WorldWideScience

Sample records for current diagnostic methods

  1. Current advances in diagnostic methods of Acanthamoeba keratitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yuehua; Feng Xianmin; Jiang Linzhe

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective of this article was to review the current advances in diagnostic methods for Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK).Data sources Data used in this review were retrieved from PubMed (1970-2013).The terms "Acanthamoeba keratitis" and "diagnosis" were used for the literature search.Study selection Data from published articles regarding AK and diagnosis in clinical trials were identified and reviewed.Results The diagnostic methods for the eight species implicated in AK were reviewed.Among all diagnostic procedures,corneal scraping and smear examination was an essential diagnostic method.Polymerase chain reaction was the most sensitive and accurate detection method.Culturing of Acanthamoeba was a reliable method for final diagnosis of AK.Confocal microscopy to detect Acanthamoeba was also effective,without any invasive procedure,and was helpful in the early diagnosis of AK.Conclusion Clinically,conjunction of various diagnostic methods to diagnose AK was necessary.

  2. Acute respiratory infection due to : current status of diagnostic methods

    OpenAIRE

    Loens, K.; Goossens, H.; Ieven, M

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Because of the absence of well-standardized both in-house and FDA-approved commercially available diagnostic tests, the reliable diagnosis of respiratory infection due to Mycoplasma pneumoniae remains difficult. In addition, no formal external quality assessment schemes which would allow to conclude about the performance of M. pneumoniae diagnostic tests exist. In this review, the current state of knowledge of M. pneumoniae-associated respiratory infections in the context ...

  3. Gene and genetic diagnostic method patent claims: a comparison under current European and US patent law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huys, Isabelle; Van Overwalle, Geertrui; Matthijs, Gert

    2011-10-01

    The paper focuses on the fundamental debate that is going on in Europe and the United States about whether genes and genetic diagnostic methods are to be regarded as inventions or subject matter eligible for patent protection, or whether they are discoveries or principles of nature and thus excluded from patentability. The study further explores some possible scenarios of American influences on European patent applications with respect to genetic diagnostic methods. Our analysis points out that patent eligibility for genes and genetic diagnostic methods, as discussed in the United States in the Association of Molecular Pathology versus US Patent and Trademark Office decision, is based on a different reasoning compared with the European Patent Convention.

  4. Current status and future perspectives on molecular and serological methods in diagnostic mycology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Anna; Chen, Sharon; Sleiman, Sue; Sorrell, Tania

    2009-11-01

    Invasive fungal infections are an important cause of infectious morbidity. Nonculture-based methods are increasingly used for rapid, accurate diagnosis to improve patient outcomes. New and existing DNA amplification platforms have high sensitivity and specificity for direct detection and identification of fungi in clinical specimens. Since laboratories are increasingly reliant on DNA sequencing for fungal identification, measures to improve sequence interpretation should support validation of reference isolates and quality control in public gene repositories. Novel technologies (e.g., isothermal and PNA FISH methods), platforms enabling high-throughput analyses (e.g., DNA microarrays and Luminex xMAP) and/or commercial PCR assays warrant further evaluation for routine diagnostic use. Notwithstanding the advantages of molecular tests, serological assays remain clinically useful for patient management. The serum Aspergillus galactomannan test has been incorporated into diagnostic algorithms of invasive aspergillosis. Both the galactomannan and the serum beta-D-glucan test have value for diagnosing infection and monitoring therapeutic response.

  5. Integration of PET/CT in Current Diagnostic and Response Evaluation Methods in Patients with Tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oezmen, Oelem; Goekcek, Atila; Tatci, Ebru; Biner, Inci; Akkalyoncu, Behiye [Atatuerk Chest Diseases and Thoracic Surgery Training and Research Hospital, Ankara (Turkmenistan)

    2014-03-15

    Tuberculosis is a systemic disease that still affects many people. While pleural involvement is frequently observed in extrapulmonary tuberculosis, multiple skeletal system and articular involvements are quite rare. FDG PET imaging could be a promising diagnostic and treatment monitoring method, especially in complicated cases and if the other methods are inadequate. In this case study, we report a patient who was admitted with suspected malignancy and then diagnosed with tuberculosis pleuritis, lymphadenitis, spondylodiscitis, and sacroiliitis with specific symptoms; the response to anti-tuberculosis therapy was shown using FDG PET/CT.

  6. How valid and applicable are current diagnostic criteria and assessment methods for dentin hypersensitivity? An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernhardt, Christian R

    2013-03-01

    Although dentin hypersensitivity is a common clinical condition and is generally reported by the patient after experiencing a sharp, short pain caused by one of several different external stimuli, it is often inadequately understood. The purpose of this paper is to discuss different available diagnostic approaches and assessment methods used in order to suggest a basis to diagnose, monitor, and measure these challenging painful conditions related to dentin hypersensitivity in daily practice and scientific projects properly. A PubMed literature search strategy including the following MeSH terms were used as follows: "dentin sensitivity"[MeSH Terms] OR "dentin"[All Fields] AND "sensitivity"[All Fields] OR "dentin sensitivity"[All Fields] OR "dentin"[All Fields] AND "hypersensitivity"[All Fields] OR "dentin hypersensitivity"[All Fields] AND "diagnosis"[Subheading] OR "diagnosis"[All Fields] OR "diagnosis"[MeSH Terms] AND "assessment"[All Fields] AND ("methods"[Subheading] OR "methods"[All Fields] OR "methods"[MeSH Terms]. Furthermore, alternative terms such as "validity," "reliability," "root," "cervical," "diagnostic criteria," and "hypersensitivities" were additionally evaluated. The literature search, also including the alternative terms and journals, revealed only a small number of specific papers related to valid diagnosis, diagnostic criteria, and assessment methods of dentin hypersensitivity. Outcomes from these publications showed that the response to different stimuli varies substantially from one person to another and is, due to individual factors, often difficult to assess correctly. Furthermore, the cause of the reported pain can vary, and the patient's description of the history, symptoms, and discomfort might be different from one to another, not allowing a reliable and valid diagnosis. The dental practitioner, using a variety of diagnostic and measurement techniques each day, will often have difficulties in differentiating dentin hypersensitivity from

  7. Approach for Wide Use of Diagnostic Method for XLPE Cables Using Harmonics in AC Loss Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Tomiyuki; Nakade, Masahiko; Yagi, Yukihiro; Ishii, Noboru

    Water tree is one of the degradation aspects of XLPE cables used for under-ground distribution or transmission lines. We have developed the loss current method using 3rd harmonic in AC loss current for cable diagnosis. Harmonic components in loss current arise as a result of the non-linear voltage-current characteristics of water trees. We confirmed that the 3rd harmonic in AC loss current had good correlation with water tree growth and break down strength. After that, we have applied this method to the actual 66kV XLPE cable lines. Up to now, the number of the application results is more than 130 lines. In case of cable lines terminated at gas-insulated switchgear (GIS), we have to remove the lightning arrestor (LA) and the potential transformer (PT) out of the test circuit. The reason is that we are afraid that each of LA and PT disturbs the degradation signal from cable lines. It takes extra time (1 or 2 days) and costs more to remove LA and PT in GIS out of a circuit. In order to achieve easy and reasonable diagnosis, we have developed a new method for cable lines terminated at GIS, by utilizing a technique, which enables to reduce signal of LA and PT from disturbed signal of cable lines. We confirmed the effect of the new method by experiments with actual cables.

  8. [Novel methods for dementia diagnostics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltfang, J

    2015-04-01

    Novel diagnostic methods, such as cerebrospinal fluid-based neurochemical dementia diagnostics (CSF-NDD) and [18F] amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) are meanwhile recommended for specific indications by international guidelines for the improved early and differential diagnostics of multigenic (sporadic) Alzheimer's dementia (AD). In the case of CSF-NDD the German neuropsychiatric guidelines have already been validated on the S3 level of evidence (http://www.DGPPN.de) and the additional consideration of [18F] amyloid-PET in the current update of the guidelines is to be expected. By means of CSF-NDD and/or [18F] amyloid-PET a predictive diagnosis of incipient (preclinical) AD is also possible for patients at high risk for AD who are in prodromal stages, such as mild cognitive impairment (MCI). As accompanying (secondary) preventive therapy of AD cannot be offered a predictive molecular dementia diagnostics is not recommended by the German neuropsychiatric dementia guidelines (http://www.DGPPN.de). However, novel diagnostic approaches, which offer molecular positive diagnostics of AD have already gained high relevance in therapy research as they allow promising preventive treatment avenues to be validated directly in the clinical trial. Moreover, future blood-based dementia diagnostics by means of multiplex assays is becoming increasingly more feasible; however, so far corresponding proteomic or epigenetic assays could not be consistently validated in independent studies.

  9. Current possibilities of chorioretinites diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Chudinova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to study the morphometric changes in retina and the state of regional hemodynamics for chorioretinites of different etiology, to draw parallels between these methods of study with evaluation of their diagnostical significance.Methods: Clinical and instrumental examination was performed in 15 patients (15 eyes — group 1 — with the verified diagnosis of toxoplasmous chorioretinitis and in 13 patients (13 eyes — group 2 — with the diagnosis of tuberculous chorioretinitis. Control (group 3 consisted of 20 subjects (40 eyes, 9 males, 11 females, without any pathology of organ of vision. Complex ophthalmologic examination was performed in all the patients; the examination included the following procedures: determination of visual acuity with correction, computer perimetry, biomicroscopy of eye fundus, inspection of eye fundus using Goldman lens, optic coherent tomogra- phy (OCt, ultrasound Dopplerography (USDG of eye vessels.Results: the following was determined by OCt data: subclinical serous retinal detachment, isolated cells of cyst-like edema, cyst- like edema in macular zone, unevenness of hyperreflective band of pigment epithelium, thinning of neurosensory retina in the area of scarry focus, hyperreflectivity of the zone of the fibrosis being formed, architectonics disorder of NE layers in foveolar zone and para- foveally at the expense of the presence of small hyperreflective parts. In the presence of proliferative process in the vascular coat the reliable decrease of blood flow maximal and minimal velocities in the posterior short ciliary arteries, maximal and minimal velocities of blood flow in the posterior long ciliary arteries in comparison with the values of patients from control group. the data obtained are supposed that proliferative processes in the vascular coat are accompanied by marked local hemodynamic disorders, which should be taken into consideration when complex therapy is prescribed.Conclusion: Dynamic

  10. Development of Harmonic-Noise Reduction Technology in Diagnostic Method using AC Loss Current for Water Treed XLPE Cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Tomiyuki; Nakade, Masahiko; Yagi, Yukihiro; Ishii, Noboru

    Water tree is one of the degradation aspects of XLPE cables used for under-ground distribution or transmission lines. We have developed the loss current method using 3rd harmonic in AC loss current for cable diagnosis. Harmonic components in loss current arise as a result of the non-linear voltage-current characteristics of water trees. We confirmed that the 3rd harmonic in AC loss current had good correlation with water tree growth and break down strength. After that, we have applied this method to the actual 66kV XLPE cable lines. Up to now, the number of the application results is more than 120 lines. In this method, it is sometimes said that the degradation signal (3rd harmonic in loss current) is affected by the 3rd harmonic in the test voltage. To indicate and solve this problem, we investigated the extent of influence by 3rd harmonic in the test voltage, and found the rule of the influence. As a result, we developed a new technique of harmonic-noise reduction in loss current method that enabled a more highly accurate diagnosis and confirmed the effectiveness of this new technique by simulations and experiments with actual cables.

  11. Saliva diagnostics - Current views and directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczor-Urbanowicz, Karolina Elżbieta; Martin Carreras-Presas, Carmen; Aro, Katri; Tu, Michael; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin; Wong, David Tw

    2017-03-01

    In this review, we provide an update on the current and future applications of saliva for diagnostic purposes. There are many advantages of using saliva as a biofluid. Its collection is fast, easy, inexpensive, and non-invasive. In addition, saliva, as a "mirror of the body," can reflect the physiological and pathological state of the body. Therefore, it serves as a diagnostic and monitoring tool in many fields of science such as medicine, dentistry, and pharmacotherapy. Introduced in 2008, the term "Salivaomics" aimed to highlight the rapid development of knowledge about various "omics" constituents of saliva, including: proteome, transcriptome, micro-RNA, metabolome, and microbiome. In the last few years, researchers have developed new technologies and validated a wide range of salivary biomarkers that will soon make the use of saliva a clinical reality. However, a great need still exists for convenient and accurate point-of-care devices that can serve as a non-invasive diagnostic tool. In addition, there is an urgent need to decipher the scientific rationale and mechanisms that convey systemic diseases to saliva. Another promising technology called liquid biopsy enables detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and fragments of tumor DNA in saliva, thus enabling non-invasive early detection of various cancers. The newly developed technology-electric field-induced release and measurement (EFIRM) provides near perfect detection of actionable mutations in lung cancer patients. These recent advances widened the salivary diagnostic approach from the oral cavity to the whole physiological system, and thus point towards a promising future of salivary diagnostics for personalized individual medicine applications including clinical decisions and post-treatment outcome predictions. Impact statement The purpose of this mini-review is to make an update about the present and future applications of saliva as a diagnostic biofluid in many fields of science such as dentistry

  12. The usage and current approaches of cell free fetal DNA (cffDNA as a prenatal diagnostic method in fetal aneuploidy screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hülya Erbaba

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal diagnosis of invasive and noninvasive tests can be done in a way (NIPT, but because of the invasive methods have risks of infection and abortion, diagnosing non-invasive procedure increasing day by day. One of the widespread cell free fetal DNA in maternal blood test (cffDNA that is increasing in clinical use has been drawing attention. The incidence of aneuploidy chromosomal anomaly of the kind in which all live births; Trisomy 21 (Down Syndrome 1/800, trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome 1 /10,000, trisomy 18 (Edwards syndrome is a form of 1/6000. Because of the high mortality and morbidity, it is vital that congenital anomalies should be diagnosed in prenatal period. Aneuploidy testing for high-risk pregnant women after the 10th week of pregnancy in terms of the blood sample is taken and free fetal DNA in maternal plasma is based on the measurement of the relative amount. Knowledge of the current criteria for use by healthcare professionals in the field test will allow the exclusion of maternal and fetal risks. In this study, it is aimed to demonstrate current international approaches related to the positive and negative sides of non-invasive that is one of the prenatal diagnostic methods of cffDNA test. J Clin Exp Invest 2015; 6 (4: 414-417

  13. Neurocysticercosis: Diagnostic problems & current therapeutic strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajshekhar, Vedantam

    2016-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most common single cause of seizures/epilepsy in India and several other endemic countries throughout the world. It is also the most common parasitic disease of the brain caused by the cestode Taenia solium or pork tapeworm. The diagnosis of NCC and the tapeworm carrier (taeniasis) can be relatively inaccessible and expensive for most of the patients. In spite of the introduction of several new immunological tests, neuroimaging remains the main diagnostic test for NCC. The treatment of NCC is also mired in controversy although, there is emerging evidence that albendazole (a cysticidal drug) may be beneficial for patients by reducing the number of seizures and hastening the resolution of live cysts. Currently, there are several diagnostic and management issues which remain unresolved. This review will highlight some of these issues. PMID:28139530

  14. Neurocysticercosis: Diagnostic problems & current therapeutic strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedantam Rajshekhar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis (NCC is the most common single cause of seizures/epilepsy in India and several other endemic countries throughout the world. It is also the most common parasitic disease of the brain caused by the cestode Taenia solium or pork tapeworm. The diagnosis of NCC and the tapeworm carrier (taeniasis can be relatively inaccessible and expensive for most of the patients. In spite of the introduction of several new immunological tests, neuroimaging remains the main diagnostic test for NCC. The treatment of NCC is also mired in controversy although, there is emerging evidence that albendazole (a cysticidal drug may be beneficial for patients by reducing the number of seizures and hastening the resolution of live cysts. Currently, there are several diagnostic and management issues which remain unresolved. This review will highlight some of these issues.

  15. Current development of saliva/oral fluid-based diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chih-Ko; Christodoulides, Nicolaos J; Floriano, Pierre N; Miller, Craig S; Ebersole, Jeffrey L; Weigum, Shannon E; McDevitt, John; Redding, Spencer W

    2010-07-01

    Saliva can be easily obtained in medical and non-medical settings, and contains numerous bio-molecules, including those typically found in serum for disease detection and monitoring. In the past two decades, the achievements of high-throughput approaches afforded by biotechnology and nanotechnology allow for disease-specific salivary biomarker discovery and establishment of rapid, multiplex, and miniaturized analytical assays. These developments have dramatically advanced saliva-based diagnostics. In this review, we discuss the current consensus on development of saliva/oral fluid-based diagnostics and provide a summary of recent research advancements of the Texas-Kentucky Saliva Diagnostics Consortium. In the foreseeable future, current research on saliva based diagnostic methods could revolutionize health care.

  16. Trends in Laboratory Diagnostic Methods in Periodontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beáta Bolerázska

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a summary of current knowledge on the laboratory diagnosis of periodontitis. It focuses on the theoretical foundations and is supplemented with new knowledge. It subsequently describes specifically the laboratory diagnosis methods of periodontitis: the protein expression of inflammation, oral microbiology and molecular diagnostics. Periodontitis is a serious disease worldwide and its confirmed association with systemic diseases means its severity is increasing. Its laboratory diagnosis has the potential to rise to the level of clinical and diagnostic imaging. The transfer of diagnostic methods from laboratory to clinical use is increasingly used in the prevention and monitoring of the exacerbation and treatment of periodontal disease, as well as of its impact on systemic disease.

  17. Current early diagnostic biomarkers of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Qu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PCa has become to have the highest incidence and the second mortality rate in western countries, affecting men's health to a large extent. Although prostate-specific antigen (PSA was discovered to help diagnose the cancer in an early stage for decades, its specificity is relative low, resulting in unnecessary biopsy for healthy people and over-treatment for patients. Thus, it is imperative to identify more and more effective biomarkers for early diagnosis of PCa in order to distinguish patients from healthy populations, which helps guide an early treatment to lower disease-related mortality by noninvasive or minimal invasive approaches. This review generally describes the current early diagnostic biomarkers of PCa in addition to PSA and summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of these biomarkers.

  18. Surface CUrrents from a Diagnostic model (SCUD): Pacific

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The SCUD data product is an estimate of upper-ocean velocities computed from a diagnostic model (Surface CUrrents from a Diagnostic model). This model makes daily...

  19. Diagnostic performance of screening methods for urinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    conducted using various indirect diagnostic tests such as interview ... haematuria and dysuria, visual examination of urine specimen ... Abstract. Background: Indirect diagnostic methods in urinary schistosomiasis are widely used for screening.

  20. Tuberculosis diagnostic methods in buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Capriogli Oliveira

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The low productivity of buffalo herds and condemnation of carcasses in slaughterhouses due to tuberculosis lesions have resulted in increasing economic losses because these animals cannot be treated and must be destroyed by sanitary slaughter. Tuberculosis is a widely distributed zoonosis that affects the beef supply chain of the Brazilian agribusiness economically and socially. Like cattle, buffaloes are sensitive to Mycobacterium bovis, which is the main causative agent of zoonotic tuberculosis. Tuberculosis in buffaloes has been reported in several countries, including Brazil. In order to control and eradicate this disease among cattle and buffaloes in Brazil, the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock, and Supply created the National Program for the Control and Eradication of Brucellosis and Tuberculosis with the main objective of finding a significant number of disease-free herds throughout the national territory using reliable methods. This review summarizes the main data on the history of occurrence of M. bovis in Brazilian herds and the diagnostic methods for the disease in buffaloes. Little information is available on buffalo tuberculosis. Due to the increasing population of buffaloes and their economic importance, more studies investigating the occurrence and identification of tuberculosis in this species are clearly needed.

  1. Plantar fasciitis: current diagnostic modalities and treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Kevin; Chen, Katherine

    2010-07-01

    Plantar fasciitis is a common cause of heel pain. The diagnosis is made clinically and validated with different diagnostic modalities ranging from ultrasound to magnetic resonance imaging. Treatments vary from stretching exercises to different surgical options. No single treatment is guaranteed to alleviate the heel pain.

  2. LEDA beam diagnostics instrumentation: Beam current measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, D.; Day, L.; Gilpatrick, J. D.; Kasemir, K.-U.; Martinez, D.; Power, J. F.; Shurter, R.; Stettler, M.

    2000-11-01

    The Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) facility located at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) accelerates protons to an energy of 6.7 MeV and current of 100 mA operating in either a pulsed or cw mode. Two types of current measurements are used. The first is an AC or pulsed-current measurement which uses three LANL built toroids. They are placed in the beamline in such a way as to measure important transmission parameters and act as a differential current-loss machine protection system. The second system is a DC current measurement used to measure cw beam characteristics and uses toroids from Bergoz Inc. There are two of these systems, so they can also be used for transmission measurements. The AC system uses custom processing electronics whereas the DC system uses a modified Bergoz® electronics system. Both systems feature data acquisition via a series of custom TMS320C40 Digital Signal Processing (DSP) boards. Of special interest to this paper is the operation of these systems, the calibration technique, the differential current loss measurements and fast-protection processing, current droop characteristics for the AC system, and existing system noise levels. This paper will also cover the DSP system operations and their interaction with the main accelerator control system.

  3. Restless Legs Syndrome with Current Diagnostic Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meral Bilgilisoy Filiz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Restless legs syndrome (RLS, also known as Willis-Ekbom disease, is a chronic movement disorder, characterized by an urge to move legs usually accompanied by uncomfortable sensations and sleep disorders. The prevalence of the syndrome ranges from 1% to 15% in the general population, and about 2% during childhood. RLS is the most common movement disorder in pregnancy. However RLS still remains underdiagnosed probably due to lack of accurate information about the disease. Family history is positive in 50-70% of the primary RLS patients. The secondary form of the syndrome is associated with iron deficiency, renal failure, pregnancy, diabetes mellitus and many rheumatologic disorders. Secondary forms generally manifest at older ages and have a rapid progression with a poorer prognosis. The pathophysiology of RLS is focused on the dopaminergic system, reduced central nervous system iron levels and genetic linkages. Diagnosis is based on clinical features and the diagnostic criteria suggested by International RLS Study Group. Secondary causes must be carefully investigated before the treatment. In mild forms of the disease non-pharmacologic therapies might be useful, while in moderate or severe forms of the disease generally pharmacologic therapies such as dopamine agonists, anticonvulsants, opioids and benzodiazepines are required. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2015;21: 87-95

  4. Current terminology and diagnostic classification schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeson, J P

    1997-01-01

    This article reviews the current terminology and classification schemes available for temporomandibular disorders. The origin of each term is presented, and the classification schemes that have been offered for temporomandibular disorders are briefly reviewed. Several important classifications are presented in more detail, with mention of advantages and disadvantages. Final recommendations are provided for future direction in the area of classification schemes.

  5. Application of lipoarabinomannan antigen in tuberculosis diagnostics: current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Pronoti; Biswas, Debasis; Sindhwani, Girish; Rawat, Jagdish; Kotwal, Aarti; Kakati, Barnali

    2014-03-01

    Tests based on the detection of mycobacterial lipoarabinomannan (LAM) antigen in urine have emerged as potential point-of-care tests for tuberculosis (TB). We aimed to assimilate the current evidence regarding the diagnostic performance of LAM assays and to ascertain their clinical indication in settings with high and low prevalence of HIV-TB co-infection. Owing to suboptimal sensitivity, the urinary LAM assays are unsuitable as general screening tests for TB. However, unlike traditional diagnostic methods, they demonstrate improved sensitivity in HIV-TB co-infection which further increases with low CD4 counts. Accordingly, these assays are indicated as rule-in tests for TB in patients with advanced HIV-induced immunosuppression, and facilitate the early initiation of antituberculous treatment in them. They also offer incremental sensitivity and specificity when used as adjunct tests to smear microscopy and chest radiography in HIV-TB co-infection. They obviate the biohazards associated with sputum samples and provide an alternative diagnostic tool in sputum-scarce patients. Notwithstanding these advantages, the specificity of these assays is variable, which is mostly attributable to misclassification bias and cross-reactivity with non-tuberculous mycobacteria or other commensal flora. Furthermore, the inability to detect low titres of antigen in HIV-uninfected patients makes these assays unsuitable for use in settings with a low HIV prevalence. Future research targeted towards inclusion of specific monoclonal antibodies and more sensitive immunoassay platforms might help to improve the diagnostic performance of these assays and extend their applicability to the general population of patients with TB.

  6. THE METHODS OF LABORATORY DIAGNOSTICS OF THE GENITOURINARY TRICHOMONIASIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Makhlay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The laboratory diagnostics of trichomoniasis is strongly recommended for the diagnosis confirmation. The current review summarizes information concerning diagnostic methods directed to identification of this protozoa by morphology, to detection of antigens of T. vaginalis as well as specific antibodies and pathogen DNA. The existing problems in the interpretation of results and information about the efficacy of each method in the patient’s testing algorithm are discussed in the article.

  7. Large dynamic range diagnostics for high current electron LINACs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evtushenko, Pavel [JLAB

    2013-11-01

    The Jefferson Lab FEL driver accelerator - Energy Recovery Linac has provided a beam with average current of up to 9 mA and beam energy of 135 MeV. The high power beam operations have allowed developing and testing methods and approaches required to set up and tune such a facility simultaneously for the high beam power and high beam quality required for high performance FEL operations. In this contribution we briefly review this experience and outline problems that are specific to high current - high power non-equilibrium linac beams. While the original strategy for beam diagnostics and tuning have proven to be quite successful, some shortcomings and unresolved issues were also observed. The most important issues are the non-equilibrium (non-Gaussian) nature of the linac beam and the presence of small intensity - large amplitude fraction of the beam a.k.a. beam halo. Thus we also present a list of the possible beam halo sources and discuss possible mitigations means. We argue that for proper understanding and management of the beam halo large dynamic range (>10{sup 6}) transverse and longitudinal beam diagnostics can be used. We also present results of transverse beam profile measurements with the dynamic range approaching 10{sup 5} and demonstrate the effect the increased dynamic range has on the beam characterization, i.e., emittance and Twiss parameters measurements. We also discuss near future work planned in this field and where the JLab FEL facility will be used for beam tests of the developed of new diagnostics.

  8. Large dynamic range diagnostics for high current electron LINACs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evtushenko, P., E-mail: Pavel.Evtushenko@jlab.org [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States)

    2013-11-07

    The Jefferson Lab FEL driver accelerator - Energy Recovery Linac has provided a beam with average current of up to 9 mA and beam energy of 135 MeV. The high power beam operations have allowed developing and testing methods and approaches required to set up and tune such a facility simultaneously for the high beam power and high beam quality required for high performance FEL operations. In this contribution we briefly review this experience and outline problems that are specific to high current - high power non-equilibrium linac beams. While the original strategy for beam diagnostics and tuning have proven to be quite successful, some shortcomings and unresolved issues were also observed. The most important issues are the non-equilibrium (non-Gaussian) nature of the linac beam and the presence of small intensity - large amplitude fraction of the beam a.k.a. beam halo. Thus we also present a list of the possible beam halo sources and discuss possible mitigations means. We argue that for proper understanding and management of the beam halo large dynamic range (>10{sup 6}) transverse and longitudinal beam diagnostics can be used. We also present results of transverse beam profile measurements with the dynamic range approaching 10{sup 5} and demonstrate the effect the increased dynamic range has on the beam characterization, i.e., emittance and Twiss parameters measurements. We also discuss near future work planned in this field and where the JLab FEL facility will be used for beam tests of the developed of new diagnostics.

  9. Diagnostic Methods for Feline Coronavirus: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Sharif

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Feline coronaviruses (FCoVs are found throughout the world. Infection with FCoV can result in a diverse range of signs from clinically inapparent infections to a highly fatal disease called feline infectious peritonitis (FIP. FIP is one of the most serious viral diseases of cats. While there is neither an effective vaccine, nor a curative treatment for FIP, a diagnostic protocol for FCoV would greatly assist in the management and control of the virus. Clinical findings in FIP are non-specific and not helpful in making a differential diagnosis. Haematological and biochemical abnormalities in FIP cases are also non-specific. The currently available serological tests have low specificity and sensitivity for detection of active infection and cross-react with FCoV strains of low pathogenicity, the feline enteric coronaviruses (FECV. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR has been used to detect FCoV and is rapid and sensitive, but results must be interpreted in the context of clinical findings. At present, a definitive diagnosis of FIP can be established only by histopathological examination of biopsies. This paper describes and compares diagnostic methods for FCoVs and includes a brief account of the virus biology, epidemiology, and pathogenesis.

  10. Current trends in molecular diagnostics of chronic myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinhas, Raquel; Cordeiro, Milton; Pedrosa, Pedro; Fernandes, Alexandra R; Baptista, Pedro V

    2017-08-01

    Nearly 1.5 million people worldwide suffer from chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), characterized by the genetic translocation t(9;22)(q34;q11.2), involving the fusion of the Abelson oncogene (ABL1) with the breakpoint cluster region (BCR) gene. Early onset diagnosis coupled to current therapeutics allow for a treatment success rate of 90, which has focused research on the development of novel diagnostics approaches. In this review, we present a critical perspective on current strategies for CML diagnostics, comparing to gold standard methodologies and with an eye on the future trends on nanotheranostics.

  11. In-vitro diagnostic devices introduction to current point-of-care diagnostic devices

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Chao-Min; Chen, Chien-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Addressing the origin, current status, and future development of point-of-care diagnostics, and serving to integrate knowledge and tools from Analytical Chemistry, Bioengineering, Biomaterials, and Nanotechnology, this book focusses on addressing the collective and combined needs of industry and academia (including medical schools) to effectively conduct interdisciplinary research. In addition to summarizing and detailing developed diagnostic devices, this book will attempt to point out the possible future trends of development for point-of-care diagnostics using both scientifically based research and practical engineering needs with the aim to help novices comprehensively understand the development of point-of-care diagnostics. This includes demonstrating several common but critical principles and mechanisms used in point-of-care diagnostics that address practical needs (e.g., disease or healthcare monitoring) using two well-developed examples so far: 1) blood glucose meters (via electrochemistry); and, 2) p...

  12. Merits and pitfalls of currently used diagnostic tools in mycetoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy W J van de Sande

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of mycetoma depends on the causative organism and since many organisms, both actinomycetes (actinomycetoma and fungi (eumycetoma, are capable of producing mycetoma, an accurate diagnosis is crucial. Currently, multiple diagnostic tools are used to determine the extent of infections and to identify the causative agents of mycetoma. These include various imaging, cytological, histopathological, serological, and culture techniques; phenotypic characterisation; and molecular diagnostics. In this review, we summarize these techniques and identify their merits and pitfalls in the identification of the causative agents of mycetoma and the extent of the disease. We also emphasize the fact that there is no ideal diagnostic tool available to identify the causative agents and that future research should focus on the development of new and reliable diagnostic tools.

  13. Merits and pitfalls of currently used diagnostic tools in mycetoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Sande, Wendy W J; Fahal, Ahmed H; Goodfellow, Michael; Mahgoub, El Sheikh; Welsh, Oliverio; Zijlstra, Ed E

    2014-07-01

    Treatment of mycetoma depends on the causative organism and since many organisms, both actinomycetes (actinomycetoma) and fungi (eumycetoma), are capable of producing mycetoma, an accurate diagnosis is crucial. Currently, multiple diagnostic tools are used to determine the extent of infections and to identify the causative agents of mycetoma. These include various imaging, cytological, histopathological, serological, and culture techniques; phenotypic characterisation; and molecular diagnostics. In this review, we summarize these techniques and identify their merits and pitfalls in the identification of the causative agents of mycetoma and the extent of the disease. We also emphasize the fact that there is no ideal diagnostic tool available to identify the causative agents and that future research should focus on the development of new and reliable diagnostic tools.

  14. Merits and Pitfalls of Currently Used Diagnostic Tools in Mycetoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.W.J. van de Sande (Wendy); A.H. Fahal (Ahmed); H. Goodfellow (Henry); E.S. Mahgoub (El Sheikh); O. Welsh (Oliverio); E. Zijlstra (Ed)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractTreatment of mycetoma depends on the causative organism and since many organisms, both actinomycetes (actinomycetoma) and fungi (eumycetoma), are capable of producing mycetoma, an accurate diagnosis is crucial. Currently, multiple diagnostic tools are used to determine the extent of infe

  15. Halo current diagnostic system of experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, D. L.; Shen, B.; Sun, Y.; Qian, J. P., E-mail: jpqian@ipp.ac.cn; Wang, Y.; Xiao, B. J. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei 230031 (China); Granetz, R. S. [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    The design, calibration, and installation of disruption halo current sensors for the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak are described in this article. All the sensors are Rogowski coils that surround conducting structures, and all the signals are analog integrated. Coils with two different cross-section sizes have been fabricated, and their mutual inductances are calibrated. Sensors have been installed to measure halo currents in several different parts of both the upper divertor (tungsten) and lower divertor (graphite) at several toroidal locations. Initial measurements from disruptions show that the halo current diagnostics are working well.

  16. Halo current diagnostic system of experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, D. L.; Shen, B.; Granetz, R. S.; Sun, Y.; Qian, J. P.; Wang, Y.; Xiao, B. J.

    2015-10-01

    The design, calibration, and installation of disruption halo current sensors for the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak are described in this article. All the sensors are Rogowski coils that surround conducting structures, and all the signals are analog integrated. Coils with two different cross-section sizes have been fabricated, and their mutual inductances are calibrated. Sensors have been installed to measure halo currents in several different parts of both the upper divertor (tungsten) and lower divertor (graphite) at several toroidal locations. Initial measurements from disruptions show that the halo current diagnostics are working well.

  17. Companion diagnostics in oncology - current status and future aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Jan Trøst

    2013-01-01

    A large number of targeted anticancer drugs are currently under development and most of them will have a companion diagnostic linked to their use. If a diagnostic assay is developed in conjunction with a targeted anticancer drug, such an assay will later end up determining the conditions for the use of the drug after its approval. The assay then becomes a kind of 'gatekeeper' in relation to which patients should be treated with the drug in question. This 'gatekeeper' role implies that companion diagnostic assays must live up to the same regulatory standards and requirements known from drug development. The assays must have proven to be analytically robust and reliable and to have demonstrated clinical utility before they are routinely used in the clinic. In the drug-diagnostic codevelopment model, several 'traditional' study designs have been used to demonstrate clinical utility. However, if we are to benefit from the increasing knowledge provided by molecular oncology, new ways should be developed to demonstrate the clinical utility of drug-diagnostic combinations. The development of such an approach will require a rethinking at different levels and is likely to include a number of ethical, regulatory and practical challenges.

  18. Diagnostic imaging, a "parallel" discipline. Can current technology provide a reliable digital diagnostic radiology department?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, C J; Eddleston, B

    1985-04-01

    Only recently has any detailed criticism been voiced about the practicalities of the introduction of generalised, digital, imaging complexes in diagnostic radiology. Although attendant technological problems are highlighted we argue that the fundamental causes of current difficulties are not in the generation but in the processing, filing and subsequent retrieval for display of digital image records. In the real world, looking at images is a parallel process of some complexity and so it is perhaps untimely to expect versatile handling of vast image data bases by existing computer hardware and software which, by their current nature, perform tasks serially. Successes in applying new imaging devices using digital technology, numerical methods and more easily available computing power are directing radiology towards the concept of all-digital departmental complexes. Hence a critical discussion of fundamental problems should be encouraged, to promote a thorough understanding of what may be involved (Gray et al, 1984) in following such a course. It is equally important to gain some perspective about the development possibilities for existing, commercially available equipment being offered to the medical community.

  19. [Neurodegenerative disorders: review of current classification and diagnostic neuropathological criteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matej, R; Rusina, R

    2012-04-01

    Neurodegenerative disorders are progressive diseases characterized by loss of specific neuronal populations followed by a clinical picture of a different neurodegenerative entity. Current classification of these diseases respects the names of the main pathophysiological processes involved in the groups of disorders. This is the reason why key proteins which represent neuropathological and biochemical hallmarks of diseases are found in their names. Neuropathological diagnosis is a synthesis of neurohistological changes in the brain and spinal cord and identification of pathological proteinaceous aggregates in neurons and/or glial cells. These inclusions are predominant diagnostic micromorphological and biochemical markers of disease. In the text, there is a brief summary of current knowledge about pathophysiology of neurodegenerations and diagnostic criteria for the most frequent entities.

  20. [Culture based diagnostic methods for tuberculosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylan, Orhan

    2005-01-01

    Culture methods providing isolates for identification and drug susceptibility testing, still represent the gold standard for the definitive diagnosis of tuberculosis, although the delay in obtaining results still remains a problem. Traditional solid media are recommended for use along with liquid media in primary isolation of mycobacteria. At present, a number of elaborate culture systems are available commercially. They range from simple bottles and tubes such as MGIT (BD Diagnostic Systems, USA), Septi-Chek AFB (BD, USA) and MB Redox (Biotest Diagnostics, USA) to semiautomated system (BACTEC 460TB, BD, USA) and fully automated systems (BACTEC 9000 MB [BD, USA], BACTEC MGIT 960 [BD, USA], ESP Culture System II [Trek Diagnostics, USA], MB/BacT ALERT 3D System [BioMérieux, NC], TK Culture System [Salubris Inc, Turkey]). Culture methods available today are sufficient to permit laboratories to develop an algoritm that is optimal for patients and administrative needs. In this review article, the culture systems used for the diagnosis of tuberculosis, their mechanisms, advantages and disadvantages have been discussed under the light of recent literature.

  1. Experience with current multiaxial diagnostic systems: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastrup, Marianne

    2002-01-01

    It is difficult to capture the complexity of the psychiatric condition with a single diagnostic category, and a multiaxial approach provides a more comprehensive picture of the current disorder. The WPA section on classification has developed a multiaxial schema based on the ICD-10 family of classifications. Four axes are proposed. Axis I: on clinical disorders; axis II: on disabilities; axis III: on contextual factors, and axis IV: on quality of life. Even though the multiaxial approach has been widely taught and surveys report on its international acceptability, daily use by clinicians of the 'non-diagnostic' axes have till now been limited, despite expressed interest by the very same clinicians. The multiaxial formulation is still developing and transcultural experiences need to be gained.

  2. Cancer of the endometrium: current aspects of diagnostics and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roth Gabriele

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endometrial cancer represents a tumor entity with a great variation in its incidence throughout the world (range 1 to 25. This suggests enormous possibilities of cancer prevention due to the fact that the incidence is very much endocrine-related, chiefly with obesity, and thus most frequent in the developed world. As far as treatment is concerned, it is generally accepted that surgery represents the first choice of treatment. However, several recommendations seem reasonable especially with lymphadenectomy, even though they are not based on evidence. All high-risk cases are generally recommended for radiotherapy. Methods A literature search of the Medline was carried out for all articles on endometrial carcinoma related to diagnosis and treatment. The articles were systematically reviewed and were categorized into incidence, etiology, precancerosis, early diagnosis, classification, staging, prevention, and treatment. The article is organized into several similar subheadings. Conclusions In spite of the overall good prognosis during the early stages of the disease, the survival is poor in advanced stages or recurrences. Diagnostic measures are very well able to detect asymptomatic recurrences. These only seem justified if patients' chances are likely to improve, otherwise such measures increases costs as well as decrease the patients' quality of life. To date neither current nor improved concepts of endocrine treatment or chemotherapy have been able to substantially increase patients' chances of survival. Therefore, newer concepts into the use of antibodies e.g. trastuzumab in HER2-overexpressing tumors and the newer endocrine compounds will need to be investigated. Furthermore, it would seem highly desirable if future studies were to identify valid criteria for an individualized management, thereby maximizing the benefits and minimizing the risks.

  3. Non-invasive diagnostic methods in dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todea, Carmen

    2016-03-01

    The paper, will present the most important non-invasive methods for diagnostic, in different fields of dentistry. Moreover, the laser-based methods will be emphasis. In orthodontics, 3D laser scanners are increasingly being used to establish database for normative population and cross-sectional growth changes but also to asses clinical outcomes in orthognatic surgical and non-surgical treatments. In prevention the main methods for diagnostic of demineralization and caries detection in early stages are represented by laser fluorescence - Quantitative Light Florescence (QLF); DiagnoDent-system-655nm; FOTI-Fiberoptic transillumination; DIFOTI-Digital Imaging Fiberoptic transillumination; and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). In odontology, Laser Doppler Flowmetry (LDF) is a noninvasive real time method used for determining the tooth vitality by monitoring the pulp microcirculation in traumatized teeth, fractured teeth, and teeth undergoing different conservative treatments. In periodontology, recently study shows the ability of LDF to evaluate the health of gingival tissue in periodontal tissue diseases but also after different periodontal treatments.

  4. [Osteoarthrosis: implementation of current diagnostic and therapeutic algorithms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza-Reyes, Gilberto; Aldrete-Velasco, Jorge; Espinosa-Morales, Rolando; Torres-Roldán, Fernando; Díaz-Borjón, Alejandro; Robles-San Román, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    In the modern world, among the different clinical presentations of osteoarthritis, gonarthrosis and coxarthrosis exhibit the highest prevalence. In this paper, the characteristics of osteoarthritis and the different scales of assessment and classification of this pathology are exposed, to provide an exhibition of current evidence generated around diagnostic algorithms and treatment of osteoarthritis, with emphasis set out in the knee and hip, as these are the most frequent; a rational procedure for monitoring patients with osteoarthritis based on characteristic symptoms and the severity of the condition is also set. Finally, reference is made to the therapeutic benefits of the recent introduction of viscosupplementation with Hylan GF-20.

  5. Kernel current source density method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potworowski, Jan; Jakuczun, Wit; Lȩski, Szymon; Wójcik, Daniel

    2012-02-01

    Local field potentials (LFP), the low-frequency part of extracellular electrical recordings, are a measure of the neural activity reflecting dendritic processing of synaptic inputs to neuronal populations. To localize synaptic dynamics, it is convenient, whenever possible, to estimate the density of transmembrane current sources (CSD) generating the LFP. In this work, we propose a new framework, the kernel current source density method (kCSD), for nonparametric estimation of CSD from LFP recorded from arbitrarily distributed electrodes using kernel methods. We test specific implementations of this framework on model data measured with one-, two-, and three-dimensional multielectrode setups. We compare these methods with the traditional approach through numerical approximation of the Laplacian and with the recently developed inverse current source density methods (iCSD). We show that iCSD is a special case of kCSD. The proposed method opens up new experimental possibilities for CSD analysis from existing or new recordings on arbitrarily distributed electrodes (not necessarily on a grid), which can be obtained in extracellular recordings of single unit activity with multiple electrodes.

  6. Diagnosis of renovascular hypertension: current practice; Diagnostic de l`hypertention renovasculaire: donnees actuelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prigent, A.; Froissart, M.; Hignette, C. [Hopital Broussais, 75 - Paris (France); Maksud, P. [Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere, 75 - Paris (France); Archambaud, F. [Hopital de Bicetre, 94 - le Kremlin-Bicetre (France)

    1995-12-31

    This article aims to review the efficacy of the different methods used for thee screening of renal artery stenoses in hypertensive patients and the diagnosis of renovascular hypertension in order to propose some current recommendations for the diagnostic strategy. (authors). 80 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Current Status on Stress Diagnostic Kit and Detection Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sang Hyun; Choi, Mi Hee; Ko, Kyong Cheol

    2008-06-15

    The accurate measurement of a stress level is one of the most important issues in a stress diagnosis and its measurement could be of great value in clinical medicine. Stress has a potent effect on the spirit and physical condition of an individual. There are various methods available for its measurement. Some of the commonly used techniques for the diagnosis of a stress level include analysis of the body fluids, questionnaire assessments, psychophysiological evaluations and by determining heart rate variability (HRV) of subjects. However, the existing diagnostic methods have several defects like, a low sensitivity, inaccuracy and long of operation time. In this report, we present a diagnostic technology to detect a stress level which is the origin of various diseases. This method can be of great help in providing an early diagnosis through a biosensor and might play a vital role in preventing diseases like hypochondria and hypertension. Majority of the human population is exposed to stress in one way or another and hence developing a convenient stress diagnosis kit will be of great use to all. This stress diagnostic kit and detection technology dose not involve simple a mechanical measurement or questionnaires, but is based on developing a detection kit with a high sensitivity, which will mean an easy use for common man. Individuals can undergo regular check ups and can personally diagnose their present situation of health by determining their stress levels, thus enabling them to diagnose the early onset of several stress disorders. This might help them take precautionary measures and thereby lead to a healthy life.

  8. Evidence for current diagnostic criteria of diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ritesh; Kumar[1; Lakshmana; Perumal; Nandhini[1; Sadishkumar; Kamalanathan[1; Jayaprakash; Sahoo[1; Muthupillai; Vivekanadan[1

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a non-communicable metabolic derangement afflicting several millions of individuals globally. It is associated with several micro and macrovascular complications and is also a leading cause of mortality. The unresolved issue is that of definition of the diagnostic threshold for diabetes. The World Health Organization and the American Diabetes Association (ADA) have laid down several diagnostic criteria for diagnosing diabetes and prediabetes based on the accumulating body of evidence.This review has attempted to analyse the scientific evidence supporting the justification of these differing criteria. The evidence for diagnosing diabetes is strong, and there is a concordance between the two professional bodies.The controversy arises when describing the normal lower limit of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) with little evidence favouring the reduction of the FPG by the ADA. Several studies have also shown the development of complications specific for diabetes in patients with prediabetes as defined by the current criteria though there is a significant overlap of such prevalence in individuals with normoglycemia. Large multinational longitudinal prospective studies involving subjects without diabetes and retinopathy at baseline will ideally help identify the threshold of glycemic measurements for future development of diabetes and its complications.

  9. Evidence for current diagnostic criteria of diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ritesh; Nandhini, Lakshmana Perumal; Kamalanathan, Sadishkumar; Sahoo, Jayaprakash; Vivekanadan, Muthupillai

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a non-communicable metabolic derangement afflicting several millions of individuals globally. It is associated with several micro and macrovascular complications and is also a leading cause of mortality. The unresolved issue is that of definition of the diagnostic threshold for diabetes. The World Health Organization and the American Diabetes Association (ADA) have laid down several diagnostic criteria for diagnosing diabetes and prediabetes based on the accumulating body of evidence.This review has attempted to analyse the scientific evidence supporting the justification of these differing criteria. The evidence for diagnosing diabetes is strong, and there is a concordance between the two professional bodies. The controversy arises when describing the normal lower limit of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) with little evidence favouring the reduction of the FPG by the ADA. Several studies have also shown the development of complications specific for diabetes in patients with prediabetes as defined by the current criteria though there is a significant overlap of such prevalence in individuals with normoglycemia. Large multinational longitudinal prospective studies involving subjects without diabetes and retinopathy at baseline will ideally help identify the threshold of glycemic measurements for future development of diabetes and its complications. PMID:27660696

  10. [Current and future diagnostic strategies in venous thromboembolic disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel Botella, F; Labiós Gómez, M; Brasó Aznar, J V; Llavador Ros, G; Bort Martí, J

    1999-08-01

    Thromboembolic disease (TD), which includes deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), is the most common acute cardiovascular condition after ischemic cardiopathy and stroke. It is often difficult to diagnose, as it is well-known that half of PE episodes appear are recognized while the patient is still alive and which appear in 30-40% of symptomatic patients. Nonetheless, there are two well-differentiated phases in the diagnosis of TD: the suspicion, and the diagnosis. The first is very important, and is within the competence of any physician. The second can be ratified when carrying out specific tests. We have developed successive steps in the two phases of diagnosis, we critically review the distinct parts currently implicated in the strategic diagnosis of TD. Finally, we analyze the new diagnostic techniques to substitute, possibly, angiography in many cases, and perhaps to include ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) pulmonary gammagraphy, once become generally available.

  11. ELECTRIC MOTOR DIAGNOSTICS OF SWITCHES BASED ON THE NEURAL NETWORK DATA MODELING THE SPECTRAL DECOMPOSITION OF THE CURRENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Shvets

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The method of automated diagnostics of electric motors is offered. It uses a neural network revealing the electric motor faults on the basis of analysis of frequency spectrum of current flowing through the motor.

  12. The current and future state of companion diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Amit; Ressler, Dan; Snyder, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    Companion diagnostics are an indispensable part of personalized medicine and will likely continue to rapidly increase in number and application to disease areas. The first companion diagnostics were launched in the 1980s and in the face of significant initial skepticism from drug developers as to whether segmenting a drug's market through a diagnostic was advisable. The commercial success of drugs such as Herceptin® (trastuzumab) and Gleevec® (imatinib), which both require testing with companion diagnostics before they can be prescribed, has moved the entire companion diagnostic field forward. From an initial start of a handful of oncology drugs with corresponding diagnostics, the field has expanded to include multiple therapeutic areas, and the number of combinations has grown by 12-fold. Based on drugs in clinical trials, the rapid growth will likely continue for the foreseeable future. This expansion of companion diagnostics will also have a global component as markets in Europe will evolve in a similar but not identical pattern as the US. One of the greatest challenges to future growth in companion diagnostics is aligning the incentives of all stakeholders. A major driver of growth will continue to be the economic incentives for drug developers to pair their products with diagnostics. However, diagnostic companies are caught between the conflicting demands of two major stakeholders, pharmaceutical companies on one hand and payers/providers on the other. Regulators are also becoming more demanding in aligning development time lines between drugs and diagnostics. In order to survive and prosper, diagnostic companies will need to think more broadly about companion diagnostics than the historical match between a specific drug and a single diagnostic. They will also have to continue the process of consolidation and global expansion that the industry has already begun. Despite these potential obstacles, companion diagnostics have become one of the hottest areas of

  13. Neonatal cholestasis – differential diagnoses, current diagnostic procedures and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eGötze

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cholestatic jaundice in early infancy is a complex diagnostic problem. Misdiagnosis of cholestasis as physiologic jaundice delays the identification of severe liver diseases. In the majority of infants it may represent benign cases of breast milk jaundice, but few among them are masked and caused by neonatal cholestasis that requires a prompt diagnosis and treatment. Therefore, a prolonged neonatal jaundice longer than two weeks after birth must always be scrutinized because an early diagnosis is essential for appropriate management. To rapidly identify the cholestatic cases, the conjugated bilirubin needs to be determined in any infant presenting with prolonged jaundice at 14 days of age with or without depigmented stool. Once neonatal cholestasis is confirmed, a systematic approach is the key to reliably achieve the diagnosis in order to promptly initiate the specific, and in many cases, life saving therapy. This strategy is most important to promptly identify and treat infants with biliary atresia, the most common cause of neonatal cholestasis that requires a hepatoportoenterostomy as soon as possible.Here, we provide a detailed work-up approach including initial treatment recommendations and a clinically oriented overview of possible differential diagnoses in order to facilitate an early recognition and a timely diagnosis. This warrants a broad spectrum of diagnostic procedures and investigations including new methods that are described in this review.

  14. Ultrasensitive microanalytical diagnostic methods for rickettsial pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatch, A. V.

    2012-03-01

    A strategic CRADA was established between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB) at Galveston to address pressing needs for US protection against biological weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and emerging infectious diseases. The combination of unique expertise and facilities at UTMB and SNL enabled interdisciplinary research efforts in the development of rapid and accurate diagnostic methods for early detection of trace priority pathogen levels. Outstanding postdoctoral students were also trained at both institutions to help enable the next generation of scientists to tackle the challenging interdisciplinary problems in the area of biodefense and emerging infectious diseases. Novel approaches to diagnostics were developed and the both the speed of assays as well as the detection sensitivity were improved by over an order of magnitude compared to traditional methods. This is a significant step toward more timely and specific detection of dangerous infections. We developed in situ polymerized porous polymer monoliths that can be used as (1) size exclusion elements for capture and processing of rickettsial infected cells from a sample, (2) photopatternable framework for grafting high densities of functionalized antibodies/fluorescent particles using novel monolith chemistry. Grafting affinity reagents specific to rickettsial particles enables rapid, ultra-sensitive assays by overcoming transport limitations of traditional planar assay approaches. We have selectively trapped particles and bacteria at the cell trap and have also detected picomolar mouse IL-6 captured with only 20 minutes total incubation times using the densely patterned monolith framework. As predicted, the monolith exhibits >10x improvements in both capture speed and capture density compared to traditional planar approaches. The most significant advancements as part of this CRADA is the optimization of techniques allowing the detection of <10 rickettsial

  15. Comparison of Diagnostic Methods for Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopra, Kristiina; von Wendt, Lennart; Nieminen-von Wendt, Taina; Paavonen, E. Julia

    2008-01-01

    Several different diagnostic sets of criteria exist for Asperger syndrome (AS), but there is no agreement on a gold standard. The aim of this study was to compare four diagnostic sets of criteria for AS: the ICD-10, the DSM-IV, the Gillberg & Gillberg, and the Szatmari criteria. The series consists of 36 children who had been referred to two…

  16. The current and future state of companion diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal A

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Amit Agarwal,1 Dan Ressler,2 Glenn Snyder1 1Deloitte Consulting LLP, San Francisco, CA, USA; 2Deloitte Consulting LLP, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Companion diagnostics are an indispensable part of personalized medicine and will likely continue to rapidly increase in number and application to disease areas. The first companion diagnostics were launched in the 1980s and in the face of significant initial skepticism from drug developers as to whether segmenting a drug's market through a diagnostic was advisable. The commercial success of drugs such as Herceptin® (trastuzumab and Gleevec® (imatinib, which both require testing with companion diagnostics before they can be prescribed, has moved the entire companion diagnostic field forward. From an initial start of a handful of oncology drugs with corresponding diagnostics, the field has expanded to include multiple therapeutic areas, and the number of combinations has grown by 12-fold. Based on drugs in clinical trials, the rapid growth will likely continue for the foreseeable future. This expansion of companion diagnostics will also have a global component as markets in Europe will evolve in a similar but not identical pattern as the US. One of the greatest challenges to future growth in companion diagnostics is aligning the incentives of all stakeholders. A major driver of growth will continue to be the economic incentives for drug developers to pair their products with diagnostics. However, diagnostic companies are caught between the conflicting demands of two major stakeholders, pharmaceutical companies on one hand and payers/providers on the other. Regulators are also becoming more demanding in aligning development time lines between drugs and diagnostics. In order to survive and prosper, diagnostic companies will need to think more broadly about companion diagnostics than the historical match between a specific drug and a single diagnostic. They will also have to continue the process of

  17. [Valuation of diagnostic methods of pneumonia alveolitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhmudova, S Iu

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to identify effectiveness of modern complex of roentgenological, endoscopic, functional, citomorphologic and immunological methods in diagnosis of alveolitis. Between May-June 2002 and July-August 2003 the single-stage diagnosis was conducted among 1192 workers (400 - Siasan broiler, 391 - Baku flour mill and 401 - tobacco from Gabala zone). The patients with the diagnosis of various forms alveolitis were examined. 89 patients with symptoms of tympanal, acrocyanosis, tachycardia, tarnished glass effect, vascular lungs deformation were selected. Cough, short breath, crackling, infiltrative and cystous changes in lungs, acceleration of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) up to 27-36 mm/hour on average, decrease of total lung capacity, lymphocyte reaction, opacity, symptom of honeycomb lung and alteration in mucous of lung were considered as auxiliary factors. The investigation proofed that computed tomography was an effective technique for the diagnosis of alveolitis; the diagnostic reliability of computed tomography for the evaluation of various forms of alveolitis was 100%.

  18. [Current situation and challenges in companion diagnostics development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Miwa

    2014-12-01

    The personalized health care, it is defined as a medical care which provide the optimal therapy for each individual in consideration of a patient's individual difference, such as a genetic background and a physiological state. A companion diagnosis to stratify a patient appropriately is essential for the spread of personalized health care, and it is important that a companion diagnostic reagent used for the companion diagnosis is properly developed and clinically applied. However, as for the development of companion diagnostics and pharmaceuticals that require it, there are still many challenges such as its business model of cooperation of diagnostics companies and pharmaceutical companies, also, the regulations related to companion diagnostics. Furthermore, even in clinical practice, there are many issues such as the way of reimbursement for companion diagnostics and also the handling of laboratory developed test (LDT) as companion diagnostics. These are issues that should continue to discuss with industry, government and academia. In this report, from the point of view of a diagnostics company, we discuss the various challenges in clinical applications from the development of companion diagnostics.

  19. Diagnostics for invasive Salmonella infections: Current challenges and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Jason R; Ryan, Edward T

    2015-06-19

    Invasive Salmonellosis caused by Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi or Paratyphi A, B, C, or invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella serotypes, is an immensely important disease cluster for which reliable, rapid diagnostic tests are not available. Blood culture remains the gold standard but is insensitive, slow, and resource-intensive. Existing molecular diagnostics have poor sensitivity due to the low organism burden in bodily fluids. Commercially available serologic tests for typhoidal Salmonella have had limited sensitivity and specificity. In high burden, resource-limited settings, reliance on clinical diagnosis or inaccurate tests often results in frequent, unnecessary treatment, which contributes selective pressure for the emergence of antimicrobial resistance. This practice also results in inadequate therapy for other etiologies of acute febrile illnesses, including leptospirosis and rickettsial infections. A number of novel serologic, molecular, transcriptomic and metabolomic approaches to diagnostics are under development. Target product profiles that outline specific needs may focus development and investment, and establish benchmarks for accuracy, cost, speed, and portability of new diagnostics. Of note, a critical barrier to diagnostic assay rollout will be the low cost and low perceived harm of empiric therapy on behalf of providers and patients, which leaves few perceived incentives to utilize diagnostics. Approaches that align incentives with societal goals of limiting inappropriate antimicrobial use, such as subsidizing diagnostics, may be essential for stimulating development and uptake of such assays in resource-limited settings. New diagnostics for invasive Salmonellosis should be developed and deployed alongside diagnostics for alternative etiologies of acute febrile illnesses to improve targeted use of antibiotics.

  20. Diagnostic approach and current treatment options in childhood vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barut, Kenan; Şahin, Sezgin; Adroviç, Amra; Kasapçopur, Özgür

    2015-12-01

    All inflammatory changes in the vessel wall are defined as vasculitis. Pediatric vasculitis may present with different clinical findings. Although Henoch-Schönlein purpura which is the most common pediatric vasculitis generally recovers spontaneously, it should be monitorized closely because of the risk of renal failure. Although Kawasaki disease is easy to diagnose with its classical findings, the diagnosis may be delayed in case of incomplete Kawasaki disease. Kawasaki disease should be considered especially in infants in case of prolonged fever even if the criteria are not fully met and intravenous immunoglobulin treatment should be administered without delay in order to prevent development of coronary artery aneurism. Reaction at the site of administration of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine may be observed as commonly as cervical lymphadenopathy in Kawasaki disease and may be used as a valuable finding in suspicious cases. Although anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitides are rare in children, renal involvement is more common and progression is more severe compared to adults. Hence, efficient and aggressive treatment is required. Takayasu's arteritis is observed commonly in young adult women and rarely in adolescent girls. Therefore, a careful physical examination and blood pressure measurement should be performed in addition to a detailed history in daily practice. In children with unexplained neurological findings, cerebral vasculitis should be considered in the absence of other systemic vasculitides and necessary radiological investigations should be performed in this regard. This review will provide an insight into the understanding of pediatric vasculitis, current diagnostic approaches and prognosis by the aid of new studies.

  1. Diagnostic and prognostic models: applications and methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuithoff, N.P.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313995494

    2012-01-01

    Prediction modelling, both diagnostic and prognostic, has become a major topic in clinical research and practice. Traditionally, clinicians intuitively combine and judge the documented patient information, on e.g. risk factors and test results, to implicitly assess the probability or risk of having

  2. A current view of the diagnostics and treatment of phenylketonuria in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ürge Oto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An overview of the diagnostics and treatment of phenylketonuria in Slovakia is presented in this paper. The nature of diseases, incidence and prevalence in Slovakia, its genetic characteristics, current laboratory diagnostics and treatment options are defined. A new method of phenylketonuria screening in Slovakia, which has brought substantial improvement in early detection of the disease and shortening time for definitive diagnosis since 1995 as well as the importance of a tandem MS/MS (mass spectrometry introduced in the diagnosis of inherited metabolic disorders, is presented. The current state of phenylketonuria treatment focusing on low-protein dietary treatment and supplementation of amino acid mixtures is analysed. The use of sapropterin, enzyme replacement therapy, large neutral amino acids supplementation and gene therapy are also discussed.

  3. Resolution of effects in multi-frequency eddy current data for reliable diagnostics of conductive materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egorov, Alexander; Kucheryavskiy, Sergey V.; Polyakov, Viktor

    2017-01-01

    The effect of eddy currents is widely used for diagnostics of conductive materials. It allows to create very simple and inexpensive systems for non-destructive measurements. However, the results of the measurements depend on many factors, including first of all, a conductivity of material...... and a margin between a sample and a measurement sensor. If both are unknown, it is not possible to evaluate them. The present paper thoroughly reports on an attempt to resolve the influence of the two factors by applying chemometric methods to the eddy current measurements obtained for a set of frequencies....

  4. Topical diagnostics methods in primary hyperparathyroidism. Comparative features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N S Kuznetsov

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Topical diagnostics of parathyroids an important stage in preoperative inspection of patients with a primary hyperparathyreosis. Methods of diagnostics existing for today not always demand use of all methods for each patient. A research problem was studying of diagnostic value of each of research methods separately and their combinations. The obtained data testifies to high sensitivity and specificity of each of methods of preoperative topical diagnostics of a pathology of parathyroids at patients with a primary hyperparathyreosis. Sensitivity of US, the Scintigraphy, US + Scintigraphy and the Multispiral computer tomography (MSCT has compounded – 96,8 %, 91,8 %, 99,2 % and 95,2 % accordingly. Specificity of US, the Scintigraphy, US+ Scintigraphy and a MSCT has compounded – 91,9 %, 84,2 %, 94,1 % and 94,1 % accordingly. Findings of investigation have taped absence of statistically significant differences in sensitivity and specificity parametres between US and «the gold standard» diagnostics of a pathology of parathyroids that allows to recommend US, as a unique method of primary topical diagnostics of a pathology of parathyroids at a primary hyperparathyreosis. However any doubts in diagnostic accuracy of US demand expansion of all complex of diagnostic actions scintigraphy, including an SPECT, and also MSCT, especially in case of atypical a locating of parathyroids. On the basis of findings of investigation the optimum diagnostic algorithm is developed at a primary hyperparathyreosis.

  5. Analysis of Vibration Diagnostics Methods for Induction Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kalinov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of existing vibration diagnostics methods. In order to evaluate an efficiency of method application the following criteria have been proposed: volume of input data required for establishing diagnosis, data content, software and hardware level, execution time for vibration diagnostics. According to the mentioned criteria a classification of vibration diagnostics methods for determination of their advantages and disadvantages, search for their development and improvement has been presented in paper. The paper contains a comparative estimation of methods in accordance with the proposed  criteria. According to this estimation the most efficient methods are a spectral analysis and spectral analysis of the vibration signal envelope.

  6. Aircraft Engine Gas Path Diagnostic Methods: Public Benchmarking Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Donald L.; Borguet, Sebastien; Leonard, Olivier; Zhang, Xiaodong (Frank)

    2013-01-01

    Recent technology reviews have identified the need for objective assessments of aircraft engine health management (EHM) technologies. To help address this issue, a gas path diagnostic benchmark problem has been created and made publicly available. This software tool, referred to as the Propulsion Diagnostic Method Evaluation Strategy (ProDiMES), has been constructed based on feedback provided by the aircraft EHM community. It provides a standard benchmark problem enabling users to develop, evaluate and compare diagnostic methods. This paper will present an overview of ProDiMES along with a description of four gas path diagnostic methods developed and applied to the problem. These methods, which include analytical and empirical diagnostic techniques, will be described and associated blind-test-case metric results will be presented and compared. Lessons learned along with recommendations for improving the public benchmarking processes will also be presented and discussed.

  7. Punction methods of diagnostics and treatment of thyroid diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Tolstokorov

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The object of this research is to study the punction methods role under diagnostics and treatment of different thyroid diseases. The authors of this article present treatment methods of 121 patients with different thyroid diseases. The received results allow to draw a conclusion, that punction methods of diagnostics and treatment of thyroid disease can be used as independent methods of treatment and in a complex with other medication remedies

  8. Mycoplasma pneumoniae: Current knowledge on nucleic acid amplification techniques and serological diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine eLoens

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae belongs to the class Mollicutes and has been recognized as a common cause of respiratory tract infections (RTIs, including community-acquired pneumonia (CAP, that occur worldwide and in all age groups. In addition, M. pneumoniae can simultaneously or sequentially lead to damage in the nervous system and has been associated with a wide variety of other acute and chronic diseases. During the past 10 years, the proportion of LRTI in children and adults, associated with M. pneumoniae infection has ranged from 0% to more than 50%. This variation is due to the age and the geographic location of the population examined but also due to the diagnostic methods used. The true role of M. pneumoniae in RTIs remains a challenge given the many limitations and lack of standardization of the applied diagnostic tool in most cases, with resultant wide variations in data from different studies.Correct and rapid diagnosis and/or management of M. pneumoniae infections is, however, critical to initiate appropriate antibiotic treatment and is nowadays usually done by PCR and/or serology. Several recent reviews have summarized current methods for the detection and identification of M. pneumoniae. This review will therefore provide a look at the general principles, advantages, diagnostic value, and limitations of the most currently used detection techniques for the etiological diagnosis of a M. pneumoniae infection as they evolve from research to daily practice.

  9. Research Diagnostic criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders: current status & future relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, S F

    2010-10-01

    The Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD), published in 1992, was based on international expert recommendations and available empirical data. The major rationale was to offer a putative diagnostic and classification system whose reliability, validity and clinical usefulness for TMD diagnosis and classification could be scientifically evaluated and then revised using an evidence-based model for successive iterations. The present journal issue attests to the accomplishment of that major objective: the RDC/TMD has been translated into 18 languages and used very extensively in international research. One important component of that research has been to yield reliable and valid data resulting in an evidence-based revision of the RDC/TMD now available for continuing research and clinical application. The present article offers recommendations and speculations regarding how the RDC/TMD may continue to serve the function of guiding future research and, most importantly, serve as an evidence-based diagnostic and classification system to aid in the rational choice of clinical care for TMD sufferers around the world.

  10. Diagnostic Methods for an Aircraft Engine Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ε. L. Ntantis

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The main gas path components, namely compressor and turbine, are inherently reliable but the operation of the aero engines under hostile environments, results into engine breakdowns and performance deterioration. Performance deterioration increases the operating cost, due to the reduction in thrust output and higher fuel consumption, and also increases the engine maintenance cost. In times when economic considerations dominate airline operators’ strategies, carrying out unnecessary rectification, can be very costly and time consuming. In an attempt to minimize such unexpected circumstances, having detailed knowledge prior to any inspection will allow the gas turbine user to take some of the maintenance action when it is necessary. Advanced engine-fault diagnostics tools offer the possibility of identifying degradation at the module level, determining the trends of these degradations during the usage of the engine, and planning the maintenance action ahead.

  11. Study of Failure Diagnostic Methods and Intelligent Diagnostic System for Reciprocating Compressors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Three categories of failure diagnostic methods for reciprocating compressors are classified according to the signals adopted by the diagnosis. They are parameter method, vibration method, and oil analysis method. In this paper, the applicable range and operational difficulties of these methods are discussed on the basis of analysis and induction upon normal failure. It is proposed that a compressors normal failure can be divided into thermodynamical property failure and mechanical function failure. As to the former, the parameter method that takes a cylinder pressure signal as the main diagnostic signal may be applied ; and as to the latter, the vibration signal frequency spectrum can be used to diagnose. At the same time, the structure of an intelligent diagnostic system based on neural networks is introduced, and its schematic is given.

  12. [Current perspectives on genome-based diagnostic tests in Pediatrics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay-Son, R Guillermo; León, P Luis

    2015-01-01

    Etiological diagnosis is essential in the clinical management of individual patients. Some children with complex medical conditions are subjected to numerous testing, known as "diagnostic odyssey", which often gives no conclusive results. In recent years, a revolution in genomic medicine is underway with the use of technologies that promise to increase the ability to make a diagnosis and reduce the time involved. The main advantages and limitations of genomic diagnosis, as opposed to usual methodologies are reviewed with an emphasis on Pediatrics. Copyright © 2015. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  13. Diagnostic Methods for Dental Caries Used by Private Dental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-03-06

    Mar 6, 2017 ... types of diagnostic tools and methods used by private dental practitioners in. Ankara for .... and treatment approaches, and patient records. ..... detection aids. ... approximal and occlusal dental caries in a low risk population.

  14. Comparative analysis of methods of preinvasive melanoma diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozlov S.V.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses one of the problems of oncology — skin melanoma. The research objective is to study and to compare diagnostic methods of preinvasive melanoma including fluorescence diagnosis, dermatoscopy and microwave radiometry. Materials and Methods: The survey has used dermatoscope of Heine Delta 20 Company, the unit RTM-01-RES and the instrument of fluorescent diagnostics «Spectrum-Cluster.» The results suggest the possibility of early detection of melanoma with the use of dermatoscopy. The method may be applied to radiometry screening study. Fluorescence diagnostics is effective for the differential diagnosis of melanoma and melanocytic nevi. In conclusion it has been proved the need for an integrated approach to the diagnostics of melanoma of skin, depending on the different clinical situations.

  15. Human toxocariasis: current advances in diagnostics, treatment, and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Gustavo Marçal Schmidt Garcia; Telmo, Paula de Lima; Mendonça, Marcelo; Moreira, Angela Nunes; McBride, Alan John Alexander; Scaini, Carlos James; Conceição, Fabricio Rochedo

    2014-09-01

    Toxocariasis is a neglected zoonosis caused by the nematodes Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati. This disease is widespread in many countries, reaching high prevalence independently of the economic conditions. However, the true number of cases of toxocariasis is likely to be underestimated owing to the lack of adequate surveillance programs. Although some diagnostic tests are available, their sensitivity and specificity need to be improved. In addition, treatment options for toxocariasis are limited and are non-specific. Toxocariasis is listed as one of the five most important neglected diseases by the CDC. This review presents recent advances related to the control of toxocariasis, including new immunodiagnostics, therapies, and drug formulations, as well as novel interventions using DNA vaccines, immunomodulators, and probiotics.

  16. Autoimmune liver serology: Current diagnostic and clinical challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dimitrios P Bogdanos; Pietro Invernizzi; Ian R Mackay; Diego Vergani

    2008-01-01

    Liver-related autoantibodies are crucial for the correct diagnosis and classification of autoimmune liver diseases (AiLD), namely autoimmune hepatitis types 1 and 2 (AIH-1 and 2), primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC),and the sclerosing cholangitis variants in adults and children.AIH-1 is specified by anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) and smooth muscle antibody (SMA). AIH-2 is specified by antibody to liver kidney microsomal antigen type-1 (anti-LKM1) and anti-liver cytosol type 1 (anti-LC1).SMA,ANA and anti-LKM antibodies can be present in de-novo AIH following liver transplantation.PBC is specified by antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA) reacting with enzymes of the 2-oxo-acid dehydrogenase complexes (chiefly pyruvate dehydrogenase complex E2 subunit) and disease-specific ANA mainly reacting with nuclear pore gp210 and nuclear body sp100. Sclerosing cholangitis presents as at least two variants,first the classical primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) mostly affecting adult men wherein the only (and nonspecific) reactivity is an atypical perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (p-ANCA),also termed perinuclear anti-neutrophil nuclear antibodies (p-ANNA) and second the childhood disease called autoimmune sclerosing cholangitis (ASC) with serological features resembling those of type 1 AIH.Liver diagnostic serology is a fast-expanding area of investigation as new purified and recombinant autoantigens,and automated technologies such as ELISAs and bead assays,become available to complement (or even compete with) traditional immunofluorescence procedures.We survey for the first time global trends in quality assurance impacting as it does on (1) manufacturers/purveyors of kits and reagents,(2) diagnostic service laboratories that fulfill clinicians'requirements, and (3) the end-user,the physician providing patient care,who must properly interpret test results in the overall clinical context.

  17. A new method for analyzing diagnostic delay in gynecological cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandborg, Mai Partridge; Edwards, Kasper; Kragtrup, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    to responsibilities and was shown to recurrently influence and contribute to the delay in the diagnostic process. Some important contributors to diagnostic delay in gynecological cancer, such as lack of cancer suspicion, competing diseases, negative test results, inexpedient referral patterns, and referrals without......OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to present a new methodology to illustrate, understand, and measure delay in health care. The method is inspired by process mapping tools as analytical framework and demonstrates its usefulness for studying diagnostic delay in gynecological cancer. MATERIALS...... AND METHODS: Six women with a diagnostic delay of 6 weeks or more before treatment of gynecological cancer at a specialized regional department (the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Odense University Hospital, Denmark) were included in the study. Maps of existing processes were performed for each...

  18. A New Method for Analyzing Diagnostic Delay in Gynecological Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandborg, Mai Partridge; Edwards, Kasper; Kragstrup, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    to responsibilities and was shown to recurrently influence and contribute to the delay in the diagnostic process. Some important contributors to diagnostic delay in gynecological cancer, such as lack of cancer suspicion, competing diseases, negative test results, inexpedient referral patterns, and referrals without......OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to present a new methodology to illustrate, understand, and measure delay in health care. The method is inspired by process mapping tools as analytical framework and demonstrates its usefulness for studying diagnostic delay in gynecological cancer. MATERIALS...... AND METHODS: Six women with a diagnostic delay of 6 weeks or more before treatment of gynecological cancer at a specialized regional department (the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Odense University Hospital, Denmark) were included in the study. Maps of existing processes were performed for each...

  19. A compact, coaxial shunt current diagnostic for X pinches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liangping; Zhang, Jinhai; Li, Mo; Zhang, Xinjun; Zhao, Chen; Zhang, Shaoguo

    2015-08-01

    A compact coaxial shunt was applied in X-pinches experiments on Qiangguang pulsed power generator. The coaxial shunt was designed to have a compact construction for smaller inductance and more, for conveniently assembling upon the X pinch load structure. The coaxial shunt is also a cheap current probe and was easily built by research groups. The shunt can monitor a 100 kA high current with a 100 ns rise time. The calibration results showed that the probe used in the experiments has a resistance of 3.2 mΩ with an uncertainty of 3%, and its response time to the step signal is less than 7 ns.

  20. [The diagnostic methods applied in mycology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnatowska, Alicja; Kurnatowski, Piotr

    2008-01-01

    The systemic fungal invasions are recognized with increasing frequency and constitute a primary cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in immunocompromised patients. Early diagnosis improves prognosis, but remains a problem because there is lack of sensitive tests to aid in the diagnosis of systemic mycoses on the one hand, and on the other the patients only present unspecific signs and symptoms, thus delaying early diagnosis. The diagnosis depends upon a combination of clinical observation and laboratory investigation. The successful laboratory diagnosis of fungal infection depends in major part on the collection of appropriate clinical specimens for investigations and on the selection of appropriate microbiological test procedures. So these problems (collection of specimens, direct techniques, staining methods, cultures on different media and non-culture-based methods) are presented in article.

  1. Signal processing methods for MFE plasma diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candy, J.V.; Casper, T.; Kane, R.

    1985-02-01

    The application of various signal processing methods to extract energy storage information from plasma diamagnetism sensors occurring during physics experiments on the Tandom Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) is discussed. We show how these processing techniques can be used to decrease the uncertainty in the corresponding sensor measurements. The algorithms suggested are implemented using SIG, an interactive signal processing package developed at LLNL.

  2. COMPARATIVE ANALYSES OF DIAGNOSTIC METHODS IN KNEE INJURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Džoleva-Tolevska Roza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective:This study is analyzing the role and significance of the three diagnostic methods (clinical diagnosis, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and arthroscopy, in establishing accurate diagnosis in knee injuries. The goal is to determine the diagnostic accuracy of each diagnostic method, using arthroscopy as gold standard. Material and Methods: We examined 70 patients with knee injuries. Clinical diagnosis was established using patient’s history and positive clinical tests for meniscal lesions, ACL injury and articular cartilage lesions. All patients underwent MRI on a 1.5 T magnet for MRI diagnosis. This was followed by arthroscopy for making the final diagnosis. Results: We analyzed the results of clinical tests for meniscal, ligamentous and articular cartilage injuries of the patients in both groups. Validity of the clinical tests was compared to the results got from MRI and arthroscopy. Accuracy of clinical diagnosis versus MRI diagnosis for medial(69.6% vs. 68.5% and lateral (84% vs. 82.6%meniscal lesions was almost identical. Accuracy of clinical diagnosis compared with the accuracy of MRI diagnosis for ACL injuries was higher (91.3% vs. 81.4%. Accuracy (85.5% vs. 72.8% of clinical diagnosis versus MRI diagnosis for articular cartilage lesions was better. Conclusion: Affirmation of clinical diagnosis in this study is a result of usage of standard clinical signs and tests which are fundamental in establishing clinical diagnosis of knee injuries. MRI is a diagnostic method which enriches the diagnostic process. Arthroscopy is defined as superior diagnostic method, also a gold standard for comparison of the other two diagnostic methods.

  3. Electrically heated particulate filter diagnostic systems and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2009-09-29

    A system that diagnoses regeneration of an electrically heated particulate filter is provided. The system generally includes a grid module that diagnoses a fault of the grid based on at least one of a current signal and a voltage signal. A diagnostic module at least one of sets a fault status and generates a warning signal based on the fault of the grid.

  4. Sensorless PV Array Diagnostic Method for Residential PV Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sera, Dezso; Spataru, Sergiu; Mathe, Laszlo

    2011-01-01

    This work proposes a temperature and irradiance sensorless diagnostic method suitable for small residential PV installations, focusing on detection of partial shadows. The method works by detection of failures in crystalline silicone PV arrays by concomitant monitoring of some of their key parame...

  5. Computer methods for ITER-like materials LIBS diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łepek, Michał; Gąsior, Paweł

    2014-11-01

    Recent development of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) caused that this method is considered as the most promising for future diagnostic applications for characterization of the deposited materials in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), which is currently under construction. In this article the basics of LIBS are shortly discussed and the software for spectra analyzing is presented. The main software function is to analyze measured spectra with respect to the certain element lines presence. Some program operation results are presented. Correct results for graphite and aluminum are obtained although identification of tungsten lines is a problem. The reason for this is low tungsten lines intensity, and thus low signal to noise ratio of the measured signal. In the second part artificial neural networks (ANNs) as the next step for LIBS spectra analyzing are proposed. The idea is focused on multilayer perceptron network (MLP) with backpropagation learning method. The potential of ANNs for data processing was proved through application in several LIBS-related domains, e.g. differentiating ancient Greek ceramics (discussed). The idea is to apply an ANN for determination of W, Al, C presence on ITER-like plasma-facing materials.

  6. Current impact and future directions of high throughput sequencing in plant virus diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massart, Sebastien; Olmos, Antonio; Jijakli, Haissam; Candresse, Thierry

    2014-08-08

    The ability to provide a fast, inexpensive and reliable diagnostic for any given viral infection is a key parameter in efforts to fight and control these ubiquitous pathogens. The recent developments of high-throughput sequencing (also called Next Generation Sequencing - NGS) technologies and bioinformatics have drastically changed the research on viral pathogens. It is now raising a growing interest for virus diagnostics. This review provides a snapshot vision on the current use and impact of high throughput sequencing approaches in plant virus characterization. More specifically, this review highlights the potential of these new technologies and their interplay with current protocols in the future of molecular diagnostic of plant viruses. The current limitations that will need to be addressed for a wider adoption of high-throughput sequencing in plant virus diagnostics are thoroughly discussed.

  7. Fault-tolerant and Diagnostic Methods for Navigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, Mogens

    2003-01-01

    Precise and reliable navigation is crucial, and for reasons of safety, essential navigation instruments are often duplicated. Hardware redundancy is mostly used to manually switch between instruments should faults occur. In contrast, diagnostic methods are available that can use analytic redundancy...... to diagnose faults and autonomously provide valid navigation data, disregarding any faulty sensor data and use sensor fusion to obtain a best estimate for users. This paper discusses how diagnostic and fault-tolerant methods are applicable in marine systems. An example chosen is sensor fusion for navigation...

  8. Artificial intelligence methods in diagnostics of analog systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilski Piotr

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the state of the art and advancement of artificial intelligence methods in analog systems diagnostics. Firstly, the diagnostic domain is introduced and its problems explained. Then, computational intelligence approaches usable for fault detection and identification are reviewed. Particular groups of methods are presented in detail, explaining their usefulness and drawbacks. Examples, such as the induction motor or the electronic filter, are provided to show the applicability of the presented approaches for monitoring the state of analog objects from engineering domains. The discussion section reviews the presented approaches, their future prospects and problems to be solved.

  9. A method for knowledge acquisition in diagnostic expert system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weishi; Li, Aiping; Li, Shudong

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge acquisition plays very important role in the diagnostic expert system. It usually takes a long period to acquire disease knowledge using the traditional methods. To solve this problem, this paper describes relations between rough set theory and rule-based description of diseases, which corresponds to the process of knowledge acquisition of diagnostic expert system. Then the exclusive rules, inclusive rules and disease images of disease are built based on the PDES diagnosis model, and the definition of probability rule is put forward. At last, the paper presents the rule-based automated induction reasoning method, including exhaustive search, post-processing procedure, estimation for statistic test and the bootstrap and resampling methods. We also introduce automated induction of the rule-based description, which is used in our diseases diagnostic expert system. The experimental results not only show that rough set theory gives a very suitable framework to represent processes of uncertain knowledge extraction, but also that this method induces diagnostic rules correctly. This method can act as the assistant tool for development of diagnosis expert system, and has an extensive application in intelligent information systems.

  10. Modern methods of early diagnostics of juvenile arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernenkov Y.V.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of inflammatory diseases of joints is one of the most important issues in the pediatrics. Nowadays the significant attention in this sphere is paid to the search of new accurate criteria of diagnostics. It will help estimate the severity of disease, determine the prognosis, choose the method of treatment and monitoring and evaluate the efficacy of the therapy.

  11. Dynamics of and diagnostic methods for detecting small carious lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pine, CM; tenBosch, JJ

    1996-01-01

    This paper reviews and discusses the dynamics of carious lesions and diagnostic methods for their detection. Summary data are presented on progression rates of differing lesion types with differing initial severity. Among the non-invasive techniques, fibre-optic transillumination, used appropriately

  12. Early diagnostic method for sepsis based on neutrophil MR imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanhua Han

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: Mouse and human neutrophils could be more effectively labelled by Mannan-coated SPION in vitro than Feridex. Sepsis analog neutrophils labelled by Mannan-coated SPIONs could be efficiently detected on MR images, which may serve as an early diagnostic method for sepsis.

  13. 3D stereophotogrammetry in upper-extremity lymphedema: An accurate diagnostic method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hameeteman, M.; Verhulst, A.C.; Vreeken, R.D.; Maal, T.J.; Ulrich, D.J.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Upper-extremity lymphedema is a frequent complication in patients treated for breast cancer. Current diagnostic methods for the upper-extremity volume measurements are cumbersome or time consuming. The purpose of this study was to assess the validity and reliability of three-dimensional

  14. 3D stereophotogrammetry in upper-extremity lymphedema: An accurate diagnostic method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hameeteman, M.; Verhulst, A.C.; Vreeken, R.D.; Maal, T.J.; Ulrich, D.J.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Upper-extremity lymphedema is a frequent complication in patients treated for breast cancer. Current diagnostic methods for the upper-extremity volume measurements are cumbersome or time consuming. The purpose of this study was to assess the validity and reliability of three-dimensional

  15. Reliability studies of diagnostic methods in Indian traditional Ayurveda medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurande, Vrinda Hitendra; Waagepetersen, Rasmus; Toft, Egon

    2013-01-01

    as prakriti classification), method development (pulse diagnosis), quality assurance for diagnosis and treatment and in the conduct of clinical studies. Several reliability studies are conducted in western medicine. The investigation of the reliability of traditional Chinese, Japanese and Sasang medicine...... diagnoses is in the formative stage. However, reliability studies in Ayurveda are in the preliminary stage. In this paper, examples are provided to illustrate relevant concepts of reliability studies of diagnostic methods and their implication in practice, education, and training. An introduction...

  16. Study for the design method of multi-agent diagnostic system to improve diagnostic performance for similar abnormality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minowa, Hirotsugu; Gofuku, Akio [Okayama University, Okayama (Japan)

    2014-08-15

    Accidents on industrial plants cause large loss on human, economic, social credibility. In recent, studies of diagnostic methods using techniques of machine learning such as support vector machine is expected to detect the occurrence of abnormality in a plant early and correctly. There were reported that these diagnostic machines has high accuracy to diagnose the operating state of industrial plant under mono abnormality occurrence. But the each diagnostic machine on the multi-agent diagnostic system may misdiagnose similar abnormalities as a same abnormality if abnormalities to diagnose increases. That causes that a single diagnostic machine may show higher diagnostic performance than one of multi-agent diagnostic system because decision-making considering with misdiagnosis is difficult. Therefore, we study the design method for multi-agent diagnostic system to diagnose similar abnormality correctly. This method aimed to realize automatic generation of diagnostic system where the generation process and location of diagnostic machines are optimized to diagnose correctly the similar abnormalities which are evaluated from the similarity of process signals by statistical method. This paper explains our design method and reports the result evaluated our method applied to the process data of the fast-breeder reactor Monju.

  17. Flyer-Plate-Based Current Diagnostic for Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reneker, Joseph; Gomez, Matthew; Hess, Mark; Jennings, Christopher

    2015-11-01

    Accurate measurements of the current delivered to Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF) loads on the Z machine are important for understanding the dynamics of liner implosions. Difficulty acquiring a reliable load current measurement with the standard Z load B-dots has spurred the development of alternative load current diagnostics. Velocimetry of an electromagnetically-accelerated flyer plate can be used to infer the drive current on a flyer surface. A load current diagnostic design is proposed using a cylindrical flyer plate in series with the MagLIF target. Aspects of the flyer plate design were optimized using magnetohydrodynamic simulations. Design and preliminary results will be presented. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  18. Modified PAS stain: A new diagnostic method for onychomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajar, Tamar; Fernández-Martínez, Ramon; Moreno-Coutiño, Gabriela; Vásquez Del Mercado, Elsa; Arenas, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Onychomycosis is the most common nail disease and represents around 50% of nail disorders. Accurate diagnosis with adequate evidence is ideal before starting any treatment. Current diagnostic methods offer low specificity and sensitivity. To create a new method for the diagnosis of onychomycosis, and to compare its sensitivity and specificity with the existing methods. One hundred and ninety-two samples with clinical suspicion of onychomycosis were included and underwent modified PAS stain (M-PAS), KOH/chlorazol black (KOH/CB) and culture testing. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were calculated. In 152 out of 192 samples (79.2%) fungi structures were found in at least one of the three tests performed, and the patients were diagnosed with onychomycosis; 40 samples out of 192 (20.8%) were negative. Using M-PAS, filaments and/or spores were seen in 143 samples from the 152 positive (94%); 39 of them were negative to KOH/CB and positive to M-PAS (25.6%). With KOH/CB, filaments and/or spores were seen in 113 cases from the 152 positive samples (73.8% of the onychomycosis cases). Thirty-five cultures were positive, of which 77% were identified as Trichophyton rubrum; 117 onychomycosis cases were diagnosed despite the negative culture (76.9%). M-PAS showed 92.5% sensitivity and 55.55% specificity, a 67.5% positive predictive value and a 81.6% negative productive value. This procedure, a combination of the existing methods to diagnose onychomycosis, KOH/CB together with a nail clipping biopsy, proved to have high sensitivity, as well as being rapid, easy, inexpensive and readily available in most hospital settings. M-PAS allowed us to diagnose 39 cases (25.6% of the cases of onychomycosis) that were false negative using only KOH/CB and culture. Copyright © 2014 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Mission to Mars. Reliable method for liquid solutions diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir F. Krapivin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Manned mission to Mars aims at solving many problems associated with operational diagnostics of liquid solutions (including drinking water, medical issues, and liquid fuels. This paper mainly proposes a new method to solve these problems both during the flight and the stay on the surface of the planet. The proposed method consists of a database development of spectral images of liquid solutions supplied by a multiple-channel spectroellipsometer and the diagnostics of liquid solutions using this database. In addition, the process of learning and the expert system for adaptive recognition of liquid solutions is described. Finally, the test of the expert system is demonstrated for a series of liquid solutions.

  20. Modeling of novel diagnostic strategies for active tuberculosis - a systematic review: current practices and recommendations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Zwerling

    Full Text Available The field of diagnostics for active tuberculosis (TB is rapidly developing. TB diagnostic modeling can help to inform policy makers and support complicated decisions on diagnostic strategy, with important budgetary implications. Demand for TB diagnostic modeling is likely to increase, and an evaluation of current practice is important. We aimed to systematically review all studies employing mathematical modeling to evaluate cost-effectiveness or epidemiological impact of novel diagnostic strategies for active TB.Pubmed, personal libraries and reference lists were searched to identify eligible papers. We extracted data on a wide variety of model structure, parameter choices, sensitivity analyses and study conclusions, which were discussed during a meeting of content experts.From 5619 records a total of 36 papers were included in the analysis. Sixteen papers included population impact/transmission modeling, 5 were health systems models, and 24 included estimates of cost-effectiveness. Transmission and health systems models included specific structure to explore the importance of the diagnostic pathway (n = 4, key determinants of diagnostic delay (n = 5, operational context (n = 5, and the pre-diagnostic infectious period (n = 1. The majority of models implemented sensitivity analysis, although only 18 studies described multi-way sensitivity analysis of more than 2 parameters simultaneously. Among the models used to make cost-effectiveness estimates, most frequent diagnostic assays studied included Xpert MTB/RIF (n = 7, and alternative nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs (n = 4. Most (n = 16 of the cost-effectiveness models compared new assays to an existing baseline and generated an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER.Although models have addressed a small number of important issues, many decisions regarding implementation of TB diagnostics are being made without the full benefits of insight from mathematical

  1. A defect-driven diagnostic method for machine tool spindles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogl, Gregory W; Donmez, M Alkan

    2015-01-01

    Simple vibration-based metrics are, in many cases, insufficient to diagnose machine tool spindle condition. These metrics couple defect-based motion with spindle dynamics; diagnostics should be defect-driven. A new method and spindle condition estimation device (SCED) were developed to acquire data and to separate system dynamics from defect geometry. Based on this method, a spindle condition metric relying only on defect geometry is proposed. Application of the SCED on various milling and turning spindles shows that the new approach is robust for diagnosing the machine tool spindle condition.

  2. Diagnostic methods for assessing maxillary skeletal and dental transverse deficiencies: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawchuk, Dena; Currie, Kris; Vich, Manuel Lagravere; Palomo, Juan Martin

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the accuracy and reliability of the diagnostic tools available for assessing maxillary transverse deficiencies. Methods An electronic search of three databases was performed from their date of establishment to April 2015, with manual searching of reference lists of relevant articles. Articles were considered for inclusion if they reported the accuracy or reliability of a diagnostic method or evaluation technique for maxillary transverse dimensions in mixed or permanent dentitions. Risk of bias was assessed in the included articles, using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies tool-2. Results Nine articles were selected. The studies were heterogeneous, with moderate to low methodological quality, and all had a high risk of bias. Four suggested that the use of arch width prediction indices with dental cast measurements is unreliable for use in diagnosis. Frontal cephalograms derived from cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images were reportedly more reliable for assessing intermaxillary transverse discrepancies than posteroanterior cephalograms. Two studies proposed new three-dimensional transverse analyses with CBCT images that were reportedly reliable, but have not been validated for clinical sensitivity or specificity. No studies reported sensitivity, specificity, positive or negative predictive values or likelihood ratios, or ROC curves of the methods for the diagnosis of transverse deficiencies. Conclusions Current evidence does not enable solid conclusions to be drawn, owing to a lack of reliable high quality diagnostic studies evaluating maxillary transverse deficiencies. CBCT images are reportedly more reliable for diagnosis, but further validation is required to confirm CBCT's accuracy and diagnostic superiority. PMID:27668196

  3. The Diagnostic Value of ELISA Method for Pertussis in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Popova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of low effectiveness of laboratory methods for diagnosing pertussis it is important to look for new ways of verification of this infection. The article presents the analysis of the diagnostic value of ELISA method, which involves the identification of antibodies of different isotypes (IgM, IgG, IgA to pertussis toxoid (PT and filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA. The study included 279 children: 114 were under 1 year of age, 165 — older than 1 year. The pertussis was confirmed in 74.3 ± 2.6% of patients by using ELISA method. A significant proportion of seronegative patients (46.1 ± 6.2 per cent was revealed in the group of patients under 1 year. The pattern of production of antibodies in unvaccinated children was different. It depended on the age of the children and timing of illness. A low proportion of diagnostically significant indicators of IgM-antibodies at 2—3 weeks of illness was typical for patients under 1 year of age (e.g. 6.7 ± 6.5% as compared to 20.0 ± 7.9% and 50.0 ± 15.3 — 1—3 and 4—6 years of age. The diagnosis of pertussis in children under 1 year of age was confirmed mainly by the detection of IgG, starting from the 4th week of the disease. In the examination of vaccinated children diagnostically significant levels of IgA and IgG were identified (even in the late stages of the disease. Thus, the results of the analysis show special significance of using ELISA method for the diagnosis of pertussis in vaccinated children.

  4. [Clinical importance and diagnostic methods of minimal hepatic encephalopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stawicka, Agnieszka; Zbrzeźniak, Justyna; Świderska, Aleksandra; Kilisińska, Natalia; Świderska, Magdalena; Jaroszewicz, Jerzy; Flisiak, Robert

    2016-02-01

    Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) encompasses a number of neuropsychological and neurophysiological disorders in patients suffering from liver cirrhosis, who do not display abnormalities during a medical interview or physical examination. A negative influence of MHE on the quality of life of patients suffering from liver cirrhosis was confirmed, which include retardation of ability of operating motor vehicles and disruption of multiple health-related areas, as well as functioning in the society. The data on frequency of traffic offences and accidents amongst patients diagnosed with MHE in comparison to patients diagnosed with liver cirrhosis without MHE, as well as healthy persons is alarming. Those patients are unaware of their disorder and retardation of their ability to operate vehicles, therefore it is of utmost importance to define this group. The term minimal hepatic encephalopathy (formerly "subclinical" encephalopathy) erroneously suggested the unnecessity of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in patients with liver cirrhosis. Diagnosing MHE is an important predictive factor for occurrence of overt encephalopathy - more than 50% of patients with this diagnosis develop overt encephalopathy during a period of 30 months after. Early diagnosing MHE gives a chance to implement proper treatment which can be a prevention of overt encephalopathy. Due to continuing lack of clinical research there exist no commonly agreed-upon standards for definition, diagnostics, classification and treatment of hepatic encephalopathy. This article introduces the newest findings regarding the importance of MHE, scientific recommendations and provides detailed descriptions of the most valuable diagnostic methods.

  5. Current and future trends in biomarker discovery and development of companion diagnostics for arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, David S; Bustard, Michael J; McGeough, Cathy M; Murray, Helena A; Crockard, Martin A; McDowell, Andrew; Blayney, Jayne K; Gardiner, Philip V; Bjourson, Anthony J

    2015-02-01

    Musculoskeletal diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis are complex multifactorial disorders that are chronic in nature and debilitating for patients. A number of drug families are available to clinicians to manage these disorders but few tests exist to target these to the most responsive patients. As a consequence, drug failure and switching to drugs with alternate modes of action is common. In parallel, a limited number of laboratory tests are available which measure biological indicators or 'biomarkers' of disease activity, autoimmune status, or joint damage. There is a growing awareness that assimilating the fields of drug selection and diagnostic tests into 'companion diagnostics' could greatly advance disease management and improve outcomes for patients. This review aims to highlight: the current applications of biomarkers in rheumatology with particular focus on companion diagnostics; developments in the fields of proteomics, genomics, microbiomics, imaging and bioinformatics and how integration of these technologies into clinical practice could support therapeutic decisions.

  6. Current diagnostic approach and screening methods for hereditary spherocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Bianchi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The plasma membrane of the erythrocyte accounts for all of its antigenic, transport, and mechanical characteristics, particularly its ability to undergo large passive deformations during repeated passage through the narrow capillaries of the microvasculature, throughout its 120-day life span. The determinant of normal membrane cohesion is the system of vertical linkages between phospholipid bilayer and membrane skeleton, formed by the interactions of the cytoplasmic domains of various membrane proteins with the spectrin-based skeletal network. Band 3 and RhAG provide such links by interacting with ankyrin, which in turn binds to b-spectrin. Protein 4.2 binds to both band 3 and ankyrin and can regulate the avidity of the interaction between band 3 and ankyrin. Glycophorin C, band 3, XK, Rh, and Duffy all bind to protein 4.1R, the third member of the ternary junctional complex with bspectrin and actin. Horizontal linkages in the membrane skeleton due to spectrin dimer-dimer interaction or spectrin-actin-protein 4.1 junctional complex, confer to the erythrocytes elasticity and deformability...

  7. Targeted therapies with companion diagnostics in the management of breast cancer: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myers MB

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Meagan B Myers Division of Genetic and Molecular Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, US Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR, USA Abstract: Breast cancer is a multifaceted disease exhibiting both intertumoral and intratumoral heterogeneity as well as variable disease course. Over 2 decades of research has advanced the understanding of the molecular substructure of breast cancer, directing the development of new therapeutic strategies against these actionable targets. In vitro diagnostics, and specifically companion diagnostics, have been integral in the successful development and implementation of these targeted therapies, such as those directed against the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. Lately, there has been a surge in the development, commercialization, and marketing of diagnostic assays to assist in breast cancer patient care. More recently, multigene signature assays, such as Oncotype DX, MammaPrint, and Prosigna, have been integrated in the clinical setting in order to tailor decisions on adjuvant endocrine and chemotherapy treatment. This review provides an overview of the current state of breast cancer management and the use of companion diagnostics to direct personalized approaches in the treatment of breast cancer. Keywords: HER2, precision medicine, in vitro diagnostics, estrogen receptor, multigene assay

  8. Comparison of three diagnostic methods to confirm Helicobacter pylori infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opavski Nataša

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Helicobacter pylori induces gastric inflammation in host and such gastritis increases the risk of gastric and duodenal ulceration as well as adenocarcinoma. Because peptic ulcer disease is the major cause of morbidity, accurate diagnosis of H. pylori infection is very important. Unfortunately, there is no gold standard among diagnostic tests for Helicobacter infections. If gastroscopy is performed, histopathology and urease test are the most often used. Still, culturing of this bacterium is essential for drug susceptibility testing and analysis of virulence factors. Objective The aim of this study was to compare three diagnostic procedures - histopathology, urease test and culture, which are used to verify H. pylori infection. Method Three pairs of gastric mucosal biopsy specimens were collected from each of 28 dyspeptic patients undergoing endoscopy. Nineteen patients were not pretreated with antibiotics, while nine had received eradication therapy earlier. One pair of biopsy specimens was used for histopathologic examination, the second for urease test and the third was simultaneously cultured on nonselective and selective solid media. Isolate was identified as H. pylori on the basis of colony morphology, morphological properties and biochemical tests. Results In 14 out of 28 patients, H. pylori infection was confirmed on the basis of results of all diagnostic procedures. The concordance of these three methods was very good, because the results of histopathology, urease test and culture corresponded in 26 from 28 patients. Conclusion The conclusion of our study is that culture, as the method with high degree of concordance with other two procedures and the only that can give information on drug susceptibility of Helicobacter, is recommended for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection along with histopathology and urease test.

  9. Polyethersulfone improves isothermal nucleic acid amplification compared to current paper-based diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnes, J C; Rodriguez, N M; Liu, L; Klapperich, C M

    2016-04-01

    Devices based on rapid, paper-based, isothermal nucleic acid amplification techniques have recently emerged with the potential to fill a growing need for highly sensitive point-of-care diagnostics throughout the world. As this field develops, such devices will require optimized materials that promote amplification and sample preparation. Herein, we systematically investigated isothermal nucleic acid amplification in materials currently used in rapid diagnostics (cellulose paper, glass fiber, and nitrocellulose) and two additional porous membranes with upstream sample preparation capabilities (polyethersulfone and polycarbonate). We compared amplification efficiency from four separate DNA and RNA targets (Bordetella pertussis, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Influenza A H1N1) within these materials using two different isothermal amplification schemes, helicase dependent amplification (tHDA) and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), and traditional PCR. We found that the current paper-based diagnostic membranes inhibited nucleic acid amplification when compared to membrane-free controls; however, polyethersulfone allowed for efficient amplification in both LAMP and tHDA reactions. Further, observing the performance of traditional PCR amplification within these membranes was not predicative of their effects on in situ LAMP and tHDA. Polyethersulfone is a new material for paper-based nucleic acid amplification, yet provides an optimal support for rapid molecular diagnostics for point-of-care applications.

  10. A real-time PCR diagnostic method for detection of Naegleria fowleri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madarová, Lucia; Trnková, Katarína; Feiková, Sona; Klement, Cyril; Obernauerová, Margita

    2010-09-01

    Naegleria fowleri is a free-living amoeba that can cause primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). While, traditional methods for diagnosing PAM still rely on culture, more current laboratory diagnoses exist based on conventional PCR methods; however, only a few real-time PCR processes have been described as yet. Here, we describe a real-time PCR-based diagnostic method using hybridization fluorescent labelled probes, with a LightCycler instrument and accompanying software (Roche), targeting the Naegleria fowleriMp2Cl5 gene sequence. Using this method, no cross reactivity with other tested epidemiologically relevant prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms was found. The reaction detection limit was 1 copy of the Mp2Cl5 DNA sequence. This assay could become useful in the rapid laboratory diagnostic assessment of the presence or absence of Naegleria fowleri.

  11. The advanced eccentricity and broken cage diagnostic method for medium voltage induction motors

    OpenAIRE

    Janda Žarko; Janković Marko; Milošević Mladen; Jovanović Blagota

    2012-01-01

    In the paper the comparative diagnostics of medium voltage induction motors has been presented. The methods employed are the motor current signature analysis (MCSA) and the axial leakage flux spectral analysis. All presented test procedures have been conducted on partially loaded motors, one without fault and the other with fault. Rated parameters of case study motors are 6 kV and 3.15 MW, and both motors are installed in one combined steam power plant. The reliable broken rotor bars detectio...

  12. Nipple discharge disorders: current diagnostic management and the role of fiber-ductoscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okazaki, A.; Hirata, K.; Okazaki, M. [Dept. of Surgery, Sapporo Medical Univ. (Japan); Svane, G.; Azavedo, E. [Dept. of Radiology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1999-05-01

    Nipple discharge disorders is a field in which there has been both increasing awareness on the part of patients and advances in management. Today secretion from nipples can be classified according to its color, cellularity and biology. To be significant a discharge should be true, spontaneous, persistent and non-lactational. Moreover there are methods to differentiate patients who require surgical intervention from those who do not. Surgically significant nipple discharges are watery, serous (yellow), serosanguineous and bloody. Cytology smears of discharge material have helped to classify the cellular material, providing information about normality, atypia and malignancy and also about papillary formation of the exfoliated cells. Tests such as Hemoccult help to discover occult blood in the secreted fluid. Modern immunological tests can be performed on cytology smears where occurrence of high levels of carcinoembryonic antigen could indicate a latent malignancy. Galactography investigation is today the state-of-the-art approach to investigate patients with nipple discharge disorders and this examination can demonstrate the size, location and extent of an intraductal abnormality. Modern high-resolution ultrasound techniques are helpful in visualizing intraductal disorders and are becoming a good complementary approach if not an alternative to traditional radiology techniques. Recently even MR galactography has been shown to be of diagnostic value, but not as informative as regular galactography. The most sophisticated investigation method, which can also be used therapeutically, is fiber-ductoscopy of the concerned duct in a breast. This technique, although expensive and in its infancy, is a fascinating and promising approach for inspecting the intraductal lumina. In this article the background, current investigation methods and possibilities of the technique are described, as well as the most sophisticated ways to deal with nipple discharge disorders in human

  13. Nipple discharge disorders: current diagnostic management and the role of fiber-ductoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, A; Hirata, K; Okazaki, M; Svane, G; Azavedo, E

    1999-01-01

    Nipple discharge disorders is a field in which there has been both increasing awareness on the part of patients and advances in management. Today secretion from nipples can be classified according to its color, cellularity and biology. To be significant a discharge should be true, spontaneous, persistent and non-lactational. Moreover there are methods to differentiate patients who require surgical intervention from those who do not. Surgically significant nipple discharges are watery, serous (yellow), serosanguineous and bloody. Cytology smears of discharge material have helped to classify the cellular material, providing information about normality, atypia and malignancy and also about papillary formation of the exfoliated cells. Tests such as Hemoccult help to discover occult blood in the secreted fluid. Modern immunological tests can be performed on cytology smears where occurrence of high levels of carcinoembryonic antigen could indicate a latent malignancy. Galactography investigation is today the state-of-the-art approach to investigate patients with nipple discharge disorders and this examination can demonstrate the size, location and extent of an intraductal abnormality. Modern high-resolution ultrasound techniques are helpful in visualizing intraductal disorders and are becoming a good complementary approach if not an alternative to traditional radiology techniques. Recently even MR galactography has been shown to be of diagnostic value, but not as informative as regular galactography. The most sophisticated investigation method, which can also be used therapeutically, is fiber-ductoscopy of the concerned duct in a breast. This technique, although expensive and in its infancy, is a fascinating and promising approach for inspecting the intraductal lumina. In this article the background, current investigation methods and possibilities of the technique are described, as well as the most sophisticated ways to deal with nipple discharge disorders in human

  14. A diagnostic system for electrical faults in a high current discharge plasma setup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigam, S; Aneesh, K; Navathe, C P; Gupta, P D

    2011-02-01

    A diagnostic system to detect electrical faults inside a coaxial high current discharge device is presented here. This technique utilizes two biconical antennas picking up electromagnetic radiation from the discharge device, a voltage divider sensing input voltage, and a Rogowski coil measuring the main discharge current. A computer program then analyses frequency components in these signals and provides information as to whether the discharge event was normal or any breakdown fault occurred inside the coaxial device. The diagnostic system is developed for a 450 kV and 50 kA capillary discharge plasma setup. For the setup various possible faults are analyzed by electrical simulation, followed by experimental results. In the case of normal discharge through the capillary load the dominant frequency is ∼4 MHz. Under faulty conditions, the peak in magnitude versus frequency plot of the antenna signal changes according to the fault position which involves different paths causing variation in the equivalent circuit elements.

  15. A Current Review of the Diagnostic and Treatment Strategies of Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Poh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic encephalopathy (HE is a serious and potentially fatal complication in patients with cirrhotic liver disease. It is a spectrum ranging from minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE without recognizable clinical symptoms or signs, to overt HE with risk of cerebral edema and death. HE results in diminished quality of life and survival. The broad range of neuropsychiatric manifestations reflects the range of pathophysiological mechanisms and impairment in neurotransmission that are purported to cause HE including hyperammonemia, astrocyte swelling, intra-astrocytic glutamine, upregulation of 18-kDa translocator protein (TSPO (formerly known as peripheral benzodiazepine receptor or PBTR, and manganese. There is a myriad of diagnostic tools including simple bedside clinical assessment, and more complex neuropsychological batteries and neurophysiological tests available today. Current treatment strategies are directed at reducing ammonia, with newer agents showing some early promise. This paper describes the pathophysiology of the disease and summarises current diagnostic and treatment therapies available.

  16. A diagnostic system for electrical faults in a high current discharge plasma setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigam, S.; Aneesh, K.; Navathe, C. P.; Gupta, P. D.

    2011-02-01

    A diagnostic system to detect electrical faults inside a coaxial high current discharge device is presented here. This technique utilizes two biconical antennas picking up electromagnetic radiation from the discharge device, a voltage divider sensing input voltage, and a Rogowski coil measuring the main discharge current. A computer program then analyses frequency components in these signals and provides information as to whether the discharge event was normal or any breakdown fault occurred inside the coaxial device. The diagnostic system is developed for a 450 kV and 50 kA capillary discharge plasma setup. For the setup various possible faults are analyzed by electrical simulation, followed by experimental results. In the case of normal discharge through the capillary load the dominant frequency is ˜4 MHz. Under faulty conditions, the peak in magnitude versus frequency plot of the antenna signal changes according to the fault position which involves different paths causing variation in the equivalent circuit elements.

  17. Optical emission spectroscopy diagnostics of an atmospheric pressure direct current microplasma jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sismanoglu, B.N., E-mail: bogos@ita.b [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, Comando-Geral de Tecnologia Aeroespacial, Pca Marechal Eduardo Gomes 50, 12 228-900, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Amorim, J., E-mail: jayr.amorim@bioetanol.org.b [Centro de Ciencia e Tecnologia do Bioetanol - CTBE, Caixa Postal 6170, 13083-970 Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Souza-Correa, J.A., E-mail: jorge.correa@bioetanol.org.b [Centro de Ciencia e Tecnologia do Bioetanol - CTBE, Caixa Postal 6170, 13083-970 Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Oliveira, C., E-mail: carlosf@ita.b [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, Comando-Geral de Tecnologia Aeroespacial, Pca Marechal Eduardo Gomes 50, 12 228-900, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Gomes, M.P., E-mail: gomesmp@ita.b [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, Comando-Geral de Tecnologia Aeroespacial, Pca Marechal Eduardo Gomes 50, 12 228-900, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2009-11-15

    This paper is about the use of optical emission spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool to determine the gas discharge parameters of a direct current (98% Ar-2% H{sub 2}) non-thermal microplasma jet, operated at atmospheric pressure. The electrical and optical behaviors were studied to characterize this glow discharge. The microplasma jet was investigated in the normal and abnormal glow regimes, for current ranging from 10 to 130 mA, at approx 220 V of applied voltage for copper cathode. OH (A {sup 2}SIGMA{sup +}, nu = 0 -> X {sup 2}PI, nu' = 0) rotational bands at 306.357 nm and also the 603.213 nm Ar I line, which is sensitive to van der Waals broadening, were used to determine the gas temperature, which ranges from 550 to 800 K. The electron number densities, ranging from 6.0 x 10{sup 14} to 1.4 x 10{sup 15} cm{sup -3}, were determined through a careful analysis of the main broadening mechanisms of the H{sub beta} line. From both 603.213 nm and 565.070 nm Ar I line broadenings, it was possible to obtain simultaneously electron number density and temperature (approx 8000 K). Excitation temperatures were also measured from two methods: from two Cu I lines and from Boltzmann-plot of 4p-4s and 5p-4s Ar I transitions. By employing H{sub alpha} line, the hydrogen atoms' H temperature was estimated (approx 18,000 K) and found to be surprisingly hotter than the excitation temperature.

  18. Otitis media and a neck lump--current diagnostic challenges for Paragonimus-like trematode infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, H; Agada, F O; Anderson, A R; Jackson, R S; Blair, D; McGann, H; Kelly, G

    2007-02-01

    A 29 year-old Nigerian studying in the UK presented with a neck lump and otitis media. Paragonimus-like trematode eggs were found in the neck lump aspirate. Morphologically these eggs resembled Paragonimus uterobilateralis or Achillurbainia congolensis. We favoured the diagnosis of achillurbainiasis over extrapulmonary paragonimiasis on the basis of clinical features and because we could not amplify DNA sequences using PCR primers specific for Paragonimus species. We discuss current diagnostic challenges for this rare parasitic infection.

  19. [Dermoscopy for beginners (ii): Dermoscopic structures and diagnostic methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-Martínez, D; Díaz-Alonso, R A

    Dermoscopy (DS) is an in vivo non-invasive diagnostic technique developed to study skin lesions. It improves the diagnostic accuracy of hyperpigmented lesions and early diagnosis of potentially malignant lesions, especially melanoma. It uses a device called a dermoscope to display deeper skin structures not visible to the naked eye, called dermoscopic structures. Only some of them have histological significance, basing them on DS. Many, more or less complex, dermoscopic methods have been developed to aid in the differential diagnosis of skin cancer. The most widespread is 2-step algorithm dermoscopy. But there are some more simple methods, designed to be operated by non-medical experts in DS. Two of them are useful in primary care: the 3-point checklist of DS, and the BLINCK algorithm. This paper focuses on describing the dermoscopic parameters needed to implement these algorithms, as well as their interpretation. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Gold Nanoparticles and Nanocomposites in Clinical Diagnostics Using Electrochemical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranjal Chandra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Progress and development in clinical diagnostics certainly focus upon the advances in the nanomaterials, particularly gold nanoparticles (AuNPs that offer promise to solve the biocompatible and sensitive detection systems. This paper focuses on the recent application of AuNPs in clinical diagnosis. Various important methods of AuNPs synthesis and their application in clinical detection of various biomolecules using electrochemical detection methods have been described. AuNPs alone and in various composites are also described based on the various biosensors design recently published for the detection of cancer biomarkers, proteins, bacteria, and cancer cells. The effect of AuNPs type and size in clinical detection has also been briefly illustrated.

  1. Study on Fault Diagnostics of a Turboprop Engine Using Inverse Performance Model and Artificial Intelligent Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Changduk; Lim, Semyeong

    2011-12-01

    Recently, the health monitoring system of major gas path components of gas turbine uses mostly the model based method like the Gas Path Analysis (GPA). This method is to find quantity changes of component performance characteristic parameters such as isentropic efficiency and mass flow parameter by comparing between measured engine performance parameters such as temperatures, pressures, rotational speeds, fuel consumption, etc. and clean engine performance parameters without any engine faults which are calculated by the base engine performance model. Currently, the expert engine diagnostic systems using the artificial intelligent methods such as Neural Networks (NNs), Fuzzy Logic and Genetic Algorithms (GAs) have been studied to improve the model based method. Among them the NNs are mostly used to the engine fault diagnostic system due to its good learning performance, but it has a drawback due to low accuracy and long learning time to build learning data base if there are large amount of learning data. In addition, it has a very complex structure for finding effectively single type faults or multiple type faults of gas path components. This work builds inversely a base performance model of a turboprop engine to be used for a high altitude operation UAV using measured performance data, and proposes a fault diagnostic system using the base engine performance model and the artificial intelligent methods such as Fuzzy logic and Neural Network. The proposed diagnostic system isolates firstly the faulted components using Fuzzy Logic, then quantifies faults of the identified components using the NN leaned by fault learning data base, which are obtained from the developed base performance model. In leaning the NN, the Feed Forward Back Propagation (FFBP) method is used. Finally, it is verified through several test examples that the component faults implanted arbitrarily in the engine are well isolated and quantified by the proposed diagnostic system.

  2. Research on Early Fault Diagnostic Method of Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhai Yongjie

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Challenging environmental factors combined with high and turbulent winds make serious demands on wind turbines and result in significant component fault rates. In this paper, an early fault diagnostic research is conducted upon wind turbines. Firstly, the SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition system is used to analyze the units’ long-hour operating data, preparing for the further modeling work. Then the MSET (Multivariate State Estimation Technique is adopted to estimate the temperature of the gear box and to obtain a result of high accuracy; with the Moving Window Calculation (MWC, the residual value between the estimated value and the real value is studied to get the dynamic trend of its average value; according to this trend in training, we define the threshold region of the residual mean value. Considering a man-made deviation in the observation vectors, faults of the gear box are simulated and studied. When the residual mean value curve exceeds the setting thresholds, an alert will be given to remind the operators of hidden problems in the unit. Research shows that this early diagnostic method is quite effective in detecting the abnormal performance of wind turbines in a real-time manner.

  3. The anomalous currents in the front foils of the JET lost alpha diagnostic KA-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cecil, F. E. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Kiptily, V.; Salmi, A.; Horton, A.; Fullard, K. [Culham Science Center, Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Abingdon, Oxon (United Kingdom); Murari, A. [Consorzio RFX-Associazione EURATOM ENEA per la Fusione, I-35127 Padova (Italy); Darrow, D.; Hill, K. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Collaboration: JET-EFDA Contributors

    2010-10-15

    We have examined the observed currents in the front foils of the JET Faraday cup lost alpha particle diagnostic KA-2. In particular, we have sought to understand the currents during Ohmic plasmas for which the ion flux at the detectors was initially assumed to be negligible. We have considered two sources of this current: plasma ions (both deuterium and impurity) in the vicinity of the detector (including charge exchange neutrals) and photoemission from scattered UV radiation. Based upon modeling and empirical observation, the latter source appears most likely and, moreover, seems to be applicable to the currents in the front foil during ELMy H-mode plasmas. A very thin gold or nickel foil attached to the present detector aperture is proposed as a solution to this problem, and realistic calculations of expected fluxes of lost energetic neutral beam ions during TF ripple experiments are presented as justification of this proposed solution.

  4. The Anomalous Currents In The Front Foils of the JET Lost Alpha Diagnostic KA-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cecil, F. E.; Kiptily, V.; Salmi, A.; Horton, A.; Fullard, K.; Murari, A.; Darrow, D.; Hill, K.

    2011-05-04

    We have examined the observed currents in the front foils of the JET Faraday cup lost alpha particle diagnostic KA-2. In particular, we have sought to understand the currents during Ohmic plasmas for which the ion flux at the detectors was initially assumed to be negligible. We have considered two sources of this current: plasma ions both deuterium and impurity in the vicinity of the detector including charge exchange neutrals and photoemission from scattered UV radiation. Based upon modeling and empirical observation, the latter source appears most likely and, moreover, seems to be applicable to the currents in the front foil during ELMy H-mode plasmas. A very thin gold or nickel foil attached to the present detector aperture is proposed as a solution to this problem, and realistic calculations of expected fluxes of lost energetic neutral beam ions during TF ripple experiments are presented as justification of this proposed solution.

  5. Clinicians' perspective of the current diagnostic criteria for myofascial pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosman-Rimon, Liza; Clarke, Hance; Chan, Aaron K; Mills, Patricia Branco; Rathbone, Alasdair Timothy Llewelyn; Kumbhare, Dinesh

    2017-01-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is one of the most common chronic musculoskeletal pain disorders. However, MPS is often under-diagnosed. The purpose of this study was to characterize practicing clinicians' perspectives of the current diagnostic criteria for MPS. A cross-sectional study design was used with a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire evaluated clinicians' perspective of the current diagnostic criteria for MPS. The sample population (n= 119) consisted of 40% family physicians, 31% physical medicine (PM) and rehabilitation specialists, 11% rheumatologists, 10% emergency room (ER) physicians, and 8% anesthesiologists specializing in chronic pain. Our findings demonstrated that participating clinicians agree that ``point tenderness'' and ``pain reproduction'' are criteria for MPS. In contrast, the clinicians do not consider ``autonomic symptoms'' as an important criterion for MPS. The anesthesiologists view ``restricted range of motion'' as a criterion for MPS more than the other groups, and they tend to consider ``referred pain'' and ``pain reproduction'' as criteria. Physical medicine and rehabilitation specialists and anesthesiologists tend to view ``local twitch response'' more as a criterion for MPS compared with the other groups. Most groups of clinicians consider ``weakness without atrophy'' as an important MPS criterion except for family physicians. It is important to note that ``poor sleep'', ``daytime fatigue'' and ``cognitive symptoms'', which are not considered as MPS symptoms, are often mistaken for MPS among practicing clinicians. Our findings suggest that the diagnostic criteria are not well known, highlighting the need for an expert consensus to determine the importance of each criterion for MPS diagnosis.

  6. Comparison of different diagnostic methods in infants with Cholestasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seyed Mohsen Dehghani; Mahmood Haghighat; Mohammad Hadi Imanieh; Bita Geramizadeh

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate different methods in differentiating idiopathic neonatal hepatitis from biliary atresia.METHODS: Sixty-five infants with cholestatic jaundice and final diagnosis of idiopathic neonatal hepatitis and biliary atresia were studied prospectively from September 2003 to March 2006. A thorough history and physical examination were undertaken and the liver enzymes were examined. All cases underwent abdominal ultrasonography, hepatobiliary scintigraphy,and percutaneous liver biopsy. The accuracy, sensitivity,specificity and predictive values of these various methods were compared.RESULTS: There were 34 girls and 31 boys, among them 46 subjects had idiopathic neonatal hepatitis (age,61 ± 17 d) and 19 had biliary atresia (age, 64 ± 18 d).The mean age at onset of jaundice was significantly lower in cases of biliary atresia when compared to idiopathic neonatal hepatitis cases (9 ± 13 d vs 20 ± 21 d;P = 0.032). The diagnostic accuracy of different methods was as follows: liver biopsy, 96.9%; clinical evaluation,70.8%; ultrasonography, 69.2%; hepatobiliary scintigraphy, 58.5%; and liver enzymes, 50.8%.CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that clinical evaluation by an experienced pediatric hepatologist and a biopsy of the liver are considered as the most reliable methods to differentiate idiopathic neonatal hepatitis and biliary atresia.

  7. Jet Noise Diagnostics Supporting Statistical Noise Prediction Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, James E.

    2006-01-01

    compared against measurements of mean and rms velocity statistics over a range of jet speeds and temperatures. Models for flow parameters used in the acoustic analogy, most notably the space-time correlations of velocity, have been compared against direct measurements, and modified to better fit the observed data. These measurements have been extremely challenging for hot, high speed jets, and represent a sizeable investment in instrumentation development. As an intermediate check that the analysis is predicting the physics intended, phased arrays have been employed to measure source distributions for a wide range of jet cases. And finally, careful far-field spectral directivity measurements have been taken for final validation of the prediction code. Examples of each of these experimental efforts will be presented. The main result of these efforts is a noise prediction code, named JeNo, which is in middevelopment. JeNo is able to consistently predict spectral directivity, including aft angle directivity, for subsonic cold jets of most geometries. Current development on JeNo is focused on extending its capability to hot jets, requiring inclusion of a previously neglected second source associated with thermal fluctuations. A secondary result of the intensive experimentation is the archiving of various flow statistics applicable to other acoustic analogies and to development of time-resolved prediction methods. These will be of lasting value as we look ahead at future challenges to the aeroacoustic experimentalist.

  8. PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF MODERN METHODS OF INPATIENT STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTION DIAGNOSTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Darmanyan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is commonly known that acute tonsillites are in most cases caused by viral infections. Only ca. 20% of patients require antibacterial therapy, including cases of the group-A-β-hemolytic-streptococcus-caused tonsillites. Etiologic diagnostics of acute tonsillitis is extremely complicated in terms of both clinical symptoms and bacterial inflammation marker levels, which is why it is positive result of a cultural study of palatine tonsillar materials that should serve as an indication to prescription of systemic antibacterial therapy. Express test for detection of the group A β-hemolytic streptococcus, comparable to the cultural study method in terms of sensitivity and specificity, helps reasonable approach to the treatment of acute tonsillites.

  9. Current Developments in Nuclear Density Functional Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Dobaczewski, J

    2010-01-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) became a universal approach to compute ground-state and excited configurations of many-electron systems held together by an external one-body potential in condensed-matter, atomic, and molecular physics. At present, the DFT strategy is also intensely studied and applied in the area of nuclear structure. The nuclear DFT, a natural extension of the self-consistent mean-field theory, is a tool of choice for computations of ground-state properties and low-lying excitations of medium-mass and heavy nuclei. Over the past thirty-odd years, a lot of experience was accumulated in implementing, adjusting, and using the density-functional methods in nuclei. This research direction is still extremely actively pursued. In particular, current developments concentrate on (i) attempts to improve the performance and precision delivered by the nuclear density-functional methods, (ii) derivations of density functionals from first principles rooted in the low-energy chromodynamics and effective th...

  10. [Forensic medical diagnostics of intra-vitality of the strangulation mark by morphological methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogomolov, D V; Zbrueva, Yu V; Putintsev, V A; Denisova, O P

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study WaS to overview the current domestic and foreign literature concerning the up-to-date methods employed for the expert evaluation of intra-vitality of the strangulation mark. The secondary objective was to propose the new approaches for addressing this problem. The methods of expert diagnostics with a view to determining the time of infliction of injuries as exemplified by mechanical asphyxia are discussed. It is concluded that immunohistochemical and morphometric studies provide the most promising tools for the evaluation of intra-vitality of the strangulation mark for the purpose of forensic medical expertise.

  11. Diagnostic methods to assess inspiratory and expiratory muscle strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Pedro; Albuquerque, André Luis Pereira de; Santana, Pauliane Vieira; Cardenas, Leticia Zumpano; Ferreira, Jeferson George; Prina, Elena; Trevizan, Patrícia Fernandes; Pereira, Mayra Caleffi; Iamonti, Vinicius; Pletsch, Renata; Macchione, Marcelo Ceneviva; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    Impairment of (inspiratory and expiratory) respiratory muscles is a common clinical finding, not only in patients with neuromuscular disease but also in patients with primary disease of the lung parenchyma or airways. Although such impairment is common, its recognition is usually delayed because its signs and symptoms are nonspecific and late. This delayed recognition, or even the lack thereof, occurs because the diagnostic tests used in the assessment of respiratory muscle strength are not widely known and available. There are various methods of assessing respiratory muscle strength during the inspiratory and expiratory phases. These methods are divided into two categories: volitional tests (which require patient understanding and cooperation); and non-volitional tests. Volitional tests, such as those that measure maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures, are the most commonly used because they are readily available. Non-volitional tests depend on magnetic stimulation of the phrenic nerve accompanied by the measurement of inspiratory mouth pressure, inspiratory esophageal pressure, or inspiratory transdiaphragmatic pressure. Another method that has come to be widely used is ultrasound imaging of the diaphragm. We believe that pulmonologists involved in the care of patients with respiratory diseases should be familiar with the tests used in order to assess respiratory muscle function.Therefore, the aim of the present article is to describe the advantages, disadvantages, procedures, and clinical applicability of the main tests used in the assessment of respiratory muscle strength.

  12. Multi-method automated diagnostics of rotating machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyukov, A. V.; Boychenko, S. N.; Shchelkanov, A. V.; Burda, E. A.

    2017-08-01

    The automated machinery diagnostics and monitoring systems utilized within the petrochemical plants are an integral part of the measures taken to ensure safety and, as a consequence, the efficiency of these industrial facilities. Such systems are often limited in their functionality due to the specifics of the diagnostic techniques adopted. As the diagnostic techniques applied in each system are limited, and machinery defects can have different physical nature, it becomes necessary to combine several diagnostics and monitoring systems to control various machinery components. Such an approach is inconvenient, since it requires additional measures to bring the diagnostic results in a single view of the technical condition of production assets. In this case, we mean by a production facility a bonded complex of a process unit, a drive, a power source and lines. A failure of any of these components will cause an outage of the production asset, which is unacceptable. The purpose of the study is to test a combined use of vibration diagnostics and partial discharge techniques within the diagnostic systems of enterprises for automated control of the technical condition of rotating machinery during maintenance and at production facilities. The described solutions allow you to control the condition of mechanical and electrical components of rotating machines. It is shown that the functionality of the diagnostics systems can be expanded with minimal changes in technological chains of repair and operation of rotating machinery. Automation of such systems reduces the influence of the human factor on the quality of repair and diagnostics of the machinery.

  13. Current companion diagnostics in advanced colorectal cancer; getting a bigger and better piece of the pie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loree, Jonathan M; Kopetz, Scott; Raghav, Kanwal P S

    2017-02-01

    While the treatment of colorectal cancer continues to rely heavily on conventional cytotoxic therapy, an increasing number of targeted agents are under development. Many of these treatments require companion diagnostic tests in order to define an appropriate population that will derive benefit. In addition, a growing number of biomarkers provide prognostic information about a patient's malignancy. As we learn more about these biomarkers and their assays, selecting the appropriate companion diagnostic becomes increasingly important. In the case of many biomarkers, there are numerous assays which could provide the same information to a treating physician, however each assay has strengths and weaknesses. Institutions must balance cost, assay sensitivity, turn-around time, and labor resources when selecting which assay to offer. In this review we will discuss the current state of companion diagnostics available in metastatic colorectal cancer and explore emerging biomarkers and their assays. We will focus on KRAS, BRAF, HER2, and PIK3CA testing, as well as microsatellite stability assessment and multigene panels.

  14. Atypical Alstrom syndrome with novel ALMS1 mutations precluded by current diagnostic criteria.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Casey, Jillian

    2014-02-01

    We report on clinical and genetic studies in a non-consanguineous Irish sib-pair with infantile dilated cardiomyopathy and retinopathy. A diagnosis of Alström Syndrome (AS) was considered and diagnostic testing pursued. The Alströms gene (ALMS1) is very large (23 exons) and diagnostic testing of mutational hotspots (exon 6, 8 and 10) was negative. Furthermore the siblings were tall and did not have the typical phenotype of nystagmus, photophobia, obesity or hearing loss and so the AS diagnosis was removed. We then sought to identify the causative gene in this family using whole exome sequencing. Unexpectedly, the exome analysis identified novel compound heterozygous ALMS1 mutations in exon 5 (c.777delT:p.D260fs*26) and exon 20 (c.12145_12146insC:p.S4049fs*36) that segregated with the phenotype. Although the siblings show some clinical overlap with AS, their phenotype is not classical. It is plausible that their atypical presentation may be due to the location of the ALMS1 mutations outside the usual mutational hotspots. Our findings show how atypical cases of AS may be missed under the current diagnostic guidelines and support consideration of complete ALMS1 sequencing in children with two or more features, even if all of the core clinical features of AS are not present.

  15. Important hemoprotozoan diseases of livestock: Challenges in current diagnostics and therapeutics: An update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharana, Biswa Ranjan; Tewari, Anup Kumar; Saravanan, Buddhi Chandrasekaran; Sudhakar, Naduvanahalli Rajanna

    2016-01-01

    Hemoprotozoan parasites pose a serious threat to the livestock population in terms of mortality, reduced milk yield and lowered draft power. Diagnosis of these diseases often poses a challenging task. Needless to say that impact of disease in health and productivity is huge though a fair economic assessment on the quantum of economic loss associated is yet to be worked out from India. The diagnosis of hemoprotozoan infections largely depends on various laboratory-based diagnostic methods as the clinical manifestations are often inconspicuous and non-specific. Traditional diagnostic methods rely on microscopical demonstration of infective stages in blood or tissue fluids. However, it is laborious, lesser sensitive, and cannot differentiate between morphologically similar organisms. Recent development in the technologies has opened new avenues for improvement in the accurate diagnosis of parasitic infections. Serological tests are simple, fast but lack specificity. With advent of molecular techniques, as DNA hybridization assays, polymerase chain reaction and its modifications ensure the detection of infection in the latent phase of the disease. Nucleic acid-based assays are highly sensitive, free from immunocompetence and can differentiate between morphologically similar parasites. With the advent of newer diagnostics complemented with traditional ones will be of huge help for targeted selective treatment with better chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:27284225

  16. Important hemoprotozoan diseases of livestock: Challenges in current diagnostics and therapeutics: An update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswa Ranjan Maharana

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Hemoprotozoan parasites pose a serious threat to the livestock population in terms of mortality, reduced milk yield and lowered draft power. Diagnosis of these diseases often poses a challenging task. Needless to say that impact of disease in health and productivity is huge though a fair economic assessment on the quantum of economic loss associated is yet to be worked out from India. The diagnosis of hemoprotozoan infections largely depends on various laboratory-based diagnostic methods as the clinical manifestations are often inconspicuous and non-specific. Traditional diagnostic methods rely on microscopical demonstration of infective stages in blood or tissue fluids. However, it is laborious, lesser sensitive, and cannot differentiate between morphologically similar organisms. Recent development in the technologies has opened new avenues for improvement in the accurate diagnosis of parasitic infections. Serological tests are simple, fast but lack specificity. With advent of molecular techniques, as DNA hybridization assays, polymerase chain reaction and its modifications ensure the detection of infection in the latent phase of the disease. Nucleic acid-based assays are highly sensitive, free from immunocompetence and can differentiate between morphologically similar parasites. With the advent of newer diagnostics complemented with traditional ones will be of huge help for targeted selective treatment with better chemotherapeutic agents.

  17. Important hemoprotozoan diseases of livestock: Challenges in current diagnostics and therapeutics: An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharana, Biswa Ranjan; Tewari, Anup Kumar; Saravanan, Buddhi Chandrasekaran; Sudhakar, Naduvanahalli Rajanna

    2016-05-01

    Hemoprotozoan parasites pose a serious threat to the livestock population in terms of mortality, reduced milk yield and lowered draft power. Diagnosis of these diseases often poses a challenging task. Needless to say that impact of disease in health and productivity is huge though a fair economic assessment on the quantum of economic loss associated is yet to be worked out from India. The diagnosis of hemoprotozoan infections largely depends on various laboratory-based diagnostic methods as the clinical manifestations are often inconspicuous and non-specific. Traditional diagnostic methods rely on microscopical demonstration of infective stages in blood or tissue fluids. However, it is laborious, lesser sensitive, and cannot differentiate between morphologically similar organisms. Recent development in the technologies has opened new avenues for improvement in the accurate diagnosis of parasitic infections. Serological tests are simple, fast but lack specificity. With advent of molecular techniques, as DNA hybridization assays, polymerase chain reaction and its modifications ensure the detection of infection in the latent phase of the disease. Nucleic acid-based assays are highly sensitive, free from immunocompetence and can differentiate between morphologically similar parasites. With the advent of newer diagnostics complemented with traditional ones will be of huge help for targeted selective treatment with better chemotherapeutic agents.

  18. USXR Based MHD, Transport, Equilibria and Current Profile Diagnostics for NSTX. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finkenthal, Michael

    2009-06-01

    The present report resumes the research activities of the Plasma Spectroscopy/Diagnostics Group at Johns Hopkins University performed on the NSTX tokamak at PPPL during the period 1999-2009. During this period we have designed and implemented XUV based diagnostics for a large number of tasks: study of impurity content and particle transport, MHD activity, time-resolved electron temperature measeurements, ELM research, etc. Both line emission and continuum were used in the XUV range. New technics and novel methods have been devised within the framework of the present research. Graduate and post-graduate students have been involved at all times in addition to the senior research personnel. Several tens of papers have been published and lectures have been given based on the obtained results at conferences and various research institutions (lists of these activities were attached both in each proposal and in the annual reports submitted to our supervisors at OFES).

  19. Diagnostic methods I: sensitivity, specificity, and other measures of accuracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.J. van Stralen; V.S. Stel; J.B. Reitsma; F.W. Dekker; C. Zoccali; K.J. Jager

    2009-01-01

    For most physicians, use of diagnostic tests is part of daily routine. This paper focuses on their usefulness by explaining the different measures of accuracy, the interpretation of test results, and the implementation of a diagnostic strategy. Measures of accuracy include sensitivity and specificit

  20. [CONTEMPORARY MOLECULAR-GENETIC METHODS USED FOR ETIOLOGIC DIAGNOSTICS OF SEPSIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilov, S N; Skachkova, T S; Shipulina, O Yu; Savochkina, Yu A; Shipulin, G A; Maleev, V V

    2016-01-01

    Etiologic diagnostics of sepsis is one of the most difficult problems of contemporary medicine due to a wide variety of sepsis causative agents, many of which are components of normal human microflora. Disadvantages of contemporary "golden standard" of microbiologic diagnostics of sepsis etiology by seeding of blood for sterility are duration of cultivation, limitation in detection of non-cultivable forms of microorganisms, significant effect of preliminary empiric antibiotics therapy on results of the analysis. Methods of molecular diagnostics that are being actively developed and integrated during the last decade are deprived of these disadvantages. Main contemporary methods of molecular-biological diagnostics are examined in the review, actualdata on their diagnostic characteristic are provided. Special attention is given to methods of PCR-diagnostics, including novel Russian developments. Methods of nucleic acid hybridization and proteomic analysis are examined in comparative aspect. Evaluation of application and perspectives of development of methods of molecular diagnostics of sepsis is given.

  1. Comparison of five diagnostic methods for Helicobacter pylori.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khalifehgholi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Invasive and non-invasive techniques are used to diagnose H. pylori infection. Some factors influence the choice of a diagnostic test, such as the sensitivity and specificity of the tests, the clinical circumstances and the cost-effectiveness of the testing strategy. The aim of this study was to reveal the relationship between different H. pylori infection diagnosis methods, and clarify the application scope of each diagnosis method.patients were included in the study, and specimens including biopsies, blood and stool were taken. Biopsies were evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin, and Giemsa staining. A sequence of 294 bp in the ureC (glmM gene was amplified. The rapid urease test (RUT was performed using a non-commercial validated test. Stool samples were analyzed using a polyclonal ELISA stool antigen test. A serological assay for IgG antibodies was performed by a commercial Helicobacter pylori IgG ELISA kit.According to the predefined criteria, a total of 46 (50.5% patients tested were positive by at least 2 of the 3 biopsy-based methods. The best sensitivity (95.6% belonged to histology and RUT. The sensitivities of other tests including PCR, serology and stool antigen test were 93.5%, 91.3% and 73.9%, respectively. RUT showed the best specificity (100%, and the specificities of the other tests, including PCR, stool antigen test, histology and serology, were 95.6%, 86.7%, 77.8% and 55.6%, respectively.In view of the better results obtained for invasive vs non-invasive tests, for a more accurate diagnosis, it is advisable not to solely rely on non-invasive methods of H. Pylori diagnosis.

  2. [Evaluation of the diagnostic power of 3 methods for assaying free T4. Results in the diagnostic strategy of hyperthyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragu, P; Noel, M; Patois, E; Delarue, J C; Paugam-Capelle, J; Parmentier, C

    1985-01-01

    The free thyroxin (FT4) tests of Amersham, Clinical Assay and Corning Medical were evaluated in 240 patients who were suspected of hyperthyroidism. The diagnostic performances of the Corning method were of less value while those of the other methods were equivalent to that obtained with the free thyroxin index for an average cost reduced. Furthermore our results show that T3 determination is better than T4 determination in patients who remained doubtful after FT4. However the development of ultra-short methods of measurement of total thyroid hormone blood levels using fluorescence polarization could lead to reconsider the diagnostic strategy of hyperthyroidism.

  3. Laboratory diagnostic methods, system of quality and validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ašanin Ružica

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available It is known that laboratory investigations secure safe and reliable results that provide a final confirmation of the quality of work. Ideas, planning, knowledge, skills, experience, and environment, along with good laboratory practice, quality control and reliability of quality, make the area of biological investigations very complex. In recent years, quality control, including the control of work in the laboratory, is based on international standards and is used at that level. The implementation of widely recognized international standards, such as the International Standard ISO/IEC 17025 (1 and the implementing of the quality system series ISO/IEC 9000 (2 have become the imperative on the grounds of which laboratories have a formal, visible and corresponding system of quality. The diagnostic methods that are used must constantly yield results which identify the animal as positive or negative, and the precise status of the animal is determined with a predefined degree of statistical significance. Methods applied on a selected population reduce the risk of obtaining falsely positive or falsely negative results. A condition for this are well conceived and documented methods, with the application of the corresponding reagents, and work with professional and skilled staff. This process requires also a consistent implementation of the most rigorous experimental plans, epidemiological and statistical data and estimations, with constant monitoring of the validity of the applied methods. Such an approach is necessary in order to cut down the number of misconceptions and accidental mistakes, for a referent population of animals on which the validity of a method is tested. Once a valid method is included in daily routine investigations, it is necessary to apply constant monitoring for the purpose of internal quality control, in order adequately to evaluate its reproducibility and reliability. Consequently, it is necessary at least twice yearly to conduct

  4. Diagnostic Methods for Bile Acid Malabsorption in Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayvargiya, Priya; Camilleri, Michael; Shin, Andrea; Saenger, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Altered bile acid (BA) concentrations in the colon may cause diarrhea or constipation. BA malabsorption (BAM) accounts for >25% of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with diarrhea and chronic diarrhea in Western countries. As BAM is increasingly recognized, proper diagnostic methods are desired in clinical practice to help direct the most effective treatment course for the chronic bowel dysfunction. This review appraises the methodology, advantages and disadvantages of 4 tools that directly measure BAM: 14C-glycocholate breath and stool test, 75Selenium HomotauroCholic Acid Test (SeHCAT), 7 α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one (C4) and fecal BAs. 14C-glycocholate is a laborious test no longer widely utilized. 75SeHCAT is validated, but not available in the United States. Serum C4 is a simple, accurate method that is applicable to a majority of patients, but requires further clinical validation. Fecal measurements to quantify total and individual fecal BAs are technically cumbersome and not widely available. Regrettably, none of these tests are routinely available in the U.S., and a therapeutic trial with a BA binder is used as a surrogate for diagnosis of BAM. Recent data suggest there is an advantage to studying fecal excretion of the individual BAs and their role in BAM; this may constitute a significant advantage of the fecal BA method over the other tests. Fecal BA test could become a routine addition to fecal fat measurement in patients with unexplained diarrhea. In summary, availability determines the choice of test among C4, SeHCAT and fecal BA; more widespread availability of such tests would enhance clinical management of these patients. PMID:23644387

  5. Diagnostic Methods for Detection of Blood-Borne Candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Cornelius J; Nguyen, M Hong

    2016-01-01

    β-D-glucan (Fungitell) and polymerase chain reaction-based (T2Candida) assays of blood samples are FDA-approved adjuncts to cultures for diagnosing candidemia and other types of invasive candidiasis, but their clinical roles are unclear. In this chapter, we describe laboratory protocols for performing Fungitell and T2Candida assays. We then discuss step-by-step methods for interpreting test results at the bedside using a Bayesian framework, and for incorporating assays into rational patient management strategies. Prior to interpreting results, clinicians must recognize that test performance varies based on the type of invasive candidiasis being diagnosed. In general, the type of invasive candidiasis that is most likely in a given patient can be identified, and the pretest likelihood of disease estimated. From there, positive and negative predictive values (PPV, NPV) for an assay can be calculated. At a population level, tests can be incorporated into screening strategies for antifungal treatment. NPV and PPV thresholds can be defined for discontinuing antifungal prophylaxis or initiating preemptive treatment, respectively. Using the thresholds, it is possible to assign windows of pretest likelihood for invasive candidiasis (and corresponding patient populations) in which tests are most likely to valuable. At the individual patient level, tests may be useful outside of the windows proposed for screening populations. The interpretive and clinical decision-making processes we discuss will be applicable to other diagnostic assays as they enter the clinic, and to existing assays as more data emerge from various populations.

  6. Theories and Diagnostic Methods of Land Use Conflicts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongfang; YANG; Lianqi; ZHU

    2013-01-01

    With social and economic development, the land resources are becoming increasingly scarce, and the land use conflicts are getting more frequent, deeper, more diversified and more severe. Besides, the factors that induce land use conflicts are more and more complicated. Therefore, the key to solve many difficult problems in regional sustainable land use lies in the research of land use conflicts, scientific evaluation of the intensity of regional land use conflicts, and the further reveal of external forms as well as intrinsic mechanisms of land use conflicts. Based on the review of both domestic and foreign literatures, this paper has completed the theoretical framework as well as the contents of land use conflicts research, established the diagnostic models and methods of land use conflicts intensity and proposed the key research areas of future studies. The purpose is to promote the evolution of spatial structure of China’s land resources to the positive direction and achieve integrated and coordinated management of land use through improving spatial allocation efficiency of land factors and buffering the pressure on land resources.

  7. Image processing methods and architectures in diagnostic pathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar DĂŠniz

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Grid technology has enabled the clustering and the efficient and secure access to and interaction among a wide variety of geographically distributed resources such as: supercomputers, storage systems, data sources, instruments and special devices and services. Their main applications include large-scale computational and data intensive problems in science and engineering. General grid structures and methodologies for both software and hardware in image analysis for virtual tissue-based diagnosis has been considered in this paper. This methods are focus on the user level middleware. The article describes the distributed programming system developed by the authors for virtual slide analysis in diagnostic pathology. The system supports different image analysis operations commonly done in anatomical pathology and it takes into account secured aspects and specialized infrastructures with high level services designed to meet application requirements. Grids are likely to have a deep impact on health related applications, and therefore they seem to be suitable for tissue-based diagnosis too. The implemented system is a joint application that mixes both Web and Grid Service Architecture around a distributed architecture for image processing. It has shown to be a successful solution to analyze a big and heterogeneous group of histological images under architecture of massively parallel processors using message passing and non-shared memory.

  8. Validation Tools and Methods for Diagnostic Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The potential benefits of advanced algorithms for diagnostics and prognostics, inner-loop control, and other flight critical systems have been demonstrated in a...

  9. Detection of Scabies: A Systematic Review of Diagnostic Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Leung

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study systematically reviewed the accuracy and precision of history, physical examination and tests for diagnosing scabies. Using a structured search strategy, Medline and Embase databases were searched for English and French language articles that included a diagnosis of scabies. Studies comparing history, physical examination and/or any diagnostic tests with the reference standard of microscopic visualization of mites, eggs or fecal elements obtained from skin scrapings or biopsies were included for analysis. History and examination of pruritic dermatoses failed to accurately diagnose scabies infection. The accuracy of dermatoscopy, performed by a trained practitioner, was determined; however, the accuracy of other diagnostic tests could not be calculated from the data in the literature. In the face of such diagnostic inaccuracy, research to identify or develop accurate diagnostic tests for scabies infection is needed and justifiable.

  10. THE HARMONIZATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF DIAGNOSTIC METHODS FOR A BELT CONVEYOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František HELEBRANT

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The final aim of the project MPO FR‐T11/537 called “The Complex Diagnostic System for the Belt Transport” is a single part custom manufacturing and sale of complex diagnostic system for belt transportation and related services. The output of the project is a prototype of a diagnostic system on a model belt conveyor with prepared and certified diagnostic services and methods including their measurements and other supportive tools. The article will introduce the present state of the solution for the given grant project, especially in the field of suggested work on the diagnostic and supportive methods and other measurements.

  11. Dental and dental hygiene students' diagnostic accuracy in oral radiology: effect of diagnostic strategy and instructional method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghdady, Mariam T; Carnahan, Heather; Lam, Ernest W N; Woods, Nicole N

    2014-09-01

    There has been much debate surrounding diagnostic strategies and the most appropriate training models for novices in oral radiology. It has been argued that an analytic approach, using a step-by-step analysis of the radiographic features of an abnormality, is ideal. Alternative research suggests that novices can successfully employ non-analytic reasoning. Many of these studies do not take instructional methodology into account. This study evaluated the effectiveness of non-analytic and analytic strategies in radiographic interpretation and explored the relationship between instructional methodology and diagnostic strategy. Second-year dental and dental hygiene students were taught four radiographic abnormalities using basic science instructions or a step-by-step algorithm. The students were tested on diagnostic accuracy and memory immediately after learning and one week later. A total of seventy-three students completed both immediate and delayed sessions and were included in the analysis. Students were randomly divided into two instructional conditions: one group provided a diagnostic hypothesis for the image and then identified specific features to support it, while the other group first identified features and then provided a diagnosis. Participants in the diagnosis-first condition (non-analytic reasoning) had higher diagnostic accuracy then those in the features-first condition (analytic reasoning), regardless of their learning condition. No main effect of learning condition or interaction with diagnostic strategy was observed. Educators should be mindful of the potential influence of analytic and non-analytic approaches on the effectiveness of the instructional method.

  12. Direct current power delivery system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Di; Garces, Luis Jose; Dai, Jian; Lai, Rixin

    2016-09-06

    A power transmission system includes a first unit for carrying out the steps of receiving high voltage direct current (HVDC) power from an HVDC power line, generating an alternating current (AC) component indicative of a status of the first unit, and adding the AC component to the HVDC power line. Further, the power transmission system includes a second unit for carrying out the steps of generating a direct current (DC) voltage to transfer the HVDC power on the HVDC power line, wherein the HVDC power line is coupled between the first unit and the second unit, detecting a presence or an absence of the added AC component in the HVDC power line, and determining the status of the first unit based on the added AC component.

  13. Magnetic Diagnostics for Equilibrium Reconstructions in the Presence of Nonaxisymmetric Eddy Current Distributions in Tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaita, R.; Kozub, T.; Logan, N.; Majeski, R.; Menard, J.; Zakharov, L.

    2010-12-10

    The lithium tokamak experiment LTX is a modest-sized spherical tokamak R0=0.4 m and a =0.26 m designed to investigate the low-recycling lithium wall operating regime for magnetically confined plasmas. LTX will reach this regime through a lithium-coated shell internal to the vacuum vessel, conformal to the plasma last-closed-flux surface, and heated to 300-400 oC. This structure is highly conductive and not axisymmetric. The three-dimensional nature of the shell causes the eddy currents and magnetic fields to be three-dimensional as well. In order to analyze the plasma equilibrium in the presence of three-dimensional eddy currents, an extensive array of unique magnetic diagnostics has been implemented. Sensors are designed to survive high temperatures and incidental contact with lithium and provide data on toroidal asymmetries as well as full coverage of the poloidal cross-section. The magnetic array has been utilized to determine the effects of nonaxisymmetric eddy currents and to model the start-up phase of LTX. Measurements from the magnetic array, coupled with two-dimensional field component modeling, have allowed a suitable field null and initial plasma current to be produced. For full magnetic reconstructions, a three-dimensional electromagnetic model of the vacuum vessel and shell is under development.

  14. Review of Dercum’s disease and proposal of diagnostic criteria, diagnostic methods, classification and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Definition and clinical picture We propose the minimal definition of Dercum’s disease to be generalised overweight or obesity in combination with painful adipose tissue. The associated symptoms in Dercum’s disease include fatty deposits, easy bruisability, sleep disturbances, impaired memory, depression, difficulty concentrating, anxiety, rapid heartbeat, shortness of breath, diabetes, bloating, constipation, fatigue, weakness and joint aches. Classification We suggest that Dercum’s disease is classified into: I. Generalised diffuse form A form with diffusely widespread painful adipose tissue without clear lipomas, II. Generalised nodular form - a form with general pain in adipose tissue and intense pain in and around multiple lipomas, and III. Localised nodular form - a form with pain in and around multiple lipomas IV. Juxtaarticular form - a form with solitary deposits of excess fat for example at the medial aspect of the knee. Epidemiology Dercum’s disease most commonly appears between the ages of 35 and 50 years and is five to thirty times more common in women than in men. The prevalence of Dercum’s disease has not yet been exactly established. Aetiology Proposed, but unconfirmed aetiologies include: nervous system dysfunction, mechanical pressure on nerves, adipose tissue dysfunction and trauma. Diagnosis and diagnostic methods Diagnosis is based on clinical criteria and should be made by systematic physical examination and thorough exclusion of differential diagnoses. Advisably, the diagnosis should be made by a physician with a broad experience of patients with painful conditions and knowledge of family medicine, internal medicine or pain management. The diagnosis should only be made when the differential diagnoses have been excluded. Differential diagnosis Differential diagnoses include: fibromyalgia, lipoedema, panniculitis, endocrine disorders, primary psychiatric disorders, multiple symmetric lipomatosis, familial multiple lipomatosis, and

  15. Review of Dercum’s disease and proposal of diagnostic criteria, diagnostic methods, classification and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansson Emma

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Definition and clinical picture We propose the minimal definition of Dercum’s disease to be generalised overweight or obesity in combination with painful adipose tissue. The associated symptoms in Dercum’s disease include fatty deposits, easy bruisability, sleep disturbances, impaired memory, depression, difficulty concentrating, anxiety, rapid heartbeat, shortness of breath, diabetes, bloating, constipation, fatigue, weakness and joint aches. Classification We suggest that Dercum’s disease is classified into: I. Generalised diffuse form A form with diffusely widespread painful adipose tissue without clear lipomas, II. Generalised nodular form - a form with general pain in adipose tissue and intense pain in and around multiple lipomas, and III. Localised nodular form - a form with pain in and around multiple lipomas IV. Juxtaarticular form - a form with solitary deposits of excess fat for example at the medial aspect of the knee. Epidemiology Dercum’s disease most commonly appears between the ages of 35 and 50 years and is five to thirty times more common in women than in men. The prevalence of Dercum’s disease has not yet been exactly established. Aetiology Proposed, but unconfirmed aetiologies include: nervous system dysfunction, mechanical pressure on nerves, adipose tissue dysfunction and trauma. Diagnosis and diagnostic methods Diagnosis is based on clinical criteria and should be made by systematic physical examination and thorough exclusion of differential diagnoses. Advisably, the diagnosis should be made by a physician with a broad experience of patients with painful conditions and knowledge of family medicine, internal medicine or pain management. The diagnosis should only be made when the differential diagnoses have been excluded. Differential diagnosis Differential diagnoses include: fibromyalgia, lipoedema, panniculitis, endocrine disorders, primary psychiatric disorders, multiple symmetric lipomatosis, familial

  16. The role of ultrasound and nuclear medicine methods in the preoperative diagnostics of primary hyperparathyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacko, Marek; Królicki, Leszek

    2015-01-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism (PH) represents one of the most common endocrine diseases. In most cases, the disorder is caused by parathyroid adenomas. Bilateral neck exploration has been a widely used treatment method for adenomas since the 20's of the twentieth century. In the last decade, however, it has been increasingly replaced by a minimally invasive surgical treatment. Smaller extent, shorter duration and lower complication rate of such a procedure are emphasized. Its efficacy depends on a precise location of parathyroid tissue during the preoperative imaging. Scintigraphy and ultrasound play a major role in the diagnostic algorithms. The efficacy of both methods has been repeatedly verified and compared. The still-current guidelines of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (2009) emphasize the complementary role of scintigraphy and ultrasonography in the preoperative diagnostics in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. At the same time, attempts are made to improve both these techniques by implementing new study protocols or innovative technologies. Publications have emerged in the recent years in the field of ultrasonography, whose authors pointed out the usefulness of elastography and contrast media. Nuclear medicine studies, on the other hand, focus mainly on the assessment of new radiotracers used in the positron emission tomography (PET). The aim of this article is to present, based on literature data, the possibilities of ultrasound and scintigraphy in the preoperative diagnostics in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. Furthermore, the main directions in the development of imaging techniques in PH patients were evaluated. PMID:26807297

  17. Comparing Symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorders Using the Current "DSM-IV-TR" Diagnostic Criteria and the Proposed "DSM-V" Diagnostic Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, Julie A.; Matson, Johnny L.

    2012-01-01

    The American Psychiatric Association has proposed major revisions for the diagnostic category encompassing Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), which will reportedly increase the specificity and maintain the sensitivity of diagnoses. As a result, the aim of the current study was to compare symptoms of ASD in children and adolescents (N = 208) who met…

  18. Comparing Symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorders Using the Current "DSM-IV-TR" Diagnostic Criteria and the Proposed "DSM-V" Diagnostic Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, Julie A.; Matson, Johnny L.

    2012-01-01

    The American Psychiatric Association has proposed major revisions for the diagnostic category encompassing Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), which will reportedly increase the specificity and maintain the sensitivity of diagnoses. As a result, the aim of the current study was to compare symptoms of ASD in children and adolescents (N = 208) who met…

  19. Molecular Diagnostics for Precision Medicine in Colorectal Cancer: Current Status and Future Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guoli; Yang, Zhaohai; Eshleman, James R; Netto, George J; Lin, Ming-Tseh

    2016-01-01

    Precision medicine, a concept that has recently emerged and has been widely discussed, emphasizes tailoring medical care to individuals largely based on information acquired from molecular diagnostic testing. As a vital aspect of precision cancer medicine, targeted therapy has been proven to be efficacious and less toxic for cancer treatment. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers and among the leading causes for cancer related deaths in the United States and worldwide. By far, CRC has been one of the most successful examples in the field of precision cancer medicine, applying molecular tests to guide targeted therapy. In this review, we summarize the current guidelines for anti-EGFR therapy, revisit the roles of pathologists in an era of precision cancer medicine, demonstrate the transition from traditional "one test-one drug" assays to multiplex assays, especially by using next-generation sequencing platforms in the clinical diagnostic laboratories, and discuss the future perspectives of tumor heterogeneity associated with anti-EGFR resistance and immune checkpoint blockage therapy in CRC.

  20. Franciszek Neugebauer's Ichnograms as a Pioneering Diagnostic Method in Orthopedics in the 19th Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowska-Zamachowska, Monika

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present an original orthopedic diagnostic method from the late 19th century developed by Franciszek Neugebauer, a distinguished Polish physician. His technique of detecting skeletal abnormalities was an excellent coping method in the time before the first diagnostic imaging method - x-ray imaging - had been invented.

  1. The blunt liver trauma: Review of current diagnostic and management strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doklestic Krstina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The liver is one of the most commonly injured organs in blunt abdominal trauma. Major liver trauma in polytraumatic patients accounts for significant morbidity and mortality. Therapeutic options for blunt hepatic trauma include both non-operative and operative management. Hemodynamic status, not the grade of the injury, should dictate the management. CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis is a standard diagnostic modality in hemodynamically stable trauma patients. Recent advancements in imaging studies and enhanced critical care strategies have shifted the paradigm for the management of liver injuries. Nonoperative management of both low- and high-grade injuries can be successful in hemodynamically stable patients. Direct suture of bleeding vessels, vascular isolation of the liver, and damage control surgery have improved outcomes in the hemodynamically unstable patients. We have reviewed current position in the treatment of blunt hepatic trau

  2. Current measurement method for characterization of fast switching power semiconductors with Silicon Steel Current Transformer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Helong; Beczkowski, Szymon; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel current measurement method with Silicon Steel Current Transformer (SSCT) for the characterization of fast switching power semiconductors. First, the existing current sensors for characterization of fast switching power semiconductors are experimentally evaluated...

  3. Astrovirus Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérot, Philippe; Lecuit, Marc; Eloit, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Various methods exist to detect an astrovirus infection. Current methods include electron microscopy (EM), cell culture, immunoassays, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and various other molecular approaches that can be applied in the context of diagnostic or in surveillance studies. With the advent of metagenomics, novel human astrovirus (HAstV) strains have been found in immunocompromised individuals in association with central nervous system (CNS) infections. This work reviews the past and current methods for astrovirus detection and their uses in both research laboratories and for medical diagnostic purposes. PMID:28085120

  4. Hybrid digital signal processing and neural networks for automated diagnostics using NDE methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyaya, B.R.; Yan, W. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    1993-11-01

    The primary purpose of the current research was to develop an integrated approach by combining information compression methods and artificial neural networks for the monitoring of plant components using nondestructive examination data. Specifically, data from eddy current inspection of heat exchanger tubing were utilized to evaluate this technology. The focus of the research was to develop and test various data compression methods (for eddy current data) and the performance of different neural network paradigms for defect classification and defect parameter estimation. Feedforward, fully-connected neural networks, that use the back-propagation algorithm for network training, were implemented for defect classification and defect parameter estimation using a modular network architecture. A large eddy current tube inspection database was acquired from the Metals and Ceramics Division of ORNL. These data were used to study the performance of artificial neural networks for defect type classification and for estimating defect parameters. A PC-based data preprocessing and display program was also developed as part of an expert system for data management and decision making. The results of the analysis showed that for effective (low-error) defect classification and estimation of parameters, it is necessary to identify proper feature vectors using different data representation methods. The integration of data compression and artificial neural networks for information processing was established as an effective technique for automation of diagnostics using nondestructive examination methods.

  5. [Cognitive functions, their development and modern diagnostic methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasik, Adam; Janas-Kozik, Małgorzata; Krupka-Matuszczyk, Irena; Augustyniak, Ewa

    2006-01-01

    provided a theory. The psychometric approach concentrates on studying the differences in intelligence. The aim of this approach is to test intelligence by means of standardized tests (e.g. WISC-R, WAIS-R) used to show the individual differences among humans. Human cognitive functions determine individuals' adaptation capabilities and disturbances in this area indicate a number of psychopathological changes and are a symptom enabling to differentiate or diagnose one with a disorder. That is why the psychological assessment of cognitive functions is an important part of patients' diagnosis. Contemporary neuropsychological studies are to a great extent based computer tests. The use of computer methods has a number of measurement-related advantages. It allows for standardized testing environment, increasing therefore its reliability and standardizes the patient assessment process. Special attention should be paid to the neuropsychological tests included in the Vienna Test System (Cognitron, SIGNAL, RT, VIGIL, DAUF), which are used to assess the operational memory span, learning processes, reaction time, attention selective function, attention continuity as well as attention interference resistance. It also seems justified to present the CPT id test (Continuous Performance Test) as well as Free Recall. CPT is a diagnostic tool used to assess the attention selective function, attention continuity of attention, attention interference resistance as well as attention alertness. The Free Recall test is used in the memory processes diagnostics to assess patients' operational memory as well as the information organization degree in operational memory. The above mentioned neuropsychological tests are tools used in clinical assessment of cognitive function disorders.

  6. Current Bioengineering Methods for Whole Kidney Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuichiro Yamanaka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Kidney regeneration is likely to provide an inexhaustible source of tissues and organs for immunosuppression-free transplantation. It is currently garnering considerable attention and might replace kidney dialysis as the ultimate therapeutic strategy for renal failure. However, anatomical complications make kidney regeneration difficult. Here, we review recent advances in the field of kidney regeneration, including (i the directed differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells/embryonic stem cells into kidney cells; (ii blastocyst decomplementation; (iii use of a decellularized cadaveric scaffold; (iv embryonic organ transplantation; and (v use of a nephrogenic niche for growing xenoembryos for de novo kidney regeneration from stem cells. All these approaches represent potentially promising therapeutic strategies for the treatment of patients with chronic kidney disease. Although many obstacles to kidney regeneration remain, we hope that innovative strategies and reliable research will ultimately allow the restoration of renal function in patients with end-stage kidney disease.

  7. Sherlock Holmes's Methods of Deductive Reasoning Applied to Medical Diagnostics

    OpenAIRE

    1985-01-01

    Having patterned the character of Sherlock Holmes after one of his professors, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, himself a physician, incorporated many of the didactic qualities of the 19th century medical diagnostician into the character of Holmes. In this paper I explore Holmes's techniques of deductive reasoning and their basis in 19th and 20th century medical diagnostics.

  8. Sherlock Holmes's Methods of Deductive Reasoning Applied to Medical Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Larry

    1985-01-01

    Having patterned the character of Sherlock Holmes after one of his professors, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, himself a physician, incorporated many of the didactic qualities of the 19th century medical diagnostician into the character of Holmes. In this paper I explore Holmes's techniques of deductive reasoning and their basis in 19th and 20th century medical diagnostics. PMID:3887762

  9. Sherlock Holmes' methods of deductive reasoning applied to medical diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, L

    1985-03-01

    Having patterned the character of Sherlock Holmes after one of his professors, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, himself a physician, incorporated many of the didactic qualities of the 19th century medical diagnostician into the character of Holmes. In this paper I explore Holmes's techniques of deductive reasoning and their basis in 19th and 20th century medical diagnostics.

  10. The advanced eccentricity and broken cage diagnostic method for medium voltage induction motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janda Žarko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the comparative diagnostics of medium voltage induction motors has been presented. The methods employed are the motor current signature analysis (MCSA and the axial leakage flux spectral analysis. All presented test procedures have been conducted on partially loaded motors, one without fault and the other with fault. Rated parameters of case study motors are 6 kV and 3.15 MW, and both motors are installed in one combined steam power plant. The reliable broken rotor bars detection and existence of static eccentricity have been demonstrated. The new method for combined fault detection has also been announced. The combined fault under scope is the simultaneous existence of broken rotor bars and static eccentricity. The proposed combined fault detection method is based upon axial leakage flux spectral analysis, especially in the vicinity of the double fundamental frequency. The existence of three broken rotor bars has been confirmed after physical rotor cage examination.

  11. A new diagnostic method for separating airborne and structureborne noise radiated by plates with applications for propeller driven aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgary, Michael C.

    1988-01-01

    The anticipated application of advanced turboprop propulsion systems is expected to increase the interior noise of future aircraft to unacceptably high levels. The absence of technically and economically feasible noise source-path diagnostic tools has been a prime obstacle in the development of efficient noise control treatments for propeller-driven aircraft. A new diagnostic method that permits the separation and prediction of the fully coherent airborne and structureborne components of the sound radiated by plates or thin shells has been developed. Analytical and experimental studies of the proposed method were performed on an aluminum plate. The results of the study indicate that the proposed method could be used in flight, and has fewer encumbrances than the other diagnostic tools currently available.

  12. Vertebral morphometry: current methods and recent advances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guglielmi, G. [University of Foggia, Department of Radiology, Foggia (Italy); Scientific Institute Hospital, Department of Radiology, San Giovanni Rotondo (Italy); Diacinti, D. [University La Sapienza, Department of Radiology, Roma (Italy); Kuijk, C. van [University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Aparisi, F. [Hospital Dr Peset, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Valencia (Spain); Krestan, C. [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Adams, J.E. [University, Imaging Science and Biomedical Engineering, Manchester (United Kingdom); Link, T.M. [University of California, Department of Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2008-07-15

    Vertebral fractures are the hallmark of osteoporosis and are associated with increased morbility and mortality. Because a majority of vertebral fractures often occur in absence of specific trauma and are asymptomatic, their identification is radiographic. The two most widely used methods to determine the severity of vertebral fractures are the visual semiquantitative (SQ) assessment and the morphometric quantitative approach, involving the measurements of vertebral body heights. The measurements may be made on conventional spinal radiographs (MRX: morphometric X-ray radiography) or on images obtained from dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans (MXA: morphometric X-ray absorptiometry).The availability of a rapid, low-dose method for assessment of vertebral fractures, using advanced fan-beam DXA devices, provides a practical method for integrated assessment of BMD and vertebral fracture status. The visual or morphometric assessment of lateral DXA spine images may have a potential role for use as a prescreening tool, excluding normal subjects prior to performing conventional radiographs. (orig.)

  13. Current status of fluoride volatility method development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhlir, J.; Marecek, M.; Skarohlid, J. [UJV - Nuclear Research Institute, Research Centre Rez, CZ-250 68 Husinec - Rez 130 (Czech Republic)

    2013-07-01

    The Fluoride Volatility Method is based on a separation process, which comes out from the specific property of uranium, neptunium and plutonium to form volatile hexafluorides whereas most of fission products (mainly lanthanides) and higher transplutonium elements (americium, curium) present in irradiated fuel form nonvolatile tri-fluorides. Fluoride Volatility Method itself is based on direct fluorination of the spent fuel, but before the fluorination step, the removal of cladding material and subsequent transformation of the fuel into a powdered form with a suitable grain size have to be done. The fluorination is made with fluorine gas in a flame fluorination reactor, where the volatile fluorides (mostly UF{sub 6}) are separated from the non-volatile ones (trivalent minor actinides and majority of fission products). The subsequent operations necessary for partitioning of volatile fluorides are the condensation and evaporation of volatile fluorides, the thermal decomposition of PuF{sub 6} and the finally distillation and sorption used for the purification of uranium product. The Fluoride Volatility Method is considered to be a promising advanced pyrochemical reprocessing technology, which can mainly be used for the reprocessing of oxide spent fuels coming from future GEN IV fast reactors.

  14. Current practice in laboratory diagnostics of autoimmune diseases in Croatia. 
Survey of the Working group for laboratory diagnostics of autoimmune diseases of the Croatian Society of Medical Biochemistry and Laboratory Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuna, Andrea Tešija; Đerek, Lovorka; Kozmar, Ana; Drvar, Vedrana

    2016-01-01

    Introduction With the trend of increasing incidence of autoimmune diseases, laboratories are faced with exponential growth of the requests for tests relating the diagnosis of these diseases. Unfortunately, the lack of laboratory personnel experienced in this specific discipline of laboratory diagnostic, as well as an unawareness of a method limitation often results in confusion for clinicians. The aim was to gain insight into number and type of Croatian laboratories that perform humoral diagnostics with the final goal to improve and harmonize laboratory diagnostics of autoimmune diseases in Croatia. Materials and methods In order to get insight into current laboratory practice two questionnaires, consisting of 42 questions in total, were created. Surveys were conducted using SurveyMonkey application and were sent to 88 medical biochemistry laboratories in Croatia for the first survey. Out of 33 laboratories that declared to perform diagnostic from the scope, 19 were selected for the second survey based on the tests they pleaded to perform. The survey comprised questions regarding autoantibody hallmarks of systemic autoimmune diseases while regarding organ-specific autoimmune diseases was limited to diseases of liver, gastrointestinal and nervous system. Results Response rate was high with 80 / 88 (91%) laboratories which answered the first questionnaire, and 19 / 19 (1.0) for the second questionnaire. Obtained results of surveys indicate high heterogeneity in the performance of autoantibody testing among laboratories in Croatia. Conclusions Results indicate the need of creating recommendations and algorithms in order to harmonize the approach to laboratory diagnostics of autoimmune diseases in Croatia.

  15. Ion Current Collection Diagnostic for the Triggered Plasma Opening Switch Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, D. P.; Gilmore, M. A.

    2005-10-01

    The novel Triggered Plasma Opening Switch (TPOS) is a unique device that exploits the high conductivity and low mass properties of plasma. The TPOS's objective is to take the initial ˜.8 MA (˜250 ns rise time) storage inductor current and deliver ˜.5 MA at ˜2.5 MV (˜10ns rise time) to a load of ˜5-10 φ. Study of the TPOS characteristics is in progress via an Ion Current Collection Diagnostic (ICCD). The ICCD has been designed, fabricated, tested, and is in use on the TPOS in order to explore the main switch opening profile. The ICCD utilizes 12 charge collectors (biased faraday cups) that are positioned perpendicularly to the main switch stage in order to collect radially traveling ions emitted from the plasma surface via the Child-Langmuir law. Magnetostatic simulations with self consistent space charge emitting surfaces of the main switch using the Trak static 2D finite element code have been conducted as well. Finally, ICCD experimental data have been recorded, and hopefully these data will provide evidence that support both theory and simulation.

  16. Diagnostic and Therapeutic Biomarkers in Glioblastoma: Current Status and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Szopa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma (GBM is a primary neuroepithelial tumor of the central nervous system, characterized by an extremely aggressive clinical phenotype. Patients with GBM have a poor prognosis and only 3–5% of them survive for more than 5 years. The current GBM treatment standards include maximal resection followed by radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant therapies. Despite these aggressive therapeutic regimens, the majority of patients suffer recurrence due to molecular heterogeneity of GBM. Consequently, a number of potential diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive biomarkers have been investigated. Some of them, such as IDH mutations, 1p19q deletion, MGMT promoter methylation, and EGFRvIII amplification are frequently tested in routine clinical practice. With the development of sequencing technology, detailed characterization of GBM molecular signatures has facilitated a more personalized therapeutic approach and contributed to the development of a new generation of anti-GBM therapies such as molecular inhibitors targeting growth factor receptors, vaccines, antibody-based drug conjugates, and more recently inhibitors blocking the immune checkpoints. In this article, we review the exciting progress towards elucidating the potential of current and novel GBM biomarkers and discuss their implications for clinical practice.

  17. Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease with focal findings: caveats to current diagnostic criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward C. Mader

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The clinical diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD is largely based on the 1998 World Health Organization diagnostic criteria. Unfortunately, rigid compliance with these criteria may result in failure to recognize sporadic CJD (sCJD, especially early in its course when focal findings predominate and traditional red flags are not yet present. A 61-year-old man presented with a 3-week history of epilepsia partialis continua (jerking of the left upper extremity and a 2-week history of forgetfulness and left hemiparesis; left hemisensory neglect was also detected on admission. Repeated brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed areas of restricted diffusion in the cerebral cortex, initially on the right but later spreading to the left. Electroencephalography (EEG on hospital days 7, 10, and 14 showed right-sided periodic lateralized epileptiform discharges. On day 20, the EEG showed periodic sharp wave complexes leading to a diagnosis of probable sCJD and subsequently to definite sCJD with brain biopsy. Neurological decline was relatively fast with generalized myoclonus and akinetic mutism developing within 7 weeks from the onset of illness. CJD was not immediately recognized because of the patient’s focal/lateralized manifestations. Focal/lateralized clinical, EEG, and MRI findings are not uncommon in sCJD and EEG/MRI results may not be diagnostic in the early stages of sCJD. Familiarity with these caveats and with the most current criteria for diagnosing probable sCJD (University of California San Francisco 2007, MRI-CJD Consortium 2009 will enhance the ability to recognize sCJD and implement early safety measures.

  18. Lung scintigraphy in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism: current methods and interpretation criteria in clinical practice

    OpenAIRE

    Skarlovnik, Ajda; Hrastnik, Damjana; Fettich, Jure; Grmek, Marko

    2014-01-01

    Background In current clinical practice lung scintigraphy is mainly used to exclude pulmonary embolism (PE). Modified diagnostic criteria for planar lung scintigraphy are considered, as newer scitigraphic methods, especially single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) are becoming more popular. Patients and methods. Data of 98 outpatients who underwent planar ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) scintigraphy and 49 outpatients who underwent V/Q SPECT from the emergency department (ED) were retr...

  19. Speckle methods for diagnostics of the human oral cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharish, Natalia A.; Sedykh, Alexey V.; Ulyanov, Sergey S.; Lepilin, Alexander V.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    1999-11-01

    Possibility of application of speckle interferometry for diagnostics in dentistry has been analyzed. Problem of standardization of the measuring procedure has been studied. Deviation of output characteristics of Doppler system for blood microcirculation measurements has been investigated. Dependence of form of Doppler spectrum on the degree of seriousness of diseases has been studied in experiments in vivo. Behavior of spectral moments of measuring signal during the treatment of parodontitis has been analyzed.

  20. Carbon footprint: current methods of estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Divya; Agrawal, Madhoolika; Pandey, Jai Shanker

    2011-07-01

    Increasing greenhouse gaseous concentration in the atmosphere is perturbing the environment to cause grievous global warming and associated consequences. Following the rule that only measurable is manageable, mensuration of greenhouse gas intensiveness of different products, bodies, and processes is going on worldwide, expressed as their carbon footprints. The methodologies for carbon footprint calculations are still evolving and it is emerging as an important tool for greenhouse gas management. The concept of carbon footprinting has permeated and is being commercialized in all the areas of life and economy, but there is little coherence in definitions and calculations of carbon footprints among the studies. There are disagreements in the selection of gases, and the order of emissions to be covered in footprint calculations. Standards of greenhouse gas accounting are the common resources used in footprint calculations, although there is no mandatory provision of footprint verification. Carbon footprinting is intended to be a tool to guide the relevant emission cuts and verifications, its standardization at international level are therefore necessary. Present review describes the prevailing carbon footprinting methods and raises the related issues.

  1. Characterization and diagnostic methods for geomagnetic auroral infrasound waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldham, Justin J.

    Infrasonic perturbations resulting from auroral activity have been observed since the 1950's. In the last decade advances in infrasonic microphone sensitivity, high latitude sensor coverage, time series analysis methods and computational efficiency have elucidated new types of auroral infrasound. Persistent periods of infrasonic activity associated with geomagnetic sub-storms have been termed geomagnetic auroral infrasound waves [GAIW]. We consider 63 GAIW events recorded by the Fairbanks, AK infrasonic array I53US ranging from 2003 to 2014 and encompassing a complete solar cycle. We make observations of the acoustic features of these events alongside magnetometer, riometer, and all-sky camera data in an effort to quantify the ionospheric conditions suitable for infrasound generation. We find that, on average, the generation mechanism for GAIW is confined to a region centered about ~60 0 longitude east of the anti-Sun-Earth line and at ~770 North latitude. We note furthermore that in all cases considered wherein imaging riometer data are available, that dynamic regions of heightened ionospheric conductivity periodically cross the overhead zenith. Consistent features in concurrent magnetometer conditions are also noted, with irregular oscillations in the horizontal component of the field ubiquitous in all cases. In an effort to produce ionosphere based infrasound free from the clutter and unknowns typical of geophysical observations, an experiment was undertaken at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program [HAARP] facility in 2012. Infrasonic signals appearing to originate from a source region overhead were observed briefly on 9 August 2012. The signals were observed during a period when an electrojet current was presumed to have passed overhead and while the facilities radio transmitter was periodically heating the lower ionosphere. Our results suggest dynamic auroral electrojet currents as primary sources of much of the observed infrasound, with

  2. Diagnostics of induction motor based on spectral analysis of stator current signal with application of fuzzy classifier

    OpenAIRE

    W. Głowacz; A. Głowacz

    2010-01-01

    New implementation of diagnostics of imminent failure conditions of induction motor was presented. Software to recognize the current ofinduction motor was implemented. System of current recognition is based on a study of the frequency spectrum of stator current signal.Fuzzy classifier was applied. The studies were carried out for four imminent failure conditions of induction motor. The results confirm thatthe system can be useful for detecting damage and protect the engines.

  3. Transport critical current of MgB2 wires: pulsed current of varying rate compared to direct current method

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, K. W.; Xu, X.; Horvat, J.; Cook, C. D.; Dou, S. X.

    2011-10-01

    The measurement of transport critical current (Ic) for MgB2 wires and tapes has been investigated with two different techniques, the conventional four-probe arrangement with direct current (DC) power source, and a tailored triangle pulse at different rates of current change. The DC method has been widely used and practiced by various groups, but suffers from inevitable heating effects when high currents are used at low magnetic fields. The pulsed current method has no heating effects, but the critical current can depend on the rate of the current change (dI/dt) in the pulse. Our pulsed current measurements with varying dI/dt show that the same values of Ic are obtained as with the DC method, but without the artifacts of heating. Our method is particularly useful at low field regions which are often inaccessible by DC methods. We also performed a finite element method (FEM) analysis to obtain the time dependent heat distribution in MgB2 due to the electric potential produced at the current contacts to the superconducting sample and its gradient around the contacts. This gradient is defined as the current transfer length (CTL) of the samples and leads to Joule heating of the wire near the contacts. The FEM results provide further evidence of the limitation of the DC method in obtaining high transport critical current.

  4. Current Advances on Virus Discovery and Diagnostic Role of Viral Metagenomics in Aquatic Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munang'andu, Hetron M.; Mugimba, Kizito K.; Byarugaba, Denis K.; Mutoloki, Stephen; Evensen, Øystein

    2017-01-01

    The global expansion of the aquaculture industry has brought with it a corresponding increase of novel viruses infecting different aquatic organisms. These emerging viral pathogens have proved to be a challenge to the use of traditional cell-cultures and immunoassays for identification of new viruses especially in situations where the novel viruses are unculturable and no antibodies exist for their identification. Viral metagenomics has the potential to identify novel viruses without prior knowledge of their genomic sequence data and may provide a solution for the study of unculturable viruses. This review provides a synopsis on the contribution of viral metagenomics to the discovery of viruses infecting different aquatic organisms as well as its potential role in viral diagnostics. High throughput Next Generation sequencing (NGS) and library construction used in metagenomic projects have simplified the task of generating complete viral genomes unlike the challenge faced in traditional methods that use multiple primers targeted at different segments and VPs to generate the entire genome of a novel virus. In terms of diagnostics, studies carried out this far show that viral metagenomics has the potential to serve as a multifaceted tool able to study and identify etiological agents of single infections, co-infections, tissue tropism, profiling viral infections of different aquatic organisms, epidemiological monitoring of disease prevalence, evolutionary phylogenetic analyses, and the study of genomic diversity in quasispecies viruses. With sequencing technologies and bioinformatics analytical tools becoming cheaper and easier, we anticipate that metagenomics will soon become a routine tool for the discovery, study, and identification of novel pathogens including viruses to enable timely disease control for emerging diseases in aquaculture.

  5. Method matters: Understanding diagnostic reliability in DSM-IV and DSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, Michael; Clark, Lee Anna; Bagby, R Michael; Watson, David

    2015-08-01

    Diagnostic reliability is essential for the science and practice of psychology, in part because reliability is necessary for validity. Recently, the DSM-5 field trials documented lower diagnostic reliability than past field trials and the general research literature, resulting in substantial criticism of the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria. Rather than indicating specific problems with DSM-5, however, the field trials may have revealed long-standing diagnostic issues that have been hidden due to a reliance on audio/video recordings for estimating reliability. We estimated the reliability of DSM-IV diagnoses using both the standard audio-recording method and the test-retest method used in the DSM-5 field trials, in which different clinicians conduct separate interviews. Psychiatric patients (N = 339) were diagnosed using the SCID-I/P; 218 were diagnosed a second time by an independent interviewer. Diagnostic reliability using the audio-recording method (N = 49) was "good" to "excellent" (M κ = .80) and comparable to the DSM-IV field trials estimates. Reliability using the test-retest method (N = 218) was "poor" to "fair" (M κ = .47) and similar to DSM-5 field-trials' estimates. Despite low test-retest diagnostic reliability, self-reported symptoms were highly stable. Moreover, there was no association between change in self-report and change in diagnostic status. These results demonstrate the influence of method on estimates of diagnostic reliability. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Sexual sadism: current diagnostic vagueness and the benefit of behavioral definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitschke, Joachim; Mokros, Andreas; Osterheider, Michael; Marshall, William L

    2013-12-01

    The phenomenon of sexual sadism was first scientifically described by Richard von Krafft-Ebing in 1999 as a sexual preference disorder that focuses on the infliction of suffering, pain, or humiliation to achieve sexual gratification. The present article reviews the historical development of the term sexual sadism, including the current descriptive nosology of psychiatric classification. Despite clear definitions that specify the sexual objects, duration, and distress necessary for a disorder, evidence for the diagnostic reliability for sexual sadism in the forensic domain is mixed. We argue that the reliance on the patient's willingness to divulge corresponding violent sexual fantasies is the Achilles' heel of the diagnosis. In an attempt to improve agreement across diagnosticians, we argue for the use of behavioral indicators. We summarize the extant research on the Severe Sexual Sadism Scale (SESAS), which is a file-based observer rating of pertinent crime-scene actions. We conclude that the analysis of crime-scene behavior, as achieved with the SESAS, can provide a useful complement for the clinical diagnosis in forensic psychiatry and psychology.

  7. Current and future delivery of diagnostic electron microscopy in the UK: results of a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haro, Tracey; Furness, Peter

    2012-04-01

    Electron microscopy (EM) remains essential to delivering several specialist areas of diagnosis, especially the interpretation of native renal biopsies. However, there is anecdotal evidence of EM units struggling to survive, for a variety of reasons. The authors sought to obtain objective evidence of the extent and the causes of this problem. An online survey was undertaken of Fellows of the Royal College of Pathologists who use EM in diagnosis. A significant number of EM units anticipate having to close and hence outsource their EM work in the coming years. Yet most existing units are working to full capacity and would be unable to take on the substantial amounts of extra work implied by other units outsourcing their needs. Equipment and staffing are identified by most EM units as the major barriers to growth and are also the main reasons cited for units facing potential closure. In the current financial climate it seems unlikely that units will be willing to make the large investment in equipment and staff needed to take on extra work, unless they can be reasonably confident of an acceptable financial return as a result of increased external referral rates. The case is thus made for a degree of national coordination of the future provision of this specialist service, possibly through the National Commissioning Group or the new National Commissioning Board. Without this, the future of diagnostic EM services in the UK is uncertain. Its failure would pose a threat to good patient care.

  8. Benchmarking Gas Path Diagnostic Methods: A Public Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Donald L.; Bird, Jeff; Davison, Craig; Volponi, Al; Iverson, R. Eugene

    2008-01-01

    Recent technology reviews have identified the need for objective assessments of engine health management (EHM) technology. The need is two-fold: technology developers require relevant data and problems to design and validate new algorithms and techniques while engine system integrators and operators need practical tools to direct development and then evaluate the effectiveness of proposed solutions. This paper presents a publicly available gas path diagnostic benchmark problem that has been developed by the Propulsion and Power Systems Panel of The Technical Cooperation Program (TTCP) to help address these needs. The problem is coded in MATLAB (The MathWorks, Inc.) and coupled with a non-linear turbofan engine simulation to produce "snap-shot" measurements, with relevant noise levels, as if collected from a fleet of engines over their lifetime of use. Each engine within the fleet will experience unique operating and deterioration profiles, and may encounter randomly occurring relevant gas path faults including sensor, actuator and component faults. The challenge to the EHM community is to develop gas path diagnostic algorithms to reliably perform fault detection and isolation. An example solution to the benchmark problem is provided along with associated evaluation metrics. A plan is presented to disseminate this benchmark problem to the engine health management technical community and invite technology solutions.

  9. Impact and cost-effectiveness of current and future tuberculosis diagnostics: the contribution of modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houben, R.; Cohen, T.; Pai, M.; Cobelens, F.; Vassall, A.; Menzies, N. A.; Gomez, G. B.; Langley, I.; Squire, S. B.; White, R.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The landscape of diagnostic testing for tuberculosis (TB) is changing rapidly, and stakeholders need urgent guidance on how to develop, deploy and optimize TB diagnostics in a way that maximizes impact and makes best use of available resources. When decisions must be made with only incomplete or preliminary data available, modelling is a useful tool for providing such guidance. Following a meeting of modelers and other key stakeholders organized by the TB Modelling and Analysis Consortium, we propose a conceptual framework for positioning models of TB diagnostics. We use that framework to describe modelling priorities in four key areas: Xpert® MTB/RIF scale-up, target product profiles for novel assays, drug susceptibility testing to support new drug regimens, and the improvement of future TB diagnostic models. If we are to maximize the impact and cost-effectiveness of TB diagnostics, these modelling priorities should figure prominently as targets for future research. PMID:25189546

  10. Diagnostics of an induction-motor rotor by the spectral analysis of stator currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinreb, K.

    2013-12-01

    A method for achieving more efficient revealing and more unambiguous evaluation of various kinds of defects in the induction-motor (IM) rotor, which is based on changes occurring in the characteristic signs of the spectrum of the stator current, is presented. The results and analysis of measurements performed for artificially specified cases of faults in the rotor of a small-capacity IM are presented.

  11. [Radiological methods in the diagnostics of extrinsic allergic alveolitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhmudova, S

    2005-09-01

    There were 77 patients with EAA under our observation with the following X-ray symptom groups: emphysematous-interstitial; parenchymatous-interstitial; pneumonic. The emphysematous-interstitial X-ray symptom group is the most non-specific for the X-ray diagnostics. The changes indicate to symptoms of impaired bronchial conductance of different expression and are relevant to clinical EAA options characteristic for the obstructive syndrome. The parenchymatous-interstitial X-ray symptom group is more characteristic for occupational EAA. In such cases the most important are changes in the lung parenchyma that have a diffusive character and are accompanied by general symptoms indicating to bronchial impairments of different severity. In pneumatic X-ray symptom group, the major X-ray symptom is presence of local sites of lung tissue consolidation of hypoventilation-infiltrative character that can be bilateral, multiple with a trend to migration.

  12. Application of modern diagnostic methods to environmental improvement. Annual progress report, October 1994--September 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, W.S.

    1995-12-01

    The Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory (DIAL), an interdisciplinary research department in the College of Engineering at Mississippi State University (MSU), is under contract with the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and apply advanced diagnostic instrumentation and analysis techniques to aid in solving DOE`s nuclear waste problem. The program is a comprehensive effort which includes five focus areas: advanced diagnostic systems; development/application; torch operation and test facilities; process development; on-site field measurement and analysis; technology transfer/commercialization. As part of this program, diagnostic methods will be developed and evaluated for characterization, monitoring and process control. Also, the measured parameters, will be employed to improve, optimize and control the operation of the plasma torch and the overall plasma treatment process. Moreover, on-site field measurements at various DOE facilities are carried out to aid in the rapid demonstration and implementation of modern fieldable diagnostic methods. Such efforts also provide a basis for technology transfer.

  13. A comparison of classification methods as diagnostic system: A case study on skin lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeh, Suhail M; Baareh, Abdel Karim Mohamed

    2016-12-01

    Numerous classification methods are currently available, but most of them were performed on different datasets. In this paper, different classification techniques were used for a diagnostic system on different skin lesions for the same data, which gives consistency for the data to have more accurate and better results. Four classification methods were proposed, a classical method based on K-Nearest Neighbor with Sequential Scanning selection technique for feature selection, a classical method with complex technique KNN with Genetic Algorithm, a complex method based on Artificial Neural Networks with Genetic Algorithm and an Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System. From the results obtained we can say that the performance of KNN with optimization of genetic algorithm for the feature selection was the best with an accuracy rate of 94%. The Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System result was also good with an accuracy rate of 92%, and the other techniques' results were also satisfactory. The improvement on the performance of the classifier depends on the feature selection methods. In addition, the diagnosis system as a decision support tool could be used to increase the performance of human experts to make a correct decision. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Resonant scattering as a sensitive diagnostic of current collisional plasma models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogorzalek, Anna; Zhuravleva, Irina; Allen, Steven W.; Pinto, Ciro; Werner, Norbert; Mantz, Adam; Canning, Rebecca; Fabian, Andrew C.; Kaastra, Jelle S.; de Plaa, Jelle

    2017-08-01

    Resonant scattering is a subtle process that suppresses fluxes of some of the brightest optically thick X-ray emission lines produced by collisional plasmas in galaxy clusters and massive early-type galaxies. The amplitude of the effect depends on the turbulent structure of the hot gas, making it a sensitive velocity probe. It is therefore crucial to properly model this effect in order to correctly interpret high resolution X-ray spectra. Our measurements of resonant scattering with XMM-Newton Reflection Grating Spectrometer in giant elliptical galaxies and with Hitomi in the center of Perseus Cluster show that the potentially rich inference from this effect is limited by the uncertainties in the atomic data underlying plasma codes such as APEC and SPEX. Typically, the effect is of the order of 10-20%, while the discrepancy between the two codes is of similar order or even higher. Precise knowledge of the emissivity and oscillator strengths of lines emitted by Fe XVII and Fe XXV, as well as their respective uncertainties propagated through plasma codes are key to understanding gas dynamics and microphysics in giant galaxies and cluster ICM, respectively. This is especially crucial for massive ellipticals, where sub-eV resolution would be needed to measure line broadening precisely, making resonant scattering an important velocity diagnostic in these systems for the foreseeable future. In this poster, I will summarize current status of resonant scattering measurements and show how they depend on the assumed atomic data. I will also discuss which improvements are essential to maximize scientific inference from future high resolution X-ray spectra.

  15. Re-appraisal of old and new diagnostic tools in the current management of chronic hepatitis B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessone, Fernando

    2014-08-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a very complex and intricate DNA structure associated with a particular genomic organization and replication cycle. However, many years of investigations allowed clarification of the real HBV natural history, through a deeper knowledge of the behavior of HBV antigens and viral structures. Several of the old diagnostic tools, such as HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) and HBV e antigen (HBeAg) determinations, gained prominence now, since the variation of both HBsAg and HBeAg plasma levels was shown to predict treatment response. In addition, the availability of more sensitive methods, such as HBV DNA detection by real-time PCR, has improved the current knowledge of the relationships between HBV replication levels and the natural history of the disease. It is now well established that some HBV genotypes are associated with a better response to treatment with pegylated interferon. Despite the widely accepted value of liver biopsy as a staging tool, transient elastography is being increasingly acknowledged as a non-invasive method to assess liver stiffness, chiefly for detection of advanced fibrosis. Current international guidelines for the management of chronic hepatitis B have provided several accurate biochemical and serological criteria for selecting patients for treatment, allowing a higher number of cases to be enrolled into antiviral therapy. This review describes the different serological markers used for the study of HBV and their clinical significance. It also deals with methods used for detection of genotypes and HBV DNA, emphasizing the effectiveness of such determinations for both patient selection and chronic hepatitis B therapy/monitoring.

  16. Hydroxymethyl phosphine compounds for use as diagnostic and therapeutic pharmaceuticals and method of making same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katti, Kattesh V.; Karra, Srinivasa Rao; Berning, Douglas E.; Smith, C. Jeffrey; Volkert, Wynn A.; Ketring, Alan R.

    1999-01-01

    A compound and method of making a compound for use as a diagnostic or therapeutic pharmaceutical comprises at least one functionalized hydroxyalkyl phosphine donor group and one or more sulfur or nitrogen donor and a metal combined with the ligand.

  17. Cognitive strategies: a method to reduce diagnostic errors in ER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Prevaldi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available I wonder why sometimes we are able to rapidly recognize patterns of disease presentation, formulate a speedy diagnostic closure, and go on with a treatment plan. On the other hand sometimes we proceed studing in deep our patient in an analytic, slow and rational way of decison making. Why decisions sometimes can be intuitive, while sometimes we have to proceed in a rigorous way? What is the “back ground noise” and the “signal to noise ratio” of presenting sintoms? What is the risk in premature labeling or “closure” of a patient? When is it useful the “cook-book” approach in clinical decision making? The Emergency Department is a natural laboratory for the study of error” stated an author. Many studies have focused on the occurrence of errors in medicine, and in hospital practice, but the ED with his unique operating characteristics seems to be a uniquely errorprone environment. That's why it is useful to understand the underlying pattern of thinking that can lead us to misdiagnosis. The general knowledge of thought processes gives the psysician awareness an the ability to apply different tecniques in clinical decision making and to recognize and avoid pitfalls.

  18. Electro-optic methods for longitudinal bunch diagnostics at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steffen, B.R.

    2007-07-15

    Precise measurements of the temporal profile of sub-picosecond electron bunches are of high interest for the optimization and operation of VUV and X-ray free electron lasers. In this thesis, the shortest electro-optic signals measured so far for electron bunch diagnostics are presented, reaching a time resolution of better than 50 fs (rms). The e ects that introduce signal distortions and limit the time resolution are studied in numerical simulations for different electro-optic detection materials and techniques. The time resolution is mainly limited by lattice resonances of the electro-optic crystal. Electro-optic signals as short as 54 fs (rms) are obtained with gallium phosphide (GaP) crystals in a crossed polarizer detection scheme using temporally resolved electro-optic detection. Measuring near crossed polarization, where the electro-optic signal is proportional to the velocity field of the relativistic electron bunch, the shortest obtained signal width is 70 fs (rms). The electro-optic signals are compared to electron bunch shapes that are measured simultaneously with a transverse deflecting structure with 20 fs resolution. Numerical simulations using the bunch shapes as determined with the transverse deflecting cavity as input data are in excellent agreement with electro-optical signals obtained with GaP, both for temporally and spectrally resolved measurements. In the case of zinc telluride (ZnTe) the observed signals are slightly broader and significantly smaller than expected from simulations. These discrepancies are probably due to the poor optical quality of the available ZnTe crystals. (orig.)

  19. Eddy currents non-destructive testing. use of a numeric/symbolic method to separate and characterize the transitions of a signal; Diagnostic par courants de Foucault. Separation et caracterisation des transitoires d`un signal par une methode numerique/symbolique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benas, J.C.; Lefevre, F.; Gaillard, P.; Georgel, B.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents an original numeric/symbolic method for solving an inverse problem in the field of non-destructive testing. The purpose of this method is to characterize the transitions of a signal even when they are superimposed. Its principle is to solve as many direct problems as necessary to obtain the solution, and to use some hypothesis to manage the reasoning of the process. The direct problem calculation yields to a `model signal`, and the solution is reached when the model signal is close to the measured one. This method calculates the directions of minimization thanks to a symbolic reasoning based on the peaks of the residual signal. The results of the method are good and seem very promising. (authors). 13 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Mapping the different methods adopted for diagnostic imaging instruction at medical schools in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojniak, Rubens; Carneiro, Dominique Piacenti; Moterani, Gustavo Simonetto Peres; Duarte, Ivone da Silva; Bitencourt, Almir Galvão Vieira; Muglia, Valdair Francisco; D'Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Objective To map the different methods for diagnostic imaging instruction at medical schools in Brazil. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study, a questionnaire was sent to each of the coordinators of 178 Brazilian medical schools. The following characteristics were assessed: teaching model; total course hours; infrastructure; numbers of students and professionals involved; themes addressed; diagnostic imaging modalities covered; and education policies related to diagnostic imaging. Results Of the 178 questionnaires sent, 45 (25.3%) were completed and returned. Of those 45 responses, 17 (37.8%) were from public medical schools, whereas 28 (62.2%) were from private medical schools. Among the 45 medical schools evaluated, the method of diagnostic imaging instruction was modular at 21 (46.7%), classic (independent discipline) at 13 (28.9%), hybrid (classical and modular) at 9 (20.0%), and none of the preceding at 3 (6.7%). Diagnostic imaging is part of the formal curriculum at 36 (80.0%) of the schools, an elective course at 3 (6.7%), and included within another modality at 6 (13.3%). Professors involved in diagnostic imaging teaching are radiologists at 43 (95.5%) of the institutions. Conclusion The survey showed that medical courses in Brazil tend to offer diagnostic imaging instruction in courses that include other content and at different time points during the course. Radiologists are extensively involved in undergraduate medical education, regardless of the teaching methodology employed at the institution. PMID:28298730

  1. Diagnostic Methods for Predicting Performance Impairment Associated With Combat Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    participants must mobilize additional effort to maintain safety and performance, and this additional effort may focus attention on the task, and mitigate the...pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis (sometimes known as the fight-or-flight response). The HPA has an acute ’proactive! role in mobilizing energy and...features on vigilance performance and mental workload. In M.W. Scerbo & M. Mouloua (Eds.), Automation techonology and human performance: Current research

  2. Evidence-Based Point-of-Care Diagnostics: Current Status and Emerging Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Cangel Pui Yee; Mak, Wing Cheung; Cheung, Kwan Yee; Sin, King Keung; Yu, Cheuk Man; Rainer, Timothy H.; Renneberg, Reinhard

    2013-06-01

    Point-of-care (POC) diagnostics brings tests nearer to the site of patient care. The turnaround time is short, and minimal manual interference enables quick clinical management decisions. Growth in POC diagnostics is being continuously fueled by the global burden of cardiovascular and infectious diseases. Early diagnosis and rapid initiation of treatment are crucial in the management of such patients. This review provides the rationale for the use of POC tests in acute coronary syndrome, heart failure, human immunodeficiency virus, and tuberculosis. We also consider emerging technologies that are based on advanced nanomaterials and microfluidics, improved assay sensitivity, miniaturization in device design, reduced costs, and high-throughput multiplex detection, all of which may shape the future development of POC diagnostics.

  3. Study on UPF Harmonic Current Detection Method Based on DSP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, H J [Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China); Pang, Y F [Xi' an University of Technology, Xi' an 710048 (China); Qiu, Z M [Xi' an University of Technology, Xi' an 710048 (China); Chen, M [Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China)

    2006-10-15

    Unity power factor (UPF) harmonic current detection method applied to active power filter (APF) is presented in this paper. The intention of this method is to make nonlinear loads and active power filter in parallel to be an equivalent resistance. So after compensation, source current is sinusoidal, and has the same shape of source voltage. Meanwhile, there is no harmonic in source current, and the power factor becomes one. The mathematic model of proposed method and the optimum project for equivalent low pass filter in measurement are presented. Finally, the proposed detection method applied to a shunt active power filter experimental prototype based on DSP TMS320F2812 is developed. Simulation and experiment results indicate the method is simple and easy to implement, and can obtain the real-time calculation of harmonic current exactly.

  4. Mapping the different methods adopted for diagnostic imaging instruction at medical schools in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojniak, Rubens; Carneiro, Dominique Piacenti; Moterani, Gustavo Simonetto Peres; Duarte, Ivone da Silva; Bitencourt, Almir Galvão Vieira; Muglia, Valdair Francisco; D'Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    To map the different methods for diagnostic imaging instruction at medical schools in Brazil. In this cross-sectional study, a questionnaire was sent to each of the coordinators of 178 Brazilian medical schools. The following characteristics were assessed: teaching model; total course hours; infrastructure; numbers of students and professionals involved; themes addressed; diagnostic imaging modalities covered; and education policies related to diagnostic imaging. Of the 178 questionnaires sent, 45 (25.3%) were completed and returned. Of those 45 responses, 17 (37.8%) were from public medical schools, whereas 28 (62.2%) were from private medical schools. Among the 45 medical schools evaluated, the method of diagnostic imaging instruction was modular at 21 (46.7%), classic (independent discipline) at 13 (28.9%), hybrid (classical and modular) at 9 (20.0%), and none of the preceding at 3 (6.7%). Diagnostic imaging is part of the formal curriculum at 36 (80.0%) of the schools, an elective course at 3 (6.7%), and included within another modality at 6 (13.3%). Professors involved in diagnostic imaging teaching are radiologists at 43 (95.5%) of the institutions. The survey showed that medical courses in Brazil tend to offer diagnostic imaging instruction in courses that include other content and at different time points during the course. Radiologists are extensively involved in undergraduate medical education, regardless of the teaching methodology employed at the institution.

  5. Lung scintigraphy in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism: current methods and interpretation criteria in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarlovnik, Ajda; Hrastnik, Damjana; Fettich, Jure; Grmek, Marko

    2014-06-01

    In current clinical practice lung scintigraphy is mainly used to exclude pulmonary embolism (PE). Modified diagnostic criteria for planar lung scintigraphy are considered, as newer scitigraphic methods, especially single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) are becoming more popular. Data of 98 outpatients who underwent planar ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) scintigraphy and 49 outpatients who underwent V/Q SPECT from the emergency department (ED) were retrospectively collected. Planar V/Q images were interpreted according to 0.5 segment mismatch criteria and revised PIOPED II criteria and perfusion scans according to PISA-PED criteria. V/Q SPECT images were interpreted according to the criteria suggested in EANM guidelines. Final diagnosis of PE was based on the clinical decision of an attending physician and evaluation of a 12 months follow-up period. Using 0.5 segment mismatch criteria and revised PIOPED II, planar V/Q scans were diagnostic in 93% and 84% of cases, respectively. Among the diagnostic planar scans readings specificity for 0.5 segment mismatch criteria was 98%, and 99% for revised PIOPED II criteria. V/Q SPECT showed a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 98%, without any non-diagnostic cases. In patients with low pretest probability for PE, planar V/Q scans assessed by 0.5 segment mismatch criteria were diagnostic in 92%, and in 85% using revised PIOPED II criteria, while perfusion scintigraphy without ventilation scans was diagnostic in 80%. Lung scintigraphy yielded diagnostically definitive results and is reliable in ruling out PE in patients from ED. V/Q SPECT has excellent specificity and sensitivity without any non-diagnostic results. Percentage of non-diagnostic results in planar lung scintigraphy is considerably smaller when 0.5 segment mismatch criteria instead of revised PIOPED II criteria are used. Diagnostic value of perfusion scintigraphy according to PISA-PED criteria is inferior to combined V/Q scintigraphy; the difference is

  6. A new method of reconstructing current paths in HTS tapes with defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlivaev, Alexey; Rudnev, Igor

    2017-03-01

    We propose a new method for calculating current paths in high-temperature superconductive (HTS) tapes with various defects including cracks, non-superconducting inclusions, and superconducting inclusions with lower local critical current density. The calculation method is based on a model of critical state which takes into account the dependence of the critical current on the magnetic field. The method allows us to calculate the spatial distribution of currents flowing through the defective HTS tape for both currents induced by the external magnetic field and transport currents from an external source. For both cases, we performed simulations of the current distributions in these tapes with different types of defects and have shown that the combination of the action of the magnetic field and transport current leads to a more detailed identification of the boundaries and shape of the defects. The proposed method is adapted for calculating modern superconductors in real superconducting devices and may be more useful as compared to the conventional magnetometric diagnostic studies, when the tape is affected by the magnetic field only.

  7. Abnormal uterine bleeding: a critical analysis of two diagnostic methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Jain

    2014-02-01

    Conclusions: Fibroids and polyps are the two commonest structural lesions causing AUB in the women of reproductive age group. TVS has a role as primary screening method for the initial work-up AUB before resorting to invasive procedure such as hysteroscopy. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(1.000: 48-53

  8. Reliability studies of diagnostic methods in Indian traditional Ayurveda medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurande, Vrinda Hitendra; Waagepetersen, Rasmus; Toft, Egon

    2013-01-01

    as prakriti classification), method development (pulse diagnosis), quality assurance for diagnosis and treatment and in the conduct of clinical studies. Several reliability studies are conducted in western medicine. The investigation of the reliability of traditional Chinese, Japanese and Sasang medicine...... to reliability estimates and different study designs and statistical analysis is given for future studies in Ayurveda....

  9. Restrictive Stochastic Item Selection Methods in Cognitive Diagnostic Computerized Adaptive Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun; Chang, Hua-Hua; Huebner, Alan

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes two new item selection methods for cognitive diagnostic computerized adaptive testing: the restrictive progressive method and the restrictive threshold method. They are built upon the posterior weighted Kullback-Leibler (KL) information index but include additional stochastic components either in the item selection index or in…

  10. A Current List of Available Diagnostic Instruments for Speech, Language and Hearing Clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fineman, Carol; Hoffman, Dennis W.

    Provided is a list of 40 diagnostic instruments for use by speech, language, and hearing clinicians. The list consists of five tests for aphasia, 10 for hearing, 15 for language, and 10 for speech. Information given for the tests usually includes the title, author, vendor, price, age range, time limits, and a brief description. The names and…

  11. Current molecular methods in epidemiological typing of Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafei, Rayane; Kempf, Marie; Eveillard, Matthieu; Dabboussi, Fouad; Hamze, Monzer; Joly-Guillou, Marie-Laure

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of Acinetobacter baumannii during recent decades as an important nosocomial pathogen responsible of worldwide, intensively documented, outbreaks has resulted in a need for effective epidemiological typing methods. Throughout the years, many typing methods for A. baumannii epidemiological studies have been proposed from phenotypic to molecular methods. Currently, the use of phenotypic typing methods have declined considerably and been progressively replaced by molecular methods. In this review, we introduce the current molecular methods available for A. baumannii typing. Each method has its own advantages and disadvantages, and the selection of an appropriate genotyping method depends on studied objectives. This review sheds light on questions in different epidemiological settings and most molecular methods used to fit these objectives.

  12. Novel Diagnostic Method for Personalized Treatment of Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zulfiqar, Azeem

    Point-Of-Care (POC) devices, due to their better portability and easy-to-use functions, have already found their way into the domestic house hold appliances. The technologies developed for these devices have enabled the mankind to monitor the health related problems at home such as the blood...... relies on highly expensive tools e.g. e-beam lithography, and expensive substrates e.g. Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) which poses hurdle in cheap and fast production of the devices that can be used for both research purposes and for domestic use. In this project, a novel fabrication method, using in......-microfluidic system on top of SiNW is demonstrated. The durability of the microfluidic system has also been tested. In the third part, different functionalization methods are explained and used to demonstrate the bio sensing on the SiNW sensor. The detection of cancer biomarker is also tested on these devices. Lastly...

  13. Apparatus and method for monitoring breath acetone and diabetic diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yixiang; Cao, Wenqing

    2008-08-26

    An apparatus and method for monitoring diabetes through breath acetone detection and quantitation employs a microplasma source in combination with a spectrometer. The microplasma source provides sufficient energy to produce excited acetone fragments from the breath gas that emit light. The emitted light is sent to the spectrometer, which generates an emission spectrum that is used to detect and quantify acetone in the breath gas.

  14. Method and apparatus for current-output peak detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Geronimo, Gianluigi

    2017-01-24

    A method and apparatus for a current-output peak detector. A current-output peak detector circuit is disclosed and works in two phases. The peak detector circuit includes switches to switch the peak detector circuit from the first phase to the second phase upon detection of the peak voltage of an input voltage signal. The peak detector generates a current output with a high degree of accuracy in the second phase.

  15. [Comparative study of different diagnostic methods in pulmonary alveolitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhmudova, S Iu

    2009-05-01

    To evaluate and analyze, clinical and roentgenological manifestations of extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) and idiopathic fibrosing alveolitis (IFA) 89 patients underwent bronchoscopy survey and functional test of lungs. Average age of patients was 38,3+/-5,8. Among examined 89 patients 31 (34,8%) patients were poultry farmers, 30 (33,7%) - millers, and 28 (31,5%) - tobacco-growers. EAA was found among 22 poultry farmers, 19 tobacco-growers, and 19 millers. IFA was found among 11 millers, 9 tobacco-growers and 9 poultry farmers. Acute respiratory disease (ARD) was found among 58 patients; 38 patients suffer from lung diseases. Control group consisted of 20 healthy people. Along with general blood analysis, all patients underwent - roentgenological analysis of thorax in two shifts. Recent studies show that CT lung screening is more sensitive than standard lung screening methods in detecting lung disease. Comparative analysis allowed concluding that Real-Time CT method is the most effective. CT lung screening is more sensitive than standard lung screening methods in detecting lung diseases.

  16. Bearing diagnostics: A method based on differential geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ye; Wang, Zili; Lu, Chen; Wang, Zhipeng

    2016-12-01

    The structures around bearings are complex, and the working environment is variable. These conditions cause the collected vibration signals to become nonlinear, non-stationary, and chaotic characteristics that make noise reduction, feature extraction, fault diagnosis, and health assessment significantly challenging. Thus, a set of differential geometry-based methods with superiorities in nonlinear analysis is presented in this study. For noise reduction, the Local Projection method is modified by both selecting the neighborhood radius based on empirical mode decomposition and determining noise subspace constrained by neighborhood distribution information. For feature extraction, Hessian locally linear embedding is introduced to acquire manifold features from the manifold topological structures, and singular values of eigenmatrices as well as several specific frequency amplitudes in spectrograms are extracted subsequently to reduce the complexity of the manifold features. For fault diagnosis, information geometry-based support vector machine is applied to classify the fault states. For health assessment, the manifold distance is employed to represent the health information; the Gaussian mixture model is utilized to calculate the confidence values, which directly reflect the health status. Case studies on Lorenz signals and vibration datasets of bearings demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  17. Imaging methods for knee-joint diagnostics. Bildgebende Verfahren zur Diagnostik von Kniegelenksverletzungen und -erkrankungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haller, W. (Klinikum rechts der Isar, Muenchen (Germany, F.R.). Orthopaedische Klinik und Poliklinik); Lehner, K. (Klinikum rechts der Isar, Muenchen (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Roentgendiagnostik)

    1989-06-01

    Imaging methods are essential tools for orthopedic diagnostics. For examination of knee-joint disorder, X-ray radiography in four planes is a standard task. Special diagnostic methods are available and can be selected according to the case, and sonography is a method very likely to gain significance. In case of suspected fracture, conventional tomography is the method of choice, although arthroscopy is discussed in this context as a primary examination. CT or NMR imaging are indicated for evaluation of tumors near the knee joint, and latest results show that magnetic resonance tomography is useful for examination of the cruciate ligaments or the cartilage, and CT for imaging of the menisci. CT assisted arthrography for sliding path and cartilage analysis already is an established method for diagnostic evaluation of the chondropathia patellae. (orig./MG).

  18. Mental Disorder Diagnostic System Based on Logical-Combinatorial Methods of Pattern Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Yankovskaya

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe mental disorder diagnostic system based on logical-combinatorial methods of pattern recognition called as the intelligent system DIAPROD-LOG. The system is designed for diagnostics and prevention of depression. The mathematical apparatus for creation of the proposed system based on a matrix model of data and knowledge representation, as well as various kinds of regularities in data and knowledge are presented. The description of the system is given.

  19. Current antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of typhoidal salmonellae in a referral diagnostic centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umer Shujat

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infections caused by typhoidal salmonellae are an important public health concern in Pakistan. Inappropriate and injudicious use of fluoroquinolones has reduced their efficacy due to development of high level resistance. Aim: To ascertain the current susceptibility pattern of typhoidal salmonellae thus guiding the physicians for better management of typhoid patients.Materials and Methods: A study was conducted at our institution from January 2012 through December 2013 to investigate current susceptibility pattern of typhoidal salmonellae. Results: Out of 200 isolates, 107 (53.5% were identified as Salmonella Typhi and 93 (46.5% as Salmonella Paratyphi A. Sensitivities of Salmonella Typhi were as follows: ampicillin (48.6%, chloramphenicol (45.8%, co-trimoxazole (40.1%, ciprofloxacin (11.2%. Sensitivities of Salmonella Paratyphi A were: ampicillin (80.6%, chloramphenicol (89.2%, co-trimoxazole (90.3%, and ciprofloxacin (16.1%. No resistance was detected against third generation cephalosporins. Conclusions: Typhoidal salmonellae are still entirely susceptible to third generation cephalosporins in our setting. Marked rise in resistance to fluoroquinolones has reduced their empirical usage. Sensitivity of Salmonella Paratyphi A to conventional antityphoid drugs was encouraging.

  20. Combustion diagnostics by nonintrusive methods; Thermophysics Conference, 18th, Montreal, Canada, June 1-3, 1983, Selected Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccay, T. D. (Editor); Roux, J. A. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    The state of the art in coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) is outlined, and current diagnostic capabilities in particle and combustion diagnostics are demonstrated. The development and application of CARS to combustion systems is discussed, and the use of LIF for flow diagnostics is addressed. Nonintrusive particle diagnostics is treated, and a variety of nonintrusive techniques applied to combustion environments is considered.

  1. Diagnostic methods and treatment options for focal cortical dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrini, Renzo; Duchowny, Michael; Jayakar, Prasanna; Krsek, Pavel; Kahane, Philippe; Tassi, Laura; Melani, Federico; Polster, Tilman; Andre, Véronique M; Cepeda, Carlos; Krueger, Darcy A; Cross, J Helen; Spreafico, Roberto; Cosottini, Mirco; Gotman, Jean; Chassoux, Francine; Ryvlin, Philippe; Bartolomei, Fabrice; Bernasconi, Andrea; Stefan, Hermann; Miller, Ian; Devaux, Bertrand; Najm, Imad; Giordano, Flavio; Vonck, Kristl; Barba, Carmen; Blumcke, Ingmar

    2015-11-01

    cranial nerve stimulation modalities such as transcutaneous VNS (tVNS) and noninvasive (nVNS) requires further study. Although review of current strategies underscores the serious shortcomings of treatment-resistant cases, initial evidence from novel approaches suggests that future success is possible.

  2. Comparative Study of the Sensitivity of Different Diagnostic Methods for the Laboratory Diagnosis of Buruli Ulcer Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herbinger, Karl-Heinz; Adjei, Ohene; Awua-Boateng, Nana-Yaa; Nienhuis, Willemien A.; Kunaa, Letitia; Siegmund, Vera; Nitschke, Joerg; Thompson, William; Klutse, Erasmus; Agbenorku, Pius; Schipf, Alexander; Reu, Simone; Racz, Paul; Fleischer, Bernhard; Beissner, Marcus; Fleischmann, Erna; Helfrich, Kerstin; van der Werf, Tjip S.; Loescher, Thomas; Bretzel, Gisela

    2009-01-01

    Background. Several diagnostic laboratory methods are available for case confirmation of Buruli ulcer disease. This study assessed the sensitivity of various diagnostic tests in relation to clinical presentation of the disease, type of diagnostic specimen, and treatment history. Methods. Swab sample

  3. [Application of chromatography methods for the diagnostics of systemic inflammation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastukhova, N K; Starkov, G E

    2010-01-01

    Specific manifestations of systemic inflammation in patients with acute destructive cholecystitis in the postoperative period were studied by the methods of high-precision exclusive liquid chromatography with chromatograph "Trirotar" (Japan) with columns "Polysep G-5", "Toyopearl-Sw - 2000-2500". It was found that systemic inflammation was accompanied by active accumulation of middle- and low-molecular mass. Later their spectrum was found to change when going over to unfavorable clinical course. In patients with septic shock there occurred enrichment of the chromatographic picture spectrum with new peaks (substances which can be considered as endotoxins), decrease of the albumin concentration, as well as increase of dispersity of the biochemical composition of blood.

  4. Cost utility analysis of diagnostic method of syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Presently, the diagnosis of syphilis is dependent mainly on serological tests. The most widely used screening tests for syphilis are the VDRL and the rapid plasma reagin (RPR and for confirmation, the fluorescent treponemal antibody (FTA and the treponema pallidum hemagglutination (TPHA tests. The four alternative modes for diagnosis of syphilis can be a VDRL + FTA, b VDRL + TPHA, c RPR + FTA and d RPR + TPHA. Here the author reports an evaluation of cost utility of these tests in medical practice. It is shown that the cost per accurate diagnosis with VDRL + TPH is the least expensive choice. Therefore, this alternative is the best method for serological diagnosis for syphilis, based on medical laboratory economics principles

  5. Critical Review of Diagnostic Methods Used in Chronic Pancreatic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan T Beck

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a balanced assessment of the various pancreatic function tests and imaging techniques used in the differential diagnosis of chronic pancreatic disease. Function tests that study the digestive capacity of the pancreas (fat absorption of dietary lipids, fluorescein- or radiolabelled fats, bentiromide test, etc have high specificity, but very low sensitivity. This is because 90% of pancreas has to be destroyed before steatorrhea or creatorrhea occurs. Tests that directly measure pancreatic bicarbonate and protein secretion (secretin test, etc are more accurate and may detect pancreatic dysfunction even before anatomical changes occur. Measurement of pancreatic enzymes in serum or urine, or the decreased decline of serum amino acids during their incorporation into pancreatic enzymes, are not sufficiently sensitive or specific to help diagnose pancreatic disease. Sensitive and specific tumour markers are not yet available. Thus screening tests are not cost-effective - if they are negative, they do not exclude pancreatic disease; and if positive, they have to be confirmed by more specific tests. Imaging techniques are the most commonly used methods of investigation. The usefulness of abdominal survey films, barium studies, percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP, ultrasonography, computed tomographic scan, magnetic resonance imaging and endoscopic ultrasonography is critically reviewed. Most of the radiological methods can be combined with cytology or biopsy. Histology demonstrating malignancy establishes this diagnosis, but negative biopsies do not exclude malignant tumours. Presently only ERCP and endoscopic ultrasound can diagnose cancers sufficiently early to allow for possible `curative' surgery, and only endoscopic ultrasound is capable to stage tumours for the assessment of resectability.

  6. Laser Diagnostic Method for Plasma Sheath Potential Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Sean P.

    Electric propulsion systems are gaining popularity in the aerospace field as a viable option for long term positioning and thrusting applications. In particular, Hall thrusters have shown promise as the primary propulsion engine for space probes during interplanetary journeys. However, the interaction between propellant xenon ions and the ceramic channel wall continues to remain a complex issue. The most significant source of power loss in Hall thrusters is due to electron and ion currents through the sheath to the channel wall. A sheath is a region of high electric field that separates a plasma from a wall or surface in contact. Plasma electrons with enough energy to penetrate the sheath may result emission of a secondary electron from the wall. With significant secondary electron emission (SEE), the sheath voltage is reduced and so too is the electron retarding electric field. Therefore, a lower sheath voltage further increases the particle loss to the wall of a Hall thruster and leads to plasma cooling and lower efficiency. To further understand sheath dynamics, laser-induced fluorescence is employed to provide a non-invasive, in situ, and spatially resolved technique for measuring xenon ion velocity. By scanning the laser wavelength over an electronic transition of singly ionized xenon and collecting the resulting fluorescence, one can determine the ion velocity from the Doppler shifted absorption. Knowing the velocity at multiple points in the sheath, it can be converted to a relative electric potential profile which can reveal a lot about the plasma-wall interaction and the severity of SEE. The challenge of adequately measuring sheath potential profiles is optimizing the experiment to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio. A strong signal with low noise, enables high resolution measurements and increases the depth of measurement in the sheath, where the signal strength is lowest. Many improvements were made to reduce the background luminosity, increase the

  7. Separating sheep from goats: A European view on the patent eligibility of biomedical diagnostic methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minssen, Timo; Schwartz, Robert

    2016-01-01

    and denial of a rehearing en banc. The claims at issue in U.S. Patent No. 6,258,540 (“US ’540 patent”) are directed to methods of genetic testing by detecting and amplifying paternally inherited fetal cell-free DNA (cffDNA) from maternal blood and plasma. Before the development of this non-invasive prenatal...... diagnostic test, patients were placed at higher risk and maternal plasma was routinely discarded as waste. A reluctant CAFC formulaically interpreted the Supreme Court-devised bifurcated test to identify patent ineligible subject matter and invalidated the patent for this ground-breaking method. Notably...... framework and case law regarding medical diagnostic methods. Leaving aside national peculiarities that would exceed the limitations of this study we focus on the EPO’s patent eligibility approach vis-à-vis medical diagnostic methods similar to those in Sequenom v. Ariosa. Section 2 discusses our findings...

  8. Using the method of judgement analysis to address variations in diagnostic decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hancock Helen C

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heart failure is not a clear-cut diagnosis but a complex clinical syndrome with consequent diagnostic uncertainty. Judgment analysis is a method to help clinical teams to understand how they make complex decisions. The method of judgment analysis was used to determine the factors that influence clinicians' diagnostic decisions about heart failure. Methods Three consultants, three middle grade doctors, and two junior doctors each evaluated 45 patient scenarios. The main outcomes were: clinicians' decisions whether or not to make a diagnosis of suspected heart failure; the relative importance of key factors within and between clinician groups in making these decisions, and the acceptability of the scenarios. Results The method was able to discriminate between important and unimportant factors in clinicians' diagnostic decisions. Junior and consultant physicians tended to use patient information similarly, although junior doctors placed particular weight on the chest X-Ray. Middle-grade doctors tended to use information differently but their diagnostic decisions agreed with consultants more frequently (k = 0.47 than junior doctors and consultants (k = 0.23, or middle grade and junior grade doctors (k = 0.10. Conclusions Judgment analysis is a potentially valuable method to assess influences upon diagnostic decisions, helping clinicians to manage the quality assurance process through evaluation of care and continuing professional development.

  9. A method to diagnose opioid dependence resulting from heroin versus prescription opioids using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Jennifer S; Prather, Kristi; Kropp, Frankie; Byrne, Mimmie; Sullivan, C Rollynn; Mohamedi, Nadia; Copersino, Marc L; Weiss, Roger D

    2010-03-01

    Treatment research with opioid-dependent populations has not traditionally distinguished between those dependent on prescription opioids versus dependent upon heroin. Evidence suggests there is a substantial subpopulation of individuals with opioid dependence resulting largely or exclusively from prescription opioid use. Because this subpopulation may respond to treatment differently from heroin users, a method for discriminating DSM-IV opioid dependence due to prescription opioid use would provide more precision when examining this population. This paper describes an innovative method using a currently available diagnostic instrument, to diagnose DSM-IV opioid dependence and distinguish between dependence resulting from prescription opioids versus dependence upon heroin.

  10. Magnetic diagnostics: general principles and the problem of reconstruction of plasma current and pressure profiles in toroidal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pustovitov, V.D.

    2000-04-01

    The restrictions of the magnetic diagnostics are discussed. Being related to the integral nature of the measurable quantities, they follow from the fundamental laws of electromagnetism. A series of particular examples demonstrating the strength of these restrictions is given and analyzed. A general rule is emphasized that the information obtained from external magnetic measurements is obviously insufficient for the reliable evaluation of plasma current and pressure profiles in tokamaks or in stellarators. The underlying reason is that outside the plasma the own field of the equilibrium plasma currents is determined by the boundary conditions on the plasma surface only. (author)

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF THE DIAGNOSTIC METHOD OF MORAL ORIENTATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Sergeevna Slavinskaya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines the developing and standardization of psychodiagnostics test that measures moral orientations for adolescence. The definition of moral orientations as a matter of diagnosis and the justification of chosen stimuli are provided. Respondents evaluate the degree to which 13 values are expressed in the behavior of seven categories of people (from the «native» to the «enemies». Youthful students from 17 to 21 years (N = 330 were used as a standardization sample. Factorial validity of the scales used was tested by using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. A hierarchical structure of the test (including the common scale and three subscales is confirmed by the CFA. Cronbach’s alpha indicated a high consistency between separate items of the test, demonstrating high reliability of the test’s scales. Criterion validity of the scales is assessed on the basis of the socio-demographic characteristics of the sample. The convergent and discriminant validity was assessed by establishing close statistical relations with constructs similar in content. The standards for test’s scales are developed. The results testify the adequacy of this method for the diagnosis of youth moral orientations.

  12. [Detection of early forms of keratoconus - current screening methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebels, S; Eppig, T; Seitz, B; Langenbucher, A

    2013-10-01

    The detection of early forms of keratoconus is still a challenge for clinicians. Beside clinical examination and diagnosis of keratoconus, a series of examination techniques has been established in clinical routine to assist in the diagnosis of early forms of keratoconus: corneal topography for measuring the geometry of the corneal front surface, tomography for measuring the geometry of structures of the anterior segment of the eye, aberrometers for evaluation of optical aberrations of the entire eye, and a system for investigation of the biomechanical properties of the cornea. These instruments provide software tools which are designed for diagnostic support in keratoconus. In this review article, we provide an overview over the spectrum of measurement systems currently on the market focussing on their performance for detecting (early forms of) keratoconus. In detail, we focus on dedicated keratoconus screening software modules of topography, tomography, aberrometry and biomechanics.

  13. Biomarkers of Alzheimer disease: current and future applications to diagnostic criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, Reisa; Johnson, Keith

    2013-04-01

    This article reviews recent advances in imaging and fluid biomarkers for Alzheimer disease (AD) and their application to newly proposed diagnostic criteria across the continuum of AD. There have been remarkable developments in neuroimaging markers for AD over the past decade, most notably the advent of positron emission tomography (PET) amyloid imaging using radiotracers that label fibrillar forms of amyloid-β (Aβ). Similarly, new research in CSF markers suggests CSF levels of Aβ1-42 and phosphorylated tau may be useful in the early diagnosis of AD and prediction of cognitive decline. The National Institute on Aging and the Alzheimer's Association recently convened three workgroups to develop joint recommendations for new diagnostic guidelines across the spectrum of AD. These recommendations incorporate biomarkers and propose updated criteria for the previously recognized stage of AD dementia, the evolving definition of mild cognitive impairment, and a newly proposed concept of stages of preclinical AD. Recent advances in AD biomarkers have increased the ability to detect evidence of early AD pathology in vivo. These biomarkers have been incorporated into new diagnostic recommendations, but a number of challenges remain for the biomarkers to become widely applied in clinical practice.

  14. Blood cell manufacture: current methods and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmins, Nicholas E; Nielsen, Lars K

    2009-07-01

    Blood transfusion depends on availability of donor material, and concerns over supply and safety have spurred development of methods to manufacture blood from stem cells. Current methods could theoretically yield therapeutic doses of red blood cells (RBCs) and platelets. However, due to the very large number of cells required to have any impact on supply (currently 10(19) RBC/year in the US), realization of routine manufacture faces significant challenges. Current yields are orders of magnitude too low for production of meaningful quantities, and the physical scale of the problem is a challenge in itself. We discuss these challenges in relation to current methods and how it might be possible to realize limited 'blood pharming' of neutrophils in the near future.

  15. Comparison between Amnisure Placental Alpha Microglobulin-1 Rapid Immunoassay and Standard Diagnostic Methods for Detection of Rupture of Membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Beng Kwang Ng; Pei Shan Lim; Mohamad Nasir Shafiee; Nur Azurah Abdul Ghani; Nor Azlin Mohamed Ismail; Mohd Hashim Omar; Muhammad Abdul Jamil Muhammad Yassin

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To determine the diagnostic accuracy of placental alpha microglobulin-1 assay and standard diagnostic methods for detecting rupture of membrane. Study Design. Prospective diagnostic study, between June 2011 to November 2011 at a tertiary centre. Initial evaluation included both the standard diagnostic methods for rupture of membranes and placental alpha microglobulin-1 immunoassay. The actual rupture of membranes was diagnosed on review of the medical records after delivery (absenc...

  16. Ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreatic head: A focus on current diagnostic and surgical concepts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mehdi Oua(i)ssi; Urs Giger; Guillaume Louis; Igor Sielezneff; Olivier Farges; Bernard Sastre

    2012-01-01

    Complete surgical resection still remains the only possibility of curing pancreatic cancer,however,only 10% of patients undergo curative surgery.Pancreatic resection currently remains the only method of curing patients,and has a 5-year overall survival rate between 7%-34% compared to a median survival of 3-11 mo for unresected cancer.Pancreatic surgery is a technically demanding procedure requiring highly standardized surgical techniques.Nevertheless,even in experienced hands,perioperative morbidity rates (delayed gastric emptying,pancreatic fistula etc.) are as high as 50%.Different strategies to reduce postoperative morbidity,such as different techniques of gastroenteric reconstruction (pancreatico-jejunostomy vs pancreatico-gastrostomy),intraoperative placement of a pancreatic main duct stent or temporary sealing of the main pancreatic duct with fibrin glue have not led to a significant improvement in clinical outcome.The perioperative application of somatostatin or its analogues may decrease the incidence of pancreatic fistulas in cases with soft pancreatic tissue and a small main pancreatic duct (< 3 mm).The positive effects of external pancreatic main duct drainage and antecolic gastrointestinal reconstruction have been observed to decrease the rate of pancreatic fistulas and delayed gastric emptying,respectively.Currently,the concept of extended radical lymphad-enectomy has been found to be associated with higher perioperative morbidity,but without any positive impact on overall survival.However,there is growing evidence that portal vein resections can be performed with acceptable low perioperative morbidity and mortality but does not achieve a cure.

  17. Three dimensional diagnostic, semidiagnostic and prognostic calculations of current in the East China Sea in April of 1994

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Three dimensional diagnostic, semidiagnostic and prognostic models in the a-coordinate are used to compute the current in the Fast China Sea with wind and hydrographic data obtained from the investigation of ocean fluxes in the East China Sea during the cruise of April 1994. The computed results show that: the density and velocity fields and so on have been adjusted when time t≈ 23 d,i. e., the solution of semidiagnostic calculation has been obtained. The quasi-steady state solution also has been reached after about 60 d. Comparing the results of diagnostic calculation with those of semidiagnostic and prognostic calculations, it is found that they agree qualitatively For example, they all show that: (1) The Kuroshio flows along the shelf break of 200~ 1 000m isobaths; (2) In the southeastern part of the computational region there is a stronger counter-current with an anticyclonic eddy; (3) The volume transport through Section lPN is about 30 × 106m3/s and so on. However there are some quantitative differences between them. For example, (1) For the semidiagnostic results the Kuroshio current is stronger and clearer than that for diagnostic results and the Kuroshio width is more narrow than that for diagnostic results. This shows that the semidiagnostic calculation can better reflect the topography effect; (2) In most computed region the vertical component of velocity intensifies for semidiagnostic result, especially on the shelf break. Comparing the results of semidiagnostic calculation with those of prognostic calculation, they agree qualitatively, and also agree quantitatively in the middle of computed region.

  18. Accuracy of diagnostic methods and surveillance sensitivity for human enterovirus, South Korea, 1999-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyeon, Ji-Yeon; Hwang, Seoyeon; Kim, Hyejin; Song, Jaehyoung; Ahn, Jeongbae; Kang, Byunghak; Kim, Kisoon; Choi, Wooyoung; Chung, Jae Keun; Kim, Cheon-Hyun; Cho, Kyungsoon; Jee, Youngmee; Kim, Jonghyun; Kim, Kisang; Kim, Sun-Hee; Kim, Min-Ji; Cheon, Doo-Sung

    2013-08-01

    The epidemiology of enteroviral infection in South Korea during 1999-2011 chronicles nationwide outbreaks and changing detection and subtyping methods used over the 13-year period. Of 14,657 patients whose samples were tested, 4,762 (32.5%) samples were positive for human enterovirus (human EV); as diagnostic methods improved, the rate of positive results increased. A seasonal trend of outbreaks was documented. Genotypes enterovirus 71, echovirus 30, coxsackievirus B5, enterovirus 6, and coxsackievirus B2 were the most common genotypes identified. Accurate test results correlated clinical syndromes to enterovirus genotypes: aseptic meningitis to echovirus 30, enterovirus 6, and coxsackievirus B5; hand, foot and mouth disease to coxsackievirus A16; and hand, foot and mouth disease with neurologic complications to enterovirus 71. There are currently no treatments specific to human EV infections; surveillance of enterovirus infections such as this study provides may assist with evaluating the need to research and develop treatments for infections caused by virulent human EV genotypes.

  19. Current methods for studying dynamic processes in the ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipp, Nikolai D.; Blaunshtein, Natan Sh.; Erukhimov, Lev M.; Ivanov, Vladimir A.; Uriadov, Valerii P.

    Current experimental and theoretical data relevant to the study of dynamic processes in the ionospheric plasma using state-of-the-art methods are summarized. The methods used include linear FM sounding, partial radio wave reflection, oblique-incidence radio wave scattering, radio wave heating of the ionosphere, plasma injection, and computer simulation of physical processes. For each specific method, experimental data are compared against theoretical predictions and numerical calculations.

  20. Application of diagnostic methods and molecular diagnosis of hemoglobin disorders in Khuzestan province of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakher Rahim

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The hemoglobinopathies refer to a diverse group of inherited disorders characterized by a reduced synthesis of one or more globin chains (thalassemias or the synthesis of structurally abnormal hemoglobin (Hb. The thalassemias often coexist with a variety of structural Hb variants giving rise to complex genotypes and an extremely wide spectrum of clinical and hematological phenotypes. Hematological and biochemical investigations and family studies provide essential clues to the different interactions and are fundamental to DNA diagnostics of the Hb disorders. Although DNA diagnostics have made a major impact on our understanding and detection of the hemoglobinopathies, DNA mutation testing should never be considered a shortcut or the test of first choice in the workup of a hemoglobinopathy. Materials and Methods: A careful three-tier approach involving: (1 Full blood count (2 Special hematological tests, followed by (3 DNA mutation analysis, provides the most effective way in which to detect primary gene mutations as well as gene-gene interactions that can influence the overall phenotype. With the exception of a few rare deletions and rearrangements, the molecular lesions causing hemoglobinopathies are all identifiable by PCR-based techniques. Furthermore, each at-risk ethnic group has its own combination of common Hb variants and thalassemia mutations. In Iran, there are many different forms of a and β thalassemia. Increasingly, different Hb variants are being detected and their effects per se or in combination with the thalassemias, provide additional diagnostic challenges. Results:We did step-by-step diagnosis workup in 800 patients with hemoglobinopathies who referred to Research center of Thalassemia and Hemoglobinopathies in Shafa Hospital of Ahwaz Joundishapour University of medical sciences, respectively. We detected 173 patients as iron deficiency anemia (IDA and 627 individuals as thalassemic patients by use of different

  1. RGB Measurements From Endoscopic Photography as a New and Objective Diagnostic Method for Chronic Tonsillitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenigun, Alper; Dogan, Remzi; Ozturan, Orhan; Meric Hafiz, Aysenur

    2016-03-01

    This study assessed the diagnostic role of a digital photographic assessment of chronic tonsillitis. This study was performed at a tertiary referral center. Three cohorts of children were studied based on their diagnoses: current chronic tonsillitis (before tonsillectomy), previous chronic tonsillitis (3 months after tonsillectomy), and healthy children (control group). Oropharyngeal regions of all subjects were examined and photographed endoscopically. Red/green/blue (RGB) values of particular oropharyngeal points were then measured. The current chronic tonsillitis group differed significantly from the other 2 groups. The RGB values of the current chronic tonsillitis group were significantly higher than those of the previous chronic tonsillitis group (3 months after tonsillectomy) and the control group (P = 0.018 (red), P = 0.024 (green), and P = 0.004 (blue)). The RGB values did not differ significantly between the previous chronic tonsillitis group and the control group (P = 0.684 [red], P = 0.890 [green], and P = 0.672 [blue]). The RGB values of the previous chronic tonsillitis group decreased significantly 3 months after tonsillectomy (P = 0.015 [red], P = 0.033 [green], and P = 0.001 [blue]). Sensitivity was 80%, specificity was 90%, the positive predictive value was 59%, the negative predictive value was 96%, and the general power of the test was 88.6% regarding the power and competence of the RGB test in the diagnosis of chronic tonsillitis. Measuring RGB values may be an inexpensive and simple way to quickly provide objective and corroborative information on hyperemia of the anterior pillars in diagnosing chronic tonsillitis in conjunction with subjective methods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Diagnostic test accuracy: methods for systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jared M; Klugar, Miloslav; Ding, Sandrine; Carmody, Dennis P; Hakonsen, Sasja J; Jadotte, Yuri T; White, Sarahlouise; Munn, Zachary

    2015-09-01

    Systematic reviews are carried out to provide an answer to a clinical question based on all available evidence (published and unpublished), to critically appraise the quality of studies, and account for and explain variations between the results of studies. The Joanna Briggs Institute specializes in providing methodological guidance for the conduct of systematic reviews and has developed methods and guidance for reviewers conducting systematic reviews of studies of diagnostic test accuracy. Diagnostic tests are used to identify the presence or absence of a condition for the purpose of developing an appropriate treatment plan. Owing to demands for improvements in speed, cost, ease of performance, patient safety, and accuracy, new diagnostic tests are continuously developed, and there are often several tests available for the diagnosis of a particular condition. In order to provide the evidence necessary for clinicians and other healthcare professionals to make informed decisions regarding the optimum test to use, primary studies need to be carried out on the accuracy of diagnostic tests and the results of these studies synthesized through systematic review. The Joanna Briggs Institute and its international collaboration have updated, revised, and developed new guidance for systematic reviews, including systematic reviews of diagnostic test accuracy. This methodological article summarizes that guidance and provides detailed advice on the effective conduct of systematic reviews of diagnostic test accuracy.

  3. Direct PCR: Alternative Diagnostic Method for Diagnosis of Diphtheria Rapidly, Easily and Cost Effective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunarno Sunarno

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Some diseases require immediate and appropriate treatment to decrease the fatality risk patients incident, for example diphtheria. Time to help patients is very crucial since delay of therapy may increase the mortality cases up to 20 times. In other hands, conventional diagnostic methods (the gold standard for diagnosis of diphtheria is time consuming and laborious. Therefore, an alternative diagnostic method which is rapid, easy and inexpensive is needed. In this case, direct PCR has been proved to reduce time and cost in laboratory examination. This study aimed to develop direct PCR as alternative diagnostic method for diagnosis of diphtheria rapidly, easily, and inexpensive. Fifteen samples include 10 isolates of Corynebacterium diphtheriae (toxigenic and 3 isolates of Corynebacterium non- diphtheriae (nontoxigenic and 2 clinical specimens (throat swab was examined by performing direct PCR method and a standard PCR method was used for optimizing the protocols. Result showed that direct PCR can be used to amplify target genes correctly as well as standard PCR. All of C. diphtheriae samples showed bands at 168 bp (dtxR gene marker and 551 bp (tox gene marker while no band appeared in others. Direct PCR detected at least 71 CFU/uL of bacterial cells in samples. We concluded that direct PCR can be used for alternative diagnostic method for diagnosis of diphtheria which is rapid, easy and cost effective.

  4. Current immunological and molecular tools for leptospirosis: diagnostics, vaccine design, and biomarkers for predicting severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajapakse, Senaka; Rodrigo, Chaturaka; Handunnetti, Shiroma M; Fernando, Sumadhya Deepika

    2015-01-16

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic spirochaetal illness that is endemic in many tropical countries. The research base on leptospirosis is not as strong as other tropical infections such as malaria. However, it is a lethal infection that can attack many vital organs in its severe form, leading to multi-organ dysfunction syndrome and death. There are many gaps in knowledge regarding the pathophysiology of leptospirosis and the role of host immunity in causing symptoms. This hinders essential steps in combating disease, such as developing a potential vaccine. Another major problem with leptospirosis is the lack of an easy to perform, accurate diagnostic tests. Many clinicians in resource limited settings resort to clinical judgment in diagnosing leptospirosis. This is unfortunate, as many other diseases such as dengue, hanta virus, rickettsial infections, and even severe bacterial sepsis, can mimic leptospirosis. Another interesting problem is the prediction of disease severity at the onset of the illness. The majority of patients recover from leptospirosis with only a mild febrile illness, while a few others have severe illness with multi-organ failure. Clinical features are poor predictors of potential severity of infection, and therefore the search is on for potential biomarkers that can serve as early warnings for severe disease. This review concentrates on these three important aspects of this neglected tropical disease: diagnostics, developing a vaccine, and potential biomarkers to predict disease severity.

  5. Adaptive Current Control Method for Hybrid Active Power Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Minh Thuyen

    2016-09-01

    This paper proposes an adaptive current control method for Hybrid Active Power Filter (HAPF). It consists of a fuzzy-neural controller, identification and prediction model and cost function. The fuzzy-neural controller parameters are adjusted according to the cost function minimum criteria. For this reason, the proposed control method has a capability on-line control clings to variation of the load harmonic currents. Compared to the single fuzzy logic control method, the proposed control method shows the advantages of better dynamic response, compensation error in steady-state is smaller, able to online control is better and harmonics cancelling is more effective. Simulation and experimental results have demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed control method.

  6. Differential Thermostimulated Discharge Current Method for Studying Electrets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekishev, G. A.; Yovcheva, T. A.; Viraneva, A. P.; Gencheva, E. A.

    2010-01-01

    The thermostimulated discharge current method (TSDC) is widely used for the study of charge storage mechanisms in electrets. A new discharged technique, called differential, which consists in discharging a charged sample through an otherwise identical but uncharged one, has been proposed by J.-P. Reboul and A. Toureille. In the present paper a new version of the differential thermostimulated discharge current method is advanced. In contrast to the differential technique described earlier, the measuring cell allows to realize typical differential technique. In this case the measuring system records the difference of the thermostimulated currents of two samples which have been preliminary charged (or thermally treated) under the same or different conditions. Samples of 0.85 mm thick polymethylmethacrylate are used to demonstrate an operation of the developed differential TSDC method.

  7. Are the classic diagnostic methods in mycology still state of the art?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, Cornelia; Bauer, Andrea; Brasch, Jochen; Nenoff, Pietro; Schaller, Martin; Mayser, Peter; Hipler, Uta-Christina; Elsner, Peter

    2016-05-01

    The diagnostic workup of cutaneous fungal infections is traditionally based on microscopic KOH preparations as well as culturing of the causative organism from sample material. Another possible option is the detection of fungal elements by dermatohistology. If performed correctly, these methods are generally suitable for the diagnosis of mycoses. However, the advent of personalized medicine and the tasks arising therefrom require new procedures marked by simplicity, specificity, and swiftness. The additional use of DNA-based molecular techniques further enhances sensitivity and diagnostic specificity, and reduces the diagnostic interval to 24-48 hours, compared to weeks required for conventional mycological methods. Given the steady evolution in the field of personalized medicine, simple analytical PCR-based systems are conceivable, which allow for instant diagnosis of dermatophytes in the dermatology office (point-of-care tests).

  8. [Methodical features of the molding of diagnostic competences in medical parasitology workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovgalev, A S; Astanina, S Iu; Avdiukhina, T I; Serdiuk, A P; Imamkuliev, K D

    2015-01-01

    The paper provides a rationale for a procedure to mold diagnostic competences in medical workers of the laboratories of therapeutic-and-prophylactic institutions and hygiene and epidemiology centers, Russian Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare. The methodical features of molding diagnostic competences in the above contingents are the design and organization of an educational process by applying systems integration and competence-based approaches; increased active self-directed learning of audience; a procedure to organize its unsupervised extracurricular activities. Professional habits and skills in laboratory specialists should be molded on the basis of didactic principles and in compliance with the found methodical patterns. The eventual result (molded competences) and its compliance with the practical health care requirements is assessed using all control types (incoming, running, intermediate, and ultimate ones). This ensures the stability and predictability of molding diagnostic competences in parasitology specialists.

  9. Single element of the matrix source of negative hydrogen ions: Measurements of the extracted currents combined with diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yordanov, D., E-mail: yordanov@phys.uni-sofia.bg; Lishev, St.; Shivarova, A. [Faculty of Physics, Sofia University, BG-1164 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2016-02-15

    Combining measurements of the extracted currents with probe and laser-photodetachment diagnostics, the study is an extension of recent tests of factors and gas-discharge conditions stimulating the extraction of volume produced negative ions. The experiment is in a single element of a rf source with the design of a matrix of small-radius inductively driven discharges. The results are for the electron and negative-ion densities, for the plasma potential and for the electronegativity in the vicinity of the plasma electrode as well as for the currents of the extracted negative ions and electrons. The plasma-electrode bias and the rf power have been varied. Necessity of a high bias to the plasma electrode and stable linear increase of the extracted currents with the rf power are the main conclusions.

  10. Probability of detection models for eddy current NDE methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajesh, S.N.

    1993-04-30

    The development of probability of detection (POD) models for a variety of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods is motivated by a desire to quantify the variability introduced during the process of testing. Sources of variability involved in eddy current methods of NDE include those caused by variations in liftoff, material properties, probe canting angle, scan format, surface roughness and measurement noise. This thesis presents a comprehensive POD model for eddy current NDE. Eddy current methods of nondestructive testing are used widely in industry to inspect a variety of nonferromagnetic and ferromagnetic materials. The development of a comprehensive POD model is therefore of significant importance. The model incorporates several sources of variability characterized by a multivariate Gaussian distribution and employs finite element analysis to predict the signal distribution. The method of mixtures is then used for estimating optimal threshold values. The research demonstrates the use of a finite element model within a probabilistic framework to the spread in the measured signal for eddy current nondestructive methods. Using the signal distributions for various flaw sizes the POD curves for varying defect parameters have been computed. In contrast to experimental POD models, the cost of generating such curves is very low and complex defect shapes can be handled very easily. The results are also operator independent.

  11. DIRECT SMEAR VS CELL BLOCK (PLASMA- THROMBIN CLOT) METHOD: DIAGNOSTIC VALUE IN SEROSAL CAVITIES FLUIDS CYTOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Mahzouni, P.; M SHARIFANI

    2000-01-01

    Introduction. To improve testing sensitivity, most laboratories use two or more preparation methods but in our laboratories only one method is used which is "direct smear". In this study we tried to evaluate the diagnostic value of cell block as adjunct to direct smear in the cytologic investigation of serosal cavities fluids. Methods. In a clinical trial study 62 specimens of serosal cavity fluids were investigated in AL-Zahrapathology laboratory (Get. 1998 to Get. 1999). Cytologic slid...

  12. Quantitative Diagnostic Method for Biceps Long Head Tendinitis by Using Ultrasound

    OpenAIRE

    Shih-Wei Huang; Wei-Te Wang

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the feasibility of grayscale quantitative diagnostic method for biceps tendinitis and determine the cut-off points of a quantitative biceps ultrasound (US) method to diagnose biceps tendinitis. Design. Prospective cross-sectional case controlled study. Setting. Outpatient rehabilitation service. Methods. A total of 336 shoulder pain patients with suspected biceps tendinitis were recruited in this prospective observational study. The grayscale pixel data of the range ...

  13. Breast papillomas: current management with a focus on a new diagnostic and therapeutic modality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Sarakbi, W; Worku, D; Escobar, PF; Mokbel, K

    2006-01-01

    Breast papilloma is a term that describes an intraductal papillary configuration of the mammary epithelium on macroscopic or microscopic examination. It includes solitary intraductal papillomas, multiple papillomas, papillomatosis, and juvenile papillomatosis (JP). Recent advances in mammary ductoscopy (MD) have raised new possibilities in the diagnosis and treatment of breast papillomas. This technique represents an important diagnostic adjunct in patients with pathological nipple discharge (PND) by allowing direct visualisation and biopsy of intraductal lesions and guiding duct excision surgery. Treatment of breast papillomas often entails surgical duct excision for symptomatic relief and histopathological examination. Recently, more conservative approach has been adapted. MD-assisted microdochectomy should be considered the procedure of choice for a papilloma-related single duct discharge. Furthermore, there is increasing evidence that MD has the potential to reduce the number of duct excision procedures and minimise the extent of surgical resection. Imaging-guided vacuum-assisted core biopsy can be diagnostic and therapeutic for papillomas seen on mammography and/or ultrasound. Patients with multiple papillomas do have an increased risk of developing cancer and should be kept under annual review with regular mammography (preferably digital mammography) if treated conservatively. Magnetic resonance (MR) can be also used in surveillance in view of its high sensitivity. Because the risk is small, long term and affects both breasts, long-term follow-up is more appropriate than prophylactic mastectomy. Patients who prove to have solitary duct papilloma have insufficient increase in the risk of subsequent malignancy to justify routine follow-up. PMID:16417642

  14. Current updates on diagnostic methodologies for tick-borne hemoparasitic diseases in equids: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawan Adamu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Tick-borne diseases (TBDs or otherwise called equine piroplasmosis (EP are the foremost economic limitations to equids production. Thus, reducing the breeding capability and athletic performance of equids globally. Identification of these haemoparasites is crucial in understanding their distribution in the population and it is imperative to discern between species and subspecies that are responsible for the occurrence of the disease conditions. Conventional procedures such as microscopic and serological evaluations do not usually meet these prerequisites. Diagnostic contrivances, such as the complement fixation test (CFT, the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT and the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA have been efficaciously used for many years. Furthermore, DNA-based investigations for identification, differentiation and classification of different haemoparasites have also been established. Molecular diagnostic procedures, such as DNA hybridization, polymerase chain reaction (PCR, transcriptomics, proteomics, metagenomics and metabolomics, permit the uncovering of parasites in blood, tissues or ticks with optimal sensitivity, specificity and consistency. In addition, these procedures can be exploited to detect definite species and subspecies. The prerequisite of these investigations must include proper premeditation and validation, these investigations provide an effective device for molecular studies, with greater benefits of flexibility to standardization. The application of these procedures for studying TBDs or EP globally will be irreplaceable for a long period from now. Therefore, the aim of this review is to draw up the specifics of the procedures in more convenient form for practitioners and researchers. KEY WORDS: Diagnosis, equids, molecular, transcriptomics, proteomics, metagenomics, metabolomics, haemoparasites, tick-borne diseases [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(2.000: 84-91

  15. Diagnostic Comparisons of Near-Earth Object Identification using Slit Spectroscopy and Slitless Grating Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, E.; Ryan, W.

    2014-09-01

    Space object identification and characterization is an important component of Space Situational Awareness (SSA). Through an Air Force collaboration that has provided a visible wavelength, low-resolution spectrometer, researchers at the Magdalena Ridge Observatory 2.4-meter telescope (located in New Mexico) have been investigating the advantages and disadvantages of using slit spectroscopy versus slitless grating methods to characterize artificial Earth-orbiting objects. The objective is to develop a method that returns useful diagnostic information with a minimal investment in observational monitoring time. However, spectral measurements are a desirable component of characterization studies of natural objects in near-Earth orbit as well. Therefore, in 2012, we began to extend this instrumentation beyond its SSA applications to the study of Near-Earth asteroids (NEAs). The typical lifetimes of NEAs are up to three orders of magnitude shorter than the typical timescales associated with the main asteroid belt. Therefore, the current NEA population is a relatively recent product that has to be continually re-supplied. Spectroscopic analysis of NEAs helps characterize their taxonomic distribution and identify potential source regions which would then enhance our understanding of the origin of the current population. Although this is of interest scientifically, it can also help estimate the magnitude of the hazard threat from still undiscovered asteroids as well as provide guidance to optimize ground-based telescope search strategies. Slit-based spectroscopy is time consuming and has limitations on how faint an object can be studied. Therefore, the goal of this current project is to determine whether a lower resolution (by a factor of 10 with respect to the slit-based spectrometer), readily available slitless grating is sufficient for rough taxonomic classification in the study of fainter target-of-opportunity NEAs. The grating provides spectral information in 20nm

  16. Large Antenna Control Methods: Current Status and Future Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, G.; Lin, Y. H.; Milman, M. H.

    1985-01-01

    Current methods for control of large antennas, as well as future trends required for improved performance are addressed. Some of the target missions in which these methods would be used are: the Land Mobile Satellite System (LMSS) for communications; the Satellite Surveillance (SSS) for aircraft traffic control; the orbiting Very Long Baseline Interferometer (VLBI), or QUASAT, for radio astronomy; and the Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) for IR and submillimeter astronomy.

  17. Pancreatic exocrine studies in intact animals: historic and current methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebergall-Roth, E; Teyssen, S; Singer, M V

    1997-12-01

    This report presents a review of the historic and current methods for performing pancreatic exocrine studies in intact animals. Special emphasis is given to the various surgical procedures--pancreatic fistulas, duodenal pouches, and duodenal fistulas--and practice of collecting pancreatic secretion in dogs. Procedures in other animal species--rat, cat, pig, rabbit, cattle, sheep, and horse--also are specified. The advantages and disadvantages, as well as the indications and limitations of the distinct methods, are discussed.

  18. Medical diagnosis aboard submarines. Use of a computer-based Bayesian method of analysis in an abdominal pain diagnostic program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, S F

    1984-02-01

    The medical issues that arise in the isolated environment of a submarine can occasionally be grave. While crewmembers are carefully screened for health problems, they are still susceptible to serious acute illness. Currently, the submarine medical department representative, the hospital corpsman, utilizes a history and physical examination, clinical acumen, and limited laboratory testing in diagnosis. The application of a Bayesian method of analysis to an abdominal pain diagnostic system utilizing an onboard microcomputer is described herein. Early results from sea trials show an appropriate diagnosis in eight of 10 cases of abdominal pain, but the program should still be viewed as an extended "laboratory test" until proved effective at sea.

  19. An In Vitro Comparison of Different Diagnostic Methods in Detection of Residual Dentinal Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimet Unlu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the efficiency of different diagnostic methods in detection of residual dentinal caries in excavated cavities. Fifty extracted molar with deep dentinal carious lesions were excavated using a slow-speed handpiece. All cavities were assessed by laser fluorescence(LF device, electronic caries monitor(ECM, and caries detector dye(CDD by three independent observers blindly. The measurements were repeated after two weeks. Specimens containing dentin slices 150 μm in thickness were prepared for histological analyses. The existence and absence of carious dentin was determined using a lightmicroscope. The average intraobserver accuracy was 1.00 (perfect agreement for CDD, 0.86 (excellent agreement for ECM, and 0.50 (good agreement for LF. The average interobserver accuracy values were 0.92 (excellent agreement, (0.36 marginal agreement and 0.48 (good agreement, for CDD, ECM, and LF, respectively. The average specificity was 0.60 for CDD, 73% for ECM, and 0.50 for LF. The average sensitivity was 0.55 for CDD, 0.85 for LF, and 0.47 for ECM. The average accuracy values were 0.53, 0.51, and 0.81 for CDD, ECM, and LF, respectively. LF had the greatest sensitivity and accuracy values of any of the methods tested. As a conclusion, LF device is appeared to most reliable method in detection of remain caries in cavity. However, because of its technical sensitivity it may susceptible to variations in measurements. To pay attention to the rule of usage and repeated measurements can minimize such variations in clinical practice. It was concluded that LF is an improvement on the currently available aids for residual caries detection.

  20. Interlaboratory diagnostic accuracy of a Salmonella specific PCR-based method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malorny, B.; Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Hugas, M.;

    2003-01-01

    A collaborative study involving four European laboratories was conducted to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of a Salmonella specific PCR-based method, which was evaluated within the European FOOD-PCR project (http://www.pcr.dk). Each laboratory analysed by the PCR a set of independent obtaine...

  1. Hydroxyalkyl phosphine gold complexes for use as diagnostic and therapeutic pharmaceuticals and method of making same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katti, Kattesh V.; Berning, Douglas E.; Volkert, Wynn A.; Ketring, Alan R.

    1998-01-01

    A complex and method for making same for use as a diagnostic or therapeutic pharmaceutical includes a ligand comprising at least one hydroxyalkyl phosphine donor group bound to a gold atom to form a gold-ligand complex that is stable in aqueous solutions containing oxygen, serum and other body fluids.

  2. Validation of a Theoretical Model of Diagnostic Classroom Assessment: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to validate a theoretical model of diagnostic, formative classroom assessment called, "Proximal Assessment for Learner Diagnosis" (PALD). To achieve its purpose, the study employed a two-stage, mixed-methods design. The study utilized multiple data sources from 11 elementary level mathematics teachers who…

  3. [Mobile phone based data acquisition and evaluation system for the alternative four diagnostic methods of traditional Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Liu, Jing; Liu, Ran

    2013-01-01

    This study is dedicated to integrate the theories of the four diagnostic methods of TCM and the methods of mobile healthcare so as to achieve the goal of the four diagnostic functions of TCM on mobile phone. An Android smartphone based data acquisition system has been developed and experimentally demonstrated. It was shown that the prototype could successfully achieve the fundamental function of the four diagnostic methods of TCM and thus help preliminarily interpret the symptoms of human diseases.

  4. A survey of methods used for antimicrobial susceptibility testing in veterinary diagnostic laboratories in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargatz, David A; Erdman, Matthew M; Harris, Beth

    2017-09-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a serious threat to animal and human health worldwide, requiring a collaborative, holistic approach. The U.S. Government has developed a national strategy to address antimicrobial resistance, with one component being to monitor antimicrobial resistance in agricultural settings. We developed a survey to collect information about antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) from the veterinary diagnostic laboratory community in the United States, assessing current practices and technologies and determining how AST information is shared. Of the 132 surveys administered, 52 (39%) were returned. Overall, responding laboratories conducted susceptibility tests on 98,788 bacterial isolates in 2014, with Escherichia coli being the most common pathogen tested across all animal species. The 2 most common AST methods employed were the disk diffusion method (71%) and the Sensititre platform broth microdilution system (59%). Laboratories primarily used the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) VET-01 standard (69%) and the automatically calculated interpretations provided by the commercial AST systems (61%) for interpreting their AST data. Only 22% of laboratories published AST data on a periodic basis, usually via annual reports published on the laboratory's website or through peer-reviewed journals for specific pathogens. Our results confirm that disk diffusion and broth microdilution remain the standard AST methods employed by U.S. veterinary diagnostic laboratories, and that CLSI standards are commonly used for interpreting AST results. This information will help determine the most efficient standardized methodology for future surveillance. Furthermore, the current infrastructure within laboratories, once harmonized, will help provide a mechanism for conducting national surveillance programs.

  5. Combined complementary plasma diagnostics to characterize a 2f plasma with additional DC current with conditioning effects at the chamber wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klick, Michael; Rothe, Ralf; Baek, Kye Hyun; Lee, Eunwoo

    2016-09-01

    Multiple frequencies and DC current used in a low-pressure plasma rf discharge result in an increased complexity. This needs plasma diagnostics applied, in particular in a plasma process chamber. That is done under manufacturing conditions which restrict the applicable plasma diagnostics to non-invasive methods with small footprint. So plasma chamber parameters, optical emission spectroscopy (OES), and self-excited electron spectroscopy (SEERS) are used to characterize the plasma and to understand chamber wall conditioning effects in an Ar plasma. The parameters are classified according to their origin--the region they are representative for. The center ion density is estimated from the DC current and compared to the SEERS electron density reflecting the electron density close to that at the chamber wall. The conditioning effects are caused by Si sputtering at a Si wafer changing the chamber wall state only when the chamber is clean, subsequent plasmas in the same chamber are not affected in that way. Through the combination of the complementary methods it can be shown that the chamber wall condition finally changes the radial plasma density distribution. Also the heating of electrons in the sheath is shown to be influenced by conditioning effects.

  6. A Review of Frequency Response Analysis Methods for Power Transformer Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Alsuhaibani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Power transformers play a critical role in electric power networks. Such transformers can suffer failures due to multiple stresses and aging. Thus, assessment of condition and diagnostic techniques are of great importance for improving power network reliability and service continuity. Several techniques are available to diagnose the faults within the power transformer. Frequency response analysis (FRA method is a powerful technique for diagnosing transformer winding deformation and several other types of problems that are caused during manufacture, transportation, installation and/or service life. This paper provides a comprehensive review on FRA methods and their applications in diagnostics and fault identification for power transformers. The paper discusses theory and applications of FRA methods as well as various issues and challenges faced in the application of this method.

  7. Current Concepts for Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Infection: Diagnostics and Pathogenesis of Genital Tract Shedding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) is a DNA virus that is efficiently transmitted through intimate genital tract contact and causes persistent infection that cannot be eliminated. HSV-2 may cause frequent, symptomatic self-limited genital ulcers, but in most persons infection is subclinical. However, recent studies have demonstrated that the virus is frequently shed from genital surfaces even in the absence of signs or symptoms of clinical disease and that the virus can be transmitted during these periods of shedding. Furthermore, HSV-2 shedding is detected throughout the genital tract and may be associated with genital tract inflammation, which likely contributes to increased risk of HIV acquisition. This review focuses on HSV diagnostics, as well as what we have learned about the importance of frequent genital HSV shedding for (i) HSV transmission and (ii) genital tract inflammation, as well as (iii) the impact of HSV-2 infection on HIV acquisition and transmission. We conclude with discussion of future areas of research to push the field forward. PMID:26561565

  8. Current trends in diagnostic and therapeutic principles for prostate cancer in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okihara, Koji; Shiraishi, Takumi; Ukimura, Osamu; Mizutani, Yoichi; Kawauchi, Akihiro; Miki, Tsuneharu

    2008-06-01

    This study aimed to clarify characteristics of the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer in Japan. In September 2005, questionnaire surveys were mailed to Japanese urologists (response rate, 43%; 474/1090) who were listed as voting members (VMs) of the Japanese Urological Association (JUA); the questionnaire surveys were also mailed to professors and chairmen (PCs) of urology departments at Japanese national, public, and private universities who were also VMs of the JUA (response rate, 76%; 68/90). The questionnaires asked about beliefs and practices regarding prostate cancer management. The answers of the VMs and PCs to the questionnaire were very similar. About 60% of these urologists answered that they did not set an age limit for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing, and about 40% answered that they did not set an age limit for prostate needle biopsy in individuals with an intermediately elevated PSA level. The age limit for radical prostatectomy (RP) was set at 75 years by 69% (322/470) of the VMs and 66% (45/68) of the PCs. The order of priority of factors considered for the selection of RP for early prostate cancer was radicality, including tumor grade (mean, 1.97); patient's wish for radical surgery (mean, 2.47); comorbidity (mean, 2.72); and age (mean, 2.81). There are trends in diagnostic and therapeutic principles for prostate cancer which are characteristic of Japan, and these trends are associated with the recent rapid extension of life expectancy in that country.

  9. Electrostatic discharge current linear approach and circuit design method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsivelis, P. K.; Fotis, G. P.; Gonos, I. F.; Koussiouris, T. G.; Stathopulos, I. A. [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, 9 Iroon Polytechniou Str., Zographou 157 80, Athens (Greece)

    2010-11-15

    The electrostatic discharge (ESD) phenomenon is a great threat to all electronic devices and ICs. An electric charge passing rapidly from a charged body to another can seriously harm the last one. However, there is a lack in a linear mathematical approach which will make it possible to design a circuit capable of producing such a sophisticated current waveform. The commonly accepted electrostatic discharge current waveform is the one set by the IEC 61000-4-2. However, the over-simplified circuit included in the same standard is incapable of producing such a waveform. Treating the electrostatic discharge current waveform of the IEC 61000-4-2 as reference, an approximation method, based on Prony's method, is developed and applied in order to obtain a linear system's response. Considering a known input, a method to design a circuit, able to generate this ESD current waveform in presented. The circuit synthesis assumes ideal active elements. A simulation is carried out using the PSpice software. (authors)

  10. Cáncer de pulmón, una revisión sobre el conocimiento actual, métodos diagnósticos y perspectivas terapéuticas Lung cancer: a review of current knowledge, diagnostic methods and therapeutic perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Amorín Kajatt

    2013-03-01

    diagnosis include positron emission tomography (PET with computed-tomography fusion, and transesophageal and bronchoscopic ultrasound, as the most relevant. Among the early detection techniques, the low-dose helical tomography stands out. However, it has not been able to prove to be useful as a screening tool. Conventional methods for diagnostic confirmation of lung cancer are bronchoscopy and percutaneous needle aspiration biopsy. The most common histologic type is the adenocarcinoma, being clinical stages III and IV being the most frequently found. At early clinical stages, surgical treatment has proven to be effective, and there is a good 5-year survival rate. In late stages, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are the most useful treatment methods to control the disease and palliate cancer signs and symptoms. Research in genomic analysis may provide a better understanding of cancer genetics , and therefore, new therapeutic strategies in the future

  11. Diagnostic methods to cutaneous leishmaniasis detection in domestic dogs and cats*

    OpenAIRE

    Trevisan, Daliah Alves Coelho; Lonardoni, Maria Valdrinez Campana; DEMARCHI, Izabel Galhardo

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is caused by different species of Leishmania. In domestic animals such as dogs and cats, the diagnostic consists of clinical, epidemiological and serological tests, which changes among countries all around the world. Because of this diversity in the methods selected, we propose this systematic literature review to identify the methods of laboratory diagnosis used to detect cutaneous leishmaniasis in domestic dogs and cats in the Americas. Articles published in the last...

  12. The metal magnetic memory method in the diagnostics of power machinery components

    OpenAIRE

    Roskosz, M.; A. Rusin; J. Kotowicz

    2010-01-01

    destructive testing. Special emphasis was put on the use of the method for the testing of power equipment and machinery components.Design/methodology/approach: The use of the strength of the residual magnetic field in diagnostics provides macro-scale information on: material discontinuities, defects of the material structure, load history of the component, and the distribution of stresses.Findings: A wide range of applications of the metal magnetic memory method was presented. In many applica...

  13. Diagnostic methods to cutaneous leishmaniasis detection in domestic dogs and cats

    OpenAIRE

    Trevisan, Daliah Alves Coelho; Lonardoni,Maria Valdrinez Campana; Demarchi,Izabel Galhardo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Cutaneous leishmaniasis is caused by different species of Leishmania. In domestic animals such as dogs and cats, the diagnostic consists of clinical, epidemiological and serological tests, which changes among countries all around the world. Because of this diversity in the methods selected, we propose this systematic literature review to identify the methods of laboratory diagnosis used to detect cutaneous leishmaniasis in domestic dogs and cats in the Americas. Articles published i...

  14. Current Mathematical Methods Used in QSAR/QSPR Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peixun Liu

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives an overview of the mathematical methods currently used in quantitative structure-activity/property relationship (QASR/QSPR studies. Recently, the mathematical methods applied to the regression of QASR/QSPR models are developing very fast, and new methods, such as Gene Expression Programming (GEP, Project Pursuit Regression (PPR and Local Lazy Regression (LLR have appeared on the QASR/QSPR stage. At the same time, the earlier methods, including Multiple Linear Regression (MLR, Partial Least Squares (PLS, Neural Networks (NN, Support Vector Machine (SVM and so on, are being upgraded to improve their performance in QASR/QSPR studies. These new and upgraded methods and algorithms are described in detail, and their advantages and disadvantages are evaluated and discussed, to show their application potential in QASR/QSPR studies in the future.

  15. What does a diagnostic label of 'polycystic ovary syndrome' really mean in adolescence? A review of current practice recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, S; Grover, S; Sabin, M A

    2016-02-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common female endocrine disorder, with many women initially presenting during adolescence. Diagnosis during this period is particularly challenging, yet many emphasize the importance of an early diagnosis given the long-term metabolic and reproductive health consequences associated with the syndrome. The objective of this study was to review the current literature to determine whether the diagnostic label 'PCOS' is necessary to effectively manage adolescent girls presenting with features of the syndrome. A literature search was conducted (PubMed, Medline, Informit Health and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews) identifying papers addressing the diagnosis and management of PCOS during adolescence. Articles were selected based on date of publication, relevance of material and the quality of evidence presented. A total of 427 papers were screened, with 40 of these selected from the initial search. A subsequent 154 were included from manual review of reference lists from key papers identified in the initial search. Current guidelines recommend treating the individual manifestations of PCOS. In doing so, there is good evidence identifying that this approach adequately targets the underlying metabolic and reproductive changes associated with the syndrome. This suggests that providing a diagnostic label of PCOS is not actually necessary to effectively manage adolescent girls with features of this syndrome.

  16. Comparison of advanced optical imaging techniques with current otolaryngology diagnostics for improved middle ear assessment (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Ryan M.; Shelton, Ryan L.; Monroy, Guillermo L.; Spillman, Darold R.; Novak, Michael A.; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2016-02-01

    Otolaryngologists utilize a variety of diagnostic techniques to assess middle ear health. Tympanometry, audiometry, and otoacoustic emissions examine the mobility of the tympanic membrane (eardrum) and ossicles using ear canal pressure and auditory tone delivery and detection. Laser Doppler vibrometry provides non-contact vibrational measurement, and acoustic reflectometry is used to assess middle ear effusion using sonar. These technologies and techniques have advanced the field beyond the use of the standard otoscope, a simple tissue magnifier, yet the need for direct visualization of middle ear disease for superior detection, assessment, and management remains. In this study, we evaluated the use of portable optical coherence tomography (OCT) and pneumatic low-coherence interferometry (LCI) systems with handheld probe delivery to standard tympanometry, audiometry, otoacoustic emissions, laser Doppler vibrometry, and acoustic reflectometry. Comparison of these advanced optical imaging techniques and current diagnostics was conducted with a case study subject with a history of unilateral eardrum trauma. OCT and pneumatic LCI provide novel dynamic spatiotemporal structural data of the middle ear, such as the thickness of the eardrum and quantitative detection of underlying disease pathology, which could allow for more accurate diagnosis and more appropriate management than currently possible.

  17. A simple method to combine multiple molecular biomarkers for dichotomous diagnostic classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Manik A

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In spite of the recognized diagnostic potential of biomarkers, the quest for squelching noise and wringing in information from a given set of biomarkers continues. Here, we suggest a statistical algorithm that – assuming each molecular biomarker to be a diagnostic test – enriches the diagnostic performance of an optimized set of independent biomarkers employing established statistical techniques. We validated the proposed algorithm using several simulation datasets in addition to four publicly available real datasets that compared i subjects having cancer with those without; ii subjects with two different cancers; iii subjects with two different types of one cancer; and iv subjects with same cancer resulting in differential time to metastasis. Results Our algorithm comprises of three steps: estimating the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for each biomarker, identifying a subset of biomarkers using linear regression and combining the chosen biomarkers using linear discriminant function analysis. Combining these established statistical methods that are available in most statistical packages, we observed that the diagnostic accuracy of our approach was 100%, 99.94%, 96.67% and 93.92% for the real datasets used in the study. These estimates were comparable to or better than the ones previously reported using alternative methods. In a synthetic dataset, we also observed that all the biomarkers chosen by our algorithm were indeed truly differentially expressed. Conclusion The proposed algorithm can be used for accurate diagnosis in the setting of dichotomous classification of disease states.

  18. Diagnostic Method of Diabetes Based on Support Vector Machine and Tongue Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianfeng; Xu, Jiatuo; Hu, Xiaojuan; Chen, Qingguang; Tu, Liping; Huang, Jingbin; Cui, Ji

    2017-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this research is to develop a diagnostic method of diabetes based on standardized tongue image using support vector machine (SVM). Methods. Tongue images of 296 diabetic subjects and 531 nondiabetic subjects were collected by the TDA-1 digital tongue instrument. Tongue body and tongue coating were separated by the division-merging method and chrominance-threshold method. With extracted color and texture features of the tongue image as input variables, the diagnostic model of diabetes with SVM was trained. After optimizing the combination of SVM kernel parameters and input variables, the influences of the combinations on the model were analyzed. Results. After normalizing parameters of tongue images, the accuracy rate of diabetes predication was increased from 77.83% to 78.77%. The accuracy rate and area under curve (AUC) were not reduced after reducing the dimensions of tongue features with principal component analysis (PCA), while substantially saving the training time. During the training for selecting SVM parameters by genetic algorithm (GA), the accuracy rate of cross-validation was grown from 72% or so to 83.06%. Finally, we compare with several state-of-the-art algorithms, and experimental results show that our algorithm has the best predictive accuracy. Conclusions. The diagnostic method of diabetes on the basis of tongue images in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is of great value, indicating the feasibility of digitalized tongue diagnosis.

  19. Diagnostic Method of Diabetes Based on Support Vector Machine and Tongue Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaojuan; Chen, Qingguang; Tu, Liping; Huang, Jingbin; Cui, Ji

    2017-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this research is to develop a diagnostic method of diabetes based on standardized tongue image using support vector machine (SVM). Methods. Tongue images of 296 diabetic subjects and 531 nondiabetic subjects were collected by the TDA-1 digital tongue instrument. Tongue body and tongue coating were separated by the division-merging method and chrominance-threshold method. With extracted color and texture features of the tongue image as input variables, the diagnostic model of diabetes with SVM was trained. After optimizing the combination of SVM kernel parameters and input variables, the influences of the combinations on the model were analyzed. Results. After normalizing parameters of tongue images, the accuracy rate of diabetes predication was increased from 77.83% to 78.77%. The accuracy rate and area under curve (AUC) were not reduced after reducing the dimensions of tongue features with principal component analysis (PCA), while substantially saving the training time. During the training for selecting SVM parameters by genetic algorithm (GA), the accuracy rate of cross-validation was grown from 72% or so to 83.06%. Finally, we compare with several state-of-the-art algorithms, and experimental results show that our algorithm has the best predictive accuracy. Conclusions. The diagnostic method of diabetes on the basis of tongue images in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is of great value, indicating the feasibility of digitalized tongue diagnosis. PMID:28133611

  20. Diagnostic Method of Diabetes Based on Support Vector Machine and Tongue Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this research is to develop a diagnostic method of diabetes based on standardized tongue image using support vector machine (SVM. Methods. Tongue images of 296 diabetic subjects and 531 nondiabetic subjects were collected by the TDA-1 digital tongue instrument. Tongue body and tongue coating were separated by the division-merging method and chrominance-threshold method. With extracted color and texture features of the tongue image as input variables, the diagnostic model of diabetes with SVM was trained. After optimizing the combination of SVM kernel parameters and input variables, the influences of the combinations on the model were analyzed. Results. After normalizing parameters of tongue images, the accuracy rate of diabetes predication was increased from 77.83% to 78.77%. The accuracy rate and area under curve (AUC were not reduced after reducing the dimensions of tongue features with principal component analysis (PCA, while substantially saving the training time. During the training for selecting SVM parameters by genetic algorithm (GA, the accuracy rate of cross-validation was grown from 72% or so to 83.06%. Finally, we compare with several state-of-the-art algorithms, and experimental results show that our algorithm has the best predictive accuracy. Conclusions. The diagnostic method of diabetes on the basis of tongue images in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM is of great value, indicating the feasibility of digitalized tongue diagnosis.

  1. Synthetic–schematic representation of the model of clinical diagnostic-therapeutic method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Corona Martínez

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of a systemic approach in the theoretical analysis of the clinical method has allowed the elaboration of an schematic and synthetic representation of the new model of clinical diagnostic- therapeutic method developed from the conception of the medical assistance as a taking decisions process. The identification of the main components of the clinical method system, as well as of the interrelations established among these, facilitate the understanding of the medical attention process, and also allows the establishment of some of the regularities whose knowledge by the student is of great importance for the learning and application of the method by our Medicine students.

  2. The Current Status of Peer Assessment Techniques and Sociometric Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, William M; Castellanos, Melisa; Persram, Ryan J

    2017-09-01

    Current issues in the use of peer assessment techniques and sociometric methods are discussed. Attention is paid to the contributions of the four articles in this volume. Together these contributions point to the continual level of change and progress in these techniques. They also show that the paradigm underlying these methods has been unchanged for decades. It is argued that this domain is ripe for a paradigm change that takes advantage of recent developments in statistical techniques and technology. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Field emission current-voltage curves as a diagnostic for scanning tunneling microscope tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, J. A.; Stranick, S. J.; Wang, J. B.; Weiss, P. S.

    1991-12-01

    The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of a low temperature ultrahigh vacuum scanning tunneling microscope (STM) tip positioned greater than 100 A from a planar surface have been recorded. We find curvature in the Fowler-Nordheim plots (log 10 I/V(sup 2) vs. I/V) due to the tip-plane geometry as has been predicted theoretically. Additionally, oscillations and sharp breaks in these I-V curves are observed over a wide voltage range, 50-1000 V. These I-V curves are used to characterize the STM tips prior to tunneling.

  4. CT pulmonary angiography utilization in the emergency department: diagnostic yield and adherence to current guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perelas, Apostolos; Dimou, Anastasios; Saenz, Augustina; Rhee, Ji Hyun; Teerapuncharoen, Krittika; Rowden, Adam; Eiger, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    The aim is to investigate the patterns of computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) use and adherence to current guidelines. Medical records of patients investigated with CTPA for pulmonary embolism (PE) in a single academic hospital from January 2011 until December 2012 were reviewed. Wells scores were calculated retrospectively by researchers blinded to the results of the CTPA. "Avoidable imaging" was defined as imaging performed against current recommendations of the European Society of Cardiology or the PIOPED investigation group. A total of 646 patients underwent testing; 61 cases of PE were diagnosed (9.4%). Potentially avoidable imaging was performed in 49.5% and 71.5% of patients, depending on the criteria used; 11.5% of imaging studies were performed in low-risk patients with negative D-dimer assays. There is evidence of CTPA overuse and D-dimer underuse. Adherence to guidelines and appropriate use of D-dimer assay might reduce avoidable imaging and ionizing radiation exposure. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Using the Attribute Hierarchy Method to Make Diagnostic Inferences about Examinees' Knowledge and Skills in Mathematics: An Operational Implementation of Cognitive Diagnostic Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierl, Mark J.; Alves, Cecilia; Majeau, Renate Taylor

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to apply the attribute hierarchy method in an operational diagnostic mathematics program at Grades 3 and 6 to promote cognitive inferences about students' problem-solving skills. The attribute hierarchy method is a psychometric procedure for classifying examinees' test item responses into a set of structured attribute…

  6. LOGICAL CONDITIONS ANALYSIS METHOD FOR DIAGNOSTIC TEST RESULTS DECODING APPLIED TO COMPETENCE ELEMENTS PROFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Freyman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research.Representation features of education results for competence-based educational programs are analyzed. Solution importance of decoding and proficiency estimation for elements and components of discipline parts of competences is shown. The purpose and objectives of research are formulated. Methods. The paper deals with methods of mathematical logic, Boolean algebra, and parametrical analysis of complex diagnostic test results, that controls proficiency of some discipline competence elements. Results. The method of logical conditions analysis is created. It will give the possibility to formulate logical conditions for proficiency determination of each discipline competence element, controlled by complex diagnostic test. Normalized test result is divided into noncrossing zones; a logical condition about controlled elements proficiency is formulated for each of them. Summarized characteristics for test result zones are imposed. An example of logical conditions forming for diagnostic test with preset features is provided. Practical Relevance. The proposed method of logical conditions analysis is applied in the decoding algorithm of proficiency test diagnosis for discipline competence elements. It will give the possibility to automate the search procedure for elements with insufficient proficiency, and is also usable for estimation of education results of a discipline or a component of competence-based educational program.

  7. Screening for Wilson disease in acute liver failure: a comparison of currently available diagnostic tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korman, J.D.; Volenberg, I.; Balko, J.

    2008-01-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) due to Wilson disease (WD) is invariably fatal without emergency liver transplantation. Therefore, rapid diagnosis of WD should aid prompt transplant listing. To identify the best method for diagnosis of ALF due to WD (ALF-WD), data and serum were collected from 140 ALF ...

  8. New Leakage Current Particulate Matter Sensor for On-Board Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiawei Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Structure and principle of the new leakage current particulate matter (PM sensor are introduced and further study is performed on the PM sensor with the combination of numerical simulation and bench test. High voltage electrode, conductive shell, and heaters are all built-in. Based on the principle of Venturi tube and maze structure design, this sensor can detect transient PM concentrations. Internal flow field of the sensor and distribution condition of PM inside the sensor are analyzed through gas-solid two-phase flow numerical simulation. The experiment was also carried out on the whole sensor system (including mechanical and electronic circuit part and the output signals were analyzed. The results of simulation and experiment reveal the possibility of PM concentration (mass detection by the sensor.

  9. [Domestic violence: a current issue to take into account in diagnostic imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Corraliza, E; Larrañaga Hernando, G; Neve Lete, I; Sánchez García, A

    2014-01-01

    Domestic violence is currently an issue of great political and social importance. The real incidence of domestic violence is difficult to determine due to the environment where it takes place and the reluctance of victims to report abuse. On the other hand, all types of violence represent an important public health problem. We report the case of a young woman who presented with thromboembolic phenomena at different sites due to domestic violence. We emphasize that it is necessary for radiologists and other healthcare professionals to consider the possibility of domestic violence when establishing the diagnosis. This can be important for determining the incidence of abuse, diminishing its sequela, and help increase its reporting. Copyright © 2011 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Diagnostics on LALR(k) conflicts based on a method for LR(k) testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Bent Bruun; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    1981-01-01

    A user of an LALR(k) parser generator system may have difficulties in understanding how a given LALR(k) conflict is generated. This is especially difficult if the conflict does not correspond to an LR(k) conflict. A practical method for giving informative diagnostics on LALR(k) conflicts...... is presented. The diagnostics distinguish between those LALR(k) conflicts that correspond to LR(k) conflicts and those that do not. As a side effect the user is thus informed whether or not his grammar is in fact LR(k) despite not being LALR(k). The method is based on an algorithm for testing LR(k)-ness using...

  11. Current state of diagnostic and treatment of osteoporosis in real-life clinical practice (a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A. Nikitinskaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the results of a pilot study on physician awareness of modern diagnostic methods and drug therapy of osteoporosis (OP and the use of this knowledge in daily practice. A pilot survey among physicians demonstrated that experts (rheumatologists, endocrinologists, etc. have a high level of awareness of the OP problem and successfully use this knowledge in daily practice (modern diagnosis, prevention, and treatment methods. They widely prescribe original drugs and certain generics that were shown to be effective in post-marketing surveillance. Limitations of the study: 1 only physicians dealing with diagnosis and treatment of OP were surveyed; hence, the conclusions of this study are valid only for this group of physicians; 2 only physicians working in large cities who can use modern diagnosis methods (densitometry; determination of bone turnover markers participated in the study; 3 Prolia medication, which has been used in Russia since 2013, was not taken into account in the questionnaire. 

  12. Synthesis of unknowns for the interface partial current method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jatuff, F.E. [Investigacion Aplicada SE (INVAP), San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina)

    1996-01-01

    A synthesis technique is formulated as an alternative for the standard solution of the low order Interface Partial Current Equations, common in the within-group iteration schemes of Nodal Expansion and Response Matrix methods. This non-linear technique represents each node (mesh) in the iterations by its total partial in-current (j{sup in}), instead of the K partial in-currents at the nodal faces. At the same time, the distribution vector f is introduced, whose elements are the fractions of j{sup in} entering through each face, which are assumed known from the previous fission-source iteration. This simple scheme, with no other non-linear feedback required, gives a nodal formulation of the inner problem with one unknown per node and energy group, while the problem still retains the original number of unknowns. The method has been tested on the IAEA-2D and -3D, and a 2D pressurized water reactor (Biblis) benchmarks. The results show savings of about 15% to 25% of the CPU time, identical convergence despite the irregular nodal discretizations, and compatability to the rest of the iteration strategy. (author).

  13. On line diagnostics and self-tuning method for the fluidized bed temperature controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porzuczek Jan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the method of on-line diagnostics of the bed temperature controller for the fluidized bed boiler. Proposed solution is based on the methods of statistical process control. Detected decrease of the bed temperature control quality is used to activate the controller self-tuning procedure. The algorithm that provides optimal tuning of the bed temperature controller is also proposed. The results of experimental verification of the presented method is attached. Experimental studies were carried out using the 2 MW bubbling fluidized bed boiler.

  14. Current diagnostics and treatment of the cubital tunnel syndrome in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harder, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the vote of the Austrian Society for Surgery of the Hand (ÖGH an investigation to collect data on the current state of the treatment of cubital tunnel syndrome was initiated. Over one year a total of 875 patients with cubital tunnel syndrome were operated in Austria, this means an incidence of this nerve entrapment of 0.011%. Most of the operations were done by trauma surgeons (287; 33%. For diagnosis most of the centers rely on clinical symptoms, electroneurophysiology, and elbow X-ray. 40% of the institutions regard conservative therapy as useless and not indicated. If conservative treatment modalities are applied, physiotherapy (97%, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medication (77%, and glucocorticoid injections (30% are primarily used. In case of simple nerve entrapment most of the surgeons (72% prefer simple nerve decompression. If there is additional pathology subcutaneous cubital nerve transposition is recommended (62%. Endoscopic techniques are only use by 3% of the surgeons. In the postoperative care, physiotherapy is favored in 51%, whereas 24% do not judge any postoperative care as beneficial.The three most often encountered complications were incomplete remission, scar contracture and hypertrophy, and postoperative bleeding.

  15. Overview of HIT-SI3 experiment: Simulations, Diagnostics, and Summary of Current Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penna, James; Jarboe, Thomas; Nelson, Brian; Hossack, Aaron; Sutherland, Derek; Morgan, Kyle; Hansen, Chris; Benedett, Thomas; Everson, Chris; Victor, Brian

    2016-10-01

    The Helicity Injected Torus - Steady Inductive 3(HIT-SI3)experiment forms and maintains spheromaks via Steady Inductive Helicity Injection (SIHI). Three injector units allow for continuous injection of helicity into a copper flux conserver in order to sustain a spheromak. Firing of the injectors with a phase difference allows finite rotation of the plasma to provide a stabilizing effect. Simulations in the MHD code NIMROD and the fluid-model code PSI-TET provide validation and a basis for interpretation of the observed experimental data. Thompson Scattering (TS) and Far Infrared (FIR) Interferometer systems allow temperature and line-averaged density measurements to be taken. An Ion Doppler Spectroscopy (IDS) system allows measurement of the plasma rotation and velocity. HIT-SI3 data has been used for validation of IDCD predictions, in particular the projected impedance of helicity injectors according to the theory. The experimental impedances have been calculated here for the first time for different HIT-SI3 regimes. Such experimental evidence will contribute to the design of future experiments employing IDCD as a current-drive mechanism. Work supported by the D.O.E., Office of Science, Office of Fusion Science.

  16. Diagnostics of many-particle electronic states: non-stationary currents and residual charge dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslova, N. S.; Mantsevich, V. N.; Arseyev, P. I.

    2017-01-01

    We propose the method for identifying many particle electronic states in the system of coupled quantum dots (impurities) with Coulomb correlations. We demonstrate that different electronic states can be distinguished by the complex analysis of localized charge dynamics and non-stationary characteristics. We show that localized charge time evolution strongly depends on the properties of initial state and analyze different time scales in charge kinetics for initially prepared singlet and triplet states. We reveal the conditions for existence of charge trapping effects governed by the selection rules for electron transitions between the states with different occupation numbers.

  17. The analysis of diagnostics possibilities of the Dual- Drive electric power steering system using diagnostics scanner and computer method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczypiński-Sala, W.; Dobaj, K.

    2016-09-01

    The article presents the analysis of diagnostics possibilities of electric power steering system using computer diagnostics scanner. Several testing attempts were performed. There were analyzed the changes of torque moment exerted on steering wheel by the driver and the changes of the angle of rotation steering wheel accompanying them. The tests were conducted in variable conditions comprising wheel load and the friction coefficient of tyre road interaction. Obtained results enabled the analysis of the influence of changeable operations conditions, possible to acquire in diagnostics scanners of chosen parameters of electric power steering system. Moreover, simulation model of operation, electric drive power steering system with the use of the Matlab simulation software was created. The results of the measurements obtained in road conditions served to verify this model. Subsequently, model response to inputs change of the device was analyzed and its reaction to various constructional and exploitative parameters was checked. The entirety of conducted work constitutes a step to create a diagnostic monitor possible to use in self-diagnosis of electric power steering system.

  18. Cost-of-illness studies : a review of current methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akobundu, Ebere; Ju, Jing; Blatt, Lisa; Mullins, C Daniel

    2006-01-01

    The number of cost-of-illness (COI) studies has expanded considerably over time. One outcome of this growth is that the reported COI estimates are inconsistent across studies, thereby raising concerns over the validity of the estimates and methods. Several factors have been identified in the literature as reasons for the observed variation in COI estimates. To date, the variation in the methods used to calculate costs has not been examined in great detail even though the variations in methods are a major driver of variation in COI estimates. The objective of this review was to document the variation in the methodologies employed in COI studies and to highlight the benefits and limitations of these methods. The review of COI studies was implemented following a four-step procedure: (i) a structured literature search of MEDLINE, JSTOR and EconLit; (ii) a review of abstracts using pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria; (iii) a full-text review using pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria; and (iv) classification of articles according to the methods used to calculate costs. This review identified four COI estimation methods (Sum_All Medical, Sum_Diagnosis Specific, Matched Control and Regression) that were used in categorising articles. Also, six components of direct medical costs and five components of indirect/non-medical costs were identified and used in categorising articles.365 full-length articles were reflected in the current review following the structured literature search. The top five cost components were emergency room/inpatient hospital costs, outpatient physician costs, drug costs, productivity losses and laboratory costs. The dominant method, Sum_Diagnosis Specific, was a total costing approach that restricted the summation of medical expenditures to those related to a diagnosis of the disease of interest. There was considerable variation in the methods used within disease subcategories. In several disease subcategories (e.g. asthma, dementia

  19. Pediatric sleep questionnaires as diagnostic or epidemiological tools: a review of currently available instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruyt, Karen; Gozal, David

    2011-02-01

    An extensive list of published and unpublished instruments used to investigate or evaluate sleep issues in children was collected and assessed based on the fundamental operational principles of instrument development (11 steps). Of all the available tools identified, only a few were validated and standardized using appropriate psychometric criteria. In fact, only 2 fulfill all desirable criteria and approximately 11 instruments seem to adhere to most of the psychometric tool development requirements, and were therefore assessed in greater detail. Notwithstanding, in the rapidly developing scientific world of pediatric sleep, there are too many tools being used that have not undergone careful and methodical psychometric evaluation, and as such may be fraught with biased or invalid findings. It is hoped that this initial effort in categorizing and assessing available tools for pediatric sleep will serve as recognition of the relatively early developmental stage of our field, and provide the necessary impetus for future tool development using multicentered approaches and adequate methodologies.

  20. The resources of neurophysiological methods for diagnostic localization of nervous system lesion in children’s neuroinfections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Komantsev

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The algorithms of neurophysiological diagnostic of impairment localization of nervous system in acute phase of neuroinfection in children were elaborated. The combined some EMG and evoked potentials methods were reliable for diagnostic botulism, polyneuropathy, mononeuropathy, polyradiculopathy, poliomyelitis, inflammation myelopathy, myelitis, meningitis, encephalitis. The reliability of neuriphysiologic diagnostic was 81–93%.

  1. Current methods for estimating the rate of photorespiration in leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, F A

    2013-07-01

    Photorespiration is a process that competes with photosynthesis, in which Rubisco oxygenates, instead of carboxylates, its substrate ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate. The photorespiratory metabolism associated with the recovery of 3-phosphoglycerate is energetically costly and results in the release of previously fixed CO2. The ability to quantify photorespiration is gaining importance as a tool to help improve plant productivity in order to meet the increasing global food demand. In recent years, substantial progress has been made in the methods used to measure photorespiration. Current techniques are able to measure multiple aspects of photorespiration at different points along the photorespiratory C2 cycle. Six different methods used to estimate photorespiration are reviewed, and their advantages and disadvantages discussed.

  2. Current Human Reliability Analysis Methods Applied to Computerized Procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald L. Boring

    2012-06-01

    Computerized procedures (CPs) are an emerging technology within nuclear power plant control rooms. While CPs have been implemented internationally in advanced control rooms, to date no US nuclear power plant has implemented CPs in its main control room (Fink et al., 2009). Yet, CPs are a reality of new plant builds and are an area of considerable interest to existing plants, which see advantages in terms of enhanced ease of use and easier records management by omitting the need for updating hardcopy procedures. The overall intent of this paper is to provide a characterization of human reliability analysis (HRA) issues for computerized procedures. It is beyond the scope of this document to propose a new HRA approach or to recommend specific methods or refinements to those methods. Rather, this paper serves as a review of current HRA as it may be used for the analysis and review of computerized procedures.

  3. The utility and validity of current diagnostic procedures for defining temporomandibular disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, G T; Delcanho, R E; Goulet, J P

    1993-08-01

    This paper describes the evolution of different concepts of classifying and defining Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD) for both clinical and research settings. The literature is reviewed with respect to the utility and validity of the different questionnaire and examination procedures that have been used to assess TMD patients. The presented view is that many of these procedures have not been validated, that there is a lack of standardization in the use of the procedures themselves, and that an ideal method of classifying this broad group of patients into better-defined subgroups has not yet been developed. More standardized and better-defined research by trained and calibrated researchers is needed worldwide to elucidate these subgroups so that a better and widely agreed upon research classification system can be developed for widespread use. It also seems clear that as research requirements for defining TMD patient subgroups become more stringent over time, it may not be practical for the clinician to implement them on a day-to-day basis in his or her practice. As such, a practical utilitarian definition of the common subtype of TMD patients is also needed which parallels any research grouping, so that data from research are valuable and generalizable to the practicing clinician.

  4. DNA variations in oculocutaneous albinism: an updated mutation list and current outstanding issues in molecular diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeonov, Dimitre R; Wang, Xinjing; Wang, Chen; Sergeev, Yuri; Dolinska, Monika; Bower, Matthew; Fischer, Roxanne; Winer, David; Dubrovsky, Genia; Balog, Joan Z; Huizing, Marjan; Hart, Rachel; Zein, Wadih M; Gahl, William A; Brooks, Brian P; Adams, David R

    2013-06-01

    Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) is a rare genetic disorder of melanin synthesis that results in hypopigmented hair, skin, and eyes. There are four types of OCA caused by mutations in TYR (OCA-1), OCA2 (OCA-2), TYRP1 (OCA-3), or SLC45A2 (OCA-4). Here we report 22 novel mutations in the OCA genes; 14 from a cohort of 61 patients seen as part of the NIH OCA Natural History Study and eight from a prior study at the University of Minnesota. We also include a comprehensive list of almost 600 previously reported OCA mutations along with ethnicity information, carrier frequencies, and in silico pathogenicity predictions as a supplement. In addition to discussing the clinical and molecular features of OCA, we address the cases of apparent missing heritability. In our cohort, 26% of patients did not have two mutations in a single OCA gene. We demonstrate the utility of multiple detection methods to reveal mutations missed by Sanger sequencing. Finally, we review the TYR p.R402Q temperature-sensitive variant and confirm its association with cases of albinism with only one identifiable TYR mutation.

  5. Emerging phytopathogen Macrophomina phaseolina: biology, economic importance and current diagnostic trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Surinder; Dhillon, Gurpreet Singh; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Vallad, Gary Edward; Chand, Ramesh; Chauhan, Vijay Bahadur

    2012-05-01

    Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid. is an important phytopathogenic fungus, infecting a large number of plant species and surviving for up to 15 years in the soil as a saprophyte. Although considerable research related to the biology and ecology of Macrophomina has been conducted, it continues to cause huge economic losses in many crops. Research is needed to improve the identification and characterization of genetic variability within their epidemiological and pathological niches. Better understanding of the variability within the pathogen population for traits that influence fitness and soil survival will certainly lead to improved management strategies for Macrophomina. In this context, the present review discusses various biological aspects and distribution of M. phaseolina throughout the world and their importance to different plant species. Accurate identification of the fungus has been aided with the use of nucleic acid-based molecular techniques. The development of PCR-based methods for identification and detection of M. phaseolina are highly sensitive and specific. Early diagnosis and accurate detection of pathogens is an essential step in plant disease management as well as quarantine. The progress in the development of various molecular tools used for the detection, identification and characterization of Macrophomina isolates were also discussed.

  6. Current diagnostic approach to patients with adnexal masses:which tools are relevant in routine praxis?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Milan M.Terzic; Jelena Dotlic; Ivana Likic; Nebojsa Ladjevic; Natasa Brndusic; Nebojsa Arsenovic; Sanja Maricic

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate which anamnestic,laboratory and ultrasound parameters used in routine practice could predict the nature of adnexal mass,thus enabling referral to relevant specialist.Methods:Study involved the women treated for adnexal tumors throughout a period of 2 years.On admission,detailed anamnestic and laboratory data were obtained,expert ultrasound scan was performed,and power Doppler index (PDI),risk of malignancy index (RMI) and body mass index (BMI) were calculated for all patients.Obtained data were related to histopathological findings,and statistically analyzed.Results:The study included 689 women (112 malignant,544 benignant,and 33 borderline tumors).Malignant and borderline tumors were more frequent in postmenopausal women (P=0.000).Women who had benignant tumors had the lowest BMI (P=0.000).There were significant (P<0.05) differences among tumor types regarding erythrocyte sedimentation rate,CA125 and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels.Among ultrasound findings,larger tumor diameter and ascites were more frequent in malignant tumors (P=0.000).Women with malignant tumors had highest values of RMI and PDI (P=0.000).Conclusions:Anamnestic data,ultrasound parameters and laboratory analyses were all found to be good discriminating factors among malignant,benignant and borderline tumors.

  7. Plasma diagnostics and modeling of direct current microplasma discharges at atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang

    High pressure (100s of torr) microplasma (length scale 100s of micrometer) non-equilibrium discharges have potential applications as chemical microreactors, sensors, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), and excimer radiation sources. Experimental and theoretical studies of these microplasmas can provide critical information on fundamental discharge characteristics, and help extend the window of stable discharge operation. Spatially resolved measurements (resolution ˜ 6 mum) were taken across a 200 mum slot-type microdischarge in atmospheric pressure helium or argon. Small amounts of actinometer gases were added to the flow for optical emission spectroscopy measurements. Gas temperature profiles were determined from N2 emission rotational spectroscopy. Stark splitting of the hydrogen Balmer-beta (Hbeta ) line was used to investigate the electric field distribution in the cathode sheath region. Electron densities were evaluated from the analysis of the spectral line broadenings of Hbeta emission. The measured gas temperature was in the range of 350--650 K in He, and 600--1200 K in Ar, both peaking near the cathode and increasing with power. The electron density in the bulk plasma was in the range (3-7)x1013 cm -3 in He, and (1-4)x1014 cm-3 in Ar. The measured electric field in He peaked at the cathode and decayed to small values over a distance of ˜50 mum (sheath edge) from the cathode. The experimental data were also used to validate a self-consistent one-dimensional plasma model. By a combination of measurements and simulation it was found that the dominant gas heating mechanism in DC microplasmas was ion Joule heating. Simulation results also predicted the existence of electric field reversals in the negative glow under operating conditions that favor a high electron diffusion flux emanating from the cathode sheath. The electric field adjusted to satisfy continuity of the total current. Also, the electric field in the anode layer was self adjusted to be

  8. Methodical Approach to Diagnostics of Efficiency of Production Economic Activity of an Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhukov Andrii V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article offers developments of a methodical approach to diagnostics of efficiency of production economic activity of an enterprise, which, unlike the existing ones, is realised through the following stages: analysis of the enterprise external environment; analysis of the enterprise internal environment; identification of components of efficiency of production economic activity for carrying out complex diagnostics by the following directions: efficiency of subsystems of the enterprise production economic activity, efficiency of use of separate types of resources and socio-economic efficiency; scorecard formation; study of tendencies of change of indicators; identification of cause-effect dependencies between the main components of efficiency for diagnosing reasons of its level; diagnosing deviations of indicator values from their optimal values; development of a managerial decision on preserving and increasing efficiency of production economic activity of the enterprise.

  9. Diagnostic Value of Manual and Computerized Methods of Dental Casts Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    H. Rahimi; M. Katchooi; Tehranchi, A.; M. Nouri; Massudi, R

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity of computerized and manual methods of dental cast analysis.Materials and Methods: Twenty set-ups of upper and lower casts using artificial teeth corresponding to various malocclusions were created for a diagnostic in vitro study. Values of tooth size were calculated from the isolated artificial teeth out of the set-ups, results were considered as a gold standard for the tooth size. Arch width was calculated from the existing set-up...

  10. [Diagnostic value of cyst fluid analysis in cystic lesions of the pancreas: current data, limitations, and perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammel, P

    2000-05-01

    Diagnostic assessment and therapeutic indications in patients with cystic lesions of the pancreas are often difficult, especially since incidental detection of such lesions is increasing due to improvements in imaging techniques. Some lesions are benign (pseudocyst, serous cystadenoma) requiring conservative management and follow-up, whereas others are premalignant (mucinous cystadenoma, intraductal papillary mucinous tumor.) or frankly malignant (cystadenocarcinoma) and require surgical resection when possible. In about a third of cases, imaging findings are not sufficiently accurate in establishing the diagnosis, especially in cases of unilocular lesions. Fine needle aspiration can be considered as a second line method in uncertain cases. Aspiration should be performed in specialized services as the procedure requires careful consideration in some patients. Complications are usually rare and minor. The most accurate markers in this field are the carcinoembryonic antigen and the Ca 72.4. They allow to distinguish between a pseudocyst or a serous cystadenoma and a mucinous tumor (benign or malignant) with a 60% sensitivity and a specificity of nearly 100%. Cytological or histological analysis can provide valuable information but their accuracy seems to depend on tumor type. Genetic studies (Ki-ras.) may be possible in the future, including lesions with low cellular cyst fluid content. In conclusion, cyst fluid analysis after fine needle aspiration is a useful diagnostic tool but should always be interpreted in combination with clinical data and imaging findings.

  11. Noninvasive diagnostic methods for perceptual and motor disabilities in children with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renee Lampe

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The field of neuroorthopedics centers on chronic diseases demanding close clinical monitoring. We shall use several examples to show how the various noninvasive diagnostic instruments can be used to obtain insight into the central nervous system as well as into the musculoskeletal system and its morphology. The choice of the most appropriate method depends on the problem; that is, whether the method is to be applied for clinical use or for basic research. In this report we introduce various technical examination methods that are being used successfully in the fields of pediatrics, orthopedics, and neurology. The major examination instrument in pediatric diagnostics is sonography, which is being used in this report as a research instrument for the biomechanics of the musculoskeletal system, but which also gives insight into neurofunctional sequences. In orthopedics, pedography is used for diagnosing deformities of the feet. In neuroorthopedics for children pedography acts as a functional monitor for apraxia and thus allows, for example, a classification of the degree of neurological malfunctions in the lower extremities. The 3D bodyscan is used to minimize x-raying in patients with neurogenic scoliosis. This report introduces examples of the application of MRI and fMRI for basic research. The biometric measuring methods introduced provide precise data in the areas of diagnostics and monitoring and are highly valuable for further neuroorthopedic basic research. In future we expect the ever-evolving technical measuring methods to enable a deeper understanding of the primary neurological causes of and the implications for patients with cerebral palsy and other neuroorthopedic conditions. This may allow the development of new forms of therapy not necessarily predictable today.

  12. Application of a Multigrid Method to a Mass-Consistent Diagnostic Wind Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yansen; Williamson, Chatt; Garvey, Dennis; Chang, Sam; Cogan, James

    2005-07-01

    A multigrid numerical method has been applied to a three-dimensional, high-resolution diagnostic model for flow over complex terrain using a mass-consistent approach. The theoretical background for the model is based on a variational analysis using mass conservation as a constraint. The model was designed for diagnostic wind simulation at the microscale in complex terrain and in urban areas. The numerical implementation takes advantage of a multigrid method that greatly improves the computation speed. Three preliminary test cases for the model's numerical efficiency and its accuracy are given. The model results are compared with an analytical solution for flow over a hemisphere. Flow over a bell-shaped hill is computed to demonstrate that the numerical method is applicable in the case of parameterized lee vortices. A simulation of the mean wind field in an urban domain has also been carried out and compared with observational data. The comparison indicated that the multigrid method takes only 3%-5% of the time that is required by the traditional Gauss-Seidel method.

  13. Current and Prospective Methods for Plant Disease Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Fang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Food losses due to crop infections from pathogens such as bacteria, viruses and fungi are persistent issues in agriculture for centuries across the globe. In order to minimize the disease induced damage in crops during growth, harvest and postharvest processing, as well as to maximize productivity and ensure agricultural sustainability, advanced disease detection and prevention in crops are imperative. This paper reviews the direct and indirect disease identification methods currently used in agriculture. Laboratory-based techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR, immunofluorescence (IF, fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, flow cytometry (FCM and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS are some of the direct detection methods. Indirect methods include thermography, fluorescence imaging and hyperspectral techniques. Finally, the review also provides a comprehensive overview of biosensors based on highly selective bio-recognition elements such as enzyme, antibody, DNA/RNA and bacteriophage as a new tool for the early identification of crop diseases.

  14. Confusion assessment method: a systematic review and meta-analysis of diagnostic accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Q

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Qiyun Shi,1,2 Laura Warren,3 Gustavo Saposnik,2 Joy C MacDermid1 1Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada; 2Stroke Outcomes Research Center, Department of Medicine, St Michael's Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; 3Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada Background: Delirium is common in the early stages of hospitalization for a variety of acute and chronic diseases. Objectives: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of two delirium screening tools, the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM and the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU. Methods: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsychInfo for relevant articles published in English up to March 2013. We compared two screening tools to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV criteria. Two reviewers independently assessed studies to determine their eligibility, validity, and quality. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated using a bivariate model. Results: Twenty-two studies (n = 2,442 patients met the inclusion criteria. All studies demonstrated that these two scales can be administered within ten minutes, by trained clinical or research staff. The pooled sensitivities and specificity for CAM were 82% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 69%–91% and 99% (95% CI: 87%–100%, and 81% (95% CI: 57%–93% and 98% (95% CI: 86%–100% for CAM-ICU, respectively. Conclusion: Both CAM and CAM-ICU are validated instruments for the diagnosis of delirium in a variety of medical settings. However, CAM and CAM-ICU both present higher specificity than sensitivity. Therefore, the use of these tools should not replace clinical judgment. Keywords: confusion assessment method, diagnostic accuracy, delirium, systematic review, meta-analysis

  15. Psychophysiological methods for the diagnostics of human functional states: New approaches and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernorizov A.M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available L. S. Vygotsky in his famous methodological essay “The historical meaning of psychological crisis” (1928 emphasized the importance of studying any psychological process or state as a “whole” — that is, as characterized from the subjective and objective sides at the same time. This position is fully relevant for studying the human functional states (FSes. Today the objective psychophysiological diagnostics of human FSes in activities associated with a high risk of technological disasters (in nuclear-power plants, transportation, the chemical industry are extremely relevant and socially important. This article reviews some new psychophysiological methods of FS assessment that are being developed in Russia and abroad and discusses different aspects of developing integral psychophysiological FS assessment. The emphasis is on distant methods of FS diagnostics: the bioradiolocation method, laser Doppler vibrometry, eye tracking, audio and video recordings, infrared thermography. The possibilities and limitations of the most popular emotion atlases — the Facial Affect Scoring Technique (FAST and the Facial Action Coding System (FACS — in developing distant visual-range and infrared-range systems for automated classification of facial expressions are analyzed. A special section of the article concentrates on the problem of constructing an integral psychophysiological FS index. Mathematical algorithms that provide a partition of FS indicators into different FS types are based on various methods of machine learning. We propose the vector approach for construction of complex estimations of the human FSes.

  16. A Toxocara cati eggs concentration method from cats' faeces, for experimental and diagnostic purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardillo, N; Sommerfelt, I; Fariña, F; Pasqualetti, M; Pérez, M; Ercole, M; Rosa, A; Ribicich, M

    2014-09-01

    Toxocariosis is a zoonotic parasite infection worldwide distributed, now considered a neglected disease associated to poverty. For experimental infection in animals and to develop the diagnosis in humans it is necessary to obtain large number of Toxocara spp. larval eggs. Toxocara cati eggs recovered percentage from faeces of infected cats was determined employing a novel egg concentration method. The McMaster egg counting technique and the concentration method were applied on 20 positive cats' sample faeces obtained from naturally infected cats. The mean percentage of eggs recovered by the concentration method was 24.37% higher than the count obtained by McMaster egg counting technique. The main advantage of this method is that it can be obtained a small final volume with a high number of recovered eggs and a good quality inoculum for experimental and diagnostic purposes.

  17. An In Vivo Comparison of Two Diagnostic Methods in Secondary Caries Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamishaki, Kazem Saber; Chiniforush, Nasim; Monzavi, Abbas; Khazarazifard, Mohammad Javad

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the level of agreement between four operators with different levels of experience for two methods of detecting secondary enamel and dentin carious lesions in composite restored teeth. Materials and Methods: Sixty teeth of 40 patients with with secondary carious lesions in the composite resin were selected. The teeth were examined by two methods; visual inspection and a laser fluorescence device (DIAGNO dent pen 2190) by four operators including an undergraduate student, a dentist with 5 years of clinical experience, a general dentist with 12 years of clinical experience and an oral and maxillofacial radiologist. Cohen's kappa statistic was applied in order to assess the agreement between the diagnoses performed by the four operators with each diagnostic method. Results: The diagnosis performed by different operators achieved an excellent agreement with high ICC. Conclusion: DIAGNOdent can be a useful device for secondary caries detection in posterior teeth as an adjunct to visual examination. PMID:24910672

  18. Express diagnostics of intact and pathological dental hard tissues by optical PNC method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masychev, Victor I.; Alexandrov, Michail T.

    2000-03-01

    The results of hard tooth tissues research by the optical PNC- method in experimental and clinical conditions are presented. In the experiment under 90 test-sample of tooth slices with thickness about 1 mm (enamel, dentine and cement) were researched. The results of the experiment were processed by the method of correlation analyze. Clinical researches were executed on teeth of 210 patients. The regions of tooth tissue diseases with initial, moderate and deep caries were investigated. Spectral characteristics of intact and pathologically changed tooth tissues are presented and their peculiar features are discussed. The results the optical PNC- method application while processing tooth carious cavities are presented in order to estimate efficiency of the mechanical and antiseptic processing of teeth. It is revealed that the PNC-method can be used as for differential diagnostics of a degree dental carious stage, as for estimating of carefulness of tooth cavity processing before filling.

  19. THE METHODS OF LABORATORY DIAGNOSTICS OF UROGENITAL INFECTIONS ASSOCIATED WITH MYCOPLASMA HOMINIS AND UREAPLASMA SPP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Zarucheynova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wide distribution of urogenital mycoplasmas in the population, the high frequency of carrier state and a long asymptomatic course of disease, the lack of specific clinical symptoms making the diagnosis impossible without using of special laboratory tests. The review focuses on indications for mycoplasma infection screening and for an appointmentof antibiotic therapy. The most commonly used laboratory diagnostic methods of urogenital infections, associated with Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma spp., with their characteristics, advantages and disadvantages are described.

  20. Mycoplasma bovis pathogenesis, diagnostic methods and epidemiology of relevance for control and prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum

    routes are direct cattle-to-cattle contact, contaminated milk and milking equipment, and aerosols moving between animals over short distances (few meters), so any prevention method that can mitigate those routes will reduce the size and duration of outbreaks. Less common transmission routes include semen...... the herd becomes exposed to M. bovis - or new strains of M. bovis. Luckily this also has great benefits on the general health and production in cattle farms. The general prevention measures can to some extent be supported by diagnostic testing prior to movement of cattle, even though it is not possible...

  1. RADIOLOGICAL DIAGNOSTIC METHODS OF SOFT-TISSUE COMPONENTS IN THE SPINAL CANAL FORMING LUMBAR STENOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OTABEK ABLYAZOV

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The modern categorization defines the different forms of lumbar part spine stenosis, coming from anatomical and pathological of the principle. One of the varieties is a central lumbar stenosis. Compression of medulla spinalis occurs due to reduction of sizes of the spine central cannel caused either by osseous structure or softtissue of the spine canal. All softtissue components of the spinal canal can form stenos including defeat of intervertebral disk (the hernia of the disk. This work studies efficiency of Xray (at 33 patients and MRI (at 92 patients methods in diagnostics of the hernia of the disk that participates in forming lumbar part spine stenosis.

  2. A nondestructive diagnostic method based on swept-frequency ultrasound transmission-reflection measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramanti, Mauro

    1992-08-01

    A nondestructive diagnostic technique is proposed to measure depth and thickness of unwanted inclusions inside laminate-type materials (gaps, delaminations, and cracks, for example). The method is based on the frequency-domain analysis of transmission and reflection coefficient measured on the material under test when it is irradiated by a CW ultrasound beam whose frequency varies over a suitable frequency range. By measuring the frequency distance between two adjacent minima in the attenuation and reflection coefficients the thickness and depth of the inclusion can be obtained. A practical implementation of the technique is suggested, and the first experimental results obtained by a laboratory setup are reported.

  3. Two-Step Robust Diagnostic Method for Identification of Multiple High Leverage Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezoo Bagheri

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: High leverage points are extreme outliers in the X-direction. In regression analysis, the detection of these leverage points becomes important due to their arbitrary large effects on the estimations as well as multicollinearity problems. Mahalanobis Distance (MD has been used as a diagnostic tool for identification of outliers in multivariate analysis where it finds the distance between normal and abnormal groups of the data. Since the computation of MD relies on non-robust classical estimations, the classical MD can hardly detect outliers accurately. As an alternative, Robust MD (RMD methods such as Minimum Covariance Determinant (MCD and Minimum Volume Ellipsoid (MVE estimators had been used to identify the existence of high leverage points in the data set. However, these methods tended to swamp some low leverage points even though they can identify high leverage points correctly. Since, the detection of leverage points is one of the most important issues in regression analysis, it is imperative to introduce a novel detection method of high leverage points. Approach: In this study, we proposed a relatively new two-step method for detection of high leverage points by utilizing the RMD (MVE and RMD (MCD in the first step to identify the suspected outlier points. Then, in the second step the MD was used based on the mean and covariance of the clean data set. We called this method two-step Robust Diagnostic Mahalanobis Distance (RDMDTS which could identify high leverage points correctly and also swamps less low leverage points. Results: The merit of the newly proposed method was investigated extensively by real data sets and Monte Carlo Simulations study. The results of this study indicated that, for small sample sizes, the best detection method is (RDMDTS (MVE-mad while there was not much difference between (RDMDTS (MVE-mad and (RDMDTS (MCD-mad for large sample sizes. Conclusion/Recommendations: In order to swamp less low

  4. Development of a diagnostic method for neosporosis in cattle using recombinant Neospora caninum proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Jinhua

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neosporosis is an infectious disease primarily of cattle and dogs, caused by intracellular parasite, Neospora caninum. Neosporosis appears to be a major cause of abortion in dairy cattle worldwide and causes to huge economic loss to dairy industry. Results Recombinant surface associated antigen 1 (NcSAG1, NcSAG1 related sequence 2 (NcSRS2 and the dense granule antigen 2 (NcGRA2 of N. caninum were expressed either in silkworm or in Escherichia coli and purified. The purified recombinant proteins bound to the N. caninum-specific antibodies in serum samples from infected cattle as revealed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. By co-immobilizing these recombinant proteins, a novel indirect ELISA was developed for detection of neosporosis. With the use of 32 serum samples, comprising 12 positive serum samples and 20 negative serum samples, the sensitivity and specificity of the assay were found to be 91.7 and 100%, respectively. Seventy-two serum samples from dairy farms were also tested and one was diagnosed with neosporasis with both this method and a commercial assay. Conclusions A diagnostic method employing recombinant proteins of N. caninum was developed. The method showed high sensitivity and specificity. Diagnostic test with field serum samples suggested its applicability to the practical diagnosis of neosporosis.

  5. Quantitative diagnostic method for biceps long head tendinitis by using ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shih-Wei; Wang, Wei-Te

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility of grayscale quantitative diagnostic method for biceps tendinitis and determine the cut-off points of a quantitative biceps ultrasound (US) method to diagnose biceps tendinitis. Design. Prospective cross-sectional case controlled study. Outpatient rehabilitation service. A total of 336 shoulder pain patients with suspected biceps tendinitis were recruited in this prospective observational study. The grayscale pixel data of the range of interest (ROI) were obtained for both the transverse and longitudinal views of the biceps US. A total of 136 patients were classified with biceps tendinitis, and 200 patients were classified as not having biceps tendinitis based on the diagnostic criteria. Based on the Youden index, the cut-off points were determined as 26.85 for the transverse view and 21.25 for the longitudinal view of the standard deviation (StdDev) of the ROI values, respectively. When the ROI evaluation of the US surpassed the cut-off point, the sensitivity was 68% and the specificity was 90% in the StdDev of the transverse view, and the sensitivity was 81% and the specificity was 73% in the StdDev of the longitudinal view to diagnose biceps tendinitis. For equivocal cases or inexperienced sonographers, our study provides a more objective method for diagnosing biceps tendinitis in shoulder pain patients.

  6. Improving the diagnostic accuracy of dysplastic and melanoma lesions using the decision template combination method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faal, Maryam; Miran Baygi, Mohammad Hossein; Kabir, Ehsanollah

    2013-02-01

    Melanoma is the most dangerous type of skin cancer, and early detection of suspicious lesions can decrease the mortality rate of this cancer. In this article, we present a multi-classifier system for improving the diagnostic accuracy of melanoma and dysplastic lesions based on the decision template combination rule. First, the lesion is differentiated from the surrounding healthy skin in an image. Next, shape, colour and texture features are extracted from the lesion image. Different subsets of these features are fed to three different classifiers: k-nearest neighbour (k-NN), support vector machine (SVM) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). The decision template method is used to combine the outputs of these classifiers. The proposed method has been evaluated on a set of 436 dermatoscopic images of benign, dysplastic and melanoma lesions. The final classifier ensemble delivers a total classification accuracy of 80.46%, with 67.73% of dysplastic lesions correctly classified and 83.53% of melanoma lesions correctly classified. The results show that the proposed method significantly increases the diagnostic accuracy of dysplastic and melanoma lesions compared with a single classifier. The total classification rate is also improved. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Methods, Diagnostic Criteria, Cutoff Points, and Prevalence of Sarcopenia among Older People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Pagotto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To identify methods, index, diagnostic criteria, and corresponding cutoff points used to estimate the prevalence of sarcopenia in older people in different countries. Methods. A systematic review was carried out in accordance with PRISMA Statement. The search encompassed the MEDLINE and LILACS databases and was executed during March 2012 using the keyword sarcopenia. Results. A total of 671 studies were identified by the search strategy, and 30 meet all inclusion criteria. Specifically for dual-X-ray absorptiometry, prevalence ranged from 2.2% to 95% in men and from 0.1% to 33.9% in women. For bioelectrical impedance analysis, the range was from 6.2% to 85.4% in men and 2.8% to 23.6% in women. Regarding anthropometric and computed tomography, prevalence rates were, respectively, 14.1% and 55.9%. Conclusions. Heterogeneity in prevalence of sarcopenia was identified, due to diagnostic method choice, cutoff points, and, characteristics of the population as well as reference population. These factors should be considered in research designs to enable comparison and validation of results. Despite the limitations of most studies that indicated high prevalence rates, the results indicate the need for early detection of this syndrome.

  8. Current Methods to Detoxify Fly Ash from Waste Incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallgren, Christine; Stroemberg, Birgitta [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2004-07-01

    Fly ash from waste incineration contains large amounts of heavy metals and dioxins, which will cause a significant disposal problem within the coming years. The amount of fly ash produced in Sweden is currently approximately 60,000 tons/y. New technological options for the decontamination and/or inertization of incinerator fly ash are being developed with the objective of rendering a product that can be reused or, at least, be deposited at standard landfill sites with no risk. Many of these technologies have been tested at industrial scale or in pilot projects. The proposed alternatives include: Thermal treatments; Immobilization/stabilization by cement based techniques; Wet chemical treatments (extractions, immobilizations); Microbiological treatments. Of these, thermal treatments are the most promising solution. Depending on the temperature thermal treatments are classified in two main types: 1) low temperature (below 600 deg C) thermal treatments and 2) high temperature (above 1200 deg C) thermal treatments (vitrification). Most dioxins can be successfully destroyed at temperatures up to 400 deg C under oxygen deficient conditions and at temperatures up to 600 deg C under oxidising conditions. However most heavy metals remain in the fly ash after low temperature treatment. At a temperature of 900 deg C most heavy metals can also be removed in a 10% HCl atmosphere by forming volatile metal chlorides (CT-Fluapur process). During vitrification processes the fly ash melts and forms an inert glassy slag. The product does not leach any significant amount of heavy metals and is free from dioxin. The volume of the fly ash is significantly reduced. The product can be land filled at low costs or used as construction material. The properties of the product depend on the cooling process and on additives such as sand, limestone or waste glass. A series of vitrification methods at industrial size or in pilot scale using different furnaces are studied. Among these, plasma

  9. CURRENT STATE ANALYSIS OF AUTOMATIC BLOCK SYSTEM DEVICES, METHODS OF ITS SERVICE AND MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Beznarytnyy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Development of formalized description of automatic block system of numerical code based on the analysis of characteristic failures of automatic block system and procedure of its maintenance. Methodology. For this research a theoretical and analytical methods have been used. Findings. Typical failures of the automatic block systems were analyzed, as well as basic reasons of failure occur were found out. It was determined that majority of failures occurs due to defects of the maintenance system. Advantages and disadvantages of the current service technology of automatic block system were analyzed. Works that can be automatized by means of technical diagnostics were found out. Formal description of the numerical code of automatic block system as a graph in the state space of the system was carried out. Originality. The state graph of the numerical code of automatic block system that takes into account gradual transition from the serviceable condition to the loss of efficiency was offered. That allows selecting diagnostic information according to attributes and increasing the effectiveness of recovery operations in the case of a malfunction. Practical value. The obtained results of analysis and proposed the state graph can be used as the basis for the development of new means of diagnosing devices for automatic block system, which in turn will improve the efficiency and service of automatic block system devices in general.

  10. The methodic approach to the diagnostics of internal communications at the industrial enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.Yu. Saher

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of an article. The aim of an article is to develop methodic approach to diagnostics of internal communications within business-processes management at the industrial enterprise considering all elements in the interior communicational processes. The results of the analysis. Owing the differing character of approaches to estimate internal communications state, study their separate constituents and necessity to form the only approach to diagnose internal communicational processes (ICP at the enterprise, and considering its all constituents, internal communication diagnostics procedure at the enterprise is suggested to conduct by the investigated diagnostics algorithm. According to the algorithm, the object of diagnostics is ICP system with the following components: organizational, informational, technical and technological, social and psychological subsystems. In these four areas the classification of indicators of internal communications effectiveness evaluation was formed. However, having regard to gravity of availability interrelated indicators and a high degree of probability of occurrence duplication settlement we propose narrow down the number of components to two diagnostic groups of indicators: 1 social and organizational (a combination of organizational, social and psychological components. This component is provided for the calculation of such indicators as: coefficient of management reliability, staff loyalty, cohesion in the group, the index productivity growth. 2 technical and informational: the information processing reliability, completeness of the information, software workload coefficient, coefficient of computer using. The received values of the generalized integral factors by the social and organizational and technical and informational components concerning enterprise interior communications are put to the summery table. To estimate enterprise interior communications it is proposed to form matrix of their state

  11. An in vivo comparison of two diagnostic methods in secondary caries detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem Saber Hamishaki

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the level of agreement between four operators with different levels of experience for two methods of detecting secondary enamel and dentin carious lesions in composite restored teeth.Sixty teeth of 40 patients with with secondary carious lesions in the composite resin were selected. The teeth were examined by two methods; visual inspection and a laser fluorescence device (DIAGNO dent pen 2190 by four operators including an undergraduate student, a dentist with 5 years of clinical experience, a general dentist with 12 years of clinical experience and an oral and maxillofacial radiologist. Cohen's kappa statistic was applied in order to assess the agreement between the diagnoses performed by the four operators with each diagnostic method.The diagnosis performed by different operators achieved an excellent agreement with high ICC.DIAGNOdent can be a useful device for secondary caries detection in posterior teeth as an adjunct to visual examination.

  12. An Efficient Method of Vibration Diagnostics For Rotating Machinery Using a Decision Tree

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    Bo Suk Yang

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an efficient method to automatize vibration diagnosis for rotating machinery using a decision tree, which is applicable to vibration diagnosis expert system. Decision tree is a widely known formalism for expressing classification knowledge and has been used successfully in many diverse areas such as character recognition, medical diagnosis, and expert systems, etc. In order to build a decision tree for vibration diagnosis, we have to define classes and attributes. A set of cases based on past experiences is also needed. This training set is inducted using a result-cause matrix newly developed in the present work instead of using a conventionally implemented cause-result matrix. This method was applied to diagnostics for various cases taken from published work. It is found that the present method predicts causes of the abnormal vibration for test cases with high reliability.

  13. Application of Diagnostic/Prognostic Methods to Critical Equipment for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Cleanup Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casazza, Lawrence O.; Jarrell, Donald B.; Koehler, Theresa M.; Meador, Richard J.; Wallace, Dale E.

    2002-02-28

    The management of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) project at the Hanford K-Basin in the 100 N Area has successfully restructured the preventive maintenance, spare parts inventory requirements, and the operator rounds data requirements. In this investigation, they continue to examine the different facets of the operations and maintenance (O&M) of the K-Basin cleanup project in search of additional reliability and cost savings. This report focuses on the initial findings of a team of PNNL engineers engaged to identify potential opportunities for reducing the cost of O&M through the application of advanced diagnostics (fault determination) and prognostics (residual life/reliability determination). The objective is to introduce predictive technologies to eliminate or reduce high impact equipment failures. The PNNL team in conjunction with the SNF engineers found the following major opportunities for cost reduction and/or enhancing reliability: (1) Provide data routing and automated analysis from existing detection systems to a display center that will engage the operations and engineering team. This display will be operator intuitive with system alarms and integrated diagnostic capability. (2) Change operating methods to reduce major transients induced in critical equipment. This would reduce stress levels on critical equipment. (3) Install a limited sensor set on failure prone critical equipment to allow degradation or stressor levels to be monitored and alarmed. This would provide operators and engineers with advance guidance and warning of failure events. Specific methods for implementation of the above improvement opportunities are provided in the recommendations. They include an Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) decision support system, introduction of variable frequency drives on certain pump motors, and the addition of limited diagnostic instrumentation on specified critical equipment.

  14. Evaluation of three rapid diagnostic methods for direct identification of microorganisms in positive blood cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Raquel M; Bauerle, Elizabeth R; Fang, Ferric C; Butler-Wu, Susan M

    2014-07-01

    The identification of organisms from positive blood cultures generally takes several days. However, recently developed rapid diagnostic methods offer the potential for organism identification within only a few hours of blood culture positivity. In this study, we evaluated the performance of three commercial methods to rapidly identify organisms directly from positive blood cultures: QuickFISH (AdvanDx, Wolburn, MA), Verigene Gram-Positive Blood Culture (BC-GP; Nanosphere, Northbrook, IL), and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) with Sepsityper processing (Bruker Daltonics, Billerica, MA). A total of 159 blood cultures (VersaTREK Trek Diagnostic Systems, Cleveland, OH) positive for Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as yeast were analyzed with QuickFISH and MALDI-TOF MS. In all, 102 blood cultures were analyzed using the BC-GP assay. For monomicrobial cultures, we observed 98.0% concordance with routine methods for both QuickFISH (143/146) and the BC-GP assay (93/95). MALDI-TOF MS demonstrated 80.1% (117/146) and 87.7% (128/146) concordance with routine methods to the genus and species levels, respectively. None of the methods tested were capable of consistently identifying polymicrobial cultures in their entirety or reliably differentiating Streptococcus pneumoniae from viridans streptococci. Nevertheless, the methods evaluated in this study are convenient and accurate for the most commonly encountered pathogens and have the potential to dramatically reduce turnaround time for the provision of results to the treating physician.

  15. The Verification Methodics of the Effects of Short-Circuit Currents in Windings of the Power Transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Gutten

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The windings of power transformers must be designed so, that the effect of short-circuits currents, which can emerge in an operation, will not start up on them the destruction or the deformation of the mechanical or thermal character. Except for permanently deformation results of the effects of short-circuit current come to also by correct ditnensioning of electric equipment to progressive ageing. Which can make worse his mechanical properties. The article deals Ivith the diagnostic method. Which enables to anticipate such state.

  16. MASAS ADRENALES: PAPEL ACTUAL DE LAS IMÁGENES DIAGNÓSTICAS Masses adrenales: the current role of diagnostic images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Augusto Poveda

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se describe el rol que desempeñan en la actualidad las imágenes diagnósticas, en especial la tomografía computarizada y la resonancia magnética, para el diagnóstico d e masas adrenales. Se exponen los conceptos de lavado en tomografía y desplazamiento químico en resonancia magnética en la caracterización morfológica y dinámica con el medio de contraste de las misma y se revisan las patologías más frecuentes con énfasis en la diferenciación entre patología benigna y maligna. Se sugiere un diagrama de flujo del diagnóstico de las masas adrenales.This article describes the role currently being played by diagnostic images (especially computerised tomography and magnetic resonance for diagnosing adrenal masses. It deals with the concepts of washing in tomography and chemical displacement in magnetic resonance in morphological and dynamic characterisation with pertinent contrast medium and reviews the most frequent pathologies, emphasising differentiation between benign and malign pathologies. A flow diagram for adrenal mass diagnosis is suggested.

  17. Fast and sensitive medical diagnostic protocol based on integrating circular current lines for magnetic washing and optical detection of fluorescent magnetic nanobeads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaiyam Sharma

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs are increasingly being used as ‘magnetic labels’ in medical diagnostics. Practical applications of MNPs necessitate reducing their non-specific interactions with sensor surfaces that result in noise in measurements. Here we describe the design and implementation of a sensing platform that incorporates circular shaped current lines that reduce non-specific binding by enabling the “magnetic washing” of loosely attached MNPs attached to the senor surface. Generating magnetic fields by passing electrical currents through the circular shaped current lines enabled the capture and collection of fluorescent MNPs that was more efficient and effective than straight current lines reported to-date. The use of fluorescent MNPs allows their optical detection rather than with widely used magnetoresistive sensors. As a result our approach is not affected by magnetic noise due to the flow of currents. Our design is expected to improve the speed, accuracy, and sensitivity of MNPs based medical diagnostics.

  18. Exploration of Analysis Methods for Diagnostic Imaging Tests: Problems with ROC AUC and Confidence Scores in CT Colonography.

    OpenAIRE

    Susan Mallett; Steve Halligan; Gary S Collins; Altman, Doug G.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Different methods of evaluating diagnostic performance when comparing diagnostic tests may lead to different results. We compared two such approaches, sensitivity and specificity with area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve (ROC AUC) for the evaluation of CT colonography for the detection of polyps, either with or without computer assisted detection. METHODS: In a multireader multicase study of 10 readers and 107 cases we compared sensitivity and specificity, using ...

  19. Two thermal methods to measure the energy fluence of a brief exposure of diagnostic x rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, A A; Mascarenhas, S; dePaula, M H; Cameron, J R

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes two simple thermal methods for measuring the energy fluence in J/cm2 from a diagnostic x-ray exposure. Both detectors absorb essentially 100% of the radiation and give a signal that is directly proportional to the energy fluence of the x-ray beam. One detector measures the thermal effect when a pulse of x rays is totally absorbed in the pyroelectric detector of lead-zirconium-titanate (PZT). The other detector measures the expansion of a gas surrounding a lead disk detector in a photoacoustic chamber. The increased pressure of the gas is transmitted through a 1-mm duct to a sensitive microphone. Both detectors have previously been used to measure the energy fluence rate of continuous x-ray beams in the same energy region using a chopped beam and a lock-in amplifier. Measurement of the energy fluence of a pulse of radiation eliminates the need for the beam chopper and lock-in amplifier and results in a simple, rugged, and inexpensive dosimeter. Either method can be combined with the area of the beam to give an estimate of the imparted energy to the patient from a diagnostic x-ray exposure.

  20. [An evaluation of the effectiveness of laboratory diagnostic methods for brucellosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandara, B; Zheludkov, M M; Chernysheva, M I

    1994-01-01

    The diagnostic value of bacteriological and serological methods for the laboratory diagnosis of brucellosis was studied. In the analysis of milk and cheese specimens Brucella cultures were isolated and differentiated as B.melitensis, biovar I, and B.abortus, biovar 4. In 25.6% of cases B.melitensis culture, biovar 1, was isolated from the blood of persons suspected for brucellosis. The isolation of B.melitensis culture from milk showed that this infective agent migrated from small animals to cattle, which was indicative of a high risk of human infection in the state of Zacatecas, Mexico. The comparative evaluation of serological diagnostic methods (the agglutination test in test tubes, Huddleson's slide test, the acidic rose bengal test and the 2-mercaptoethanol test) showed high sensitivity of rapid tests (Huddleson's test and the rose bengal test in 93.7% and 87.9% of cases respectively). The 2-mercaptoethanol test which gave positive results in 63.8% of cases provided additional information characterizing the course of infections process.

  1. Cocaine use disorder prevalence: From current DSM-IV to proposed DSM-5 diagnostic criteria with both a two and three severity level classification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Steven L; Kopak, Albert M; Hoffmann, Norman G

    2014-06-01

    This article presents a secondary analysis from a study investigating the compatibility of the current DSM-IV and previously proposed DSM-5 cocaine use disorder (CUD) criteria (S. L. Proctor, A. M. Kopak, & N. G. Hoffmann, 2012, Compatibility of current DSM-IV and proposed DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for cocaine use disorders. Addictive Behaviors, 37, 722-728). The current analyses examined the compatibility of the current DSM-IV and two sets of proposed DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for CUDs among adult male inmates (N = 6,871) recently admitted to the Minnesota Department of Corrections state prison system from 2000-2003. Initially proposed DSM-5 criteria (DSM-5.0) featured only two diagnostic designations (i.e., moderate and severe). A subsequent revision (DSM-5.1) included the addition of a mild designation and required a greater number of positive findings for the severe designation. A computer-prompted structured diagnostic interview was administered to all inmates as part of routine clinical assessments. The past 12-month prevalence of DSM-IV CUDs was 12.70% (Abuse, 3.78%, Dependence, 8.92%), while 10.98% met past 12-month DSM-5.1 criteria for a CUD (Mild [MiCUD], 1.72%; Moderate [MCUD], 1.12%; and Severe [SCUD], 8.14%). The vast majority of those with no diagnosis (99.6%) continued to have no diagnosis, and most of those with a dependence diagnosis (91.2%) met SCUD criteria of the proposed DSM-5.1. Most of the variation in DSM-5.1 diagnostic classifications was accounted for by those with a current abuse diagnosis. DSM-5.0 MCUD cases were most affected when DSM-5.1 criteria were applied. The proposed diagnostic changes might translate to reduced access to treatment for those individuals evincing symptoms consistent with DSM-IV cocaine abuse.

  2. Current perspectives on genetically modified crops and detection methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamle, Madhu; Kumar, Pradeep; Patra, Jayanta Kumar; Bajpai, Vivek K

    2017-07-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops are the fastest adopted commodities in the agribiotech industry. This market penetration should provide a sustainable basis for ensuring food supply for growing global populations. The successful completion of two decades of commercial GM crop production (1996-2015) is underscored by the increasing rate of adoption of genetic engineering technology by farmers worldwide. With the advent of introduction of multiple traits stacked together in GM crops for combined herbicide tolerance, insect resistance, drought tolerance or disease resistance, the requirement of reliable and sensitive detection methods for tracing and labeling genetically modified organisms in the food/feed chain has become increasingly important. In addition, several countries have established threshold levels for GM content which trigger legally binding labeling schemes. The labeling of GM crops is mandatory in many countries (such as China, EU, Russia, Australia, New Zealand, Brazil, Israel, Saudi Arabia, Korea, Chile, Philippines, Indonesia, Thailand), whereas in Canada, Hong Kong, USA, South Africa, and Argentina voluntary labeling schemes operate. The rapid adoption of GM crops has increased controversies, and mitigating these issues pertaining to the implementation of effective regulatory measures for the detection of GM crops is essential. DNA-based detection methods have been successfully employed, while the whole genome sequencing using next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies provides an advanced means for detecting genetically modified organisms and foods/feeds in GM crops. This review article describes the current status of GM crop commercialization and discusses the benefits and shortcomings of common and advanced detection systems for GMs in foods and animal feeds.

  3. Diagnostic performance and safety of a three-dimensional 14-core systematic biopsy method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, Hideki; Kawakami, Satoru; Numao, Noboru; Sakura, Mizuaki; Tatokoro, Manabu; Yamamoto, Shinya; Kijima, Toshiki; Komai, Yoshinobu; Saito, Kazutaka; Koga, Fumitaka; Fujii, Yasuhisa; Fukui, Iwao; Kihara, Kazunori

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the diagnostic performance and safety of a three-dimensional 14-core biopsy (3D14PBx) method, which is a combination of the transrectal six-core and transperineal eight-core biopsy methods. Between December 2005 and August 2010, 1103 men underwent 3D14PBx at our institutions and were analysed prospectively. Biopsy criteria included a PSA level of 2.5-20 ng/mL or abnormal digital rectal examination (DRE) findings, or both. The primary endpoint of the study was diagnostic performance and the secondary endpoint was safety. We applied recursive partitioning to the entire study cohort to delineate the unique contribution of each sampling site to overall and clinically significant cancer detection. Prostate cancer was detected in 503 of the 1103 patients (45.6%). Age, family history of prostate cancer, DRE, PSA, percentage of free PSA and prostate volume were associated with the positive biopsy results significantly and independently. Of the 503 cancers detected, 39 (7.8%) were clinically locally advanced (≥cT3a), 348 (69%) had a biopsy Gleason score (GS) of ≥7, and 463 (92%) met the definition of biopsy-based significant cancer. Recursive partitioning analysis showed that each sampling site contributed uniquely to both the overall and the biopsy-based significant cancer detection rate of the 3D14PBx method. The overall cancer-positive rate of each sampling site ranged from 14.5% in the transrectal far lateral base to 22.8% in the transrectal far lateral apex. As of August 2010, 210 patients (42%) had undergone radical prostatectomy, of whom 55 (26%) were found to have pathologically non-organ-confined disease, 174 (83%) had prostatectomy GS ≥7 and 185 (88%) met the definition of prostatectomy-based significant cancer. This is the first prospective analysis of the diagnostic performance of an extended biopsy method, which is a simplified version of the somewhat redundant super-extended three-dimensional 26-core biopsy. As expected, each sampling

  4. Early dental caries detection by method of PNC-diagnostics: comparison with visual and x-ray methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masychev, Victor I.; Sokolovsky, Alexander A.; Kesler, Gaby; Alexandrov, Michail T.

    2000-03-01

    In this research results of approbation of the optical PNC- method in dental clinic are presented. The PNC-method was used for diagnostics stages of caries (initial, moderate and deep). The variant of the PNC-method adapted for dental diagnosis is based on simultaneous analyses the following parameters by special algorithms: backscattering and probing radiation, stimulated (endogenous) autofluorescence of caries induced batteries. Analyze of informational signals show good correlation with tooth morphological structure and concentration of anaerobic microflora in hearth of caries lesion. Investigation was performed in vivo on 101 tooth in conditions of typical dental clinic. Comparison of the PNC- method with visual and X-ray ones, which are widely used in clinical practice was made. Preliminary results showed high potential of usage the PNC-method in clinical practice and more high probability of initial caries detection (up to 100%) in comparison with X-ray method (approximately 75%). In cases when X-ray diagnosed absence of initial caries, more sensitive the PNC-method detected initial caries in stage 'white lesion.'

  5. The knowledge about diagnostic imaging methods among primary care and medical emergency physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Mendes Araujo Borem

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the knowledge about diagnostic imaging methods among primary care and medical emergency physicians. Materials and Methods Study developed with 119 primary care and medical emergency physicians in Montes Claros, MG, Brazil, by means of a structured questionnaire about general knowledge and indications of imaging methods in common clinical settings. A rate of correct responses corresponding to ≥ 80% was considered as satisfactory. The Poisson regression (PR model was utilized in the data analysis. Results Among the 81 individuals who responded the questionnaire, 65% (n = 53 demonstrated to have satisfactory general knowledge and 44% (n = 36 gave correct responses regarding indications of imaging methods. Respectively, 65% (n = 53 and 51% (n = 41 of the respondents consider that radiography and computed tomography do not use ionizing radiation. The prevalence of a satisfactory general knowledge about imaging methods was associated with medical residency in the respondents' work field (PR = 4.55; IC 95%: 1.18-16.67; p-value: 0.03, while the prevalence of correct responses regarding indication of imaging methods was associated with the professional practice in primary health care (PR = 1.79; IC 95%: 1.16-2.70; p-value: 0.01. Conclusion Major deficiencies were observed as regards the knowledge about imaging methods among physicians, with better results obtained by those involved in primary health care and by residents.

  6. DIRECT SMEAR VS CELL BLOCK (PLASMA- THROMBIN CLOT METHOD: DIAGNOSTIC VALUE IN SEROSAL CAVITIES FLUIDS CYTOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P MAHZOUNI

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. To improve testing sensitivity, most laboratories use two or more preparation methods but in our laboratories only one method is used which is "direct smear". In this study we tried to evaluate the diagnostic value of cell block as adjunct to direct smear in the cytologic investigation of serosal cavities fluids. Methods. In a clinical trial study 62 specimens of serosal cavity fluids were investigated in AL-Zahrapathology laboratory (Get. 1998 to Get. 1999. Cytologic slides from each specimens were prepared in two methods: direct smear and cell block (plasma- thrombin clot method. Smears and cell blocks were studied separately by the same cytopathologist. The diagnosis were categorized as positive, negative, suspicious or unsatisfactory. Also, the time required for studing of each slides were noted. Findings. The findings indicated that there are discrepancy between direct smear and cell block methods in the number of "suspicious" cases. Also there is significant difference between the mean time needed for studing of direct smear and cell block. Conclusion. It is recommended that the remainer of each specimen should be kept in refrigerator in order to prepare cell blocks in suspicious cases of direct smear. This method facilitates making a more definite diagnosis and reducing the number of suspicious cases.

  7. Reliability studies of diagnostic methods in Indian traditional Ayurveda medicine: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurande, Vrinda Hitendra; Waagepetersen, Rasmus; Toft, Egon; Prasad, Ramjee

    2013-04-01

    Recently, a need to develop supportive new scientific evidence for contemporary Ayurveda has emerged. One of the research objectives is an assessment of the reliability of diagnoses and treatment. Reliability is a quantitative measure of consistency. It is a crucial issue in classification (such as prakriti classification), method development (pulse diagnosis), quality assurance for diagnosis and treatment and in the conduct of clinical studies. Several reliability studies are conducted in western medicine. The investigation of the reliability of traditional Chinese, Japanese and Sasang medicine diagnoses is in the formative stage. However, reliability studies in Ayurveda are in the preliminary stage. In this paper, examples are provided to illustrate relevant concepts of reliability studies of diagnostic methods and their implication in practice, education, and training. An introduction to reliability estimates and different study designs and statistical analysis is given for future studies in Ayurveda.

  8. Accuracy and standardization of diagnostic methods for the detection of antibodies to citrullinated peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tampoia

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies (ACPA have a very high specificity for rheumatoid arthritis, much more than that of the rheumatoid factor. In addition, ACPA can be found in sera in the pre-clinical phase, are associated with more severe joint destruction and with higher disease activity. In recent years, keeping pace with new knowledge and with progress made in the antigenic composition of tests and in the characterization of immunogenic epitopes, many immunoenzymatic (ELISA methods of second and third generation have been produced and marketed commercially, and their use has spread among clinical laboratories. Today, completely automated methods are also available, which are easy to use and with a higher throughput, rendering the diagnostic utility of testing ever faster and more effective. This review takes into consideration the more important characteristics of the new ACPA-ELISA tests now commercially available, and also considers recent progress in standardizing test results.

  9. Handbook of Coherent-Domain Optical Methods Biomedical Diagnostics, Environmental Monitoring, and Materials Science

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This Handbook provides comprehensive coverage of laser and coherent-domain methods as applied to biomedicine, environmental monitoring, and materials science. Worldwide leaders in these fields describe the fundamentals of light interaction with random media and present an overview of basic research. The latest results on coherent and polarization properties of light scattered by random media, including tissues and blood, speckles formation in multiple scattering media, and other non-destructive interactions of coherent light with rough surfaces and tissues, allow the reader to understand the principles and applications of coherent diagnostic techniques. The expanded second edition has been thoroughly updated with particular emphasis on novel coherent-domain techniques and their applications in medicine and environmental science. Volume 1 describes state-of-the-art methods of coherent and polarization optical imaging, tomography and spectroscopy; diffusion wave spectroscopy; elastic, quasi-elastic and inelasti...

  10. Method for Evaluating Information to Solve Problems of Control, Monitoring and Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasil'ev, V. A.; Dobrynina, N. V.

    2017-06-01

    The article describes a method for evaluating information to solve problems of control, monitoring and diagnostics. It is necessary for reducing the dimensionality of informational indicators of situations, bringing them to relative units, for calculating generalized information indicators on their basis, ranking them by characteristic levels, for calculating the efficiency criterion of a system functioning in real time. The design of information evaluation system has been developed on its basis that allows analyzing, processing and assessing information about the object. Such object can be a complex technical, economic and social system. The method and the based system thereof can find a wide application in the field of analysis, processing and evaluation of information on the functioning of the systems, regardless of their purpose, goals, tasks and complexity. For example, they can be used to assess the innovation capacities of industrial enterprises and management decisions.

  11. A nondestructive method for diagnostic of insulated building walls using infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larbi Youcef, Mohamed H. A.; Mazioud, Atef; Bremond, Pierre; Ibos, Laurent; Candau, Yves; Piro, Michel; Filloux, Alain

    2007-04-01

    This work deals with the development of an experimental protocol for the diagnostic of multi-layered insulated building walls. First, a test bench is set up in order to measure front and back sides temperatures of standard panels. The panels considered have insulation thicknesses of 2, 6 and 10cm. The front side is heated by two halogen lamps of 500W. A CEDIP Jade Long wave infrared camera and thermocouples are used to carry out temperature measurements. In a second time, a one dimensional model based on thermal quadruples and Laplace transforms was developped under Matlab environment. Also, we developped a three dimensional model based on finite volumes using Fluent computational code. Finally, a method of identification of physical parameters is implemented by performing least square minimization based on Levenberg-Marquardt method. The experimental measurements are compared to theoretical results and by minimization we obtain thermal conductivity and diffusivity as well as thickness of the two layers.

  12. Crystallo-optic diagnostics method of the soft laser-induced effects in biological fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skopinov, S. A.; Yakovleva, S. V.

    1991-05-01

    Presently, it is well known that individual cells"2 and higher organisms3'4 exhibit a marked response to soft laser irradiation in certain parts of the visible and near infrared spectral ranges. Broad clinical applications of laser therapy and slow progress in understanding of the physical, chemical and biological mechanisms of this phenomenon make the task to search new methods of objectivisation of laser-induces bioeffects very insistent. In this paper we give a short review of the methods of structural-optical diagnostics of the soft laser-induced effects in biofluids (blood and its fractions, saliva, juices, mucuses, exudations, etc.) and suggest their applications in experimental and clinical studies of the soft laser bioeffects.

  13. Highly variable use of diagnostic methods for sexually transmitted infections-results of a nationwide survey, Germany 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamouda Osamah

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexual transmitted infections (STIs have increased in Germany and other countries in Europe since the mid-nineties. To obtain a better picture of diagnostic methods used in STI testing institutions in Germany, we performed a nationwide survey amongst STI specialists in order to evaluate the quality of STI reports and provide recommendations to harmonize and possibly improve STI diagnostics in Germany. Methods We asked sentinel physicians and randomly chosen gynaecologists, urologists and dermato-venerologists, about the diagnostic methods used in 2005 to diagnose HIV, chlamydia (CT, gonorrhoea (GO and syphilis (SY in a national cross-sectional survey in order to recognize potential problems and provide recommendations. Results A total of 739/2287 (32% physicians participated. Of all participants, 80% offered tests for HIV, 84% for CT, 83% for GO and 83% for SY. Of all participants who performed HIV testing, 90% requested an antibody test, 3% a rapid test and 1% a nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT. For CT testing, NAAT was used in 33% and rapid tests in 34% of participants. GO resistance testing was performed by 31% of the participants. SY testing was performed in 98% by serology. Conclusions Diagnostic methods for STI vary highly among the participants. Diagnostic guidelines should be reviewed and harmonised to ensure consistent use of the optimal STI diagnostic methods.

  14. The metal magnetic memory method in the diagnostics of power machinery components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Roskosz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available destructive testing. Special emphasis was put on the use of the method for the testing of power equipment and machinery components.Design/methodology/approach: The use of the strength of the residual magnetic field in diagnostics provides macro-scale information on: material discontinuities, defects of the material structure, load history of the component, and the distribution of stresses.Findings: A wide range of applications of the metal magnetic memory method was presented. In many applications, the use of the method provides information which cannot be obtained by means of traditional, standard methods of non-destructive testing (NDT.Research limitations/implications: The metal magnetic memory method can be used for the testing of all ferromagnetic materials and those austenitic steels in which, due to mechanical or thermal load, delta- or sigma ferrite appears.Practical implications: The metal magnetic memory method, as any NDT method, has some usage limitations which result mainly from the structural features of the components under examination and external conditions. Any application of the method for a specific component calls for the development of a research methodology which takes into consideration the load state of the component during examination and the values of the external magnetic field at the place where the examination is being carried out.Originality/value: Possibilities to use the metal magnetic memory method as a defect detection method were presented. Test results were shown which point to significant capacity of the method for detecting areas prone to initiate cracks and cracks in the early stage of their development.

  15. Methods for processing experimental data in microwave diagnostics of shock waves and detonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedov, Alexander; Rodionov, Alexey; Kanakov, Vladimir

    2013-06-01

    Microwave interferometry is a promising method of unperturbing diagnostics of short-time processes. It is a bit less effective than the optical methods in accuracy, but it provides a researcher with more capabilities, in particular, for measurements in optically opaque media. The classic methods for processing experimental interferograms using extremums allow to obtain data on motion of investigated objects with the resolution of a quarter of wavelength of probing radiation. It is insufficient for majority of practical applications. Use of the mathematical methods for processing output signals of the receiver allows to improve the method resolution significantly and to obtain motion measurement errors of 0.05...0.1 of wavelength or even less. This paper presents schemes of conduction and brief description of the methods for processing a series of tests, which were performed in RFNC-VNIIEF with use of radio interferometer having length of wave of probing radiation λ = 3.2 mm, namely: to measure velocity of stationary detonation; to measure depth of detonation initiation by shock wave; to investigate shock compressibility of dielectric materials; to investigate dynamics of constructions.

  16. Diagnostic methods to cutaneous leishmaniasis detection in domestic dogs and cats*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Daliah Alves Coelho; Lonardoni, Maria Valdrinez Campana; Demarchi, Izabel Galhardo

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is caused by different species of Leishmania. In domestic animals such as dogs and cats, the diagnostic consists of clinical, epidemiological and serological tests, which changes among countries all around the world. Because of this diversity in the methods selected, we propose this systematic literature review to identify the methods of laboratory diagnosis used to detect cutaneous leishmaniasis in domestic dogs and cats in the Americas. Articles published in the last 5 years were searched in PubMed, ISI Web of Science, LILACS and Scielo, and we selected 10 papers about cutaneous leishmaniasis in dogs and cats in the Americas. In Brazil, often the indirect immunofluorescence and enzyme immunoassay (ELISA) have been applied. Other countries like United States and Mexico have been using antigenic fractions for antibodies detections by Western blot. ELISA and Western blot showed a higher sensitivity and efficacy in the detection of leishmaniasis. Analysis of sensibility and specificity of the methods was rarely used. Although confirmatory to leishmaniasis, direct methods for parasites detection and polymerase chain reaction showed low positivity in disease detection. We suggested that more than one method should be used for the detection of feline and canine leishmaniasis. Serological methods such as Western blot and enzyme immunoassay have a high efficacy in the diagnosis of this disease. PMID:26734869

  17. Diagnostic methods to cutaneous leishmaniasis detection in domestic dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Daliah Alves Coelho; Lonardoni, Maria Valdrinez Campana; Demarchi, Izabel Galhardo

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is caused by different species of Leishmania. In domestic animals such as dogs and cats, the diagnostic consists of clinical, epidemiological and serological tests, which changes among countries all around the world. Because of this diversity in the methods selected, we propose this systematic literature review to identify the methods of laboratory diagnosis used to detect cutaneous leishmaniasis in domestic dogs and cats in the Americas. Articles published in the last 5 years were searched in PubMed, ISI Web of Science, LILACS and Scielo, and we selected 10 papers about cutaneous leishmaniasis in dogs and cats in the Americas. In Brazil, often the indirect immunofluorescence and enzyme immunoassay (ELISA) have been applied. Other countries like United States and Mexico have been using antigenic fractions for antibodies detections by Western blot. ELISA and Western blot showed a higher sensitivity and efficacy in the detection of leishmaniasis. Analysis of sensibility and specificity of the methods was rarely used. Although confirmatory to leishmaniasis, direct methods for parasites detection and polymerase chain reaction showed low positivity in disease detection. We suggested that more than one method should be used for the detection of feline and canine leishmaniasis. Serological methods such as Western blot and enzyme immunoassay have a high efficacy in the diagnosis of this disease.

  18. Diagnostic Approaches For Paediatric Tuberculosis By Use Of Different Specimen Types, Culture Methods, And Pcr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberhelman, Richard A.; Soto-Castellares, Giselle; Gilman, Robert H.; Caviedes, Luz; Castillo, Maria E.; Kolevic, Lenka; Pino, Trinidad Del; Saito, Mayuko; Salazar-Lindo, Eduardo; Negron, Eduardo; Montenegro, Sonia; Laguna-Torres, V. Alberto; Moore, David A. J.; Evans, Carlton A.

    2010-01-01

    Background The diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) presents challenges in children, because symptoms are non-specific, specimens are difficult to obtain, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) cultures and smears are often negative. The primary objective was to evaluate new diagnostic approaches for TB in children in a resource-poor country. Methods MTB culture by two techniques and a heminested IS 6110 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay were performed on specimens from 218 Peruvian children with symptoms suggestive of PTB and 238 healthy controls. Cases were grouped into moderate- and high-risk categories by Stegen-Toledo score. Two specimens of each type (gastric aspirate [GA], nasopharyngeal aspirate [NPA], and stool specimens) from each case were examined by 1) auramine smear microscopy, 2) broth culture by Microscopic-Observation Drug-Susceptibility (MODS) technique, 3) standard culture on Lowenstein Jensen (LJ) medium, and 4) PCR. Specimens from controls included a single NPA and two stools, examined with the same techniques. Subjects were enrolled 2002 to 2007 at two hospitals in Lima, Peru. Controls were enrolled from a low income shantytown community in south Lima. Findings Twenty-two case subjects (10%) had at least one positive MTB culture (from GA in 22 cases, NPA in 12 cases, and stool in 4 cases). Laboratory confirmation of tuberculosis was more frequent in high-risk than moderate-risk cases. MODS was significantly more sensitive than LJ culture, diagnosing 20/22 vs. 13/22 patients (P=0.015), and MTB isolation by MODS was faster than by LJ culture (mean 10 days vs. 25 days, P<0.001). All 22 culture-confirmed cases had at least one culture-positive GA, and the addition of the second GA specimen increased detection of culture-positive cases by 37%. In high-risk children duplicate GA PCR identified half of all culture-positive cases. Interpretation MODS culture increased PTB diagnostic sensitivity and speed compared with LJ culture. Although most

  19. Detection of magnetising inrush current using real time integration method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, P. C. Y.; Basak, A.

    1990-01-01

    A technique of predicting magnetising inrush currents in transformers is described. Computed results show an inconsistency in second harmonic decay resulting detection failure while using conventional second harmonic techniques. A new detection scheme using real time integration values of the inrush current is proposed to provide reliable relay operation.

  20. The Brief Introduction of Different Laser Diagnostics Methods Used in Aeroengine Combustion Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Xing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Combustion test diagnosis has always been one of the most important technologies for the development of aerospace engineering. The traditional methods of measurement have been unable to meet the requirements of accurate capture of the flow field in the development process of the aeroengine combustor. Therefore, the development of high-precision measurement and diagnostic techniques to meet the needs of the aeroengine combustor design is imperative. Laser diagnostics techniques developed quickly in the past several years. They are used to measure the parameters of the combustion flow field such as velocity, temperature, and components concentration with high space and time resolution and brought no disturbance. Planar laser-induced fluorescence, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering, tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy, and Raman scattering were introduced systemically in this paper. After analysis of their own advantages and disadvantages, the authors considered validated Raman scattering system and Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Tomography are more suitable for research activities on aeroengine combustion systems.

  1. Interobserver Reliability of Four Diagnostic Methods Using Traditional Korean Medicine for Stroke Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju Ah; Kang, Byoung-Kab; Alraek, Terje

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study is to evaluate the consistency of pattern identification (PI), a set of diagnostic indicators used by traditional Korean medicine (TKM) clinicians. Methods. A total of 168 stroke patients who were admitted into oriental medical university hospitals from June 2012 through January 2013 were included in the study. Using the PI indicators, each patient was independently diagnosed by two experts from the same department. Interobserver consistency was assessed by simple percentage agreement as well as by kappa and AC1 statistics. Results. Interobserver agreement on the PI indicators (for all patients) was generally high: pulse diagnosis signs (AC1 = 0.66–0.89); inspection signs (AC1 = 0.66–0.95); listening/smelling signs (AC1 = 0.67–0.88); and inquiry signs (AC1 = 0.62–0.94). Conclusion. In four examinations, there was moderate agreement between the clinicians on the PI indicators. To improve clinician consistency (e.g., in the diagnostic criteria used), it is necessary to analyze the reasons for inconsistency and to improve clinician training. PMID:25574181

  2. The Value of Naproxen Test as a Diagnostic Method to Differentiate Cause of Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Coskun

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Fever of whatever etiology still remains a perplexing problem to both clinicians and investigators. Increasingly, its role in connective tissue diseases, malignancies and other inflammatory disorders is slowly supplanting the exclusivity of the symptom to just infectious conditions. This study aims to determine the sensitivity of the naproxen test and the diagnostic value in patients with a prolonged febrile illness. Methods: We evaluated twenty patients had been administered the naproxen test. Fever lysis after or within the time frame of drug administration was interpreted as a infectious or an infectious condition. Results: Infectious diseases etiology was detected at 15 patients. 12 and 3 of them responded to naproxen test at the first and second days respectively. Two of non-infectious etiology patients remained unanswered. Conclusion: This study clearly showed that the naproxen test cannot be relied upon to guide diagnostic decision making in patients with fever unknown origin. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(6.000: 779-782

  3. Regular pipeline maintenance of gas pipeline using technical operational diagnostics methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volentic, J. [Gas Transportation Department, Slovensky plynarensky priemysel, Slovak Gas Industry, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    1997-12-31

    Slovensky plynarensky priemysel (SPP) has operated 17 487 km of gas pipelines in 1995. The length of the long-line pipelines reached 5 191 km, distribution network was 12 296 km. The international transit system of long-line gas pipelines ranged 1 939 km of pipelines of various dimensions. The described scale of transport and distribution system represents a multibillion investments stored in the ground, which are exposed to the environmental influences and to pipeline operational stresses. In spite of all technical and maintenance arrangements, which have to be performed upon operating gas pipelines, the gradual ageing takes place anyway, expressed in degradation process both in steel tube, as well as in the anti-corrosion coating. Within a certain time horizon, a consistent and regular application of methods and means of in-service technical diagnostics and rehabilitation of existing pipeline systems make it possible to save substantial investment funds, postponing the need in funds for a complex or partial reconstruction or a new construction of a specific gas section. The purpose of this presentation is to report on the implementation of the programme of in-service technical diagnostics of gas pipelines within the framework of regular maintenance of SPP s.p. Bratislava high pressure gas pipelines. (orig.) 6 refs.

  4. Technical Note: Method to correlate whole-specimen histopathology of radical prostatectomy with diagnostic MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGrath, Deirdre M., E-mail: d.mcgrath@sheffield.ac.uk; Lee, Jenny; Foltz, Warren D. [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Samavati, Navid [Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G9 (Canada); Jewett, Michael A. S. [Departments of Surgery (Urology) and Surgical Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network and University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Kwast, Theo van der [Pathology Department, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2C4 (Canada); Chung, Peter [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network and the University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Ménard, Cynthia [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network and the University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9, Canada and Centre Hospitalier de l’Université de Montréal, 1058 Rue Saint-Denis, Montréal, Québec H2X 3J4 (Canada); Brock, Kristy K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48108 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Purpose: Validation of MRI-guided tumor boundary delineation for targeted prostate cancer therapy is achieved via correlation with gold-standard histopathology of radical prostatectomy specimens. Challenges to accurate correlation include matching the pathology sectioning plane with the in vivo imaging slice plane and correction for the deformation that occurs between in vivo imaging and histology. A methodology is presented for matching of the histological sectioning angle and position to the in vivo imaging slices. Methods: Patients (n = 4) with biochemical failure following external beam radiotherapy underwent diagnostic MRI to confirm localized recurrence of prostate cancer, followed by salvage radical prostatectomy. High-resolution 3-D MRI of the ex vivo specimens was acquired to determine the pathology sectioning angle that best matched the in vivo imaging slice plane, using matching anatomical features and implanted fiducials. A novel sectioning device was developed to guide sectioning at the correct angle, and to assist the insertion of reference dye marks to aid in histopathology reconstruction. Results: The percentage difference in the positioning of the urethra in the ex vivo pathology sections compared to the positioning in in vivo images was reduced from 34% to 7% through slicing at the best match angle. Reference dye marks were generated, which were visible in ex vivo imaging, in the tissue sections before and after processing, and in histology sections. Conclusions: The method achieved an almost fivefold reduction in the slice-matching error and is readily implementable in combination with standard MRI technology. The technique will be employed to generate datasets for correlation of whole-specimen prostate histopathology with in vivo diagnostic MRI using 3-D deformable registration, allowing assessment of the sensitivity and specificity of MRI parameters for prostate cancer. Although developed specifically for prostate, the method is readily

  5. 慢性肾衰竭的四诊客观化研究进展%Objectification Progress of Four Diagnostic Methods of Chronic Renal Failure(CRF)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宇; 金亚明; 王忆勤

    2013-01-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine ( TCM ) four diagnostic methods (inspection, auscultation - olfaction, interrogation and palpation) ,are the basis of syndrome differentiation and treatment, and the objectification of four diagnostic methods is an effective approach to develop the TCM. Nowadays,researchers have observed and summarized significant a-mount of four diagnostic methods information against different types of diseases, and then objectified the four diagnostic methods through the analysis and research by using modern information technology. CRF is one of the late - stage clinical disorders of various types of chronic kidney diseases. This paper summarized the current situation of inspection, auscultation - olfaction, interrogation and palpation objectification researches about chronic renal failure within last two decades, proved the four diagnostic methods objectification development of CRF, which is meaningful for syndrome differentiation and prognosis of chronic renal failure.%中医四诊信息——“望、闻、问、切”是辨证论治的基础,而四诊客观化更是发展中医的一种有效途径.目前,学者们对大量疾病四诊信息进行观察总结,并利用现代信息技术进行分析研究,实现四诊客观化.慢性肾衰竭是各种慢性肾脏疾病后期的一种临床病症,综述了近20年来慢性肾衰竭在中医望闻问切四方面的客观化研究现状,发现慢性肾衰竭的四诊客观化取得了很大的进展,对慢性肾衰竭的辨证及预后产生了一定的意义.

  6. Performance of newer and conventional diagnostic methods in detection of drug sensitive and resistant tuberculous meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangamithra Neelakantan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the performance of traditional and newer diagnostic methods for diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM along with detection of drug resistant TBM. Methods: Single cerebrospinal fluids sample from 281 suspected TBM patients was processed during August 2011 to July 2012 for acid fast bacilli (AFB examination by Ziehl-Neelsen and auramine staining methods, AFB culture on Lowenstein-Jensen culture media, by microscope observation of drug susceptibility testing assay, and nucleic acid amplification tests by inhouse conventional PCR and in-house real time PCR targeting IS6110 insertion sequence. All the isolates were subjected to drug susceptibility testing for isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol and streptomycin by 1% proportion method. Results: The percentage positivity by AFB smear examination and culture on Lowenstein-Jensen media was 21% (59/281, 11.4% (32/281 respectively. The detection rate by conventional PCR was 33.1% (93/281. The real time PCR showed positivity rate of 44.8% (126/281. The extra detection by real time PCR was 11.7%. Only one isolate was multiple drug resistant and 22 (68.8% were pan-susceptible. Remaining eight isolates showed either mono/poly drug resistant to first line antitubercular drugs. Conclusions: Real time PCR is a more sensitive and rapid method if it is appropriately adopted in clinical practice for diagnosis of TBM. Prevalence of multiple drug resistance Mycobacterium tuberculosis causing TBM is low.

  7. Computation of large scale currents in the Arabian Sea during winter using a semi-diagnostic model

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shaji, C.; Bahulayan, N.; Rao, A.D.; Dube, S.K.

    A 3-dimensional, semi-diagnostic model with 331 levels in the vertical has been used for the computation of climatic circulation in the western tropical Indian Ocean. Model is driven with the seasonal mean data on wind stress, temperature...

  8. Current practices of diagnostic techniques requiring the use of ophthalmic drugs among KwaZulu- Natal optometrists*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. P. Mashige

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In anendeavour to improve the quality of optometric eye care services in South Africa, the scope of practice was expanded to include the use of ocular diagnostic procedures such as gonioscopy that require the use of ophthalmic drugs. The purpose of this study was to assess the practices of specific diagnostic techniques (contact tonometry, 78 D/90 D lens fundus examination, binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy and gonioscopy requiring the use of ophthalmic drugs among optometrists in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN province. These specific techniques are referred to as diagnostic procedures in this article. A questionnaire containing information on demography and practice of these specific techniques was sent to all 213 KwaZulu-Natal registered optometrists who owned private practices. One hundred and thirty two completed questionnaires were received, a response rate of 62%. One hundred and seventeen (55% of the questionnaires were included in the analysis of which 55% of the respondents were females and 45% were males. Sixty two optometrists (53% were certified in di-agnostic procedures but many procedures were not being practiced. These procedures and the percentage respondents were: Contact tonometry (60%, 78 D/90 D lens fundus examination (60%, binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy (84% and gonioscopy (78%. Also, among these certified respondents (62 optometrists, a significant proportion (60% disagreed when asked if they were confident and proficient in performing the relevant diagnostic procedures. Many, (61% agreed that lack of incentives discouraged them from routinely performing the procedures. More than half (58%, agreed that chair time was an important factor in deciding whether or not to perform these diagnostic procedures. Of the total respondents (117, 86% agreed that they were confident about the accuracy of their referrals and less than half (45% disagreed that diagnostic procedures should be the sole responsibility of ophthalmologists. Less than

  9. METHOD OF THE VIBRATING DIAGNOSTICS OF DEFFECTS OF ELASTIC DESIGNS ON THE BASIS OF THE ANALYSIS OWN FORMS OF FLUCTUATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kositsyn

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Work is devoted analytical methods of the vibrating diagnostics arising defects in the environment of ANSYS. The criterion of an estimation of a technical condition of elastic designs is offered. As a diagnostic sign of detection of defects in a material of an elastic body it is offered to use own forms of fluctuations with various parameters of supervision. For check of efficiency of the given way numerical experiment on an example of a flat plate is made. 

  10. [Successful surgical management of aortico-left ventricular tunnel using modern noninvasive diagnostic imaging methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartyánszky, István; Katona, Márta; Kádár, Krisztina; Apor, Asztrid; Varga, Sándor; Simon, Judit; Tóth, Attila; Karácsony, Tünde; Bogáts, Gábor

    2015-07-12

    Aortico-left ventricular tunnel is a rare congenital cardiac defect, which bypasses the aortic valve via the paravalvar connection from the aorta to the left ventricle. The authors present the case of a 14-year-old boy with aortico-left ventricular tunnel in whom the aortic orifice arose from the right aortic sinus and was closed by a pericardial patch. The diagnosis was confirmed by combined two-dimensional and real time three-dimensional echocardiogram and magnetic resonance imaging. This is the first case, in which these complex diagnostic imaging methods have been used in the pre- and postoperative management of this defect. Optimally the new transthoratic three-dimensional echocardiography would be needed to define the anatomy and functional consequences of the aortico-left ventricular tunnel and in the postoperative follow-up.

  11. Handbook of coherent domain optical methods biomedical diagnostics, environmental and material science

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    For the first time in one set of books, coherent-domain optical methods are discussed in the framework of various applications, which are characterized by a strong light scattering. A few chapters describe basic research containing the updated results on coherent and polarized light non-destructive interactions with a scattering medium, in particular, diffraction, interference, and speckle formation at multiple scattering. These chapters allow for understanding coherent-domain diagnostic techniques presented in later chapters. A large portion of Volume I is dedicated to analysis of various aspects of optical coherence tomography (OCT) - a very new and growing field of coherent optics. Two chapters on laser scanning confocal microscopy give insight to recent extraordinary results on in vivo imaging and compare the possibilities and achievements of confocol, excitation multiphoton, and OCT microscopy. This two volume reference contains descriptions of holography, interferometry and optical heterodyning techniqu...

  12. Comparison of a New and Rapid Method: Brucella Coombs Gel Test With Other Diagnostic Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalem, Fatma; Ergün, Ayşe Gül; Durmaz, Süleyman; Doğan, Metin; Ertuğrul, Ömür; Gündem, Seval

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to detect reliability of Brucella Coombs gel test (BCGT) by comparing with with ELISA (IgG + IgM), Standard agglutination test, and Brucella immunocapture agglutination methods in serological diagnosis of brucellosis. Brucella Coombs gel test (BCGT), Brucella ELISA (IgG + IgM), Standard agglutination test, and Brucella immunocapture agglutination tests of 78 patients with presumptive diagnosis of brucellosis which were sent to Microbiology Laboratory of Konya Numune Hospital from various regions of Konya were studied. Of 78 patients with ELISA IgG and IgM, STA, BICA and BCGT; 26, 21, 10, 12 and 12 were positive. When compared with BICA, the sensitivity and specifity of BCGT were 100% and 100%, respectively. According to results BCGT can be used as a diagnostic test in routine laboratories after more comprehensive studies in control groups and patients. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Embedded diagnostic, prognostic, and health management system and method for a humanoid robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barajas, Leandro G. (Inventor); Sanders, Adam M (Inventor); Reiland, Matthew J (Inventor); Strawser, Philip A (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A robotic system includes a humanoid robot with multiple compliant joints, each moveable using one or more of the actuators, and having sensors for measuring control and feedback data. A distributed controller controls the joints and other integrated system components over multiple high-speed communication networks. Diagnostic, prognostic, and health management (DPHM) modules are embedded within the robot at the various control levels. Each DPHM module measures, controls, and records DPHM data for the respective control level/connected device in a location that is accessible over the networks or via an external device. A method of controlling the robot includes embedding a plurality of the DPHM modules within multiple control levels of the distributed controller, using the DPHM modules to measure DPHM data within each of the control levels, and recording the DPHM data in a location that is accessible over at least one of the high-speed communication networks.

  14. A new method for tracking organ motion on diagnostic ultrasound images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubota, Yoshiki, E-mail: y-kubota@gunma-u.ac.jp; Matsumura, Akihiko, E-mail: matchan.akihiko@gunma-u.ac.jp [Heavy Ion Medical Center, Gunma University, 3-39-22 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8511 (Japan); Fukahori, Mai, E-mail: fukahori@nirs.go.jp [Research Center of Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Minohara, Shin-ichi, E-mail: minoharas@kcch.jp [Medical Physics Section, Kanagawa Cancer Center, 1-1-2 Nakao, Asahi-ku, Yokohama 241-8515 (Japan); Yasuda, Shigeo, E-mail: yasudash@nirs.go.jp [Research Center Hospital of Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Nagahashi, Hiroshi, E-mail: longb@isl.titech.ac.jp [Imaging Science and Engineering Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuda-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan)

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: Respiratory-gated irradiation is effective in reducing the margins of a target in the case of abdominal organs, such as the liver, that change their position as a result of respiratory motion. However, existing technologies are incapable of directly measuring organ motion in real-time during radiation beam delivery. Hence, the authors proposed a novel quantitative organ motion tracking method involving the use of diagnostic ultrasound images; it is noninvasive and does not entail radiation exposure. In the present study, the authors have prospectively evaluated this proposed method. Methods: The method involved real-time processing of clinical ultrasound imaging data rather than organ monitoring; it comprised a three-dimensional ultrasound device, a respiratory sensing system, and two PCs for data storage and analysis. The study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed method by tracking the gallbladder in one subject and a liver vein in another subject. To track a moving target organ, the method involved the control of a region of interest (ROI) that delineated the target. A tracking algorithm was used to control the ROI, and a large number of feature points and an error correction algorithm were used to achieve long-term tracking of the target. Tracking accuracy was assessed in terms of how well the ROI matched the center of the target. Results: The effectiveness of using a large number of feature points and the error correction algorithm in the proposed method was verified by comparing it with two simple tracking methods. The ROI could capture the center of the target for about 5 min in a cross-sectional image with changing position. Indeed, using the proposed method, it was possible to accurately track a target with a center deviation of 1.54 ± 0.9 mm. The computing time for one frame image using our proposed method was 8 ms. It is expected that it would be possible to track any soft-tissue organ or tumor with large deformations and

  15. The Scientific Method, Diagnostic Bayes, and How to Detect Epistemic Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrugt, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    In the past decades, Bayesian methods have found widespread application and use in environmental systems modeling. Bayes theorem states that the posterior probability, P(H|D) of a hypothesis, H is proportional to the product of the prior probability, P(H) of this hypothesis and the likelihood, L(H|hat{D}) of the same hypothesis given the new/incoming observations, \\hat {D}. In science and engineering, H often constitutes some numerical simulation model, D = F(x,.) which summarizes using algebraic, empirical, and differential equations, state variables and fluxes, all our theoretical and/or practical knowledge of the system of interest, and x are the d unknown parameters which are subject to inference using some data, \\hat {D} of the observed system response. The Bayesian approach is intimately related to the scientific method and uses an iterative cycle of hypothesis formulation (model), experimentation and data collection, and theory/hypothesis refinement to elucidate the rules that govern the natural world. Unfortunately, model refinement has proven to be very difficult in large part because of the poor diagnostic power of residual based likelihood functions tep{gupta2008}. This has inspired te{vrugt2013} to advocate the use of 'likelihood-free' inference using approximate Bayesian computation (ABC). This approach uses one or more summary statistics, S(\\hat {D}) of the original data, \\hat {D} designed ideally to be sensitive only to one particular process in the model. Any mismatch between the observed and simulated summary metrics is then easily linked to a specific model component. A recurrent issue with the application of ABC is self-sufficiency of the summary statistics. In theory, S(.) should contain as much information as the original data itself, yet complex systems rarely admit sufficient statistics. In this article, we propose to combine the ideas of ABC and regular Bayesian inference to guarantee that no information is lost in diagnostic model

  16. A comparison of methods currently used in inclusive design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman-Deane, Joy; Ward, James; Hosking, Ian; Clarkson, P John

    2014-07-01

    Inclusive design has unique challenges because it aims to improve usability for a wide range of users. This typically includes people with lower levels of ability, as well as mainstream users. This paper examines the effectiveness of two methods that are used in inclusive design: user trials and exclusion calculations (an inclusive design inspection method). A study examined three autoinjectors using both methods (n=30 for the user trials). The usability issues identified by each method are compared and the effectiveness of the methods is discussed. The study found that each method identified different kinds of issues, all of which are important for inclusive design. We therefore conclude that a combination of methods should be used in inclusive design rather than relying on a single method. Recommendations are also given for how the individual methods can be used more effectively in this context.

  17. [Comparative study of diagnostic methods for visceral leishmaniasis in dogs from Ilha Solteira, SP].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Assis, Juliana; de Queiroz, Nina Marí Gual Pimenta; da Silveira, Rita de Cássia Vieira; Nunes, Cáris Maroni; Oliveira, Trícia Maria Ferreira de Sousa; Junior, Antonio Carlos Faconti de Noronha; Neves, Maria Francisca; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; Buzetti, Wilma Aparecida Starke

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present work was a comparative study of diagnostic methods for Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis (CVL) using serological methods, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), histochemical (HE) and immunohistochemical (IMHC) tests using spleen, lymph node and liver canine tissues. In addition, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was done in blood and in tissues in order to compare and confirm no conclusive and negative diagnosis by the methods above. For this study, 34 dogs were divided according to clinical signs in asymptomatic, oligosymptomatic and polisymptomatic Leishmania-infected dogs euthanized by Zoonotic Disease Control Center (CCZ) from Ilha Solteira, SP, Brazil. The positivism indexes of ELISA, IMHC, IFAT and HE were 65.0, 62.0, 56.0 and 56.0%, respectively with the highest numbers of positive dogs in polisymptomatic (92.0%) followed by oligosymptomatic (57.0%) and asymptomatic dogs (12.5%). Furthermore, PCR confirmed the positive results and detected DNA in tissues from 100% of negative dogs and 89.0% suspects raising the animal positivism index up to 97.0%. In conclusion, PCR was the most sensitive and a valuable method for a definitive CVL diagnosis.

  18. Cross method for analysis of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and aggregation coefficient in medical diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaikina, Irene V.; Furmanchuk, Dmitryi A.

    1998-06-01

    Method of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) measurement is non-specific one. The ESR are tightly correlated to increase or decrease of aggregation coefficient (N). The variations of N could happen due to two main reasons: either changes in concentration of plasma proteins (first of all of fibrinogen) or changes of erythrocyte membrane characteristics (surface charge, transmembrane potential). The cross-method of ESR analysis has been proposed, using blood samples from patient and healthy donor of the same ABO blood groups and Rh-factors. The hematocrit (Ho)-ESR dependencies were measured in four variants: (1) patient's erythrocytes in patient's plasma; (2) patient's erythrocytes in donor's plasma; (3) donor's erythrocytes in donor's plasma; (4) donor's erythrocytes in patient's plasma. On presenting the ESR data for more than 100 patients with different bone marrow disorders after chemotherapy in the coordinates Ho-ESR three conventional zones could be marked out: high-ESR zone, medium zone and zone of low level of Ho. Proposed cross-method allows to estimate which of the two aforementioned reasons results in ESR variation. Some patients revealed not only changed fibrinogen level but additional changes in membrane affinity to fibrinogen. The modificated ESR cross-method opens us some new capacities in medical diagnostics.

  19. Comparison between Amnisure Placental Alpha Microglobulin-1 Rapid Immunoassay and Standard Diagnostic Methods for Detection of Rupture of Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beng Kwang Ng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the diagnostic accuracy of placental alpha microglobulin-1 assay and standard diagnostic methods for detecting rupture of membrane. Study Design. Prospective diagnostic study, between June 2011 to November 2011 at a tertiary centre. Initial evaluation included both the standard diagnostic methods for rupture of membranes and placental alpha microglobulin-1 immunoassay. The actual rupture of membranes was diagnosed on review of the medical records after delivery (absence of membrane or a positive pad chart. Main Outcome Measures. Placental alpha microglobulin-1 immunoassay and standard diagnostic methods for diagnosis of rupture of membrane. Results. A total of 211 patients were recruited. At initial presentation, 187 patients (88.6% had ruptured membranes, while 24 patients (11.4% had intact membranes. Placental alpha microglobulin-1 immunoassay confirmed rupture of membranes at initial presentation with a sensitivity of 95.7% (179 of 187, specificity of 100% (24 of 24, positive predictive value of 100% (179 of 179, and negative predictive value of 75.0% (24 of 32. By comparison, the conventional standard diagnostic methods had a sensitivity of 78.1% (146 of 187, specificity of 100% (24 of 24, positive predictive value of 100% (146 of 146, and negative predictive value of 36.9% (24 of 65 in diagnosing rupture of membrane. Conclusion. Placental alpha-microglobulin-1 immunoassay is a rapid and accurate method for confirming the diagnosis of rupture of membrane. It was superior to conventional standard diagnostic methods (pooling, nitrazine, and ferning, the nitrazine test alone or fern test alone.

  20. Current practices of diagnostic techniques requir- ing the use of ophthalmic drugs among KwaZulu- Natal optometrists*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. P. Mashige

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In anendeavour to improve the quality of optometric eye care services in South Africa, the scope of practice was expanded to include the use of ocular diagnostic procedures such as goniosco-py that require the use of ophthalmic drugs. The purpose of this study was to assess the practices of specific diagnostic techniques (contact tonometry, 78 D/90 D lens fundus examination, binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy and gonioscopy requiring the use of ophthalmic drugs among optometrists in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN province. These specific techniques are referred to as diagnostic procedures in this article. A questionnaire containing information on demography and practice of these specific techniques was sent to all 213 KwaZulu-Natal registered optometrists who owned private practices. One hundred and thirty two completed questionnaires were received, a response rate of 62%. One hundred and seventeen (55% of the questionnaires were included in the analysis of which 55% of the respondents were females and 45% were males. Sixty two optometrists (53% were certified in di-agnostic procedures but many procedures were not being practiced. These procedures and the percentage respondents were: Contact tonometry (60%, 78 D/90 D lens fundus examination (60%, binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy (84% and gonioscopy (78%. Also, among these certified respondents (62 optometrists, a significant proportion (60% disagreed when asked if they were confident and proficient in performing the relevant diagnostic procedures. Many, (61% agreed that lack of incentives discouraged them from routinely performing the procedures. More than half (58%, agreed that chair time was an important factor in deciding whether or not to perform these diagnostic procedures. Of the total respondents (117, 86% agreed that they were confident about the accuracy of their referrals and less than half (45% disagreed that diagnostic procedures should be the sole responsibility of ophthalmologists. Less than

  1. A novel hybrid FEM-BEM method for 3D eddy current field calculation using current density J

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Zhizhen(刘志珍); WANG; Yanzhang(王衍章); JIA; Zhiping(贾智平); SUN; Yingming(孙英明)

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel hybrid FEM-BEM method for calculating 3D eddy current field. In the eddy current region, the eddy current density J is solved by the finite element method (FEM) which is discretized by brick finite element mesh, while in the eddy current free region, the magnetic field intensity H is solved by the boundary element method (BEM) which is discretized by rectangular boundary element mesh. Under the boundary conditions, an algebraic equation group is obtained that only includes J by eliminating H. This method has many advantages over traditional ones, such as fewer variables, more convenient coupling between the FEM and the BEM and wider application to multiply-connected regions. The calculated values of two models are in good agreement with experimental results. This shows the validity of our method.

  2. Method and device for current driven electric energy conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    configurations such as half bridge buck, full bridge buck, half bridge boost, or full bridge boost. A current driven conversion is advantageous for high efficient energy conversion from current sources such as solar cells or where a voltage source is connected through long cables, e.g. powerline cables for long......Device comprising an electric power converter circuit for converting electric energy. The converter circuit comprises a switch arrangement with two or more controllable electric switches connected in a switching configuration and controlled so as to provide a current drive of electric energy from...... the output from the switch arrangement and designed such that a high impedance at a frequency range below the switching frequency is obtained, seen from the output terminals. Switches implemented by normally-on-devices are preferred, e.g. in the form of a JFET. The converter circuit may be in different...

  3. [Mass spectrometry analysis of blood plasma lipidome as method of disease diagnostics, evuation of effectiveness and optimization of drug therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokhov, P G; Maslov, D L; Balashova, E E; Trifonova, O P; Medvedeva, N V; Torkhovskaya, T I; Ipatova, O M; Archakov, A I; Malyshev, P P; Kukharchuk, V V; Shestakova, E A; Shestakova, M V; Dedov, I I

    2015-01-01

    A new method for the analysis of blood lipid based on direct mass spectrometry of lipophilic low molecular weight fraction of blood plasma has been considered. Such technique allows quantification of hundreds of various types of lipids and this changes existing concepts on diagnostics of lipid disorders and related diseases. The versatility and quickness of the method significantly simplify its wide use. This method is applicable for diagnostics of atherosclerosis, diabetes, cancer and other diseases. Detalization of plasma lipid composition at the molecular level by means of mass spectrometry allows to assess the effectiveness of therapy and to optimize the drug treatment of cardiovascular diseases by phospholipid preparations.

  4. Evaluation of Current Assessment Methods in Engineering Entrepreneurship Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purzer, Senay; Fila, Nicholas; Nataraja, Kavin

    2016-01-01

    Quality assessment is an essential component of education that allows educators to support student learning and improve educational programs. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the current state of assessment in engineering entrepreneurship education. We identified 52 assessment instruments covered in 29 journal articles and conference…

  5. Intelligent Condition Diagnosis Method Based on Adaptive Statistic Test Filter and Diagnostic Bayesian Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke; Zhang, Qiuju; Wang, Kun; Chen, Peng; Wang, Huaqing

    2016-01-08

    A new fault diagnosis method for rotating machinery based on adaptive statistic test filter (ASTF) and Diagnostic Bayesian Network (DBN) is presented in this paper. ASTF is proposed to obtain weak fault features under background noise, ASTF is based on statistic hypothesis testing in the frequency domain to evaluate similarity between reference signal (noise signal) and original signal, and remove the component of high similarity. The optimal level of significance α is obtained using particle swarm optimization (PSO). To evaluate the performance of the ASTF, evaluation factor Ipq is also defined. In addition, a simulation experiment is designed to verify the effectiveness and robustness of ASTF. A sensitive evaluation method using principal component analysis (PCA) is proposed to evaluate the sensitiveness of symptom parameters (SPs) for condition diagnosis. By this way, the good SPs that have high sensitiveness for condition diagnosis can be selected. A three-layer DBN is developed to identify condition of rotation machinery based on the Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) theory. Condition diagnosis experiment for rolling element bearings demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  6. Comparison of diagnostic methods in cutaneous Leishmaniasis (histopathology compared to skin smears).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazozai, Sanaullah; Iqbal, Javeid; Bukhari, Ishrat; Bashir, Sajid

    2010-10-01

    Present study is carried out to compare laboratory diagnostic methods of Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) for the outdoor patients of Bolan Medical College Complex Hospital, Quetta, Balochistan. From November 2005 to December 2007, three hundred cases of CL patients were selected without restriction of age and sex. The lesions were divided into two groups. Early with duration less than 2 months and late duration between 2 to 4 months and were noted as nodules, plaques, ulcers and scarring (in case of relapses). Skin smears were taken on first visit of the patients, followed by skin biopsy for histopathological examination. Result showed that out of 300 cases 163 (54.33%) were positive smears for Leishmania donovani (LD) bodies and 137 (45.67%) were negative smears for LD bodies.. While histological examination of all 300 cases showed that only 83 (27.66%) cases were negative for (LD) bodies and no granuloma seen, except with evidence of acute and chronic inflammation. Further analysis of histological observations of positive cases (72.34%) revealed that 91(30.33%) cases had LD bodies,, 78 (26%) cases had only necrotic sloughs showing polymorph neutrophilic infiltration, and 48(16%) cases were having granulomas composed of, epithelioid cells Langhan's type of giant cells and lymphocytes. It is therefore concluded that histopathological examination as compared to skin smears method is more sensitive method for diagnosis of CL.

  7. Diagnostic Methods of Helicobacter pylori Infection for Epidemiological Studies: Critical Importance of Indirect Test Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Miftahussurur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the methods developed to detect H. pylori infection, determining the gold standard remains debatable, especially for epidemiological studies. Due to the decreasing sensitivity of direct diagnostic tests (histopathology and/or immunohistochemistry [IHC], rapid urease test [RUT], and culture, several indirect tests, including antibody-based tests (serology and urine test, urea breath test (UBT, and stool antigen test (SAT have been developed to diagnose H. pylori infection. Among the indirect tests, UBT and SAT became the best methods to determine active infection. While antibody-based tests, especially serology, are widely available and relatively sensitive, their specificity is low. Guidelines indicated that no single test can be considered as the gold standard for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection and that one should consider the method’s advantages and disadvantages. Based on four epidemiological studies, culture and RUT present a sensitivity of 74.2–90.8% and 83.3–86.9% and a specificity of 97.7–98.8% and 95.1–97.2%, respectively, when using IHC as a gold standard. The sensitivity of serology is quite high, but that of the urine test was lower compared with that of the other methods. Thus, indirect test validation is important although some commercial kits propose universal cut-off values.

  8. Diagnostic Value of Manual and Computerized Methods of Dental Casts Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Rahimi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity of computerized and manual methods of dental cast analysis.Materials and Methods: Twenty set-ups of upper and lower casts using artificial teeth corresponding to various malocclusions were created for a diagnostic in vitro study. Values of tooth size were calculated from the isolated artificial teeth out of the set-ups, results were considered as a gold standard for the tooth size. Arch width was calculated from the existing set-ups on the dentins.Impressions were taken of the casts with alginate and duplicated with dental stone. Models were measured with digital caliper manually. Then images were taken from the occlusal views of the casts by a digital camera. Measurements were done on digital images with the AutoCAD software.The results of the computerized and manual methods were compared with the gold standard.Intra class correlation coefficient of reliability was used to measure the accuracy ofthe methods and the Friedman technique used to evaluate the significance of differences.Results: Results indicated that all measurements were highly correlated, e.g. gold standard and manual (0.9613-0.9991, gold standard and computerized (0.7118-0.9883, manual and computerized (0.6734-0.9914. Statistically significant differences were present between these methods (P<0.05, but they proved not to be clinically significant.Conclusion: Manual measurement is still the most accurate method when compared to the computerized measurements and the results of measurement by computer should be interpreted with caution.

  9. The Current Methods of Measurement of Market Orientation

    OpenAIRE

    Ing. Eva Tomaskova

    2009-01-01

    The article deals with the new trends in measurement of market orientation. Market orientation is one of the most investigated methods founded on marketing conception. Market orientation comes back in 90th of 20th century by workers Kohli and Jaworski and Narver and Slater. It is described as a method to contribute better managing of company by many researchers. These research studies involved definition of market orientation, impact market orientation on business performance, methods for mea...

  10. Analysis of Statistical Methods Currently used in Toxicology Journals

    OpenAIRE

    Na, Jihye; Yang, Hyeri; Bae, SeungJin; Lim, Kyung-Min

    2014-01-01

    Statistical methods are frequently used in toxicology, yet it is not clear whether the methods employed by the studies are used consistently and conducted based on sound statistical grounds. The purpose of this paper is to describe statistical methods used in top toxicology journals. More specifically, we sampled 30 papers published in 2014 from Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, Archives of Toxicology, and Toxicological Science and described methodologies used to provide descriptive and in...

  11. Cost-of-Illness Studies: A Review of Current Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Ebere Akobundu; Jing Ju; Lisa Blatt; C Daniel Mullins

    2006-01-01

    The number of cost-of-illness (COI) studies has expanded considerably over time. One outcome of this growth is that the reported COI estimates are inconsistent across studies, thereby raising concerns over the validity of the estimates and methods. Several factors have been identified in the literature as reasons for the observed variation in COI estimates. To date, the variation in the methods used to calculate costs has not been examined in great detail even though the variations in methods...

  12. Diagnostic Performance of a Lattice Boltzmann-Based Method for Fast CT-Fractional Flow Reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannopoulos, Andreas; Tang, Anji; Ge, Yin; Cheezum, Michael; Steigner, Michael; Fujimoto, Shinichiro; Kumamaru, Kanako; Chiappino, Dante; Della Latta, Daniele; Berti, Sergio; Chiappino, Sara; Rybicki, Frank; Melchionna, Simone; Mitsouras, Dimitrios

    2017-06-27

    Fractional flow reserve (FFR) estimated from coronary computed tomography angiography (CT-FFR) offers non-invasive detection of lesion-specific ischemia. We developed and validated a fast CT-FFR algorithm utilizing the Lattice-Boltzmann Method for blood flow simulation (LBM CT-FFR). 64 patients from 3 institutions with clinically-indicated CTA and invasive FFR measurement were retrospectively analyzed. CT-FFR was performed using an on-site tool interfacing with a commercial Lattice-Boltzmann fluid dynamics cloud-based platform. Diagnostic accuracy of LBM CT-FFR≤0.8 and percent diameter stenosis >50% by CTA to detect invasive FFR≤0.8 were compared using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). 60 patients successfully underwent LBM CT-FFR analysis; 29 of 73 lesions in 69 vessels had invasive FFR≤0.8. Total time to perform LBM CT-FFR was 40±10 min. Compared to invasive FFR, LBM CT-FFR had good correlation (r=0.64), small bias (0.009) and good limits of agreement (-0.223 to 0.206). The AUC of LBM CT-FFR (AUC=0.894, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.792- 0.996) was significantly higher than CTA (AUC=0.685, 95% CI: 0.576-0.794) to detect FFR≤0.8 (p=0.0021). Per-lesion specificity, sensitivity, accuracy of LBM CT-FFR were 97.7%, 79.3%, and 90.4%, respectively. LBM CT-FFR has very good diagnostic accuracy to detect lesion-specific ischemia (FFR≤0.8) and can be performed in less than 1 hour.

  13. Fever of unknown origin--diagnostic methods in a European developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosilkovski, Mile; Dimzova, Marija; Stevanović, Milena; Cvetkovska, Vesna Semenakova; Duganovska, Maja Vasileva

    2016-06-01

    Fewer of unknown origin (FUO) remains amongst the most difficult diagnostic dilemmas in contemporary medicine. The aim of this study was to determine the causes of FU and to identify the methods of diagnosis in patients with FUO in a tertiary care setting in the Republic of Macedonia. Retrospectively histories of 123 immunocompetent patients older than 14 years with classical FUO that had been examined at the University Hospital for Infectious Diseases and Febrile Conditions in the city of Skopje, during the period 2006-2012 were evaluated. FUO was defined as axillary fever of ≥ 37.5 °C on several occasions, fever duration of more than 21 days and failure to reach the diagnosis after the initial diagnostic workup comprised of several defined basic investigations. Infections were the cause of FUO in 51 (41.5%) of the patients, followed by non-infective inflammatory disorders (NIID) in 28 (22.8%), miscellaneous in 12 (9.7%) and neoplasm in 11 (8.9%) of the patients. Twenty one of the patients (17.1%) remained undiagnosed. The most common causes for FUO were visceral leishmaniasis, abscesses, urinary tract infections, subacute endocarditis, polymyalgia rheumatica and adult onset of Still disease. The final diagnosis was reached with histology in 24 (23.5%), imaging and endoscopic procedures in 21 (20.6%), clinical course and empiric therapy response in 20 (19.6%), serology in 18 (17.6%) and cultures in 16 (15.7%) of the cases. In the Republic of Macedonia infections are the leading cause of FUO, predominately visceral leishmaniasis. In the future in patients with prolonged fever, physicians should think more often of this disease, as well as of the possibility of atypical presentation of the common classical causes of FUO.

  14. Multicenter Evaluation of Clinical Diagnostic Methods for Detection and Isolation of Campylobacter spp. from Stool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Collette; Patrick, Mary; Gonzalez, Anthony; Akin, Joshua; Polage, Christopher R; Wymore, Kate; Gillim-Ross, Laura; Xavier, Karen; Sadlowski, Jennifer; Monahan, Jan; Hurd, Sharon; Dahlberg, Suzanne; Jerris, Robert; Watson, Renee; Santovenia, Monica; Mitchell, David; Harrison, Cassandra; Tobin-D'Angelo, Melissa; DeMartino, Mary; Pentella, Michael; Razeq, Jafar; Leonard, Celere; Jung, Carrianne; Achong-Bowe, Ria; Evans, Yaaqobah; Jain, Damini; Juni, Billie; Leano, Fe; Robinson, Trisha; Smith, Kirk; Gittelman, Rachel M; Garrigan, Charles; Nachamkin, Irving

    2016-05-01

    The use of culture-independent diagnostic tests (CIDTs), such as stool antigen tests, as standalone tests for the detection of Campylobacter in stool is increasing. We conducted a prospective, multicenter study to evaluate the performance of stool antigen CIDTs compared to culture and PCR for Campylobacter detection. Between July and October 2010, we tested 2,767 stool specimens from patients with gastrointestinal illness with the following methods: four types of Campylobacter selective media, four commercial stool antigen assays, and a commercial PCR assay. Illnesses from which specimens were positive by one or more culture media or at least one CIDT and PCR were designated "cases." A total of 95 specimens (3.4%) met the case definition. The stool antigen CIDTs ranged from 79.6% to 87.6% in sensitivity, 95.9 to 99.5% in specificity, and 41.3 to 84.3% in positive predictive value. Culture alone detected 80/89 (89.9% sensitivity) Campylobacter jejuni/Campylobacter coli-positive cases. Of the 209 noncases that were positive by at least one CIDT, only one (0.48%) was positive by all four stool antigen tests, and 73% were positive by just one stool antigen test. The questionable relevance of unconfirmed positive stool antigen CIDT results was supported by the finding that noncases were less likely than cases to have gastrointestinal symptoms. Thus, while the tests were convenient to use, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of Campylobacter stool antigen tests were highly variable. Given the relatively low incidence of Campylobacter disease and the generally poor diagnostic test characteristics, this study calls into question the use of commercially available stool antigen CIDTs as standalone tests for direct detection of Campylobacter in stool. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. A Correlation Based Method for Discriminating Inrush Current from Short Circuit Current Using Wavelet Transform in Power Transformer Differential Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rasoulpoor

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new approach for power transformer differential protection. The Wavelet Transform is applied to discriminate between inrush currents and internal fault currents in power transformers. Discrete wavelet transform decomposes the current signal into sub-bands that give more information about the properties of the signals in different frequency bands. Also, this transform is used to investigate the energy distribution of the signal on the different time and frequency scales. Recognition method is based on the correlation factors between energy percentage vectors of the Wavelet coefficients. Discrete Wavelet transform is used for decomposing the current signals to different frequency coefficients. After that, by constituting the energy percentage vectors of wavelet transform coefficients and calculating the correlation factors between these vectors, it is possible to form a recognition criterion to distinguish between inrush and internal fault current in the proposed method. The proposed algorithm is tested for several conditions by simulated inrush and internal fault currents. Simulation of current signals is performed using electromagnetic transient program PSCAD/EMTDC software that is a powerful program for the investigation of transient signals. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme accurately identifies inrush and fault currents in the distance of the power transformer protection in less than quarter of power frequency cycle. Also, beside the sensitivity and high reliability, the proposed method has low computation content and unlike the common methods does not require to determine the threshold for each new power system.

  16. Accuracy of Conventional Diagnostic Methods for Identifying Structural Changes in Patients with Focal Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakaj, Nazim; Kruja, Jera; Jashari, Fisnik; Boshnjaku, Dren; Shatri, Nexhat; Zeqiraj, Kamber

    2016-01-01

    Background: Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by abnormal firing of nerve impulses in the brain. Aim: This study aims to investigate the frequency of appearance of pathological changes in conventional examination methods (electroencephalography–EEG, brain computerized tomography -CT or brain magnetic resonance imaging – MRI) in patients with epilepsy, and relationship between clinical manifestations and localization of changes in CT or MRI. Methods: In this study we have included 110 patients with focal epilepsy who fulfilled the inclusion criteria out of 557 initially diagnosed patients. Detailed clinical examination together with brain imaging (CT and MRI) and electroencephalography examination was performed. We have evaluated the accuracy of each diagnostic method to localize the epileptic focus. Diagnosis of epilepsy was determined by the ILAE (International League Against Epilepsy) criteria of the year 1989, and classification of epileptic seizures was made according to the ILAE classification 2010. Results: Electroencephalography presented changes in 60.9% of patients; brain CT in 42.1%, and MRI in 78% of the patients. The results of our study showed that clinical manifestations were not always conveyed with pathological changes in conventional examining methods performed. Of the total of 79 patients with changes in imaging (8 with changes in CT and 71 in MRI), 79.7% presented a clinical picture compatible with the region in which morphological changes were found, while in 20.3% of patients the presented morphological changes were not aligned with the clinical picture. Conclusion: In patients with epilepsy, conventional examination methods do not always find pathological changes, while clinical manifestations of epilepsy did not always coincide with the location of changes in imaging. Further studies are needed to see if there is clear border between focal and generalized epilepsy. PMID:28077892

  17. Simplified Symptom Pattern Method for verbal autopsy analysis: multisite validation study using clinical diagnostic gold standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lozano Rafael

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Verbal autopsy can be a useful tool for generating cause of death data in data-sparse regions around the world. The Symptom Pattern (SP Method is one promising approach to analyzing verbal autopsy data, but it has not been tested rigorously with gold standard diagnostic criteria. We propose a simplified version of SP and evaluate its performance using verbal autopsy data with accompanying true cause of death. Methods We investigated specific parameters in SP's Bayesian framework that allow for its optimal performance in both assigning individual cause of death and in determining cause-specific mortality fractions. We evaluated these outcomes of the method separately for adult, child, and neonatal verbal autopsies in 500 different population constructs of verbal autopsy data to analyze its ability in various settings. Results We determined that a modified, simpler version of Symptom Pattern (termed Simplified Symptom Pattern, or SSP performs better than the previously-developed approach. Across 500 samples of verbal autopsy testing data, SSP achieves a median cause-specific mortality fraction accuracy of 0.710 for adults, 0.739 for children, and 0.751 for neonates. In individual cause of death assignment in the same testing environment, SSP achieves 45.8% chance-corrected concordance for adults, 51.5% for children, and 32.5% for neonates. Conclusions The Simplified Symptom Pattern Method for verbal autopsy can yield reliable and reasonably accurate results for both individual cause of death assignment and for determining cause-specific mortality fractions. The method demonstrates that verbal autopsies coupled with SSP can be a useful tool for analyzing mortality patterns and determining individual cause of death from verbal autopsy data.

  18. Animal models of transcranial direct current stimulation: Methods and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Mark P; Rahman, Asif; Lafon, Belen; Kronberg, Gregory; Ling, Doris; Parra, Lucas C; Bikson, Marom

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this review is to summarize the contribution of animal research using direct current stimulation (DCS) to our understanding of the physiological effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). We comprehensively address experimental methodology in animal studies, broadly classified as: (1) transcranial stimulation; (2) direct cortical stimulation in vivo and (3) in vitro models. In each case advantages and disadvantages for translational research are discussed including dose translation and the overarching "quasi-uniform" assumption, which underpins translational relevance in all animal models of tDCS. Terminology such as anode, cathode, inward current, outward current, current density, electric field, and uniform are defined. Though we put key animal experiments spanning decades in perspective, our goal is not simply an exhaustive cataloging of relevant animal studies, but rather to put them in context of ongoing efforts to improve tDCS. Cellular targets, including excitatory neuronal somas, dendrites, axons, interneurons, glial cells, and endothelial cells are considered. We emphasize neurons are always depolarized and hyperpolarized such that effects of DCS on neuronal excitability can only be evaluated within subcellular regions of the neuron. Findings from animal studies on the effects of DCS on plasticity (LTP/LTD) and network oscillations are reviewed extensively. Any endogenous phenomena dependent on membrane potential changes are, in theory, susceptible to modulation by DCS. The relevance of morphological changes (galvanotropy) to tDCS is also considered, as we suggest microscopic migration of axon terminals or dendritic spines may be relevant during tDCS. A majority of clinical studies using tDCS employ a simplistic dose strategy where excitability is singularly increased or decreased under the anode and cathode, respectively. We discuss how this strategy, itself based on classic animal studies, cannot account for the

  19. Diagnostic Methods to Assess the Nutritional Status of the Carrot Crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciel Rauni Dezordi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Leaf analysis may identify nutrient deficiency or excess in plant tissue. The aim of this study was to determine reference values and generate nutritional diagnosis from the results of leaf analysis of the carrot crop (Daucus carota L. by the methods of Critical Level, Sufficiency Range, Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System, and Compositional Nutrient Diagnosis. Contents of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn were determined in 210 carrot fields in the 2012 and 2013 crop seasons in the Alto Paranaíba region, MG, Brazil. The whole plant shoot was sampled at harvest time to generate reference values for diagnosis. The high yielding subpopulation showed yield higher than 87.8 Mg ha-1. The four diagnostic methods generated similar reference values of nutrients, but different from those found in the literature. Leaf diagnosis through nutrient content in the shoot at harvest time indicated Mn as the most limiting nutrient for growing carrot, followed by Mg, K, and Ca.

  20. Gene dosage methods as diagnostic tools for the identification of chromosome abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouas, L; Goumy, C; Véronèse, L; Tchirkov, A; Vago, P

    2008-09-01

    Cytogenetics is the part of genetics that deals with chromosomes, particularly with numerical and structural chromosome abnormalities, and their implications in congenital or acquired genetic disorders. Standard karyotyping, successfully used for the last 50 years in investigating the chromosome etiology in patients with infertility, fetal abnormalities and congenital disorders, is constrained by the limits of microscopic resolution and is not suited for the detection of subtle chromosome abnormalities. The ability to detect submicroscopic chromosomal rearrangements that lead to copy-number changes has escalated progressively in recent years with the advent of molecular cytogenetic techniques. Here, we review various gene dosage methods such as FISH, PCR-based approaches (MLPA, QF-PCR, QMPSF and real time PCR), CGH and array-CGH, that can be used for the identification and delineation of copy-number changes for diagnostic purposes. Besides comparing their relative strength and weakness, we will discuss the impact that these detection methods have on our understanding of copy number variations in the human genome and their implications in genetic counseling.

  1. Diagnostic electrocardiography in epidemiological studies of Chagas' disease: multicenter evaluation of a standardized method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázzari, J O; Pereira, M; Antunes, C M; Guimarães, A; Moncayo, A; Chávez Domínguez, R; Hernández Pieretti, O; Macedo, V; Rassi, A; Maguire, J; Romero, A

    1998-11-01

    An electrocardiographic recording method with an associated reading guide, designed for epidemiological studies on Chagas' disease, was tested to assess its diagnostic reproducibility. Six cardiologists from five countries each read 100 electrocardiographic (ECG) tracings, including 30 from chronic chagasic patients, then reread them after an interval of 6 months. The readings were blind, with the tracings numbered randomly for the first reading and renumbered randomly for the second reading. The physicians, all experienced in interpreting ECGs from chagasic patients, followed printed instructions for reading the tracings. Reproducibility of the readings was evaluated using the kappa (kappa) index for concordance. The results showed a high degree of interobserver concordance with respect to the diagnosis of normal vs. abnormal tracings (kappa = 0.66; SE 0.02). While the interpretations of some categories of ECG abnormalities were highly reproducible, others, especially those having a low prevalence, showed lower levels of concordance. Intraobserver concordance was uniformly higher than interobserver concordance. The findings of this study justify the use by specialists of the recording of readings method proposed for epidemiological studies on Chagas' disease, but warrant caution in the interpretation of some categories of electrocardiographic alterations.

  2. Molecular diagnostics for pharmacogenomic testing of fluoropyrimidine based-therapy: costs, methods and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Francia, Raffaele; Berretta, Massimiliano; Catapano, Oriana; Canzoniero, Lorella M T; Formisano, Luigi

    2011-07-01

    Abstract Genetic testing of drug response represents an important goal for targeted therapy. In particular, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is the backbone of several chemotherapic protocols for treatment of solid tumors. Unfortunately, in some patients, 5-FU is toxic and causes gastrointestinal and hematologic lesions leading to the suspension of therapy. Some adverse drug responses can be predicted by pharmacogenomics. Recently, several polymorphic traits of different genes involved with 5-FU biotransformation have been reported. Many methods have been used for qualitative and quantitative assessment of the mutational status of these genes, without a precise cost-effectiveness analysis. This article reviews recent findings on the seven germline polymorphic traits of four genes involved in the biotransformation of the 5-FU. In particular, we analyze the most common platforms used to identify the specific genetic alterations and their relative costs. Genotyping can be performed either by custom service laboratories or academic reference laboratories by using either the commercial kits (when available) or "in house" tests. By random selection of 20 certified laboratories out of a total of 71, we estimate that the cost of the analysis/single trait is on average €120.00 as custom genotyping service. "In house" validated tests by PCR-based platforms cost approximately €20.00 per single polimorphism. On the basis of this information, the lab manager can evaluate the advantage and limitations, in terms of costs and applicability, of the most appropriate methods for diagnostics of 5-FU pharmacogenomics tests.

  3. Exploration of analysis methods for diagnostic imaging tests: problems with ROC AUC and confidence scores in CT colonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallett, Susan; Halligan, Steve; Collins, Gary S; Altman, Doug G

    2014-01-01

    Different methods of evaluating diagnostic performance when comparing diagnostic tests may lead to different results. We compared two such approaches, sensitivity and specificity with area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve (ROC AUC) for the evaluation of CT colonography for the detection of polyps, either with or without computer assisted detection. In a multireader multicase study of 10 readers and 107 cases we compared sensitivity and specificity, using radiological reporting of the presence or absence of polyps, to ROC AUC calculated from confidence scores concerning the presence of polyps. Both methods were assessed against a reference standard. Here we focus on five readers, selected to illustrate issues in design and analysis. We compared diagnostic measures within readers, showing that differences in results are due to statistical methods. Reader performance varied widely depending on whether sensitivity and specificity or ROC AUC was used. There were problems using confidence scores; in assigning scores to all cases; in use of zero scores when no polyps were identified; the bimodal non-normal distribution of scores; fitting ROC curves due to extrapolation beyond the study data; and the undue influence of a few false positive results. Variation due to use of different ROC methods exceeded differences between test results for ROC AUC. The confidence scores recorded in our study violated many assumptions of ROC AUC methods, rendering these methods inappropriate. The problems we identified will apply to other detection studies using confidence scores. We found sensitivity and specificity were a more reliable and clinically appropriate method to compare diagnostic tests.

  4. CURRENT METHODS OF MANAGEMENT OF INTEGRATED CORPORATE STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makarevich O. A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article summarizes the results of a study devoted to the solution of actual problems of management of corporate integrated structures. Among the significant scientific results are presented: methods of evaluating the development of corporate integrated structures of the agro-industrial sector operating in the absence of a legislative base; substantiation of actual problems of management of corporate integrated structures on the example of a typical representative of this sector of the economy and developed a multi-tasking method of system analysis, directions for solving the identified problems; methods and models of design of control system corporate integrated structures and alternative options for organizational structures, their evaluation based on the use of methods of mass service theory and the choice of variant by criterion the average time of document management system; developed the organizational-economic mechanism of strategic planning and a set of interrelated models obtained using the method of systemic-cognitive analysis, which allows on the basis of the accumulated information on the activities of the organizations included in the corporate integrated structures to obtain the predicted values of the system indices when setting the target value of one of them; methods of control of the chain of value creation, allows us to develop structures of integrated systems with allocation in them of financial and material flows, and improved models for assessing effectiveness and calculating the parameters of technologically complete industrial chain and optimization model of the volume of material flow

  5. Diagnostic performance of a rapid magnetic resonance imaging method of measuring hepatic steatosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J House

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Hepatic steatosis is associated with an increased risk of developing serious liver disease and other clinical sequelae of the metabolic syndrome. However, visual estimates of steatosis from histological sections of biopsy samples are subjective and reliant on an invasive procedure with associated risks. The aim of this study was to test the ability of a rapid, routinely available, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI method to diagnose clinically relevant grades of hepatic steatosis in a cohort of patients with diverse liver diseases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-nine patients with a range of liver diseases underwent liver biopsy and MRI. Hepatic steatosis was quantified firstly using an opposed-phase, in-phase gradient echo, single breath-hold MRI methodology and secondly, using liver biopsy with visual estimation by a histopathologist and by computer-assisted morphometric image analysis. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was used to assess the diagnostic performance of the MRI method against the biopsy observations. RESULTS: The MRI approach had high sensitivity and specificity at all hepatic steatosis thresholds. Areas under ROC curves were 0.962, 0.993, and 0.972 at thresholds of 5%, 33%, and 66% liver fat, respectively. MRI measurements were strongly associated with visual (r(2 = 0.83 and computer-assisted morphometric (r(2 = 0.84 estimates of hepatic steatosis from histological specimens. CONCLUSIONS: This MRI approach, using a conventional, rapid, gradient echo method, has high sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing liver fat at all grades of steatosis in a cohort with a range of liver diseases.

  6. Eddy current separation apparatus, separation module, separation method and method for adjusting an eddy current separation apparatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rem, P.C.; Bakker, M.C.M.; Berkhout, S.P.M.; Rahman, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Eddy current separation apparatus (1) for separating particles (20) from a particle stream (w), wherein the apparatus (1) comprises a separator drum (4) adapted to create a first particle fraction (21) and a second particle fraction (23), a feeding device (2) upstream of the separator drum (4) for s

  7. Analysis of Statistical Methods Currently used in Toxicology Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Jihye; Yang, Hyeri; Bae, SeungJin; Lim, Kyung-Min

    2014-09-01

    Statistical methods are frequently used in toxicology, yet it is not clear whether the methods employed by the studies are used consistently and conducted based on sound statistical grounds. The purpose of this paper is to describe statistical methods used in top toxicology journals. More specifically, we sampled 30 papers published in 2014 from Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, Archives of Toxicology, and Toxicological Science and described methodologies used to provide descriptive and inferential statistics. One hundred thirteen endpoints were observed in those 30 papers, and most studies had sample size less than 10, with the median and the mode being 6 and 3 & 6, respectively. Mean (105/113, 93%) was dominantly used to measure central tendency, and standard error of the mean (64/113, 57%) and standard deviation (39/113, 34%) were used to measure dispersion, while few studies provide justifications regarding why the methods being selected. Inferential statistics were frequently conducted (93/113, 82%), with one-way ANOVA being most popular (52/93, 56%), yet few studies conducted either normality or equal variance test. These results suggest that more consistent and appropriate use of statistical method is necessary which may enhance the role of toxicology in public health.

  8. Building Visual Artists’ Resilience Capabilities: Current Educator Strategies and Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen Maree Siddins

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Enrolments in higher education programs in the creative and performing arts are increasing in many countries. Yet graduates of these degrees, who enter the broad sector known as the creative industries, face particular challenges in terms of securing long-term and sustainable employment. In addition, creative and performing artists face a range of mental challenges, caused by such factors as: the solitary nature of much creative practice, critical feedback by audiences and gatekeepers, or the general pressures associated with maintaining artistic relevance or integrity. The concepts of resilience and professional wellbeing are therefore highly relevant to those who pursue a career in creative industries, and while there has been an emerging body of work in this area, to date it has focussed on the performing arts area (e.g. music, theatre. Hence, in order to expand knowledge relevant to resilience and artists, this paper sets out to explore the extent to which current educators in the Australian context specifically address these issues within higher visual arts curricula; specifically the areas of illustration, design, film and photography. This was achieved via interviews with seventeen current academics working in these areas. The findings propose that higher education providers of programs in the visual arts consider placing a stronger emphasis on the embedded development of resilience and professional wellbeing capacities.

  9. Current Stem Cell Delivery Methods for Myocardial Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvin C. Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Heart failure commonly results from an irreparable damage due to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs, the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. In recent years, the rapid advancements in stem cell research have garnered much praise for paving the way to novel therapies in reversing myocardial injuries. Cell types currently investigated for cellular delivery include embryonic stem cells (ESCs, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs, and adult stem cell lineages such as skeletal myoblasts, bone-marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, and cardiac stem cells (CSCs. To engraft these cells into patients’ damaged myocardium, a variety of approaches (intramyocardial, transendocardial, transcoronary, venous, intravenous, intracoronary artery and retrograde venous administrations and bioengineered tissue transplantation have been developed and explored. In this paper, we will discuss the pros and cons of these delivery modalities, the current state of their therapeutic potentials, and a multifaceted evaluation of their reported clinical feasibility, safety, and efficacy. While the issues of optimal delivery approach, the best progenitor stem cell type, the most effective dose, and timing of administration remain to be addressed, we are highly optimistic that stem cell therapy will provide a clinically viable option for myocardial regeneration.

  10. Current stem cell delivery methods for myocardial repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Calvin C; Zhou, Li; Hao, Jijun

    2013-01-01

    Heart failure commonly results from an irreparable damage due to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. In recent years, the rapid advancements in stem cell research have garnered much praise for paving the way to novel therapies in reversing myocardial injuries. Cell types currently investigated for cellular delivery include embryonic stem cells (ESCs), induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), and adult stem cell lineages such as skeletal myoblasts, bone-marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs), mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and cardiac stem cells (CSCs). To engraft these cells into patients' damaged myocardium, a variety of approaches (intramyocardial, transendocardial, transcoronary, venous, intravenous, intracoronary artery and retrograde venous administrations and bioengineered tissue transplantation) have been developed and explored. In this paper, we will discuss the pros and cons of these delivery modalities, the current state of their therapeutic potentials, and a multifaceted evaluation of their reported clinical feasibility, safety, and efficacy. While the issues of optimal delivery approach, the best progenitor stem cell type, the most effective dose, and timing of administration remain to be addressed, we are highly optimistic that stem cell therapy will provide a clinically viable option for myocardial regeneration.

  11. The Accuracy of Diagnostic Methods for Diabetic Retinopathy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Martínez-Vizcaíno

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the recommended glycemic measures for diagnosing diabetic retinopathy.We systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and the Web of Science databases from inception to July 2015 for observational studies comparing the diagnostic accuracy of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose (FPG, and 2-hour plasma glucose (2h-PG. Random effects models for the diagnostic odds ratio (dOR value computed by Moses' constant for a linear model and 95% CIs were used to calculate the accuracy of the test. Hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic curves (HSROC were used to summarize the overall test performance.Eleven published studies were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled dOR values for the diagnosis of retinopathy were 16.32 (95% CI 13.86-19.22 for HbA1c and 4.87 (95% CI 4.39-5.40 for FPG. The area under the HSROC was 0.837 (95% CI 0.781-0.892 for HbA1c and 0.735 (95% CI 0.657-0.813 for FPG. The 95% confidence region for the point that summarizes the overall test performance of the included studies occurs where the cut-offs ranged from 6.1% (43.2 mmol/mol to 7.8% (61.7 mmol/mol for HbA1c and from 7.8 to 9.3 mmol/L for FPG. In the four studies that provided information regarding 2h-PG, the pooled accuracy estimates for HbA1c were similar to those of 2h-PG; the overall performance for HbA1c was superior to that for FPG.The three recommended tests for the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes in nonpregnant adults showed sufficient accuracy for their use in clinical settings, although the overall accuracy for the diagnosis of retinopathy was similar for HbA1c and 2h-PG, which were both more accurate than for FPG. Due to the variability and inconveniences of the glucose level-based methods, HbA1c appears to be the most appropriate method for the diagnosis diabetic retinopathy.

  12. Results and current trends of nuclear methods used in agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horacek, P. (Ceskoslovenska Komise pro Atomovou Energii, Prague)

    1983-11-01

    The significance is evaluated of nuclear methods for agricultural research. The number of breeds induced by radiation mutations is increasing. The main importance of radiation mutation breeding consists in obtaining sources of the desired genetic properties for further hybridization. Radiostimulation is conducted with the aim of increasing yields. The irradiation of foods has not substantially increased worldwide. Very important is the irradiation of excrements and sludges which after such inactivation of pathogenic microorganisms may be used as humus-forming manure or as feed additives. In some countries the method is successfully being used of sexual sterilization for eradication of insect pests. The application of labelled compounds in the nutrition, physiology and protection of plants, farm animals and in food hygiene makes it possible to acquire new and accurate knowledge very quickly. Radioimmunoassay is a highly promising method in this respect. Labelling compounds with the stable /sup 15/N isotope is used for the research of nitrogen metabolism.

  13. Assessment of 'dry skin': current bioengineering methods and test designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, T W; Wigger-Alberti, W; Elsner, P

    2001-01-01

    Dry skin is a frequent problem in dermatology and a sign of dysfunction of the epidermis, especially of the stratum corneum as the morphological equivalent of the skin barrier. It may occur as an individual disposition or as the leading symptom of atopic dermatitis or ichthyosis. Besides the visual examination of the skin, various bioengineering methods have been developed to assess the different pathological and adaptive changes in the skin. In addition to the assessment of skin humidity, barrier function and desquamation, the quantification of skin surface topography and the mechanical properties of skin are suitable methods to characterize a dry skin condition. For clinical assessment of moisturizing products and emollients the parameters of investigation have to be defined and integrated in an adapted study design depending on the composition and content of the active agent in the test product. Newly developed cosmetic products have to be investigated for safety and efficacy. Modern bioengineering methods are suitable to fulfill these challenges.

  14. Current methodology and methods in psychophysiological studies of creative thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtereva, N P; Danko, S G; Medvedev, S V

    2007-05-01

    Important points on methodology and detailed description of methods used in polymodal psychophysiological studies of human verbal creative thinking are presented. The psychophysiological studies were conducted with healthy volunteers during implementations of specially developed and adapted psychological tests aimed to bring the subjects into states of verbal creative thinking. Four different task sets ("story composition", "associative chains", "original definitions", "proverb sense flipping") were developed and applied. Positron emission tomography of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and state-related quantitative electroencephalography (power and coherence evaluated) were used. The effectiveness of the methods is illustrated with figures.

  15. Two Consecutive Standardized Skin Surface Biopsies: An Improved Sampling Method to Evaluate Demodex Density as a Diagnostic Tool for Rosacea and Demodicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forton, Fabienne M N; De Maertelaer, Viviane

    2017-02-08

    Diagnosing papulopustular rosacea is not always straightforward; no specific diagnostic test is currently available. A high density of Demodex mites is consistently observed in this condition. This retrospective study assesses an improved method for evaluating Demodex density among 1,044 patients presenting to our dermatology practice. The skin was cleaned with ether and Demodex densities were measured in 2 consecutive standardized skin surface biopsies taken from the same site. Mean densities in patients with rosacea and demodicosis were much higher than those in healthy controls and patients with other facial dermatoses. The optimal cut-off values for the 2 biopsies were combined and the resultant criterion (presence of a first biopsy density rosacea or demodicosis with a sensitivity of 98.7% and specificity of 95.5%, making this a valuable diagnostic tool for dermatologists in routine clinical practice.

  16. Evaluation of current methods to estimate pulp yield of hemp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, de E.P.M.; Werf, van der H.M.G.

    1995-01-01

    Large-scale evaluation of hemp stems from field trials requires a rapid method for the characterization of stem quality. The large differences between bark and woody core in anatomical and chemical properties, make a quantification of these two fractions of primary importance for quality assessment.

  17. Teaching the Scientific Method Using Current News Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Laura K.; Mahan, Carolyn G.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a short (less than 50 minutes) activity using news articles from sources such as "Science Daily" to teach students the steps of the scientific method and the difference between primary and secondary literature sources. The flexibility in choosing news articles to examine allowed us to tailor the activity to the specific interests of…

  18. The Combine Use of Semi-destructive and Non-destructive Methods for Tiled Floor Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štainbruch, Jakub; Bayer, Karol; Jiroušek, Tomáš; Červinka, Josef

    2017-04-01

    The combination of semi-destructive and non-destructive methods was used to asset the conditions of a tiled floor in the historical monument Minaret, situated in the park complex of the Chateau Lednice (South Moravia Region, Czech Republic), before its renovation. Another set of measurements is going to be performed after the conservation works are finished. (The comparison of the results collected during pre- and post-remediation measurements will be known and presented during the General Assembly meeting in Wien.) The diagnostic complex of methods consisted of photogrammetry, resistivity drilling and georadar. The survey was aimed to contour extends of air gaps beneath the tiles and the efficiency of filling gaps by means of injection, consolidation and gluing individual layers. The state chateau Lednice creates a part of the Lednice-Valtice precinct, a UNESCO landmark, and belongs among the greatest historic monuments in Southern Moravia. In the chateau park there is a romantic observation tower in the shape of a minaret built according to the plans of Josef Hardtmuth between 1798-1804. The Minaret has been extensively renovated for many decades including the restoration of mosaic floors from Venetian terazzo. During the static works of the Minaret building between 1999-2000, the mosaic floors in the rooms on the second floor were transferred and put back onto concrete slabs. Specifically, the floor was cut up to tiles and these were glued to square slabs which were then attached to the base plate. The transfer was not successful and the floor restoration was finalized between 2016-2017. The damage consisted in separating the original floor from the concrete plate which led to creating gaps. Furthermore, the layers of the floor were not compact. It was necessary to fill the gaps and consolidate and glue the layers. The existence of air gap between individual layers of the tiles and their degradation was detected using two different diagnostic methods: semi

  19. Method for making a high current fiber brush collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scuro, S. J.

    1986-05-01

    An axial-type homopolar motor having high density, high current fiber brush collectors affording efficient, low contact resistance and low operating temperatures is discussed. The collectors include a ring of concentric row of brushes in equally spaced beveled holes soldered in place using a fixture for heating the ring to just below the solder melting point at a soldering iron for the local application of additional heat at each brush. Prior to soldering, an oxide film is formed on the surfaces of the brushes and ring, and the bevels are burnished to form a wetting surface. Flux applied with the solder at each bevel removes to an effective soldering depth the oxide film on the brushes and the holes.

  20. Methods of sociological diagnostics in the assessment of staff's competencies: a case of a state museum (St. Petersburg, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asiia Usiaeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study is dedicated to research of methods of sociological diagnostics, which can be used in the assessment of staff's competencies. Theoretical framework of this survey is T. Parson’s structural functionalism, the approach that sees the society as a complex system. The research questions were how we can analyze competencies by using sociological diagnostics and what the features of sociological diagnostics are. In order to achieve the target, it was analyzed the assessment of staff's competencies in the museum complex “The Cathedral”, Saint-Petersburg, Russia. Methodology of the research was structured observation, data collected by using “Mystery shopper” method. As a result, it was showed which techniques were applied in the staff’s assessment in this museum. Besides, the researcher discovered the level of museum staff’s competencies and revealed that the least developed employees’ competence was communication with visitors.

  1. New Methods, Current Trends and Software Infrastructure for NLP

    CERN Document Server

    Cunningham, H; Gaizauskas, R J; Cunningham, Hamish; Wilks, Yorick; Gaizauskas, Robert J.

    1996-01-01

    The increasing use of `new methods' in NLP, which the NeMLaP conference series exemplifies, occurs in the context of a wider shift in the nature and concerns of the discipline. This paper begins with a short review of this context and significant trends in the field. The review motivates and leads to a set of requirements for support software of general utility for NLP research and development workers. A freely-available system designed to meet these requirements is described (called GATE - a General Architecture for Text Engineering). Information Extraction (IE), in the sense defined by the Message Understanding Conferences (ARPA \\cite{Arp95}), is an NLP application in which many of the new methods have found a home (Hobbs \\cite{Hob93}; Jacobs ed. purposes, and this is described. Lastly we review related work.

  2. Alternative methods in toxicity testing: the current approach

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo,Gabrielle Luck de; Campos,Maria Augusta Amaral; Valente,Maria Anete Santana; Silva,Sarah Cristina Teixeira; França,Flávia Dayrell; Chaves,Miriam Martins; Tagliati, Carlos Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Alternative methods are being developed to reduce, refine, and replace (3Rs) animals used in experiments, aimed at protecting animal welfare. The present study reports alternative tests which are based on the principles of the 3Rs and the efforts made to validate these tests. In Europe, several methodologies have already been implemented, such as tests of irritability, cell viability, and phototoxicity as well as in vitro mathematical models together with the use of in silico tools. This is a...

  3. Efficiency of the Current Methods of Stimulating Civil Servants’ Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir Ladygin

    2011-01-01

    The article makes an attempt to identify link between the models of public service and some effective methods of stimulating civil servants performance. Making use of the basic elements of the institutional theory helps draw a conclusion that development of the public civil service in accordance with the NPM models does not only take into account any positive externals for modeling informal relations, but ignores their historical, social and cultural role in the country. Key words: civil serv...

  4. Professional flossing as a diagnostic method for gingivitis in the primary dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariath, Adriela Azevedo Souza; Bressani, Ana Eliza Lemes; Haas, Alex Nogueira; Araujo, Fernando Borba de; Rösing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate flossing as a diagnostic method for interproximal gingival bleeding in children. For this crossover study, 23 pre-schoolchildren presenting neither restorations nor approximal carious cavities and with at least 15% of gingival bleeding sites were selected. Examinations were performed at three different moments (3-4 days interval). Examinations comprised repeated measurements of two gingival indices with a 10-minute interval in the following sequences: the Ainamo & Bay Gingival Bleeding Index (GBI) followed by the Carter & Barnes flossing index (CBI); CBI followed by GBI; and GBI followed by GBI. Data analysis was performed only for the interproximal sites, considering the GBI as the gold-standard. Agreement between indices, sensitivity (SE), specificity (SP), positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) were estimated. Percentage agreements in sequences GBI-CBI, CBI-GBI and GBI-GBI were 70.3%, 76.4% and 84.5%, respectively. Validation of flossing in the first sequence (GBI-CBI) resulted in values of 0.61 (95%CI 0.53 - 0.68), 0.72 (95%CI 0.69 - 0.76), 0.33 (95%CI 0.28 - 0.39) and 0.89 (95%CI 0.86 - 0.92) respectively for SE, SP, PPV and NPV. It can be concluded that professional flossing is a useful tool in the diagnosis of interproximal gingival inflammatory status in children, especially in conditions of gingival health.

  5. An assessment of various blood collection and transfer methods used for malaria rapid diagnostic tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baik Fred

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Four blood collection and transfer devices commonly used for malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs were assessed for their consistency, accuracy and ease of use in the hands of laboratory technicians and village health workers. Methods Laboratory technicians and village health workers collected blood from a finger prick using each device in random order, and deposited the blood either on filter paper or into a suitable casette-type RDT. Consistency and accuracy of volume delivered was determined by comparing the measurements of the resulting blood spots/heights with the measurements of laboratory-prepared pipetted standard volumes. The effect of varying blood volumes on RDT sensitivity and ease of use was also observed. Results There was high variability in blood volume collected by the devices, with the straw and the loop, the most preferred devices, usually transferring volumes greater than intended, while the glass capillary tube and the plastic pipette transferring less volume than intended or none at all. Varying the blood volume delivered to RDTs indicated that this variation is critical to RDT sensitivity only when the transferred volume is very low. Conclusion None of the blood transfer devices assessed performed consistently well. Adequate training on their use is clearly necessary, with more development efforts for improved designs to be used by remote health workers, in mind.

  6. Spectrophotometric Method for Differentiation of Human Skin Melanoma. II. Diagnostic Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruk, V. G.; Ivanov, A. P.; Kvaternyuk, S. M.; Barunb, V. V.

    2016-05-01

    Experimental data on the spectral dependences of the optical diffuse reflection coefficient for skin from different people with melanoma or nevus are presented in the form of the probability density of the diffuse reflection coefficient for the corresponding pigmented lesions. We propose a noninvasive technique for differentiating between malignant and benign tumors, based on measuring the diffuse reflection coefficient for a specific patient and comparing the value obtained with a pre-set threshold. If the experimental result is below the threshold, then it is concluded that the person has melanoma; otherwise, no melanoma is present. As an example, we consider the wavelength 870 nm. We determine the risk of malignant transformation of a nevus (its transition to melanoma) for different measured diffuse reflection coefficients. We have studied the errors in the method, its operating characteristics and probability characteristics as the threshold diffuse reflection coefficient is varied. We find that the diagnostic confidence, sensitivity, specificity, and effectiveness (accuracy) parameters are maximum (>0.82) for a threshold of 0.45-0.47. The operating characteristics for the proposed technique exceed the corresponding parameters for other familiar optical approaches to melanoma diagnosis. Its distinguishing feature is operation at only one wavelength, and consequently implementation of the experimental technique is simplified and made less expensive.

  7. Professional flossing as a diagnostic method for gingivitis in the primary dentition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriela Azevedo Souza Mariath

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate flossing as a diagnostic method for interproximal gingival bleeding in children. For this crossover study, 23 pre-schoolchildren presenting neither restorations nor approximal carious cavities and with at least 15% of gingival bleeding sites were selected. Examinations were performed at three different moments (3-4 days interval. Examinations comprised repeated measurements of two gingival indices with a 10-minute interval in the following sequences: the Ainamo & Bay Gingival Bleeding Index (GBI followed by the Carter & Barnes flossing index (CBI; CBI followed by GBI; and GBI followed by GBI. Data analysis was performed only for the interproximal sites, considering the GBI as the gold-standard. Agreement between indices, sensitivity (SE, specificity (SP, positive (PPV and negative predictive values (NPV were estimated. Percentage agreements in sequences GBI-CBI, CBI-GBI and GBI-GBI were 70.3%, 76.4% and 84.5%, respectively. Validation of flossing in the first sequence (GBI-CBI resulted in values of 0.61 (95%CI 0.53 - 0.68, 0.72 (95%CI 0.69 - 0.76, 0.33 (95%CI 0.28 - 0.39 and 0.89 (95%CI 0.86 - 0.92 respectively for SE, SP, PPV and NPV. It can be concluded that professional flossing is a useful tool in the diagnosis of interproximal gingival inflammatory status in children, especially in conditions of gingival health.

  8. A Recalibration of Strong Line Oxygen Abundance Diagnostics via the Direct Method and Implications for the High Redshift Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Jonathan S; Andrews, Brett H

    2016-01-01

    We use direct method oxygen abundances in combination with strong optical emission lines, stellar masses ($M_{\\star}$), and star formation rates (SFRs) to recalibrate the N2, O3N2, and N2O2 oxygen abundance diagnostics. We stack spectra of $\\sim$200,000 star-forming galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey in bins of $M_{\\star}$ and SFR offset from the star forming main sequence to measure the weak emission lines needed to apply the direct method. All three new calibrations are reliable to within $\\pm 0.10$ dex from $\\log(M_{\\star}/M_{\\odot}) \\sim 7.5 - 10.5$ and up to at least $200~M_{\\odot}$ yr$^{-1}$ in SFR. The N2O2 diagnostic is the least subject to systematic biases. We apply the diagnostics to galaxies in the local universe and investigate the $M_{\\star}$-$Z$-${\\rm SFR}$ relation. The N2 and O3N2 diagnostics suggest the SFR dependence of the $M_{\\star}$-$Z$-${\\rm SFR}$ relation varies with both $M_{\\star}$ and $\\Delta \\log(SSFR)$, whereas the N2O2 diagnostic suggests a nearly constant dependence on S...

  9. Systematic errors in detecting biased agonism: Analysis of current methods and development of a new model-free approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onaran, H. Ongun; Ambrosio, Caterina; Uğur, Özlem; Madaras Koncz, Erzsebet; Grò, Maria Cristina; Vezzi, Vanessa; Rajagopal, Sudarshan; Costa, Tommaso

    2017-01-01

    Discovering biased agonists requires a method that can reliably distinguish the bias in signalling due to unbalanced activation of diverse transduction proteins from that of differential amplification inherent to the system being studied, which invariably results from the non-linear nature of biological signalling networks and their measurement. We have systematically compared the performance of seven methods of bias diagnostics, all of which are based on the analysis of concentration-response curves of ligands according to classical receptor theory. We computed bias factors for a number of β-adrenergic agonists by comparing BRET assays of receptor-transducer interactions with Gs, Gi and arrestin. Using the same ligands, we also compared responses at signalling steps originated from the same receptor-transducer interaction, among which no biased efficacy is theoretically possible. In either case, we found a high level of false positive results and a general lack of correlation among methods. Altogether this analysis shows that all tested methods, including some of the most widely used in the literature, fail to distinguish true ligand bias from “system bias” with confidence. We also propose two novel semi quantitative methods of bias diagnostics that appear to be more robust and reliable than currently available strategies. PMID:28290478

  10. A review of current finite difference rotor flow methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caradonna, F. X.; Tung, C.

    1986-01-01

    Rotary-wing computational fluid dynamics is reaching a point where many three-dimensional, unsteady, finite-difference codes are becoming available. This paper gives a brief review of five such codes, which treat the small disturbance, conservative and nonconservative full-potential, and Euler flow models. A discussion of the methods of applying these codes to the rotor environment (including wake and trim considerations) is followed by a comparison with various available data. These data include tests of advancing lifting and nonlifting, and hovering model rotors with significant supercritical flow regions. The codes are also compared for computational efficiency.

  11. Review of current study methods for VRU safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Camilla Sloth; Kamaluddin, Noor Azreena; Várhelyi, András

    written questionnaires (either online or paper-based), interviews may be performed (either face-to-face or via telephone) and people may be asked to report their accident via an app on their mobile device. The method for gaining self-reported information thus varies greatly – and so does the information...... that people are asked to give. In most studies, only the number of accidents in which the respondent was involved is relevant for the researcher. In other studies, respondents are asked about possible accident causation factors, and some studies deal with respondents’ recall of the accident details. In other...

  12. Assessment methods for angiogenesis and current approaches for its quantification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed Hassan AlMalki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis is a physiological process which describes the development of new blood vessels from the existing vessels. It is a common and the most important process in the formation and development of blood vessels, so it is supportive in the healing of wounds and granulation of tissues. The different assays for the evaluation of angiogenesis have been described with distinct advantages and some limitations. In order to develop angiogenic and antiangiogenic techniques, continuous efforts have been resulted to give animal models for more quantitative analysis of angiogenesis. Most of the studies on angiogenic inducers and inhibitors rely on various models, both in vitro, in vivo and in ova, as indicators of efficacy. The angiogenesis assays are very much helpful to test efficacy of both pro- and anti- angiogenic agents. The development of non-invasive procedures for quantification of angiogenesis will facilitate this process significantly. The main objective of this review article is to focus on the novel and existing methods of angiogenesis and their quantification techniques. These findings will be helpful to establish the most convenient methods for the detection, quantification of angiogenesis and to develop a novel, well tolerated and cost effective anti-angiogenic treatment in the near future.

  13. Current Status of Methods to Assess Cancer Drug Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodor H. Lippert, Hans-Jörg Ruoff, Manfred Volm

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug resistance is the main cause of the failure of chemotherapy of malignant tumors, resistance being either preexisting (intrinsic resistance or induced by the drugs (acquired resistance. At present, resistance is usually diagnosed during treatment after a long period of drug administration.In the present paper, methods for a rapid assessment of drug resistance are described. Three main classes of test procedures can be found in the literature, i.e. fresh tumor cell culture tests, cancer biomarker tests and positron emission tomography (PET tests. The methods are based on the evaluation of molecular processes, i.e. metabolic activities of cancer cells. Drug resistance can be diagnosed before treatment in-vitro with fresh tumor cell culture tests, and after a short time of treatment in-vivo with PET tests. Cancer biomarker tests, for which great potential has been predicted, are largely still in the development stage. Individual resistance surveillance with tests delivering rapid results signifies progress in cancer therapy management, by providing the possibility to avoid drug therapies that are ineffective and only harmful.

  14. Development of Monitoring and Diagnostic Methods for Robots Used In Remediation of Waste Sites - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, M.

    2000-04-01

    This project is the first evaluation of model-based diagnostics to hydraulic robot systems. A greater understanding of fault detection for hydraulic robots has been gained, and a new theoretical fault detection model developed and evaluated.

  15. Diagnostic methods to cutaneous leishmaniasis detection in domestic dogs and cats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Trevisan, Daliah Alves Coelho; Lonardoni, Maria Valdrinez Campana; Demarchi, Izabel Galhardo

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is caused by different species of Leishmania. In domestic animals such as dogs and cats, the diagnostic consists of clinical, epidemiological and serological tests, which changes among countries all around the world...

  16. Dental flossing as a diagnostic method for proximal gingivitis: a validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Pascotini GRELLMANN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study evaluated the clinical diagnosis of proximal gingivitis by comparing two methods: dental flossing and the gingival bleeding index (GBI. One hundred subjects (aged at least 18 years, with 15% of positive proximal sites for GBI, without proximal attachment loss were randomized into five evaluation protocols. Each protocol consisted of two assessments with a 10-minute interval between them: first GBI/second floss, first floss/second GBI, first GBI/second GBI, first tooth floss/second floss, and first gum floss-second floss. The dental floss was slid against the tooth surface (TF and the gingival tissue (GF. The evaluated proximal sites should present teeth with established point of contact and probing depth ≤ 3mm. One trained and calibrated examiner performed all the assessments. The mean percentages of agreement and disagreement were calculated for the sites with gingival bleeding in both evaluation methods (GBI and flossing. The primary outcome was the percentage of disagreement between the assessments in the different protocols. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA, McNemar, chi-square and Tukey’s post hoc tests, with a 5% significance level. When gingivitis was absent in the first assessment (negative GBI, bleeding was detected in the second assessment by TF and GF in 41.7% (p < 0.001 and 50.7% (p < 0.001 of the sites, respectively. In the absence of gingivitis in the second assessment (negative GBI, TF and GF detected bleeding in the first assessment in 38.9% (p = 0.004 and 58.3% (p < 0.001 of the sites, respectively. TF and GF appears to be a better diagnostic indicator of proximal gingivitis than GBI.

  17. Evaluation of three different methods of distance learning for postgraduate diagnostic imaging education: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Jean-Nicolas; Cooley, Jeffrey R; Wessely, Michelle; Guebert, Gary M; Petrocco-Napuli, Kristina

    2014-10-01

    Objective : The purpose of this study was to evaluate the perceived effectiveness and learning potential of 3 Web-based educational methods in a postgraduate radiology setting. Methods : Three chiropractic radiology faculty from diverse geographic locations led mini-courses using asynchronous discussion boards, synchronous Web conferencing, and asynchronous voice-over case presentations formatted for Web viewing. At the conclusion of each course, participants filled out a 14-question survey (using a 5-point Likert scale) designed to evaluate the effectiveness of each method in achieving specified course objectives and goals and their satisfaction when considering the learning potential of each method. The mean, standard deviation, and percentage agreements were tabulated. Results : Twenty, 15, and 10 participants completed the discussion board, Web conferencing, and case presentation surveys, respectively. All educational methods demonstrated a high level of agreement regarding the course objective (total mean rating >4.1). The case presentations had the highest overall rating for achieving the course goals; however, all but one method still had total mean ratings >4.0 and overall agreement levels of 70%-100%. The strongest potential for interactive learning was found with Web conferencing and discussion boards, while case presentations rated very low in this regard. Conclusions : The perceived effectiveness in achieving the course objective and goals was high for each method. Residency-based distance education may be a beneficial adjunct to current methods of training, allowing for international collaboration. When considering all aspects tested, there does not appear to be a clear advantage to any one method. Utilizing various methods may be most appropriate.

  18. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry as diagnostic methods for ALK positive non-small cell lung cancer patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Martinez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK positivity represents a novel molecular target in a subset of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancers (NSCLC. We explore Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH and Immunohistochemistry (IHC as diagnostic methods for ALK positive patients and to describe its prevalence and outcomes in a population of NSCLC patients. METHODS: NSCLC patients previously screened for Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR at our institution were selected. ALK positive patients were identified by FISH and the value of IHC (D5F3 was explored. RESULTS: ninety-nine patients were identified. Median age was 61.5 years (range 35-83, all were caucasians, eighty percent were adenocarcinomas, fifty-one percent were male and thirty-eight percent were current smokers. Seven (7.1% patients were ALK positive by FISH, thirteen (13.1% were EGFR mutant, and 65 (65.6% were negative/Wild Type (WT for both ALK and EGFR. ALK positivity and EGFR mutations were mutually exclusive. ALK positive patients tend to be younger than EGFR mutated or wt patients. ALK positive patients were predominantly never smokers (71.4% and adenocarcinoma (71.4%. ALK positive and EGFR mutant patients have a better outcome than negative/WT. All patients with ALK FISH negative tumours were negative for ALK IHC. Out of 6 patients positive for ALK FISH with more tissue available, 5 were positive for ALK IHC and 1 negative. CONCLUSIONS: ALK positive patients represent 7.1% of a population of selected NSCLC. ALK positive patients have different clinical features and a better outcome than EGFR WT and ALK negative patients. IHC is a promising method for detecting ALK positive NSCLC patients.

  19. Fracture Risk Analysis in Postmenopausal Women with the Current Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih Gultekin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to assess the risk of fracture in postmenopausal women using dual x-ray absorptiometry bone mineral density (DEXA-BMD as a reference method and FRAX as a new clinical risk assessment tool. Material and Method: 168 postmenopausal women (> 50 years evaluating with DEXA-BMD and FRAX methods were included in the study. Femoral BMD (F-BMD, femoral T-score (F-Ts, lumbar spine BMD (L-BMD and lumbar spine T-score (L-Ts values of the patients were calculated. Fracture risk assessments were carried out using T-score values and FRAX 10-year hip fracture (HF and major osteoporotic fracture (MOF risk ratios. Data were analyzed statistically. Results: According to the results of F-Ts and L-Ts, 44/168 (26.2% and 65/168 (38.7% of patients had osteoporosis as compatible with high fracture risk. In osteoporotic patients, mean values for F-Ts L-Ts, F-BMD and L-BMD were -2.8 ± 0.4, -3.2 ± 0.5, 0.530 ± 0.049 and 0.682 ± 0.066, respectively. There were found to be high MOF risk in 16/168 (9.5% and high HF risk in 51/168 (30.4% of patients according to FRAX. Positive correlations were determined between F-Ts and L-Ts (moderate; rho = 0.424, p <0.05 and between HF and MOF (strong; rho = 0.958, p <0001. There were strong negative correlations among HF and MOF with F-Ts (respectively, rho = -0.897 and rho = -0.844, p <0.001 and moderate negative correlations among HF and MOF with L-Ts (respectively, rho = -0.535 and rho = - 0.567, p <0.05. Discussion: In postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, risk assessment by the FRAX besides the DXA-BMD measurements can be useful for not to be missed of patients with high risk of fracture.

  20. Hysterectomy—Current Methods and Alternatives for Benign Indications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michail S. Papadopoulos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hysterectomy is the commonest gynecologic operation performed not only for malignant disease but also for many benign conditions such as fibroids, endometrial hyperplasia, adenomyosis, uterine prolapse, dysfunctional uterine bleeding, and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. There are many approaches to hysterectomy for benign disease: abdominal hysterectomy, vaginal hysterectomy, laparoscopic assisted vaginal hysterectomy (LAVH where a vaginal hysterectomy is assisted by laparoscopic procedures that do not include uterine artery ligation, total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH where the laparoscopic procedures include uterine artery ligation, and subtotal laparoscopic hysterectomy (STLH where there is no vaginal component and the uterine body is removed using a morcelator. In the last decades, many new techniques, alternative to hysterectomy with conservation of the uterus have been developed. They use modern technologies and their results are promising and in many cases comparable with hysterectomy. This paper is a review of all the existing hysterectomy techniques and the alternative methods for benign indications.

  1. Method for diagnostics of characteristic patterns of observable time series and its real-time experimental implementation for neurophysiological signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ovchinnikov, A.; Hramov, A.E.; Luttjohann, A.K.; Koronovskii, A.A.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van

    2011-01-01

    A method is proposed for analysis and automatic diagnostics of characteristic oscillatory patterns of the electric activity of the brain in real time on the basis of a continuous wavelet transformation. The results of experimental investigation of automatic recognition of epileptic activity episodes

  2. Combating stress risks with the job stress self diagnostic method : paper XV World Congress of Sociology 2002

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oeij, P.R.A.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper of the World Congress of Sociology 2002 of ISA (International Sociological Association), the content and uses of the Job Stress Self Diagnostic Method (JSSDM) are described. The JSSDM aim is (a) to diagnose work processes to determine the presence of conditions for control problems and

  3. [Site inspection procedures and methods for evaluation of the quality management system of in vitro diagnostic regents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Shaolei

    2010-03-01

    In this paper, the procedures, logos, methods, essentials as well as notable problems for inspecting the qualification management system of in vitro diagnostic regent manufactures are discussed, with aims of promoting inspector's practical level and consequentially ensuring the quality, standard and efficacy of the inspection.

  4. Diagnostic methods in ischemic necrosis of the femoral head. Metodos de diagnostico en la necrosis isquemica de la cabeza femoral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra Blanco, J.A.; Pagola Serrano, M.A.; Delgado Macias, M.T. (Hospital Universitario Marques de Valdecilla, Santander (Spain))

    1994-01-01

    Ischemic necrosis of the femoral head (INFH) must be diagnosed at an early stage of development, when therapeutic approaches such as forage biopsy or osteotomy can prevent or slow the normal progression of the disease to arthrosis. In this article, on the basis of the pathological changes that characterize process, we review the advantages and limitations of the principal diagnostic techniques (table I) currently employed in the study of INFH. (Author)

  5. Changes in hospitalization rate and mortality after acute myocardial infarction in Denmark after diagnostic criteria and methods changed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildstrøm, Steen Zabell; Rasmussen, Søren; Madsen, Mette

    2004-01-01

    AIMS: To analyse the effect of the change in diagnostic criteria for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and the use of troponin as a diagnostic marker on the hospitalization rate and mortality of hospitalized AMI patients from 1994 to 2001. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients (> or =30 years) admitted.......9%) for men and from 1648 to 2020 per million inhabitants (22.6%) for women. Troponin use was associated with a significant 14% increase in hospitalization rate in this period [rate ratio 1.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.11-1.18]. The effect of troponin was greatest among patients 70 years and older (rate...

  6. Alzheimer's Disease Diagnostic Performance of a Multi-Atlas Hippocampal Segmentation Method using the Harmonized Hippocampal Protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anker, Cecilie Benedicte; Sørensen, Lauge; Pai, Akshay

    baseline to month 12 was estimated for the three methods, and diagnostic performance was evaluated using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of pairwise diagnostic group comparisons. RESULTS Mean (SD) atrophy rates were as follows (MRP / static FS / longitudinal FS): NC -0.86...... (2.46) / -1.39 (5.41) / -1.63 (2.54), MCI -2.38 (3.28) / -3.69 (5.48) / -3.25 (3.53), AD -4.23 (3.07) / -4.29 (5.32) / -4.83 (3.74). Diagnostic performances were as follows (AUC; MRP / static FS / longitudinal FS): NC vs. MCI 0.65 / 0.67 / 0.64, NC vs. AD 0.80 / 0.69 / 0.76, MCI vs. AD 0.66 / 0...

  7. Diagnostic methods for atmospheric inversions of long-lived greenhouse gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalak, Anna M.; Randazzo, Nina A.; Chevallier, Frédéric

    2017-06-01

    The ability to predict the trajectory of climate change requires a clear understanding of the emissions and uptake (i.e., surface fluxes) of long-lived greenhouse gases (GHGs). Furthermore, the development of climate policies is driving a need to constrain the budgets of anthropogenic GHG emissions. Inverse problems that couple atmospheric observations of GHG concentrations with an atmospheric chemistry and transport model have increasingly been used to gain insights into surface fluxes. Given the inherent technical challenges associated with their solution, it is imperative that objective approaches exist for the evaluation of such inverse problems. Because direct observation of fluxes at compatible spatiotemporal scales is rarely possible, diagnostics tools must rely on indirect measures. Here we review diagnostics that have been implemented in recent studies and discuss their use in informing adjustments to model setup. We group the diagnostics along a continuum starting with those that are most closely related to the scientific question being targeted, and ending with those most closely tied to the statistical and computational setup of the inversion. We thus begin with diagnostics based on assessments against independent information (e.g., unused atmospheric observations, large-scale scientific constraints), followed by statistical diagnostics of inversion results, diagnostics based on sensitivity tests, and analyses of robustness (e.g., tests focusing on the chemistry and transport model, the atmospheric observations, or the statistical and computational framework), and close with the use of synthetic data experiments (i.e., observing system simulation experiments, OSSEs). We find that existing diagnostics provide a crucial toolbox for evaluating and improving flux estimates but, not surprisingly, cannot overcome the fundamental challenges associated with limited atmospheric observations or the lack of direct flux measurements at compatible scales. As

  8. [The Spanish translation of the Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals: current and future solutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez, F Gutiérrez; León, F Crespo

    2004-12-01

    This article presents some of the problems that arose when preparing the Spanish translation of the Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). It contains a list of the language and translation problems encountered and the solutions that were found, some of which are only provisional. The problems are in part due to the lack of a multi-lingual terminological database approved by the OIE. The need for such a database, as well as for the harmonisation of veterinary terminology by the OIE Steering Committee and the Ad hoc Group on language policy, is discussed.

  9. Pavement testing by integrated geophysical methods: Feasibility, resolution and diagnostic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, Luciana; Cardarelli, Ettore; Cercato, Michele; De Donno, Giorgio; Di Giambattista, Luca

    2017-01-01

    This work is focused on the assessment of the diagnostic potential of several geophysical methods when applied to the investigation of a rigid airport pavement. The potential and limit of each technique are evaluated as well as the added value deriving from their integration. Firstly, we reconstruct a high-resolution image of the pavement by a large electromagnetic and georadar screening. An advanced processing of georadar data, implemented through the picking of the arrival times of reflections for each profile, provides a quantitative estimation of the deviation between the design and the as-built thickness of layers. Additionally, electrical tomography has been applied to unequivocally identify the anomalous zones, where higher values of resistivity would be associated to porous zones that are prone to degradation and failure. The seismic tomographic survey had the additional purpose to recover the mechanical properties of the pavement in terms of both P- and S-waves and consequently of elastic constants (Poisson's ratio), whose values were consistent with those recovered in literature. The anomalies detected by each technique are consistent in their indications and they can be correlated to failure phenomena occurring at layer interfaces within the pavement structure or to unexpected variations of the layer thicknesses. The cost-effective geophysical campaign has validated the four-layered system deduced from the original design and has been used to reconstruct a high-resolution map of the pavement in order to discriminate fractures, crack-prone areas or areas where the as-built differs from the original design.

  10. Instantaneous phasor method for obtaining instantaneous balanced fundamental components for power quality control and continuous diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, J.S.

    1997-07-01

    This paper introduces an instantaneous phasor method that considers three phases simultaneously. This method produces the instantaneous fundamental balanced components of the polluted voltages or currents. A figure shows three-phase voltages that contain 5% of fundamental magnitude for each order of the 3rd, 5th, 7th, 9th and the 11th harmonics, respectively. Additionally, the voltages have 5% unbalance for all voltage components. A 10% fundamental-frequency zero-sequence component, as well as a 10% fundamental-frequency negative-sequence component are also added to the phase voltages. Furthermore, certain high-frequency pulses arbitrarily given at 5% of a 35th order to represent a possible carrier frequency of power electronic circuits are also included.

  11. Exploration of analysis methods for diagnostic imaging tests: problems with ROC AUC and confidence scores in CT colonography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Mallett

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Different methods of evaluating diagnostic performance when comparing diagnostic tests may lead to different results. We compared two such approaches, sensitivity and specificity with area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve (ROC AUC for the evaluation of CT colonography for the detection of polyps, either with or without computer assisted detection. METHODS: In a multireader multicase study of 10 readers and 107 cases we compared sensitivity and specificity, using radiological reporting of the presence or absence of polyps, to ROC AUC calculated from confidence scores concerning the presence of polyps. Both methods were assessed against a reference standard. Here we focus on five readers, selected to illustrate issues in design and analysis. We compared diagnostic measures within readers, showing that differences in results are due to statistical methods. RESULTS: Reader performance varied widely depending on whether sensitivity and specificity or ROC AUC was used. There were problems using confidence scores; in assigning scores to all cases; in use of zero scores when no polyps were identified; the bimodal non-normal distribution of scores; fitting ROC curves due to extrapolation beyond the study data; and the undue influence of a few false positive results. Variation due to use of different ROC methods exceeded differences between test results for ROC AUC. CONCLUSIONS: The confidence scores recorded in our study violated many assumptions of ROC AUC methods, rendering these methods inappropriate. The problems we identified will apply to other detection studies using confidence scores. We found sensitivity and specificity were a more reliable and clinically appropriate method to compare diagnostic tests.

  12. The spectrum of EWSR1-rearranged neoplasms at a tertiary sarcoma centre; assessing 772 tumour specimens and the value of current ancillary molecular diagnostic modalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noujaim, Jonathan; Jones, Robin L; Swansbury, John; Gonzalez, David; Benson, Charlotte; Judson, Ian; Fisher, Cyril; Thway, Khin

    2017-01-01

    Background: EWSR1 rearrangements were first identified in Ewing sarcoma, but the spectrum of EWSR1-rearranged neoplasms now includes many soft tissue tumour subtypes including desmoplastic small round cell tumour (DSRCT), myxoid liposarcoma (MLPS), extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma (EMC), angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma (AFH), clear cell sarcoma (CCS) and myoepithelial neoplasms. We analysed the spectrum of EWSR1-rearranged soft tissue neoplasms at our tertiary sarcoma centre, by assessing ancillary molecular diagnostic modalities identifying EWSR1-rearranged tumours and reviewing the results in light of our current knowledge of these and other Ewing sarcoma-like neoplasms. Methods: We retrospectively analysed all specimens tested for EWSR1 rearrangements by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) and/or reverse transcription–PCR (RT–PCR) over a 7-year period. Results: There was a total of 772 specimens. FISH was performed more often than RT–PCR (n=753, 97.5% vs n=445, 57.6%). In total, 210 (27.9%) specimens were FISH-positive for EWSR1 rearrangement compared to 111 (14.4%) that showed EWSR1 fusion transcripts with RT–PCR. Failure rates for FISH and RT–PCR were 2.5% and 18.0%. Of 109 round cell tumours with pathology consistent with Ewing sarcoma, 15 (13.8 %) cases were FISH-positive without an identifiable EWSR1 fusion transcript, 4 (3.7%) were FISH-negative but RT–PCR positive and 4 (3.7%) were negative for both. FISH positivity for DSRCT, MLPS, EMC, AFH and CCS was 86.3%, 4.3%, 58.5%, 60.0% and 87.9%, respectively. A positive FISH result led to diagnostic change in 40 (19.0%) EWSR1-rearranged cases. 13 FISH-positive cases remained unclassifiable. Conclusions: FISH is more sensitive for identifying EWSR1 rearrangements than RT–PCR. However, there can be significant morphologic and immunohistochemical overlap between groups of EWSR1-rearranged neoplasms, with important prognostic and therapeutic implications. FISH and RT–PCR should be used as

  13. The diagnostic value of Western blot method in patients with cystic echinococcosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Mustafa; Yüksel, Pelin; Polat, Erdal; Cakan, Huseyin; Ergin, Sevgi; Öner, Y Ali; Zengin, Kagan; Arıkan, Soykan; Saribas, Suat; Torun, Muzeyyen Mamal; Kocazeybek, Bekir

    2011-04-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is the larval cystic stage (called echinococcal cysts) of a small taeniid-type tapeworm (Echinococcus granulosus). Carnivores such as dogs are usually definitive hosts. Intermediate hosts are typically herbivores such as sheep and cattle. CE can be detected using various imaging techniques such as ultrasonography or radiology. Moreover the primary diagnosis has to be confirmed by serological tests since the clinical signs of the disease are non-specific. This study examined the antigenic band patterns useful for serologic diagnosis of hydatidosis. We also report on the post-operative evolution of patients treated for this disease and also determined the diagnostic performance of Western blot IgG kit. Twenty-five (16 females and 9 males) non-operated patients with hydatid cysts (NOP) and 33 (21 females and 12 males) operated patients with hydatid cysts (OP) were included as study group and 22 healthy individuals (14 females and 8 males) with no known chronic diseases were included as a control group. The ages of the patients and control group individuals were between 16-83 years. Patient and control groups were matched for age and sex. Cyst hydatid IgG antibodies were detected in the sera from all patient groups but no antibodies were found in the sera from the control group using ELISA IgG method. Twenty-three (92%) non-operated patients and 18 (54.5%) operated patients exhibited positive results when Western blot IgG kit was used. The P7 band pattern was detected in the sera from all operated and non-operated patients. Twenty-seven of these positive cases had p7 and (p7+p16/18), (p7+p24/26) or (p7+p16/18+p24/26). No antibodies against p7, p16/18 ve p24/26 band patterns were seen in sera from the control group A statistically significant difference was detected between operated and nonoperated patients for Western blot positivity.(pWestern blot kit for 25 cases with CE and 22 healthy controls were calculated as 92%, 100%, 100% and 91

  14. Studies of the physical aspects of intumescence using advance diagnostics methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Hussain; Huang, Hua Wei; Zhang, Yang

    2014-04-01

    The use of intumescent paints as an active fire protection method has gained immense interest in recent years. A significant aspect of research has focused on studying the chemical aspects of the system to improve performance. The dynamics and physical aspects of intumescence in real time fire conditions are still unclear. The present research uses an experimental approach where diagnostics techniques such as thermal imaging camera was used to study intumescent characteristics that have been not been reported in great detail. T-panels are a substitute to the most commonly used part in construction, the I-beam. Studies were conducted using a cone calorimeter that provided a uniform heat flux through radiation on steel T-panel samples. The complex nature of char movement was recorded and a novel algorithm was used to track the growing char laye07r. The samples are designed to cater to different fire conditions. Therefore, the degree of intumescence was observed to be very different in the samples. The samples designed for low temperature cellulosic fires focus on high degree of intumesce. Whereas, mechanical strength is the focus for samples used in high temperature turbulent hydrocarbon fire conditions. The variation in the internal structure of the sample is presented. Furthermore, the phenomenon is phase shift is discussed. The phase shift is an essential part of the process of intumescence when the majority of intumescence occurs. It was observed to be different in all the samples. The movement of the samples is a property of great interest. This is because if any part of the substrate is exposed then the formulation does not meet strict commercialisation criterion. The movement was diagonal in nature as compared to flat panels where it is perpendicular. This is due tot the heating pattern of the plate that results in the web part of the panel to influence the growth of char on the flange part of the panel. A special case of char cracking is also highlighted and

  15. Personality Assessment in the Diagnostic Manuals: On Mindfulness, Multiple Methods, and Test Score Discontinuities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Robert F

    2015-01-01

    Recent controversies have illuminated the strengths and limitations of different frameworks for conceptualizing personality pathology (e.g., trait perspectives, categorical models), and stimulated debate regarding how best to diagnose personality disorders (PDs) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.), and in other diagnostic systems (i.e., the International Classification of Diseases, the Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual). In this article I argue that regardless of how PDs are conceptualized and which diagnostic system is employed, multimethod assessment must play a central role in PD diagnosis. By complementing self-reports with evidence from other domains (e.g., performance-based tests), a broader range of psychological processes are engaged in the patient, and the impact of self-perception and self-presentation biases can be better understood. By providing the assessor with evidence drawn from multiple modalities, some of which provide converging patterns and some of which yield divergent results, a multimethod assessment compels the assessor to engage this evidence more deeply. The mindful processing that ensues can help minimize the deleterious impact of naturally occurring information processing bias and distortion on the part of the clinician (e.g., heuristics, attribution errors), bringing greater clarity to the synthesis and integration of assessment data.

  16. A multi-center comparison of diagnostic methods for the biochemical evaluation of suspected mitochondrial disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, R.J.T.; Schoonderwoerd, G.C.; Tiranti, V.; Taylor, R.W.; Rotig, A.; Valente, L.; Invernizzi, F.; Chretien, D.; He, L.; Backx, G.P.; Janssen, K.J.; Chinnery, P.F.; Smeets, H.J.M.; Coo, I.F. de; Heuvel, L.P. van den

    2013-01-01

    A multicenter comparison of mitochondrial respiratory chain and complex V enzyme activity tests was performed. The average reproducibility of the enzyme assays is 16% in human muscle samples. In a blinded diagnostic accuracy test in patient fibroblasts and SURF1 knock-out mouse muscle, each lab made

  17. Towards a rapid molecular diagnostic for melioidosis: comparison of DNA extraction methods from clinical specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Leisha J; Kaestli, Mirjam; Mayo, Mark; Bowers, Jolene R; Tuanyok, Apichai; Schupp, Jim; Engelthaler, David; Wagner, David M; Keim, Paul S; Currie, Bart J

    2011-01-01

    Optimising DNA extraction from clinical samples for Burkholderia pseudomallei Type III secretion system real-time PCR in suspected melioidosis patients confirmed that urine and sputum are useful diagnostic samples. Direct testing on blood remains problematic; testing DNA extracted from plasma was superior to DNA from whole blood or buffy coat. PMID:22108495

  18. A Fault Diagnostic Method for Position Sensor of Switched Reluctance Wind Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Chao; Liu, Xiao; Liu, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Fast and accurate fault diagnosis of the position sensor is of great significance to ensure the reliability as well as sensor fault tolerant operation of the Switched Reluctance Wind Generator (SRWG). This paper presents a fault diagnostic scheme for a SRWG based on the residual between the estim...

  19. [Express method for diagnostics of enzootic encephalomyelitis (Teschen disease) in pigs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bova, T O; Derev'ianko, S V; Soroka, V I

    2005-01-01

    Results of creating the home ELISA test-system for diagnostics of enzootic encephalomyelitis (Teschen disease) has been presented. Biological components of diagnosticums has been created and described, reaction stages have been optimized. Sensitivity of the test-system for identification of antibodies to PTV-1 averaged 93%, specificity--100%. In the "sandwich"-variant the strains may be classified as serotype 1.

  20. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound in ovarian tumors – diagnostic parameters: method presentation and initial experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    MAXIM, ANITA-ROXANA; BADEA, RADU; TAMAS, ATILLA; TRAILA, ALEXANDRU

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss and illustrate the use of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in evaluating ovarian tumors compared to conventional ultrasound, Doppler ultrasound and the histopathological analysis and suggest how this technique may best be used to distinguish benign from malignant ovarian masses. We present the method and initial experience of our center by analyzing the parameters used in contrast-enhanced ultrasound in 6 patients with ovarian tumors of uncertain etiology. For examination we used a Siemens ultrasound machine with dedicated contrast software and the contrast agent SonoVue, Bracco. The patients underwent conventional ultrasound, Doppler ultrasound and i.v. administration of the contrast agent. The parameters studied were: inflow of contrast (rise time), time to peak enhancement, mean transit time. The series of patients is part of an extensive prospective PhD study aimed at elaborating a differential diagnosis protocol for benign versus malignant ovarian tumors, by validating specific parameters for contrast-enhanced ultrasound. Although the method is currently used with great success in gastroenterology, urology and senology, its validation in gynecology is still in the early phases. Taking into consideration that the method is minimally invasive and much less costly that CT/MRI imaging, demonstrating its utility in oncologic gynecology would be a big step in preoperative evaluation of these cases. PMID:26527912

  1. An Identification Method of Magnetizing Inrush Current Phenomena by Voltage Waveform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naitoh, Tadashi; Takeda, Keiki; Toyama, Atsushi; Maeda, Tatsuhiko

    In this paper, the authors propose a new identification method of the magnetizing inrush current phenomena. In general, the identification is done using with current waveform. However, the saturation of current transformer can't give waveform. Therefore, the authors introduce the identification method using with voltage waveform, in which the saturation of voltage transformer doesn't happen. And then, applying the Aitken's Δ2-process, it is showed that the new identification method gives the exact saturation on/off time.

  2. A temporally and spatially resolved electron density diagnostic method for the edge plasma based on Stark broadening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, A.; Martin, E. H.; Shannon, S. C.; Isler, R. C.; Caughman, J. B. O.

    2016-11-01

    An electron density diagnostic (≥1010 cm-3) capable of high temporal (ms) and spatial (mm) resolution is currently under development at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The diagnostic is based on measuring the Stark broadened, Doppler-free spectral line profile of the n = 6-2 hydrogen Balmer series transition. The profile is then fit to a fully quantum mechanical model including the appropriate electric and magnetic field operators. The quasi-static approach used to calculate the Doppler-free spectral line profile is outlined here and the results from the model are presented for H-δ spectra for electron densities of 1010-1013 cm-3. The profile shows complex behavior due to the interaction between the magnetic substates of the atom.

  3. 食物过敏的诊断方法%Diagnostic methods for food allergy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洢祎; 王学民; 王婷婷; 孙丽囡

    2015-01-01

    食物过敏是指免疫介导的食物不良反应,是婴幼儿常见的过敏性疾病,患儿家长对食物过敏的错误认识及诊断的不明确,导致一系列的喂养和健康问题.IgE介导的食物过敏机制是多因素的,主要受遗传体质和环境的相互作用;非IgE介导的食物过敏的机制尚不清楚.目前认为,其主要由T细胞介导,可引起亚急性或慢性胃肠道或皮肤反应.因此,了解食物过敏诊断相关的临床检查方法,结合临床病史、饮食排除试验、食物激发试验等方法正确诊断食物过敏,对减少食物过敏反应的发生以及指导正确的规避饮食和相应的免疫治疗具有重要意义.%Food allergy,as an immune-mediated adverse reaction to food,is a common allergic problem in infants.The misunderstanding of food allergy in children's parents and indefinite diagnosis have leaded to a series of feeding and health problems.The mechanism of IgE-mediated food allergy is multifactorial,and is mainly associated with the interaction between genetic predisposition and environment,while the mechanism of non-IgE mediated food allergy is unclear,and it is considered to be mediated mainly by T cells,and can cause subacute or chronic gastrointestinal or skin reactions.Therefore,it is of great significance to expand knowledge on clinical diagnostic methods for food allergy,and to correctly diagnose food allergy by combining medical history,elimination diet trials and oral food challenge results for reducing the occurrence of food allergy,guiding elimination diet and corresponding immunotherapy.

  4. [Klatskin tumors: rational diagnostics and staging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denzer, U W; Rösch, T

    2012-03-01

    Klatskin tumors continue to be a challenge for diagnostic assessment and staging due to their longitudinal tumor growth along the perihilar bile ducts. Therefore the rate of non-resectable tumors remains relatively stable despite modern imaging and endoscopic techniques. This article reviews the current diagnostic methods for preoperative staging and the significance for predicting resectability.

  5. Ischemic Stroke Detection System with a Computer-Aided Diagnostic Ability Using an Unsupervised Feature Perception Enhancement Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeu-Sheng Tyan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an ischemic stroke detection system with a computer-aided diagnostic ability using a four-step unsupervised feature perception enhancement method. In the first step, known as preprocessing, we use a cubic curve contrast enhancement method to enhance image contrast. In the second step, we use a series of methods to extract the brain tissue image area identified during preprocessing. To detect abnormal regions in the brain images, we propose using an unsupervised region growing algorithm to segment the brain tissue area. The brain is centered on a horizontal line and the white matter of the brain’s inner ring is split into eight regions. In the third step, we use a coinciding regional location method to find the hybrid area of locations where a stroke may have occurred in each cerebral hemisphere. Finally, we make corrections and mark the stroke area with red color. In the experiment, we tested the system on 90 computed tomography (CT images from 26 patients, and, with the assistance of two radiologists, we proved that our proposed system has computer-aided diagnostic capabilities. Our results show an increased stroke diagnosis sensitivity of 83% in comparison to 31% when radiologists use conventional diagnostic images.

  6. Ischemic stroke detection system with a computer-aided diagnostic ability using an unsupervised feature perception enhancement method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyan, Yeu-Sheng; Wu, Ming-Chi; Chin, Chiun-Li; Kuo, Yu-Liang; Lee, Ming-Sian; Chang, Hao-Yan

    2014-01-01

    We propose an ischemic stroke detection system with a computer-aided diagnostic ability using a four-step unsupervised feature perception enhancement method. In the first step, known as preprocessing, we use a cubic curve contrast enhancement method to enhance image contrast. In the second step, we use a series of methods to extract the brain tissue image area identified during preprocessing. To detect abnormal regions in the brain images, we propose using an unsupervised region growing algorithm to segment the brain tissue area. The brain is centered on a horizontal line and the white matter of the brain's inner ring is split into eight regions. In the third step, we use a coinciding regional location method to find the hybrid area of locations where a stroke may have occurred in each cerebral hemisphere. Finally, we make corrections and mark the stroke area with red color. In the experiment, we tested the system on 90 computed tomography (CT) images from 26 patients, and, with the assistance of two radiologists, we proved that our proposed system has computer-aided diagnostic capabilities. Our results show an increased stroke diagnosis sensitivity of 83% in comparison to 31% when radiologists use conventional diagnostic images.

  7. Method for Estimating Low-Frequency Return Current of DC Electric Railcar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatsukade, Satoru

    The Estimation of the harmonic current of railcars is necessary for achieving compatibility between train signaling systems and railcar equipment. However, although several theoretical analyses methods for estimating the harmonic current of railcars using switching functions exist, there are no theoretical analysis methods estimating a low-frequency current at a frequency less than the power converter's carrier frequency. This paper describes a method for estimating the spectrum (frequency and amplitude) of the low-frequency return current of DC electric railcars. First, relationships between the return current and characteristics of the DC electric railcars, such as mass and acceleration, are determined. Then, the mathematical (not numerical) calculation results for low-frequency current are obtained from the time-current curve for a DC electric railcar by using Fourier series expansions. Finally, the measurement results clearly show the effectiveness of the estimation method development in this study.

  8. The development of malaria diagnostic techniques: a review of the approaches with focus on dielectrophoretic and magnetophoretic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasetsirikul, Surasak; Buranapong, Jirayut; Srituravanich, Werayut; Kaewthamasorn, Morakot; Pimpin, Alongkorn

    2016-07-12

    The large number of deaths caused by malaria each year has increased interest in the development of effective malaria diagnoses. At the early-stage of infection, patients show non-specific symptoms or are asymptomatic, which makes it difficult for clinical diagnosis, especially in non-endemic areas. Alternative diagnostic methods that are timely and effective are required to identify infections, particularly in field settings. This article reviews conventional malaria diagnostic methods together with recently developed techniques for both malaria detection and infected erythrocyte separation. Although many alternative techniques have recently been proposed and studied, dielectrophoretic and magnetophoretic approaches are among the promising new techniques due to their high specificity for malaria parasite-infected red blood cells. The two approaches are discussed in detail, including their principles, types, applications and limitations. In addition, other recently developed techniques, such as cell deformability and morphology, are also overviewed in this article.

  9. The effectiveness of diagnostic imaging methods for the assessment of soft tissue and articular disorders of the shoulder and elbow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahabpour, M. [Department of Radiology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 101, 1090 Brussels (Belgium)], E-mail: Maryam@shahabpour.uzbrussel; Kichouh, M.; Laridon, E. [Department of Radiology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 101, 1090 Brussels (Belgium); Gielen, J.L. [Department of Radiology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Antwerpen, Universiteit Antwerpen, Wilrijkstraat 10, 2650 Edegem (Belgium); De Mey, J. [Department of Radiology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 101, 1090 Brussels (Belgium)

    2008-02-15

    There are no clear guidelines for diagnostic imaging of articular and soft tissue pathologies of the shoulder and elbow. Several methods are used, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA) and ultrasound (US). Their cost-effectiveness is still unclear. We performed a meta-analysis of the relevant literature and discussed the role of MR imaging of the shoulder and elbow compared with other diagnostic imaging modalities. For the shoulder impingement syndrome and rotator cuff tears, MRI and US have a comparable accuracy for detection of full-thickness rotator cuff tears. MRA and US might be more accurate for the detection of partial-thickness tears than MRI. Given the large difference in cost of MR and US, ultrasound may be the most cost-effective diagnostic method for identification of full-thickness tears in a specialist hospital setting (Evidence level 3). Both MRA and CT arthrography (CTA) are effective methods for the detection of labrum tears. More recently, multidetector CTA has offered the advantages of thinner slices than with MRA in a shorter examination time. Still, MRA has the advantage towards CTA to directly visualize the affected structures with a better evaluation of extent and location and to detect associated capsuloligamentous injuries. For the elbow pathologies, plain MRI or MRA have the advantage towards CTA to detect occult bone injuries. CTA is better for the assessment of the thin cartilage of the elbow. Both US and MRI are reliable methods to detect chronic epicondylitis; US is more available and far more cost-effective (Evidence level 2). MRA can differentiate complete from partial tears of the medial collateral ligament. US or MRI can detect partial and complete biceps tendon tears and/or bursitis. MRI can provide important diagnostic information in lesions of the ulnar, radial, or median nerve.

  10. Liver fibrosis in human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis C virus coinfection: Diagnostic methods and clinical impact

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Caterina; Sagnelli; Salvatore; Martini; Mariantonietta; Pisaturo; Giuseppe; Pasquale; Margherita; Macera; Rosa; Zampino; Nicola; Coppola; Evangelista; Sagnelli

    2015-01-01

    Several non-invasive surrogate methods have recently challenged the main role of liver biopsy in assessing liver fibrosis in hepatitis C virus(HCV)-monoinfected and human immunodeficiency virus(HIV)/HCV-coinfected patients, applied to avoid the well-known side effects of liver puncture. Serological tests involve the determination of biochemical markers of synthesis or degradation of fibrosis, tests not readily available in clinical practice, or combinations of routine tests used in chronic hepatitis and HIV/HCV coinfection. Several radiologic techniques have also been proposed, some of which commonly used in clinical practice. The studies performed to compare the prognostic value of noninvasive surrogate methods with that of the degree of liver fibrosis assessed on liver tissue have not as yet provided conclusive results. Each surrogate technique has shown some limitations, including the risk of over- or under-estimating the extent of liver fibrosis. The current knowledge on liver fibrosis in HIV/HCVcoinfected patients will be summarized in this review article, which is addressed in particular to physicians involved in this setting in their clinical practice.

  11. The Visualization of Biofilms in Chronic Diabetic Foot Wounds Using Routine Diagnostic Microscopy Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Oates

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic foot wounds are commonly colonised by taxonomically diverse microbial communities and may additionally be infected with specific pathogens. Since biofilms are demonstrably less susceptible to antimicrobial agents than are planktonic bacteria, and may be present in chronic wounds, there is increasing interest in their aetiological role. In the current investigation, the presence of structured microbial assemblages in chronic diabetic foot wounds is demonstrated using several visualization methods. Debridement samples, collected from the foot wounds of diabetic patients, were histologically sectioned and examined using bright-field, fluorescence, and environmental scanning electron microscopy and assessed by quantitative differential viable counting. All samples (n = 26 harboured bioburdens in excess of 5 log10 CFU/g. Microcolonies were identified in 4/4 samples by all three microscopy methods, although bright-field and fluorescence microscopy were more effective at highlighting putative biofilm morphology than ESEM. Results in this pilot study indicate that bacterial microcolonies and putative biofilm matrix can be visualized in chronic wounds using florescence microscopy and ESEM, but also using the simple Gram stain.

  12. NanoString, a novel digital color-coded barcode technology: current and future applications in molecular diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Hin-Fung; Xue, Vivian Weiwen; Koh, Su-Pin; Chiu, Ya-Ming; Ng, Lawrence Po-Wah; Wong, Sze-Chuen Cesar

    2017-01-01

    Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue sample is a gold mine of resources for molecular diagnosis and retrospective clinical studies. Although molecular technologies have expanded the range of mutations identified in FFPE samples, the applications of existing technologies are limited by the low nucleic acids yield and poor extraction quality. As a result, the routine clinical applications of molecular diagnosis using FFPE samples has been associated with many practical challenges. NanoString technologies utilize a novel digital color-coded barcode technology based on direct multiplexed measurement of gene expression and offer high levels of precision and sensitivity. Each color-coded barcode is attached to a single target-specific probe corresponding to a single gene which can be individually counted without amplification. Therefore, NanoString is especially useful for measuring gene expression in degraded clinical specimens. Areas covered: This article describes the applications of NanoString technologies in molecular diagnostics and challenges associated with its applications and the future development. Expert commentary: Although NanoString technology is still in the early stages of clinical use, it is expected that NanoString-based cancer expression panels would play more important roles in the future in classifying cancer patients and in predicting the response to therapy for better personal therapeutic care.

  13. Raman spectroscopy of saliva as a perspective method for periodontitis diagnostics Raman spectroscopy of saliva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonchukov, S.; Sukhinina, A.; Bakhmutov, D.; Minaeva, S.

    2012-01-01

    In view of its potential for biological tissues analyses at a molecular level, Raman spectroscopy in optical range has been the object of biomedical research for the last years. The main aim of this work is the development of Raman spectroscopy for organic content identifying and determination of biomarkers of saliva at a molecular level for periodontitis diagnostics. Four spectral regions were determined: 1155 and 1525 cm-1, 1033 and 1611 cm-1, which can be used as biomarkers of this widespread disease.

  14. A multi-center comparison of diagnostic methods for the biochemical evaluation of suspected mitochondrial disorders

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    A multicenter comparison of mitochondrial respiratory chain and complex V enzyme activity tests was performed. The average reproducibility of the enzyme assays is 16% in human muscle samples. In a blinded diagnostic accuracy test in patient fibroblasts and SURF1 knock-out mouse muscle, each lab made the correct diagnosis except for two complex I results. We recommend that enzyme activities be evaluated based on ratios, e.g. with complex IV or citrate synthase activity. In spite of large varia...

  15. MODERN METHODS OF MICROBIOLOGICAL DIAGNOSTICS IN ACUTE TONSILLITIS AND CHRONIC TONSILLITIS EXACERBATIONS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A Belov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunological and microbiological characteristics of chronic tonsillitis in children and various approaches to its treatment are discussed in this article. The principal attention is paid to diagnostics of the main infectious agent — group A -hemolytic streptococci. The study represents a qualitative immunochromatography screening test for the group A streptococci antigens detection — Streptatest. The main principles of rational antibacterial treatment in chronic tonsillitis in children are described.

  16. Latent-class methods to evaluate diagnostics tests for Echinococcus infections in dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Hartnack

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of canine echinococcosis can be a challenge in surveillance studies because there is no perfect gold standard that can be used routinely. However, unknown test specificities and sensitivities can be overcome using latent-class analysis with appropriate data. METHODOLOGY: We utilised a set of faecal and purge samples used previously to explore the epidemiology of canine echinococcosis on the Tibetan plateau. Previously only the purge results were reported and analysed in a largely deterministic way. In the present study, additional diagnostic tests of copro-PCR and copro-antigen ELISA were undertaken on the faecal samples. This enabled a Bayesian analysis in a latent-class model to examine the diagnostic performance of a genus specific copro-antigen ELISA, species-specific copro-PCR and arecoline purgation. Potential covariates including co-infection with Taenia, age and sex of the dog were also explored. The dependence structure of these diagnostic tests could also be analysed. PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: The most parsimonious result, indicated by deviance-information criteria, suggested that co-infection with Taenia spp. was a significant covariate with the Echinococcus infection. The copro-PCRs had estimated sensitivities of 89% and 84% respectively for the diagnoses of Echinococcus multilocularis and E. granulosus. The specificities for the copro-PCR were estimated at 93 and 83% respectively. Copro-antigen ELISA had sensitivities of 55 and 57% for the diagnosis of E. multilocularis and E. granulosus and specificities of 71 and 69% respectively. Arecoline purgation with an assumed specificity of 100% had estimated sensitivities of 76% and 85% respectively. SIGNIFICANCE: This study also shows that incorporating diagnostic uncertainty, in other words assuming no perfect gold standard, and including potential covariates like sex or Taenia co-infection into the epidemiological analysis may give different results than if the

  17. A Fault Diagnostic Method for Position Sensor of Switched Reluctance Wind Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Chao; Liu, Xiao; Liu, Hui;

    2016-01-01

    Fast and accurate fault diagnosis of the position sensor is of great significance to ensure the reliability as well as sensor fault tolerant operation of the Switched Reluctance Wind Generator (SRWG). This paper presents a fault diagnostic scheme for a SRWG based on the residual between the estim...... conditions. The results provide a feasible theoretical and technical basis for the effective condition monitoring and predictive maintenance of SRWG....

  18. Research and Correlation of Diagnostic Methods for Assessment of the State of Oil Filling in Cycloid Gearbox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Baron

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the research in the area of the application of diagnostic methods for assessment of the state of oil filling in cycloid gearbox of robotic manipulator. The experiments were realized on request of the manufacturer of the cycloid gearbox. Primarily, the two different methods were compared: an induction, magnetic method with the use of measurement system Cosmos-Steel Dust Checker and an RTG method, XRF (X-ray fluorescent method, analyses with use of X-ray radiation. These analytical methods provide the identification and quantification of emerging Fe abrasion particles occurring in the oil filling of the redactor. The results of the experiment pointed to the unsuitability of the application of the induction magnetic method for the assessment of an actual technical state of the cycloid gearbox. The reason for this lies in specific construction of the cycloid gearbox, with characteristic high operation temperatures of the oil filling, small dimensions, high transferred power, and gear ratio.

  19. An Identification Method of Magnetizing Inrush Current Phenomena in Distribution System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Naoki; Toyama, Atushi; Satoh, Kohki; Naitoh, Tadashi; Masaki, Kazuyuki

    In high voltage distribution systems, there are many power quality troubles due to voltage dips. Otherwise, a magnetizing inrush current causes the voltage dip. To suppress voltage dips, it is necessary to identify the magnetizing inrush current phenomena. In this paper, the authors propose a new identification method. The principles are that the saturation start/end flux is equal and the inrush current pattern exists. And to avoid a interfere with saturation area overlap; the rectangular coordinate method is adopted.

  20. Drifting plasma collection by a positive biased tether wire in LEO-like plasma conditions: current measurement and plasma diagnostic

    OpenAIRE

    Siguier, Jean-Michel; Sarrailh, Pierre; Roussel, Jean-François; Inguimbert, Virgine; Murat, Gaël; Sanmartín Losada, Juan Ramón

    2013-01-01

    BETs is a three-year project financed by the Space Program of the European Commission, aimed at developing an efficient deorbit system that could be carried on board any future satellite launched into Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The operational system involves a conductive tape-tether left bare to establish anodic contact with the ambient plasma as a giant Langmuir probe. As a part of this project, we are carrying out both numerical and experimental approaches to estimate the collected current by ...

  1. Improvement of Power Flow Calculation with Optimization Factor Based on Current Injection Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an improvement in power flow calculation based on current injection method by introducing optimization factor. In the method proposed by this paper, the PQ buses are represented by current mismatches while the PV buses are represented by power mismatches. It is different from the representations in conventional current injection power flow equations. By using the combined power and current injection mismatches method, the number of the equations required can be decreased to only one for each PV bus. The optimization factor is used to improve the iteration process and to ensure the effectiveness of the improved method proposed when the system is ill-conditioned. To verify the effectiveness of the method, the IEEE test systems are tested by conventional current injection method and the improved method proposed separately. Then the results are compared. The comparisons show that the optimization factor improves the convergence character effectively, especially that when the system is at high loading level and R/X ratio, the iteration number is one or two times less than the conventional current injection method. When the overloading condition of the system is serious, the iteration number in this paper appears 4 times less than the conventional current injection method.

  2. Clinical diagnostic of pleural effusions using a high-speed viscosity measurement method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurth, Cedric; Klein, Katherine; van Nimwegen, Lena; Korn, Ronald; Vijayaraghavan, Krishnaswami; Zenhausern, Frederic

    2011-08-01

    We present a novel bio-analytical method to discriminate between transudative and exudative pleural effusions based on a high-speed video analysis of a solid glass sphere impacting a liquid. Since the result depends on the solution viscosity, it can ultimately replace the battery of biochemical assays currently used. We present results obtained on a series of 7 pleural effusions obtained from consenting patients by analyzing both the splash observed after the glass impactor hits the liquid surface, and in a configuration reminiscent of the drop ball viscometer with added sensitivity and throughput provided by the high-speed camera. The results demonstrate distinction between the pleural effusions and good correlation with the fluid chemistry analysis to accurately differentiate exudates and transudates for clinical purpose. The exudative effusions display a viscosity around 1.39 ± 0.08 cP whereas the transudative effusion was measured at 0.89 ± 0.09 cP, in good agreement with previous reports.

  3. A NEW METHOD TO CALCULATE COMPENSATION CURRENT IN PARALLEL ACTIVE POWER FILTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet ALTINTAŞ

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, active power filter plays an important role in reducing harmonic current and reactive power in power lines. The reliability and effectiveness of an active power filter depends basically on three characteristics. These are the modulation method, the design characteristics of the PWM modulator and the method implemented to generate compensation current. For the last one, there are many proposed methods. Most of them complicated and hence difficult to implement and adjust. In this study, a new method to calculate compensation current is improved and tested in single-phase parallel active power filter controlled by microcontroller. Experimental and simulation results are presented in the paper.

  4. An Improved Identification Method of Magnetizing Inrush Current Phenomena in Distribution System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Tatsuhiko; Naitoh, Tadashi; Toyama, Atsushi; Takeda, Keiki

    In this paper, the authors propose an improved identification method of the magnetizing inrush current phenomena. A first improvement is the development of determinant method about the transformer connection, which gives a calculation method of magnetic flux, using with theoretical pattern of inrush current ratio. And then, since the Aitken's Δ2-process, which uses the estimation of the saturation on/off time, has many extrema, it is difficult to determinate the saturation on/off time. Therefore, using the pattern of derivative current, a new determinant method of the saturation on/off time is developed.

  5. Update on diabetes diagnosis: a historical review of the dilemma of the diagnostic utility of glycohemoglobin A1c and a proposal for a combined glucose-A1c diagnostic method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldasouqi, Saleh A; Gossain, Ved V

    2012-01-01

    The role of glycohemoglobin A1c (A1c) for the diagnosis of diabetes has been debated for over three decades. Recently, the American Diabetes Association (ADA) has recommended adding A1c as an additional criterion for diabetes diagnosis. In view of the continued debate about the diagnostic utility of A1c, and in view of the unabated burden of undiagnosed diabetes, the search for alternative diagnostic methods is discussed. A historical literature review is provided, in view of the new ADA diagnostic guidelines, and a proposal is provided for combining A1c and a glucose measurement as a diagnostic alternative/adjunct to the use of a single criterion. This proposal is based on the non-overlapping of the advantages and disadvantages of these individual tests. The cost-effectiveness of this method remains to be tested.

  6. Methods specification for diagnostic test accuracy studies in fine-needle aspiration cytology: a survey of reporting practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Robert L; Factor, Rachel E; Affolter, Kajsa E; Cook, Joshua B; Hall, Brian J; Narra, Krishna K; Witt, Benjamin L; Wilson, Andrew R; Layfield, Lester J

    2012-01-01

    Diagnostic test accuracy (DTA) studies on fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) often show considerable variability in diagnostic accuracy between study centers. Many factors affect the accuracy of FNAC. A complete description of the testing parameters would help make valid comparisons between studies and determine causes of performance variation. We investigated the manner in which test conditions are specified in FNAC DTA studies to determine which parameters are most commonly specified and the frequency with which they are specified and to see whether there is significant variability in reporting practice. We identified 17 frequently reported test parameters and found significant variation in the reporting of these test specifications across studies. On average, studies reported 5 of the 17 items that would be required to specify the test conditions completely. A more complete and standardized reporting of methods, perhaps by means of a checklist, would improve the interpretation of FNAC DTA studies.

  7. Trichomoniasis: a brief review of diagnostic methods and our experience with real-time PCR for detecting infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šoba, Barbara; Skvarč, Miha; Matičič, Mojca

    2015-01-01

    Trichomoniasis is the most common non-viral sexually transmitted infection, and it is caused by the protozoan flagellate Trichomonas vaginalis. Although highly prevalent in sexually active women, it has long been overlooked in other groups of potentially infected people. Recently, studies have shown that trichomoniasis increases the risk of infection with human immunodeficiency virus and can cause adverse outcomes of pregnancy, which has increased interest in T. vaginalis and increased the need for highly sensitive diagnostic tests. This article summarizes the diagnostic methods most commonly used in the diagnosis of trichomoniasis, including the most sensitive and specific nucleic acid amplification tests. It also presents the results of our study comparing the performance of wet mount microscopy and culture to real-time PCR for detecting the parasite.

  8. Beyond current guidelines: reduction in minimum administered radiopharmaceutical activity with preserved diagnostic image quality in pediatric hepatobiliary scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahey, Frederic; Markelewicz, Robert; Grant, Frederick; Drubach, Laura; Treves, S. Ted [Harvard Medical School, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Boston Children' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Harvard Medical School, Joint Program in Nuclear Medicine, Boston (United States); Zukotynski, Katherine [University of Toronto, Department of Medical Imaging, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto (Canada); Harvard Medical School, Joint Program in Nuclear Medicine, Boston (United States); Zurakowski, David [Boston Children' s Hospital, Departments of Anesthesia and Surgery, Boston (United States); Falone, Anthony; Vitello, Marie; Cao, Xinhua [Harvard Medical School, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Boston Children' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Vija, A.H.; Bhattacharya, Manojeet; Ding, Xinhong [Siemens Medical Solutions USA, Inc., Molecular Imaging, Malvern, PA (United States); Bar-Sever, Zvi [Schneider Children' s Medical Center, Petach Tikvah (Israel); Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv (Israel); Gelfand, Michael [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2014-12-15

    To determine if the minimum administered radiopharmaceutical activity for hepatobiliary scintigraphy can be reduced while preserving diagnostic image quality using enhanced planar processing (EPP). A total of 40 infants between 10 and 270 days old (body mass 2.2 - 6.5 kg) had hepatobiliary scintigraphy during the period 2004 - 2010 following the intravenous administration of either {sup 99m}Tc-mebrofenin (18 patients) or {sup 99m}Tc-disofenin (22 patients). Due to the small size of these patients, they all received the minimum administered activity of 18.5 MBq consistent with the North American Consensus Guidelines. Six nuclear medicine physicians subjectively graded the acceptability of the image quality for clinical interpretation using a four-point scale (not acceptable, fair, good, excellent). Each physician independently graded seven image sets including the original study (full activity) and simulated reduced activity studies using binomial subsampling (50 % of full activity, 25 % of full activity and activity reduced by weight), with and without EPP. For full-activity studies, 98 % were deemed acceptable by the six physicians for clinical interpretation. The percentages of acceptable 50 % reduced activity studies with and without EPP were not significantly different from the percentage of acceptable full-activity studies (P = 0.193 and P = 0.998, respectively). The percentage of acceptable 25 % reduced activity studies without EPP was significantly different from the percentage of acceptable full-activity studies (P < 0.001); however, this difference vanished when EPP was applied (P = 0.482). The activity reduced by weight ranged from 1.85 to 4.81 MBq (10 % to 26 % of full dose) and the percentages of acceptable studies with and without EPP were significantly different from the percentage of acceptable full-activity studies (P < 0.001 and P = 0.02, respectively). Clinically interpretable hepatobiliary scintigraphy images can be obtained in infants when the

  9. Therapy evaluation and diagnostic accuracy in neuroendocrine tumours: assessment of radiological methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elvin, A.

    1993-01-01

    The diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonically guided biopsy-gun biopsies was assessed in a group of 47 patients with suspected pancreatic carcinoma. A correct diagnosis was obtained in 44 of the 47 patients (94%). Twenty-five patients with known neuroendocrine tumour disease were biopsied with 1.2 mm and 0.9 mm biopsy-gun needles. The influence of treatment-related fibrosis was also evaluated. The overall diagnostic accuracy with the 0.9 mm needle was 69% as compared to 92% with the 1.2 mm needle. In order to assess the diagnostic accuracy rate for radiologists with different experience of biopsy procedures 175 cases of renal biopsy-gun biopsies were evaluated. No statistical significant difference was found between the different operators. The role of duplex Doppler ultrasound in monitoring interferon treatment-related changes in carcinoid metastases was evaluated. It present duplex Doppler ultrasound does not seem to play a role in the evaluation of tumour therapy in carcinoid patients. Therapy response evaluation was performed with MR imaging in a group of 17 patients with neuroendocrine liver metastases. A significant difference was found between patients responding to and patients with failure of treatment in terms of tumour T1, contrast enhancement and signal intensity ratio. This indicates that MR investigation may be used in therapy monitoring of patients with neuroendocrine metastases. The neuroendocrine-differentiated colonic carcinoma cell line (LCC-18) was transplanted to 29 mice to establish a tumour/animal model that would allow the monitoring of changes with MR imaging induced by interferon therapy and to evaluate whether the therapeutic response could be modulated by different interferon dosages. Interferon does not seem to have any prolonged anti-proliferative effect on the LCC-18 tumour cell line when transplanted to nude mice.

  10. Prenatal Radiation exposures at diagnostic procedures: methods to identify exposed pregnant patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, H.; Sandborg, M.; Nilsson, J.; Olsson, S.; Hellman, S. [Dept of Radiation Physics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linkoeping University, Linkoeping(Sweden); Helmrot, E. [Radiology Dept, County Hospital Ryhov, Joenkoeping (Sweden); Persliden, J. [Dept of Medical Physics, Oerebro Univ Hospital, Oerebro (Sweden); Cederlund, T. [Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-06-01

    Knowledge about frequency and doses to embryo/foetus from diagnostic radiology is of great importance both in the sense of estimating the radiation risks but also for optimizing the diagnostic procedures and making decisions regarding alternative procedures. In addition, the pregnant patient has a right to know the magnitude and type of radiation risks expected as a result of foetus exposure. From a risk perspective epidemiological data has shown that the embryo/foetus together with children experience higher radiation sensitivity in terms of induced leukemia and cancer compared to an adult population. Recent estimates give cancer excess lifetime mortality risks for whole body exposures of children and foetus (0-15 y age) of 0.06% up to 0.14% per 10 mSv. In addition to the risk of cancer induction effects of cell killing, e.g. CNS abnormalities, cataracts, malformations, growth retardation, may occur. However, these effects are believed to have a threshold, about 100-200 mGy, and such foetus doses are rarely reached in diagnostic radiology procedures. There are 2 principal situations where foetus exposures may occur in diagnostic radiology; The pregnancy of the patient is known at the time of examination, but due to the medical indications the examination can not be postponed or put forward in time, and there are no suitable alternative non-radiological procedures. The pregnancy of the patient is not known at the time of examination, either due to the fact that the patient is unaware of her pregnancy or the medical personnel failed to obtain this information. The former situation may occur during the first few weeks from conception, whereas the latter situation may cover a greater gestation period. The frequency of foetus exposure is not well documented. In Sweden, there are well-established routines to track down pregnant patients before examinations are being performed. However, there are no general obligations or routines to document the cases either (i) when

  11. ORF virus infection in children: clinical characteristics, transmission, diagnostic methods, and future therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, Edith R; Austin, Connie; Trevino, Ingrid; Reynolds, Mary G; Swanson, Holly; Cherry, Bryan; Ragsdale, Jennifer; Dunn, John; Meidl, Susan; Zhao, Hui; Li, Yu; Pue, Howard; Damon, Inger K

    2007-08-01

    Orf virus leads to self-limited, subacute cutaneous infections in children who have occupational or recreational contact with infected small ruminants. Breaches in the integument and contact with animals recently vaccinated for orf may be important risk factors in transmission. Common childhood behaviors are likely important factors in the provocation of significant contact (ie, bites) or in unusual lesion location (eg, facial lesions). Clinician recognition is important in distinguishing orf infection from life-threatening cutaneous zoonoses. Recently developed molecular techniques provide diagnostic precision and newer topical therapeutics may hasten healing.

  12. A multi-center comparison of diagnostic methods for the biochemical evaluation of suspected mitochondrial disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenburg, R J T; Schoonderwoerd, G C; Tiranti, V; Taylor, R W; Rötig, A; Valente, L; Invernizzi, F; Chretien, D; He, L; Backx, G P B M; Janssen, K J G M; Chinnery, P F; Smeets, H J; de Coo, I F; van den Heuvel, L P

    2013-01-01

    A multicenter comparison of mitochondrial respiratory chain and complex V enzyme activity tests was performed. The average reproducibility of the enzyme assays is 16% in human muscle samples. In a blinded diagnostic accuracy test in patient fibroblasts and SURF1 knock-out mouse muscle, each lab made the correct diagnosis except for two complex I results. We recommend that enzyme activities be evaluated based on ratios, e.g. with complex IV or citrate synthase activity. In spite of large variations in observed enzyme activities, we show that inter-laboratory comparison of patient sample test results is possible by using normalization against a control sample.

  13. A multi-center comparison of diagnostic methods for the biochemical evaluation of suspected mitochondrial disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenburg, R.J.T.; Schoonderwoerd, G.C.; Tiranti, V.; Taylor, R.W.; Rötig, A.; Valente, L.; Invernizzi, F.; Chretien, D.; He, L.; Backx, G.P.B.M.; Janssen, K.J.G.M.; Chinnery, P.F.; Smeets, H.J.; de Coo, I.F.; van den Heuvel, L.P.

    2013-01-01

    A multicenter comparison of mitochondrial respiratory chain and complex V enzyme activity tests was performed. The average reproducibility of the enzyme assays is 16% in human muscle samples. In a blinded diagnostic accuracy test in patient fibroblasts and SURF1 knock-out mouse muscle, each lab made the correct diagnosis except for two complex I results. We recommend that enzyme activities be evaluated based on ratios, e.g. with complex IV or citrate synthase activity. In spite of large variations in observed enzyme activities, we show that inter-laboratory comparison of patient sample test results is possible by using normalization against a control sample. PMID:23164799

  14. Implementation of inverse calculation method in diagnostics of digital electric substations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oganyan, R. G.; Narakidze, N. D.; Shaykhutdinov, D. V.; Gorbatenko, N. I.; Maksuta, S. O.

    2017-02-01

    Diagnostics of the equipment of a substation is an important element of effective work of the machine-building industry in view of the fact that engineering plants need continuous and high-quality power supply. The article presents the solution for the accelerated analysis of the complex technical system equipment condition by the example of a digital substation. It is based on Boolean algebra and logic-numerical polynomic models. This approach can be applied to state estimation of the power equipment and digital devices of the substation.

  15. Development of signal analysis method for the motional Stark effect diagnostic on EAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jia; Lyu, Bo; Liu, Haiqing; Li, Yingying; Liu, Dongmei; Wei, Yongqing; Fan, Chao; Shi, Yuejiang; Wu, Zhenwei; Wan, Baonian

    2017-10-01

    A pilot single-channel Motional Stark Effect (MSE) diagnostic has been developed on EAST since 2015. The dual photo-elastic modulators (PEM) were employed to encode the polarization angle into a time-varying signal. The pitch angle was related to the ratio of modulation amplitude at the second harmonic frequency. A digital harmonic analyzer (DHA) technique was developed for extracting the second harmonic amplitude. The results were validated with a hardware phase lock-in amplifier, and is also consistent with the software dual phase-locking algorithm.

  16. Evaluation of reference current extraction methods for DSP implementation in active power filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vardar, K.; Akpinar, E.; Suergevil, T. [Dokuz Eylul University, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Kaynaklar Kampusu, 35160 Buca, Izmir (Turkey)

    2009-10-15

    Generation of current references constitutes an important part in the control of active power filters (APFs) used in power system, since any inaccuracy in reference currents yields to incorrect compensation. In this paper, harmonic detection methods for generating reference currents have been evaluated on the basis of three-phase balanced and unbalanced load currents processed in the digital signal processor (DSP). The advantages and disadvantages of several methods found in the literature have been discussed on the basis of simulation results. Three of these methods have been programmed in the TMS320F2812 digital signal processor (DSP) unit and their performances are evaluated from the viewpoint of practical considerations. Finally, instantaneous reactive power method to estimate the APF reference currents is implemented and its practical results obtained under balanced and unbalanced loads are given. (author)

  17. Method for assessing the reliability of molecular diagnostics based on multiplexed SERS-coded nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Y Leigh

    Full Text Available Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS nanoparticles have been engineered to generate unique fingerprint spectra and are potentially useful as bright contrast agents for molecular diagnostics. One promising strategy for biomedical diagnostics and imaging is to functionalize various particle types ("flavors", each emitting a unique spectral signature, to target a large multiplexed panel of molecular biomarkers. While SERS particles emit narrow spectral features that allow them to be easily separable under ideal conditions, the presence of competing noise sources and background signals such as detector noise, laser background, and autofluorescence confounds the reliability of demultiplexing algorithms. Results obtained during time-constrained in vivo imaging experiments may not be reproducible or accurate. Therefore, our goal is to provide experimentalists with a metric that may be monitored to enforce a desired bound on accuracy within a user-defined confidence level. We have defined a spectral reliability index (SRI, based on the output of a direct classical least-squares (DCLS demultiplexing routine, which provides a measure of the reliability of the computed nanoparticle concentrations and ratios. We present simulations and experiments to demonstrate the feasibility of this strategy, which can potentially be utilized for a range of instruments and biomedical applications involving multiplexed SERS nanoparticles.

  18. The use of CA-IX as a diagnostic method for oral leukoplakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Sayáns, M; Suárez-Peñaranda, J M; Torres-López, M; Supuran, C T; Gándara-Vila, P; Gayoso-Diz, P; Barros-Angueira, F; Gallas-Torreira, M; García-García, A

    2015-02-01

    The presence and degree of dysplasia are important diagnostic and prognostic criteria for oral leukoplakia, but evaluation of dysplasia is difficult and subjective. Carbonic anhydrase-IX (CA-IX) is expressed primarily in tumor cells and is considered a specific hypoxia marker. We investigated the role of CA-IX in oral leukoplakia. We investigated 30 specimens of oral leukoplakia and 35 dysplasia specimens adjacent to the tumor margin. We analyzed clinical variables including age, sex, degree of dysplasia, and smoking, clinical appearance of leukoplakia, number of lesions, location, size, clinical monitoring, malignant transformation and recurrence. For the immunohistochemical study, we used a noncommercial monoclonal antibody against human CA-IX MAb M75. We found greater CA-IX positivity in nonsmokers, erythroplakia and mottled leukoplakia, those located on the tongue, patients with multiple lesions, 2-4 cm leukoplakias and in recurrent cases, although differences were not statistically significant. All lesions in all samples without dysplasia were negative for CA-IX; however, for all other categories of dysplasia, the percentages of positivity and negativity varied. Regarding the diagnostic index values, we found a sensitivity of 32%, specificity of 100%, a positive predictive value of 100% and a negative predictive value of 13%. Leukoplakias appear mainly in females and potentially are malignant; more than 90% have some degree of dysplasia, and therefore require close clinical and histopathological monitoring. The CA-IX immunohistochemical marker may be useful for screening samples without dysplasia owing to its high specificity.

  19. Uncertainty in Steady-State Diagnostics of a Current-Pressure Transducer: How Confident are We in Diagnosing Faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-02

    though the hyperparameters may have estimated previously. For details of this method, refer to (Rasmussen, 2004; Chiles & Delfiner , 1999). Once the...non-Gaussian Bayesian tracking. IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 50(2), 174–188. Chiles, J., & Delfiner , P. (1999). Geostatistics: modeling

  20. Prospective ECG-triggered coronary CT angiography: clinical value of noise-based tube current reduction method with iterative reconstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junlin Shen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the clinical value of noise-based tube current reduction method with iterative reconstruction for obtaining consistent image quality with dose optimization in prospective electrocardiogram (ECG-triggered coronary CT angiography (CCTA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a prospective randomized study evaluating 338 patients undergoing CCTA with prospective ECG-triggering. Patients were randomly assigned to fixed tube current with filtered back projection (Group 1, n = 113, noise-based tube current with filtered back projection (Group 2, n = 109 or with iterative reconstruction (Group 3, n = 116. Tube voltage was fixed at 120 kV. Qualitative image quality was rated on a 5-point scale (1 = impaired, to 5 = excellent, with 3-5 defined as diagnostic. Image noise and signal intensity were measured; signal-to-noise ratio was calculated; radiation dose parameters were recorded. Statistical analyses included one-way analysis of variance, chi-square test, Kruskal-Wallis test and multivariable linear regression. RESULTS: Image noise was maintained at the target value of 35HU with small interquartile range for Group 2 (35.00-35.03HU and Group 3 (34.99-35.02HU, while from 28.73 to 37.87HU for Group 1. All images in the three groups were acceptable for diagnosis. A relative 20% and 51% reduction in effective dose for Group 2 (2.9 mSv and Group 3 (1.8 mSv were achieved compared with Group 1 (3.7 mSv. After adjustment for scan characteristics, iterative reconstruction was associated with 26% reduction in effective dose. CONCLUSION: Noise-based tube current reduction method with iterative reconstruction maintains image noise precisely at the desired level and achieves consistent image quality. Meanwhile, effective dose can be reduced by more than 50%.