations made across Europe, to investigate the current evidence base for any allergy......The relationship between infant feeding patterns and the later development of food allergies has been the focus of much debate and research over the last decade. National recommendations have been made by many countries on how to feed infants to reduce the risk of food allergy but due to the lack...... prevention feeding recommendations and to identify areas where further research is needed. This review will also provide information which, when combined with the infant feeding data collected as part of EuroPrevall, will give an indication of compliance to national feeding guidelines which can be utilised...

  19. Current recommendations for surveillance and surgery of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms may overlook some patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Andrew H; Toste, Paul A; Farrell, James J; Clerkin, Barbara M; Williams, Jennifer; Muthusamy, V Raman; Watson, Rabindra R; Tomlinson, James S; Hines, O Joe; Reber, Howard A; Donahue, Timothy R

    2015-02-01

    The 2012 Sendai Criteria recommend that patients with 3 cm or larger branch duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (BD-IPMN) without any additional "worrisome features" or "high-risk stigmata" may undergo close observation. Furthermore, endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is not recommended for BD-IPMN 3 cm were removed based on size alone. Our results suggest that "larger" size on noninvasive imaging can indicate high-grade/invasive cysts, and EUS-FNA may help identify "smaller" cysts with high-grade/invasive pathology.

  20. Dietary antioxidants for chronic periodontitis prevention and its treatment: a review on current evidences from animal and human studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Varela-López

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Given the relationship between chronic periodontitis and high levels of oxidative stress, this review aims to clarify what role can played the dietary intake of different antioxidants in maintaining a healthy periodontium and in reducing chronic periodontitis risk, as well as possible use of dietary therapies based on them for this disease treatment. Methods: The database of the National Library of Medicine, Washington, DC (MEDLINE PubMed was used and all the studies in animals and humans are on the subject of interest in English writing online available from inception of the database until May 2015 were collected. Results: Antioxidants analyzed in this regard include vitamin C, vitamin A, carotenoids and some polyphenols, and coenzyme Q; as well as minerals iron, copper and zinc that are constituents of antioxidant enzymes. Still, there is a paucity of studies with few human studies, mostly observational. Among the various antioxidants, vitamin E and polyphenols seem to have more evidence for its beneficial effect, but in general the studies are insufficient to rule out or establish what antioxidants are useful and which are not. Conclusions: Overall, the data presented indicate that dietary antioxidants are beneficial for periodontal health, at least under certain circumstances. However more studies are needed to establish the relationship between chronic periodontitis and each specific antioxidant and to design useful dietary interventions for this disease management.

  1. Dietary Intakes and Eating Habits of College Athletes: Are Female College Athletes Following the Current Sports Nutrition Standards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriver, Lenka H.; Betts, Nancy M.; Wollenberg, Gena

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to assess dietary intakes and eating habits of female college athletes and compared them with the minimum sports nutrition standards. Participants: Data were obtained from 52 female college athletes from a National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I university between January 2009 and May…

  2. Human Milk Fortifiers Do Not Meet the Current Recommendation for Nutrients in Very Low Birth Weight Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Winston; Tice, Hilary

    2017-06-01

    Use of multinutrient fortifiers is standard of care for small preterm infants fed exclusively human milk. However, adequacy of human milk fortifiers (HMFs) to meet the recommended intake for macronutrients and micronutrients is now known. Nutrient content of human milk fortified according to manufacturer's recommendations was compared at isocaloric levels for 1 human milk-based (HMF-A), 2 bovine milk protein-based (HMF-B, HMF-C), and 2 preterm infant formulas (PTF-B, PTF-C). In addition, 4 multivitamin supplements were compared. At 130 kcal/kg, intake of macronutrients was similar to the recommendation, although deficient and excess intake of micronutrient occurred with all fortifiers. Four to 9 micronutrients were absent in HMF or PTF (biotin, choline, inositol, carnitine, taurine, molybdenum, iodine, selenium, or chromium). For the remainder, HMF resulted in deficient intake for 1-13 micronutrients, occurring most frequently with HMF-A. Excess micronutrients (3-15 at <50% and 1-3 at 109%-437%) occurred with all HMF and most frequently with HMF-B and HMF-C. At 150 kcal/kg, deficient intake improved but generally remained below recommendation, while excess intake became exaggerated. PTF and multivitamin formulations do not fully compensate for the deficiencies and can result in extremely high micronutrient intake. At the recommended energy intake for very low birth weight infants, many micronutrients are absent or are present in grossly inadequate amounts, and several micronutrients are in excess. Reformulation of HMF is urgently needed since PTF or multivitamin supplement only partially corrects some deficiencies while providing some nutrients in excess. ( JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. XXXX;xx:xx-xx).

  3. Does intravenous induction dosing among patients undergoing gastrointestinal surgical procedures follow current recommendations: a study of contemporary practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Shamsuddin; Liu, Jia; Heng, Joseph; Dai, Feng; Schonberger, Robert B; Burg, Matthew M

    2016-09-01

    It is recommended to correct intravenous induction doses by up to 50% for patients older than 65 years. The objectives were to determine (a) the degree to which anesthesia providers correct induction doses for age and (b) additionally adjust for American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status (ASA-PS) class (severity of illness) and (c) whether postinduction hypotension is more common among patients aged >65. Retrospective chart review. Academic medical center. A total of 1869 adult patients receiving general anesthesia for GI surgical procedures from February 2013 to January 2014. Patients were divided into 3 age groups (age 80, which was still in less than the recommendations. An inverse relationship was observed between propofol dosing and ASA-PS class, but no consistent relationship was noted for fentanyl and midazolam. There were a significantly larger drop in mean arterial pressure and a greater likelihood of hypotension following induction in patients aged 65-79 years and >80 years as compared with those aged <65 years. This study shows that the administered dose of anesthetic induction agents is significantly higher than that recommended for patients older than 65 years. This failure to age-adjust dose may contribute to hypotensive episodes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Indicator Amino Acid Oxidation Method with the Use of l-[1-13C]Leucine Suggests a Higher than Currently Recommended Protein Requirement in Children with Phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turki, Abrar; Ueda, Keiko; Cheng, Barbara; Giezen, Alette; Salvarinova, Ramona; Stockler-Ipsiroglu, Sylvia; Elango, Rajavel

    2017-02-01

    Phenylketonuria is characterized by mutations in the Phe hydroxylase gene that leads to the accumulation of Phe in plasma and the brain. The standard of care for phenylketonuria is nutritional management with dietary restriction of Phe and the provision of sufficient protein and energy for growth and health maintenance. The protein requirement in children with phenylketonuria is empirically determined based upon phenylketonuria nutritional guidelines that are adjusted individually in response to biochemical markers and growth. We determined dietary protein requirements in children with phenylketonuria with the use of the indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) technique, with l-[1- 13 C]Leu as the indicator amino acid. Four children (2 males; 2 females) aged 9-18 y with phenylketonuria [mild hyperphenylalanemia (mHPA); 6-10 mg/dL (360-600 μmol/L)] were recruited to participate in ≥7 separate test protein intakes (range: 0.2-3.2 g ⋅ kg -1 ⋅ d -1 ) with the IAAO protocol with the use of l-[1- 13 C]Leu followed by the collection of breath and urine samples over 8 h. The diets were isocaloric and provided energy at 1.7 times the resting energy expenditure. Protein was provided as a crystalline amino acid mixture based on an egg protein pattern, except Phe and Leu, which were maintained at a constant across intakes. Protein requirement was determined with the use of a 2-phase linear-regression crossover analysis of the rate of l-[1- 13 C]Leu tracer oxidation. The mean protein requirement was determined to be 1.85 g ⋅ kg -1 ⋅ d -1 (R 2 = 0.66; 95% CI: 1.37, 2.33). This result is substantially higher than the 2014 phenylketonuria recommendations (1.14-1.33 g ⋅ kg -1 ⋅ d -1 ; based on 120-140% above the current RDA for age). To our knowledge, this is the first study to directly define a quantitative requirement for protein intake in children with mHPA and indicates that current protein recommendations in children with phenylketonuria may be insufficient. This

  5. Comparison between Complementary Dietary Treatment of Alzheimer Disease in Iranian Traditional Medicine and Modern Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    AHMADIAN-ATTARI, Mohammad Mahdi; MOSADDEGH, Mahmoud; KAZEMNEJAD, Anooshiravan; NOORBALA, Ahmad Ali

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Dietary notifications have been introduced recently for Alzheimer Disease (AD). In Iranian old medical manuscripts, there are some nutritional recommendations related to Nesyan (AD equivalent). The aim of this article was to compare dietary recommendations of Iranian traditional medicine (ITM) with novel medical outcomes. Methods 1) Searching for dietary recommendations and abstinences described in ITM credible manuscripts; 2) Extracting fatty components of ITM diet according to the database of the Department of Agriculture of the USA; 3) Statistical analysis of fatty elements of traditionally recommended foods via Mann-Whitney Test in comparison with elements of the abstinent ones; 4) Searching for AD dietary recommendations and abstinences which currently published in medical journals; 5) Comparing traditional and new dietary suggestions with each other. Results 1) Traditionally recommended foods are fattier than abstinent ones (PTraditionally recommended diet is also fattier than the abstinent diet (4.5 times); UFAs of the recommended diet is 11 times more than that of the abstinent one; it is the same story for cholesterol (1.4 times); 3) Recent studies show that diets with high amounts of UFAs have positive effects on AD; a considerable number of papers emphasizes on probable positive role of cholesterol on AD; 4) Traditional recommended diet is in agreement with recent studies. Conclusion ITM recommended diet which is full of unsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol can be utilized for complementary treatment of AD. PMID:26060643

  6. Hepatitis C in sub-Saharan Africa: the current status and recommendations for achieving elimination by 2030.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonderup, Mark W; Afihene, Mary; Ally, Reidwaan; Apica, Betty; Awuku, Yaw; Cunha, Lina; Dusheiko, Geoffrey; Gogela, Neliswa; Lohouès-Kouacou, Marie-Jeanne; Lam, Phillip; Lesi, Olufunmilayo; Mbaye, Papa Saliou; Musabeyezu, Emmanuel; Musau, Betty; Ojo, Olesegun; Rwegasha, John; Scholz, Barbara; Shewaye, Abate B; Tzeuton, Christian; Kassianides, Chris; Spearman, C Wendy

    2017-12-01

    In 2016, WHO adopted a strategy for the elimination of viral hepatitis by 2030. Africa, and more specifically, sub-Saharan Africa, carries a substantial portion of the global burden of viral hepatitis, especially chronic hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus infections. The task that lies ahead for sub-Saharan Africa to achieve elimination is substantial, but not insurmountable. Major developments in the management of hepatitis C have put elimination within reach, but several difficulties will need to be navigated on the path to elimination. Many of the challenges faced are unique to sub-Saharan Africa and the development of strategies is complicated by a scarcity of good data from countries and regions within sub-Saharan Africa. However, this hindrance should not act as a barrier to delay interventions in screening, detection, and linkage to care. Moreover, by sharing experiences from across sub-Saharan Africa, countries can create supranational synergies to develop their programmes and work together in a more cohesive manner to tackle the burden of hepatitis C in sub-Saharan Africa. In this Series paper, several issues related to hepatitis C in sub-Saharan Africa are addressed, including prevalence, risk factors, and fibrosis assessment, and recommendations are given by experts from across the region. Simplified diagnostic algorithms and treatment regimens for both HIV co-infected and hepatitis C mono-infected patients are suggested. The recommendations are consensus based and provided to guide the development of programmes in sub-Saharan Africa. Political will and appropriate funding will be required to provide impetus to implement these recommendations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Nutritional recommendations for cardiovascular disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilat-Adar, Sigal; Sinai, Tali; Yosefy, Chaim; Henkin, Yaakov

    2013-09-17

    Lifestyle factors, including nutrition, play an important role in the etiology of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD). This position paper, written by collaboration between the Israel Heart Association and the Israel Dietetic Association, summarizes the current, preferably latest, literature on the association of nutrition and CVD with emphasis on the level of evidence and practical recommendations. The nutritional information is divided into three main sections: dietary patterns, individual food items, and nutritional supplements. The dietary patterns reviewed include low carbohydrate diet, low-fat diet, Mediterranean diet, and the DASH diet. Foods reviewed in the second section include: whole grains and dietary fiber, vegetables and fruits, nuts, soy, dairy products, alcoholic drinks, coffee and caffeine, tea, chocolate, garlic, and eggs. Supplements reviewed in the third section include salt and sodium, omega-3 and fish oil, phytosterols, antioxidants, vitamin D, magnesium, homocysteine-reducing agents, and coenzyme Q10.

  8. Nutritional Recommendations for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaakov Henkin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Lifestyle factors, including nutrition, play an important role in the etiology of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD. This position paper, written by collaboration between the Israel Heart Association and the Israel Dietetic Association, summarizes the current, preferably latest, literature on the association of nutrition and CVD with emphasis on the level of evidence and practical recommendations. The nutritional information is divided into three main sections: dietary patterns, individual food items, and nutritional supplements. The dietary patterns reviewed include low carbohydrate diet, low-fat diet, Mediterranean diet, and the DASH diet. Foods reviewed in the second section include: whole grains and dietary fiber, vegetables and fruits, nuts, soy, dairy products, alcoholic drinks, coffee and caffeine, tea, chocolate, garlic, and eggs. Supplements reviewed in the third section include salt and sodium, omega-3 and fish oil, phytosterols, antioxidants, vitamin D, magnesium, homocysteine-reducing agents, and coenzyme Q10.

  9. Nutritional Recommendations for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilat-Adar, Sigal; Sinai, Tali; Yosefy, Chaim; Henkin, Yaakov

    2013-01-01

    Lifestyle factors, including nutrition, play an important role in the etiology of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD). This position paper, written by collaboration between the Israel Heart Association and the Israel Dietetic Association, summarizes the current, preferably latest, literature on the association of nutrition and CVD with emphasis on the level of evidence and practical recommendations. The nutritional information is divided into three main sections: dietary patterns, individual food items, and nutritional supplements. The dietary patterns reviewed include low carbohydrate diet, low-fat diet, Mediterranean diet, and the DASH diet. Foods reviewed in the second section include: whole grains and dietary fiber, vegetables and fruits, nuts, soy, dairy products, alcoholic drinks, coffee and caffeine, tea, chocolate, garlic, and eggs. Supplements reviewed in the third section include salt and sodium, omega-3 and fish oil, phytosterols, antioxidants, vitamin D, magnesium, homocysteine-reducing agents, and coenzyme Q10. PMID:24067391

  10. Dietary patterns extracted from the current Japanese diet and their associations with sodium and potassium intakes estimated by repeated 24 h urine collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Aya; Asakura, Keiko; Uechi, Ken; Masayasu, Shizuko; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2016-10-01

    To identify dietary patterns in the current Japanese diet and evaluate the associations between these patterns and Na and K intakes. Dietary patterns were extracted by factor analysis from the intakes of food groups assessed with a validated self-administrated diet history questionnaire. Na and K intakes and urinary Na:K were assessed by repeated 24 h urine collection. Healthy Japanese adults aged 20-69 years (353 men and 349 women). Twenty study areas in twenty-three prefectures in Japan. Result Four dietary patterns were identified in each sex. After adjustment for several confounding factors, the 'Fish and vegetable' pattern was associated with higher urinary Na excretion, but the association was not significant (P=0·37 in men and P=0·06 in women). This pattern was also associated with higher K excretion in both sexes. The 'Noodle' pattern tended to be associated with higher urinary Na excretion (P=0·17 in men and P=0·04 in women) and higher Na:K (P=0·02 in men). The 'Meat, vegetable and oil' (in men)/'Meat and oil' (in women) and 'Bread and confectioneries' patterns were not associated with urinary Na excretion (in men) or were negatively associated (in women). Contrary to the case in Western countries, the 'Fish and vegetable' and 'Noodle' patterns contributed to higher Na intake in Japan. Target foods for salt reduction should be set based on careful consideration of the relationships between dietary patterns and Na and K intakes in the target population.

  11. Review of Current Student-Monitoring Techniques used in eLearning-Focused recommender Systems and Learning analytics. The Experience API & LIME model Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Corbi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Recommender systems require input information in order to properly operate and deliver content or behaviour suggestions to end users. eLearning scenarios are no exception. Users are current students and recommendations can be built upon paths (both formal and informal, relationships, behaviours, friends, followers, actions, grades, tutor interaction, etc. A recommender system must somehow retrieve, categorize and work with all these details. There are several ways to do so: from raw and inelegant database access to more curated web APIs or even via HTML scrapping. New server-centric user-action logging and monitoring standard technologies have been presented in past years by several groups, organizations and standard bodies. The Experience API (xAPI, detailed in this article, is one of these. In the first part of this paper we analyse current learner-monitoring techniques as an initialization phase for eLearning recommender systems. We next review standardization efforts in this area; finally, we focus on xAPI and the potential interaction with the LIME model, which will be also summarized below.

  12. Dietary changes and food intake in the first year after breast cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Vivienne; Campbell, Sharon; McCargar, Linda; Mourtzakis, Marina; Hanning, Rhona

    2014-06-01

    Understanding dietary habits of women after breast cancer is a critical first step in developing nutrition guidelines that will support weight management and optimal health in survivorship; however, limited data are available. The objective of this study was to describe changes in diet among breast cancer survivors in the first year after treatment, and to evaluate these changes in the context of current dietary intake. Changes in diet were assessed in 28 early stage breast cancer survivors, using a self-reported survey in which women identified changes in food intake since their diagnosis. Current dietary intake was estimated from 3-day food records and described relative to current recommendations. The majority of women reported changes in diet after diagnosis, most common being an increase in vegetables/fruit and fish, lower intake of red meat, and reduced alcohol. Many women reported that these changes were initiated during active treatment. Dietary changes were largely consistent with current recommendations for cancer prevention; however, some women were still above the guidelines for total and saturated fat, and many were below recommendations for vegetables/fruit, milk/alternatives, calcium, and vitamin D. Evidence that some women are willing and able to initiate positive changes in diet early in the treatment trajectory suggests that early intervention may be effective in promoting dietary habits that will assist with weight management and overall health. Data on current dietary intake highlights several possible targets for dietary intervention in this population.

  13. Nutrition (Micronutrients) in Child Growth and Development: A Systematic Review on Current Evidence, Recommendations and Opportunities for Further Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakoob, Mohammad Yawar; Lo, Clifford W

    2017-10-01

    An important aspect of malnutrition is deficiency of different micronutrients during pregnancy or early childhood. We systematically reviewed the role of nutrition in child growth (weight or height gain) and development. A comprehensive literature search was done on PubMed/Cochrane Library browsing through 38,795 abstracts until December 31, 2016 to select systematic reviews/meta-analyses and individual randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of micronutrient supplementation. Micronutrients studied included iron, iodine, folate, zinc, calcium, magnesium, selenium, vitamin D, vitamin A, vitamin B complex, and multiple micronutrients. We summarize evidence with details and results of RCTs, highlight strengths/weaknesses, and critically interpret findings. Effects of breastfeeding-promotion, food-supplementation (complementary and school feeding), conditional-cash-transfers, and integrated nutrition/psychosocial interventions are discussed. Based on this evidence we make policy and programmatic recommendations for supplementation to mothers and children at high-risk of deficiency.

  14. Do Current Recommendations for Upper Instrumented Vertebra Predict Shoulder Imbalance? An Attempted Validation of Level Selection for Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerke, Benjamin T; Cheung, Zoe B; Shifflett, Grant D; Iyer, Sravisht; Derman, Peter B; Cunningham, Matthew E

    2015-10-01

    Shoulder balance for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients is associated with patient satisfaction and self-image. However, few validated systems exist for selecting the upper instrumented vertebra (UIV) post-surgical shoulder balance. The purpose is to examine the existing UIV selection criteria and correlate with post-surgical shoulder balance in AIS patients. Patients who underwent spinal fusion at age 10-18 years for AIS over a 6-year period were reviewed. All patients with a minimum of 1-year radiographic follow-up were included. Imbalance was determined to be radiographic shoulder height |RSH| ≥ 15 mm at latest follow-up. Three UIV selection methods were considered: Lenke, Ilharreborde, and Trobisch. A recommended UIV was determined using each method from pre-surgical radiographs. The recommended UIV for each method was compared to the actual UIV instrumented for all three methods; concordance between these levels was defined as "Correct" UIV selection, and discordance was defined as "Incorrect" selection. One hundred seventy-one patients were included with 2.3 ± 1.1 year follow-up. For all methods, "Correct" UIV selection resulted in more shoulder imbalance than "Incorrect" UIV selection. Overall shoulder imbalance incidence was improved from 31.0% (53/171) to 15.2% (26/171). New shoulder imbalance incidence for patients with previously level shoulders was 8.8%. We could not identify a set of UIV selection criteria that accurately predicted post-surgical shoulder balance. Further validated measures are needed in this area. The complexity of proximal thoracic curve correction is underscored in a case example, where shoulder imbalance occurred despite "Correct" UIV selection by all methods.

  15. Evidence for current recommendations concerning the management of foot health for people with chronic long-term conditions: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Edwards

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research focusing on management of foot health has become more evident over the past decade, especially related to chronic conditions such as diabetes. The level of methodological rigour across this body of work however is varied and outputs do not appear to have been developed or translated into clinical practice. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the latest guidelines, standards of care and current recommendations relative to people with chronic conditions to ascertain the level of supporting evidence concerning the management of foot health. Methods A systematic search of electronic databases (Medline, Embase, Cinahl, Web of Science, SCOPUS and The Cochrane Library for literature on recommendations for foot health management for people with chronic conditions was performed between 2000 and 2016 using predefined criteria. Data from the included publications was synthesised via template analysis, employing a thematic organisation and structure. The methodological quality of all included publications was appraised using the Appraisal for Research and Evaluation (AGREE II instrument. A more in-depth analysis was carried out that specifically considered the levels of evidence that underpinned the strength of their recommendations concerning management of foot health. Results The data collected revealed 166 publications in which the majority (102 were guidelines, standards of care or recommendations related to the treatment and management of diabetes. We noted a trend towards a systematic year on year increase in guidelines standards of care or recommendations related to the treatment and management of long term conditions other than diabetes over the past decade. The most common recommendation is for preventive care or assessments (e.g. vascular tests, followed by clinical interventions such as foot orthoses, foot ulcer care and foot health education. Methodological quality was spread across the range of AGREE II

  16. What Current Literature Tells Us about Sustainable Diets: Emerging Research Linking Dietary Patterns, Environmental Sustainability, and Economics12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auestad, Nancy; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2015-01-01

    The concept of sustainable diets, although not new, is gaining increased attention across the globe, especially in relation to projected population growth and growing concerns about climate change. As defined by the FAO (Proceedings of the International Scientific Symposium, Biodiversity and Sustainable Diets 2010; FAO 2012), “Sustainable diets are those diets with low environmental impacts which contribute to food and nutrition security and to healthy life for present and future generations.” Consistent and credible science that brings together agriculture, food systems, nutrition, public health, environment, economics, culture, and trade is needed to identify synergies and trade-offs and to inform guidance on vital elements of healthy, sustainable diets. The aim of this article is to review the emerging research on environmental and related economic impacts of dietary patterns, including habitual eating patterns, nutritionally balanced diets, and a variety of different dietary scenarios. Approaches to research designs, methodologies, and data sources are compared and contrasted to identify research gaps and future research needs. To date, it is difficult to assimilate all of the disparate approaches, and more concerted efforts for multidisciplinary studies are needed. PMID:25593141

  17. What current literature tells us about sustainable diets: emerging research linking dietary patterns, environmental sustainability, and economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auestad, Nancy; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2015-01-01

    The concept of sustainable diets, although not new, is gaining increased attention across the globe, especially in relation to projected population growth and growing concerns about climate change. As defined by the FAO (Proceedings of the International Scientific Symposium, Biodiversity and Sustainable Diets 2010; FAO 2012), "Sustainable diets are those diets with low environmental impacts which contribute to food and nutrition security and to healthy life for present and future generations." Consistent and credible science that brings together agriculture, food systems, nutrition, public health, environment, economics, culture, and trade is needed to identify synergies and trade-offs and to inform guidance on vital elements of healthy, sustainable diets. The aim of this article is to review the emerging research on environmental and related economic impacts of dietary patterns, including habitual eating patterns, nutritionally balanced diets, and a variety of different dietary scenarios. Approaches to research designs, methodologies, and data sources are compared and contrasted to identify research gaps and future research needs. To date, it is difficult to assimilate all of the disparate approaches, and more concerted efforts for multidisciplinary studies are needed. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. Consumer accounts of favourable dietary behaviour change and comparison with official dietary guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ares, Gastón; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Vidal, Leticia; Machín, Leandro; Moratorio, Ximena; Bandeira, Elisa; Curutchet, María Rosa; Bove, Isabel; Giménez, Ana

    2018-07-01

    The current study aimed to assess Uruguayan consumers' accounts of their own need to change their dietary patterns, their intended changes and the barriers related to doing so, and to compare the intentions and barriers with the recommendations of the national dietary guidelines. An online survey with 2381 Uruguayan employed adults, aged between 18 and 65 years, 65 % females, was conducted. Participants had to answer two open-ended questions related to changes they could make in the foods they eat and/or the way in which they eat to improve the quality of their diet and the reasons why they had not implemented those changes yet. Content analysis using inductive coding by two researchers was used to analyse the responses. Consumers mainly intended to change consumption of types of foods, particularly eating more fruits, vegetables and legumes and consuming less flour, but also intended to alter their eating patterns. Lack of time and the fact that healthy foods are perceived as being more expensive than unhealthy foods were major barriers to behaviour change. Some of the recommendations of the dietary guidelines, particularly those related to enjoying cooking and meals and engaging in it as a social activity, were not represented in consumer accounts. Accompanying policies to the dietary guidelines need to underline the importance of changes in dietary patterns, including greater enjoyment and sharing food preparation and meals in the company with others, address misconceptions about flour, and provide concrete, consumer-derived recommendations on how to enact the guidelines.

  19. Using mobile technology to promote safe sex and sexual health in adolescents: current practices and future recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelius JB

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Judith B Cornelius,1 Josephine A Appiah2 1School of Nursing, 2Health Services Research Doctoral Program, College of Health and Human Services, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC, USA Abstract: Youth and young adults (19–24 years of age shoulder the burden of sexually transmitted infections accounting for nearly half of all new infections annually. Mobile technology is one way that we have reached this population with safer sex information but challenges exist with the delivery process. The literature between 2010 and 2015 was reviewed for data on safe sex and sexual health information delivered using mobile cell phone devices. A search for relevant databases revealed that 17 articles met our inclusion criteria. Findings suggest that mobile cell phone interventions are an effective mode for delivering safe sex and sexual health information to youth; those at the highest risk may not be able to access cell phones based on availability and cost of the text messages or data plans. Keywords: mobile, safe sex, sexual health, practices, recommendations

  20. Tailoring pharmacotherapy to specific eating behaviours in obesity: Can recommendations for personalised therapy be made from the current data?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Carl A; Christiansen, Paul; Halford, Jason C G

    2017-08-01

    Pharmacotherapy provides an adjunct to behaviour modification in the management of obesity. There are a number of new drug therapies purportedly targeting appetite; liraglutide, and bupropion/naltrexone, which are European Medicines Agency and US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved, and lorcaserin and phentermine/topiramate, which have FDA approval only. Each of the six drugs, used singly or in combination, has distinct pharmacological, and presumably distinct behavioural, mechanisms of action, thus the potential to provide defined therapeutic options to personalise the management of obesity. Yet, with regard to pharmacotherapy for obesity, we are far from true personalised medicine. We review the limited mechanistic data with four mono and combination pharmacotherapies, to assess the potential for tailoring their use to target specific obesogenic behaviours. Potential treatment options are considered, but in the absence of adequate research in respect to effects of these drugs on eating behaviour, neural activity and psychological substrates that underlie poorly controlled eating, we are far from definitive therapeutic recommendations. Specific mechanistic studies and broader behavioural phenotyping, possibly in conjunction with pharmacogenetic research, are required to characterise responders for distinct pharmacotherapeutic options.

  1. National Children's Study Dietary Assessment Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Children's Study dietary assessment workshop was an opportunity for experts in dietary assessment methodology to gather and discuss the current state of knowledge about methodologies used to assess dietary intake during pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adolescence.

  2. Conflicts of interests in the area of healthcare products and technology. Current state of affairs and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarez, Jean-Paul; Funck-Brentano, Christian; Molimard, Mathieu

    2012-01-01

    The handling of conflicts of interest in the area of healthcare products and technology has become a major issue for all of those involved in healthcare. Round Table N°4 at the Giens Workshops 2011 has put forward concrete proposals to clarify and optimise the handling of conflicts of interest. Conflicts of interest cannot be defined by the individuals consulted or applying for funds since each institution, whether public or private, that puts out a call for projects or that requests advice, analyses or expert testimony in the healthcare field has different degrees of what it defines as a conflict of interest, depending on the context of the proposal or specific request that it puts out. In contrast, each individual has ties of personal interest that can and must be openly disclosed. The ties are much more diverse than what is commonly found in the conflict of interest statements of large institutions operating in the healthcare field and are not limited to financial and operational ties between companies and individuals. In addition, the statements are difficult to manage because of their sheer number. The Round Table recommends that each individual should openly disclose all of his or her ties of personal interest in a Single Statement of Ties of personal Interest (SSTI). The SSTI would be updated regularly and accessible on line. Each institution could then determine whether or not the reported ties represent a conflict in the context of the mission proposed. Each institution could publish in advance the conditions that would give rise to a conflict and, in this way, an individual could refrain from applying for the mission. Other practical approaches to handling conflicts of interest were put forward. © 2012 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  3. Can we prepare our bodies over the year to cope with Ramadan fasting more easily? Imam Reza’s health and dietary recommendations for different months of the year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Roudi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Weather conditions, comprised of multiple parameters (e.g., atmospheric pressure, wind, temperature, moisture, and heat vary during different months of the year. These variations influence almost all organisms including humans (1. Proper nutritional diet is one of the factors which can lead to human adjustment with atmospheric changes. Imam Reza, the eighth Shia Imam, has presented the most effective and thorough dietary suggestions for different months of the year. In this article, we studied his debates in his medical book, known as “Al-Risalah al-Dhahabiah fi alTibb” (the golden medical dissertation, using the analytical library method. We reviewed and highlighted these recommendations and tried to determine if they could promote the body stamina to cope with Ramadan fasting.

  4. An appraisal of current regulations and recommendations in relation to proposals for the use of X-ray optics equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weatherley, E.G.

    1984-01-01

    Current regulatory requirements for the use of x-ray optics equipment in factories are compared with the 19-year-old Guidance Notes for their use in research and teaching establishments. The difficulties in drafting new legislation to cater for both areas of use are discussed and the proposed regulations and approved code of practice having a direct bearing on x-ray optics equipment are reviewed. Comment is made concerning the proposed Health and Safety Executive document, ''Radiation Safety in the use of X-ray Optics Equipment, which will give practical advice and guidance on cost effective methods of achieving the regulatory objectives. The costs involved are unlikely to be significant for the majority of users and implementation of the proposed legislation should not restrict the use of x-ray optics equipment. (author)

  5. Solitary pulmonary nodule and {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT. Part 2: accuracy, cost-effectiveness, and current recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosmann, Marcos Pretto; Borba, Marcelle Alves; Macedo, Francisco Pires Negromonte de; Liguori, Adriano de Araujo Lima; Villarim Neto, Arthur [Liga Norte-Riograndense Contra o Cancer, Natal, RN (Brazil); Lima, Kenio Costa de, E-mail: mosmann@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Saude Coletiva

    2016-03-15

    A solitary pulmonary nodule is a common, often incidental, radiographic finding. The investigation and differential diagnosis of solitary pulmonary nodules remain complex, because there are overlaps between the characteristics of benign and malignant processes. There are currently many strategies for evaluating solitary pulmonary nodules. The main objective is to identify benign lesions, in order to avoid exposing patients to the risks of invasive methods, and to detect cases of lung cancer accurately, in order to avoid delaying potentially curative treatment. The focus of this study was to review the evaluation of solitary pulmonary nodules, to discuss the current role of {sup 18}F fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography, addressing its accuracy and cost-effectiveness, and to detail the current recommendations for the examination in this scenario. (author)

  6. [Nutrition and Metabolism Group of the Spanish Neonatology Society: recommendations and evidence for dietary supplementation with probiotics in very low birth weight infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narbona López, E; Uberos Fernández, J; Armadá Maresca, M I; Couce Pico, M L; Rodríguez Martínez, G; Saenz de Pipaon, M

    2014-12-01

    Clinical practice guidelines are an important tool for improving healthcare. In recent years there has been accumulating evidence on the impact of nutritional supplementation with probiotics in the very low birth weight infants. With no uniformity in microorganisms and strains used. The Spanish Neonatology Society (SENeo), through its Nutrition and Metabolism Group has undertaken to develop recommendations that will be useful as a guide for the neonatologist in this field. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Alternative fuel buses currently in use in China: Life-cycle fossil energy use, GHG emissions and policy recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou Xunmin; Zhang Xiliang; Chang Shiyan

    2010-01-01

    The Chinese government has enacted policies to promote alternative vehicle fuels (AVFs) and alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), including city bus fleets. The life cycle (LC), energy savings (ES) and GHG reduction (GR) profiles of AVFs/AFVs are critical to those policy decisions. The well-to-wheels module of the Tsinghua-CA3EM model is employed to investigate actual performance data. Compared with conventional buses, AFVs offer differences in performance in terms of both ES and GR. Only half of the AFVs analyzed demonstrate dual benefits. However, all non-oil/gas pathways can substitute oil/gas with coal. Current policies seek to promote technology improvements and market creation initiatives within the guiding framework of national-level diversification and district-level uniformity. Combined with their actual LC behavior and in keeping with near- and long-term strategies, integrated policies should seek to (1) apply hybrid electric technology to diesel buses; (2) encourage NG/LPG buses in gas-abundant cities; (3) promote commercialize electric buses or plug-in capable vehicles through battery technology innovation; (4) support fuel cell buses and hydrogen technology R and D for future potential applications; and (5) conduct further research on boosting vehicle fuel efficiency, applying low-carbon transportation technologies, and addressing all resultant implications of coal-based transportation solutions to human health and natural resources.

  8. Alternative fuel buses currently in use in China: Life-cycle fossil energy use, GHG emissions and policy recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ou Xunmin, E-mail: oxm07@mails.tsinghua.edu.c [School of Public Policy and Management (SPPM), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang Xiliang, E-mail: zhang_xl@tsinghua.edu.c [China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Chang Shiyan [China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-01-15

    The Chinese government has enacted policies to promote alternative vehicle fuels (AVFs) and alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), including city bus fleets. The life cycle (LC), energy savings (ES) and GHG reduction (GR) profiles of AVFs/AFVs are critical to those policy decisions. The well-to-wheels module of the Tsinghua-CA3EM model is employed to investigate actual performance data. Compared with conventional buses, AFVs offer differences in performance in terms of both ES and GR. Only half of the AFVs analyzed demonstrate dual benefits. However, all non-oil/gas pathways can substitute oil/gas with coal. Current policies seek to promote technology improvements and market creation initiatives within the guiding framework of national-level diversification and district-level uniformity. Combined with their actual LC behavior and in keeping with near- and long-term strategies, integrated policies should seek to (1) apply hybrid electric technology to diesel buses; (2) encourage NG/LPG buses in gas-abundant cities; (3) promote commercialize electric buses or plug-in capable vehicles through battery technology innovation; (4) support fuel cell buses and hydrogen technology R and D for future potential applications; and (5) conduct further research on boosting vehicle fuel efficiency, applying low-carbon transportation technologies, and addressing all resultant implications of coal-based transportation solutions to human health and natural resources.

  9. Alternative fuel buses currently in use in China. Life-cycle fossil energy use, GHG emissions and policy recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ou, Xunmin [School of Public Policy and Management (SPPM), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang, Xiliang; Chang, Shiyan [China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-01-15

    The Chinese government has enacted policies to promote alternative vehicle fuels (AVFs) and alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), including city bus fleets. The life cycle (LC), energy savings (ES) and GHG reduction (GR) profiles of AVFs/AFVs are critical to those policy decisions. The well-to-wheels module of the Tsinghua-CA3EM model is employed to investigate actual performance data. Compared with conventional buses, AFVs offer differences in performance in terms of both ES and GR. Only half of the AFVs analyzed demonstrate dual benefits. However, all non-oil/gas pathways can substitute oil/gas with coal. Current policies seek to promote technology improvements and market creation initiatives within the guiding framework of national-level diversification and district-level uniformity. Combined with their actual LC behavior and in keeping with near- and long-term strategies, integrated policies should seek to (1) apply hybrid electric technology to diesel buses; (2) encourage NG/LPG buses in gas-abundant cities; (3) promote commercialize electric buses or plug-in capable vehicles through battery technology innovation; (4) support fuel cell buses and hydrogen technology R and D for future potential applications; and (5) conduct further research on boosting vehicle fuel efficiency, applying low-carbon transportation technologies, and addressing all resultant implications of coal-based transportation solutions to human health and natural resources. (author)

  10. Adherence to the USDA Food Guide, DASH Eating Plan, and Mediterranean dietary pattern reduces risk of colorectal adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, L Beth; Subar, Amy F; Peters, Ulrike; Weissfeld, Joel L; Bresalier, Robert S; Risch, Adam; Schatzkin, Arthur; Hayes, Richard B

    2007-11-01

    The 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans include quantitative recommendations for 2 eating patterns, the USDA Food Guide and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) Eating Plan, to promote optimal health and reduce disease risk. A Mediterranean dietary pattern has also been promoted for health benefits. Our objective was to determine whether adherence to the USDA Food Guide recommendations, the DASH Eating Plan, or a Mediterranean dietary pattern is associated with reduced risk of distal colorectal adenoma. In the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial, men and women aged 55-74 y were screened for colorectal cancer by sigmoidoscopy at 10 centers in the U.S. After adjusting for potential confounders, men who most complied with the USDA Food Guide recommendations had a 26% reduced risk of colorectal adenoma compared with men who least complied with the recommendations (OR USDA score >or= 5 vs. dietary pattern. Women who most complied with the USDA Food Guide recommendations had an 18% reduced risk for colorectal adenoma, but subgroup analyses revealed protective associations only for current smokers (OR USDA score >or= 5 vs. or= 5 vs. dietary recommendations or a Mediterranean dietary pattern is associated with reduced risk of colorectal adenoma, especially in men.

  11. Dietary intake of phytoestrogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker MI; SIR

    2004-01-01

    The dietary intake of phytoestrogens supposedly influences a variety of diseases, both in terms of beneficial and adverse effects. This report describes current knowledge on dietary intakes of phytoestrogens in Western countries, and briefly summarizes the evidence for health effects. The

  12. Recommendations regarding dietary intake and caffeine and alcohol consumption in patients with cardiac arrhythmias: what do you tell your patients to do or not to do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatter, Kathryn A; Myers, Richard; Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan

    2012-10-01

    The etiology of arrhythmias including atrial fibrillation is multifactorial. Most arrhythmias are associated with comorbid illnesses like hypertension, diabetes, thyroid disease, or advanced age. Although it is tempting to blame a stimulant like caffeine as a trigger for arrhythmias, the literature does not support this idea. There is no real benefit to having patients with arrhythmias limit their caffeine intake. Caffeine is a vasoactive substance that also may promote the release of norepinephrine and epinephrine. However, acute ingestion of caffeine (as coffee or tea) does not cause atrial fibrillation. Even patients suffering a myocardial infarction do not have an increased incidence of ventricular or other arrhythmias after ingesting several cups of coffee. Large epidemiologic studies have also failed to find a connection between the amount of coffee/caffeine used and the development of arrhythmias. As such, it does not make sense to suggest that patients with palpitations, paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, or supraventricular tachycardia, abstain from caffeine use. Energy drinks are a new phenomenon on the beverage market, with 30-50 % of young adults and teens using them regularly. Energy drinks are loaded with caffeine, sugar, and other chemicals that can stimulate the cardiac system. There is an increasing body of mainly anecdotal case reports describing arrhythmias or even sudden death triggered by exercise plus using energy drinks. Clearly, there must be more study in this area, but it is wise to either limit or avoid their use in patients with arrhythmias. Moderate to heavy alcohol use seems to be associated with the development of atrial fibrillation. The term "holiday heart" was coined back in 1978, to describe patients who had atrial fibrillation following binge alcohol use. Thus, it is reasonable to recommend to patients with arrhythmias that they limit their alcohol use, although unfortunately this treatment will likely not completely resolve their

  13. Evaluation of the validity of treatment decisions based on surrogate country models before introduction of the Polish FRAX and recommendations in comparison to current practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glinkowski, Wojciech M; Narloch, Jerzy; Glinkowska, Bożena; Bandura, Małgorzata

    2018-03-01

    Patients diagnosed before the Polish FRAX was introduced may require re-evaluation and treatment changes if the diagnosis was established according to a surrogate country FRAX score. The aim of the study was to evaluate the validity of treatment decisions based on the surrogate country model before introduction of the Polish FRAX and to provide recommendations based on the current practice. We evaluated a group of 142 postmenopausal women (70.7 ±8.9 years) who underwent bone mineral density measurements. We used 22 country-specific FRAX models and compared these to the Polish model. The mean risk values for hip and major osteoporotic fractures within 10 years were 4.575 (from 0.82 to 8.46) and 12.47% (from 2.18 to 21.65), respectively. In the case of a major fracture, 94.4% of women would receive lifestyle advice, and 5.6% would receive treatment according to the Polish FRAX using the guidelines of the National Osteoporosis Foundation (NOF). Polish treatment thresholds would implement pharmacotherapy in 32.4% of the study group. In the case of hip fractures, 45% of women according to the NOF would require pharmacotherapy but only 9.8% of women would qualify according to Polish guidelines. Nearly all surrogate FRAX calculator scores proved significantly different form Polish ( p > 0.05). More patients might have received antiresorptive medication before the Polish FRAX. This study recommends re-evaluation of patients who received medical therapy before the Polish FRAX was introduced and a review of the recommendations, considering the side effects of antiresorptive medication.

  14. Current food classifications in epidemiological studies do not enable solid nutritional recommendations for preventing diet-related chronic diseases: the impact of food processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardet, Anthony; Rock, Edmond; Bassama, Joseph; Bohuon, Philippe; Prabhasankar, Pichan; Monteiro, Carlos; Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Achir, Nawel

    2015-11-01

    To date, observational studies in nutrition have categorized foods into groups such as dairy, cereals, fruits, and vegetables. However, the strength of the association between food groups and chronic diseases is far from convincing. In most international expert surveys, risks are most commonly scored as probable, limited, or insufficient rather than convincing. In this position paper, we hypothesize that current food classifications based on botanical or animal origins can be improved to yield solid recommendations. We propose using a food classification that employs food processes to rank foods in epidemiological studies. Indeed, food health potential results from both nutrient density and food structure (i.e., the matrix effect), both of which can potentially be positively or negatively modified by processing. For example, cereal-based foods may be more or less refined, fractionated, and recombined with added salt, sugars, and fats, yielding a panoply of products with very different nutritional values. The same is true for other food groups. Finally, we propose that from a nutritional perspective, food processing will be an important issue to consider in the coming years, particularly in terms of strengthening the links between food and health and for proposing improved nutritional recommendations or actions. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Current Food Classifications in Epidemiological Studies Do Not Enable Solid Nutritional Recommendations for Preventing Diet-Related Chronic Diseases: The Impact of Food Processing12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardet, Anthony; Rock, Edmond; Bassama, Joseph; Bohuon, Philippe; Prabhasankar, Pichan; Monteiro, Carlos; Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Achir, Nawel

    2015-01-01

    To date, observational studies in nutrition have categorized foods into groups such as dairy, cereals, fruits, and vegetables. However, the strength of the association between food groups and chronic diseases is far from convincing. In most international expert surveys, risks are most commonly scored as probable, limited, or insufficient rather than convincing. In this position paper, we hypothesize that current food classifications based on botanical or animal origins can be improved to yield solid recommendations. We propose using a food classification that employs food processes to rank foods in epidemiological studies. Indeed, food health potential results from both nutrient density and food structure (i.e., the matrix effect), both of which can potentially be positively or negatively modified by processing. For example, cereal-based foods may be more or less refined, fractionated, and recombined with added salt, sugars, and fats, yielding a panoply of products with very different nutritional values. The same is true for other food groups. Finally, we propose that from a nutritional perspective, food processing will be an important issue to consider in the coming years, particularly in terms of strengthening the links between food and health and for proposing improved nutritional recommendations or actions. PMID:26567188

  16. Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and US Department of Agriculture Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database Toggle navigation Menu Home About DSID Mission Current ... values can be saved to build a small database or add to an existing database for national, ...

  17. Dietary sodium in chronic kidney disease: a comprehensive approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Julie A; Cavanaugh, Kerri L

    2010-01-01

    Despite existing guidelines, dietary sodium intake among people worldwide often exceeds recommended limits. Research evidence is growing in both animal and human studies showing indirect and direct adverse consequences of high dietary sodium on the kidney. In patients with kidney disease, dietary sodium may have important effects on proteinuria, efficacy of antiproteinuric pharmacologic therapy, hypertension control, maintaining an optimal volume status, and immunosuppressant therapy. Dietary sodium intake is an important consideration in patients with all stages of chronic kidney disease, including those receiving dialysis therapy or those who have received a kidney transplant. We review in detail the dietary sodium recommendations suggested by various organizations for patients with kidney disease. Potential barriers to successfully translating current sodium intake guidelines into practice include poor knowledge about the sodium content of food among both patients and providers, complex labeling information, patient preferences related to taste, and limited support for modifications in public policy. Finally, we offer existing and potential solutions that may assist providers in educating and empowering patients to effectively manage their dietary sodium intake.

  18. What Is a Snack, Why Do We Snack, and How Can We Choose Better Snacks? A Review of the Definitions of Snacking, Motivations to Snack, Contributions to Dietary Intake, and Recommendations for Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Julie M; Jonnalagadda, Satya S; Slavin, Joanne L

    2016-05-01

    Around the world, adults consume energy outside of traditional meals such as breakfast, lunch, and dinner. However, because there is no consistent definition of a "snack," it is unclear whether those extra eating occasions represent additional meals or snacks. The manner in which an eating occasion is labeled (e.g., as a meal or a snack) may influence other food choices an individual makes on the same day and satiety after consumption. Therefore, a clear distinction between "meals" and "snacks" is important. This review aims to assess the definition of extra eating occasions, to understand why eating is initiated at these occasions, and to determine what food choices are common at these eating occasions in order to identify areas for dietary intervention and improvement. Part I of this review discusses how snacking is defined and the social, environmental, and individual influences on the desire to snack and choice of snack. The section concludes with a brief discussion of the associations of snacking with cardiometabolic health markers, especially lipid profiles and weight. Part II addresses popular snack choices, overall snacking frequencies, and the demographic characteristics of frequent snackers in several different countries. This review concludes with a recommendation for nutrition policymakers to encourage specific health-promoting snacks that address nutrient insufficiencies and excesses. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. What Is a Snack, Why Do We Snack, and How Can We Choose Better Snacks? A Review of the Definitions of Snacking, Motivations to Snack, Contributions to Dietary Intake, and Recommendations for Improvement12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Joanne L

    2016-01-01

    Around the world, adults consume energy outside of traditional meals such as breakfast, lunch, and dinner. However, because there is no consistent definition of a “snack,” it is unclear whether those extra eating occasions represent additional meals or snacks. The manner in which an eating occasion is labeled (e.g., as a meal or a snack) may influence other food choices an individual makes on the same day and satiety after consumption. Therefore, a clear distinction between “meals” and “snacks” is important. This review aims to assess the definition of extra eating occasions, to understand why eating is initiated at these occasions, and to determine what food choices are common at these eating occasions in order to identify areas for dietary intervention and improvement. Part I of this review discusses how snacking is defined and the social, environmental, and individual influences on the desire to snack and choice of snack. The section concludes with a brief discussion of the associations of snacking with cardiometabolic health markers, especially lipid profiles and weight. Part II addresses popular snack choices, overall snacking frequencies, and the demographic characteristics of frequent snackers in several different countries. This review concludes with a recommendation for nutrition policymakers to encourage specific health-promoting snacks that address nutrient insufficiencies and excesses. PMID:27184274

  20. Consumption of 100% Pure Fruit Juice and Dietary Quality in French Adults: Analysis of a Nationally Representative Survey in the Context of the WHO Recommended Limitation of Free Sugars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    France Bellisle

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Sugar-containing beverages are often seen as a negative influence on diet quality and body weight control. The present study examines the consumption of 100% fruit juice (FJ based on a seven-day dietary survey in a representative sample of French adults (n = 1607. About a half of the participants (44% consumed FJ, most often at breakfast time (60%. Average intake in FJ consumers was 115.6 ± 4.0 mL/day (46.3 ± 1.7 kcal/day. Prevalence of consumption increased with education and income and decreased with age, but no association was observed with body mass index (BMI, physical activity, or smoking. In consumers, FJ brought 2% daily energy and contributed larger proportions of vitamins (B1 7%, B2 3%, B5 5%, B6 6%, B9 10%, C 32%, E 9%, beta-carotene 5%, minerals (magnesium 4%, potassium 7%, and free sugars (19%. FJ consumers ingested more whole fruits, vegetables, and many other foods than non-consumers did. Free sugars represented 11.2% of the daily energy in FJ consumers versus 8.6% in non-consumers. This cross-sectional survey reveals that FJ contributes to diet quality without association with excess body weight. These observations should be confirmed in longitudinal studies. They support the view that contribution to diet quality should be specifically recognized in the context of the World Health Organization (WHO recommended decrease of free sugar intake.

  1. EURRECA—Principles and Future for Deriving Micronutrient Recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessens, M.; Contor, L.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.; Groot, L.C.P.Q.M. de; Fairweather-Tait, S.J.; Gurinovic, M.; Koletzko, B.; Ommen, B. van; Raats, M.M.; Veer, P. van 't

    2013-01-01

    The EURopean micronutrient RECommendations Aligned (EURRECA) Network of Excellence (NoE) explored an approach for settingmicronutrient recommendations, which would address the variation in recommendations across Europe. Therefore, a framework for deriving and using micronutrient Dietary Reference

  2. Dietary patterns associated with overweight among Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Camila Aparecida; Marchioni, Dirce Maria Lobo; Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Slater, Betzabeth

    2018-04-01

    The present study aims to identify the dietary patterns of adolescents and associate these patterns with overweight. We analyzed food-consumption data from 6784 adolescents in the age group 10-18 years old collected in the Household Budget Survey 2008-2009. Dietary patterns were assessed through exploratory factor analysis. Logistic regression models were used in order to associate dietary patterns with overweight. Four dietary patterns were recorded: Traditional Brazilian Pattern, Snacks Pattern, Fast Food Pattern, and the Milk, Fruit and Cereal Breakfast Pattern. Results were adjusted according to the sociodemographic variables and showed that the higher the adherence to Snacks (OR: 1.50 fifth quintile vs first (95% CI: 1.13, 1.99) p linear trend <0.001) and Fast Food patterns (OR: 1.55 fifth quintile vs first (95% CI = 1.12, 2.12) p linear trend <0.001), the higher the chances of becoming overweight. These data indicate that the local public health and nutrition policies focused on adolescents should be more attentive to the eating habits of this population in Brazil, since the current research related regular poor nutritional quality dietary patterns to increased overweight among adolescents. In addition, understanding adolescents' eating habits according to their dietary patterns may guide the development of healthy dietary recommendations based on the combination between food and food groups, rather than only on nutrients or nutritional adequacy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Maximizing the Utility of the Serum Repository With Current Technologies and Recommendations to Meet Future Needs: Report of the Technical Panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Coleen P

    2015-10-01

    The Department of Defense Serum Repository (DoDSR) of the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center (AFHSC), Silver Spring, Maryland, has over 55 million specimens. Over 80% of these specimens are linked to individual health data. In response to Congressional and Department of Defense (DoD) concern about toxic exposures of deployed Service members and rapidly developing laboratory capabilities that may identify those exposed, the AFHSC hosted two panels in 2013. The first, the Needs Panel, focused on assessing the needs of the DoD that may be met using the current DoDSR and an enhanced repository. The second panel, the Technical Panel, focused on identifying the emerging laboratory technologies that are or will be available to DoD public health workers and researchers. This report summarizes the recommendations of the Technical Panel, to include identified gaps in the ability of the current DoDSR to address questions of interest to the DoD, the availability of laboratory technology to address these needs, and the types and quality of specimens required from Service members possibly exposed. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  4. Early identification and intervention matters: A comprehensive review of current evidence and recommendations for the monitoring of bone health in patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodowicz, Thomas; Hadji, Peyman; Niepel, Daniela; Diel, Ingo

    2017-12-01

    Bone metastases are common in patients with advanced solid tumors, and many individuals experience debilitating skeletal-related events (SREs; e.g. pathologic fracture, hypercalcemia, radiotherapy or surgery to bone, and spinal cord compression). These events substantially affect disease outcomes, including survival and quality of life, and healthcare systems. Plain radiography is the most widely used imaging modality for the detection of bone metastases; skeletal scintigraphy, computed tomography, positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging offer greater sensitivity but their use in routine practice is restricted by high costs and limited availability. Biomarkers of bone turnover may also have a role in the early detection of bone metastases and can provide valuable prognostic information on disease progression. SREs can be delayed or prevented using agents such as the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) inhibitor, denosumab, and bisphosphonates. Painful bone metastases can be treated with radiofrequency ablation, radiotherapy, or radionuclides such as radium-223 dichloride, which has been shown to delay the onset of SREs in men with castration-resistant prostate cancer. Close monitoring of bone health in patients with advanced cancer may lead to early identification of individuals with bone metastases who could benefit from early intervention to prevent SREs. This review examines current guideline recommendations for assessing and monitoring bone health in patients with advanced cancer, use of biomarkers and treatment of patients with bone metastases. The emerging evidence for the potential survival benefit conferred by early intervention with denosumab and bisphosphonates is also discussed, together with best practice recommendations. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Dietary macronutrient recommendations for optimal recovery post ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    cessful training and adaptation, and nutrition has been iden- ... 2UCT/MRC Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of ... exercise period has been identified as an important strategy.

  6. Dietary macronutrient recommendations for optimal recovery post ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prolonged, strenuous exercise results in muscle glycogen depletion. Recovery of these stores prior to the next training session or competition is crucial to optimise exercise performance. Nutrition plays an important role during the post-exercise recovery period when processes such as muscle regeneration, glycogen and ...

  7. Dietary macronutrient recommendations for optimal recovery post ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    adequate energy and amino acid availability, while protein breakdown is decreased .... ment of essential amino acids (EAAs) and branched-chain amino acids ..... Secretion of insulin induced by amino acids and glucose in diabetes mel- litus.

  8. Understanding Cultural Influences on Dietary Habits in Asian, Middle Eastern, and Latino Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Review of Current Literature and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Natalie; Golden, Sherita Hill

    2017-10-23

    This review focuses on evaluating and identifying gaps in the current literature regarding culturally specific dietary influences for patients with type 2 diabetes. As this topic has previously been examined in African American populations, we chose to focus on four other distinct populations (Hispanic, Middle Eastern, Western Pacific, South Asian). Given the rapid increase in global rates of type 2 diabetes and high rates of diabetes among certain ethnic groups, it is important to understand how culturally adapted strategies in diabetes management have been described in different regions and populations. The specific role of nutrition in controlling diabetes is tied to cultural habits and customs. Variation in cultural practices, including diet, create unique environments in which patients with diabetes must navigate. The role of family, particularly among Hispanics, is crucial to cultural adaptations of diabetes management. Incorporating alternative medicine, namely observed in Chinese and Indian populations, also guided diabetes care strategies. Language barriers, health literacy, and acculturation were all unique factors affecting cultural approaches to diabetes management in these four populations. Understanding such cultural determinants is crucial to addressing diabetes disparities and improving outcomes.

  9. The relative validity of a retrospective estimate of food consumption based on a current dietary history and a food frequency list.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakkum, A; Bloemberg, B; van Staveren, W A; Verschuren, M; West, C E

    1988-01-01

    The relative validity of information and food consumption in the distant past was assessed by combining a dietary history (referring to the recent past) with a food frequency list (monitoring major changes over the past 12-14 years). This approach was evaluated in a study of two groups of apparently healthy elderly people (mean age 80 years) who had participated in a food consumption study 12-14 years before the start of the present study. One group consisted of 18 harbor employees who retired subsequent to the initial assessment of food intake. On the average, each member of this group had reduced his food consumption by about 1,000 kcal. The other group consisted of 46 elderly men and women who had retired before their food consumption was measured initially. This group had not markedly changed their food intake. The results showed that both groups overestimated changes in their food intake and that the systematic overestimation and random error were similar for both groups. If the men in both groups were combined to form one group, a valid ranking of subjects in small and large consumers of energy and most of the selected nutrients was possible. However, current food intake influenced the accuracy of the measurement of past food intake.

  10. Dietary Sodium and Blood Pressure: How Low Should We Go?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Horn, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Sodium intake in the United States exceeds recommended amounts across all age, gender and ethnic groups. National dietary guidelines advocate reduced intake by at least 1,000mg per day or more, but whether there is population-wide benefit from further reductions to levels of 1500mg per day remains controversial. A brief review of current evidence-based dietary guidelines is provided and key prospective, randomized studies that report dietary and urinary sodium data are summarized. Dietary sources of sodium and eating patterns that offer nutritiously sound approaches to nutrient dense, reduced sodium intake are compared. No studies suggest that high sodium intake at the levels of the population's current diet is optimal. On the contrary, national and international evidence and systematic reviews consistently recommend reducing sodium intake overall, generally by 1000mg/day. Recommendations to reduce intakes to 2400mg/d are generally accepted as beneficial. Whether further reductions to 1500mg/d are useful, feasible and safe among specific subgroups in the population who are at increased risk of hypertension or stroke remains controversial and requires individualized consideration by patients and their health care providers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Worldwide trends in dietary sugars intake.

    OpenAIRE

    Wittekind, Anna; Walton, Janette

    2014-01-01

    Estimating trends in dietary intake data is integral to informing national nutrition policy and monitoring progress towards dietary guidelines. Dietary intake of sugars is a controversial public health issue and guidance in relation to recommended intakes is particularly inconsistent. Published data relating to trends in sugars intake are relatively sparse. The purpose of the present review was to collate and review data from national nutrition surveys to examine changes and trends in dietary...

  12. Routine Immunization of Adults in Canada: Review of the Epidemiology of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases and Current Recommendations for Primary Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D Parkins

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Vaccination is one of the greatest achievements in public health of the 20th century. However, the success of vaccine uptake and adherence to immunization guidelines seen in pediatric populations has not been observed among adult Canadians. As a result of the disparity in susceptibility to vaccine-preventable disease, there has been an increasing shift of vaccine-preventable childhood diseases into adult populations. Accordingly, morbidity and mortality due to vaccine-preventable illnesses now occur disproportionately in adults. All Canadians, irrespective of age, should have immunity to measles, mumps, rubella, tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis and varicella. All adult Canadians with significant medical comorbidities or those older than 65 years of age should receive the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine and yearly trivalent inactivate influenza vaccines. The present review summarizes the burden of illness of these vaccine-preventable diseases in the Canadian adult population and reviews the current immunization recommendations. Vaccination of all Canadians to these common agents remains a vital tool to decrease individual morbidity and mortality and reduce the overall burden of preventable disease in Canada.

  13. Dietary supplements for football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hespel, P; Maughan, R J; Greenhaff, P L

    2006-07-01

    Physical training and competition in football markedly increase the need for macro- and micronutrient intake. This requirement can generally be met by dietary management without the need for dietary supplements. In fact, the efficacy of most supplements available on the market is unproven. In addition, players must be cautious of inadequate product labelling and supplement impurities that may cause a positive drug test. Nonetheless, a number of dietary supplements may beneficially affect football performance. A high endurance capacity is a prerequisite for optimal match performance, particularly if extra time is played. In this context, the potential of low-dose caffeine ingestion (2 - 5 mg . kg body mass(-1)) to enhance endurance performance is well established. However, in the case of football, care must be taken not to overdose because visual information processing might be impaired. Scoring and preventing goals as a rule requires production of high power output. Dietary creatine supplementation (loading dose: 15 - 20 g . day(-1), 4 - 5 days; maintenance dose: 2 - 5 g g . day(-1)) has been found to increase muscle power output, especially during intermittent sprint exercises. Furthermore, creatine intake can augment muscle adaptations to resistance training. Team success and performance also depend on player availability, and thus injury prevention and health maintenance. Glucosamine or chondroitin may be useful in the treatment of joint pain and osteoarthritis, but there is no evidence to support the view that the administration of these supplements will be preventative. Ephedra-containing weight-loss cocktails should certainly be avoided due to reported adverse health effects and positive doping outcomes. Finally, the efficacy of antioxidant or vitamin C intake in excess of the normal recommended dietary dose is equivocal. Responses to dietary supplements can vary substantially between individuals, and therefore the ingestion of any supplement must be assessed

  14. Evaluation of heavy metals content in dietary supplements in Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korfali Samira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The consumption of dietary supplements is widely spread and on the rise. These dietary supplements are generally used without prescriptions, proper counseling or any awareness of their health risk. The current study aimed at analyzing the metals in 33 samples of imported dietary supplements highly consumed by the Lebanese population, using 3 different techniques, to ensure the safety and increase the awareness of the citizen to benefit from these dietary supplements. Results Some samples had levels of metals above their maximum allowable levels (Fe: 24%, Zn: 33%, Mn: 27%, Se: 15%, Mo: 12% of samples, but did not pose any health risk because they were below permitted daily exposure limit and recommended daily allowance except for Fe in 6% of the samples. On the other hand, 34% of the samples had Cu levels above allowable limit where 18% of them were above their permitted daily exposure and recommended daily allowance. In contrast, all samples had concentration of Cr, Hg, and Pb below allowable limits and daily exposure. Whereas, 30% of analyzed samples had levels of Cd above allowable levels, and were statistically correlated with Ca, and Zn essential minerals. Similarly 62% of the samples had levels of As above allowable limits and As levels were associated with Fe and Mn essential minerals. Conclusion Dietary supplements consumed as essential nutrients for their Ca, Zn, Fe and Mn content should be monitored for toxic metal levels due to their natural geochemical association with these essential metals to provide citizens the safe allowable amounts.

  15. Evaluation of heavy metals content in dietary supplements in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korfali, Samira Ibrahim; Hawi, Tamer; Mroueh, Mohamad

    2013-01-18

    The consumption of dietary supplements is widely spread and on the rise. These dietary supplements are generally used without prescriptions, proper counseling or any awareness of their health risk. The current study aimed at analyzing the metals in 33 samples of imported dietary supplements highly consumed by the Lebanese population, using 3 different techniques, to ensure the safety and increase the awareness of the citizen to benefit from these dietary supplements. Some samples had levels of metals above their maximum allowable levels (Fe: 24%, Zn: 33%, Mn: 27%, Se: 15%, Mo: 12% of samples), but did not pose any health risk because they were below permitted daily exposure limit and recommended daily allowance except for Fe in 6% of the samples. On the other hand, 34% of the samples had Cu levels above allowable limit where 18% of them were above their permitted daily exposure and recommended daily allowance. In contrast, all samples had concentration of Cr, Hg, and Pb below allowable limits and daily exposure. Whereas, 30% of analyzed samples had levels of Cd above allowable levels, and were statistically correlated with Ca, and Zn essential minerals. Similarly 62% of the samples had levels of As above allowable limits and As levels were associated with Fe and Mn essential minerals. Dietary supplements consumed as essential nutrients for their Ca, Zn, Fe and Mn content should be monitored for toxic metal levels due to their natural geochemical association with these essential metals to provide citizens the safe allowable amounts.

  16. Tratamento da tuberculose de infecção latente: As recomendações actuais Latent tuberculosis infection treatment: Current recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Duarte

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O diagnóstico e tratamento da infecção latente por Mycobacterium tuberculosis reduz significativamente o risco de desenvolvimento de tuberculose activa e a transmissão da doença na comunidade. O rastreio da tuberculose infecção latente deve passar pela exclusão de doença activa (inquérito de sintomas e radiografia pulmonar e avaliação da resposta imunológica ao M. tuberculosis através dos testes actualmente ao dispor, como o teste tuberculínico e os testes IGRA (interferon-gamma release assay. A escolha do esquema de tratamento deve ter em linha de conta a eficácia, a adesão e os efeitos colaterais associados ao mesmo Este documento actualiza as recomendações sobre tratamento da tuberculose infecção latente. São apresentadas indicações sobre quem deve ser rastreado e revistos os esquemas de tratamento.Diagnosis and treatment of latent infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (LTBI, significantly reduces the risk of developing active tuberculosis and the transmission of the disease in the community. LTBI screening must pass by the exclusion of active disease (symptoms enquiry and chest radiography and assessment of immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis testing with the tests currently available - tuberculin skin test and interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA. The choice of treatment must take into account the efficacy and side effects associated with the same. This document provides updated recommendations on latent tuberculosis infection treatment. Topics covered include whom to test for TB and reviewed LTBI treatment regimens.

  17. AOAC SMPR 2014.007: Authentication of selected Vaccinium species (Anthocyanins) in dietary ingredients and dietary supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    This AOAC Standard Method Performance Requirements (SMPR) is for authentication of selected Vaccinium species in dietary ingredients and dietary supplements containing a single Vaccinium species using anthocyanin profiles. SMPRs describe the minimum recommended performance characteristics to be used...

  18. Dietary Advice on Prescription: A novel approach to dietary counseling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Johansson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a novel approach to giving dietary advice, which is called “Dietary Advice on Prescription” (DAP; Matordning på Recept [MoR] in Swedish. It is the same principle as prescription on medicine and “Physical Activity on Prescription” (PAP; Fysisk aktivitet på Recept [FaR] in Swedish. The main idea is that a written prescription will strengthen the oral advice and emphasize certain aspects of the dietary recommendation. The DAP is on the brink of being tested in a planned study.

  19. Recommender systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lu L.; Medo M.; Yeung C.H.; Zhang Y.-C.; Zhang Z.-K.; Zhou T.

    2012-01-01

    The ongoing rapid expansion of the Internet greatly increases the necessity of effective recommender systems for filtering the abundant information. Extensive research for recommender systems is conducted by a broad range of communities including social and computer scientists, physicists, and interdisciplinary researchers. Despite substantial theoretical and practical achievements, unification and comparison of different approaches are lacking, which impedes further advances. In this article...

  20. A Heart-Healthy Diet: Recent Insights and Practical Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinu, Monica; Pagliai, Giuditta; Sofi, Francesco

    2017-08-24

    The purpose of this study is to review the current evidence on the relationship between diet and heart, giving practical recommendations for cardiovascular prevention. A heart-healthy diet should maximize the consumption of whole grains, vegetables, fruit, and legumes and discourage the consumption of meat and meat products as well as refined and processed foods. Plant-based diets fully meet these criteria, and the evidence supporting the protective effect of these dietary patterns evolved rapidly in recent years. Among plant-based diets, the Mediterranean and vegetarian diets gained the greater interest, having been associated with numerous health benefits such as reduced levels of traditional and novel risk factors and lower risk of cardiovascular disease. These positive effects may be explained by their high content of dietary fiber, complex carbohydrate, vitamins, minerals, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and phytochemicals. Current evidence suggests that both Mediterranean and vegetarian diets are consistently beneficial with respect to cardiovascular disease.

  1. Impact of Dietary Cholesterol on the Pathophysiology of Infectious and Autoimmune Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine J. Andersen

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Cellular cholesterol metabolism, lipid raft formation, and lipoprotein interactions contribute to the regulation of immune-mediated inflammation and response to pathogens. Lipid pathways have been implicated in the pathogenesis of bacterial and viral infections, whereas altered lipid metabolism may contribute to immune dysfunction in autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Interestingly, dietary cholesterol may exert protective or detrimental effects on risk, progression, and treatment of different infectious and autoimmune diseases, although current findings suggest that these effects are variable across populations and different diseases. Research evaluating the effects of dietary cholesterol, often provided by eggs or as a component of Western-style diets, demonstrates that cholesterol-rich dietary patterns affect markers of immune inflammation and cellular cholesterol metabolism, while additionally modulating lipoprotein profiles and functional properties of HDL. Further, cholesterol-rich diets appear to differentially impact immunomodulatory lipid pathways across human populations of variable metabolic status, suggesting that these complex mechanisms may underlie the relationship between dietary cholesterol and immunity. Given the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2015–2020 revision to no longer include limitations on dietary cholesterol, evaluation of dietary cholesterol recommendations beyond the context of cardiovascular disease risk is particularly timely. This review provides a comprehensive and comparative analysis of significant and controversial studies on the role of dietary cholesterol and lipid metabolism in the pathophysiology of infectious disease and autoimmune disorders, highlighting the need for further investigation in this developing area of research.

  2. Combining food-based dietary recommendations using Optifood with zinc-fortified water potentially improves nutrient adequacy among 4- to 6-year-old children in Kisumu West district, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kujinga, Prosper; Borgonjen-van den Berg, Karin J.; Superchi, Cecilia; Hove, ten Hermine J.; Onyango, Elizabeth Opiyo; Andang'o, Pauline; Galetti, Valeria; Zimmerman, Michael B.; Moretti, Diego; Brouwer, Inge D.

    2018-01-01

    Children in developing countries often face multiple micronutrient deficiencies. Introduction of zinc-fortified water can increase zinc intake, but additional recommendations are required to address overall diet nutrient adequacy. We developed and tested food-based recommendations (FBRs) that

  3. Reported Changes in Dietary Behavior Following a First Clinical Diagnosis of Central Nervous System Demyelination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Rebecca D; Lucas, Robyn M; Brennan, Vanessa; Sherriff, Jill L; Begley, Andrea; Black, Lucinda J

    2018-01-01

    Although the current evidence is insufficient to recommend a special diet for people with multiple sclerosis (MS), dietary advice for people with MS is prolific online and in the media. This study aimed to describe dietary changes made in the year following a first clinical diagnosis of central nervous system demyelination (FCD), a common precursor to MS. We used follow-up data from the Ausimmune Study, a multicentre matched case-control study examining the environmental risk factors for a FCD. A total of 244 cases (60 male, 184 female) completed a 1-year follow-up interview, which included a question about dietary changes. We described the number and proportion (%) of participants who reported making dietary changes and the type of change made. We investigated independent predictors of making a dietary change using a multivariable logistic regression model. A total of 38% ( n  = 92) of participants at the 1-year follow-up reported making at least one dietary change over the last year. There were no statistically significant independent associations between any participant characteristic and odds of making a dietary change. Of those who made at least one dietary change, the most common changes were increasing fruit and/or vegetable intake (27%, n  = 25) and following a low-fat diet (25%, n  = 23). A considerable proportion of the study population reported making at least one dietary change in the year following a FCD, with the majority of changes being toward a healthier diet. Further research is warranted to investigate the reasons behind any dietary changes adopted by people with a FCD or with MS, and whether making a dietary change has benefits for the progression of demyelinating diseases, e.g., to a diagnosis of MS, as well as for general health and well-being.

  4. Reported Changes in Dietary Behavior Following a First Clinical Diagnosis of Central Nervous System Demyelination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca D. Russell

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/objectivesAlthough the current evidence is insufficient to recommend a special diet for people with multiple sclerosis (MS, dietary advice for people with MS is prolific online and in the media. This study aimed to describe dietary changes made in the year following a first clinical diagnosis of central nervous system demyelination (FCD, a common precursor to MS.Subjects/methodsWe used follow-up data from the Ausimmune Study, a multicentre matched case-control study examining the environmental risk factors for a FCD. A total of 244 cases (60 male, 184 female completed a 1-year follow-up interview, which included a question about dietary changes. We described the number and proportion (% of participants who reported making dietary changes and the type of change made. We investigated independent predictors of making a dietary change using a multivariable logistic regression model.ResultsA total of 38% (n = 92 of participants at the 1-year follow-up reported making at least one dietary change over the last year. There were no statistically significant independent associations between any participant characteristic and odds of making a dietary change. Of those who made at least one dietary change, the most common changes were increasing fruit and/or vegetable intake (27%, n = 25 and following a low-fat diet (25%, n = 23.ConclusionA considerable proportion of the study population reported making at least one dietary change in the year following a FCD, with the majority of changes being toward a healthier diet. Further research is warranted to investigate the reasons behind any dietary changes adopted by people with a FCD or with MS, and whether making a dietary change has benefits for the progression of demyelinating diseases, e.g., to a diagnosis of MS, as well as for general health and well-being.

  5. Dietary ecology of human

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minagawa, Masao

    1990-01-01

    The dietary life of humans varies with the environment where they live and has been changing with time. It has become possible to examine such changes by using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope composition as a chemical tool. The present report outlines recent developments in the application of this tool and compares the dietary ecologies of various human groups from the viewpoint of isotope geochemistry. The history of the application of this tool to dietary analysis is summarized first, and features of the carbon and nitrogen isotope composition in animals and their relations with the food chain are outlined. The dietary ecology of the current people is then discussed in relation to the isotope composition in food, the isotope composition in hair of the current people, and determination of food habit of specific groups of people from such isotope compositions. For prediction of dietary composition, the report presents a flow chart for an algorism which is based on the Monte Carlo method. It also outlines processes for analyzing food habits of people in the prehistoric age, focusing on distribution of isotope composition in humans over the world. (N.K.)

  6. Recommender systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kembellec, Gérald; Saleh, Imad

    2014-01-01

    Acclaimed by various content platforms (books, music, movies) and auction sites online, recommendation systems are key elements of digital strategies. If development was originally intended for the performance of information systems, the issues are now massively moved on logical optimization of the customer relationship, with the main objective to maximize potential sales. On the transdisciplinary approach, engines and recommender systems brings together contributions linking information science and communications, marketing, sociology, mathematics and computing. It deals with the understan

  7. Dietary supplements and team-sport performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, David

    2010-12-01

    A well designed diet is the foundation upon which optimal training and performance can be developed. However, as long as competitive sports have existed, athletes have attempted to improve their performance by ingesting a variety of substances. This practice has given rise to a multi-billion-dollar industry that aggressively markets its products as performance enhancing, often without objective, scientific evidence to support such claims. While a number of excellent reviews have evaluated the performance-enhancing effects of most dietary supplements, less attention has been paid to the performance-enhancing claims of dietary supplements in the context of team-sport performance. Dietary supplements that enhance some types of athletic performance may not necessarily enhance team-sport performance (and vice versa). Thus, the first aim of this review is to critically evaluate the ergogenic value of the most common dietary supplements used by team-sport athletes. The term dietary supplements will be used in this review and is defined as any product taken by the mouth, in addition to common foods, that has been proposed to have a performance-enhancing effect; this review will only discuss substances that are not currently banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency. Evidence is emerging to support the performance-enhancing claims of some, but not all, dietary supplements that have been proposed to improve team-sport-related performance. For example, there is good evidence that caffeine can improve single-sprint performance, while caffeine, creatine and sodium bicarbonate ingestion have all been demonstrated to improve multiple-sprint performance. The evidence is not so strong for the performance-enhancing benefits of β-alanine or colostrum. Current evidence does not support the ingestion of ribose, branched-chain amino acids or β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate, especially in well trained athletes. More research on the performance-enhancing effects of the dietary supplements

  8. Defining Metabolically Healthy Obesity: Role of Dietary and Lifestyle Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Catherine M.; Dillon, Christina; Harrington, Janas M.; McCarthy, Vera J. C.; Kearney, Patricia M.; Fitzgerald, Anthony P.; Perry, Ivan J.

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a current lack of consensus on defining metabolically healthy obesity (MHO). Limited data on dietary and lifestyle factors and MHO exist. The aim of this study is to compare the prevalence, dietary factors and lifestyle behaviours of metabolically healthy and unhealthy obese and non-obese subjects according to different metabolic health criteria. Method Cross-sectional sample of 1,008 men and 1,039 women aged 45-74 years participated in the study. Participants were classified as obese (BMI ≥30kg/m2) and non-obese (BMI unhealthy subjects was 21.8% to 87%. Calorie intake, dietary macronutrient composition, physical activity, alcohol and smoking behaviours were similar between the metabolically healthy and unhealthy regardless of BMI. Greater compliance with food pyramid recommendations and higher dietary quality were positively associated with metabolic health in obese (OR 1.45-1.53 unadjusted model) and non-obese subjects (OR 1.37-1.39 unadjusted model), respectively. Physical activity was associated with MHO defined by insulin resistance (OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.19-2.92, p = 0.006). Conclusion A standard MHO definition is required. Moderate and high levels of physical activity and compliance with food pyramid recommendations increase the likelihood of MHO. Stratification of obese individuals based on their metabolic health phenotype may be important in ascertaining the appropriate therapeutic or intervention strategy. PMID:24146838

  9. Short-term weight loss and hepatic triglyceride reduction: evidence of a metabolic advantage with dietary carbohydrate restriction123

    OpenAIRE

    Browning, Jeffrey D; Baker, Jonathan A; Rogers, Thomas; Davis, Jeannie; Satapati, Santhosh; Burgess, Shawn C

    2011-01-01

    Background: Individuals with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) have excess intrahepatic triglycerides. This is due, in part, to increased hepatic synthesis of fat from carbohydrates via lipogenesis. Although weight loss is currently recommended to treat NAFLD, little attention has been given to dietary carbohydrate restriction.

  10. Dietary management of chronic kidney disease: protein restriction and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goraya, Nimrit; Wesson, Donald E

    2012-11-01

    More kidney protective strategies are needed to reduce the burden of complete kidney failure from chronic kidney disease (CKD). Clinicians sometimes use protein restriction as kidney protection despite its demonstrated lack of effectiveness in the only large-scale study. Small-scale studies support that dietary acid reduction is kidney-protective, including when done with base-inducing foods like fruits and vegetables. We review these studies in light of current kidney-protective recommendations. Animal models of CKD show that acid-inducing dietary protein exacerbates and base-inducing protein ameliorates nephropathy progression, and that increased intake of acid-inducing but not base-inducing dietary protein exacerbates progression. Clinical studies show that dietary acid reduction with Na-based alkali reduces kidney injury and slows nephropathy progression in patients with CKD and reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR); base-inducing fruits and vegetables reduce kidney injury in patients with reduced GFR; and base-inducing fruits and vegetables improve metabolic acidosis in CKD. Protein type rather than amount might more importantly affect nephropathy progression. Base-inducing foods might be another way to reduce dietary acid, a strategy shown in small studies to slow nephropathy progression. Further studies will determine if CKD patients should be given base-inducing food as part of their management.

  11. Companion Animals Symposium: dietary management of feline lower urinary tract symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, K R

    2013-06-01

    Experimental and clinical investigations have confirmed the importance of dietary modifications in medical protocols designed to treat and prevent feline lower urinary tract signs (LUTS). The objective of this review is to discuss common medical conditions contributing to feline LUTS and to present currently used and potential preventative dietary modifications. Feline LUTS are a set of clinical conditions with similar symptoms related to inappropriate urine elimination due to a combination of genetics, stress and frustration reactions, environment, and medical condition or conditions, for example, idiopathic cystitis, urolithiasis, urethral obstruction, and urinary tract infection. The main goals of dietary modifications to prevent LUTS are 1) promote large dilute volumes of urine, 2) decrease the relative supersaturation of urine for specific stone types, and 3) promote healthy bacterial populations in the gastrointestinal and urogenital tracts. The impact of dietary composition, including dietary moisture, protein concentration and digestibility, mineral concentrations (i.e., Na, Cl, Ca, P, and Mg), inclusion of acidifiers and alkalinizing agents, inclusion of vitamin B6, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and γ-linolenic acid, fiber concentration and characteristics, and oxalate degrading probiotics, on these outcomes is discussed, and dietary guidelines for cats are provided. Because of the complex interaction of diet composition, environment, and animal physiology, there is a need for clinical research linking current recommendations or dietary options for the treatment and prevention of LUTS with physiological outcomes (i.e., decreased relative supersaturation and LUTS recurrence). Additionally, for many recommendations (e.g., probiotic administration, EPA, DHA), extrapolation from other species was necessary. Research is needed in feline patients with LUTS on these dietary components.

  12. Dietary antioxidants and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Scott K; DeRuisseau, Keith C; Quindry, John; Hamilton, Karyn L

    2004-01-01

    Muscular exercise promotes the production of radicals and other reactive oxygen species in the working muscle. Growing evidence indicates that reactive oxygen species are responsible for exercise-induced protein oxidation and contribute to muscle fatigue. To protect against exercise-induced oxidative injury, muscle cells contain complex endogenous cellular defence mechanisms (enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants) to eliminate reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, exogenous dietary antioxidants interact with endogenous antioxidants to form a cooperative network of cellular antioxidants. Knowledge that exercise-induced oxidant formation can contribute to muscle fatigue has resulted in numerous investigations examining the effects of antioxidant supplementation on human exercise performance. To date, there is limited evidence that dietary supplementation with antioxidants will improve human performance. Furthermore, it is currently unclear whether regular vigorous exercise increases the need for dietary intake of antioxidants. Clearly, additional research that analyses the antioxidant requirements of individual athletes is needed.

  13. [Dietary counseling in obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Nathalie; Haslebacher, Yvonne; Teuscher-Sick, Patricia; Fischer, Beatrice

    2013-02-01

    Information on weight management and a healthy eating is accessible to anyone. However, recommendations are inconsistent. This often leads to confusion rather than to real changes in eating behavior. The principle of a long-term weight reduction is based on the idea of achieving negative energy balance with a healthy, balanced and slightly hypocaloric diet. The regimen is neither supposed to be rigid nor should it ban any food products or food products. Changes in eating patterns come about step by step and the counseling approach should be based on the patient's habits and capabilities. The basic requirement to successfully treat obese patients is their own motivation Therefore, the timing of launching the therapy needs to be well chosen. Apart from goals directly concerning weight loss, goals related to well-being, general health and exercise should be set and pursued. However, the main focus should be on changes of dietary behavior. Dietary counseling is preferably embedded in a multidisciplinary treatment concept.

  14. South African dietary total antioxidant capacity based on secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: In this exploratory study, the average adult South African dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was estimated using secondary data and was evaluated against that determined for dietary intake recommendations. Design: The average adult South African dietary TAC was estimated using a report published by ...

  15. Compliance of clinical microbiology laboratories in the United States with current recommendations for processing respiratory tract specimens from patients with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Juyan; Garber, Elizabeth; Desai, Manisha; Saiman, Lisa

    2006-04-01

    Respiratory tract specimens from patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) require unique processing by clinical microbiology laboratories to ensure detection of all potential pathogens. The present study sought to determine the compliance of microbiology laboratories in the United States with recently published recommendations for CF respiratory specimens. Microbiology laboratory protocols from 150 of 190 (79%) CF care sites were reviewed. Most described the use of selective media for Burkholderia cepacia complex (99%), Staphylococcus aureus (82%), and Haemophilus influenzae (89%) and identified the species of all gram-negative bacilli (87%). Only 52% delineated the use of agar diffusion assays for susceptibility testing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Standardizing laboratory practices will improve treatment, infection control, and our understanding of the changing epidemiology of CF microbiology.

  16. Lipid needs of preterm infants: updated recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapillonne, Alexandre; Groh-Wargo, Sharon; Gonzalez, Carlos H Lozano; Uauy, Ricardo

    2013-03-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) are of nutritional interest because they are crucial for normal development of the central nervous system and have potential long-lasting effects that extend beyond the period of dietary insufficiency. Here we review the recent literature and current recommendations regarding LCPUFAs as they pertain to preterm infant nutrition. In particular, findings that relate to fetal accretion, LCPUFA absorption and metabolism, effects on development, and current practices and recommendations have been used to update recommendations for health care providers. The amounts of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) used in early studies were chosen to produce the same concentrations as in term breast milk. This might not be a wise approach for preterm infants, however, particularly for very and extremely preterm infants, whose requirements for LCPUFAs and other nutrients exceed what is normally provided in the small volumes that they are able to tolerate. Recent studies have reported outcome data in preterm infants fed milk with a docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content 2-3 times higher than the current concentration in infant formulas. Overall, these studies show that providing larger amounts of DHA supplements, especially to the smallest infants, is associated with better neurologic outcomes in early life. We emphasize that current nutritional management might not provide sufficient amounts of preformed DHA during the parenteral and enteral nutrition periods and in very preterm/very low birth weight infants until their due date, and that greater amounts than used routinely likely will be needed to compensate for intestinal malabsorption, DHA oxidation, and early deficit. Research should continue to address the gaps in knowledge and further refine adequate intake for each group of preterm infants. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessment of current dietary intake of organochlorine contaminants and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in killer whales (Orcinus orca) through direct determination in a group of whales in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formigaro, Costanza; Henríquez-Hernandez, Luis A; Zaccaroni, Annalisa; Garcia-Hartmann, Manuel; Camacho, María; Boada, Luis D; Zumbado, Manuel; Luzardo, Octavio P

    2014-02-15

    We determined the levels of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 19 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and 18 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the plasma of captive adult killer whales and in their food. The goal of this research was the assessment of the dietary exposure of killer whales to these pollutants to gain insight on what is the actual magnitude of the exposure in this species, which is considered among the most contaminated in the planet. Plasma median ∑OCP and ∑PCB contents were 3150.3 and 7985.9 ng g(-1)l.w., respectively. A total of 78.9% of the PCBs were marker-PCBs, and 21.1% were dioxin-like PCBs (6688.7 pg g(-1)l.w. dioxin toxic equivalents). This is the first report of the blood levels of PAHs in killer whales, and their median value was 1023.1 ng g(-1)l.w. In parallel, we also determined the levels of these contaminants in the fish species that are used to feed these animals to estimate the orcas' average daily dietary intake of pollutants. All the contaminants in the fish were detected in the plasma of the killer whales, and proportionality between the intake and the blood levels was observed in all the animals. The calculated intake was extremely high for certain contaminants, which is a concern, giving a glimpse of what possibly occurs in the wild, where exposure to these contaminants can be even higher. Therefore, although many of these chemicals have been banned for decades, even today, the levels of these chemicals could reach very toxic concentrations in the tissues of these endangered animals because of their diet. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The current state of Bayesian methods in medical product development: survey results and recommendations from the DIA Bayesian Scientific Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natanegara, Fanni; Neuenschwander, Beat; Seaman, John W; Kinnersley, Nelson; Heilmann, Cory R; Ohlssen, David; Rochester, George

    2014-01-01

    Bayesian applications in medical product development have recently gained popularity. Despite many advances in Bayesian methodology and computations, increase in application across the various areas of medical product development has been modest. The DIA Bayesian Scientific Working Group (BSWG), which includes representatives from industry, regulatory agencies, and academia, has adopted the vision to ensure Bayesian methods are well understood, accepted more broadly, and appropriately utilized to improve decision making and enhance patient outcomes. As Bayesian applications in medical product development are wide ranging, several sub-teams were formed to focus on various topics such as patient safety, non-inferiority, prior specification, comparative effectiveness, joint modeling, program-wide decision making, analytical tools, and education. The focus of this paper is on the recent effort of the BSWG Education sub-team to administer a Bayesian survey to statisticians across 17 organizations involved in medical product development. We summarize results of this survey, from which we provide recommendations on how to accelerate progress in Bayesian applications throughout medical product development. The survey results support findings from the literature and provide additional insight on regulatory acceptance of Bayesian methods and information on the need for a Bayesian infrastructure within an organization. The survey findings support the claim that only modest progress in areas of education and implementation has been made recently, despite substantial progress in Bayesian statistical research and software availability. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Abdominal pain endpoints currently recommended by the FDA and EMA for adult patients with irritable bowel syndrome may not be reliable in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saps, M; Lavigne, J V

    2015-06-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommended ≥30% decrease on patient-reported outcomes for pain be considered clinically significant in clinical trials for adults with irritable bowel syndrome. This percent change approach may not be appropriate for children. We compared three alternate approaches to determining clinically significant reductions in pain among children. 80 children with functional abdominal pain participated in a study of the efficacy of amitriptyline. Endpoints included patient-reported estimates of feeling better, and pain Visual Analog Scale (VAS). The minimum clinically important difference in pain report was calculated as (i) mean change in VAS score for children reporting being 'better'; (ii) percent changes in pain (≥30% and ≥50%) on the VAS; and (iii) statistically reliable changes on the VAS for 68% and 95% confidence intervals. There was poor agreement between the three approaches. 43.6% of the children who met the FDA ≥30% criterion for clinically significant change did not achieve a reliable level of improvement (95% confidence interval). Children's self-reported ratings of being better may not be statistically reliable. A combined approach in which children must report improvement as better and achieve a statistically significant change may be more appropriate for outcomes in clinical trials. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. International recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindell, Bo

    1986-01-01

    Full text: This short presentation will indicate the general radiation protection background to protective measures against foodstuffs contaminated with radioactive substances. A number of international organizations are involved in various aspects of radiation protection, for example, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), and the World Health Organization (WHO). Two international organizations, however, provide the basic background. These are the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). UNSCEAR provides the scientific information on radiation levels and effects. It consists of 21 member countries, with truly international coverage. It issues reports to the UN General Assembly, including comprehensive scientific annexes. Its latest comprehensive report was issued in 1982, the next is expected to be published in 1988. That report will include an assessment of the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident. The ICRP is a non-governmental organization. It has issued recommendations on radiation protection since 1928. The postulated biological basis for radiation protection recommendations involves two types of biological effects. The so-called non-stochastic effects, mainly due to cell death, appear only when the radiation doses exceed a certain threshold value. These effects, therefore, can only appear after high accidental exposures. After the Chernobyl accident, they only affected about 200 individuals involved in fire extinction and rescue work at the damaged nuclear power plant. Stochastic effects, with some simplification, may be seen as the result of initial changes in the genetic code of some surviving cells. If these cells are germ cells, this may lead to hereditary harm. If they are somatic cells, the result could be cancer

  1. Dietary polyphenol intake in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Knaze, Viktoria; Rothwell, Joseph A

    2016-01-01

    were collected using a standardized 24-h dietary recall software administered to 36,037 adult subjects. Dietary data were linked with Phenol-Explorer, a database with data on 502 individual polyphenols in 452 foods and data on polyphenol losses due to cooking and food processing. RESULTS: Mean total....... The current cross-sectional analysis aimed at estimating dietary intakes of all currently known individual polyphenols and total intake per class and subclass, and to identify their main food sources in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. METHODS: Dietary data at baseline...... polyphenol intake was the highest in Aarhus-Denmark (1786 mg/day in men and 1626 mg/day in women) and the lowest in Greece (744 mg/day in men and 584 mg/day in women). When dividing the subjects into three regions, the highest intake of total polyphenols was observed in the UK health-conscious group...

  2. [Design and implementation of a questionnaire to evaluate the dietary quality of school meals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mateo Silleras, Beatriz; Camina Martín, M Alicia; Ojeda Sainz, Berta; Carreño Enciso, Laura; de la Cruz Marcos, Sandra; Marugán de Miguelsanz, José Manuel; Redondo del Río, Paz

    2014-10-03

    The school canteen provides a substantial proportion of the daily nutritional intake for many children. There are nutritional standards for school meals, however, it is still difficult to assess the dietary quality. To design a questionnaire for assessing the dietary quality of school meals, quickly and easily. A dietary questionnaire (COMES) was designed on the basis of the current recommendations. COMES consist of 15 items related to the food-frequency and to other characteristics of school meals. Then, a longitudinal prospective study was performed in order to analyze, with COMES, 36 school meals of 4 catering companies from Castilla y León during the academic years 2006-2007 to 2010-2011. Differences in dietary quality menus according to the management system of catering companies (in situ vs. transported) were analyzed by using the Mann-Whitney and the Kruskal-Wallis tests. The significance was reached at p culinary techniques were appropriate. No significant differences were found in the COMES score according to the management system (p=0,87), although catering system provides higher dietary quality. A new tool to assess quickly and easily the nutritional quality of school meals has been proposed. The assessment of the frequency intake of the most problematic foods for schoolchildren with this scale is much more demanding than the current recommendations. Even so, menus analyzed showed an acceptable quality in terms of variety of foods and culinary techniques, although milk frequency in the menus was excessive at the expense of fresh fruit. On the other hand, the transported system (i.e. catering, both hot and cold-holding) provides menus more consistent with the dietary recommendations. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  3. Dietary Proteins and Angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Medina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Both defective and persistent angiogenesis are linked to pathological situations in the adult. Compounds able to modulate angiogenesis have a potential value for the treatment of such pathologies. Several small molecules present in the diet have been shown to have modulatory effects on angiogenesis. This review presents the current state of knowledge on the potential modulatory roles of dietary proteins on angiogenesis. There is currently limited available information on the topic. Milk contains at least three proteins for which modulatory effects on angiogenesis have been previously demonstrated. On the other hand, there is some scarce information on the potential of dietary lectins, edible plant proteins and high protein diets to modulate angiogenesis.

  4. Recommending Multidimensional Queries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacometti, Arnaud; Marcel, Patrick; Negre, Elsa

    Interactive analysis of datacube, in which a user navigates a cube by launching a sequence of queries is often tedious since the user may have no idea of what the forthcoming query should be in his current analysis. To better support this process we propose in this paper to apply a Collaborative Work approach that leverages former explorations of the cube to recommend OLAP queries. The system that we have developed adapts Approximate String Matching, a technique popular in Information Retrieval, to match the current analysis with the former explorations and help suggesting a query to the user. Our approach has been implemented with the open source Mondrian OLAP server to recommend MDX queries and we have carried out some preliminary experiments that show its efficiency for generating effective query recommendations.

  5. Dietary Intake of Competitive Bodybuilders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spendlove, Jessica; Mitchell, Lachlan; Gifford, Janelle; Hackett, Daniel; Slater, Gary; Cobley, Stephen; O'Connor, Helen

    2015-07-01

    details on rationale for different dietary intakes. The contribution of diet supplements was also often not reported. When supplements were reported, intakes of some micronutrients were excessive (~1000% of US Recommended Dietary Allowance) and above the tolerable upper limit. This review demonstrates that literature describing the dietary intake practices of competitive bodybuilders is dated and often of poor quality. Intake reporting required better specificity and details of the rationale underpinning the use. The review suggests that high-quality contemporary research is needed in this area, with the potential to uncover dietary strategies worthy of scientific exploration.

  6. UVB exposure of farm animals: study on a food-based strategy to bridge the gap between current vitamin D intakes and dietary targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Schutkowski

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency is a global health problem. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of ultraviolet (UV B radiation for improving vitamin D3 content of eggs and meat. In a two-factorial design hens that received diets with 0 (-D3 or 3,000 IU (+D3 vitamin D3/kg were non-exposed (-UVB or exposed to UVB radiation (+UVB for 3 h daily over 4 weeks. Data show that UVB radiation was very effective in raising the vitamin D3 content of egg yolk and meat. Egg yolk from +UVB/-D3 hens had a higher vitamin D3 content (17.5±7.2 µg/100 g dry matter (DM than those from the -UVB/+D3 group (5.2±2.4 µg/100 g DM, p<0.01. Vitamin D3 content in egg yolk of vitamin D3-supplemented hens could be further increased by UVB radiation (32.4±10.9 µg/100 g DM. The content of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OHD3 in the egg yolk also increased in response to UVB, although less pronounced than vitamin D3. Meat revealed about 4-fold higher vitamin D3 contents in response to UVB than to dietary vitamin D3 (p<0.001. In conclusion, exposure of hens to UVB is an efficient approach to provide consumers with vitamin D3-enriched foods from animal sources.

  7. Worldwide trends in dietary sugars intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittekind, Anna; Walton, Janette

    2014-12-01

    Estimating trends in dietary intake data is integral to informing national nutrition policy and monitoring progress towards dietary guidelines. Dietary intake of sugars is a controversial public health issue and guidance in relation to recommended intakes is particularly inconsistent. Published data relating to trends in sugars intake are relatively sparse. The purpose of the present review was to collate and review data from national nutrition surveys to examine changes and trends in dietary sugars intake. Only thirteen countries (all in the developed world) appear to report estimates of sugars intake from national nutrition surveys at more than one point in time. Definitions of dietary sugars that were used include 'total sugars', 'non-milk extrinsic sugars', 'added sugars', sucrose' and 'mono- and disaccharides'. This variability in terminology across countries meant that comparisons were limited to within countries. Hence trends in dietary sugars intake were examined by country for the whole population (where data permitted), and for specific or combined age and sex subpopulations. Findings indicate that in the majority of population comparisons, estimated dietary sugars intake is either stable or decreasing in both absolute (g/d) and relative (% energy) terms. An increase in sugars intake was observed in few countries and only in specific subpopulations. In conclusion, the findings from the present review suggest that, in the main, dietary sugars intake are decreasing or stable. A consistent approach to estimation of dietary sugars intake from national nutrition surveys is required if more valid estimates of changes in dietary sugars intakes are required in the future.

  8. Towards Geosocial Recommender Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaff, V.; van Keulen, Maurice; de By, R.A.; de By, Rolf A.

    2012-01-01

    The usage of social networks sites (SNSs), such as Facebook, and geosocial networks (GSNs), such as Foursquare, has increased tremendously over the past years. The willingness of users to share their current locations and experiences facilitate the creation of geographical recommender systems based

  9. Mechanisms of Silver Nanoparticle Release, Transformation and Toxicity: A Critical Review of Current Knowledge and Recommendations for Future Studies and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iseult Lynch

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanosilver, due to its small particle size and enormous specific surface area, facilitates more rapid dissolution of ions than the equivalent bulk material; potentially leading to increased toxicity of nanosilver. This, coupled with their capacity to adsorb biomolecules and interact with biological receptors can mean that nanoparticles can reach sub-cellular locations leading to potentially higher localized concentrations of ions once those particles start to dissolve or degrade in situ. Further complicating the story is the capacity for nanoparticles to generate reactive oxygen species, and to interact with, and potentially disturb the functioning of biomolecules such as proteins, enzymes and DNA. The fact that the nanoparticle size, shape, surface coating and a host of other factors contribute to these interactions, and that the particles themselves are evolving or ageing leads to further complications in terms of elucidating mechanisms of interaction and modes of action for silver nanoparticles, in contrast to dissolved silver species. This review aims to provide a critical assessment of the current understanding of silver nanoparticle toxicity, as well as to provide a set of pointers and guidelines for experimental design of future studies to assess the environmental and biological impacts of silver nanoparticles. In particular; in future we require a detailed description of the nanoparticles; their synthesis route and stabilisation mechanisms; their coating; and evolution and ageing under the exposure conditions of the assay. This would allow for comparison of data from different particles; different environmental or biological systems; and structure-activity or structure-property relationships to emerge as the basis for predictive toxicology. On the basis of currently available data; such comparisons or predictions are difficult; as the characterisation and time-resolved data is not available; and a full understanding of silver

  10. Role of dietary polyphenols in the management of peptic ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzaei, Mohammad Hosein; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Rahimi, Roja

    2015-06-07

    Peptic ulcer disease is a multifactorial and complex disease involving gastric and duodenal ulcers. Despite medical advances, the management of peptic ulcer and its complications remains a challenge, with high morbidity and death rates for the disease. An accumulating body of evidence suggests that, among a broad reach of natural molecules, dietary polyphenols with multiple biological mechanisms of action play a pivotal part in the management of gastric and duodenal ulcers. The current review confirmed that dietary polyphenols possess protective and therapeutic potential in peptic ulcer mediated by: improving cytoprotection, re-epithelialization, neovascularization, and angiogenesis; up-regulating tissue growth factors and prostaglandins; down-regulating anti-angiogenic factors; enhancing endothelial nitric oxide synthase-derived NO; suppressing oxidative mucosal damage; amplifying antioxidant performance, antacid, and anti-secretory activity; increasing endogenous mucosal defensive agents; and blocking Helicobacter pylori colonization associated gastric morphological changes and gastroduodenal inflammation and ulceration. In addition, anti-inflammatory activity due to down-regulation of proinflammatory cytokines and cellular and intercellular adhesion agents, suppressing leukocyte-endothelium interaction, inhibiting nuclear signaling pathways of inflammatory process, and modulating intracellular transduction and transcription pathways have key roles in the anti-ulcer action of dietary polyphenols. In conclusion, administration of a significant amount of dietary polyphenols in the human diet or as part of dietary supplementation along with conventional treatment can result in perfect security and treatment of peptic ulcer. Further well-designed preclinical and clinical tests are recommended in order to recognize higher levels of evidence for the confirmation of bioefficacy and safety of dietary polyphenols in the management of peptic ulcer.

  11. Are the Dietary Guidelines for Meat, Fat, Fruit and Vegetable Consumption Appropriate for Environmental Sustainability? A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Christian John; Buckley, Jonathan David; Weinstein, Philip; Boland, John

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the current literature around the environmental impacts of dietary recommendations. The focus of the review is on collating evidence relating to environmental impacts of the dietary advice found in the World Health Organisation guidelines, and environmental impact literature: reducing the consumption of fat, reducing the consumption of meat-based protein and animal-based foods, and increasing the consumption of fruit and vegetables. The environmental impact of reducing dietary fat intake is unclear, although reducing consumption of the food category of edible fats and oils appears to have little impact. However most, but not all, studies support environmental benefits of a reduced consumption of animal-based foods and increased consumption of fruit and vegetables. In general, it appears that adhering to dietary guidelines reduces impact on the environment, but further study is required to examine the environmental impacts of animal-based foods, and fruit and vegetable intake in depth. PMID:24926526

  12. Regulatory Considerations for the Clinical and Research Use of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS): review and recommendations from an expert panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fregni, F; Nitsche, MA; Loo, C.K.; Brunoni, AR; Marangolo, P; Leite, J; Carvalho, S; Bolognini, N; Caumo, W; Paik, NJ; Simis, M; Ueda, K; Ekhitari, H; Luu, P; Tucker, DM; Tyler, WJ; Brunelin, J; Datta, A; Juan, CH; Venkatasubramanian, G; Boggio, PS; Bikson, M

    2014-01-01

    The field of transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) has experienced significant growth in the past 15 years. One of the tES techniques leading this increased interest is transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Significant research efforts have been devoted to determining the clinical potential of tDCS in humans. Despite the promising results obtained with tDCS in basic and clinical neuroscience, further progress has been impeded by a lack of clarity on international regulatory pathways. We therefore convened a group of research and clinician experts on tDCS to review the research and clinical use of tDCS. In this report, we review the regulatory status of tDCS, and we summarize the results according to research, off-label and compassionate use of tDCS in the following countries: Australia, Brazil, France, Germany, India, Iran, Italy, Portugal, South Korea, Taiwan and United States. Research use, off label treatment and compassionate use of tDCS are employed in most of the countries reviewed in this study. It is critical that a global or local effort is organized to pursue definite evidence to either approve and regulate or restrict the use of tDCS in clinical practice on the basis of adequate randomized controlled treatment trials. PMID:25983531

  13. Treating an Established Episode of Delirium in Palliative Care: Expert Opinion and Review of the Current Evidence Base With Recommendations for Future Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, José L.; Davis, Daniel H.J.; Currow, David C.; Meagher, David; Rabheru, Kiran; Wright, David; Bruera, Eduardo; Hartwick, Michael; Gagnon, Pierre R.; Gagnon, Bruno; Breitbart, William; Regnier, Laura; Lawlor, Peter G.

    2014-01-01

    Context Delirium is a highly prevalent complication in patients in palliative care settings, especially in the end-of-life context. Objectives To review the current evidence base for treating episodes of delirium in palliative care settings and propose a framework for future development. Methods We combined multidisciplinary input from delirium researchers and other purposely selected stakeholders at an international delirium study planning meeting. This was supplemented by a literature search of multiple databases and relevant reference lists to identify studies regarding therapeutic interventions for delirium. Results The context of delirium management in palliative care is highly variable. The standard management of a delirium episode includes the investigation of precipitating and aggravating factors followed by symptomatic treatment with drug therapy. However, the intensity of this management depends on illness trajectory and goals of care in addition to the local availability of both investigative modalities and therapeutic interventions. Pharmacologically, haloperidol remains the practice standard by consensus for symptomatic control. Dosing schedules are derived from expert opinion and various clinical practice guidelines as evidence-based data from palliative care settings are limited. The commonly used pharmacologic interventions for delirium in this population warrant evaluation in clinical trials to examine dosing and titration regimens, different routes of administration, and safety and efficacy compared with placebo. Conclusion Delirium treatment is multidimensional and includes the identification of precipitating and aggravating factors. For symptomatic management, haloperidol remains the practice standard. Further high-quality collaborative research investigating the appropriate treatment of this complex syndrome is needed. PMID:24480529

  14. Nominal group technique-elicited barriers and facilitators to following the Dietary Guidelines for solid fats and added sugars in children: The HEALTH Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US population has a high intake of discretionary solid fats and added sugars (SoFAS) which currently exceeds federal dietary recommendations. The goal of this study was to identify barriers and facilitators to following the DGA. Thirty-eight 5th grade children across six Human Nutrition Resear...

  15. Reducing Breast Cancer Recurrence: The Role of Dietary Polyphenolics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea J. Braakhuis

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Evidence from numerous observational and clinical studies suggest that polyphenolic phytochemicals such as phenolic acids in olive oil, flavonols in tea, chocolate and grapes, and isoflavones in soy products reduce the risk of breast cancer. A dietary food pattern naturally rich in polyphenols is the Mediterranean diet and evidence suggests those of Mediterranean descent have a lower breast cancer incidence. Whilst dietary polyphenols have been the subject of breast cancer risk-reduction, this review will focus on the clinical effects of polyphenols on reducing recurrence. Overall, we recommend breast cancer patients consume a diet naturally high in flavonol polyphenols including tea, vegetables (onion, broccoli, and fruit (apples, citrus. At least five servings of vegetables and fruit daily appear protective. Moderate soy protein consumption (5–10 g daily and the Mediterranean dietary pattern show the most promise for breast cancer patients. In this review, we present an overview of clinical trials on supplementary polyphenols of dietary patterns rich in polyphenols on breast cancer recurrence, mechanistic data, and novel delivery systems currently being researched.

  16. Women who take n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplements during pregnancy and lactation meet the recommended intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiaoming; Pakseresht, Mohammadreza; Wattar, Nour; Wildgrube, Jamie; Sontag, Stephanie; Andrews, Murphy; Subhan, Fatheema Begum; McCargar, Linda; Field, Catherine J

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the current study was to estimate total intake and dietary sources of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentanoic (DPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and compare DHA intakes with the recommended intakes in a cohort of pregnant and lactating women. Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls and supplement intake questionnaires were collected from 600 women in the Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) cohort at each trimester of pregnancy and 3 months postpartum. Dietary intake was estimated in 2 ways: by using a commercial software program and by using a database created for APrON. Only 27% of women during pregnancy and 25% at 3 months postpartum met the current European Union (EU) consensus recommendation for DHA. Seafood, fish, and seaweed products contributed to 79% of overall n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids intake from foods, with the majority from salmon. The estimated intake of DHA and EPA was similar between databases, but the estimated DPA intake was 20%-30% higher using the comprehensive database built for this study. Women who took a supplement containing DHA were 10.6 and 11.1 times more likely to meet the current EU consensus recommendation for pregnancy (95% confidence interval (CI): 6.952-16.07; PDHA during pregnancy and lactation, but taking a supplement significantly improved the likelihood that they would meet recommendations.

  17. The nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics of the dietary requirement for choline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, Karen D; Zeisel, Steven H

    2012-01-01

    Advances in nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics have been instrumental in demonstrating that nutrient requirements vary among individuals. This is exemplified by studies of the nutrient choline, in which gender, single-nucleotide polymorphisms, estrogen status, and gut microbiome composition have been shown to influence its optimal intake level. Choline is an essential nutrient with a wide range of biological functions, and current studies are aimed at refining our understanding of its requirements and, importantly, on defining the molecular mechanisms that mediate its effects in instances of suboptimal dietary intake. This chapter introduces the reader to challenges in developing individual nutrition recommendations, the biological function of choline, current and future research paradigms to fully understand the consequences of inadequate choline nutrition, and some forward thinking about the potential for individualized nutrition recommendations to become a tangible application for improved health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Toxicity of seven priority hazardous and noxious substances (HNSs) to marine organisms: Current status, knowledge gaps and recommendations for future research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, A. Cristina S.; Reis-Henriques, Maria Armanda; Galhano, Victor; Ferreira, Marta; Guimarães, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Shipping industry and seaborne trade have rapidly increased over the last fifty years, mainly due to the continuous increasing demand for chemicals and fuels. Consequently, despite current regulations, the occurrence of accidental spills poses an important risk. Hazardous and noxious substances (HNSs) have been raising major concern among environmental managers and scientific community for their heterogeneity, hazardous potential towards aquatic organisms and associated social-economic impacts. A literature review on ecotoxicological hazards to aquatic organisms was conducted for seven HNSs: acrylonitrile, n-butyl acrylate, cyclohexylbenzene, hexane, isononanol, trichloroethylene and xylene. Information on the mechanisms of action of the selected HNS was also reviewed. The main purpose was to identify: i) knowledge gaps in need of being addressed in future research; and ii) a set of possible biomarkers suitable for ecotoxicological assessment and monitoring in both estuarine and marine systems. Main gaps found concern the scarcity of information available on ecotoxicological effects of HNS towards marine species and their poorly understood mode of action in wildlife. Differences were found between the sensitivity of freshwater and seawater organisms, so endpoints produced in the former may not be straightforwardly employed in evaluations for the marine environment. The relationship between sub-individual effects and higher level detrimental alterations (e.g. behavioural, morphological, reproductive effects and mortality) are not fully understood. In this context, a set of biomarkers associated to neurotoxicity, detoxification and anti-oxidant defences is suggested as potential indicators of toxic exposure/effects of HNS in marine organisms. Overall, to support the development of contingency plans and the establishment of environmental safety thresholds, it will be necessary to undertake targeted research on HNS ecotoxicity in the marine environment. Research should

  19. Toxicity of seven priority hazardous and noxious substances (HNSs) to marine organisms: Current status, knowledge gaps and recommendations for future research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, A. Cristina S., E-mail: cristinasrocha@gmail.com; Reis-Henriques, Maria Armanda; Galhano, Victor; Ferreira, Marta, E-mail: marta.ferreira@usp.ac.fj; Guimarães, Laura

    2016-01-15

    Shipping industry and seaborne trade have rapidly increased over the last fifty years, mainly due to the continuous increasing demand for chemicals and fuels. Consequently, despite current regulations, the occurrence of accidental spills poses an important risk. Hazardous and noxious substances (HNSs) have been raising major concern among environmental managers and scientific community for their heterogeneity, hazardous potential towards aquatic organisms and associated social-economic impacts. A literature review on ecotoxicological hazards to aquatic organisms was conducted for seven HNSs: acrylonitrile, n-butyl acrylate, cyclohexylbenzene, hexane, isononanol, trichloroethylene and xylene. Information on the mechanisms of action of the selected HNS was also reviewed. The main purpose was to identify: i) knowledge gaps in need of being addressed in future research; and ii) a set of possible biomarkers suitable for ecotoxicological assessment and monitoring in both estuarine and marine systems. Main gaps found concern the scarcity of information available on ecotoxicological effects of HNS towards marine species and their poorly understood mode of action in wildlife. Differences were found between the sensitivity of freshwater and seawater organisms, so endpoints produced in the former may not be straightforwardly employed in evaluations for the marine environment. The relationship between sub-individual effects and higher level detrimental alterations (e.g. behavioural, morphological, reproductive effects and mortality) are not fully understood. In this context, a set of biomarkers associated to neurotoxicity, detoxification and anti-oxidant defences is suggested as potential indicators of toxic exposure/effects of HNS in marine organisms. Overall, to support the development of contingency plans and the establishment of environmental safety thresholds, it will be necessary to undertake targeted research on HNS ecotoxicity in the marine environment. Research should

  20. A Review of Dietary Surveys in the Adult South African Population from 2000 to 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zandile J. Mchiza

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available One serious concern of health policymakers in South Africa is the fact that there is no national data on the dietary intake of adult South Africans. The only national dietary study was done in children in 1999. Hence, it becomes difficult to plan intervention and strategies to combat malnutrition without national data on adults. The current review consequently assessed all dietary studies in adults from 2000 to June 2015 in an attempt to portray typical adult dietary intakes and to assess possible dietary deficiencies. Notable findings were that, in South Africa micronutrient deficiencies are still highly prevalent and energy intakes varied between very low intakes in informal settlements to very high intakes in urban centers. The most commonly deficient food groups observed are fruit and vegetables, and dairy. This has been attributed to high prices and lack of availability of these food groups in poorer urban areas and townships. In rural areas, access to healthy foods also remains a problem. A national nutrition monitoring system is recommended in order to identify dietary deficiencies in specific population groups.

  1. Consensus on the guidelines for the dietary management of classical galactosemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerckhove, Kristel Vande; Diels, Marianne; Vanhaesebrouck, Sigrid; Luyten, Karin; Pyck, Nancy; De Meyer, An; Van Driessche, Marleen; Robert, Martine; Corthouts, Karen; Caris, Ariane; Duchateau, Emilie; Dassy, Martine; Bihet, Genevieve

    2015-02-01

    Worldwide there is scientific discussion about the dietary management of galactosemia. The dietary management is very different in several countries among Europe, the US and Canada. The main points of discussion are related to the fact that i) despite a strict diet some patients still have poor outcomes; ii) there is lack of scientific knowledge about the role of endogenous production of galactose on disease evolution, with or without diet. The aim of the current work was the creation of a Belgian consensus on dietary guidelines for the management of galactosemia. A step-wise approach was used to achieve a consensus, including: a workshop, a Delphi round, discussion groups and a round table of different Belgian experts. The consensus is an agreement between strict guidelines (strict limitation of fruits, vegetables and soybean products/French guidelines) and the more liberal guidelines (comparable with a diet free of lactose/guidelines of UK and the Netherlands). The consensus document consists of different modules, including the medical context, the theoretical background of dietary guidelines and the age-specific practical dietary guidelines. A Belgian consensus on the guidelines for the dietary management of classical galactosemia was developed despite the uncertainties of the efficacy and practical application of these guidelines. The final consensus is based on scientific knowledge and practical agreement among experts. In the future, regular revision of the guidelines is recommended and a uniform European guideline is desirable. Copyright © 2014 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Dietary fat and cardiovascular disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lie T. Merijanti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dietary saturated fat (SF intake has been shown to increase low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol and therefore has been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD. This evidence coupled with inferences from epidemiologic studies and clinical trials, had led to longstanding public health recommendations for limiting SF intake as a means of preventing CVD. However the relationship between SF and CVD risk remains controversial, due at least in part to the intrinsic limitations of clinical studies that have evaluated this relationship. A recent meta analysis showed that current evidence does not clearly support cardiovascular guidelines that encourage high consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and low consumption of total SF. They found weak positive associations between circulating palmitic and stearic acids (found largely in palm oil and animal fats, respectively and CVD, whereas circulating margaric acid (a dairy fat significantly reduced the risk of CVD.(2,3 Saturated fat are not associated with all cause mortality, CVD, CHD, ischemic stroke or type 2 diabetes, but the evidence is heterogenous with methodological limitations.

  3. Assessing patients' attitudes towards dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzejska, Regina; Jarosz, Mirosław; Siuba, Magdalena; Rambuszek, Michał

    2014-01-01

    There is currently many over the counter products on the market that exert nutritional or physiological effects on the human body. The differences between dietary supplements and non-prescription drugs are however poorly understood by the average consumer and may thus affect their expectations as to the desired effect produced on the body. To evaluate patients' knowledge and attitudes towards dietary supplements as compared to non-prescription drugs. Subjects were 335 patients of the Mazowiecki Voivodeship Hospital in Warsaw, Poland. The data were collected from a face-to-face interview using a single and multiple choice questionnaire with 10 questions on dietary supplements. Statistical analysis used the Chi-square (χ2) test. The majority of respondents were found to be familiar with the term 'dietary supplements', but had difficulties in classifying these products into appropriate categories. Over 55% do not consider dietary supplements to be foodstuffs and more than 40% considered such products to be drugs. Most respondents thought that the main purpose of taking dietary supplements is to improve nutrition, but over one third expected them to also treat disease. Over 70% declared taking notice to which category the non-prescription products they bought belongs to ie. whether non-prescription drugs (medicinal products) or dietary supplements. Many patients mistakenly believe that dietary supplements are drugs and can be used to treat disease and health disorders. dietary supplements, opinion on dietary supplements, nutrition, dietary supplement vs. medicinal product.

  4. Dietary Advanced Glycation End Products and Cardiometabolic Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luévano-Contreras, Claudia; Gómez-Ojeda, Armando; Macías-Cervantes, Maciste Habacuc; Garay-Sevilla, Ma Eugenia

    2017-08-01

    This report analyzes emerging evidence about the role of dietary advanced glycation end products (AGEs) as a cardiometabolic risk factor. Two important aspects are discussed: First, the modulation of AGE load by dietary AGEs; second, if the evidence of clinical and observational studies is enough to make dietary recommendations towards lowering AGE intake. Clinical studies in subjects with diabetes mellitus have shown that high intake of dietary AGEs increases inflammation markers, oxidative stress, and could impair endothelial function. In subjects at risk for cardiometabolic diseases (with overweight, obesity, or prediabetes), dietary AGE restriction decreases some inflammatory molecules and improves insulin sensitivity. However, studies in healthy subjects are limited, and not all of the studies have shown a decrease in circulating AGEs. Therefore, it is still unclear if dietary AGEs represent a health concern for people potentially at risk for cardiometabolic diseases. The evidence shows that dietary AGEs are bioavailable and absorbed, and the rate of excretion depends on dietary intake. The metabolic fate of most dietary AGEs remains unknown. Regardless, most studies have shown that by diminishing AGE intake, circulating levels will also decrease. Thus, dietary AGEs can modulate the AGE load at least in patients with DM, overweight, or obesity. Studies with specific clinical outcomes and large-scale observational studies are needed for a better risk assessment of dietary AGEs and to establish dietary recommendations accordingly.

  5. Effecting dietary change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Ashley J; Mathers, John C

    2004-11-01

    A world epidemic of diet-related chronic disease is currently being faced. In the UK incidence of obesity alone has tripled in the last 20 years and this trend is predicted to continue. Consensus exists for the urgent need for a change in diet and other lifestyle factors and for the direction and targets for this change. The evidence for how this change can be achieved is less certain. It has been established that disease processes begin in childhood. Recent evidence indicates that dietary habits too are established in childhood but that these habits are amenable to change. While establishing a healthy lifestyle in childhood is paramount, interventions have the potential to promote positive change throughout the life course. Success in reversing current trends in diet-related disease will depend on commitment from legislators, health professionals, industry and individuals, and this collaboration must seek to address not only the food choices of the individual but also the environment that influences such choices. Recent public health policy development in England, if fully supported and implemented, is a positive move towards this goal. Evidence for effective strategies to promote dietary change at the individual level is emerging and three reviews of this evidence are discussed. In addition, three recent dietary intervention studies, in three different settings and with different methods and aims, are presented to illustrate methods of effecting dietary change. Further work is required on what factors influence the eating behaviour and physical activity of individuals. There is a need for further theory-based research on which to develop more effective strategies to enable individuals to adopt healthier lifestyles.

  6. [Schools meals in French secondary state schools: compliance to national recommendations and schools catering patterns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, M; Lafay, L; Calamassi-Tran, G; Volatier, J-L; Dubuisson, C

    2011-02-01

    with recommendations was contrasted, with high adequacy for some guidelines and low for others. Nevertheless, application of the current guidelines and real implication of the school in a dietary project did improve the dietary offer in such schools. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Overconsumption of Energy and Excessive Discretionary Food Intake Inflates Dietary Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrie, Gilly A; Baird, Danielle; Ridoutt, Brad; Hadjikakou, Michalis; Noakes, Manny

    2016-10-31

    Population dietary guidelines have started to include information about the environmental impacts of food choices, but more quantifiable evidence is needed, particularly about the impacts associated with discretionary foods. This paper utilised the 2011-2012 Australian Health Survey food intake data along with a highly disaggregated input-output model to estimate the greenhouse gas emissions (GHGe) of Australians' dietary intake, and compare current patterns of eating which vary in diet quality and GHGe to the recommended diet. The average dietary GHGe were 18.72 ± 12.06 and 13.73 ± 8.72 kg CO₂e/day for male and female adults, respectively. The correlation between total energy and GHGe was r = 0.54 ( p nutritional benefit at little environmental expense. Public health messages that promote healthy eating, eating to one's energy needs and improved diet quality will also contribute to lowering GHGe.

  8. Overconsumption of Energy and Excessive Discretionary Food Intake Inflates Dietary Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilly A. Hendrie

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Population dietary guidelines have started to include information about the environmental impacts of food choices, but more quantifiable evidence is needed, particularly about the impacts associated with discretionary foods. This paper utilised the 2011–2012 Australian Health Survey food intake data along with a highly disaggregated input–output model to estimate the greenhouse gas emissions (GHGe of Australians’ dietary intake, and compare current patterns of eating which vary in diet quality and GHGe to the recommended diet. The average dietary GHGe were 18.72 ± 12.06 and 13.73 ± 8.72 kg CO2e/day for male and female adults, respectively. The correlation between total energy and GHGe was r = 0.54 (p < 0.001. Core foods contributed 68.4% and discretionary foods 29.4%. Within core foods, fresh meat and alternatives (33.9% was the greatest contributor. The modelling of current dietary patterns showed the contribution of discretionary foods to GHGe was 121% greater in the average diet and 307% greater in the “lower quality, higher GHGe” diet compared to the recommended diet. Reducing discretionary food intake would allow for small increases in emissions from core foods (in particular vegetables, dairy and grains, thereby providing a nutritional benefit at little environmental expense. Public health messages that promote healthy eating, eating to one’s energy needs and improved diet quality will also contribute to lowering GHGe.

  9. New Insulin Delivery Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frid, Anders H; Kreugel, Gillian; Grassi, Giorgio; Halimi, Serge; Hicks, Debbie; Hirsch, Laurence J; Smith, Mike J; Wellhoener, Regine; Bode, Bruce W; Hirsch, Irl B; Kalra, Sanjay; Ji, Linong; Strauss, Kenneth W

    2016-09-01

    Many primary care professionals manage injection or infusion therapies in patients with diabetes. Few published guidelines have been available to help such professionals and their patients manage these therapies. Herein, we present new, practical, and comprehensive recommendations for diabetes injections and infusions. These recommendations were informed by a large international survey of current practice and were written and vetted by 183 diabetes experts from 54 countries at the Forum for Injection Technique and Therapy: Expert Recommendations (FITTER) workshop held in Rome, Italy, in 2015. Recommendations are organized around the themes of anatomy, physiology, pathology, psychology, and technology. Key among the recommendations are that the shortest needles (currently the 4-mm pen and 6-mm syringe needles) are safe, effective, and less painful and should be the first-line choice in all patient categories; intramuscular injections should be avoided, especially with long-acting insulins, because severe hypoglycemia may result; lipohypertrophy is a frequent complication of therapy that distorts insulin absorption, and, therefore, injections and infusions should not be given into these lesions and correct site rotation will help prevent them; effective long-term therapy with insulin is critically dependent on addressing psychological hurdles upstream, even before insulin has been started; inappropriate disposal of used sharps poses a risk of infection with blood-borne pathogens; and mitigation is possible with proper training, effective disposal strategies, and the use of safety devices. Adherence to these new recommendations should lead to more effective therapies, improved outcomes, and lower costs for patients with diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Use of Iodine-Containing Dietary Supplements Remains Low among Women of Reproductive Age in the United States: NHANES 2011–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya M. Gupta

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the United States, the American Thyroid Association recommends that women take a dietary supplement containing 150 µg of iodine 3 months prior to conception and while pregnant and lactating to support fetal growth and neurological development. We used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011–2014 to describe the use of dietary supplements with and without iodine in the past 30 days among 2155 non-pregnant, non-lactating (NPNL women; 122 pregnant women; and 61 lactating women. Among NPNL women, 45.3% (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 42.0, 48.6 used any dietary supplement and 14.8% (95% CI: 12.7, 16.8 used a dietary supplement with iodine in the past 30 days. Non-Hispanic black and Hispanic women were less likely to use any dietary supplement as well as one with iodine, than non-Hispanic white or non-Hispanic Asian women (p < 0.05. Among pregnant women, 72.2% (95% CI: 65.8, 78.6 used any dietary supplement; however, only 17.8% (95% CI: 11.4, 24.3 used a dietary supplement with iodine. Among lactating women, 75.0% (95% CI: 63.0, 87.0 used a dietary supplement; however, only 19.0% (95% CI: 8.8, 29.2 used a dietary supplement with iodine. Among NPNL women using a supplement with iodine, median daily iodine intake was 75.0 µg. Self-reported data suggests that the use of iodine containing dietary supplements among pregnant and lactating women remains low in contrast with current recommendations.

  11. Maternal medication and breastfeeding: Current recommendations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The benefits of breastfeeding for infants in the first year of life in developing countries1 and developed countries2 are well established. In addition, maternal benefits such as earlier return to pre-pregnant weight,3 increased child spacing,4 improved bone re-mineralization postpartum,5 reduction in hip fractures in the ...

  12. Development of Family-Based Dietary Self-Management Support Program on Dietary Behaviors in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Indonesia: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aklima Aklima

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: WHO statistics show that Indonesia has the fourth highest number of diabetes sufferers. The International Diabetes Federation‟s 5th estimated that in 2011 there were 71.4 million people in South East Asia region were suffering with DM Purpose: To develop a family-based dietary self-management support program to improve dietary behaviors in patients with T2DM. Method: A literature review was conducted by reviewing articles related evidence-based practices. Only articles in the English and Indonesian languages were reviewed. The search found eleven published experimental studies related to the topic. Result: Even though dietary self-management has benefits for patients with diabetes, many studies have found that these patients often have difficulty in establishing or maintaining an effective program to self-manage their dietary behaviors. Lack of family support is one factor that often seems to be related to such failures. Family participation in a diabetes education program also had positive psychosocial impacts. Otherwise, another study found that family might not always have a positive impact on self-management. Therefore, this review recommends that development of a family-based support program could be a positive factor in helping to improve dietary self-management behaviors in patients with T2DM. Self-management theory by Funnell and Anderson‟s work (2004 can guide the development of a program with the goal of empowering individuals and families in improving the patient‟s dietary behaviors. The program consists of: (1 reflecting on current and/or past self-management experiences by listening to the patient about their dietary behaviors, (2 discussing the emotions and feelings of the patients, (3 engaging the patient in improving their situation by active listening and helping the patient reflect on their problems and identifying effective strategies, (4 providing information about dietary management and problem

  13. Pigs experimentally infected with an enterotoxigenic strain of Escherichia coli have improved feed efficiency and indicators of inflammation with dietary supplementation of tryptophan and methionine in the immediate post-weaning period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capozzalo, Meeka M; Kim, Jae Cheol; Htoo, J.K.

    2017-01-01

    This experiment tested the hypothesis that pigs challenged with an enterotoxigenic strain of E. coli (ETEC) will improve performance by dietary supplementation of sulfur amino acids (SAA) and tryptophan (Trp) above the current recommended levels in the immediate post-weaning period. Male pigs (n ...... of inflammation and SAA supplementation decreased the pro-inflammatory interferon-gamma response and improved protein utilisation, as measured by PU, whereas supplementation with both Trp and SAA improved feed conversion ratio....... interferon-gamma regardless of dietary Trp or day of sampling (P = 0.043). Increasing dietary SAA decreased plasma urea (PU) levels on Days 5, 8 and 14 (P

  14. Choline: Clinical Nutrigenetic/Nutrigenomic Approaches for Identification of Functions and Dietary Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeisel, Steven H.

    2013-01-01

    Nutrigenetics/nutrigenomics (the study of the bidirectional interactions between genes and diet) is a rapidly developing field that is changing research and practice in human nutrition. Though eventually nutrition clinicians may be able to provide personalized nutrition recommendations, in the immediate future they are most likely to use this knowledge to improve dietary recommendations for populations. Currently, estimated average requirements are used to set dietary reference intakes because scientists cannot adequately identify subsets of the population that differ in requirement for a nutrient. Recommended intake levels must exceed the actual required intake for most of the population in order to assure that individuals with the highest requirement ingest adequate amounts of the nutrient. As a result, dietary reference intake levels often are set so high that diet guidelines suggest almost unattainable intakes of some foods. Once it is possible to identify common subgroups that differ in nutrient requirements using nutrigenetic/nutrigenomic profiling, targeted interventions and recommendations can be refined. In addition, when a large variance exists in response to a nutrient, statistical analyses often argue for a null effect. If responders could be differentiated from nonre-sponders based on nutrigenetic/nutrigenomic profiling, this statistical noise could be eliminated and the sensitivity of nutrition research greatly increased. PMID:20436254

  15. Protein supplements after weight loss do not improve weight maintenance compared with recommended dietary protein intake despite beneficial effects on appetite sensation and energy expenditure: a randomized, controlled, double-blinded trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjølbæk, Louise; Sørensen, Lone Brinkmann; Søndertoft, Nadja Buus; Rasmussen, Carrie Klestrup; Lorenzen, Janne Kunchel; Serena, Anja; Astrup, Arne; Larsen, Lesli Hingstrup

    2017-08-01

    normal dietary protein intake (0.8-1.0 g · kg -1 · d -1 ). This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01561131. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Validation of the MEDFICTS dietary questionnaire: A clinical tool to assess adherence to American Heart Association dietary fat intake guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindeman Jody

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary assessment tools are often too long, difficult to quantify, expensive to process, and largely used for research purposes. A rapid and accurate assessment of dietary fat intake is critically important in clinical decision-making regarding dietary advice for coronary risk reduction. We assessed the validity of the MEDFICTS (MF questionnaire, a brief instrument developed to assess fat intake according to the American Heart Association (AHA dietary "steps". Methods We surveyed 164 active-duty US Army personnel without known coronary artery disease at their intake interview for a primary prevention cardiac intervention trial using the Block food frequency (FFQ and MF questionnaires. Both surveys were completed on the same intake visit and independently scored. Correlations between each tools' assessment of fat intake, the agreement in AHA step categorization of dietary quality with each tool, and the test characteristics of the MF using the FFQ as the gold standard were assessed. Results Subjects consumed a mean of 36.0 ± 13.0% of their total calories as fat, which included saturated fat consumption of 13.0 ± 0.4%. The majority of subjects (125/164; 76.2% had a high fat (worse than AHA Step 1 diet. There were significant correlations between the MF and the FFQ for the intake of total fat (r = 0.52, P 70 [high fat diet] was negligible (kappa statistic = 0.036. The MF was accurate at the extremes of fat intake, but could not reliably identify the 3 AHA dietary classifications. Alternative MF cutpoints of 50 (high fat diet were highly sensitive (96%, but had low specificity (46% for a high fat diet. ROC curve analysis identified that a MF score cutoff of 38 provided optimal sensitivity 75% and specificity 72%, and had modest agreement (kappa = 0.39, P Conclusions The MEDFICTS questionnaire is most suitable as a tool to identify high fat diets, rather than discriminate AHA Step 1 and Step 2 diets. Currently recommended

  17. Dietetic recommendations in rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Rosa Alhambra-Expósito

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic autoimmune disease that has a significant effect on patients’ physical, emotional, and social functioning. For decades, patients have used different diets to try to improve the symptoms of RA. The possible benefits of dietary therapy for rheumatoid arthritis are reviewed in this article. Nutritional objectives for RA, are to halt the loss of bone mass, promote healing of bone fractures and improving bone-associated inflammatory disorders and joints. In general, diets low in saturated fat, rich in polyunsaturated fats: omega 3 and omega 6, rich in complex carbohydrates and fiber are recommended.

  18. Many non-elite multisport endurance athletes do not meet sports nutrition recommendations for carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Geneviève; Lamarche, Benoît

    2016-07-01

    Little is known regarding the dietary intake of non-elite athletes involved in multisport endurance events. The primary objective of this observational study was to characterize the dietary intake of non-elite athletes participating in winter triathlon (snowshoeing, skating, and cross-country skiing), winter pentathlon (winter triathlon sports + cycling and running), Ironman (IM: swimming, cycling, running), and half-distance Ironman (IM 70.3) in relation with current sports nutrition recommendations. A total of 116 non-elite athletes (32 women and 84 men) who had participated in one of those events in 2014 were included in the analyses. Usual dietary intake was assessed using a validated online food frequency questionnaire. Participants (22-66 years old) trained 14.8 ± 5.3 h/week, on average (±SD). Only 45.7% [95% confidence interval, 36.4%-55.2%] of all athletes reported consuming the recommended intake for carbohydrates, with the highest proportion (66.7%) seen in IM athletes. On the other hand, 87.1% [79.6%-92.6%] of all athletes reported consuming at least 1.2 g protein·kg(-1)·day(-1), while 66.4% [57.0%-74.9%] reported consuming more than 1.6 g protein·kg(-1)·day(-1). The proportion of athletes consuming the recommended amount of protein was highest (84.6%) among IM athletes. There was no difference in the proportion of athletes achieving the recommended carbohydrate and protein intakes between men and women. These findings suggest that many non-elite multisport endurance athletes do not meet the current recommendations for carbohydrates, emphasizing the need for targeted nutritional education. Further research is needed to examine how underreporting of food intake may have affected these estimates.

  19. Recommendation System for Adaptive Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yunxiao; Li, Xiaoou; Liu, Jingchen; Ying, Zhiliang

    2018-01-01

    An adaptive learning system aims at providing instruction tailored to the current status of a learner, differing from the traditional classroom experience. The latest advances in technology make adaptive learning possible, which has the potential to provide students with high-quality learning benefit at a low cost. A key component of an adaptive learning system is a recommendation system, which recommends the next material (video lectures, practices, and so on, on different skills) to the learner, based on the psychometric assessment results and possibly other individual characteristics. An important question then follows: How should recommendations be made? To answer this question, a mathematical framework is proposed that characterizes the recommendation process as a Markov decision problem, for which decisions are made based on the current knowledge of the learner and that of the learning materials. In particular, two plain vanilla systems are introduced, for which the optimal recommendation at each stage can be obtained analytically.

  20. Dietary fats do not contribute to hyperlipidemia in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltshire, Esko J; Hirte, Craig; Couper, Jennifer J

    2003-05-01

    To determine the relative influence of diet, metabolic control, and familial factors on lipids in children with type 1 diabetes and control subjects. We assessed fasting serum cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, lipoprotein(a), apolipoprotein (apo)-A1, and apoB in 79 children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes and 61 age- and sex-matched control subjects, together with dietary intakes using a quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, apoB, HDL cholesterol, and apoA1 were significantly higher in children with diabetes. Children with diabetes had higher percentage energy intake from complex carbohydrates (P = 0.001) and fiber intake (P = 0.02), and they had lower intake of refined sugar (P fat (P = 0.045) than control subjects. Total cholesterol (beta = 0.43, P 3.35 mmol/l, >130 mg/dl), for whom dietary therapy would be recommended, had significantly higher HbA(1c) (P = 0.007), but they had higher intake of complex carbohydrates than subjects with LDL cholesterol type 1 diabetes who adhere to current dietary recommendations, and they relate to metabolic control but not dietary intake.

  1. Current nutritional treatments of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwald, Ashli

    2006-01-01

    Obesity in our country is a growing concern. There are several different options for weight loss; however, individuals must be self-motivated and amendable to change in order to achieve success with their weight loss goals. Several strategies used by professionals in the US today to treat overweight and obesity, include diet therapy, exercise, behavior modification, pharmacotherapy, and surgery. The focus of the American Dietetic Association (ADA) Weight Management Position Statement is no longer just on weight loss but now on weight management. Reaching one's ideal body weight is recommended but not often realistic. Frequently, the goal of treatment shifts to maintenance of ones current weight or attempts at moderate weight loss. Lifestyle modification or behavioral modification interventions rely on analyzing behavior to identify events that are associated with appropriate vs. inappropriate eating, exercise, or thinking habits. Certain primary strategies that have been found to be useful for helping people change their behaviors so that they can lose weight and maintain their weight loss, include self-monitoring, stimulus control, cognitive restructuring, stress management, social support, physical activity, and relapse prevention. Weight loss programs should strive to combine a nutritionally balanced dietary regimen with exercise and lifestyle modifications at the lowest possible cost. There are several different methods used for dietary modifications; low calorie diets, very low calorie diets, fasting, formula diets and meal replacement programs, and popular diets. Bariatric surgery is gaining popularity as it has been an effective way to treat obesity. Following gastric bypass surgery, the patients must be prepared to modify their eating behaviors and dietary selections to assist with weight loss and prevent potential complications. Patients should be educated on the dietary guidelines extensively prior to surgery and again post-operatively.

  2. Research on Rationalization of Basketball Player Nutrition Dietary Pattern

    OpenAIRE

    Junsheng Zuo; Jia Li

    2015-01-01

    Reasonable nutritional dietary pattern is the good protection which can promote hoopster fatigue restoring, enhance exercise training effect and promote sport performance. This study analyzes necessity and significance of rationalizing research of hoopster nutritional dietary pattern by the summary of hoopster nutritional dietary pattern. And it concludes insufficient and drawback which current our country hoopster nutritional dietary pattern existing. And then it generalizes the unreasonable...

  3. Application of Machine Learning to Predict Dietary Lapses During Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Stephanie P; Zhang, Fengqing; Thomas, John G; Butryn, Meghan L; Herbert, James D; Forman, Evan M

    2018-05-01

    Individuals who adhere to dietary guidelines provided during weight loss interventions tend to be more successful with weight control. Any deviation from dietary guidelines can be referred to as a "lapse." There is a growing body of research showing that lapses are predictable using a variety of physiological, environmental, and psychological indicators. With recent technological advancements, it may be possible to assess these triggers and predict dietary lapses in real time. The current study sought to use machine learning techniques to predict lapses and evaluate the utility of combining both group- and individual-level data to enhance lapse prediction. The current study trained and tested a machine learning algorithm capable of predicting dietary lapses from a behavioral weight loss program among adults with overweight/obesity (n = 12). Participants were asked to follow a weight control diet for 6 weeks and complete ecological momentary assessment (EMA; repeated brief surveys delivered via smartphone) regarding dietary lapses and relevant triggers. WEKA decision trees were used to predict lapses with an accuracy of 0.72 for the group of participants. However, generalization of the group algorithm to each individual was poor, and as such, group- and individual-level data were combined to improve prediction. The findings suggest that 4 weeks of individual data collection is recommended to attain optimal model performance. The predictive algorithm could be utilized to provide in-the-moment interventions to prevent dietary lapses and therefore enhance weight losses. Furthermore, methods in the current study could be translated to other types of health behavior lapses.

  4. Healthy-eater self-schema and dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noureddine, Samar; Stein, Karen

    2009-03-01

    The types and amounts of foods consumed have been shown to influence the health risks of individuals. Empirical evidence has documented a link between high dietary fat and low fiber intake and the risks for cardiovascular disease, some types of cancer, and obesity. Dietary surveys of Americans show higher fat and lower fiber intake than stipulated in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, despite the noted increase in public awareness regarding the importance of adopting healthy eating habits. The lack of congruence between the availability of dietary knowledge and behavioral adherence to dietary recommendations suggests a need to further understand the predictors of dietary intake. In this study, the authors used the schema model of the self-concept to explore the role of self-beliefs in predicting dietary intake in community-dwelling, working-class, middle-aged adults.

  5. The 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee Scientific Report: Development and Major Conclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millen, Barbara E; Abrams, Steve; Adams-Campbell, Lucile; Anderson, Cheryl Am; Brenna, J Thomas; Campbell, Wayne W; Clinton, Steven; Hu, Frank; Nelson, Miriam; Neuhouser, Marian L; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Story, Mary; Lichtenstein, Alice H

    2016-05-01

    The Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) is published every 5 y jointly by the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the USDA and provides a framework for US-based food and nutrition programs, health promotion and disease prevention initiatives, and research priorities. Summarized in this report are the methods, major conclusions, and recommendations of the Scientific Report of the 2015 US Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee (DGAC). Early in the process, the DGAC developed a conceptual model and formulated questions to examine nutritional risk and determinants and impact of dietary patterns in relation to numerous health outcomes among individuals aged ≥2 y. As detailed in the report, an expansive, transparent, and comprehensive process was used to address each question, with multiple opportunities for public input included. Consensus was reached on all DGAC's findings, including each conclusion and recommendation, and the entire report. When research questions were answered by original systematic literature reviews and/or with existing, high-quality expert reports, the quality and strength of the evidence was formally graded. The report was organized around the following 5 themes: 1) food and nutrient intakes and health: current status and trends; 2) dietary patterns, foods and nutrients, and health outcomes; 3) diet and physical activity behavior change; 4) food and physical activity environments; and 5) food sustainability and food safety. The following 3 cross-cutting topics were addressed: 1) sodium, 2) saturated fat, and 3) added sugars. Physical activity recommendations from recent expert reports were endorsed. The overall quality of the American diet was assessed to identify overconsumed and underconsumed nutrients of public health concern. Common food characteristics of healthy dietary patterns were determined. Features of effective interventions to change individual and population diet and physical activity behaviors in clinical, public

  6. Determinantes sociales de los patrones dietéticos durante el embarazo Social determinants of dietary patterns during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ferrer

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Identificar los patrones dietéticos durante el embarazo, describiendo su relación con factores sociodemográficos, tabaquismo e índice de masa corporal, y evaluar la dieta en relación con las recomendaciones dietéticas vigentes. Métodos: Valoración transversal de la dieta en 473 mujeres de Menorca (España. Los patrones dietéticos se identificaron por análisis de componentes principales. El grado de adecuación se estimó comparando el consumo promedio por grupo alimentario con lo recomendado durante el embarazo. Resultados: Se identificaron dos patrones dietéticos, uno caracterizado por alimentos de alta densidad calórica y bajo consumo de frutas y verduras, denominado «calórico», y otro caracterizado por alto consumo de verduras, legumbres, pescado, carnes, pasta y arroz, denominado «saludable». Las mujeres extranjeras, fumadoras, no nulíparas y con estudios primarios tuvieron puntuaciones más altas del patrón calórico (pObjectives: To identify dietary patterns in pregnancy and describe their relationship with sociodemographic factors, smoking, and body mass index. As a secondary objective, intakes were evaluated relative to current dietary recommendations for pregnant women. Methods: Cross-sectional assessment of dietary intakes in 473 pregnant women from the Island of Menorca (Spain was performed. Dietary patterns were identified using a principal components analysis, and dietary quality was assessed by comparing food group intakes with recommended intakes in pregnancy. Results: Two dietary patterns were identified, one characterized by high intakes of energy-dense foods and low intakes of fruits and vegetables («caloric», and the other by high intakes of vegetables, legumes, fish, meat, rice and pasta («healthy». Scores for the caloric pattern were higher in immigrants, smokers, parous women and women with only primary school education (p<0,05. Scores for the healthy pattern were higher in women originally

  7. Impact of Dietary Carbohydrate and Protein Levels on Carbohydrate Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasker, Denise Ann

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this dissertation was to investigate the impact of changing dietary carbohydrate (CARB) intakes within recommended dietary guidelines on metabolic outcomes specifically associated with glycemic regulations and carbohydrate metabolism. This research utilized both human and animal studies to examine changes in metabolism across a wide…

  8. Dietary reference intakes for water, potassium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Institute of Medicine (U.S.). Panel on Dietary Reference Intakes for Electrolytes and Water

    2005-01-01

    .... This new report, the sixth in a series of reports presenting dietary reference values for the intakes of nutrients by Americans and Canadians, establishes nutrient recommendations on water, potassium...

  9. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Dietary Counseling in the Prevention and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ogunbodede

    It is recommended, that dietary counseling in dental diseases should be comprehensive ... patients/clients should as a matter of routine be referred to dental nurses and dental hygienists ..... Obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, gout, etc.

  10. Elimination diets and dietary interventions for the management of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food allergy may be the cause of faltering growth in young ... avoidance may affect nutritional status and quality of life. ... regarding safe, cost-effective and freely available substitutes for the ... The recommended feed of choice for the dietary.

  11. Water-soluble dietary fibers and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theuwissen, Elke; Mensink, Ronald P

    2008-05-23

    One well-established way to reduce the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) is to lower serum LDL cholesterol levels by reducing saturated fat intake. However, the importance of other dietary approaches, such as increasing the intake of water-soluble dietary fibers is increasingly recognized. Well-controlled intervention studies have now shown that four major water-soluble fiber types-beta-glucan, psyllium, pectin and guar gum-effectively lower serum LDL cholesterol concentrations, without affecting HDL cholesterol or triacylglycerol concentrations. It is estimated that for each additional gram of water-soluble fiber in the diet serum total and LDL cholesterol concentrations decrease by -0.028 mmol/L and -0.029 mmol/L, respectively. Despite large differences in molecular structure, no major differences existed between the different types of water-soluble fiber, suggesting a common underlying mechanism. In this respect, it is most likely that water-soluble fibers lower the (re)absorption of in particular bile acids. As a result hepatic conversion of cholesterol into bile acids increases, which will ultimately lead to increased LDL uptake by the liver. Additionally, epidemiological studies suggest that a diet high in water-soluble fiber is inversely associated with the risk of CVD. These findings underlie current dietary recommendations to increase water-soluble fiber intake.

  12. Classification of Recommender Expertise in the Wikipedia Recommender System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian D.; Pilkauskas, Povilas; Lefévre, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    to the quality of articles. The Wikipedia Recommender System (WRS) was developed to help users determine the credibility of articles based on feedback from other Wikipedia users. The WRS implements a collaborative filtering system with trust metrics, i.e., it provides a rating of articles which emphasizes...... an evaluation of four existing knowledge classification schemes with respect to these requirements. This evaluation helped us identify a classification scheme, which we have implemented in the current version of the Wikipedia Recommender System....... feedback from recommenders that the user has agreed with in the past. This exposes the problem that most recommenders are not equally competent in all subject areas. The first WRS prototype did not include an evaluation of the areas of expertise of recommenders, so the trust metric used in the article...

  13. Classification of Recommender Expertise in the Wikipedia Recommender System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian D.; Pilkauskas, Povilas; Lefevre, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    to the quality of articles. The Wikipedia Recommender System (WRS) was developed to help users determine the credibility of articles based on feedback from other Wikipedia users. The WRS implements a collaborative filtering system with trust metrics, i.e., it provides a rating of articles "which emphasizes...... an evaluation of four existing knowledge classification schemes with respect to these requirements. This evaluation helped us identify a classification scheme, which we have implemented in the current version of the Wikipedia Recommender System....... feedback from recommenders that the user has agreed with in the past. This exposes the problem that most recommenders are not equally competent in all subject areas. The first WRS prototype did not include an evaluation of the areas of expertise of recommenders, so the trust metric used in the article...

  14. Dietary prebiotics: Current status and new definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    In November 2008, a group of scientists met at the 6th Meeting of the International Scientific Association of Probiotics and Prebiotics (ISAPP) in London, Ontario. The aim was to discuss the functionality of prebiotics. As a result of this, it was decided that the prebiotic field as it stands is dom...

  15. Climate friendly dietary guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trolle, Ellen; Mogensen, Lisbeth; Thorsen, Anne Vibeke

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how the present Danish diet could be changed in a climate friendly direction that follows the recommendations of a healthy diet. The carbon footprint (CF) of an average Danish diet was calculated and compared to CF of a recommended healthy diet by 1......%, if the healthy diet was eaten instead of the average current diet. However, if the diet was climate optimized by choosing foods with a low CF within the food groups; meat, vegetables and fruit, CF of this diet may be reduced by 23 % compared to CF of the average diet....

  16. Daily dietary intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, H.S.

    1998-01-01

    As part of study on ''Reference Asian Man'' to strengthen radiation protection, the data on the dietary consumption patterns of the Asian region were collected. Eight provided dietary data - Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Pakistan, Philippines, and Viet Nam. Whereas the dietary information from Bangladesh, Indonesia, Pakistan and Viet Nam are preliminary in nature, the dietary information from China, India, Japan and Philippines, on the other hand, is quite substantial. The population of the countries from which sufficient dietary data are available represents more than 2/3 of the population of the Asian region. The details of the individual data available on dietary parameters from different Asian countries are listed below

  17. Comparison of strategies for assessing nutritional adequacy in elite female athletes' dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, Susan; O'Connor, Helen; Gifford, Janelle; Naughton, Geraldine

    2010-06-01

    This study aimed to compare strategies for assessing nutritional adequacy in the dietary intake of elite female athletes. Dietary intake was assessed using an adapted food-frequency questionnaire in 72 elite female athletes from a variety of sports. Nutritional adequacy was evaluated and compared using mean intake; the proportion of participants with intakes below Australian nutrient reference values (NRV), U.S. military dietary reference intakes (MDRI), and current sports nutrition recommendations; and probability estimates of nutrient inadequacy. Mean energy intake was 10,551 +/- 3,836 kJ/day with macronutrient distribution 18% protein, 31% fat, and 46% carbohydrate, consistent with Australian acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges. Mean protein intake (1.6 g . kg(-1) . d(-1)) was consistent with (>1.2 g . kg(-1) . d(-1)), and carbohydrate intake (4.5 g . kg(-1) . d(-1)), below, current sports nutrition recommendations (>5 g . kg(-1) . d(-1)), with 30% and 65% of individuals not meeting these levels, respectively. Mean micronutrient intake met the relevant NRV and MDRI except for vitamin D and folate. A proportion of participants failed to meet the estimated average requirement for folate (48%), calcium (24%), magnesium (19%), and iron (4%). Probability estimates of inadequacy identified intake of folate (44%), calcium (22%), iron (19%), and magnesium (15%) as inadequate. Interpretation of dietary adequacy is complex and varies depending on whether the mean, proportion of participants below the relevant NRV, or statistical probability estimate of inadequacy is used. Further research on methods to determine dietary adequacy in athlete populations is required.

  18. Prebiotics, Fermentable Dietary Fiber, and Health Claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcour, Jan A; Aman, Per; Courtin, Christophe M; Hamaker, Bruce R; Verbeke, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1970s, the positive effects of dietary fiber on health have increasingly been recognized. The collective term "dietary fiber" groups structures that have different physiologic effects. Since 1995, some dietary fibers have been denoted as prebiotics, implying a beneficial physiologic effect related to increasing numbers or activity of the gastrointestinal microbiota. Given the complex composition of the microbiota, the demonstration of such beneficial effects is difficult. In contrast, an exploration of the metabolites of dietary fiber formed as a result of its fermentation in the colon offers better perspectives for providing mechanistic links between fiber intake and health benefits. Positive outcomes of such studies hold the promise that claims describing specific health benefits can be granted. This would help bridge the "fiber gap"-that is, the considerable difference between recommended and actual fiber intakes by the average consumer. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. Dietary fibre intakes and reduction in functional constipation rates among Canadian adults: a cost-of-illness analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad M. H. Abdullah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evidence-based research highlights beneficial impacts of dietary fibre on several aspects of the gut pathophysiology that are accompanied by a considerable financial burden in healthcare services. Recommended intakes of dietary fibre may thus associate with financial benefits at a population level. Objective: We sought to systematically assess the potential annual savings in healthcare costs that would follow the reduction in rates of functional constipation and irregularity with increased dietary fibre intakes among Canadian adults. Design: A cost-of-illness analysis was developed on the basis of current and recommended levels of fibre intake in Canada, constipation reduction per 1 g fibre intake, proportion of adults who are likely to consume fibre-rich diets, and population expected to respond to fibre intake. Sensitivity analyses covering a range of assumptions were further implemented within the economic simulation. Results: Our literature searches assumed a 1.8% reduction in constipation rates with each 1 g/day increase in fibre intake. With intakes corresponding to the Institute of Medicine's adequate levels of 38 g/day for men and 25 g/day for women, among 5 and 100% of the adult populations, anywhere between CAD$1.5 and CAD$31.9 million could be saved on constipation-related healthcare costs annually. Each 1 g/day increase in dietary fibre was estimated to result in total annual healthcare cost savings that ranged between CAD$0.1 and CAD$2.5 million. Conclusions: The present research suggests an economic value of increasing dietary fibre intake beyond its well-known health benefits. Healthy-eating behaviours consistent with the recommended intakes of dietary fibre by the general public should hence be advocated as a practical approach for reducing costs associated with the management of constipation in Canada.

  20. 42 CFR 483.35 - Dietary services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the resident call system. (3) Resident selection criteria. (i) A facility must ensure that a feeding... person to serve as the director of food service who receives frequently scheduled consultation from a... nutritional needs of residents in accordance with the recommended dietary allowances of the Food and Nutrition...

  1. USGEO DMWG Cloud Computing Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Beaujardiere, J.; McInerney, M.; Frame, M. T.; Summers, C.

    2017-12-01

    The US Group on Earth Observations (USGEO) Data Management Working Group (DMWG) has been developing Cloud Computing Recommendations for Earth Observations. This inter-agency report is currently in draft form; DMWG hopes to have released the report as a public Request for Information (RFI) by the time of AGU. The recommendations are geared toward organizations that have already decided to use the Cloud for some of their activities (i.e., the focus is not on "why you should use the Cloud," but rather "If you plan to use the Cloud, consider these suggestions.") The report comprises Introductory Material, including Definitions, Potential Cloud Benefits, and Potential Cloud Disadvantages, followed by Recommendations in several areas: Assessing When to Use the Cloud, Transferring Data to the Cloud, Data and Metadata Contents, Developing Applications in the Cloud, Cost Minimization, Security Considerations, Monitoring and Metrics, Agency Support, and Earth Observations-specific recommendations. This talk will summarize the recommendations and invite comment on the RFI.

  2. Dietary Calcium Intake and Calcium Supplementation in Hungarian Patients with Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Speer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Adequate calcium intake is the basis of osteoporosis therapy—when this proves insufficient, even specific antiosteoporotic agents cannot exert their actions properly. Methods. Our representative survey analyzed the dietary intake and supplementation of calcium in 8033 Hungarian female and male (mean age: 68 years (68.01 (CI95: 67.81–68.21 patients with osteoporosis. Results. Mean intake from dietary sources was 665±7.9 mg (68.01 (CI95: 67.81–68.21 daily. A significant positive relationship could be detected between total dietary calcium intake and lumbar spine BMD (P=0.045, whereas such correlation could not be demonstrated with femoral T-score. Milk consumption positively correlated with femur (P=0.041, but not with lumbar BMD. The ingestion of one liter of milk daily increased the T-score by 0.133. Average intake from supplementation was 558±6.2 mg (68.01 (CI95: 67.81–68.21 daily. The cumulative dose of calcium—from both dietary intake and supplementation—was significantly associated with lumbar (r=0.024, P=0.049, but not with femur BMD (r=0.021, P=0.107. The currently recommended 1000–1500 mg total daily calcium intake was achieved in 34.5% of patients only. It was lower than recommended in 47.8% of the cases and substantially higher in 17.7% of subjects. Conclusions. We conclude that calcium intake in Hungarian osteoporotic patients is much lower than the current recommendation, while routinely applied calcium supplementation will result in inappropriately high calcium intake in numerous patients.

  3. Children and Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Digest for health professionals Children and Dietary Supplements Share: September 2012 © Matthew Lester Research has shown that many children use herbs and other dietary supplements. However, there are little data available on their ...

  4. Dietary Crude Lecithin Increases Systemic Availability of Dietary Docosahexaenoic Acid with Combined Intake in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Nick; Balvers, Martin; Cansev, Mehmet; Maher, Timothy J; Sijben, John W C; Broersen, Laus M

    2016-07-01

    Crude lecithin, a mixture of mainly phospholipids, potentially helps to increase the systemic availability of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Nevertheless, no clear data exist on the effects of prolonged combined dietary supplementation of DHA and lecithin on RBC and plasma PUFA levels. In the current experiments, levels of DHA and choline, two dietary ingredients that enhance neuronal membrane formation and function, were determined in plasma and red blood cells (RBC) from rats after dietary supplementation of DHA-containing oils with and without concomitant dietary supplementation of crude lecithin for 2-3 weeks. The aim was to provide experimental evidence for the hypothesized additive effects of dietary lecithin (not containing any DHA) on top of dietary DHA on PUFA levels in plasma and RBC. Dietary supplementation of DHA-containing oils, either as vegetable algae oil or as fish oil, increased DHA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and total n-3 PUFA, and decreased total omega-6 PUFA levels in plasma and RBC, while dietary lecithin supplementation alone did not affect these levels. However, combined dietary supplementation of DHA and lecithin increased the changes induced by DHA supplementation alone. Animals receiving a lecithin-containing diet also had a higher plasma free choline concentration as compared to controls. In conclusion, dietary DHA-containing oils and crude lecithin have synergistic effects on increasing plasma and RBC n-3 PUFA levels, including DHA and EPA. By increasing the systemic availability of dietary DHA, dietary lecithin may increase the efficacy of DHA supplementation when their intake is combined.

  5. Short Tools to Assess Young Children's Dietary Intake: A Systematic Review Focusing on Application to Dietary Index Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinda K. Bell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary indices evaluate diet quality, usually based on current dietary guidelines. Indices can therefore contribute to our understanding of early-life obesity-risk dietary behaviours. Yet indices are commonly applied to dietary data collected by onerous methods (e.g., recalls or records. Short dietary assessment instruments are an attractive alternative to collect data from which to derive an index score. A systematic review of studies published before April 2013 was conducted to identify short (≤50 items tools that measure whole-of-diet intake of young children (birth-five years and are applicable to dietary indices, in particular screening obesogenic dietary behaviours. The search identified 3686 papers of which 16, reporting on 15 tools (n=7, infants and toddlers birth-24 months; n=8, preschoolers 2–5 years, met the inclusion criteria. Most tools were food frequency questionnaires (n=14, with one innovative dietary questionnaire identified. Seven were tested for validity or reliability, and one was tested for both. Six tools (n=2, infants and toddlers; n=4, preschoolers are applicable for use with current dietary indices, five of which screen obesogenic dietary behaviours. Given the limited number of brief, valid and reliable dietary assessment tools for young children to which an index can be applied, future short tool development is warranted, particularly for screening obesogenic dietary behaviours.

  6. The food metabolome: a window over dietary exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalbert, Augustin; Brennan, Lorraine; Manach, Claudine; Andres-Lacueva, Cristina; Dragsted, Lars O; Draper, John; Rappaport, Stephen M; van der Hooft, Justin J J; Wishart, David S

    2014-06-01

    The food metabolome is defined as the part of the human metabolome directly derived from the digestion and biotransformation of foods and their constituents. With >25,000 compounds known in various foods, the food metabolome is extremely complex, with a composition varying widely according to the diet. By its very nature it represents a considerable and still largely unexploited source of novel dietary biomarkers that could be used to measure dietary exposures with a high level of detail and precision. Most dietary biomarkers currently have been identified on the basis of our knowledge of food compositions by using hypothesis-driven approaches. However, the rapid development of metabolomics resulting from the development of highly sensitive modern analytic instruments, the availability of metabolite databases, and progress in (bio)informatics has made agnostic approaches more attractive as shown by the recent identification of novel biomarkers of intakes for fruit, vegetables, beverages, meats, or complex diets. Moreover, examples also show how the scrutiny of the food metabolome can lead to the discovery of bioactive molecules and dietary factors associated with diseases. However, researchers still face hurdles, which slow progress and need to be resolved to bring this emerging field of research to maturity. These limits were discussed during the First International Workshop on the Food Metabolome held in Glasgow. Key recommendations made during the workshop included more coordination of efforts; development of new databases, software tools, and chemical libraries for the food metabolome; and shared repositories of metabolomic data. Once achieved, major progress can be expected toward a better understanding of the complex interactions between diet and human health. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  7. Dietary Guidelines should reflect new understandings about adult protein needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layman Donald K

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dietary Guidelines for Americans provide nutrition advice aimed at promoting healthy dietary choices for life-long health and reducing risk of chronic diseases. With the advancing age of the population, the 2010 Dietary Guidelines confront increasing risks for age-related problems of obesity, osteoporosis, type 2 diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome, heart disease, and sarcopenia. New research demonstrates that the meal distribution and amount of protein are important in maintaining body composition, bone health and glucose homeostasis. This editorial reviews the benefits of dietary protein for adult health, addresses omissions in current nutrition guidelines, and offers concepts for improving the Dietary Guidelines.

  8. Ontology-based personalized dietary recommendation for weightlifting

    OpenAIRE

    Tumnark, Piyaporn; Conceição, Filipe Almeida da; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo; Oliveira, Leandro; Cardoso, Paulo; Cabral, Jorge; Santibutr, Nonchai

    2013-01-01

    As pointed at LIVESTRONG.COM, Olympic weightlifters are quite possibly the strongest and most skilled lifters on earth. The ability to put nearly 300 kg over head or clean and jerk three times their bodyweight is feat of strength unmatched in other sports. While this takes years of dedicated training, diet is also critical as optimal nutrition is essential for peak performance. Nutritional misinformation can do as much harm to the ambitious athlete as good nutrition can help. In this study, w...

  9. Intolerance to dietary biogenic amines: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Sophia C; van Dusseldorp, Marijke; Bottema, Kathelijne C; Dubois, Anthony E J

    2003-09-01

    To evaluate the scientific evidence for purported intolerance to dietary biogenic amines. MEDLINE was searched for articles in the English language published between January 1966 and August 2001. The keyword biogenic amin* was combined with hypersens*, allerg*, intoler*, and adverse. Additionally, the keywords histamine, tyramine, and phenylethylamine were combined with headache, migraine, urticaria, oral challenge, and oral provocation. Articles were also selected from references in relevant literature. Only oral challenge studies in susceptible patients were considered. Studies with positive results (ie, studies in which an effect was reported) were only eligible when a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design was used. Eligible positive result studies were further evaluated according to a number of scientific criteria. Studies with negative results (ie, studies in which no effect was reported) were examined for factors in their design or methods that could be responsible for a false-negative outcome. Results of methodologically weak or flawed studies were considered inconclusive. A total of 13 oral challenge studies (5 with positive results and 8 with negative results) were found. Three of them (all with positive results) were considered ineligible. By further evaluation of the 10 eligible studies, 6 were considered inconclusive. The 4 conclusive studies all reported negative results. One conclusive study showed no relation between biogenic amines in red wine and wine intolerance. Two conclusive studies found no effect of tyramine on migraine. One conclusive study demonstrated no relation between the amount of phenylethylamine in chocolate and headache attacks in individuals with headache. The current scientific literature shows no relation between the oral ingestion of biogenic amines and food intolerance reactions. There is therefore no scientific basis for dietary recommendations concerning biogenic amines in such patients.

  10. Quantitative determination of vinpocetine in dietary supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, John M. T.; King, Matthew D.

    2017-01-01

    Current United States regulatory policies allow for the addition of pharmacologically active substances in dietary supplements if derived from a botanical source. The inclusion of certain nootropic drugs, such as vinpocetine, in dietary supplements has recently come under scrutiny due to the lack of defined dosage parameters and yet unproven short- and long-term benefits and risks to human health. This study quantified the concentration of vinpocetine in several commercially available dietary supplements and found that a highly variable range of 0.6–5.1 mg/serving was present across the tested products, with most products providing no specification of vinpocetine concentrations. PMID:27319129

  11. Dietary fat intake, supplements, and weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyck, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Although there remains controversy regarding the role of macronutrient balance in the etiology of obesity, the consumption of high-fat diets appears to be strongly implicated in its development. Evidence that fat oxidation does not adjust rapidly to acute increases in dietary fat, as well as a decreased capacity to oxidize fat in the postprandial state in the obese, suggest that diets high in fat may lead to the accumulation of fat stores. Novel data is also presented suggesting that in rodents, high-fat diets may lead to the development of leptin resistance in skeletal muscle and subsequent accumulations of muscle triacylglycerol. Nevertheless, several current fad diets recommend drastically reduced carbohydrate intake, with a concurrent increase in fat content. Such recommendations are based on the underlying assumption that by reducing circulating insulin levels, lipolysis and lipid oxidation will be enhanced and fat storage reduced. Numerous supplements are purported to increase fat oxidation (carnitine, conjugated linoleic acid), increase metabolic rate (ephedrine, pyruvate), or inhibit hepatic lipogenesis (hydroxycitrate). All of these compounds are currently marketed in supplemental form to increase weight loss, but few have actually been shown to be effective in scientific studies. To date, there is little or no evidence supporting that carnitine or hydroxycitrate supplementation are of any value for weight loss in humans. Supplements such as pyruvate have been shown to be effective at high dosages, but there is little mechanistic information to explain its purported effect or data to indicate its effectiveness at lower dosages. Conjugated linoleic acid has been shown to stimulate fat utilization and decrease body fat content in mice but has not been tested in humans. The effects of ephedrine, in conjunction with methylxanthines and aspirin, in humans appears unequivocal but includes various cardiovascular side effects. None of these compounds have been

  12. Ebola virus: recommendations

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Medical Service

    2014-01-01

    The CERN Medical Service has been closely following, in particular via the WHO, the development of the Ebola virus outbreak currently affecting some African countries. This infectious disease may be passed on through direct contact with the bodily fluids of a sick person.   Based on the recommendations of the WHO and the two Host States, Switzerland and France, as updated on their respective websites, so far there has been no ban on travel to the countries concerned. However, unless it is absolutely essential, you are advised not to visit any of the countries affected by Ebola (Guinea, Republic of Sierra Leone, Liberia, Nigeria). The two Host States have established an alert system, and a check is carried out on departure from the airports of those countries. It is strongly recommended that you contact the Medical Service if you are travelling to those countries. We remind you to observe the basic rules of hygiene such as frequent hand washing, whatever your destination. The Medical Service is...

  13. Overcoming consumer inertia to dietary guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Densie; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2015-07-01

    Despite 35 y of dietary guidance, there has been no substantial shift in consumer compliance. Consumers report that they seek information on nutrition and healthy eating, but most are not paying attention to dietary recommendations. For guidance to be effective, it must be realistic. Even with increasingly detailed nutrition information and evidence that diet affects health outcomes, convenience and taste remain the strongest determinants of food choices. It is up to health educators to clear up confusion and give consumers control with nutrition messages that are realistic, positive, easy to understand, and actionable without an expectation that consumers will surrender foods they love. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. Overcoming Consumer Inertia to Dietary Guidance12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Densie; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Despite 35 y of dietary guidance, there has been no substantial shift in consumer compliance. Consumers report that they seek information on nutrition and healthy eating, but most are not paying attention to dietary recommendations. For guidance to be effective, it must be realistic. Even with increasingly detailed nutrition information and evidence that diet affects health outcomes, convenience and taste remain the strongest determinants of food choices. It is up to health educators to clear up confusion and give consumers control with nutrition messages that are realistic, positive, easy to understand, and actionable without an expectation that consumers will surrender foods they love. PMID:26178023

  15. Dietary shifts and implications for US agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, P

    1995-06-01

    Changes to healthier dietary patterns similar to those of traditional Mediterranean diets or those of the US government's dietary guidelines and food guide pyramid would require significant changes in American agricultural practices. The volume, mix, production, and marketing of agricultural commodities would need to be modified. Because differences between actual and recommended intakes for major food groups are quite large and affect a broad range of products, adjustments in supply and demand could overshadow past experience in dealing with such changes. New food and agriculture policies may well be needed to ease and accelerate agricultural adjustments, to improve nutritional characteristics of popular foods, and to promote desirable changes in consumers' food choices.

  16. Added sugar and dietary sodium intake from purchased fast food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, males and females consumed on average three times the recommended daily intake of added sugar, and more than half of the recommended daily salt intake from these purchased foods alone. These dietary patterns during adolescence may exacerbate the risk of obesity and hypertension in later adult life.

  17. Conclusions and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The FAO/IAEA/GSF/SIDA Co-ordinated Research Programme on Cereal Grain Protein Improvement by Nuclear Techniques was a follow-up to the FAO/IAEA/GSF Co-ordinated Research Programme on the Use of Nuclear Techniques for Seed Protein Improvement. It was initiated in 1969 and ended in 1981. The objectives of the meeting were to review and evaluate the achievements of the current and previous programmes in order to draw conclusions on the possibility of genetic improvement of cereal grain protein using nuclear techniques, to identify unsolved problems and to discuss and propose possible approaches for their solution. Through reviews and discussions, conclusions and recommendations were made by the participants

  18. Antenatal dietary patterns and depressive symptoms during pregnancy and early post-partum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin, Rachel; Hill, Briony; Jacka, Felice N; O'Neil, Adrienne; Skouteris, Helen

    2017-01-01

    Perinatal depression is a debilitating disorder experienced during pregnancy and/or the first year post-partum. Recently, maternal dietary intake during pregnancy has emerged as a possible area of intervention for the prevention of mental disorders in women and their offspring. However, the relationship between antenatal diet quality and perinatal depressive symptoms remains poorly understood. The current study explored the predictive role of antenatal diet quality for antenatal and post-natal depressive symptoms. Pregnant women (n = 167) were recruited between February 2010 and December 2011. Women completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale at time 1 [T1, mean weeks gestation = 16.70, standard deviation (SD) = 0.91], time 2 (T2, mean weeks gestation = 32.89, SD = 0.89) and time 3 (T3, mean weeks post-partum = 13.51, SD = 1.97) and a food frequency questionnaire at T1 and T2. Diet quality was determined by extracting dietary patterns via principal components analysis. Two dietary patterns were identified: 'healthy' (including fruit, vegetables, fish and whole grains) and 'unhealthy' (including sweets, refined grains, high-energy drinks and fast foods). Associations between dietary patterns and depressive symptoms were investigated by path analyses. While both 'healthy' and 'unhealthy' path models showed good fit, only one significant association consistent with study hypotheses was found, an 'unhealthy' diet was associated with increased depressive symptoms at 32 weeks gestation. Given that this association was cross-sectional, it was not possible to make any firm conclusions about the predictive nature of either dietary patterns or depressive symptoms. Dietary intervention studies or larger prospective studies are therefore recommended. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Research and Design of a Grid Based Electronic Commerce Recommendation System

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Yueling; Nie, Guihua

    2010-01-01

    Current electronic commerce recommendation system is designed for single electronic commerce website and current recommendation technologies have obvious deficiencies Centralized recommendation systems can not resolve the contradiction between high recommendation quality and timely response, as well as that between limited recommendation range and ever rich information on the web. Distributed recommendation systems are expected to improve the recommendation quality while maintaining high perf...

  20. Using Cognitive Interviews to Evaluate the Spanish-Language Translation of Dietary Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry Levin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We present results from a qualitative evaluation of the Spanish-language version of a dietary intake questionnaire and characterize the types of findings which emerged from several rounds of cognitive testing. Cognitive interviews were used to test the Spanish translation of the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS Cancer Control Supplement dietary questions, with 36 Spanish-speaking and 9 English-speaking participants. Analyses of the results identified (a translation issues, (b culture-specific issues, and (c general design issues that affected both English and Spanish speakers. Results indicated that general design-oriented difficulties were particularly frequent. Our findings suggest that when appropriately structured, cognitive interviews that feature flexible probing can be useful for identifying a range of problems in survey translations, even after translations have been developed using currently accepted methods. We make several recommendations concerning practices that may be optimal in the conduct of empirical cross-cultural questionnaire evaluations.

  1. Sodium intake in US ethnic subgroups and potential impact of a new sodium reduction technology: NHANES Dietary Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulgoni, Victor L; Agarwal, Sanjiv; Spence, Lisa; Samuel, Priscilla

    2014-12-18

    Because excessive dietary sodium intake is a major contributor to hypertension, a reduction in dietary sodium has been recommended for the US population. Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2010 data, we estimated current sodium intake in US population ethnic subgroups and modeled the potential impact of a new sodium reduction technology on sodium intake. NHANES 2007-2010 data were analyzed using The National Cancer Institute method to estimate usual intake in population subgroups. Potential impact of SODA-LO® Salt Microspheres sodium reduction technology on sodium intake was modeled using suggested sodium reductions of 20-30% in 953 foods and assuming various market penetrations. SAS 9.2, SUDAAN 11, and NHANES survey weights were used in all calculations with assessment across age, gender and ethnic groups. Current sodium intake across all population subgroups exceeds the Dietary Guidelines 2010 recommendations and has not changed during the last decade. However, sodium intake measured as a function of food intake has decreased significantly during the last decade for all ethnicities. "Grain Products" and "Meat, Poultry, Fish, & Mixtures" contribute about 2/3rd of total sodium intake. Sodium reduction, using SODA-LO® Salt Microspheres sodium reduction technology (with 100% market penetration) was estimated to be 185-323 mg/day or 6.3-8.4% of intake depending upon age, gender and ethnic group. Current sodium intake in US ethnic subgroups exceeds the recommendations and sodium reduction technologies could potentially help reduce dietary sodium intake among those groups.

  2. Dietary trace element intakes of a selected sample of Canadian elderly women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, R.S.; MacDonald, A.C.; Martinez, O.B.

    1984-01-01

    Energy, and selected trace intakes of a sample of 90 noninstitutionalized Canadian women (mean age 66.2 +/- 6.2 years) living in a University community and consuming self-selected diets were assessed by chemical analysis of one-day duplicate diets and via 1-day dietary records collected by the subjects. Mean gross energy intake (determined via bomb calorimetry was 6.0 +/- 2.4 MJ (1435 +/- 580 kcal) and mean intakes of Cu and Mn (determined via atomic absorption spectrophotometry) were 1.2 +/- 0.6 mg and 3.8 +/- 2.1 mg/day, respectively. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used for Cr - median = 77.4 μg/day; Se - median = 69.6 μg/day; Zn - mean + SD = 7.7 +/- 3.6 mg/day; Ag - median = 26.9 μg/day; Cs - median = 4.8 μg/day; Rb - median = 1.6 mg/day; Sb - median = 1.8 μg/day; Sc - median = 0.3 μg/day. Dietary intakes of Cr, Mn and Se for the majority of the subjects fell within the US safe and adequate range. In contrast, a high proportion of subjects had apparently low intakes of dietary Cu and Zn in relation to current US dietary recommendations

  3. Evaluation of Current Consensus Statement Recommendations for Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation: A Pooled Analysis of William Beaumont Hospital and American Society of Breast Surgeon MammoSite Registry Trial Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkinson, J. Ben [Department of Radiation Oncology, Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Beitsch, Peter D. [Dallas Surgical Group, Dallas, Texas (United States); Shah, Chirag [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States); Arthur, Doug [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massey Cancer Center, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia (United States); Haffty, Bruce G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Camden, New Jersey (United States); Wazer, David E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts and Rhode Island Hospital/Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island (United States); Keisch, Martin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Healthcare Associates, Miami, Florida (United States); Shaitelman, Simona F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Lyden, Maureen [Biostat International, Inc, Tampa, Florida (United States); Chen, Peter Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Vicini, Frank A., E-mail: fvicini@pol.net [Department of Radiation Oncology, Michigan Healthcare Professionals/21st Century Oncology, Farmington Hills, Michigan (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: To determine whether the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) Consensus Statement (CS) recommendations for accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) are associated with significantly different outcomes in a pooled analysis from William Beaumont Hospital (WBH) and the American Society of Breast Surgeons (ASBrS) MammoSite® Registry Trial. Methods and Materials: APBI was used to treat 2127 cases of early-stage breast cancer (WBH, n=678; ASBrS, n=1449). Three forms of APBI were used at WBH (interstitial, n=221; balloon-based, n=255; or 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy, n=206), whereas all Registry Trial patients received balloon-based brachytherapy. Patients were divided according to the ASTRO CS into suitable (n=661, 36.5%), cautionary (n=850, 46.9%), and unsuitable (n=302, 16.7%) categories. Tumor characteristics and clinical outcomes were analyzed according to CS group. Results: The median age was 65 years (range, 32-94 years), and the median tumor size was 10.0 mm (range, 0-45 mm). The median follow-up time was 60.6 months. The WBH cohort had more node-positive disease (6.9% vs 2.6%, P<.01) and cautionary patients (49.5% vs 41.8%, P=.06). The 5-year actuarial ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR), regional nodal failure (RNF), and distant metastasis (DM) for the whole cohort were 2.8%, 0.6%, 1.6%. The rate of IBTR was not statistically higher between suitable (2.5%), cautionary (3.3%), or unsuitable (4.6%) patients (P=.20). The nonsignificant increase in IBTR for the cautionary and unsuitable categories was due to increased elsewhere failures and new primaries (P=.04), not tumor bed recurrence (P=.93). Conclusions: Excellent outcomes after breast-conserving surgery and APBI were seen in our pooled analysis. The current ASTRO CS guidelines did not adequately differentiate patients at an increased risk of IBTR or tumor bed failure in this large patient cohort.

  4. Evaluation of Current Consensus Statement Recommendations for Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation: A Pooled Analysis of William Beaumont Hospital and American Society of Breast Surgeon MammoSite Registry Trial Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, J. Ben; Beitsch, Peter D.; Shah, Chirag; Arthur, Doug; Haffty, Bruce G.; Wazer, David E.; Keisch, Martin; Shaitelman, Simona F.; Lyden, Maureen; Chen, Peter Y.; Vicini, Frank A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) Consensus Statement (CS) recommendations for accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) are associated with significantly different outcomes in a pooled analysis from William Beaumont Hospital (WBH) and the American Society of Breast Surgeons (ASBrS) MammoSite® Registry Trial. Methods and Materials: APBI was used to treat 2127 cases of early-stage breast cancer (WBH, n=678; ASBrS, n=1449). Three forms of APBI were used at WBH (interstitial, n=221; balloon-based, n=255; or 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy, n=206), whereas all Registry Trial patients received balloon-based brachytherapy. Patients were divided according to the ASTRO CS into suitable (n=661, 36.5%), cautionary (n=850, 46.9%), and unsuitable (n=302, 16.7%) categories. Tumor characteristics and clinical outcomes were analyzed according to CS group. Results: The median age was 65 years (range, 32-94 years), and the median tumor size was 10.0 mm (range, 0-45 mm). The median follow-up time was 60.6 months. The WBH cohort had more node-positive disease (6.9% vs 2.6%, P<.01) and cautionary patients (49.5% vs 41.8%, P=.06). The 5-year actuarial ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR), regional nodal failure (RNF), and distant metastasis (DM) for the whole cohort were 2.8%, 0.6%, 1.6%. The rate of IBTR was not statistically higher between suitable (2.5%), cautionary (3.3%), or unsuitable (4.6%) patients (P=.20). The nonsignificant increase in IBTR for the cautionary and unsuitable categories was due to increased elsewhere failures and new primaries (P=.04), not tumor bed recurrence (P=.93). Conclusions: Excellent outcomes after breast-conserving surgery and APBI were seen in our pooled analysis. The current ASTRO CS guidelines did not adequately differentiate patients at an increased risk of IBTR or tumor bed failure in this large patient cohort

  5. Protein turnover in lactating mink (Mustela vison) is not affected by dietary protein supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tauson, Anne-Helene; Fink, Rikke; Chwalibog, André

    2006-01-01

    The mink is a strict carnivore and may therefore serve as a model for the cat. Current recommendations for protein supply for lactating mink are based on production experiments with preweaning kit growth as a measure of dietary adequacy (1,2). Recently, nitrogen balance and substrate oxidation have...... in humans (7), growing pigs (8), and growing rats (9). In adult cats, both protein synthesis and breakdown were lower when feeding a low- than when feeding a high-protein diet [20 vs. 70% of metabolizable energy (ME)5 from protein] (10). The objectives of this study were therefore to develop a ¹5N...

  6. Dietary fatty acids linking postprandial metabolic response and chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Almudena; Varela, Lourdes M; Bermudez, Beatriz; Lopez, Sergio; Abia, Rocio; Muriana, Francisco J G

    2012-01-01

    Chronic diseases are by far one of the main causes of mortality in the world. One of the current global recommendations to counteract disability and premature death resulting from chronic diseases is to decrease the consumption of energy-dense high-fat diets, particularly those rich in saturated fatty acids (SFA). The most effective replacement for SFA in terms of risk factor outcomes for chronic disease are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). The biochemical basis for healthy benefits of such a dietary pattern has been widely evaluated under fasting conditions. However, the increasing amount of data available from multiple studies suggest that the postprandial state, i.e., "the period that comprises and follows a meal", plays an important, yet underappreciated, role in the genesis of numerous pathological conditions. In this review, the potential of MUFA, PUFA, and SFA to postprandially affect selected metabolic abnormalities related to chronic diseases is discussed.

  7. Comparison of the Block Kid's Food Frequency Questionnaire with a 24 h dietary recall methodology among Hmong-American children, 9-18 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulasi-Pokhriyal, Urvashi; Smith, Chery

    2013-01-28

    Hmong are one of the immigrant Asian subgroups with increasing rates of obesity, type 2 diabetes and CVD. Despite their population growth in the USA and declining health status, no research has investigated the appropriateness of dietary assessment measures, including FFQ and 24 h dietary recalls among Hmong. The present study compared the nutrient information obtained through a 24 h dietary recall method with that collected using the Block Kid's Food Frequency Questionnaire (Block FFQ) among Hmong-American children (n 335) of 9-18 years of age. For this purpose, two 24 h dietary recalls were collected during non-consecutive days and averaged for comparison. The Block FFQ was administered on the day of the second 24 h recall and the two methodologies were also compared using t tests. Among all children, Block FFQ nutrient estimates for vitamin A, vitamin C and food group servings for vegetables and fruits were significantly higher than those assessed through the 24 h dietary recalls (Pfood group servings for grains and meat and beans were significantly higher among all participants when assessed through the 24 h dietary recalls than through the Block FFQ (Pfood options otherwise missed in the Block FFQ. We recommend the modification of the current Block FFQ to appropriately reflect cultural food/beverage items of the population in interest.

  8. Nutrition and dietary supplements in psychiatric diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Plemenitaš

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Modern approaches to management of medical conditions are based on a holistic view, taking into account bidirectional connections between physical and mental health. The current pharmacologically focused model has so far provided modest benefits in addressing the burden of poor mental health. Convincing data suggest that diet quality and select nutrient-based supplements might influence a range of neurochemical modulatory activities, improving the management of mental disorders. Examples of these nutrient-based supplements include omega-3 fatty acids, S-adenosyl methionine, N-acetyl cysteine, zinc, B vitamins (including folic acid, and vitamin D. The traditional Mediterranean diet is considered to be the most beneficial diet in our region. Based on the results of preclinical studies, we are increasingly aware of the role of intestinal microbiota in the pathogenesis and potential treatment of mental disorders. Bidirectional signalling between the brain and the gut microbiome involving vagal neurocrine and endocrine signalling mechanisms influences mental and physical wellbeing. These findings suggest that using prebiotics, probiotics or in the strict sense psychobiotics, as well as incorporating fermented foods in the diet, could have a potential role in the management of mental disorders. As of now, we lack sufficient evidence to implement recommendations for dietary supplements in treatment guidelines, however, this might change in light of emerging data from contemporary research studies, at least for certain indications.

  9. Hybrid context aware recommender systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Rajshree; Tyagi, Jaya; Singh, Sandeep Kumar; Alam, Taj

    2017-10-01

    Recommender systems and context awareness is currently a vital field of research. Most hybrid recommendation systems implement content based and collaborative filtering techniques whereas this work combines context and collaborative filtering. The paper presents a hybrid context aware recommender system for books and movies that gives recommendations based on the user context as well as user or item similarity. It also addresses the issue of dimensionality reduction using weighted pre filtering based on dynamically entered user context and preference of context. This unique step helps to reduce the size of dataset for collaborative filtering. Bias subtracted collaborative filtering is used so as to consider the relative rating of a particular user and not the absolute values. Cosine similarity is used as a metric to determine the similarity between users or items. The unknown ratings are calculated and evaluated using MSE (Mean Squared Error) in test and train datasets. The overall process of recommendation has helped to personalize recommendations and give more accurate results with reduced complexity in collaborative filtering.

  10. Semantically Enhanced Recommender Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Montiel, Manuela; Aldana-Montes, José F.

    Recommender Systems have become a significant area in the context of web personalization, given the large amount of available data. Ontologies can be widely taken advantage of in recommender systems, since they provide a means of classifying and discovering of new information about the items to recommend, about user profiles and even about their context. We have developed a semantically enhanced recommender system based on this kind of ontologies. In this paper we present a description of the proposed system.

  11. The dietary patterns of 12-year-old children and their awareness about the effect of diet on oral health in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Rad

    2017-04-01

    CONCLUSION: The results showed that dietary patterns was not satisfactory, and the level of consumption of cariogenic foods was high. Study findings recommend that school-based oral health programs should be designed for modifying the dietary habits in Iran.

  12. Urolithiasis: evaluation, dietary factors, and medical management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Helene; Andonian, Sero; Assimos, Dean

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this review was to provide current best evidence for evaluation, dietary, and medical management of patients with urolithiasis. METHODS: Literature addressing evaluation, dietary, and medical management of urolithiasis was searched. Papers were analyzed and rated according...... the life of stone-forming individuals very differently, and that evaluation and medical management should be personalized according to risk of recurrence, severity of stone disease, presence of associated medical conditions, and patient's motivation. With regard to evaluation, dietary and medical...... management of patients with urolithiasis evidence from the literature suggest that selective metabolic evaluation may lead to rational dietary and medical management. Statements based on LOE and GOR are provided to guide clinical practice. CONCLUSION: The provided evidence for evaluation of patients...

  13. Dietary protein is associated with musculoskeletal health independently of dietary pattern: the Framingham Third Generation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangano, Kelsey M; Sahni, Shivani; Kiel, Douglas P; Tucker, Katherine L; Dufour, Alyssa B; Hannan, Marian T

    2017-03-01

    Background: Above-average dietary protein, as a single nutrient, improves musculoskeletal health. Evaluating the link between dietary protein and musculoskeletal health from a whole-diet perspective is important, as dietary guidelines focus on dietary patterns. Objective: We examined the prospective association of novel dietary protein food clusters (derived from established dietary pattern techniques) with appendicular lean mass (ALM), quadriceps strength (QS), and bone mineral density (BMD) in 2986 men and women, aged 19-72 y, from the Framingham Third Generation Study. Design: Total protein intake was estimated by food-frequency questionnaire in 2002-2005. A cluster analysis was used to classify participants into mutually exclusive groups, which were determined by using the percentage of contribution of food intake to overall protein intake. General linear modeling was used to 1 ) estimate the association between protein intake (grams per day) and BMD, ALM, appendicular lean mass normalized for height (ALM/ht 2 ), and QS (2008-2011) and to 2 ) calculate adjusted least-squares mean outcomes across quartiles of protein (grams per day) and protein food clusters. Results: The mean ± SD age of subjects was 40 ± 9 y; 82% of participants met the Recommended Daily Allowance (0.8 g · kg body weight -1 · d -1 ). The following 6 dietary protein food clusters were identified: fast food and full-fat dairy, fish, red meat, chicken, low-fat milk, and legumes. BMD was not different across quartiles of protein intake ( P -trend range = 0.32-0.82); but significant positive trends were observed for ALM, ALM/ht 2 ( P dietary protein is associated with ALM and QS but not with BMD. In this study, dietary protein food patterns do not provide further insight into beneficial protein effects on muscle outcomes. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. Dietary sodium: where science and policy conflict: impact of the 2013 IOM Report on Sodium Intake in Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graudal, Niels

    2015-02-01

    The 2013 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report "Sodium Intake in Populations: Assessment of Evidence" did not support the current recommendations of the IOM and the American Heart Association (AHA) to reduce daily dietary sodium intake to below 2,300 mg. The report concluded that the population-based health outcome evidence was not sufficient to define a safe upper intake level for sodium. Recent studies have extended this conclusion to show that a sodium intake below 2,300 mg/day is associated with increased mortality. In spite of this increasing body of evidence, the AHA, Centers for Disease Control (CDC), other public health advisory bodies, and major medical journals have continued to support the current policy of reducing dietary sodium.

  15. Associations of food stamp participation with dietary quality and obesity in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Cindy W; Blumenthal, Susan J; Hoffnagle, Elena E; Jensen, Helen H; Foerster, Susan B; Nestle, Marion; Cheung, Lilian W Y; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Willett, Walter C

    2013-03-01

    To determine if obesity and dietary quality in low-income children differed by participation in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), formerly the Food Stamp Program. The study population included 5193 children aged 4 to 19 with household incomes ≤130% of the federal poverty level from the 1999-2008 NHANES. Diet was measured by using 24-hour recalls. Among low-income US children, 28% resided in households currently receiving SNAP benefits. After adjusting for sociodemographic differences, SNAP participation was not associated with a higher rate of childhood obesity (odds ratio = 1.11, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.71-1.74). Both SNAP participants and low-income nonparticipants were below national recommendations for whole grains, fruits, vegetables, fish, and potassium, while exceeding recommended limits for processed meat, sugar-sweetened beverages, saturated fat, and sodium. Zero percent of low-income children met at least 7 of 10 dietary recommendations. After multivariate adjustment, compared with nonparticipants, SNAP participants consumed 43% more sugar-sweetened beverages (95% CI: 8%-89%), 47% more high-fat dairy (95% CI: 7%, 101%), and 44% more processed meats (95% CI: 9%-91%), but 19% fewer nuts, seeds, and legumes (95% CI: -35% to 0%). In part due to these differences, intakes of calcium, iron, and folate were significantly higher among SNAP participants. Significant differences by SNAP participation were not evident in total energy, macronutrients, Healthy Eating Index 2005 scores, or Alternate Healthy Eating Index scores. The diets of low-income children are far from meeting national dietary recommendations. Policy changes should be considered to restructure SNAP to improve children's health.

  16. Why US children use dietary supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Regan L.; Gahche, Jaime J.; Thomas, Paul R.; Dwyer, Johanna T.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Dietary supplements are used by one-third of children. We examined motivations for supplement use in children, the types of products used by motivations, and the role of physicians and health care practitioners in guiding choices about supplements. Methods: We examined motivations for dietary supplement use reported for children (from birth to 19 y of age; n = 8,245) using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2010. Results: Dietary supplements were used by 31% of children; many different reasons were given as follows: to “improve overall health” (41%), to “maintain health” (37%), for “supplementing the diet” (23%), to “prevent health problems” (20%), and to “boost immunity” (14%). Most children (~90%) who use dietary supplements use a multivitamin–mineral or multivitamin product. Supplement users tend to be non-Hispanic white, have higher family incomes, report more physical activity, and have health insurance. Only a small group of supplements used by children (15%) were based on the recommendation of a physician or other health care provider. Conclusion: Most supplements used by children are not under the recommendation of a health care provider. The most common reasons for use of supplements in children are for health promotion, yet little scientific data support this notion in nutrient-replete children. PMID:24002333

  17. Trust for intelligent recommendation

    CERN Document Server

    Bhuiyan, Touhid

    2013-01-01

    Recommender systems are one of the recent inventions to deal with the ever-growing information overload in relation to the selection of goods and services in a global economy. Collaborative Filtering (CF) is one of the most popular techniques in recommender systems. The CF recommends items to a target user based on the preferences of a set of similar users known as the neighbors, generated from a database made up of the preferences of past users. In the absence of these ratings, trust between the users could be used to choose the neighbor for recommendation making. Better recommendations can b

  18. Narrative Dietary Counseling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard Jakobsen, Nina; Kaufmann, Lisbeth; Hennesser, Yvonne

    2017-01-01

    Using cases and empirical data from a research and development project at a Danish prevention center, this study explores whether and how the use of narrative dietary counseling can strengthen dietitians' relationships and collaboration with clients who are chronically ill. The results of the study...... dietary counseling empowered clients and improved relationship building and collaboration between client and dietitian....

  19. Dietary determinants of obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huaidong, D.U.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Obesity has become a serious public health problem worldwide, and dietary composition can play a role in its prevention and treatment. However, available literature on the impacts of different dietary factors on weight change is inconsistent, or even conflicting. In this review, we briefly

  20. Use of dietary supplements among Brazilian athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellen Clair Garcez NABUCO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate the prevalence and establish the profile of the consumption of dietary supplements among Brazilian athletes. Methods: A total of 182 athletes of both genders from 20 different sports participated in this study. The athletes answered a questionnaire containing sociodemographic and sports-related questions and were interviewed about the consumption of dietary supplements. Results: Forty seven percent of athletes reported having consumed at least one type of dietary supplement and 38% said they use more than three different types of supplements concurrently. Whey protein was the most commonly consumed supplement, and the most frequently mentioned reason for its consumption was performance improvement. The main source of information was coaches, and individual sport athletes were the greatest consumers and the most likely to seek dietary supplement. Conclusion: Approximately half of the participants used dietary supplements, which on most occasions were recommended by coaches. The consumption profile also revealed multiple supplementation practice and showed that nutrition education is essential for this specific population.

  1. Dietary composition and nutrient content of the New Nordic Diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mithril, Charlotte; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Meyer, Claus

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the dietary composition of the New Nordic Diet (NND) and to compare it with the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR)/Danish Food-based Dietary Guidelines (DFDG) and with the average Danish diet. Design Dietary components with clear health-promoting properties included...... in the DFDG were included in the NND in amounts at least equivalent to those prescribed by the DFDG. The quantities of the other dietary components in the NND were based on scientific arguments for their potential health-promoting properties together with considerations of acceptability, toxicological...... concerns, availability and the environment. Calculations were conducted for quantifying the dietary and nutrient composition of the NND. Setting Denmark. Subjects None. Results The NND is characterized by a high content of fruits and vegetables (especially berries, cabbages, root vegetables and legumes...

  2. The new ICRP general recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, Ch.; Kosako, T.; Kuniyoshi, H.; Kiryu, Y.; Choi, H.S.; Burns, P.A.; Pan, Z.Q.; Xia, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Regulatory views from Japan, South Korea, Australia, China and Indonesia were explained based on their regional context. Some issues, for example 'optimisation', 'dose constrains', 'natural radioactivity', were addressed from the viewpoint of how each country's current regulation system would adopt these new recommendations. It was noted that there would be a need for some flexibility in applying these new recommendations since different countries have different regulatory criteria and benchmarks as well different decision-making processes. It was also noted that definitions and terminologies should be given serious consideration with regard to non-English speaking countries to assure that the new ICRP recommendations are clearly understood, not misinterpreted, easily translated and finally applied in the field of radiation protection. In addition, some recent radiation protection activities, as well as views on utilisation of nuclear power in several countries were presented. (authors)

  3. Normal range of human dietary sodium intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarron, David A; Kazaks, Alexandra G; Geerling, Joel C

    2013-01-01

    The recommendation to restrict dietary sodium for management of hypertensive cardiovascular disease assumes that sodium intake exceeds physiologic need, that it can be significantly reduced, and that the reduction can be maintained over time. In contrast, neuroscientists have identified neural...... circuits in vertebrate animals that regulate sodium appetite within a narrow physiologic range. This study further validates our previous report that sodium intake, consistent with the neuroscience, tracks within a narrow range, consistent over time and across cultures....

  4. [Nutrition recommendations for children who practice sports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Valverde Visus, F; Moráis López, A; Ibáñez, J; Dalmau Serra, J

    2014-08-01

    Several health benefits have been attributed to sports practice, and an adequate nutrition status helps to maintain an optimal performance. Children most frequently practice non-competitive and non-endurance activities in a school setting. The dietary intake of children who practice sports should be similar to the general population, properly meeting their energy and nutrient requirements. During the activity performance, correct hydration should be aimed for, with water appearing to be an adequate source in most cases. General calorie and micronutrient supplementation should not be commonly recommended in children. Paediatricians must control nutritional status and dietary habits of children who practice sports, especially in those cases when weight-loss is aimed for, as well as take into account the psychological implications of competitive sports practice. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Dietary Intake as a Link between Obesity, Systemic Inflammation, and the Assumption of Multiple Cardiovascular and Antidiabetic Drugs in Renal Transplant Recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Guida

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated dietary intake and nutritional-inflammation status in ninety-six renal transplant recipients, years after transplantation. Patients were classified as normoweight (NW, overweight (OW, and obese (OB, if their body mass index was between 18.5 and 24.9, 25.0 and 29.9, and ≥30 kg/m2, respectively. Food composition tables were used to estimate nutrient intakes. The values obtained were compared with those recommended in current nutritional guidelines. 52% of the patients were NW, 29% were OW, and 19% were OB. Total energy, fat, and dietary n-6 PUFAs intake was higher in OB than in NW. IL-6 and hs-CRP were higher in OB than in NW. The prevalence of multidrug regimen was higher in OB. In all patients, total energy, protein, saturated fatty acids, and sodium intake were higher than guideline recommendations. On the contrary, the intake of unsaturated and n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and fiber was lower than recommended. In conclusion, the prevalence of obesity was high in our patients, and it was associated with inflammation and the assumption of multiple cardiovascular and antidiabetic drugs. Dietary intake did not meet nutritional recommendations in all patients, especially in obese ones, highlighting the need of a long-term nutritional support in renal transplant recipients.

  6. 75 FR 20599 - Proposed Data Collections Submitted for Public Comment and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ..., diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, obesity, smoking, drug and alcohol use, physical activity...; private groups such as the American Heart Association; schools of public health; private businesses... recommended dietary allowances, food fortification policies, environmental exposures, immunization guidelines...

  7. Issues in Nutrition: Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Margaret E; Noel, Mary Barth

    2017-01-01

    The majority of American adults report use of one or more dietary supplements every day or occasionally. The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 defines dietary supplements and regulates their manufacture and distribution. One of the most commonly used supplements is vitamin D. Measurement of serum levels of vitamin D must be undertaken with the caveats that different laboratories define normal levels differently, and that there is rarely a clinical correlation with the actual level. Patients should understand that supplements should not be used to excess, as there are toxicities and other adverse effects associated with most of them. There currently is considerable research being performed on probiotics and how the gut microbiome affects health and disease states. Protein supplements may be useful in reducing mortality rates in elderly patients but they do not appear to increase quality of life. If used, protein supplements should contain essential amino acids. Casein and whey supplements, derived from dairy sources, help transport essential amino acids to tissues. Although there have been many studies investigating the role of vitamin supplements in disease prevention, there have been few conclusive positive results. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  8. Mechanisms linking dietary fiber, gut microbiota and colon cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huawei; Lazarova, Darina L; Bordonaro, Michael

    2014-02-15

    Many epidemiological and experimental studies have suggested that dietary fiber plays an important role in colon cancer prevention. These findings may relate to the ability of fiber to reduce the contact time of carcinogens within the intestinal lumen and to promote healthy gut microbiota, which modifies the host's metabolism in various ways. Elucidation of the mechanisms by which dietary fiber-dependent changes in gut microbiota enhance bile acid deconjugation, produce short chain fatty acids, and modulate inflammatory bioactive substances can lead to a better understanding of the beneficial role of dietary fiber. This article reviews the current knowledge concerning the mechanisms via which dietary fiber protects against colon cancer.

  9. Tigernut: An Underutilized Source of Dietary Fiber | Ekeanyanwu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dietary fiber can contribute to the prevention or treatment of gastrointestinal disorders associated with poor of dietary fiber intake. They have several physical properties such as capacity to hold water and increases ion binding in the digestive system. There is currently no available data on the daily fiber consumption by ...

  10. Bakery products as a source of total dietary fiber in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markiewicz-Żukowska, Renata; Moskwa, Justyna; Gromkowska-Kępka, Krystyna; Laskowska, Emilia; Laskowska, Jolanta; Tomczuk, Justyna; Borawska, Maria Halina

    2016-01-01

    Bakery products are a source of bioactive compounds, such as dietary fibre (DF), whose proper supply plays an important role in prevention of civilisation diseases. The aim of the present study was to determine total dietary fibre (TDF) content in bakery products and their contribution to TDF supply. The determination of TDF content was performed using enzymatic-gravimetric method in 72 samples of six types of bakery products (wholemeal rye bread, wheat-rye bread, wheat-rye bread with grains, toast bread, crispbread, rolls) included in the young adults diet. Simultaneously, frequency of bakery products consumption and their contribution to TDF supply were assessed based on dietary interview questionnaires carried out among 224 students from Poland. Index of nutritional quality (INQ) of examined bakery products was calculated. Our data indicate that average TDF content depended on the type of bakery products and ranged from 2.19 g/100 g in rolls to 11.80 g/100 g in wholemeal rye bread. All of the tested types of bakery products, except rolls, were a good source of fibre (INQ≥1), but the richest were wholemeal rye and wheat-rye with grains breads. Analysis of questionnaires data showed that bakery products were regularly consumed by 80% of young adults; however, most of whom preferred rolls. Consumption of bakery products covered current recommendations for dietary fibre in 27%. Daily intake of bakery products and TDF was not correlated with student's BMI, however, women frequently consuming bread had a lower BMI than those who rarely ate it. Wholemeal rye and wheat-rye with grains breads are the rich source of TDF and they should be consumed by young adults in order to achieve the recommended TDF values.

  11. Defining and Supporting Narrative-driven Recommendation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogers, Toine; Koolen, Marijn

    2017-01-01

    Research into recommendation algorithms has made great strides in recent years. However, these algorithms are typically applied in relatively straightforward scenarios: given information about a user's past preferences, what will they like in the future? Recommendation is often more complex......: evaluating recommended items never takes place in a vacuum, and it is often a single step in the user's more complex background task. In this paper, we define a specific type of recommendation scenario called narrative-driven recommendation, where the recommendation process is driven by both a log...... of the user's past transactions as well as a narrative description of their current interest(s). Through an analysis of a set of real-world recommendation narratives from the LibraryThing forums, we demonstrate the uniqueness and richness of this scenario and highlight common patterns and properties...

  12. Rating Methods for Proactive Recommendation on Smartwatches

    OpenAIRE

    Janosch Maier, Wolfgang Wörndl

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes possible interaction methods for using a recommender system on a smartwatch. As prerequisite, we describe interaction patterns currently used by Android Wear applications. Based on a prototype implementation the interaction methods action buttons, two button card and swipes are compared against each other. In a user study, 31 participating students were asked to rate restaurant recommendations offered in the setting of a context-aware, proactive recommender system. For eac...

  13. Consumption of traditional food and adherence to nutrition recommendations in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Charlotte; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The purpose was to study the composition of the Inuit diet, to assess the adherence to nutritional recommendations among the Inuit in Greenland, and to discuss the potential role of traditional food in improving dietary quality.......The purpose was to study the composition of the Inuit diet, to assess the adherence to nutritional recommendations among the Inuit in Greenland, and to discuss the potential role of traditional food in improving dietary quality....

  14. Effect of dietary habits on the risk of metabolic syndrome: Yazd Healthy Heart Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarebanhassanabadi, Mohammadtaghi; Mirhosseini, Seyed Jalil; Mirzaei, Masoud; Namayandeh, Seyedeh Mahdieh; Soltani, Mohammad Hossein; Pakseresht, Mohammadreza; Pedarzadeh, Ali; Baramesipour, Zahra; Faraji, Reza; Salehi-Abargouei, Amin

    2018-04-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) refers to a group of risk factors that increase the risk of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Dietary habits are among the most important risk factors for MetS. The current study aimed at assessing the effect of dietary habits on the risk of MetS in a 10-year follow-up study in central Iran. Cohort study. Yazd, Iran. Participants aged 20-74 years without any history of MetS, who were originally recruited for Yazd Healthy Heart Project (YHHP) during 2005-2006, were revisited during 2015-2016. At phase I of YHHP, demographic data, anthropometric measurements, five components of MetS, biochemical tests and dietary habits were evaluated; and the same data were collected in phase II. A total of 1092 participants were eligible to be included in the present study. After follow-up, the 10-year cumulative incidence of MetS was 56·1 %. After adjustment for potential confounders, increased risk of MetS (hazard ratio; 95 % CI) was found in those who did not try to control their body weight (1·57; 1·06, 2·35), did not usually eat salad (1·91; 1·22, 3·00) and added salt to their food (1·57, 1·06, 2·33). These associations were stronger in men than in the total population after subgroup analysis, but were not present in women. Dietary habits affect the risk of MetS in the Iranian population. Lifestyle interventions are needed to improve dietary habits to reduce the risk of MetS. Future studies are highly recommended to confirm our results in other populations.

  15. Risk of High Dietary Calcium for Arterial Calcification in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J. Klemmer

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Concern has recently arisen about the potential adverse effects of excessive calcium intakes, i.e., calcium loading from supplements, on arterial calcification and risks of cardiovascular diseases (CVD in older adults. Published reports that high calcium intakes in free-living adults have relatively little or no beneficial impact on bone mineral density (BMD and fracture rates suggest that current recommendations of calcium for adults may be set too high. Because even healthy kidneys have limited capability of eliminating excessive calcium in the diet, the likelihood of soft-tissue calcification may increase in older adults who take calcium supplements, particularly in those with age or disease-related reduction in renal function. The maintenance of BMD and bone health continues to be an important goal of adequate dietary calcium consumption, but eliminating potential risks of CVDs from excessive calcium intakes needs to be factored into policy recommendations for calcium by adults.

  16. Dietary intakes of energy and macronutrients by lactating women of different ethnic groups living in Yakutia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtseva, Tatiana; Solodkova, Irina; Savvina, Maya; Dranaeva, Galina; Shadrin, Victor; Avrusin, Sergei; Sinelnikova, Elena; Chasnyk, Vyacheslav

    2013-01-01

    There should be a substantial increase in the intake of dietary energy, protein and other nutrients by lactating women, though these special increments can be different in different ethnic groups. To evaluate the influence of maternal ethnicity and diet on the quality of breast milk and its potential effect on early childhood development. A total of 185 mothers (150 Native and 35 Russian) living in settlements and small towns of rural Yakutia and 54 mothers (26 Native and 28 Russian) living in Yakutsk were surveyed and average food intake was recorded during 3 successive days before the survey was analyzed. The amount of protein varied from 18 to 168.3 g/day, fat--from 12 to 176.1 g/day, energy--from 900 to 3680.4 kcal/day. Protein intake was at the level of current recommended dietary allowances (RDA) in Russians and was higher than in Natives living in rural settlements and small towns (p = 0.02) and in Yakutsk (p = 0.03). Carbohydrate intake was higher, though not significantly, in both ethnic groups compared with the current recommendations. Protein, fat, carbohydrates and, therefore, energy intake were lower (p macronutrients depended on the place where a woman lived rather than on her ethnicity. Overall, energy intake was considered to be at the lower limit (basal energy expenditure 2002/2005) for lactating women, with the exception of Native women living in Yakutsk whose energy intake was below the lower limit.

  17. OARSI Clinical Trials Recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAlindon, T. E.; Driban, J. B.; Henrotin, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this document is to update the original OARSI recommendations specifically for the design, conduct, and reporting of clinical trials that target symptom or structure modification among individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA). To develop recommendations for the design, conduct...

  18. Evaluation of a dietary targets monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lean, M E J; Anderson, A S; Morrison, C; Currall, J

    2003-05-01

    To evaluate a two-page food frequency list for use as a Dietary Targets Monitor in large scale surveys to quantify consumptions of the key foods groups targeted in health promotion. Intakes of fruit and vegetables, starchy foods and fish estimated from a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) were compared with a short food frequency list (the Dietary Targets Monitor) specifically designed to assess habitual frequency of consumption of foods in relation to dietary targets which form the basis of a National (Scottish) Food and Health Policy. A total of 1085 adults aged 25-64 y from the Glasgow MONICA Study. : The two questionnaires both collected data on frequencies of food consumption for fruit and vegetables, starchy foods and fish. Comparing the two questionnaires, there were consistent biases, best expressed as ratios (FFQ:Dietary Targets Monitor) between the methods for fruit and vegetables (1.33, 95% CI 1.29, 1.38) and 'starchy foods' (1.08, 95% CI 1.05, 1.12), the DTM showing systematic under-reporting by men. For fish consumption, there was essentially no bias between the methods (0.99, 95% CI 0.94, 1.03). Using calibration factors to adjust for biases, the Dietary Targets Monitor indicated that 16% of the subjects were achieving the Scottish Diet food target (400 g/day) for fruit and vegetable consumption. Nearly one-third (32%) of the subjects were eating the recommended intakes of fish (three portions per week). The Dietary Targets Monitor measure of starchy foods consumption was calibrated using FFQ data to be able to make quantitative estimates: 20% of subjects were eating six or more portions of starchy food daily. A similar estimation of total fat intake and saturated fat intake (g/day) allowed the categorization of subjects as low, moderate or high fat consumers, with broad agreement between the methods. The levels of agreement demonstrated by Bland-Altman analysis, were insufficient to permit use of the adjusted DTM to estimate quantitative

  19. Incontinence Treatment: Dietary Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... helpful, please consider supporting IFFGD with a small tax-deductible donation. Lifestyle Changes Dietary Tips Medication Bowel ... arises requiring an expert’s care. © Copyright 1998-2018 International Foundation for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders, Inc. (IFFGD). All ...

  20. Dietary Supplement Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Primary Mitochondrial Disorders Weight Loss A Acai Aloe Vera Anabolic Steroids Antioxidants (see Exercise and Athletic Performance ) ... Pills (see Weight Loss ) Dietary Supplements Vitamin D E Echinacea Ephedra Essiac/Flor-Essence European Elder Evening ...

  1. Australian Pregnant Women’s Awareness of Gestational Weight Gain and Dietary Guidelines: Opportunity for Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khlood Bookari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG can negatively impact on maternal and foetal health. Guidelines based on Institute of Medicine (IOM encourage managing GWG by following healthy eating recommendations and increasing physical activity. This study investigated pregnant women’s knowledge of their optimal GWG and recommended dietary approaches for GWG management. Method. English-speaking pregnant women were recruited from five hospitals in New South Wales (Australia and an online link. Prepregnancy Body Mass Index (BMI was calculated from self-reported height and prepregnancy weight. Participants identified their recommended GWG. A survey assessed practical dietary knowledge and asked about broad dietary recommendations to prevent excessive GWG. Chi square and logistic regression analyses were used. Results. N=326 pregnant women completed the surveys; 49% entered pregnancy overweight (25.2% or obese (23.6%; and knowledge of recommended GWG was lacking. Prepregnancy BMI was a significant predictor of GWG recommendation knowledge (P<0.000. Pregnant women were highly knowledgeable about broad dietary recommendations but had poor knowledge of detailed recommendations. Conclusions. Limited knowledge of IOM’s GWG guidelines and of specific dietary recommendations for pregnancy should be addressed by health care providers and education initiatives to assist the high number of women who enter pregnancy overweight or obese.

  2. Recommender Systems for Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Manouselis, Nikos; Verbert, Katrien; Duval, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Technology enhanced learning (TEL) aims to design, develop and test sociotechnical innovations that will support and enhance learning practices of both individuals and organisations. It is therefore an application domain that generally covers technologies that support all forms of teaching and learning activities. Since information retrieval (in terms of searching for relevant learning resources to support teachers or learners) is a pivotal activity in TEL, the deployment of recommender systems has attracted increased interest. This brief attempts to provide an introduction to recommender systems for TEL settings, as well as to highlight their particularities compared to recommender systems for other application domains.

  3. 1990 recommendations of ICRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, R.H.

    1991-01-01

    The Main Commission of ICRP finalised its new recommendations during its November 1990 meeting. The recommendations will appear in the Annals of the ICRP in 1991 as Publication 60. This paper represents a personal summary of these recommendations. It covers the basic biological risk estimates and the conceptual framework of the system of radiological protection, the definition of radiation detriment and its use both in the definition of radiation quantities and in the establishment of the dose limits adopted by the Main Commissions. (author)

  4. Ketogenic diet in endocrine disorders: Current perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, L; Khandelwal, D; Kalra, S; Gupta, P; Dutta, D; Aggarwal, S

    2017-01-01

    Ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat, adequate-protein, and low-carbohydrate diet that leads to nutritional ketosis, long known for antiepileptic effects and has been used therapeutically to treat refractory epilepsy. This review attempts to summarize the evidence and clinical application of KD in diabetes, obesity, and other endocrine disorders. KD is usually animal protein based. An empiric vegetarian Indian variant of KD has been provided keeping in mind the Indian food habits. KD has beneficial effects on cardiac ischemic preconditioning, improves oxygenation in patients with respiratory failure, improves glycemic control in diabetics, is associated with significant weight loss, and has a beneficial impact on polycystic ovarian syndrome. Multivitamin supplementations are recommended with KD. Recently, ketones are being proposed as super-metabolic fuel; and KD is currently regarded as apt dietary therapy for “diabesity.” PMID:29022562

  5. Ketogenic diet in endocrine disorders: Current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ketogenic diet (KD is a high-fat, adequate-protein, and low-carbohydrate diet that leads to nutritional ketosis, long known for antiepileptic effects and has been used therapeutically to treat refractory epilepsy. This review attempts to summarize the evidence and clinical application of KD in diabetes, obesity, and other endocrine disorders. KD is usually animal protein based. An empiric vegetarian Indian variant of KD has been provided keeping in mind the Indian food habits. KD has beneficial effects on cardiac ischemic preconditioning, improves oxygenation in patients with respiratory failure, improves glycemic control in diabetics, is associated with significant weight loss, and has a beneficial impact on polycystic ovarian syndrome. Multivitamin supplementations are recommended with KD. Recently, ketones are being proposed as super-metabolic fuel; and KD is currently regarded as apt dietary therapy for “diabesity.”

  6. Simplified and age-appropriate recommendations for added sugars in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goran, M I; Riemer, S L; Alderete, T L

    2018-04-01

    Excess sugar intake increases risk for obesity and related comorbidities among children. The World Health Organization (WHO), American Heart Association (AHA) and the 2015 USDA dietary recommendations have proposed guidelines for added sugar intake to reduce risk for disease. WHO and USDA recommendations are presented as a percentage of daily calories from added sugar. This approach is not easily understood or translated to children, where energy needs increase with age. The AHA recommendation is based on a fixed value of 25 g of added sugar for all children 2-19 years of age. This approach does not take into account the different levels of intake across this wide age range. Due to these limitations, we adapted current recommendations for added sugars based on daily energy needs of children 2-19 years. We used those values to derive simple regression equations to predict grams or teaspoons of added sugars per day based on age that would be equivalent to 10% of daily energy needs. This proposed approach aligns with the changing nutritional needs of children and adolescents during growth. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  7. Dietary fiber analysis of common pulses using AOAC 2011.25: Implications for human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary fiber is an important non-nutritive component of food and is believed to have various benefits to human health. In many countries, such as the United States and Canada, the intake of dietary fiber is 50 to 70% below recommended levels in greater than 95% of the population. We recently adva...

  8. Zinc Biofortification of Rice in China: A stimulation of zinc intake with different dietary patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, Y.; Boonstra, A.; Yuan, B.; Pan, X.; Dai, Yue

    2012-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey of 2819 adults aged 20 years and above was undertaken in 2002 in Jiangsu Province. Zinc intake was assessed using a consecutive 3-day 24-h dietary recall method. Insufficient and excess intake was determined according to the Chinese Dietary Recommended Intakes. Four distinct

  9. Estimation of the dietary requirement for vitamin D in healthy adolescent white girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cashman, Kevin D.; FitzGerald, A. P.; Viljakainen, H. T.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Knowledge gaps have contributed to considerable variation (between 0 and 15 μg/d) in international dietary recommendations for vitamin D in adolescents. Objective: We aimed to establish the distribution of dietary vitamin D required to maintain serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) conc...

  10. Feasibility of recommending certain replacement or alternative fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeaff, C M

    2009-05-01

    Expert groups and public health authorities recommend that trans-fatty acid (TFA) intakes from industrially produced partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (PHVOs) should be less than 1% of total energy intake. The starting point for any regulatory or nonregulatory response to this recommendation is to assess the extent of the problem by determining where in the food supply TFAs are found and the amounts consumed in the population. Unfortunately, this is a particularly difficult task using traditional methods of dietary assessment inasmuch as food composition databases with TFA data are either nonexistent or incomplete in most countries. Current evidence on estimates of intake suggests there is high variability in TFA intakes and their food sources between countries. The ubiquitous presence of PHVOs in the global food supply in bakery products, deep-fried foods, snack foods, confectionery products and table spreads attests to their commercial value and convenience. However, their common use is more the result of historical convenience from an industry infrastructure developed over 50 years based on efficient, cost-effective hydrogenation of vegetable oils rather than any inherent sensory or physical superiority of the hydrogenated fats over purpose-made zero-trans fats and oils. Current global supply of appropriate zero-trans replacement fats high in cis-unsaturated fatty acids is insufficient to meet the demand if all PHVOs in the food supply were replaced. Regulatory action needs to be coordinated with supply to maximize the opportunity for health gains by replacing partially hydrogenated fats with purpose-ready zero-trans vegetable oils low in saturates and high in cis-unsaturates rather than animal fats and tropical oils high in saturated fatty acids.

  11. Development and promotion of Malaysian Dietary Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, E-Siong

    2011-01-01

    Development and promotion of dietary guidelines is one of the key activities outlined in the National Plan of Action for Nutrition of Malaysia for the prevention of nutrition-related disorders. The first official Malaysian Dietary Guidelines (MDG) was published in 1999 and was thoroughly reviewed and launched on 25 March 2010. The new MDG 2010 is a compilation of science-based nutrition and physical activity recommendations. These guidelines form the basis of consistent and scientifically sound nutrition messages for the public. There are 14 key messages and 55 recommendations, covering the whole range of food and nutrition issues, from importance of consuming a variety of foods to guidance on specific food groups, messages to encourage physical activities, consuming safe food and beverages and making effective use of nutrition information on food labels. The MDG also has an updated food pyramid. Various efforts have been made to ensure that the revised MDG is disseminated to all stakeholders. The Ministry of Health has organised a series of workshops for nutritionists and other health care professionals, and the food industry. In collaboration with other professional bodies and the private sector, the Nutrition Society of Malaysia has been promoting the dissemination and usage of the MDG to the public through a variety of formats and channels. These include the publication of a series of leaflets, educational press articles, educational booklets, as well as through educational activities for children. It is imperative to monitor the usage and evaluation of these dietary messages.

  12. Dietary reference intakes for energy, carbohydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein, and amino acids

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Panel on Macronutrients; Subcommittees on Upper Reference Levels of Nutrients and Interpretation and Uses of Dietary Reference Intakes; Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes

    Responding to the expansion of scientific knowledge about the roles of nutrients in human health, the Institute of Medicine has developed a new approach to establish Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs...

  13. Dietary reference intakes for energy, carbohydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein, and amino acids

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    A Report of the Panel on Macronutrients, and the Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes

    2005-01-01

    Responding to the expansion of scientific knowledge about the roles of nutrients in human health, the Institute of Medicine has developed a new approach to establish Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs...

  14. The impact of a nutrition programme on the dietary intake patterns of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-10-06

    Oct 6, 2010 ... Napier C, Food and Nutrition Consumer Sciences, Durban University of Technology ... Keywords: nutrition education, dietary intake behaviour, children .... which include the recommendation to drink plenty of clean and.

  15. Probabilistic approaches to recommendations

    CERN Document Server

    Barbieri, Nicola; Ritacco, Ettore

    2014-01-01

    The importance of accurate recommender systems has been widely recognized by academia and industry, and recommendation is rapidly becoming one of the most successful applications of data mining and machine learning. Understanding and predicting the choices and preferences of users is a challenging task: real-world scenarios involve users behaving in complex situations, where prior beliefs, specific tendencies, and reciprocal influences jointly contribute to determining the preferences of users toward huge amounts of information, services, and products. Probabilistic modeling represents a robus

  16. Metabolomics as a tool in the identification of dietary biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Helena; Brennan, Lorraine

    2017-02-01

    Current dietary assessment methods including FFQ, 24-h recalls and weighed food diaries are associated with many measurement errors. In an attempt to overcome some of these errors, dietary biomarkers have emerged as a complementary approach to these traditional methods. Metabolomics has developed as a key technology for the identification of new dietary biomarkers and to date, metabolomic-based approaches have led to the identification of a number of putative biomarkers. The three approaches generally employed when using metabolomics in dietary biomarker discovery are: (i) acute interventions where participants consume specific amounts of a test food, (ii) cohort studies where metabolic profiles are compared between consumers and non-consumers of a specific food and (iii) the analysis of dietary patterns and metabolic profiles to identify nutritypes and biomarkers. The present review critiques the current literature in terms of the approaches used for dietary biomarker discovery and gives a detailed overview of the currently proposed biomarkers, highlighting steps needed for their full validation. Furthermore, the present review also evaluates areas such as current databases and software tools, which are needed to advance the interpretation of results and therefore enhance the utility of dietary biomarkers in nutrition research.

  17. Dietary habits after myocardial infarction - results from a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallström, P; Mattisson, I; Tydén, P; Berglund, G; Janzon, L

    2005-04-01

    Comparing habitual nutrient intakes in persons with a history of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and age-matched controls. Design. Cross-sectional study. Subjects. Men and women (525 cases and 1890 matched controls), aged 47-73 years, of the population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort. Nutrient intakes were assessed by a validated modified diet history method. Body fatness was assessed by bioimpedance analysis. Case ascertainment was provided by national and regional registries. Men and women were analysed separately. Median time since AMI was 5.5 years in men and 3.8 years in women. Cases reported lower energy intakes (EIs) than controls, despite having similar basal metabolic rates. After adjustment for total EI, both male and female cases had lower fat intake and higher intake of several micronutrients, such as ascorbic acid, folate, and vitamin E, than controls, the difference being largest in men. Most of the cases reporting dietary change quoted 'disease' as their main reason for change. They had lower EI and lower energy-adjusted intake of fat than other cases. Survivors of AMI reported dietary habits more in line with current recommendations, particularly those who afterwards reported having changed their dietary habits. The possible bias introduced by social desirability is discussed.

  18. Scientific and educational recommender systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guseva, A. I.; Kireev, V. S.; Bochkarev, P. V.; Kuznetsov, I. A.; Philippov, S. A.

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the questions associated with the use of reference systems in the preparation of graduates in physical function. The objective of this research is creation of model of recommender system user from the sphere of science and education. The detailed review of current scientific and social network for scientists and the problem of constructing recommender systems in this area. The result of this study is to research user information model systems. The model is presented in two versions: the full one - in the form of a semantic network, and short - in a relational form. The relational model is the projection in the form of semantic network, taking into account the restrictions on the amount of bonds that characterize the number of information items (research results), which interact with the system user.

  19. Lifestyle and dietary habits of an obese pregnant cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Karen L; Heneghan, Clara; McNulty, Breige; Brennan, Lorraine; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M

    2015-01-01

    Obese pregnant women are the focus of numerous dietary and lifestyle intervention studies, however there is a paucity of literature examining the habitual dietary and lifestyle habits of this population. This paper aims to assess maternal dietary and lifestyle habits in an obese cohort, in order to identify priority areas to be addressed in future studies and in clinical practice. This prospective observational study recruited 100 pregnant women with a body mass index 30.0-39.9 kg/m(2) from routine antenatal clinics. Dietary intakes were assessed using a 3-day food diary and a structured lifestyle questionnaire assessed physical activity levels, smoking and alcohol habits and wellbeing. Macronutrient intakes as a percentage of total energy were not compliant to healthy eating guidelines with an inadequate intake of carbohydrate and excess intake of saturated fat. Compliance to recommended intakes of calcium, iron, folate and vitamin D was poor from diet alone. The consumption of energy dense food groups high in fat and sugar was greater than for published pregnant populations and the general female non-pregnant population. One-third of women reported engaging in weekly physical activity that would comply with recommendations for pregnant women while 25 % reported low mood status indicating potential depression. High intakes of energy-dense processed foods and poor compliance to micronutrient recommendations are critical dietary issues of concern among obese pregnant women. Low mood is a barrier to motivation for changing behaviour which would also need to be addressed in future lifestyle intervention studies.

  20. Nutritional recommendations for divers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benardot, Dan; Zimmermann, Wes; Cox, Gregory R; Marks, Saul

    2014-08-01

    Competitive diving involves grace, power, balance, and flexibility, which all require satisfying daily energy and nutrient needs. Divers are short, well-muscled, and lean, giving them a distinct biomechanical advantage. Although little diving-specific nutrition research on performance and health outcomes exists, there is concern that divers are excessively focused on body weight and composition, which may result in reduced dietary intake to achieve desired physique goals. This will result in low energy availability, which may have a negative impact on their power-to-weight ratio and health risks. Evidence is increasing that restrictive dietary practices leading to low energy availability also result in micronutrient deficiencies, premature fatigue, frequent injuries, and poor athletic performance. On the basis of daily training demands, estimated energy requirements for male and female divers are 3,500 kcal and 2,650 kcal, respectively. Divers should consume a diet that provides 3-8 g/kg/day of carbohydrate, with the higher values accommodating growth and development. Total daily protein intake (1.2-1.7 g/kg) should be spread evenly throughout the day in 20 to 30 g amounts and timed appropriately after training sessions. Divers should consume nutrient-dense foods and fluids and, with medical supervision, certain dietary supplements (i.e., calcium and iron) may be advisable. Although sweat loss during indoor training is relatively low, divers should follow appropriate fluid-intake strategies to accommodate anticipated sweat losses in hot and humid outdoor settings. A multidisciplinary sports medicine team should be integral to the daily training environment, and suitable foods and fluids should be made available during prolonged practices and competitions.

  1. Dietary fructose intolerance, fructan intolerance and FODMAPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedewa, Amy; Rao, Satish S. C.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary intolerances to fructose, fructans and FODMAPs (Fermentable Oligosaccharides, Disaccharides, Monosaccharides And Polyols) are common, yet poorly recognized and managed. Over the last decade, they have come to the forefront because of new knowledge on the mechanisms and treatment of these conditions. Patients with these problems often present with unexplained bloating, belching, distension, gas, abdominal pain or diarrhea. Here, we have examined the most up-to-date research on these food-related intolerances, discussed controversies, and have provided some guidelines for the dietary management of these conditions. Breath testing for carbohydrate intolerance appears to be standardized and essential for the diagnosis and management of these conditions, especially in the Western population. While current research shows that the FODMAP diet may be effective in treating irritable bowel syndrome, additional research is needed to identify more foods items that are high in FODMAPs, and to assess the long-term efficacy and safety of dietary interventions. PMID:24357350

  2. What is the gold standard for comprehensive interinstitutional communication of perioperative information for thyroid cancer patients? A comparison of existing electronic health records with the current American Thyroid Association recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Reis, Laura L; Tuttle, R Michael; Alon, Eran; Bergman, Donald A; Bernet, Victor; Brett, Elise M; Cobin, Rhoda; Doherty, Gerard; Harris, Jeffrey R; Klopper, Joshua; Lee, Stephanie L; Lupo, Mark; Milas, Mira; Machac, Josef; Mechanick, Jeffrey I; Orloff, Lisa; Randolph, Gregory; Ross, Douglas S; Smallridge, Robert C; Terris, David James; Tufano, Ralph P; Mehra, Saral; Scherl, Sophie; Clain, Jason B; Urken, Mark L

    2014-10-01

    Appropriate management of well-differentiated thyroid cancer requires treating clinicians to have access to critical elements of the patient's presentation, surgical management, postoperative course, and pathologic assessment. Electronic health records (EHRs) provide an effective method for the storage and transmission of patient information, although most commercially available EHRs are not intended to be disease-specific. In addition, there are significant challenges for the sharing of relevant clinical information when providers involved in the care of a patient with thyroid cancer are not connected by a common EHR. In 2012, the American Thyroid Association (ATA) defined the critical elements for optimal interclinician communication in a position paper entitled, "The Essential Elements of Interdisciplinary Communication of Perioperative Information for Patients Undergoing Thyroid Cancer Surgery." We present a field-by-field comparison of the ATA's essential elements as applied to three contemporary electronic reporting systems: the Thyroid Surgery e-Form from Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC), the Alberta WebSMR from the University of Calgary, and the Thyroid Cancer Care Collaborative (TCCC). The MSKCC e-form fulfills 21 of 32 intraoperative fields and includes an additional 14 fields not specifically mentioned in the ATA's report. The Alberta WebSMR fulfills 45 of 82 preoperative and intraoperative fields outlined by the ATA and includes 13 additional fields. The TCCC fulfills 117 of 120 fields outlined by the ATA and includes 23 additional fields. Effective management of thyroid cancer is a highly collaborative, multidisciplinary effort. The patient information that factors into clinical decisions about thyroid cancer is complex. For these reasons, EHRs are particularly favorable for the management of patients with thyroid cancer. The MSKCC Thyroid Surgery e-Form, the Alberta WebSMR, and the TCCC each meet all of the general recommendations for

  3. What do review papers conclude about food and dietary patterns?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabet Wirfält

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Nutrients and other bioactive constituents of foods may interact with each other and the surrounding food matrix in complex ways. Therefore, associations between single nutrients and chronic disease may be difficult to identify and interpret, but when dietary patterns (DPs are examined the combination of many food factors will be considered. An explorative literature search of published review articles was conducted to obtain a fuller understanding of current DPs in epidemiological research, to discuss pros and cons of DPs in nutrition research, and to identify results of studies linking DPs to chronic disease risk in adults. Randomized feeding trials providing the experimental diets to study participants have repeatedly demonstrated that diets based on current dietary recommendations are associated with important health benefits. Systematic reviews of feeding trials and prospective population studies of DPs and chronic disease risk reach similar conclusions regardless of the methodology used to construct DPs. However, to date only a few review articles of DP studies have followed a systematic process using independent reviewers with strict inclusion, exclusion, and study quality criteria. Diets with plenty of plants foods, fish, and seafood that preferably include vegetable oils and low-fat dairy products are associated with a lower risk of most chronic diseases. In contrast, Western-type DPs with food products low in essential nutrients and high in energy, like sugar-sweetened beverages, sweets, refined cereals and solid fats (e.g. butter, and high in red and processed meats, are associated with adverse health effects. An emphasis on high-quality original research, and systematic reviews following a structured process to objectively select and judge studies, is needed in order to enforce a strong future knowledge base regarding DPs and chronic disease.

  4. EFFECTS OF DIETARY COPPER, ZINC, LEAD, CADMIUM, AND ARSENIC ON GROWTH AND SURVIVAL OF JUVENILE FISH USING LIVE FOOD ORGANISMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Except for certain organometallic compounds, dietary exposures of aquatic organisms to metal/metalloids have received little regulatory attention. However, various studies have suggested that dietary exposure could be important, especially in areas where current water column conc...

  5. Finding and Recommending Scholarly Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Michael J.; Henneken, Edwin A.

    2014-05-01

    The rate at which scholarly literature is being produced has been increasing at approximately 3.5 percent per year for decades. This means that during a typical 40 year career the amount of new literature produced each year increases by a factor of four. The methods scholars use to discover relevant literature must change. Just like everybody else involved in information discovery, scholars are confronted with information overload. Two decades ago, this discovery process essentially consisted of paging through abstract books, talking to colleagues and librarians, and browsing journals. A time-consuming process, which could even be longer if material had to be shipped from elsewhere. Now much of this discovery process is mediated by online scholarly information systems. All these systems are relatively new, and all are still changing. They all share a common goal: to provide their users with access to the literature relevant to their specific needs. To achieve this each system responds to actions by the user by displaying articles which the system judges relevant to the user's current needs. Recently search systems which use particularly sophisticated methodologies to recommend a few specific papers to the user have been called "recommender systems". These methods are in line with the current use of the term "recommender system" in computer science. We do not adopt this definition, rather we view systems like these as components in a larger whole, which is presented by the scholarly information systems themselves. In what follows we view the recommender system as an aspect of the entire information system; one which combines the massive memory capacities of the machine with the cognitive abilities of the human user to achieve a human-machine synergy.

  6. Dietary protein considerations to support active aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Benjamin T; Cermak, Naomi M; van Loon, Luc J C

    2014-11-01

    Given our rapidly aging world-wide population, the loss of skeletal muscle mass with healthy aging (sarcopenia) represents an important societal and public health concern. Maintaining or adopting an active lifestyle alleviates age-related muscle loss to a certain extent. Over time, even small losses of muscle tissue can hinder the ability to maintain an active lifestyle and, as such, contribute to the development of frailty and metabolic disease. Considerable research focus has addressed the application of dietary protein supplementation to support exercise-induced gains in muscle mass in younger individuals. In contrast, the role of dietary protein in supporting the maintenance (or gain) of skeletal muscle mass in active older persons has received less attention. Older individuals display a blunted muscle protein synthetic response to dietary protein ingestion. However, this reduced anabolic response can largely be overcome when physical activity is performed in close temporal proximity to protein consumption. Moreover, recent evidence has helped elucidate the optimal type and amount of dietary protein that should be ingested by the older adult throughout the day in order to maximize the skeletal muscle adaptive response to physical activity. Evidence demonstrates that when these principles are adhered to, muscle maintenance or hypertrophy over prolonged periods can be further augmented in active older persons. The present review outlines the current understanding of the role that dietary protein occupies in the lifestyle of active older adults as a means to increase skeletal muscle mass, strength and function, and thus support healthier aging.

  7. A Hybrid Recommender System Based on User-Recommender Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Heng-Ru; Min, Fan; He, Xu; Xu, Yuan-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Recommender systems are used to make recommendations about products, information, or services for users. Most existing recommender systems implicitly assume one particular type of user behavior. However, they seldom consider user-recommender interactive scenarios in real-world environments. In this paper, we propose a hybrid recommender system based on user-recommender interaction and evaluate its performance with recall and diversity metrics. First, we define the user-recommender interaction...

  8. Prebiotics, Fermentable Dietary Fiber, and Health Claims12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aman, Per; Courtin, Christophe M; Hamaker, Bruce R; Verbeke, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1970s, the positive effects of dietary fiber on health have increasingly been recognized. The collective term “dietary fiber” groups structures that have different physiologic effects. Since 1995, some dietary fibers have been denoted as prebiotics, implying a beneficial physiologic effect related to increasing numbers or activity of the gastrointestinal microbiota. Given the complex composition of the microbiota, the demonstration of such beneficial effects is difficult. In contrast, an exploration of the metabolites of dietary fiber formed as a result of its fermentation in the colon offers better perspectives for providing mechanistic links between fiber intake and health benefits. Positive outcomes of such studies hold the promise that claims describing specific health benefits can be granted. This would help bridge the “fiber gap”—that is, the considerable difference between recommended and actual fiber intakes by the average consumer. PMID:26773010

  9. The Association between Dietary Quality and Dietary Guideline Adherence with Mental Health Outcomes in Adults: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy P. Meegan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of adverse mental health outcomes in adults is increasing. Although beneficial effects of selected micronutrients and foods on mental health have been reported, they do not reflect the impact of the habitual diet on mental health. Therefore, our objective is to examine potential associations between dietary quality, dietary composition and compliance with food pyramid recommendations with depressive symptoms, anxiety and well-being (assessed using CES-D, HADS-A and WHO-5 screening tools in a cross-sectional sample of 2047 middle-aged adults. Diet was assessed using a self-completed FFQ. Chi-square tests, t-tests and logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the associations between dietary components and mental health outcomes. Dietary quality, but not dietary composition or guideline adherence, was associated with well-being. Those with high dietary quality were more likely to report well-being (OR =1.67, 95% CI 1.15–2.44, p = 0.007 relative to those with low dietary quality. This remained significant among females (OR = 1.92, (95% CI 1.14–3.23, p = 0.014 and non-obese individuals (OR = 2.03, 95% CI 1.28–3.20, p = 0.003. No associations between any dietary measures with anxiety or depressive symptoms were observed. These novel results highlight the importance of dietary quality in maintaining optimal psychological well-being. Better understanding of the relationship between dietary quality and mental health may provide insight into potential therapeutic or intervention strategies to improve mental health and well-being.

  10. The role of dietary creatine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, Margaret E; Brosnan, John T

    2016-08-01

    The daily requirement of a 70-kg male for creatine is about 2 g; up to half of this may be obtained from a typical omnivorous diet, with the remainder being synthesized in the body Creatine is a carninutrient, which means that it is only available to adults via animal foodstuffs, principally skeletal muscle, or via supplements. Infants receive creatine in mother's milk or in milk-based formulas. Vegans and infants fed on soy-based formulas receive no dietary creatine. Plasma and muscle creatine levels are usually somewhat lower in vegetarians than in omnivores. Human intake of creatine was probably much higher in Paleolithic times than today; some groups with extreme diets, such as Greenland and Alaskan Inuit, ingest much more than is currently typical. Creatine is synthesized from three amino acids: arginine, glycine and methionine (as S-adenosylmethionine). Humans can synthesize sufficient creatine for normal function unless they have an inborn error in a creatine-synthetic enzyme or a problem with the supply of substrate amino acids. Carnivorous animals, such as lions and wolves, ingest much larger amounts of creatine than humans would. The gastrointestinal tract and the liver are exposed to dietary creatine in higher concentrations before it is assimilated by other tissues. In this regard, our observations that creatine supplementation can prevent hepatic steatosis (Deminice et al. J Nutr 141:1799-1804, 2011) in a rodent model may be a function of the route of dietary assimilation. Creatine supplementation has also been reported to improve the intestinal barrier function of the rodent suffering from inflammatory bowel disease.

  11. Dietary Patterns in Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise Beltoft Borup

    A healthy diet is essential for healthy growth and development during childhood and may prevent obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases throughout life. Traditionally, diet has been investigated as single nutrients. However, people do not eat one single nutrient and they do not even eat one...... single food. People consume meals and these meals vary during a day, over a year and during a life time. To comprehend some of this complexity it could be advantageous to investigate dietary patterns representing the whole diet as patterns might be better markers of growth and health than single...... childhood. These associations might contribute to the identification of families, who would benefit from guidance to help them establish healthy dietary patterns for their infants. Finding tracking for some infants and changes in adherence to dietary patterns for others as well as the association between...

  12. Dietary hyperthyroidism in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, B; Stengel, C; Neiger, R

    2012-03-01

    Evaluation of dogs with elevated plasma thyroxine concentration fed raw food before and after changing the diet. Between 2006 and 2011 all dogs presented with an elevated plasma thyroxine concentration and a dietary history of feeding raw food were included. Thyroxine (reference interval: 19·3 to 51·5 nmol/L) and in many cases also thyroid-stimulating hormone concentrations (reference interval: weight loss, aggressiveness, tachycardia, panting and restlessness while six dogs had no clinical signs. After changing the diet eight dogs were examined: thyroxine concentration normalised in all dogs and clinical signs resolved. Dietary hyperthyroidism can be seen in dogs on a raw meat diet or fed fresh or dried gullets. Increased plasma thyroxine concentration in a dog, either with or without signs of hyperthyroidism, should prompt the veterinarian to obtain a thorough dietary history. © 2012 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  13. Revised food-based dietary guidelines for South Africa: challenges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    especially the alcohol FBDG,3-4 might be misinterpreted by consumers. ... of the general recommendations for healthy eating. The main ... psychological and biological interactions. Clearly, there is a need to influence dietary behaviour towards a more prudent diet. ... postgraduate students at South Africa universities that.

  14. Dietary Patterns in Urbanised Blacks: A study in Guguletu, Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Riboflavin intake fell short of the National Research Council's recommended daily allowances as did niacin, tryptophan and calcium. The dietary pattern developing in an urban Black township clearly needs modification to ensure adequate nutrient intake and to prevent destruction of nutrients by faulty cooking methods.

  15. Elimination diets and dietary interventions for the management of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The primary therapy for food allergy is strict avoidance of the offending food or foods. ... cost-effective and freely available substitutes for the avoided foods should be provided. ... The recommended feed of choice for the dietary management of ...

  16. Use of dietary supplements, and awareness and knowledge of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Use of dietary supplements, and awareness and knowledge of the recommended fruit and vegetable intakes and consumption of health food store customers in the Cape Town city bowl. ... Conclusions: The demographic profile of the supplement users was similar to that reported in other studies. Knowledge of the ...

  17. Use of dietary supplements, and awareness and knowledge of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The objectives of this study were to determine the dietary supplement use and demographic characteristics of customers visiting health food stores in the Cape Town city bowl, and to determine their awareness and knowledge of the recommended fruit and vegetable intake servings and their fruit and vegetable ...

  18. Dietary supplement use and colorectal tumors : from prevention to diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bröring, R.C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Expert guidelines formulated by the World Cancer Research Fund and the American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) advised no use of dietary supplements for cancer prevention. However, it is unclear whether those recommendations also apply to populations at

  19. Dietary patterns and physical activity in people with schizophrenia and increased waist circumference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Ane Storch; Speyer, Helene; Nørgaard, Hans Christian Brix; Karlsen, Mette; Hjorthøj, Carsten; Krogh, Jesper; Mors, Ole; Nordentoft, Merete; Toft, Ulla

    2018-03-16

    People with severe mental disorders die 10-25years earlier than people in the Western background population, mainly due to lifestyle related diseases, with cardiovascular disease (CVD) being the most frequent cause of death. Major contributors to this excess morbidity and mortality are unhealthy lifestyle factors including tobacco smoking, unhealthy eating habits and lower levels of physical activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the dietary habits and levels of physical activity in people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and overweight and to compare the results with the current recommendations and with results from the general Danish population. We interviewed a sample of 428 people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and increased waist circumference enrolled in the CHANGE trial using a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and a 24h recall interview, a Physical Activity Scale (PAS), scale for assessment of positive and negative symptoms (SAPS and SANS, respectively), Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF). We compared with information on dietary intake and physical activity in the general Danish population from the Danish National Survey of Dietary Habits and Physical Activity in 2011-2013 (DANSDA). The CHANGE participants reported a very low energy intake and their distribution of nutrients (i.e. fat, protein and carbohydrates) harmonized with the recommendations from the Danish Health Authorities, and were similar to the latest report on the dietary habits in the Danish general population. However, the intake of saturated fat, sugar and alcohol exceed the recommended amounts and the corresponding intake in the general population. The intake of fiber, vegetables and fruit and fish were insufficient and also less than in the general population. The overall estimated quality of the dietary habits was poor, only 10.7% of the participants had healthy dietary patterns, and the quality was

  20. Canadian Initiatives to Prevent Hypertension by Reducing Dietary Sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Norm R. C.; Willis, Kevin J.; L’Abbe, Mary; Strang, Robert; Young, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Hypertension is the leading risk for premature death in the world. High dietary sodium is an important contributor to increased blood pressure and is strongly associated with other important diseases (e.g., gastric cancer, calcium containing kidney stones, osteoporosis, asthma and obesity). The average dietary sodium intake in Canada is approximately 3400 mg/day. It is estimated that 30% of hypertension, more than 10% of cardiovascular events and 1.4 billion dollars/year in health care expenses are caused by this high level of intake in Canada. Since 2006, Canada has had a focused and evolving effort to reduce dietary sodium based on actions from Non Governmental Organizations (NGO), and Federal and Provincial/Territorial Government actions. NGOs initiated Canadian sodium reduction programs by developing a policy statement outlining the health issue and calling for governmental, NGO and industry action, developing and disseminating an extensive health care professional education program including resources for patient education, developing a public awareness campaign through extensive media releases and publications in the lay press. The Federal Government responded by striking a Intersectoral Sodium Work Group to develop recommendations on how to implement Canada’s dietary reference intake values for dietary sodium and by developing timelines and targets for foods to be reduced in sodium, assessing key research gaps with funding for targeted dietary sodium based research, developing plans for public education and for conducting evaluation of the program to reduce dietary sodium. While food regulation is a Federal Government responsibility Provincial and Territorial governments indicated reducing dietary sodium needed to be a priority. Federal and Provincial Ministers of Health have endorsed a target to reduce the average consumption of sodium to 2300 mg/day by 2016 and the Deputy Ministers of Health have tasked a joint committee to review the recommendations of

  1. Canadian Initiatives to Prevent Hypertension by Reducing Dietary Sodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Strang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is the leading risk for premature death in the world. High dietary sodium is an important contributor to increased blood pressure and is strongly associated with other important diseases (e.g., gastric cancer, calcium containing kidney stones, osteoporosis, asthma and obesity. The average dietary sodium intake in Canada is approximately 3400 mg/day. It is estimated that 30% of hypertension, more than 10% of cardiovascular events and 1.4 billion dollars/year in health care expenses are caused by this high level of intake in Canada. Since 2006, Canada has had a focused and evolving effort to reduce dietary sodium based on actions from Non Governmental Organizations (NGO, and Federal and Provincial/Territorial Government actions. NGOs initiated Canadian sodium reduction programs by developing a policy statement outlining the health issue and calling for governmental, NGO and industry action, developing and disseminating an extensive health care professional education program including resources for patient education, developing a public awareness campaign through extensive media releases and publications in the lay press. The Federal Government responded by striking a Intersectoral Sodium Work Group to develop recommendations on how to implement Canada’s dietary reference intake values for dietary sodium and by developing timelines and targets for foods to be reduced in sodium, assessing key research gaps with funding for targeted dietary sodium based research, developing plans for public education and for conducting evaluation of the program to reduce dietary sodium. While food regulation is a Federal Government responsibility Provincial and Territorial governments indicated reducing dietary sodium needed to be a priority. Federal and Provincial Ministers of Health have endorsed a target to reduce the average consumption of sodium to 2300 mg/day by 2016 and the Deputy Ministers of Health have tasked a joint committee to review the

  2. Nutrient intakes, major food sources and dietary inadequacies of Inuit adults living in three remote communities in Nunavut, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S; Hopping, B N; Roache, C; Sheehy, T

    2013-12-01

    Inuit in Nunavut, Canada, are currently undergoing a nutritional transition that may contribute to an increased prevalence of chronic disease. Information is lacking about the extent to which contemporary Inuit diets are meeting current dietary recommendations. A culturally appropriate quantitative food frequency questionnaire (QFFQ) developed and validated for Inuit in Nunavut, Canada, was used to assess food and nutrient intake in a cross-sectional sample of adults. Participants included 175 women and 36 men with mean (SD) ages of 42.4 (13.2) and 42.1 (15.0) years, respectively. The response rate for those who completed the study was 79% with 208 QFFQs included for analysis. Reported mean daily energy intakes were: men 15,171 kJ (3626 kcal); women 11,593 kJ (2771 kcal). Dietary inadequacy was expressed as the percentage of participants reporting intakes below the sex- and age-specific estimated average requirements (EARs). For nutrients without EARs, adequate intakes were used. Energy and sodium intakes exceeded the recommendations. Less than 10% of participants met recommendations for dietary fibre intake. Vitamin E intakes were below EARs for ≥97% of participants, whereas >20% reported inadequate vitamin A, folate and magnesium intakes. Among women, >50% reported inadequate calcium and vitamin D intakes. Non-nutrient-dense foods contributed 30% of energy, 73% of sugars and 22% of fat. Traditional foods contributed 56% of protein and 49% of iron. The present study demonstrates a relatively high prevalence of inadequate nutrient intakes among Inuit. The results may be used to monitor the nutrition transition among Inuit, evaluate nutritional interventions, and inform public health policy decision-making. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  3. Low dietary intake of n-3 fatty acids, niacin, folate, and vitamin C in Korean patients with schizophrenia and the development of dietary guidelines for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Jin; Lim, So Young; Lee, Hee Jae; Lee, Ju-Yeon; Choi, Seunggi; Kim, Seon-Young; Kim, Jae-Min; Shin, Il-Seon; Yoon, Jin-Sang; Yang, Soo Jin; Kim, Sung-Wan

    2017-09-01

    Inappropriate dietary intake and poor nutritional status are reported to be associated with metabolic syndrome and psychopathology in patients with schizophrenia. We hypothesized that inappropriate dietary habits and insufficient dietary intake of specific nutrients are associated with schizophrenia. To test the hypothesis, we assessed the dietary habits and nutritional intake of patients with schizophrenia and then developed suitable dietary guidelines. In total, 140 subjects (73 controls and 67 patients with schizophrenia from community mental health centers) were included, and dietary intakes were analyzed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. As a result, the proportion of overweight or obese patients was significantly higher in schizophrenia subjects (64.2%) compared with control subjects (39.7%) (P=.004). The male schizophrenia patients had significantly lower dietary intakes of protein, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), vitamin K, niacin, folate, and vitamin C than the male control subjects. In all multiple logistic regression models, subjects with the "low" dietary intake of protein, n-3 PUFAs, niacin, folate, and vitamin C had a significantly higher odds ratios for schizophrenia compared with those with the "high" dietary intake category of each nutrient. Therefore, maintenance of a healthy body weight and sufficient dietary intake of protein, PUFAs, niacin, folate, and vitamin C are recommended for Korean patients with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. ExpertFOAF recommends experts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iofcu, Tereza; Diederich, Joerg; Dolog, Peter

    2007-01-01

    FOAF files are often used for publishing simple information about persons and about their community. Our proposal is to extend the user's FOAF files with automatically generated user profiles, which are based on a histogram of the user's interest and which are also semantically enriched using...... recommender systems for finding users with similar interests and, hence, expertise in different domains. We consider a well-defined user profile to express best the user's current interests in a domain, where the domain (such as the research environment with students and professors) is defined by a collection...

  5. Summary (and) recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report looks at the Health and Safety record at the Atomic Weapons Establishment at Aldermaston. The last outside report was by Pochin in 1978 which recommended that staffing for health physicists and maintenance staff should be increased and that some buildings where solid and liquid radioactive wastes were processed should be replaced. A new facility to process contaminated heavy equipment was also recommended. This report finds that none of the recommendations have been fully implemented. It also lists accidents, fires and worker contamination. It is concluded that some of the problems are that nuclear weapons production is inherently unsafe and cannot be made safe, that the secrecy surrounding the establishments' safety record is not good for improving it and finally the report calls for production at Aldermaston to be halted. (UK)

  6. Archetypal Game Recommender Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sifa, Rafet; Bauckhage, C.; Drachen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary users (players, consumers) of digital games have thousands of products to choose from, which makes nding games that t their interests challenging. Towards addressing this challenge, in this paper two dierent formulations of Archetypal Analysis for Top-L recommender tasks using implicit...... feedback are presented: factor- and neighborhood-oriented models. These form the rst application of rec- ommender systems to digital games. Both models are tested on a dataset of 500,000 users of the game distribution platform Steam, covering game ownership and playtime data across more than 3000 games....... Compared to four other recommender models (nearest neighbor, two popularity mod- els, random baseline), the archetype based models provide the highest recall rates showing that Archetypal Analysis can be successfully applied for Top-L recommendation purposes...

  7. OARSI Clinical Trials Recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emery, C. A.; Roos, Ewa M.; Verhagen, E.

    2015-01-01

    The risk of post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) substantially increases following joint injury. Research efforts should focus on investigating the efficacy of preventative strategies in high quality randomized controlled trials (RCT). The objective of these OARSI RCT recommendations is to inform...... the design, conduct and analytical approaches to RCTs evaluating the preventative effect of joint injury prevention strategies. Recommendations regarding the design, conduct, and reporting of RCTs evaluating injury prevention interventions were established based on the consensus of nine researchers...... internationally with expertise in epidemiology, injury prevention and/or osteoarthritis (OA). Input and resultant consensus was established through teleconference, face to face and email correspondence over a 1 year period. Recommendations for injury prevention RCTs include context specific considerations...

  8. ISSN exercise & sport nutrition review: research & recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Sports nutrition is a constantly evolving field with hundreds of research papers published annually. For this reason, keeping up to date with the literature is often difficult. This paper is a five year update of the sports nutrition review article published as the lead paper to launch the JISSN in 2004 and presents a well-referenced overview of the current state of the science related to how to optimize training and athletic performance through nutrition. More specifically, this paper provides an overview of: 1.) The definitional category of ergogenic aids and dietary supplements; 2.) How dietary supplements are legally regulated; 3.) How to evaluate the scientific merit of nutritional supplements; 4.) General nutritional strategies to optimize performance and enhance recovery; and, 5.) An overview of our current understanding of the ergogenic value of nutrition and dietary supplementation in regards to weight gain, weight loss, and performance enhancement. Our hope is that ISSN members and individuals interested in sports nutrition find this review useful in their daily practice and consultation with their clients.

  9. ISSN exercise & sport nutrition review: research & recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendel Ron

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sports nutrition is a constantly evolving field with hundreds of research papers published annually. For this reason, keeping up to date with the literature is often difficult. This paper is a five year update of the sports nutrition review article published as the lead paper to launch the JISSN in 2004 and presents a well-referenced overview of the current state of the science related to how to optimize training and athletic performance through nutrition. More specifically, this paper provides an overview of: 1. The definitional category of ergogenic aids and dietary supplements; 2. How dietary supplements are legally regulated; 3. How to evaluate the scientific merit of nutritional supplements; 4. General nutritional strategies to optimize performance and enhance recovery; and, 5. An overview of our current understanding of the ergogenic value of nutrition and dietary supplementation in regards to weight gain, weight loss, and performance enhancement. Our hope is that ISSN members and individuals interested in sports nutrition find this review useful in their daily practice and consultation with their clients.

  10. Current Status and Recommendations for the Future of Research, Teaching, and Testing in the Biological Sciences of Radiation Oncology: Report of the American Society for Radiation Oncology Cancer Biology/Radiation Biology Task Force, Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallner, Paul E., E-mail: pwallner@theabr.org [21st Century Oncology, LLC, and the American Board of Radiology, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Anscher, Mitchell S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia (United States); Barker, Christopher A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Bassetti, Michael [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Bristow, Robert G. [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Medical Biophysics, Princess Margaret Cancer Center/University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Cha, Yong I. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Norton Cancer Center, Louisville, Kentucky (United States); Dicker, Adam P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Formenti, Silvia C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University, New York, New York (United States); Graves, Edward E. [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Hahn, Stephen M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania (United States); Hei, Tom K. [Center for Radiation Research, Columbia University, New York, New York (United States); Kimmelman, Alec C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Kirsch, David G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Kozak, Kevin R. [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin (United States); Lawrence, Theodore S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan (United States); Marples, Brian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Oakland University, Oakland, California (United States); and others

    2014-01-01

    In early 2011, a dialogue was initiated within the Board of Directors (BOD) of the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) regarding the future of the basic sciences of the specialty, primarily focused on the current state and potential future direction of basic research within radiation oncology. After consideration of the complexity of the issues involved and the precise nature of the undertaking, in August 2011, the BOD empanelled a Cancer Biology/Radiation Biology Task Force (TF). The TF was charged with developing an accurate snapshot of the current state of basic (preclinical) research in radiation oncology from the perspective of relevance to the modern clinical practice of radiation oncology as well as the education of our trainees and attending physicians in the biological sciences. The TF was further charged with making suggestions as to critical areas of biological basic research investigation that might be most likely to maintain and build further the scientific foundation and vitality of radiation oncology as an independent and vibrant medical specialty. It was not within the scope of service of the TF to consider the quality of ongoing research efforts within the broader radiation oncology space, to presume to consider their future potential, or to discourage in any way the investigators committed to areas of interest other than those targeted. The TF charge specifically precluded consideration of research issues related to technology, physics, or clinical investigations. This document represents an Executive Summary of the Task Force report.

  11. The Link between Dietary Protein Intake, Skeletal Muscle Function and Health in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie I. Baum

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle mass and function are progressively lost with age, a condition referred to as sarcopenia. By the age of 60, many older adults begin to be affected by muscle loss. There is a link between decreased muscle mass and strength and adverse health outcomes such as obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Data suggest that increasing dietary protein intake at meals may counterbalance muscle loss in older individuals due to the increased availability of amino acids, which stimulate muscle protein synthesis by activating the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTORC1. Increased muscle protein synthesis can lead to increased muscle mass, strength and function over time. This review aims to address the current recommended dietary allowance (RDA for protein and whether or not this value meets the needs for older adults based upon current scientific evidence. The current RDA for protein is 0.8 g/kg body weight/day. However, literature suggests that consuming protein in amounts greater than the RDA can improve muscle mass, strength and function in older adults.

  12. Review of ICRP recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldfinch, E.P.

    1987-01-01

    Events in both the scientific world and in the public domain have added pressure to review the recommendations of the ICRP on which radiation protection legislation in most countries is founded. A brief editorial pleads for clarity in ICRP recommendations, suggests the use solely of cumulative with age individual occupational dose limits, suggests that collective doses including both occupational and to the public should be kept as low as reasonably achievable, judged on quantitative economic grounds, and suggests the setting of a probability for serious accidents which may be disregarded in planning. (UK)

  13. Investigation of Correlation between Personality Traits and Dietary Habits in Female Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmeh Golestanbagh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Proper nutrition has a significant role in prevention of chronic disease and health promotion. Psychological factors play an important role in making food choices and subsequently dietary habits and in this context, personality is considered as a key factor. The present study was performed with the purpose of determining the correlation between personality traits and dietary habits in female students. Methods: The present research was conducted as a descriptive-correlational study on 224 female students aged 18-30 years in Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences (2013-2014. Personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness were assessed using NEO Five-Factor Inventory and dietary habits were were assessed by a dietary habits questionnaire containing 20 questions about dietary habits. Data were analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficient and stepwise regression test. The significance level was considered to be p<0.05. Results: In this study, high neuroticism and openness were correlated with low score of dietary habits (p<0.01. Higher level of conscientiousness was significantly correlated with high score of dietary habits (p<0.01. Based on the stepwise regression analysis, personality traits can predict the score of dietary habits (p<0.01. Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that neuroticism and openness are correlated with unhealthy dietary habits, and conscientiousness is correlated with healthy dietary habits. Therefore, appropriate nutritional educations based on the personality traits of students are recommended to modify dietary patterns and prevent chronic diseases.

  14. Dietary Reference Values for choline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derives Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for choline. In this Opinion, the Panel considers dietary choline including choline compounds (e.g. glycerophosphocholine, phosphocholine...

  15. Efficient Tensor Strategy for Recommendation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aboagye Emelia Opoku

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The era of big data has witnessed the explosion of tensor datasets, and large scale Probabilistic Tensor Factorization (PTF analysis is important to accommodate such increasing trend of data. Sparsity, and Cold-Start are some of the inherent problems of recommender systems in the era of big data. This paper proposes a novel Sentiment-Based Probabilistic Tensor Analysis technique senti-PTF to address the problems. The propose framework first applies a Natural Language Processing technique to perform sentiment analysis taking advantage of the huge sums of textual data generated available from the social media which are predominantly left untouched. Although some current studies do employ review texts, many of them do not consider how sentiments in reviews influence recommendation algorithm for prediction. There is therefore this big data text analytics gap whose modeling is computationally expensive. From our experiments, our novel machine learning sentiment-based tensor analysis is computationally less expensive, and addresses the cold-start problem, for optimal recommendation prediction.

  16. Vaccination recommended for pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Magdalena Skolarczyk

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A vaccine is a formulation of biological origin that contains substances capable of inducing immune processes without the ability to cause a disease. Vaccination is considered the best mean to prevent infectious diseases and their serious complications. Vaccination of a pregnant women can provide protection against severe infectious diseases of both pregnant women and their children. The aim of the study is to present currently available types of vaccines recommended for pregnant women and indications for their use by analyzing the data available in the PubMed, and Medline electronic databases. In the United States, vaccination recommendations for pregnant women include inactivated influenza vaccine and tetanus and diphtheria toxoid vaccine (Tdap. In some countries, pregnant women also receive a vaccine against hepatitis B as well as anti hepatitis A and E. There are also studies on vaccines against the RSV virus and pneumococci. Vaccination is the most effective form of prevention of infectious diseases and their use during pregnancy does not entail any additional risk to the mother or her baby. The benefits of vaccination are huge, so pregnant women should take  recommended vaccination and shouldn’t  be afraid of using them.

  17. Dietary pattern and colonic diverticulosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tursi, Antonio

    2017-09-01

    To assess the role of dietary pattern on the occurrence of colonic diverticulosis, diverticular disease and acute diverticulitis. High-fiber diet does not prevent diverticulosis occurrence, and results about prevention/treatment of diverticular disease and acute diverticulitis are still conflicting.No association was seen between nut, corn or popcorn consumption and occurrence of diverticulosis, diverticular disease and acute diverticulitis.It seems to be a mild association between high alcohol intake and diverticulosis occurrence, whereas alcohol dependence seems to show lower risk of in-hospital mortality due to acute diverticulitis.Higher red-meat consumption shows mild increased risk of acute diverticulitis, especially when consumed as unprocessed red meat (defined as consumption of 'beef or lamb as main dish', 'pork as main dish', 'hamburger' and 'beef, pork or lamb as a sandwich or mixed dish'); higher consumption of poultry (viz. white meat) was not associated with risk of acute diverticulitis.Finally, higher fish intake was associated with reduced risk of diverticulitis in age-adjusted model, but not after further adjustment for other potential confounders. Current literature data about the role of dietary pattern on the occurrence of colonic diverticulosis, diverticular disease and acute diverticulitis are still too conflicting.

  18. Dietary patterns and colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Tayyem, Reema F.; Bawadi, Hiba A.; Shehadah, Ihab; Agraib, Lana M.; AbuMweis, Suhad S.; Al-Jaberi, Tareq; Al-Nusairr, Majed; Bani-Hani, Kamal E.; Heath, Dennis D.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background & aimsDietary pattern and lifestyle have been reported to be important risk factors in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the mechanism of action of dietary factors in CRC disease is unclear. The aim of this study is the examination of several dietary choices and their potential association with the risk of developing CRC. MethodsDietary data was collected from 220 subjects who were previously diagnosed with CRC, and 281 control subjects (matched by age, g...

  19. Privacy enhanced recommender system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkin, Zekeriya; Erkin, Zekeriya; Beye, Michael; Veugen, Thijs; Lagendijk, Reginald L.

    2010-01-01

    Recommender systems are widely used in online applications since they enable personalized service to the users. The underlying collaborative filtering techniques work on user’s data which are mostly privacy sensitive and can be misused by the service provider. To protect the privacy of the users, we

  20. Recommendations for Alternative Credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenderman, Ed; And Others

    Following a review of the mathematics topics taught in accounting, electronics, auto, food and clothing, and metals courses at Linn-Benton Community College, Albany, Oregon, recommendations were made to grant one semester of mathematics credit for completing a two-year sequence of these courses. The other required semester of mathematics should be…

  1. Search and Recommendation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogers, Toine

    2014-01-01

    In just a little over half a century, the field of information retrieval has experienced spectacular growth and success, with IR applications such as search engines becoming a billion-dollar industry in the past decades. Recommender systems have seen an even more meteoric rise to success with wide...

  2. Chapter 10: Management recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch; Janie Agyagos; Tracy McCarthey; Robert M. Marshall; Scott H. Stoleson; Mary J. Whitfield

    2000-01-01

    This chapter was developed over a series of meetings using a group-consensus process. Our recommendations are based on published results, on information compiled in the previous chapters, on expert opinion, and on unpublished data of conservation team members. This chapter is available as temporary guidance until the Recovery Plan for the southwestern willow flycatcher...

  3. Privacy in Recommender Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeckmans, Arjan; Beye, Michael; Erkin, Zekeriya; Erkin, Zekeriya; Hartel, Pieter H.; Lagendijk, Reginald; Tang, Qiang; Ramzan, Naeem; van Zwol, Roelof; Lee, Jong-Seok; Clüver, Kai; Hua, Xian-Sheng

    In many online applications, the range of content that is offered to users is so wide that a need for automated recommender systems arises. Such systems can provide a personalized selection of relevant items to users. In practice, this can help people find entertaining movies, boost sales through

  4. Dietary intake of patients with chronic kidney disease entering the LORD trial: adjusting for underreporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassett, Robert G; Robertson, Iain K; Geraghty, Dominic P; Ball, Madeleine J; Coombes, Jeff S

    2007-07-01

    The study objective was to determine the dietary intake of patients with chronic kidney disease before and after filtering for suspected underreporters and to investigate the impact of underreporting on the interpretation of diet data. This was a cross-sectional study. The study included outpatients from hospitals and clinics in Northern Tasmania, Australia. Data from 113 patients enrolled in the Lipid Lowering and Onset of Renal Disease trial were used in this study. Patients with serum creatinine greater than 120 mmol/L were included, and those taking lipid-lowering medication were excluded. Patients completed a 4-day self-report diet diary, and FoodWorks software was used to determine their daily intake of energy, macronutrients, and specific micronutrients. Diet diaries were assessed for likely underreporting using the Goldberg cutoff approach with a ratio of energy intake to estimated resting energy expenditure of 1.27. Nutrient intakes were compared with current National Kidney Foundation's Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative guidelines, World Health Organization recommendations, recommended daily allowances, and daily values adjusted for energy intake. Demographics of the patients were as follows: male/female, 71/42; age (mean +/- standard deviation), 60 +/- 15 years; body mass index, 28.6 +/- 6.0 kg/m(2), and serum creatinine, 223.4 +/- 110.0 mmol/L. According to the criteria, 80 patients (70.8%) were underreporting their energy intake. Underreporters were more likely to be female and younger, and have a higher body mass index and elevated serum creatinine. In all patients, daily energy intake (89.6 +/- 32.4 kJ/kg) was lower than recommended (125-145 kJ/kg); however, this was not the case for valid reporters (128.3 +/- 23.7 kJ/kg). Protein intake was higher (0.9 +/- 0.3 g/kg) than recommended (0.75 g/kg) in all patients and even higher (1.2 +/- 0.3 g/kg) in valid reporters. Mean calcium, zinc, and dietary fiber intakes were all below recommendations

  5. The ICRP 2007 recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streffer, C.

    2007-01-01

    The last comprehensive International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommendations have been published in 1991(1). Since that time new data in physics and biology that are relevant for radiological protection have appeared in the scientific literature. Also, the general thinking about safety standards at the workplace as well as for the protection of the public has developed. Thus, a review of the recommendations is needed. However, as the present standards have worked well, these new recommendations should build on the present ones. Only a process of further development should take place allowing for the following key points: - new biological and physical information and trends in the setting of safety standards; - improvement in the presentation of the recommendations; as much stability in the recommendations as is consistent with the new information and environmental aspects will be included. The fundamental principles of radiological protection will remain the same as they have been described in ICRP publication 60(1): Justification: Actions involving new exposures or changes in exposures of individuals have to be justified in advance. A positive net benefit must result. Optimisation: Exposures should be as low as reasonably achievable and should be optimised in relation to with dose constraints. Dose limits: The values will not to be changed from Publication 60. Dose constraints: Development of the concept proposed in Publication 60 will be explained. The ICRP Committees have prepared foundation documents in the fields for which they are responsible and their members have the corresponding expertise. These foundation documents will support the decisions and explain the various statements of the Main Commission in a broader sense. Some of them will be published as Annexes to the recommendations (Annex A: Biological and Epidemiological Information on Health Risks Attributable to Ionising Radiation; Annex B: Quantities used in Radiological

  6. The ICRP 2007 recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streffer, C. [Chairman of ICRP Committee 2, Institute of Science and Ethics, University Duisburg-Essen, 45117 Essen (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The last comprehensive International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommendations have been published in 1991(1). Since that time new data in physics and biology that are relevant for radiological protection have appeared in the scientific literature. Also, the general thinking about safety standards at the workplace as well as for the protection of the public has developed. Thus, a review of the recommendations is needed. However, as the present standards have worked well, these new recommendations should build on the present ones. Only a process of further development should take place allowing for the following key points: - new biological and physical information and trends in the setting of safety standards; - improvement in the presentation of the recommendations; as much stability in the recommendations as is consistent with the new information and environmental aspects will be included. The fundamental principles of radiological protection will remain the same as they have been described in ICRP publication 60(1): Justification: Actions involving new exposures or changes in exposures of individuals have to be justified in advance. A positive net benefit must result. Optimisation: Exposures should be as low as reasonably achievable and should be optimised in relation to with dose constraints. Dose limits: The values will not to be changed from Publication 60. Dose constraints: Development of the concept pro