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Sample records for current depressive symptoms

  1. Maternal Depression and Youth Internalizing and Externalizing Symptomatology: Severity and Chronicity of Past Maternal Depression and Current Maternal Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Connor, Erin E.; Langer, David A.; Tompson, Martha C.

    2017-01-01

    Maternal depression is a well-documented risk factor for youth depression, and taking into account its severity and chronicity may provide important insight into the degree of risk conferred. This study explored the degree to which the severity/chronicity of maternal depression history explained variance in youth internalizing and externalizing symptoms above and beyond current maternal depressive symptoms among 171 youth (58% male) ages 8 to 12 over a span of three years. Severity and chronicity of past maternal depression and current maternal depressive symptoms were examined as predictors of parent-reported youth internalizing and externalizing symptomatology, as well as youth self-reported depressive symptoms. Severity and chronicity of past maternal depression did not account for additional variance in youth internalizing and externalizing symptoms at Time 1 beyond what was accounted for by maternal depressive symptoms at Time 1. Longitudinal growth curve modeling indicated that prior severity/chronicity of maternal depression predicted levels of youth internalizing and externalizing symptoms at each time point when controlling for current maternal depressive symptoms at each time point. Chronicity of maternal depression, apart from severity, also predicted rate of change in youth externalizing symptoms over time. These findings highlight the importance of screening and assessing for current maternal depressive symptoms, as well as the nature of past depressive episodes. Possible mechanisms underlying the association between severity/chronicity of maternal depression and youth outcomes, such as residual effects from depressive history on mother–child interactions, are discussed. PMID:27401880

  2. The depressive personality disorder inventory and current depressive symptoms: implications for the assessment of depressive personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Jude; Huprich, Steven K

    2011-10-01

    The Depressive Personality Disorder Inventory (DPDI; Huprich, Margrett, Barthelemy, & Fine, 1996; see Appendix) was created to assess Depressive Personality Disorder in clinical and nonclinical samples. Since its creation, the DPDI has been used in multiple studies, and the psychometric properties of the measure have generally supported its reliability, convergent validity, and construct validity; however, evidence for the measure's discriminant validity has been mixed. Specifically, the DPDI tends to correlate highly with measures of current depressive symptoms, which limits its efficacy in differentiating current depressive symptoms from a depressive personality structure. A principal components analysis of 362 individuals who completed both the DPDI and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II; Beck, Steer, & Brown, 1996) found that 49% of the variance was accounted for in two components. Seven items from the DPDI loaded more strongly on the first component composed of many BDI-II items. These items were removed in order to create a measure believed to assess DPD without the confounding influence of current depressive symptomology. Principal components analysis of the revised measure yielded three components, accounting for 46% of the variance. The revised DPDI was used to calculate convergent, discriminant, and construct validity coefficients from measures used in former studies. Virtually no improvement in the validity coefficients was observed. It is concluded that assessing DPD via self-report is limited in its utility.

  3. Lifetime anxiety disorder and current anxiety symptoms associated with hastened depressive recurrence in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Saloni; Kim, Jane P; Park, Dong Yeon; Kim, Hyun; Yuen, Laura D; Do, Dennis; Dell'Osso, Bernardo; Hooshmand, Farnaz; Miller, Shefali; Wang, Po W; Ketter, Terence A

    2017-09-01

    To assess differential relationships between lifetime anxiety disorder/current anxiety symptoms and longitudinal depressive severity in bipolar disorder (BD). Stanford BD Clinic outpatients enrolled during 2000-2011 were assessed with the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for BD (STEP-BD) Affective Disorders Evaluation and followed with the STEP-BD Clinical Monitoring Form while receiving naturalistic treatment for up to two years. Baseline unfavorable illness characteristics/current mood symptoms and times to depressive recurrence/recovery were compared in patients with versus without lifetime anxiety disorder/current anxiety symptoms. Among 105 currently recovered patients, lifetime anxiety disorder was significantly associated with 10/27 (37.0%) demographic/other unfavorable illness characteristics/current mood symptoms/current psychotropics, hastened depressive recurrence (driven by earlier onset age), and a significantly (> two-fold) higher Kaplan-Meier estimated depressive recurrence rate, whereas current anxiety symptoms were significantly associated with 10/27 (37.0%) demographic/other unfavorable illness characteristics/current mood symptoms/current psychotropics and hastened depressive recurrence (driven by lifetime anxiety disorder), but only a numerically higher Kaplan-Meier estimated depressive recurrence rate. In contrast, among 153 currently depressed patients, lifetime anxiety disorder/current anxiety symptoms were not significantly associated with time to depressive recovery or depressive recovery rate. American tertiary BD clinic referral sample, open naturalistic treatment. Research is needed regarding differential relationships between lifetime anxiety disorder and current anxiety symptoms and hastened/delayed depressive recurrence/recovery - specifically whether lifetime anxiety disorder versus current anxiety symptoms has marginally more robust association with hastened depressive recurrence, and whether both have marginally more robust

  4. Current maternal depression moderates the relation between critical expressed emotion in mothers and depressive symptoms in their adolescent daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellick, William; Kalpakci, Allison; Sharp, Carla

    2015-06-30

    Prior studies have examined critical expressed emotion (EE-Crit) in mothers in the intergenerational transmission of depression. However, the potential moderating effect of maternal depression diagnostic status in relation to EE-Crit and youth depressive symptoms has yet to be determined. A total of N=121 biological mother/daughter dyads that differed in maternal depression diagnostic status were recruited for the present study: (1) currently depressed mothers (current depression, n=29); (2) formerly depressed mothers (past depression, n=39); and (3) mothers free from any psychiatric history (healthy controls, n=53). Mothers were administered structured clinical interviews and completed self-report measures of EE-Crit and psychopathology, and daughters self-reported depressive symptoms. Results indicated no significant group differences in EE-Crit; however, current maternal depression status moderated EE-Crit such that the magnitude of the relation between EE-Crit and adolescent depressive symptoms was significantly greater in daughters of currently depressed mothers. These findings highlight the importance of considering current maternal depression, rather than a history of maternal depression, in relation to EE-Crit and adolescent depressive symptoms, providing impetus for future investigations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Understanding the impact of prior depression on stress generation: examining the roles of current depressive symptoms and interpersonal behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Josephine H; Eberhart, Nicole K

    2008-08-01

    Stress generation is a process in which individuals contribute to stressful life events. While research has supported an association between current depression and stress generation, it has been noted that individuals with prior depression tend to contribute to stressors even when they are no longer experiencing a depressive episode. The aim of the study is to elucidate the pathways through which prior major depression predicts interpersonal stress generation in women. Specifically, we examined current subsyndromal depressive symptoms and problematic interpersonal behaviours as potential mediators. Fifty-one college women were followed prospectively for 6 weeks. Participants were interviewed to assess current and past depression as well as stressful life events they experienced over the 6-week period. The findings suggest that prior major depression continues to have an impact even after the episode has ended, as the disorder continues to contribute to stress generation through residual depressive symptoms.

  6. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Current Depressive Symptoms among Staff of a Public University in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayodeji Akinwande Fasoro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Depression is an important global public health problem and one of the most common and serious mental disorders. It initiates with the presentation of symptoms before it progresses to a lifetime disorder. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of and factors associated with current depressive symptoms among university staff of a public university in Malaysia. Methodology: A cross-sectional study design was employed using a probability proportionate to size sampling method to select 683 academic and non-academic staff. A structured validated questionnaire was used for data collection. Results: The prevalence of current depressive symptoms was 14.9% (19.0% among males, 12.5% among females. Gender, age, marital status, monthly family income and self-esteem were significantly associated with current depressive symptoms (p<0.05. The logistic regression model showed that male gender (AOR = 2.04; 95%CI 1.29, 3.20 and younger age (AOR = 2.79; 95%CI 1.16, 6.76 were predictors of current depressive symptoms. Conclusion: The prevalence of current depressive symptoms was 14.9% (19.0% among males, 12.5% among females among university staff. A mental health promotion intervention is needed to prevent the threat depression poses on the health of the university staff.

  7. Gender Differences in Somatic Symptoms and Current Suicidal Risk in Outpatients with Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hong Jin; Woo, Jong-Min; Kim, Hyo-Jin; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Cho, Seong Jin; Chang, Sung Man; Park, Doo-Heum; Kim, Jong Woo; Yoo, Ikki; Heo, Jung-Yoon; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2016-11-01

    Although somatic symptoms are common complaints of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), their associations with suicide are still unclear. A total of 811 MDD outpatients of aged between 18 to 64 years were enrolled nationwide in Korea with the suicidality module of the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and the Depression and Somatic Symptom Scale (DSSS). On stepwise regression analysis, current suicidality scores were most strongly associated with chest pain in men, and neck or shoulder pain in women. Severe chest pain was associated with higher current suicidality scores in men than in women, whereas severe neck or shoulder pain showed no significant differences between the genders. In conclusion, MDD patients of both sexes with suicidal ideation showed significantly more frequent and severe somatic symptoms than those without. Current suicidal risk was associated with chest pain in men, and neck or shoulder pain in women. We suggest that clinicians pay attention to patients' somatic symptoms in real world practice.

  8. Prevalence and correlates of DSM-IV-TR major depressive disorder, self-reported diagnosed depression and current depressive symptoms among adults in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maske, Ulrike E; Buttery, Amanda K; Beesdo-Baum, Katja; Riedel-Heller, Steffi; Hapke, Ulfert; Busch, Markus A

    2016-01-15

    While standardized diagnostic interviews using established criteria are the gold standard for assessing depression, less time consuming measures of depression and depressive symptoms are commonly used in large population health surveys. We examine the prevalence and health-related correlates of three depression measures among adults aged 18-79 years in Germany. Using cross-sectional data from the national German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1) (n=7987) and its mental health module (DEGS1-MH) (n=4483), we analysed prevalence and socio-demographic and health-related correlates of (a) major depressive disorder (MDD) established by Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) using DSM-IV-TR criteria (CIDI-MDD) in the last 12 months, (b) self-reported physician or psychotherapist diagnosed depression in the last 12 months, and (c) current depressive symptoms in the last two weeks (PHQ-9, score ≥10). Prevalence of 12-month CIDI-MDD was 4.2% in men and 9.9% in women. Prevalence of 12-month self-reported health professional-diagnosed depression was 3.8% and 8.1% and of current depressive symptoms 6.1% and 10.2% in men and women, respectively. Case-overlap between measures was only moderate (32-45%). In adjusted multivariable analyses, depression according to all three measures was associated with lower self-rated health, lower physical and social functioning, higher somatic comorbidity (except for women with 12-month CIDI-MDD), more sick leave and higher health service utilization. Persons with severe depression may be underrepresented. Associations between CIDI-MDD and correlates and overlap with other measures may be underestimated due to time lag between DEGS1 and DEGS1-MH. Prevalence and identified cases varied between these three depression measures, but all measures were consistently associated with a wide range of adverse health outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Adverse childhood events and current depressive symptoms among women in Hawaii: 2010 BRFSS, Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remigio-Baker, Rosemay A; Hayes, Donald K; Reyes-Salvail, Florentina

    2014-12-01

    Research on the association between adverse childhood events (ACEs) and depression among women in Hawaii is scarce. ACEs have been linked to unfavorable health behaviors such as smoking and binge drinking which are more prevalent in the state compared to the US overall. The concomitant presence of ACEs with smoking or binge drinking may explain the excess depression prevalence in Hawaii compared to the national average. Using data of women residing in the state (2010 Hawaii Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey), we examined the association between ACEs count or type (household dysfunction and physical, verbal and sexual abuse) and current depressive symptoms (CDS), in addition to modification by current smoking status (smoked >100 cigarettes in a lifetime and currently smoke) and binge drinking (consumed ≥4 alcoholic beverage within the past month and in ≥1 occasion(s)). Evaluation of ACEs before age 18 consisted of 11 indicators. Eight indicators of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-8) were used to assess CDS. All analyses utilized logistic regression taking into account sampling design. The odds ratio of having CDS between those with versus without ACEs increased per increasing number of ACEs (1 ACE: OR = 2.11, CI = 1.16-3.81; 2 ACEs: OR = 2.90, CI = 1.51-5.58; 3 or 4 ACEs: OR = 3.94, CI = 2.13-7.32; 5+ ACEs: OR = 4.04, CI = 2.26-7.22). Household dysfunction (OR = 2.10, CI = 1.37-3.23), physical abuse (OR = 1.67, CI = 1.08-2.59), verbal abuse (OR = 3.21, CI = 2.03-5.09) and sexual abuse (OR = 1.68, CI = 1.04-2.71) were all positively associated with CDS. Verbal abuse had the strongest magnitude of association. Neither current smoking status nor binge drinking modified the relationship between ACEs count (or type) and CDS. In conclusion, the presence of ACEs among women in Hawaii was indicative of CDS in adulthood, notably verbal abuse. Further, a dose response existed between the number of ACEs and the odds for CDS. The concomitant exposure

  10. Predicting depressive symptoms in unemployed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Zorica

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we review recent research literature focused on relationship between unemployment and depression, and theories emphasizing the mechanisms by which unemployment may contribute to increased levels of depression. Our research investigated depressive symptomatology and its predictors among unemployed people (N = 453 varying in length of unemployment. Results showed that self - mastery, self - esteem, financial strain, gender, intensity of job - seek behavior and length on unemployment were significant predictors of depressive symptoms. Results are discussed in light of current theories of unemployment and mental health and recommendations are made for practice.

  11. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... few days. It is a serious illness that affects many people. Symptoms can vary, but many depressed ... suffer from depression trying to learn why it affects some people but not others. Treatments for depression ...

  12. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... 3 items) Institute Announcements (24 items) Symptoms and Treatment of Depression February 1, 2010 People with depression ... why it affects some people but not others. Treatments for depression do work. One type of effective ...

  13. Prevalence, Recurrence, and Incidence of Current Depressive Symptoms among People Living with HIV in Ontario, Canada: Results from the Ontario HIV Treatment Network Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Stephanie K. Y.; Boyle, Eleanor; Cairney, John; Collins, Evan J.; Gardner, Sandra; Bacon, Jean; Rourke, Sean B.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Current studies of depression among people living with HIV focus on describing its point prevalence. Given the fluctuating nature of depression and its profound impacts on clinical and quality-of-life outcomes, this study aimed to examine the prevalence, recurrence and incidence of current depressive symptoms and its underlying catalysts longitudinally and systematically among these individuals. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study between October 1, 2007 and December 31, 2012 using longitudinal linked data sources. Current depressive symptoms was identified using the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale or the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, first at baseline and again during follow-up interviews. Multivariable regressions were used to characterize the three outcomes. Results Of the 3,816 HIV-positive participants, the point prevalence of depressive symptoms was estimated at 28%. Of the 957 participants who were identified with depressive symptoms at baseline and who had at least two years of follow-up, 43% had a recurrent episode. The cumulative incidence among 1,745 previously depressive symptoms free participants (at or prior to baseline) was 14%. During the five-year follow-up, our multivariable models showed that participants with greater risk of recurrent cases were more likely to feel worried about their housing situation. Participants at risk of developing incident cases were also likely to be younger, gay or bisexual, and unable to afford housing-related expenses. Conclusions Depressive symptoms are prevalent and likely to recur among people living with HIV. Our results support the direction of Ontario’s HIV/AIDS Strategy to 2026, which addresses medical concerns associated with HIV (such as depression) and the social drivers of health in order to enhance the overall well-being of people living with or at risk of HIV. Our findings reinforce the importance of providing effective mental health care and

  14. Prevalence, Recurrence, and Incidence of Current Depressive Symptoms among People Living with HIV in Ontario, Canada: Results from the Ontario HIV Treatment Network Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Stephanie K Y; Boyle, Eleanor; Cairney, John; Collins, Evan J; Gardner, Sandra; Bacon, Jean; Rourke, Sean B

    2016-01-01

    Current studies of depression among people living with HIV focus on describing its point prevalence. Given the fluctuating nature of depression and its profound impacts on clinical and quality-of-life outcomes, this study aimed to examine the prevalence, recurrence and incidence of current depressive symptoms and its underlying catalysts longitudinally and systematically among these individuals. We conducted a prospective cohort study between October 1, 2007 and December 31, 2012 using longitudinal linked data sources. Current depressive symptoms was identified using the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale or the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, first at baseline and again during follow-up interviews. Multivariable regressions were used to characterize the three outcomes. Of the 3,816 HIV-positive participants, the point prevalence of depressive symptoms was estimated at 28%. Of the 957 participants who were identified with depressive symptoms at baseline and who had at least two years of follow-up, 43% had a recurrent episode. The cumulative incidence among 1,745 previously depressive symptoms free participants (at or prior to baseline) was 14%. During the five-year follow-up, our multivariable models showed that participants with greater risk of recurrent cases were more likely to feel worried about their housing situation. Participants at risk of developing incident cases were also likely to be younger, gay or bisexual, and unable to afford housing-related expenses. Depressive symptoms are prevalent and likely to recur among people living with HIV. Our results support the direction of Ontario's HIV/AIDS Strategy to 2026, which addresses medical concerns associated with HIV (such as depression) and the social drivers of health in order to enhance the overall well-being of people living with or at risk of HIV. Our findings reinforce the importance of providing effective mental health care and demonstrate the need for long-term support and

  15. Prevalence, Recurrence, and Incidence of Current Depressive Symptoms among People Living with HIV in Ontario, Canada: Results from the Ontario HIV Treatment Network Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie K Y Choi

    Full Text Available Current studies of depression among people living with HIV focus on describing its point prevalence. Given the fluctuating nature of depression and its profound impacts on clinical and quality-of-life outcomes, this study aimed to examine the prevalence, recurrence and incidence of current depressive symptoms and its underlying catalysts longitudinally and systematically among these individuals.We conducted a prospective cohort study between October 1, 2007 and December 31, 2012 using longitudinal linked data sources. Current depressive symptoms was identified using the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale or the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, first at baseline and again during follow-up interviews. Multivariable regressions were used to characterize the three outcomes.Of the 3,816 HIV-positive participants, the point prevalence of depressive symptoms was estimated at 28%. Of the 957 participants who were identified with depressive symptoms at baseline and who had at least two years of follow-up, 43% had a recurrent episode. The cumulative incidence among 1,745 previously depressive symptoms free participants (at or prior to baseline was 14%. During the five-year follow-up, our multivariable models showed that participants with greater risk of recurrent cases were more likely to feel worried about their housing situation. Participants at risk of developing incident cases were also likely to be younger, gay or bisexual, and unable to afford housing-related expenses.Depressive symptoms are prevalent and likely to recur among people living with HIV. Our results support the direction of Ontario's HIV/AIDS Strategy to 2026, which addresses medical concerns associated with HIV (such as depression and the social drivers of health in order to enhance the overall well-being of people living with or at risk of HIV. Our findings reinforce the importance of providing effective mental health care and demonstrate the need for long

  16. Dynamic Associations between Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Adolescents' Depressive and Externalizing Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Garber, Judy

    2010-01-01

    The current prospective study investigated transactional relations between maternal depressive symptoms and children's depressive and externalizing symptoms. Participants included 240 children (M age = 11.86 years, SD = 0.56; 53.9% female) and their mothers who were part of a 6-year longitudinal study. Measures of maternal depression (Beck…

  17. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... Information Health Information Home Mental Health Information Statistics Consumer Health Publications Help for Mental Illnesses Clinical Trials ... Symptoms and Treatment of Depression February 1, 2010 People with depression discuss how they got help. & ...

  18. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... Symptoms and Treatment of Depression February 1, 2010 People with depression discuss how they got help. & ... I felt like I was such an awful person that there was no real reason for me ...

  19. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... a serious illness that affects many people. Symptoms can vary, but many depressed people lose interest in ... lot of weight. NARRATOR : A person with depression can feel irritable and restless, and have sleep problems. ...

  20. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... items) Training (1 item) Other Treatments (15 items) Alzheimer’s Disease (2 items) Coping with Traumatic Events (3 items) Institute Announcements (24 items) Symptoms and Treatment of Depression February 1, 2010 People with depression discuss how ...

  1. Prevalence, Recurrence, and Incidence of Current Depressive Symptoms among People Living with HIV in Ontario, Canada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Stephanie K Y; Boyle, E.; Cairney, John

    2016-01-01

    ) was 14%. During the five-year follow-up, our multivariable models showed that participants with greater risk of recurrent cases were more likely to feel worried about their housing situation. Participants at risk of developing incident cases were also likely to be younger, gay or bisexual, and unable...... of health in order to enhance the overall well-being of people living with or at risk of HIV. Our findings reinforce the importance of providing effective mental health care and demonstrate the need for long-term support and routine management of depression, particularly for individuals at high risk. © 2016...

  2. Prevalence and factors associated with depressive symptoms in Malay women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Din, Meriam Omar; Noor, Noraini M

    2009-12-01

    Due to a dearth of research on depressive symptoms in Malaysia, particularly in Malay women, a community study was conducted to examine the prevalence and factors associated with current depressive symptoms in rural and urban Malay women with low socioeconomic status. Four hundred eighty-seven women (N rural = 242, N urban = 245) were interviewed. Information on socio-demographic variables, potential risk factors (family history of mental health problems, lifetime major depressive symptoms, and current life stressors), and current depressive symptoms (measured by the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, CES-D) was collected. The prevalence of current depressive symptoms (CES-D scores > or = 16) reported was 34.5%, while the prevalence of lifetime major depressive symptoms was 27.5%. A significantly higher rate of current depressive symptoms was observed in urban women compared to rural women, chi(2) (1, N = 487) = 3.99, p depressive symptoms. The results of the multiple hierarchical regression analysis indicated that three potential factors (family history of mental health problems, lifetime major depressive symptoms, and current life stressors) were positively associated with current depressive symptoms, accounting for 17.8% of the variance, over and above the socio-demographic variables. The prevalence of depressive symptoms reported in the study was comparable to past studies. Among the factors associated with current depressive symptoms, the single most important was lifetime major depressive symptoms, followed by current life stressors, and family history of mental health problems. Among the socio-demographic variables used, perceived health status was the most important. The factors associated with depressive symptoms found in this study are consistent with past findings in the West, implying the universality of the phenomenon and common factors related to depressive symptoms in women.

  3. Maternal Depressive Symptoms following Autism Spectrum Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Julie Lounds; Warren, Zachary E.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined depressive symptoms, concerning the week following autism spectrum diagnosis and an average of 1.4 years later, in mothers (n = 75) of young children diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Over three-quarters of mothers (78.7%) provided retrospective reports of clinically significant depressive symptoms…

  4. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... give up. Read more about depression on this Web page. If the symptoms fit, get help now. ... Contact Us U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health USA.gov The National ...

  5. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... for Mental Illnesses Clinical Trials Outreach Outreach Home Stakeholder Engagement Outreach Partnership Program Alliance for Research Progress ... Symptoms can vary, but many depressed people lose interest in activities they normally enjoyed, have feelings of ...

  6. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... give up. Read more about depression on this Web page. If the symptoms fit, get help now. Share ... Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tool Expenditures and Results Recommendations for Reporting on Suicide ...

  7. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... a minute really to do anything that took deep concentration. I tried a journal and I tried ... give up. Read more about depression on this Web page. If the symptoms fit, get help now. ...

  8. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... to recovery. Depression treatment can take time to work, so don't give up. Read more about depression on this Web page. If the symptoms fit, get help ... Mental Health Information Summaries of Scientific Meetings Information about NIMH ...

  9. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... few days. It is a serious illness that affects many people. Symptoms can vary, but many depressed people lose interest in ... I did have depression. NARRATOR : Medications called antidepressants can ... to figuring out exactly how these medications work, who benefits from them the ...

  10. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... to recovery. Depression treatment can take time to work, so don't give up. Read more about depression on this Web page. If the symptoms fit, get help now. ... of Scientific Meetings Information about NIMH RePORTER : Research Portfolio Online ...

  11. Individualized Treatment for Tobacco Dependence in Addictions Treatment Settings: The Role of Current Depressive Symptoms on Outcomes at 3 and 6 Months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawertailo, Laurie A; Baliunas, Dolly; Ivanova, Anna; Selby, Peter L

    2015-08-01

    Individuals with concurrent tobacco dependence and other addictions often report symptoms of low mood and depression and as such may have more difficulty quitting smoking. We hypothesized that current symptoms of depression would be a significant predictor of quit success among a group of smokers receiving individualized treatment for tobacco dependence within addiction treatment settings. Individuals in treatment for other addictions were enrolled in a smoking cessation program involving brief behavioral counseling and individualized dosing of nicotine replacement therapy. The baseline assessment included the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ9) for depression. Smoking cessation outcomes were measured at 3 and 6 months post-enrollment. Bivariate associations between cessation outcomes and PHQ9 score were analyzed. Of the 1,196 subjects enrolled to date, 1,171 (98%) completed the PHQ9. Moderate to severe depression (score >9) was reported by 28% of the sample, and another 29% reported mild depression (score between 5 and 9). Contrary to the extant literature and other findings by our own group, there was no association between current depression and cessation outcome at either 3 months (n = 1,171) (17.0% in those with PHQ9 > 9 vs. 19.8% in those with PHQ9 addictions treatment setting. These data indicate that patients in an addictions treatment setting can successfully quit smoking regardless of current depressive symptoms. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Relationship of neurotransmitters to the symptoms of major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, David J

    2008-01-01

    A relationship appears to exist between the 3 main monoamine neurotransmitters in the brain (i.e., dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin) and specific symptoms of major depressive disorder. Specific symptoms are associated with the increase or decrease of specific neurotransmitters, which suggests that specific symptoms of depression could be assigned to specific neurochemical mechanisms, and subsequently specific antidepressant drugs could target symptom-specific neurotransmitters. Research on electroconvulsive therapy has supported a correlation between neurotransmitters and depression symptoms. A 2-dimensional model of neurotransmitter functions is discussed that describes depression as a mixture of 2 separate components--negative affect and the loss of positive affect--that can be considered in relation to the 3 amine neurotransmitters. Owing to the different methods of action of available antidepressant agents and the depression symptoms thought to be associated with dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine, current treatments can be targeted toward patients' specific symptoms.

  13. Sleep disorders as core symptoms of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, David; Wilson, Sue; Paterson, Louise

    2008-01-01

    Links between sleep and depression are strong. About three quarters of depressed patients have insomnia symptoms, and hypersomnia is present in about 40% of young depressed adults and 10% of older patients, with a preponderance in females. The symptoms cause huge distress, have a major impact on quality of life, and are a strong risk factor for suicide. As well as the subjective experience of sleep symptoms, there are well-documented changes in objective sleep architecture in depression. Mechanisms of sleep regulation and how they might be disturbed in depression are discussed. The sleep symptoms are often unresolved by treatment, and confer a greater risk of relapse and recurrence. Epidemiological studies have pointed out that insomnia in nondepressed subjects is a risk factor for later development of depression. There is therefore a need for more successful management of sleep disturbance in depression, in order to improve quality of life in these patients and reduce an important factor in depressive relapse and recurrence.

  14. [Family functioning of elderly with depressive symptoms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Rosely Almeida; Desani da Costa, Gislaine; Yamashita, Cintia Hitomi; Amendola, Fernanda; Gaspar, Jaqueline Correa; Alvarenga, Márcia Regina Martins; Faccenda, Odival; Oliveira, Maria Amélia de Campos

    2014-06-01

    To classify families of elderly with depressive symptoms regarding their functioning and to ascertain the presence of an association between these symptoms, family functioning and the characteristics of the elderly. This was an observational, analytical, cross-sectional study performed with 33 teams of the Family Health Strategy in Dourados, MS. The sample consisted of 374 elderly divided into two groups (with and without depressive symptoms). The instruments for data collection were a sociodemographic instrument, the GeriatricDepression Scale (15 items) and the Family Apgar. An association was observed between depressive symptoms and family dysfunction, female gender, four or more people living together, and physical inactivity. The functional family may represent effective support for the elderly with depressive symptoms, because it offers a comfortable environment that ensures the well-being of its members. The dysfunctional family can barely provide necessary care for the elderly, which can exacerbate depressive symptoms.

  15. Gene-environment interplay in depressive symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petkus, A. J.; Beam, C. R.; Johnson, W.

    2017-01-01

    that genetic factors play a larger part in the association between depressive symptoms and physical illness for men than for women. For both sexes, across all ages, physical illness may similarly trigger social and health limitations that contribute to depressive symptoms.......Background Numerous factors influence late-life depressive symptoms in adults, many not thoroughly characterized. We addressed whether genetic and environmental influences on depressive symptoms differed by age, sex, and physical illness. Method The analysis sample included 24 436 twins aged 40......-90 years drawn from the Interplay of Genes and Environment across Multiple Studies (IGEMS) Consortium. Biometric analyses tested age, sex, and physical illness moderation of genetic and environmental variance in depressive symptoms. Results Women reported greater depressive symptoms than men. After age 60...

  16. Family functioning of elderly with depressive symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosely Almeida Souza

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To classify families of elderly with depressive symptoms regarding their functioning and to ascertain the presence of an association between these symptoms, family functioning and the characteristics of the elderly. Method: This was an observational, analytical, cross-sectional study performed with 33 teams of the Family Health Strategy in Dourados, MS. The sample consisted of 374 elderly divided into two groups (with and without depressive symptoms. The instruments for data collection were a sociodemographic instrument, the GeriatricDepression Scale (15 items and the Family Apgar. Results: An association was observed between depressive symptoms and family dysfunction, female gender, four or more people living together, and physical inactivity. Conclusion: The functional family may represent effective support for the elderly with depressive symptoms, because it offers a comfortable environment that ensures the well-being of its members. The dysfunctional family can barely provide necessary care for the elderly, which can exacerbate depressive symptoms.

  17. The therapeutic or prophylactic effect of exogenous melatonin against depression and depressive symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voigt Hansen, Melissa; Danielsen, A K; Hageman, I

    2014-01-01

    Circadian- and sleep disturbances may be central for understanding the pathophysiology and treatment of depression. The effect of melatonin on depression/depressive symptoms has been investigated previously. This systematic review assesses the current evidence of a therapeutic- and prophylactic e...

  18. Depressive symptoms in first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sönmez, Nasrettin; Røssberg, Jan Ivar; Evensen, Julie

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: The present study examined if any patient characteristics at baseline predicted depressive symptoms at 10 years and whether patients prone to depressive symptoms in the first year of treatment had a different prognosis in the following years. METHOD: A total of 299 first-episode psychosis...

  19. Associations between depressive symptoms and insulin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriaanse, M C; Dekker, J M; Nijpels, G

    2006-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The association between depression and insulin resistance has been investigated in only a few studies, with contradictory results reported. The aim of this study was to determine whether the association between symptoms of depression and insulin resistance varies across glucose...... established type 2 diabetes mellitus. Main outcome measures were insulin resistance defined by the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and symptoms of depression using the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). RESULTS: In the total sample, we found a weak.......942). The association between depressive symptoms and insulin resistance was similar for men and women. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: We found only weak associations between depressive symptoms and insulin resistance, which did not differ among different glucose metabolism subgroups or between men and women....

  20. Different patterns of depressive symptoms during pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truijens, S.E.M.; Spek, V.R.M.; van Son, M.J.M.; Oei, S.G.; Pop, V.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Recently, the US Preventive Services Task Force has advocated to screen pregnant and postpartum women for depression. However, we questioned the meaning of a single elevated depression score: does it represent just one episode of depression or do these symptoms persist throughout the entire

  1. Stress sensitivity interacts with depression history to predict depressive symptoms among youth: Prospective changes following first depression onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technow, Jessica R.; Hazel, Nicholas A.; Abela, John R. Z.; Hankin, Benjamin L.

    2015-01-01

    Predictors of depressive symptoms may differ before and after the first onset of major depression due to stress sensitization. Dependent stressors, or those to which characteristics of individuals contribute, have been shown to predict depressive symptoms in youth. The current study sought to clarify how stressors’ roles may differ before and after the first depressive episode. Adolescents (N = 382, aged 11 to 15 at baseline) were assessed at baseline and every three months over the course of two years with measures of stressors and depressive symptoms. Semi-structured interviews were conducted every 6 months to assess for clinically significant depressive episodes. Hierarchical linear modeling showed a significant interaction between history of depression and idiographic fluctuations in dependent stressors to predict prospective elevations of symptoms, such that dependent stressors were more predictive of depressive symptoms after onset of disorder. Independent stressors predicted symptoms, but the strength of the association did not vary by depression history. These results suggest a synthesis of stress sensitization and generation processes that might maintain inter-episode depressive symptoms among youth with a history of clinical depression. PMID:25123081

  2. Stress sensitivity interacts with depression history to predict depressive symptoms among youth: prospective changes following first depression onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technow, Jessica R; Hazel, Nicholas A; Abela, John R Z; Hankin, Benjamin L

    2015-04-01

    Predictors of depressive symptoms may differ before and after the first onset of major depression due to stress sensitization. Dependent stressors, or those to which characteristics of individuals contribute, have been shown to predict depressive symptoms in youth. The current study sought to clarify how stressors' roles may differ before and after the first depressive episode. Adolescents (N = 382, aged 11 to 15 at baseline) were assessed at baseline and every 3 months over the course of 2 years with measures of stressors and depressive symptoms. Semi-structured interviews were conducted every 6 months to assess for clinically significant depressive episodes. Hierarchical linear modeling showed a significant interaction between history of depression and idiographic fluctuations in dependent stressors to predict prospective elevations of symptoms, such that dependent stressors were more predictive of depressive symptoms after onset of disorder. Independent stressors predicted symptoms, but the strength of the association did not vary by depression history. These results suggest a synthesis of dependent stress and stress sensitization processes that might maintain inter-episode depressive symptoms among youth with a history of clinical depression.

  3. Adolescent attachment, family functioning and depressive symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishola Rawatlal

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Adolescence represents a challenging transitional period where changes in biological, emotional, cognitive and social domains can increase the risk of developing internalised problems including subthreshold depression. Adolescent-parent attachment style, perceived support and family functioning may increase risk for depressive symptoms or may reduce such risk. Adolescent-parent attachment, adolescent-perceived support from parents and family functioning were examined as correlates of depressive symptom presentation within this age group. Methods. Participants included a maternal parent and an adolescent (65.5% female from each family. Adolescents were in Grade 7 (n=175 or Grade 10 (n=31. Data were collected through home interviews. The Self-Report of Family Inventory (SFI, Experiences of Close Relationships Scale (ECR, Network of Relationships Inventory (NRI, Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI and Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL were used to assess depression, parental support and attachment.  Results. Two models were examined: one with adolescent report of depressive symptoms as the outcome and a second with parent report of adolescent internalising symptoms as the outcome. The model predicting adolescent-reported depressive symptoms was significant with older age, higher levels of avoidant attachment, and higher levels of youth-reported dysfunctional family interaction associated with more depressive symptomatology. In the model predicting parent report of adolescent internalising symptoms only higher levels of dysfunctional family interaction, as reported by the parent, were associated with higher levels of internalising symptoms. Conclusion. Positive family communication, cohesion and support predictive of a secure parent-adolescent attachment relationship reduced the risk of a depressive symptom outcome. Secure adolescents were able to regulate their emotions, knowing that they could seek out secure base attachment relations

  4. Comparison of depression symptoms between primary depression and secondary-to-schizophrenia depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Twana; Rashid, Roshe

    2017-11-01

    This study exclusively aimed to clinically assess which symptom pattern discriminates primary depression from depression-secondary to-schizophrenia. A total of 98 patients with primary depression and 71 patients with secondary-to-schizophrenia depression were assessed for identifying the clinical phenomena of depression. Diagnosis of schizophrenia was confirmed by Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Each participant was, however, assessed by Patient Health Questionnaire-9 as well as Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS) for possible concurrent depressive symptoms. Depressed mood, loss of interest, reduced energy and pathological guilt were more common in primary depression, whereas sleep disturbance and guilty ideas of reference were more amounting towards the diagnosis of depression secondary-to-schizophrenia. It is clinically hard to differentiate primary from secondary-to-schizophrenia depression, especially in the absence of obvious psychotic symptoms. However, the classical symptoms of depression like subjective depressed mood, anhedonia, reduced energy and pathological guilt are more prominent in the primary depression.

  5. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post-Traumatic Stress ... Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post-Traumatic Stress ...

  6. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... reason for me to do anything for myself. NARRATOR : Depression is more than just a feeling of ... at all. I gained a lot of weight. NARRATOR : A person with depression can feel irritable and ...

  7. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (3 items) Autism (13 items) Bipolar Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression ( ... Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (3 items) Autism (13 items) Bipolar Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression ( ...

  8. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... Autism (13 items) Bipolar Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 ... Autism (13 items) Bipolar Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 ...

  9. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... suffer from depression trying to learn why it affects some people but not others. Treatments for depression do work. One type of effective psychotherapy is called cognitive ...

  10. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... for depression do work. One type of effective psychotherapy is called cognitive behavioral therapy or CBT. CBT ... For many people, a combination of medication and psychotherapy may be the best choice. Depression can be ...

  11. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... Autism (13 items) Bipolar Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders ( ... Autism (13 items) Bipolar Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders ( ...

  12. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post- ... Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post- ...

  13. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... News & Events Science News Meetings and Events Multimedia Social Media Press ... Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder ( ...

  14. depressive and post- traumatic stress disorder symptoms

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    alcohol disorder can both serve to initiate the other. ... (unlike that previously identified), and a J-shaped association between binge drinking frequency and depressive symptoms and ..... O'Donnell K, Wardle J, Dantzer C, Steptoe A. Alcohol.

  15. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post-Traumatic ... Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post-Traumatic ...

  16. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (7 items) Schizophrenia (3 items) Social Phobia ( ... Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (7 items) Schizophrenia (3 items) Social Phobia ( ...

  17. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... items) Autism (13 items) Bipolar Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 ... items) Autism (13 items) Bipolar Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 ...

  18. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post-Traumatic ... Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post-Traumatic ...

  19. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... alone. NARRATOR : If you have depression, telling friends, family, or someone you trust, and finding a doctor or therapist are the first steps on the road to recovery. Depression treatment can take time to work, so don't give up. Read more about ...

  20. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... why. Scientists at the National Institute of Mental Health are studying brain images of people who suffer from depression trying to learn why it affects some people but not others. Treatments for depression do work. One type of effective psychotherapy is called cognitive ...

  1. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... depression do work. One type of effective psychotherapy is called cognitive behavioral therapy or CBT. CBT can help you change ways of thinking and behaving that may be damaging or contribute to depression. RODOLFO : I had one really good therapist and through her I think I started ...

  2. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... Funded Science on EurekAlert EEG signals accurately predict autism as early as 3 months of age Researchers identify 44 genomic variants associated with depression Brain activity can predict success of depression treatment More News From the Field... Contact Us The ...

  3. Beta blocker therapy is associated with reduced depressive symptoms 12 months post percutaneous coronary intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battes, Linda C; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Oemrawsingh, Rohit M

    2012-01-01

    Beta blocker therapy may induce depressive symptoms, although current evidence is conflicting. We examined the association between beta blocker therapy and depressive symptoms in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) patients and the extent to which there is a dose-response relationship between...... beta blocker dose and depressive symptoms....

  4. Depressive symptoms in institutionalized older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Maria Santiago

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of depressive symptoms among institutionalized elderly individuals and to analyze factors associated with this condition. METHODS This was a cross-sectional study involving 462 individuals aged 60 or older, residents in long stay institutions in four Brazilian municipalities. The dependent variable was assessed using the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale. Poisson’s regression was used to evaluate associations with co-variables. We investigated which variables were most relevant in terms of presence of depressive symptoms within the studied context through factor analysis. RESULTS Prevalence of depressive symptoms was 48.7%. The variables associated with depressive symptoms were: regular/bad/very bad self-rated health; comorbidities; hospitalizations; and lack of friends in the institution. Five components accounted for 49.2% of total variance of the sample: functioning, social support, sensory deficiency, institutionalization and health conditions. In the factor analysis, functionality and social support were the components which explained a large part of observed variance. CONCLUSIONS A high prevalence of depressive symptoms, with significant variation in distribution, was observed. Such results emphasize the importance of health conditions and functioning for institutionalized older individuals developing depression. They also point to the importance of providing opportunities for interaction among institutionalized individuals.

  5. Current interruption by density depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, J.S.; Tajima, T.; Akasofu, S.I.

    1985-04-01

    Using a one-dimensional electrostatic particle code, we examine processes associated with current interruption in a collisionless plasma when a density depression is present along the current channel. Current interruption due to double layers was suggested by Alfven and Carlqvist (1967) as a cause of solar flares. At a local density depression, plasma instabilities caused by an electron current flow are accentuated, leading to current disruption. Our simulation study encompasses a wide range of the parameters in such a way that under appropriate conditions, both the Alfven and Carlqvist (1967) regime and the Smith and Priest (1972) regime take place. In the latter regime the density depression decays into a stationary structure (''ion-acoustic layer'') which spawns a series of ion-acoustic ''solitons'' and ion phase space holes travelling upstream. A large inductance of the current circuit tends to enhance the plasma instabilities

  6. Cerebral emboli and depressive symptoms in dementia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purandare, N.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.; Hardicre, J.; Byrne, J.; McCollum, C.N.; Burns, A.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The vascular depression hypothesis and our recent findings of increased frequency of spontaneous cerebral emboli in dementia suggest that such emboli may be involved in the causation of depressive symptoms in dementia. AIMS: To evaluate the association between spontaneous cerebral emboli

  7. Depressive Symptoms and Conversational Self-Focus in Adolescents’ Friendships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz-Mette, Rebecca A.; Rose, Amanda J.

    2015-01-01

    This multi-method, longitudinal study considered the interplay among depressive symptoms, aversive interpersonal behavior, and interpersonal rejection in early and middle adolescents’ friendships. In particular, the study examined a newly identified interpersonal process, conversational self-focus (i.e., the tendency to redirect conversations about problems to focus on the self). Traditional interpersonal theories of depression suggest that individuals with depressive symptoms engage in aversive behaviors (such as conversational self-focus) and are rejected by others. However, in the current study, not all adolescents with depressive symptoms engaged in conversational self-focus and were rejected by friends. Instead, conversational self-focus moderated prospective relations of depressive symptoms and later friendship problems such that only adolescents with depressive symptoms who engaged in conversational self-focus were rejected by friends. These findings are consistent with current conceptualizations of the development of psychopathology that highlight heterogeneity among youth who share similar symptoms and the possibility of multifinality of outcomes. PMID:25640911

  8. Anxiety and depression symptoms in recurrent painful renal lithiasis colic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.H.M.P. Diniz

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have reported that symptoms of anxiety and depression are significantly associated with diseases characterized by painful crises. However, there is little information about the psychological aspects of recurrent painful episodes of renal stone disease. Our objective was to evaluate the association of symptoms of anxiety, depression and recurrent painful renal colic in a case-control study involving 64 subjects (32 cases/32 controls matched for age and sex. Cases were outpatients with a confirmed diagnosis of nephrolithiasis as per their case history, physical examination, image examination and other laboratory exams. Patients had a history of at least two episodes within a 3-year period, and were currently in an intercrisis interval. The control group consisted of subjects seen at the Ophthalmology Outpatient Clinic of this University Hospital with only eye refraction symptoms, and no other associated disease. Symptoms of anxiety were evaluated by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and symptoms of depression by the Beck Depression Inventory. Statistically significant differences were observed between patients with nephrolithiasis and controls for anxiety state (P = 0.001, anxiety trait (P = 0.005 and symptoms of depression (odds ratio = 3.74; 95%CI = 1.31-10.62. The Beck Depression Inventory showed 34.5% of respondents with moderate and 6% with severe levels of depression. There was a significant linear correlation between symptoms of anxiety (P = 0.002 and depression (P < 0.001 and the number of recurrent colic episodes (anxiety-state: P = 0.016 and anxiety-trait: P < 0.001. These data suggest an association between recurrent renal colic and symptoms of both anxiety and depression.

  9. Recognition of depressive symptoms by physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Gonçalves Henriques

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the recognition of depressive symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD by general practitioners. INTRODUCTION: MDD is underdiagnosed in medical settings, possibly because of difficulties in the recognition of specific depressive symptoms. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 316 outpatients at their first visit to a teaching general hospital. We evaluated the performance of 19 general practitioners using Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders (PRIME-MD to detect depressive symptoms and compared them to 11 psychiatrists using Structured Clinical Interview Axis I Disorders, Patient Version (SCID I/P. We measured likelihood ratios, sensitivity, specificity, and false positive and false negative frequencies. RESULTS: The lowest positive likelihood ratios were for psychomotor agitation/retardation (1.6 and fatigue (1.7, mostly because of a high rate of false positive results. The highest positive likelihood ratio was found for thoughts of suicide (8.5. The lowest sensitivity, 61.8%, was found for impaired concentration. The sensitivity for worthlessness or guilt in patients with medical illness was 67.2% (95% CI, 57.4-76.9%, which is significantly lower than that found in patients without medical illness, 91.3% (95% CI, 83.2-99.4%. DISCUSSION: Less adequately identified depressive symptoms were both psychological and somatic in nature. The presence of a medical illness may decrease the sensitivity of recognizing specific depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Programs for training physicians in the use of diagnostic tools should consider their performance in recognizing specific depressive symptoms. Such procedures could allow for the development of specific training to aid in the detection of the most misrecognized depressive symptoms.

  10. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... depression can feel irritable and restless, and have sleep problems. RODOLFO : Sometimes I would sleep only 3 hours a night or cause I couldn't sleep for weeks. And then but most of the ...

  11. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... NIMH continues to study the genetic, biological and environmental factors that influence depression so ... the Field NIMH-Funded Science on EurekAlert EEG signals accurately predict autism as ...

  12. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... NIMH continues to study the genetic, biological and environmental factors that influence depression so that new and ... to NIMH Email Updates Type email address... Privacy Notice Policies FOIA Accessibility Topic Finder Publicaciones en Español ...

  13. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... Home Mental Health Information Statistics Consumer Health Publications Help for Mental Illnesses Clinical Trials Outreach Outreach Home ... 2010 People with depression discuss how they got help. &#160; Watch on YouTube. Transcript RODOLFO : ...

  14. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... most, and how to make better, more effective ones. For many people, a combination of medication and psychotherapy may be the best choice. Depression can be successfully treated in many ...

  15. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... Mental Illnesses Clinical Trials Outreach Outreach Home Stakeholder Engagement Outreach Partnership Program Alliance for Research Progress Coalition ... people but not others. Treatments for depression do work. One type of effective psychotherapy is called cognitive ...

  16. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... Application Process Managing Grants Clinical Research Training Small Business Research Labs at NIMH Labs at NIMH Home ... alone. NARRATOR : If you have depression, telling friends, family, or someone you trust, and finding a doctor ...

  17. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... are the first steps on the road to recovery. Depression treatment can take time to work, so ... Contact Us U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health USA.gov The National ...

  18. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... Video and Audio about Depression Contact the Press Office 301-443-4536 NIMHpress@nih.gov Press Resources ... and Spanish Mail: National Institute of Mental Health Office of Science Policy, Planning, and Communications 6001 Executive ...

  19. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... problems. RODOLFO : Sometimes I would sleep only 3 hours a night or cause I couldn't sleep ... happened, where I would sleep 10, 12, 15 hours a day even. NARRATOR : People who are depressed ...

  20. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... family, or someone you trust, and finding a doctor or therapist are the first steps on the road to recovery. Depression treatment can take ... Health Information Summaries of Scientific Meetings Information about NIMH ...

  1. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... I felt like I was such an awful person that there was no real reason for me ... I gained a lot of weight. NARRATOR : A person with depression can feel irritable and restless, and ...

  2. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... to anyone. I didn't really want to do anything for myself because I felt so, I ... there was no real reason for me to do anything for myself. NARRATOR : Depression is more than ...

  3. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... Home Opportunities & Announcements Funding Strategy for Grants Application Process Managing Grants Clinical Research Training Small Business Research ... are the first steps on the road to recovery. Depression treatment can take time to work, so ...

  4. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... not yet completely understood. We do know that the brains of people with depression are different from those ... National Institutes of Health (NIH), a component of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Top

  5. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... predict autism as early as 3 months of age Researchers identify 44 genomic variants associated with depression ... Mental Health Office of Science Policy, Planning, and Communications 6001 Executive Boulevard, Room 6200, MSC 9663 Bethesda, ...

  6. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... CBT. CBT can help you change ways of thinking and behaving that may be damaging or contribute ... and through her I think I started really thinking about that I did have depression. NARRATOR : Medications ...

  7. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... for weeks. And then but most of the time the opposite happened, where I would sleep 10, ... depressed can feel numb and tired all the time. In some cases it can even lead to ...

  8. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... with depression are different from those without the illness, but we aren't sure why. Scientists at the National Institute of Mental Health are studying brain images of people who ...

  9. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... people but not others. Treatments for depression do work. One type of effective psychotherapy is called cognitive ... closer to figuring out exactly how these medications work, who benefits from them the most, and how ...

  10. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (7 items) Schizophrenia (3 items) Social Phobia ( ...

  11. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... 2010 2009 Multimedia by Topic Disorders Anxiety Disorders (5 items) Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (3 items) Autism (13 items) Bipolar Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders ( ...

  12. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... is called cognitive behavioral therapy or CBT. CBT can help you change ways of thinking and behaving that ... I did have depression. NARRATOR : Medications called antidepressants can also help. NIMH researchers are getting closer to figuring out ...

  13. Maternal depressive symptoms, employment, and social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjerdingen, Dwenda; McGovern, Patricia; Attanasio, Laura; Johnson, Pamela Jo; Kozhimannil, Katy Backes

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the relationship between maternal depressive symptoms and employment and whether it is mediated by social support. We used data from a nationally representative sample of 700 US women who gave birth in 2005 and completed 2 surveys in the Listening to Mothers series, the first in early 2006, an average of 7.3 months postpartum, and the second an average of 13.4 months postpartum. A dichotomous measure of depressive symptoms was calculated from the 2-item Patient Health Questionnaire, and women reported their employment status and levels of social support from partners and others. We modeled the association between maternal employment and depressive symptoms using multivariate logistic regression, including social support and other control variables. Maternal employment and high support from a nonpartner source were both independently associated with significantly lower odds of depressive symptoms (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.35 and P = .011, and AOR, 0.40, P = .011, respectively). These relationships remained significant after controlling for mothers' baseline mental and physical health, babies' health, and demographic characteristics (AOR, 0.326 and P = .015, and AOR, 0.267 and P = .025, respectively). Maternal employment and strong social support, particularly nonpartner support, were independently associated with fewer depressive symptoms. Clinicians should encourage mothers of young children who are at risk for depression to consider ways to optimize their employment circumstances and "other" social support.

  14. Immediate Postpartum Mood Assessment and Postpartum Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michelle L.; Kroska, Emily B.; Grekin, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Background Negative affect (NA) and positive affect (PA) in the early postpartum period have been associated with postpartum depressive symptoms, but the exact relationship is not well understood. This study aimed to determine if NA and PA in the immediate postpartum period predicted postpartum depressive symptoms over and above well-established predictors (previous trauma, history of depression). Methods Participants were prospectively recruited from a Mother-Baby Unit at a large Midwestern academic medical center in the United States from April 2011 to April 2014. Participants (N = 526) completed the Daily Experiences Questionnaire (DEQ), a self-report measure which assessed NA and PA, within three days post-delivery. Participants then reported their depressive symptoms at two weeks (n = 364) and twelve weeks postpartum (n = 271). Results Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that low PA and high NA after birth significantly predicted depressive symptoms early (at 2 weeks) and later (at 12 weeks) in the postpartum period, over and above previous traumatic experiences and history of depression. Limitations The sample was relatively homogenous, and data were from self-report instruments. Conclusions The current study found NA and PA in the days immediately after birth predicted depressive symptoms at multiple time points in the postpartum period. Because the perinatal period places women at a higher risk for depressive symptomatology, prevention and early intervention are critical. Measuring affect in hospitals immediately after birth may provide a more normalized set of items that is predictive of later depression, which will allow physicians to identify those at highest risk for developing depressive symptoms. PMID:27716540

  15. Immediate postpartum mood assessment and postpartum depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michelle L; Kroska, Emily B; Grekin, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    Negative affect (NA) and positive affect (PA) in the early postpartum period have been associated with postpartum depressive symptoms, but the exact relationship is not well understood. This study aimed to determine if NA and PA in the immediate postpartum period predicted postpartum depressive symptoms over and above well-established predictors (previous trauma, history of depression). Participants were prospectively recruited from a Mother-Baby Unit at a large Midwestern academic medical center in the United States from April 2011 to April 2014. Participants (N=526) completed the Daily Experiences Questionnaire (DEQ), a self-report measure which assessed NA and PA, within three days post-delivery. Participants then reported their depressive symptoms at two weeks (n=364) and twelve weeks postpartum (n=271). Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that low PA and high NA after birth significantly predicted depressive symptoms early (at 2 weeks) and later (at 12 weeks) in the postpartum period, over and above previous traumatic experiences and history of depression. The sample was relatively homogenous, and data were from self-report instruments. The current study found NA and PA in the days immediately after birth predicted depressive symptoms at multiple time points in the postpartum period. Because the perinatal period places women at a higher risk for depressive symptomatology, prevention and early intervention are critical. Measuring affect in hospitals immediately after birth may provide a more normalized set of items that is predictive of later depression, which will allow physicians to identify those at highest risk for developing depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Major depressive disorder and depressive symptoms in intermittent explosive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Gustavo C; Seger, Liliana; Grant, Jon E; Tavares, Hermano

    2018-04-01

    It is estimated that between 1.7 and 2.6 million people have had intermittent explosive disorder (IED) during their life in the United States alone. Co-occurring psychiatric disorders are very common in IED, being major depressive disorder arguably the most common. The objective of this study was to examine the clinical correlates of IED and depressive manifestations in 74 treatment-seeking subjects. After controlling for confounders, there were associations between major depressive disorder and severity of depressive symptoms, and (a) higher assault scores, (b) more severe hostile behavior and (c) worse social adjustment. Management of depressive symptoms may be an important for IED treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Sexual Orientation and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Jeremy W; Gilman, Stephen E; Haynie, Denise L; Simons-Morton, Bruce G

    2018-05-01

    Sexual orientation disparities in adolescent depressive symptoms are well established, but reasons for these disparities are less well understood. We modeled sexual orientation disparities in depressive symptoms from late adolescence into young adulthood and evaluated family satisfaction, peer support, cyberbullying victimization, and unmet medical needs as potential mediators. Data were from waves 2 to 6 of the NEXT Generation Health Study ( n = 2396), a population-based cohort of US adolescents. We used latent growth models to examine sexual orientation disparities in depressive symptoms in participants aged 17 to 21 years, conduct mediation analyses, and examine sex differences. Relative to heterosexual adolescents, sexual minority adolescents (those who are attracted to the same or both sexes or are questioning; 6.3% of the weighted sample) consistently reported higher depressive symptoms from 11th grade to 3 years after high school. Mediation analyses indicated that sexual minority adolescents reported lower family satisfaction, greater cyberbullying victimization, and increased likelihood of unmet medical needs, all of which were associated with higher depressive symptoms. The mediating role of cyberbullying victimization was more pronounced among male than female participants. Sexual minority adolescents reported higher depressive symptoms than heterosexual adolescents from late adolescence into young adulthood. Collectively, low family satisfaction, cyberbullying victimization, and unmet medical needs accounted for >45% of differences by sexual orientation. Future clinical research is needed to determine if interventions targeting these psychosocial and health care-related factors would reduce sexual orientation disparities in depressive symptoms and the optimal timing of such interventions. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  18. Dissociative symptoms and neuroendocrine dysregulation in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bob, Petr; Fedor-Freybergh, Peter; Jasova, Denisa; Bizik, Gustav; Susta, Marek; Pavlat, Josef; Zima, Tomas; Benakova, Hana; Raboch, Jiri

    2008-10-01

    Dissociative symptoms are traditionally attributed to psychological stressors that produce dissociated memories related to stressful life events. Dissociative disorders and dissociative symptoms including psychogenic amnesia, fugue, dissociative identity-disorder, depersonalization, derealization and other symptoms or syndromes have been reported as an epidemic psychiatric condition that may be coexistent with various psychiatric diagnoses such as depression, schizophrenia, borderline personality disorder or anxiety disorders. According to recent findings also the somatic components of dissociation may occur and influence brain, autonomic and neuroendocrine functions. At this time there are only few studies examining neuroendocrine response related to dissociative symptoms that suggest significant dysregulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The aim of the present study is to perform examination of HPA axis functioning indexed by basal cortisol and prolactin and test their relationship to psychic and somatoform dissociative symptoms. Basal cortisol and prolactin and psychic and somatoform dissociative symptoms were assessed in 40 consecutive inpatients with diagnosis of unipolar depression mean age 43.37 (SD=12.21). The results show that prolactin and cortisol as indices of HPA axis functioning manifest significant relationship to dissociative symptoms. Main results represent highly significant correlations obtained by simple regression between psychic dissociative symptoms (DES) and serum prolactin (R=0.55, p=0.00027), and between somatoform dissociation (SDQ-20) and serum cortisol (R=-0.38, p=0.015). These results indicate relationship between HPA-axis reactivity and dissociative symptoms in unipolar depressive patients that could reflect passive coping behavior and disengagement.

  19. Can personality traits predict increases in manic and depressive symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, B E; Johnson, S L

    2001-03-01

    There has been limited research investigating personality traits as predictors of manic and depressive symptoms in bipolar individuals. The present study investigated the relation between personality traits and the course of bipolar disorder. The purpose of this study was to identify specific personality traits that predict the course of manic and depressive symptoms experienced by bipolar individuals. The sample consisted of 39 participants with bipolar I disorder assessed by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Personality was assessed using the NEO Five-Factor Inventory. The Modified Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression and the Bech-Rafaelsen Mania Rating Scale were used to assess symptom severity on a monthly basis. Consistent with previous research on unipolar depression, high Neuroticism predicted increases in depressive symptoms across time while controlling for baseline symptoms. Additionally, high Conscientiousness, particularly the Achievement Striving facet, predicted increases in manic symptoms across time. The current study was limited by the small number of participants, the reliance on a shortened version of a self-report personality measure, and the potential state-dependency of the personality measures. Specific personality traits may assist in predicting bipolar symptoms across time. Further studies are needed to tease apart the state-dependency of personality.

  20. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Sometimes I would sleep only 3 hours a night or cause I couldn't sleep for weeks. And then but most of the time the opposite happened, where I would sleep 10, 12, 15 hours a day even. NARRATOR : People who are depressed can feel ...

  1. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to do anything for myself because I felt so, I felt like I was such an awful ... out of the house. I was in college so I wouldn't go to classes at all. ... genetic, biological and environmental factors that influence depression so that new and better treatments can be developed. ...

  2. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... depressed can feel numb and tired all the time. In some cases it can even lead to thoughts of suicide. RODOLFO : It was like I had big huge weights on my legs and I was trying to swim and just kept sinking. And I'd get a little ...

  3. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (7 items) Schizophrenia (3 items) Social Phobia (2 items) Populations Children and Adolescents (26 items) Diversity and Ethnic Groups (4 items) ...

  4. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... problems. RODOLFO : Sometimes I would sleep only 3 hours a night or cause I couldn't sleep for weeks. And then but most of the time the opposite happened, where I would sleep 10, 12, 15 hours a day even. NARRATOR : People who are depressed ...

  5. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Multimedia by Topic Disorders Anxiety Disorders (5 items) Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (3 items) Autism (13 items) Bipolar Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post- ...

  6. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (7 items) Schizophrenia (3 items) Social Phobia (2 items) Populations Children and Adolescents (26 items) ...

  7. Prevalence of depressive symptoms in metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia María López C

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Depression has been related with alterations of glucose metabolism, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, adiposity and dislipidemias, which constitute the metabolic syndrome (m s. Objective: to determine the frequency of depressive symptoms in patients with m s. Material and methods: an observational, descriptive, transverse study was carried out in 101 patients with m s(69 women and 32 men. The Beck inventory for depression was applied. Vasodilatation in the brachial artery and the thickness of the carotid intimae-media were evaluated by means of ultrasonographic measurement. Abdominal perimeter, trygliceridemia, cholesterolemia and insulin resistance were calculated. The statistic treatment was performed by means of descriptive and inferential through mean, standard deviation, and correlation proofs. Insulin resistance was calculated by the h o m a method. Results:prevalence of depressive symptoms: 46.34% between patients with m s (correlation of 0.42 significative at p = 0.05. A higher number of components of the syndrome correlates with higher severity of the depression. Depressive symptoms were associated to a higher insulin resistance, low levels of c- h d l, hypertension and carotid atherosclerosis. Conclusion: depression has a high prevalence in the m s and its associates with a higher number of metabolic and vascular disturbances

  8. Fewer self-reported depressive symptoms in young adults exposed to maternal depressed mood during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohsel, Katrin; Holz, Nathalie E; Hohm, Erika; Schmidt, Martin H; Esser, Günter; Brandeis, Daniel; Banaschewski, Tobias; Laucht, Manfred

    2017-02-01

    Depressed mood is prevalent during pregnancy, with accumulating evidence suggesting an impact on developmental outcome in the offspring. However, the long-term effects of prenatal maternal depression regarding internalizing psychopathology in the offspring are as yet unclear. As part of an ongoing epidemiological cohort study, prenatal maternal depressed mood was assessed at the child's age of 3 months. In a sample of n=307 offspring, depressive symptoms were obtained via questionnaire at the ages of 19, 22, 23 and 25 years. At age 25 years, diagnoses of depressive disorder were obtained using a diagnostic interview. In a subsample of currently healthy participants, voxel-based morphometry was conducted and amygdala volume was assessed. In n=85 young adults exposed to prenatal maternal depressed mood, no significantly higher risk for a diagnosis of depressive disorder was observed. However, they reported significantly lower levels of depressive symptoms. This association was especially pronounced when prenatal maternal depressed mood was present during the first trimester of pregnancy and when maternal mood was depressed pre- as well as postnatally. At an uncorrected level only, prenatal maternal depressed mood was associated with decreased amygdala volume. Prenatal maternal depressed mood was not assessed during pregnancy, but shortly after childbirth. No diagnoses of maternal clinical depression during pregnancy were available. Self-reported depressive symptoms do not imply increased, but rather decreased symptom levels in young adults who were exposed to prenatal maternal depressed mood. A long-term perspective may be important when considering consequences of prenatal risk factors. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Cigarette demand among smokers with elevated depressive symptoms: an experimental comparison with low depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secades-Villa, Roberto; Weidberg, Sara; González-Roz, Alba; Reed, Derek D; Fernández-Hermida, José R

    2018-03-01

    Individuals with depression smoke more than smokers without depression. Research has shown that cigarette demand is a useful tool for quantifying tobacco reinforcement and supposes a clinical predictor of treatment outcomes. Despite previous studies examining the relative reinforcing efficacy of nicotine among different populations of smokers, to date, no study has assessed cigarette demand among individuals with elevated depressive symptoms. The aim of this study was to compare cigarette demand among samples of smokers with low and elevated depressive symptoms. Further, it also sought to examine the relationship between depressive symptomatology and the individual CPT demand indices. Participants (80 non-depressed smokers and 85 depressed smokers) completed the 19-item version of the Cigarette Purchase Task (CPT). Depression symptomatology was assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition (BDI-II). Depressed smokers needed to present at least moderate depressive symptoms as indicated by scoring ≥ 20 on the BDI-II. Depressive symptomatology and nicotine dependence were significantly associated with elasticity of demand (R 2  = 0.112; F(2, 155) = 9.756, p = ≤ 0.001). Depressive symptoms, cigarettes per day, and years of regular smoking also predicted breakpoint scores (R 2  = 0.088; F(4, 153) = 3.697, p = 0.007). As smokers with elevated depressive symptoms are less sensitive to increases in cigarette prices than those with low depressive symptomatology, future studies should consider these cigarette demand indices when designing depression-focused smoking cessation treatments. Providing this difficult-to-treat population with interventions that promote both pleasurable and alternative reinforcing activities is highly encouraged.

  10. Family dissolution and offspring depression and depressive symptoms: A systematic review of moderation effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Manno, Laura; Macdonald, Jacqui A; Knight, Tess

    2015-12-01

    Parental separation is associated with increased risk for offspring depression; however, depression outcomes are divergent. Knowledge of moderators could assist in understanding idiosyncratic outcomes and developing appropriately targeted prevention programs for those at heightened risk of depression following parental separation. Therefore, the objective of the review was to identify and evaluate studies that examined moderators of the relationship between parental separation and offspring depression A search of scientific, medical and psychological databases was conducted in April 2015 for longitudinal research that had evaluated any moderator/s of the relationship between parental separation or divorce and offspring depression or depressive symptoms. Papers were assessed for quality by evaluating the study's sample, attrition rates, methodology and measurement characteristics. Fourteen quantitative studies from five countries assessed sixteen moderating factors of the relationship between parental separation and offspring depression or depressive symptoms. A number of factors were found to moderate this relationship, including offspring gender, age (at assessment and at depression onset), genotype, preadolescent temperament, IQ, emotional problems in childhood and maternal sensitivity. While robust longitudinal research was selected for inclusion, common issues with longitudinal studies such as low rates of participation and attrition were among the methodological concerns evident in some of the reviewed papers. The current review is the first to assess interaction effects of the relationship between parental separation and offspring depression or depressive symptoms. While further research is recommended, this assessment is critical in understanding variation in heterogeneous populations and can inform targeted policy and prevention.

  11. Maternal depressive symptoms, toddler emotion regulation, and subsequent emotion socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premo, Julie E; Kiel, Elizabeth J

    2016-03-01

    Although many studies have examined how maternal depressive symptoms relate to parenting outcomes, less work has examined how symptoms affect emotion socialization, a parenting construct linked to a myriad of socioemotional outcomes in early childhood. In line with a transactional perspective on the family, it is also important to understand how children contribute to these emotional processes. The current study examined how toddler emotion regulation strategies moderated the relation between maternal depressive symptoms and emotion socialization responses, including nonsupportive responses (e.g., minimizing, responding punitively to children's negative emotions) and wish-granting, or the degree to which mothers give in to their children's demands in order to decrease their children's and their own distress. Mothers (n = 91) and their 24-month-old toddlers participated in laboratory tasks from which toddler emotion regulation behaviors were observed. Mothers reported depressive symptoms and use of maladaptive emotion socialization strategies concurrently and at a 1-year follow-up. The predictive relation between maternal depressive symptoms and emotion socialization was then examined in the context of toddlers' emotion regulation. Toddlers' increased use of caregiver-focused regulation interacted with depressive symptoms in predicting increased wish-granting socialization responses at 36 months. At high levels of toddlers' caregiver-focused regulation, depressive symptoms related to increased wish-granting socialization at 36 months. There was no relation for nonsupportive socialization responses. Results suggest that toddler emotional characteristics influence how depressive symptoms may put mothers at risk for maladaptive parenting. Family psychologists must strive to understand the role of both parent and toddler characteristics within problematic emotional interactions. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Depressive Symptoms and Psychosocial Functioning in Preadolescent Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marita McCabe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study was designed to determine the percentage of children “at-risk” of depression or evidencing clinical levels of depression. In addition, the study examined how the “at-risk” and the clinical groups differed from children who demonstrated no depressive symptoms on positive and negative affect, four aspects of self-concept, and peer ratings of popularity. Respondents were 510 children (270 boys 240 girls who ranged in age from 7 to 13 years (mean = 9.39. The results demonstrated that 23% of children were either in the “at-risk” or clinical range of depression. Children in both the clinical and the “at-risk” range demonstrated higher negative affect but lower positive affect and lower self-concepts than children in the normal range. However, children's peers only differentiated between the “clinical” and “normal” groups. It is harder for peers, and other informants such as teachers and parents, to detect the problems of children with elevated depressive symptoms but who do not meet the diagnostic criteria. It is important to implement intervention programs for children who evidence depression symptoms, as well as “at-risk” children. “At-risk” children with elevated levels of depressive symptoms may be more disadvantaged, as their problems are less likely to be detected and treated.

  13. Maternal Psychological Control, Use of Supportive Parenting, and Childhood Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazer, Andrew L; Fite, Paula J

    2016-06-01

    The current study, operating from a stress-process framework, examined the interactive effects of supportive parenting practices (i.e., mothers' use of positive communication, positive parenting, and parental involvement) and maternal psychological control on mother- and child-reported child depressive symptoms in a community-recruited sample of 9-12 year-olds. Discrepancies between reports of depressive symptoms were also examined. Maternal psychological control was uniquely associated with child-, not mother-, reported depressive symptoms. Parental involvement was uniquely associated with mother-, not child-, reported depressive symptoms. Positive parent-child communication was associated with both reports of child depressive symptoms at the bivariate level, but not when unique associations were examined. Positive parenting was unrelated to either report of depressive symptoms. No interaction effects were detected. The current findings highlight the differential importance of parenting practices on child depressive symptoms, and also indicate the necessity of gathering both parent and child reports of symptomatology and family functioning.

  14. Depressive symptoms and web user experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielsch, Carolin

    2018-01-01

    Background Depression, as one of the most prevalent mental disorders, is expected to become a leading cause of disability. While evidence-based treatments are not always easily accessible, Internet-based information and self-help appears as a promising approach to improve the strained supply situation by avoiding barriers of traditional offline treatment. User experience in the domain of mental problems therefore emerges as an important research topic. The aim of our study is to investigate the impact of depressive symptoms on subjective and objective measures of web user experience. Method In this two-part online study (Ntotal = 721) we investigate the relationship between depressive symptoms of web users and basic website characteristics (i.e., content, subjective and objective usability, aesthetics). Participants completed search and memory tasks on different fully-functional websites. In addition, they were asked to evaluate the given websites with standardized measures and were screened for symptoms of depression using the PHQ-9. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) to determine whether depression severity affects users’ perception of and performance in using information websites. Results We found significant associations between depressive symptoms and subjective user experience, specifically of website content, usability, and aesthetics, as well as an effect of content perception on the overall appraisal of a website in terms of the intention to visit it again. Small yet significant negative effects of depression severity on all named subjective website evaluations were revealed, leading to an indirect negative effect on the intention to revisit a website via impaired content perceptions. However, objective task performance was not influenced by depressiveness of users. Discussion Depression emerges as capable of altering the subjective perception of a website to some extend with respect to the main features content, usability, and aesthetics. The

  15. Depressive symptoms and web user experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielsch, Meinald T; Thielsch, Carolin

    2018-01-01

    Depression, as one of the most prevalent mental disorders, is expected to become a leading cause of disability. While evidence-based treatments are not always easily accessible, Internet-based information and self-help appears as a promising approach to improve the strained supply situation by avoiding barriers of traditional offline treatment. User experience in the domain of mental problems therefore emerges as an important research topic. The aim of our study is to investigate the impact of depressive symptoms on subjective and objective measures of web user experience. In this two-part online study ( N total  = 721) we investigate the relationship between depressive symptoms of web users and basic website characteristics (i.e., content, subjective and objective usability, aesthetics). Participants completed search and memory tasks on different fully-functional websites. In addition, they were asked to evaluate the given websites with standardized measures and were screened for symptoms of depression using the PHQ-9. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) to determine whether depression severity affects users' perception of and performance in using information websites. We found significant associations between depressive symptoms and subjective user experience, specifically of website content, usability, and aesthetics, as well as an effect of content perception on the overall appraisal of a website in terms of the intention to visit it again. Small yet significant negative effects of depression severity on all named subjective website evaluations were revealed, leading to an indirect negative effect on the intention to revisit a website via impaired content perceptions. However, objective task performance was not influenced by depressiveness of users. Depression emerges as capable of altering the subjective perception of a website to some extend with respect to the main features content, usability, and aesthetics. The user experience of a website is

  16. Depressive symptoms and web user experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meinald T. Thielsch

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Depression, as one of the most prevalent mental disorders, is expected to become a leading cause of disability. While evidence-based treatments are not always easily accessible, Internet-based information and self-help appears as a promising approach to improve the strained supply situation by avoiding barriers of traditional offline treatment. User experience in the domain of mental problems therefore emerges as an important research topic. The aim of our study is to investigate the impact of depressive symptoms on subjective and objective measures of web user experience. Method In this two-part online study (Ntotal = 721 we investigate the relationship between depressive symptoms of web users and basic website characteristics (i.e., content, subjective and objective usability, aesthetics. Participants completed search and memory tasks on different fully-functional websites. In addition, they were asked to evaluate the given websites with standardized measures and were screened for symptoms of depression using the PHQ-9. We used structural equation modeling (SEM to determine whether depression severity affects users’ perception of and performance in using information websites. Results We found significant associations between depressive symptoms and subjective user experience, specifically of website content, usability, and aesthetics, as well as an effect of content perception on the overall appraisal of a website in terms of the intention to visit it again. Small yet significant negative effects of depression severity on all named subjective website evaluations were revealed, leading to an indirect negative effect on the intention to revisit a website via impaired content perceptions. However, objective task performance was not influenced by depressiveness of users. Discussion Depression emerges as capable of altering the subjective perception of a website to some extend with respect to the main features content, usability, and

  17. Early maternal depressive symptom trajectories: Associations with 7-year maternal depressive symptoms and child behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham-Howes, Stacy; Oberlander, Sarah E; Wang, Yan; Black, Maureen M

    2017-06-01

    This study examines potential mechanisms linking maternal depressive symptoms over 2 years postpartum with child behavior problems at school-age in a sample of adolescent mothers and their first-born child. Potential mechanisms include: mother-reported caregiving engagement at 6 months; observed parental nurturance and control, and child competence and affect at 24 months; and mother-reported resilience at 7 years based on achievement of adult developmental tasks. One hundred eighteen low-income African American adolescent mothers were recruited at delivery and followed through child age 7 years. Maternal depressive symptom trajectories over 24 months were estimated (low, medium, and high) based on mother-reported depressive symptoms. Direct and indirect associations between depressive symptom trajectories with 7-year maternal depressive symptoms and child behavior problems were examined. The high maternal depressive symptom trajectory was associated with 7-year maternal depressive symptoms (b = 5.52, SE = 1.65, p child internalizing problems (b = 7.60, SE = 3.12, p = .02) and externalizing problems (b = 6.23, SE = 3.22, p = .05). Caregiving engagement among high depressive symptom trajectory mothers was significantly associated with observed child affect (b = -0.21, SE = 0.11, p = 0.05). Parental nurturance in toddlerhood mediated the association between high maternal depressive symptom trajectory and child internalizing problems at 7 years (indirect effect b = 2.33, 95% CI: 0.32-5.88). Findings suggest that family based interventions to promote parenting and adolescent resiliency strengthening may be beneficial in this population. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Loneliness Mediates the Relationship Between Pain During Intercourse and Depressive Symptoms Among Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Madison E; Meints, Samantha M; Hirsh, Adam T

    2018-03-06

    Previous research suggests that women who experience pain during intercourse also experience higher rates of depressive symptoms. Loneliness might be one factor that contributes to this relationship. We hypothesized that women who experience more severe and interfering pain during intercourse would report higher rates of loneliness and higher rates of depressive symptoms. Further, we hypothesized that loneliness would mediate the relationship between pain during intercourse and depressive symptoms. A total of 104 female participants (85.6% white, 74.03% partnered, 20.9 [3.01] years old) completed an online survey including demographic information, PROMIS Vaginal Discomfort Measure, PROMIS Depression Measure, and Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale. Pearson correlations and bootstrapped mediation analysis examined the relationships among pain during intercourse, loneliness, and depressive symptoms. Pain during intercourse, loneliness, and depressive symptoms were all significantly correlated (p pain during intercourse and depressive symptoms (indirect effect = 0.077; 95% CI 0.05-0.19). After accounting for loneliness, pain during intercourse was not significantly related to depressive symptoms, suggesting that loneliness fully mediated the relationship between pain during intercourse and depressive symptoms. These findings are consistent with previous studies highlighting that pain during intercourse is related to depressive symptoms. The current study adds to that literature and suggests that more frequent and severe pain during intercourse leads to more loneliness, which then leads to increased depressive symptoms. This line of work has important implications for treating women who experience depressive symptoms and pain during intercourse.

  19. Maternal Depressive Symptoms, Toddler Emotion Regulation, and Subsequent Emotion Socialization

    OpenAIRE

    Premo, Julie E.; Kiel, Elizabeth J.

    2015-01-01

    Although many studies have examined how maternal depressive symptoms relate to parenting outcomes, less work has examined how symptoms affect emotion socialization, a parenting construct linked to a myriad of socioemotional outcomes in early childhood. In line with a transactional perspective on the family, it is also important to understand how children contribute to these emotional processes. The current study examined how toddler emotion regulation strategies moderated the relation between...

  20. Fatigue and Depressive Symptoms in Older People

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mänty, Minna; Rantanen, Taina; Era, Pertti

    2014-01-01

    Fatigue is considered an important indicator of aging-related declines in health and functional abilities. Previous studies have indicated strong associations between fatigue and depressive symptoms among younger populations and in patient groups with specific diseases. However, it is not known h...

  1. Depressive Symptoms, Academic Achievement, and Intelligence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Preiss, M.; Fráňová, Lenka

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 1 (2006), s. 57-67 ISSN 0039-3320 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA406/05/0915 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : academic achievement * depressive symptoms * intelligence Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.410, year: 2006

  2. Sex Differences in Genetic and Environmental Influences on Adolescent Depressive Symptoms: A Meta-Analytic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although sex difference in the mean level of depressive symptoms has been well established, the sex difference in genetic and environmental influences on adolescent depressive symptoms is unclear. The current study conducted a meta-analysis of twin studies on sex differences in self- and parent-reported adolescent depressive symptoms. For self-reports, genetic factors influenced adolescent depressive symptoms equally for boys and girls, accounting for 46% of variation, but shared environmental factors had stronger impacts on adolescent girls’ versus boys’ depressive symptoms (13% versus 1% of the variance. For parent-reports, genetic, shared, and nonshared environmental factors influenced adolescent depressive symptoms equally, with separate estimates of 34%, 35%, and 31%. The implications of sex difference in genetic and environmental etiologies of depressive symptoms are discussed.

  3. School Climate, Discrimination, and Depressive Symptoms among Asian American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cixin; Atwal, Kavita

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined a multidimensional, developmental, and transactional model for depressive symptoms among Asian American adolescents using longitudinal data from 1,664 Asian American adolescents in the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study (CILS). Specifically, the relationships among school climate, acculturation, perceived…

  4. Women's status and depressive symptoms: a multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Yeh; Subramanian, S V; Acevedo-Garcia, Doloros; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2005-01-01

    The effects of state-level women's status and autonomy on individual-level women's depressive symptoms were examined. We conducted a multi-level analysis of the 1991 longitudinal follow up of the 1988 National Maternal Infant Health Survey (NMIHS), with 7789 women nested within the fifty American states. State-level women's status was assessed by four composite indices measuring women's political participation, economic autonomy, employment & earnings, and reproductive rights. The main outcome measure was symptoms of depression (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, CES-D). The participants were a nationally representative stratified random sample of women in the USA aged between 17 and 40 years old who gave birth to live babies in 1988, were successfully contacted again in 1991 and provided complete information on depressive symptoms. Women who were younger, non-white, not currently married, less educated or had lower household income tended to report higher levels of depressive symptoms. Compared with states ranking low on the employment & earnings index, women residing in states that were high on the same index scored 0.85 points lower on the CES-D (peconomic autonomy index scored 0.83 points lower in depressive symptoms (p<0.01), compared with women who lived in states low on the same index. Finally, women who resided in states with high reproductive rights scored 0.62 points lower on the CES-D (p<0.05) compared with women who lived in states with lower reproductive rights. Gender inequality appears to contribute to depressive symptoms in women.

  5. Personality and risk for postpartum depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliadis, S I; Koulouris, P; Gingnell, M; Sylvén, S M; Sundström-Poromaa, I; Ekselius, L; Papadopoulos, F C; Skalkidou, A

    2015-06-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a common childbirth complication, affecting 10-15 % of newly delivered mothers. This study aims to assess the association between personality factors and PPD. All pregnant women during the period September 2009 to September 2010, undergoing a routine ultrasound at Uppsala University Hospital, were invited to participate in the BASIC study, a prospective study designed to investigate maternal well-being. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) while the Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS) was used as a diagnostic tool for major depression. Personality traits were evaluated using the Swedish Universities Scale of Personality (SSP). One thousand thirty-seven non-depressed pregnant women were included in the study. Non-depressed women reporting high levels of neuroticism in late pregnancy were at high risk of developing postpartum depressive symptoms (PPDSs) at 6 weeks and 6 months after delivery, even after adjustment for confounders (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 3.4, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.8-6.5 and adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 3.9, 95 % CI 1.9-7.9). The same was true for a DSRS-based diagnosis of major depression at 6 months postpartum. Somatic trait anxiety and psychic trait anxiety were associated with increased risk for PPDS at 6 weeks (aOR = 2.1, 95 % CI 1.2-3.5 and aOR = 1.9, 95 % CI 1.1-3.1), while high scores of mistrust were associated with a twofold increased risk for PPDS at 6 months postpartum (aOR 1.9, 95 % CI 1.1-3.4). Non-depressed pregnant women with high neuroticism scores have an almost fourfold increased risk to develop depressive symptoms postpartum, and the association remains robust even after controlling for most known confounders. Clinically, this could be of importance for health care professionals working with pregnant and newly delivered women.

  6. Self-compassion in depression: associations with depressive symptoms, rumination, and avoidance in depressed outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Tobias; Altenstein, David; Baettig, Isabelle; Doerig, Nadja; Holtforth, Martin Grosse

    2013-09-01

    Self-compassion involves being kind to oneself when challenged with personal weaknesses or hardship and has been claimed to be associated with resilience in various areas. So far, there are only a handful of studies that investigate self-compassion and its relation to clinical depression. Therefore, the principal goals of the present study were (a) to compare self-compassion in clinically depressed patients and never-depressed subjects, (b) to investigate self-compassion and its relation to cognitive-behavioral avoidance and rumination in depressed outpatients, and (c) to investigate rumination and avoidance as mediators of the relationship between self-compassion and depressive symptoms. One hundred and forty-two depressed outpatients and 120 never-depressed individuals from a community sample completed a self-report measure of self-compassion along with other measures. Results indicate that depressed patients showed lower levels of self-compassion than never-depressed individuals, even when controlled for depressive symptoms. In depressed outpatients, self-compassion was negatively related to depressive symptoms, symptom-focused rumination, as well as cognitive and behavioral avoidance. Additionally, symptom-focused rumination and cognitive and behavioral avoidance mediated the relationship between self-compassion and depressive symptoms. These findings extend previous research on self-compassion, its relation to depression, as well as processes mediating this relationship, and highlight the importance of self-compassion in clinically depressed patients. Since depressed patients seem to have difficulties adopting a self-compassionate attitude, psychotherapists are well advised to explore and address how depressed patients treat themselves. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Association between obesity and depressive symptoms in Mexican population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, Gerardo A; Kolovos, Spyros; Chiarotto, Alessandro; Bosmans, Judith E; Campos-Ponce, Maiza; Rosado, Jorge L; Garcia, Olga P

    2018-04-19

    Obesity and depression are among the leading causes of disability in Mexico, but their association has not been explored yet. The aim of the current study was to investigate the association between obesity and depression in Mexican population. We used data from the health and nutrition survey (ENSANUT 2012), which is representative of the Mexican population. Obesity was determined using the body mass index (BMI) and abdominal obesity by measuring waist circumference. Depressive symptoms were reported using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale Short-Form (CES-D-SF, scale 0-21). Regression analyses were performed between obesity and depression, adjusting for gender, age, living with a partner, education, and diabetes history. Obese women had 1.28 (95% CI 1.07-1.53) times the odds of having depression in comparison with normal-weight women, whereas no association was found for men (OR 0.94; 95% CI 0.74-1.19). A significant association between BMI and depressive symptoms score (β = 0.05, 95% CI 0.02-0.07) was present in women, but no association was found for men (β = - 0.02, 95% CI - 0.05 to 0.00). There was a statistically significant association between waist circumference and depression scores again for women (β = 0.03, 95% CI 0.01-0.04) but not for men (β = 0.00, 95% CI - 0.01 to 0.01). No associations were found between abdominal obesity and depression for both genders. No association was found between different obesity severity levels and depression for both genders. Obesity was associated with depression in Mexican women, whereas no association was found between obesity and depression in men.

  8. Depressive Symptoms Moderate Dating Violence Prevention Outcomes Among Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collibee, Charlene; Rizzo, Christie J; Kemp, Kathleen; Hood, Erik; Doucette, Hannah; Gittins Stone, Daniel I; DeJesus, Brett

    2018-04-01

    Few dating violence prevention programs assess how variations in initial violence risk affects responsiveness. This study examines the efficacy of Date SMART, a dating violence and sexual risk prevention program designed to target high-risk adolescent girls, in preventing dating violence in the context of varying initial levels of depressive symptoms. A diverse sample of N = 109 female adolescents with a history of physical dating violence participated in a randomized controlled trial of the Date SMART program and a knowledge only (KO) comparison. Using baseline depression level as a primary risk factor, a series of multilevel models revealed significant main effects of baseline depression such that higher baseline depression was associated with greater physical dating violence perpetration and victimization. Results also showed a three-way interaction for assessment point, depressive symptoms, and condition for physical dating violence perpetration. Specifically, those with higher baseline depression in Date SMART showed significantly less physical dating violence perpetration at follow-ups compared with those with higher baseline depression in the KO group. This difference in violence reduction between conditions was not observed for those with lower baseline depression. Date SMART appears to effectively reduce physical dating violence perpetration in those with higher levels of initial risk. Current findings support that adolescents with different risk profiles respond differently to violence prevention programs.

  9. Vegetarian diets and depressive symptoms among men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbeln, Joseph R; Northstone, Kate; Evans, Jonathan; Golding, Jean

    2018-01-01

    Vegetarian diets are associate with cardiovascular and other health benefits, but little is known about mental health benefits or risks. To determine whether self-identification of vegetarian dietary habits is associated with significant depressive symptoms in men. Self-report data from 9668 adult male partners of pregnant women in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) included identification as vegetarian or vegan, dietary frequency data and the Edinburgh Post Natal Depression Scale (EPDS). Continuous and binary outcomes were assessed using multiple linear and logistic regression taking account of potential confounding variables including: age, marital status, employment status, housing tenure, number of children in the household, religion, family history of depression previous childhood psychiatric contact, cigarette and alcohol consumption. Vegetarians [n = 350 (3.6% of sample)], had higher depression scores on average than non-vegetarians (mean difference 0.96 points [95%CI + 0.53, + 1.40]) and a greater risk for EPDS scores above 10 (adjusted OR = 1.67 [95% CI: 1.14,2.44]) than non-vegetarians after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Vegetarian men have more depressive symptoms after adjustment for socio-demographic factors. Nutritional deficiencies (e.g. in cobalamin or iron) are a possible explanation for these findings, however reverse causation cannot be ruled out. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Prevalence of restless legs symptoms according to depressive symptoms and depression type: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auvinen, Piritta; Mäntyselkä, Pekka; Koponen, Hannu; Kautiainen, Hannu; Korniloff, Katariina; Ahonen, Tiina; Vanhala, Mauno

    2018-01-01

    Restless legs syndrome is a sensorimotor disorder and it is associated with several other diseases especially mental illnesses. To analyze the relationship between the symptoms of restless legs syndrome and the severity of depressive symptoms and the prevalence of restless legs symptoms in depression subtypes. A cross-sectional study of primary care patients in the Central Finland Hospital District. The prevalence of restless legs symptoms was studied in 706 patients with increased depressive symptoms and 426 controls without a psychiatric diagnosis by using a structured questionnaire. The depressive symptoms were evaluated with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the psychiatric diagnosis was confirmed by means of a diagnostic interview (Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview). The subjects with increased depressive symptoms were divided into three groups (subjects with depressive symptoms without a depression diagnosis, melancholic depression and non-melancholic depression). In the whole study population, the prevalence of restless legs symptoms increased with the severity of depressive symptoms. The prevalence of restless legs symptoms was highest in the melancholic and non-melancholic depressive patients (52 and 46%, respectively) and then in subjects with depressive symptoms without a depression diagnosis (43.4%), but the prevalence was also substantial (24.6%) in subjects without a psychiatric diagnosis. Restless legs symptoms are very common in primary care among subjects with depression, regardless of the depression type. The prevalence of restless legs symptoms increased with increasing severity of depressive symptoms, regardless of the diagnosis. These findings should be considered in clinical evaluation and treatment of patients visiting their physician due to restless legs or depressive symptoms.

  11. Association between burnout and depressive symptoms among Turkish dentists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meral Huri

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Dentists may face burnout and depressive symptoms during their professional life. Increased burnout level can give an idea on depressive symptoms, and may provide an opportunity to identify depression earlier. Creating and raising awareness about burnout are important to avoid and prevent depression among dentists. Further longitudinal studies analyzing the effects of interdisciplinary client-centered self-management programs for dentists on depressive symptoms and burnout must be planned.

  12. Negative cognitive style and cortisol recovery accentuate the relationship between life stress and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Meghan E; Grant, Kathryn E; Adam, Emma K

    2018-03-01

    When exposed to stressful life events, a significant number of adolescents will experience depressive symptoms. One model of depression suggests that individuals with a negative cognitive style are most vulnerable to depression following life stress. Alternatively, altered activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis may explain vulnerability to depression following life stress. Each of these models plausibly explains the emergence of depressive symptoms during adolescence and have been investigated largely independently. The current study recruited a sample of urban adolescents (N = 179) to evaluate whether cortisol response to a laboratory stress induction and negative cognitive style are related and whether they independently interact with exposure to stressful life events to predict symptoms of depression. Negative cognitive style was not associated with cortisol response to the laboratory stressor. Rather, negative cognitive style and cortisol recovery independently interacted with stressful life events to predict current symptoms of depression. Results support a heterogeneous etiology of depression.

  13. Depressive Symptoms and Risk of Postoperative Delirium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Patrick J; Attix, Deborah K; Weldon, B Craig; Monk, Terri G

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that elevated depressive symptoms are associated with increased risk of postoperative delirium. However, to our knowledge no previous studies have examined whether different components of depression are differentially predictive of postoperative delirium. One thousand twenty patients were screened for postoperative delirium using the Confusion Assessment Method and through retrospective chart review. Patients underwent cognitive, psychosocial, and medical assessments preoperatively. Depression was assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale-Short Form. Thirty-eight patients developed delirium (3.7%). Using a factor structure previously validated among geriatric medical patients, the authors examined three components of depression as predictors of postoperative delirium: negative affect, cognitive distress, and behavioral inactivity. In multivariate analyses controlling for age, education, comorbidities, and cognitive function, the authors found that greater behavioral inactivity was associated with increased risk of delirium (OR: 1.95 [1.11, 3.42]), whereas negative affect (OR: 0.65 [0.31, 1.36]) and cognitive distress (OR: 0.95 [0.63, 1.43]) were not. Different components of depression are differentially predictive of postoperative delirium among adults undergoing noncardiac surgery. Copyright © 2016 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Coexisting anxiety and depressive symptoms in patients with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Rebecca L; Lennie, Terry A; Doering, Lynn V; Chung, Misook L; Wu, Jia-Rong; Moser, Debra K

    2014-04-01

    Among patients with heart failure (HF), anxiety symptoms may co-exist with depressive symptoms. However, the extent of overlap and risk factors for anxiety symptoms have not been thoroughly described. The aim of this study was to describe the coexistence of anxiety and depressive symptoms, and to determine the predictors of anxiety symptoms in patients with HF. The sample consisted of 556 outpatients with HF (34% female, 62±12 years, 54% New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III/IV) enrolled in a multicenter HF quality of life registry. Anxiety symptoms were assessed with the Brief Symptom Inventory-anxiety subscale. Depressive symptoms were measured with the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI). We used a cut-point of 0.35 to categorize patients as having anxiety symptoms or no anxiety symptoms. Logistic regression was used to determine whether age, gender, minority status, educational level, functional status, comorbidities, depressive symptoms, and antidepressant use were predictors of anxiety symptoms. One-third of patients had both depressive and anxiety symptoms. There was a dose-response relationship between depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms; higher levels of depressive symptoms were associated with a higher level of anxiety symptoms. Younger age (odds ratio (OR)= 0.97, p=0.004, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.95-0.99) and depressive symptoms (OR =1.25, panxiety symptoms. Patients with HF and depressive symptoms are at high risk for experiencing anxiety symptoms. Clinicians should assess these patients for comorbid anxiety symptoms. Research is needed to test interventions for both depressive and anxiety symptoms.

  15. Emotion work within eldercare and depressive symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Louise M.; Jorgensen, Anette F. B.; Thomsen, Birthe L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Danish professional caregivers have high rates of depressive symptoms. One proposed cause is exposure to emotion work. However, emotion work is usually measured by self-report which may bias results. Objectives: The objective of this study was to examine the association of emotion work......, externally observed at the workplace, with self-reported depressive symptoms of professional caregivers. Design and data sources: The study was a cross-sectional observational study. Data was collected by 9 observers who assessed emotion work stressors and emotion work resources in 124 individual...... professional caregivers working in 56 work units across 10 eldercare homes. Emotion work stressors were defined as i) barriers for empathetic care, ii) taxing aggressive events, and iii) taxing non-aggressive events. Emotion work resources were defined as i) meaningful events, and ii) social interactions...

  16. Trajectories of Postpartum Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Children's Social Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yelena P.; Selig, James P.; Roberts, Michael C.; Steele, Ric G.

    2011-01-01

    The vast majority of new mothers experience at least some depressive symptoms. Postpartum maternal depressive symptoms can greatly influence children's outcomes (e.g., emotional, cognitive, language, and social development). However, there have been relatively few longitudinal studies of how maternal depressive symptoms may influence children's…

  17. Victims of Rape: Repeated Assessment of Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkeson, Beverly M.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Investigated depressive symptoms in rape victims (N=115) for one year following their assaults. Depressive symptoms were higher in victims than in controls. By four months postrape, depressive symptoms in the victim group had diminished, and the victims were no longer significantly different from the nonvictim control group. (Author)

  18. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment options for depression and depressive symptoms in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania S. Grigoriou

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Depression is a mental disorder with a high prevalence among patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD. It is reported that depression afflicts approximately 20-30% of this patient population, being associated, amongst other, with high mortality rate, low adherence to medication and low perceived quality of life. There is a variety of medications known to be effective for the treatment of depression but due to poor adherence to treatment as well as due to the high need for medications addressing other ESRD comorbidities, depression often remains untreated. According to the literature, depression is under-diagnosed and undertreated in the majority of the patients with chronic kidney disease. In the current review the main pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches and research outcomes for the management of depressive symptoms in hemodialysis patients are discussed.

  19. Is postpartum depression a homogenous disorder: time of onset, severity, symptoms and hopelessness in relation to the course of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettunen, Pirjo; Koistinen, Eeva; Hintikka, Jukka

    2014-12-10

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a common illness, but due to the underlying processes and the diversity of symptoms, some variability is exhibited. The risk of postpartum depression is great if the mother has previously suffered from depression, but there is some evidence that a certain subgroup of women only experience depression during the postpartum period. The study group consisted of 104 mothers with postpartum major depression and a control group of 104 postpartum mothers without depression. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I) was used for data collection. The severity of depression and other mental symptoms were assessed using several validated rating scales. A history of past depression (82%), including depression during pregnancy (42%) and during the postpartum period (53%), was very common in those with current PPD. Eighteen per cent of mothers with current PPD had previously not had any depressive episodes and four per cent had experienced depression only during the postpartum period. Therefore, pure PPD was rare. The onset of PPD was usually (84%) within six weeks of childbirth. Obsessive-compulsive symptoms, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, depressed mood, diminished pleasure/interest, decreased energy, and psychomotor agitation/retardation were common with all kinds of depression histories. Pure PPD was the most similar to the first depressive episode. Nevertheless, the severity of depression, the level of hopelessness, somatisation, interpersonal sensitivity, anxiety, hostility, psychoticism, sleep disturbance, and suicidal ideation were lower, appetite changed less, and concentration was better than in other recurrent depressions. According to this study, PPD is not a homogenous disorder. The time of onset, severity, symptoms, level of hopelessness, and the course of depression vary. Recurrent depression is common. All mothers must be screened during the sixth week postpartum at the latest. Screening alone is not

  20. Long working hours and depressive symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virtanen, Marianna; Jokela, Markus; Madsen, Ida Eh

    2018-01-01

    Objectives This systematic review and meta-analysis combined published study-level data and unpublished individual-participant data with the aim of quantifying the relation between long working hours and the onset of depressive symptoms. Methods We searched PubMed and Embase for published....... In the majority of cohorts, long working hours was defined as working ≥55 hours per week. In multivariable-adjusted meta-analyses of 189 729 participants from 35 countries [96 275 men, 93 454 women, follow-up ranging from 1-5 years, 21 747 new-onset cases), there was an overall association of 1.14 (95% confidence...... interval (CI) 1.03-1.25] between long working hours and the onset of depressive symptoms, with significant evidence of heterogeneity (I 2=45.1%, P=0.004). A moderate association between working hours and depressive symptoms was found in Asian countries (1.50, 95% CI 1.13-2.01), a weaker association...

  1. Long working hours and depressive symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virtanen, Marianna; Jokela, Markus; Madsen, Ida Eh

    2018-01-01

    . In the majority of cohorts, long working hours was defined as working ≥55 hours per week. In multivariable-adjusted meta-analyses of 189 729 participants from 35 countries [96 275 men, 93 454 women, follow-up ranging from 1-5 years, 21 747 new-onset cases), there was an overall association of 1.14 (95% confidence......Objectives This systematic review and meta-analysis combined published study-level data and unpublished individual-participant data with the aim of quantifying the relation between long working hours and the onset of depressive symptoms. Methods We searched PubMed and Embase for published...... interval (CI) 1.03-1.25] between long working hours and the onset of depressive symptoms, with significant evidence of heterogeneity (I 2=45.1%, P=0.004). A moderate association between working hours and depressive symptoms was found in Asian countries (1.50, 95% CI 1.13-2.01), a weaker association...

  2. Prevalence and predictors of depressive symptoms among HIV-positive men who inject drugs in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levintow, Sara N; Pence, Brian W; Ha, Tran Viet; Minh, Nguyen Le; Sripaipan, Teerada; Latkin, Carl A; Vu, Pham The; Quan, Vu Minh; Frangakis, Constantine; Go, Vivian F

    2018-01-01

    HIV infection is common among people who inject drugs (PWID), and HIV-positive PWID may be particularly vulnerable to depression. This study measured the prevalence of depressive symptoms and the factors associated with severe symptoms among 455 HIV-positive PWID in Thai Nguyen, Vietnam. We used cross-sectional data from PWID in a randomized controlled trial of an intervention to reduce high-risk injecting and sexual behaviors in Thai Nguyen from 2009-2013. Depressive symptoms were measured with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). We used logistic regression to assess demographic, clinical, and psychosocial predictors of severe depressive symptoms (CES-D≥23) with prevalence odds ratios (POR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). The prevalence of severe depressive symptoms (CES-D≥23) was 44%. 25% of participants had mild to moderate depressive symptoms (16≤CES-D<23), and 31% experienced no depressive symptoms (CES-D<16). Not being married, self-rated poor health, greater frequency of injection drug use, history of overdose, no alcohol use, and daily cigarette smoking were positively associated with severe depressive symptoms in unadjusted models and remained predictive in a multivariable model. The strongest predictors of depressive symptoms were self-reported poor health (POR = 2.94, 95% CI: 1.82, 4.76), no current alcohol use (POR = 2.35, 95% CI: 1.47, 3.77), and not currently married or cohabitating (POR = 2.21, 95% CI = 1.40, 3.47). Severe depressive symptoms were common among HIV-positive PWID in Thai Nguyen and were strongly associated with demographic, clinical, and psychosocial factors. Interventions that promote social support from family and reduce drug dependence may particularly benefit PWID experiencing severe depressive symptoms. Greater recognition and treatment of depressive symptoms has the potential to enhance quality of life and improve HIV clinical outcomes for PWID.

  3. Neglected children, shame-proneness, and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, David S; Sullivan, Margaret Wolan; Lewis, Michael

    2010-11-01

    Neglected children may be at increased risk for depressive symptoms. This study examines shame-proneness as an outcome of child neglect and as a potential explanatory variable in the relation between neglect and depressive symptoms. Participants were 111 children (52 with a Child Protective Services [CPS] allegation of neglect) seen at age 7. Neglected children reported more shame-proneness and more depressive symptoms than comparison children. Guilt-proneness, in contrast, was unrelated to neglect and depressive symptoms, indicating specificity for shame-proneness. The potential role of shame as a process variable that can help explain how some neglected children exhibit depressive symptoms is discussed.

  4. A systematic review of instruments to measure depressive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lako, Irene M.; Bruggeman, R.; Knegtering, H.; Wiersma, D.; Schoevers, R. A.; Slooff, C. J.; Taxis, K.

    Background: Depressive symptoms require accurate recognition and monitoring in clinical practice of patients with schizophrenia. Depression instruments developed for use in depressed patients may not discriminate depressive symptoms from negative psychotic symptoms. Objective: We reviewed depression

  5. Depressive symptoms and early retirement intentions among Danish eldercare workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nexo, Mette Andersen; Borg, Vilhelm; Sejbaek, Camilla Sandal

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Depression increases the risk of disability pension and represents a health related strain that pushes people out of the labour market. Although early voluntary retirement is an important alternative to disability pension, few studies have examined whether depressive symptoms incur...... early voluntary retirement. This study examined whether depressive symptoms and changes in depressive symptoms over time were associated with early retirement intentions. METHODS: We used a cross-sectional (n = 4041) and a prospective (n = 2444) population from a longitudinal study on employees...... of the Danish eldercare sector. Depressive symptoms were measured by the Major Depression Inventory and the impact of different levels of depressive symptoms (severe, moderately severe, moderate, mild and none) and changes in depressive symptoms (worsened, improved, unaffected) on early retirement intentions...

  6. Learned Helplessness and Depressive Symptoms Following Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallheer, Benjamin A; Vollman, Michael; Dietrich, Mary S

    2018-06-01

    Psychosocial factors are known to impact depressive symptoms across clinical populations. Learned helplessness has the potential of affecting depressive symptoms following acute myocardial infarction (AMI), though little is known about this relationship. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between learned helplessness and depressive symptoms in patients following an AMI. Using a descriptive cross-sectional design, participants with a diagnosed AMI within the past 12 months were recruited. Standardized instruments and measures were used to evaluate learned helplessness and depressive symptoms. A statistically significant direct relationship was found between learned helplessness and depressive symptoms, suggesting that individuals with higher self-reported levels of learned helplessness also reported more depressive symptoms. These results indicate learned helplessness is associated with depressive symptoms in individuals following an AMI. In developing post-AMI treatment plans, health care staff should focus on psychologic points of intervention to the same extent as physiologic interventions.

  7. Masculine Traits and Depressive Symptoms in Older and Younger Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Elizabeth C; Gregg, Jeffrey J; Smith, Merideth D; Fiske, Amy

    2018-01-01

    Evidence suggests that men who strongly endorse masculine traits display an atypical presentation of depression, including more externalizing symptoms (e.g., anger or substance use), but fewer typical, internalizing symptoms (e.g., depressed mood or crying). This phenomenon has not been adequately explored in older adults or women. The current study used the externalizing subscale of the Masculine Depression Scale in older and younger men and women to detect atypical symptoms. It was predicted that individuals who more strongly endorsed masculine traits would have higher scores on the measure of externalizing symptoms relative to a measure of typical depressive symptoms Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale. It was anticipated that results would differ by age-group but not by gender. Multigroup path analysis was used to test the hypothesis. The hypothesized path model, in which endorsement of masculine traits was associated with lower scores on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale and with scores on the externalizing, but not internalizing, factor of the Masculine Depression Scale, fit the data well. Results differed significantly by age-group and gender. Masculine individuals reported lower levels of typical depressive symptoms relative to externalizing symptoms, but further research is needed within age- and gender groups. Results are consistent with the gendered responding framework and suggest that current assessment tools, which tend to focus on internalizing symptoms of depression, may not detect depression in individuals who endorse masculine traits.

  8. Emotion regulation predicts symptoms of depression over five years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berking, Matthias; Wirtz, Carolin M; Svaldi, Jennifer; Hofmann, Stefan G

    2014-06-01

    Deficits in emotion regulation have been identified as an important risk and maintaining factor for depression. The aim of this study was to examine the long-term effects of emotion regulation on symptoms of depression. Moreover, we investigated which specific emotion regulation skills were associated with subsequent symptoms of depression. Participants were 116 individuals (78% women, average age 35.2 years) who registered for an online-based assessment of depression and its risk-factors and reported at least some symptoms of depression. Successful application of emotion regulation skills and depressive symptom severity were assessed twice over a 5-year period. We utilized cross-lagged panel analyses to assess whether successful skills application would be negatively associated with subsequent depressive symptom severity. Cross-lagged panel analyses identified successful skills application as a significant predictor for depressive symptom severity even when controlling for the effects of initial symptoms of depression. A comparison of the effect sizes for different emotion regulation skills on subsequent depressive symptoms suggests that most of the skills included have similar predictive value. These findings provide preliminary evidence for the hypotheses that deficits in emotion regulation may contribute to the development of depression and that interventions systematically enhancing adaptive emotion regulation skills may help prevent and treat depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Beta blocker therapy is associated with reduced depressive symptoms 12 months post percutaneous coronary intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battes, L.C.; Pedersen, S.S.; Oemrawsingh, R.M.; van Geuns, R.-J.M.; Al Amri, I.; Regar, E.; de Jaegere, P.T.; Serruys, P.W.; van Domburg, R.T.

    2012-01-01

    Background Beta blocker therapy may induce depressive symptoms, although current evidence is conflicting. We examined the association between beta blocker therapy and depressive symptoms in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) patients and the extent to which there is a dose–response

  10. Maternal Depressive Symptoms as a Predictor of Alcohol Use Onset and Heavy Episodic Drinking in Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamis, Dorian A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Lochman, John E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The current study addressed a gap in the literature by investigating the association between maternal depressive symptoms and subsequent timing of their children's alcohol use onset and heavy episodic drinking (HED). Childhood depression/dysthymia symptoms, harsh discipline, and parental positive regard were examined as potential…

  11. Restrictive Emotionality, Depressive Symptoms, and Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors among High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Colleen M.; Marrocco, Frank; Kleinman, Marjorie; Gould, Madelyn S.

    2011-01-01

    Depression and suicidal thoughts and behaviors are prevalent among youth today. The current study sought to further our understanding of the correlates of depression and suicidality by assessing the relationship between restrictive emotionality (difficulty understanding and expressing emotions) and depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation and…

  12. Cross-cultural and social diversity of prevalence of postpartum depression and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbreich, Uriel; Karkun, Sandhya

    2006-04-01

    The prevalence of postpartum depression (PPD) is currently considered to be 10-15%. Most studies were performed with a brief unidimensional instruments (mostly the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale-EPDS) with focus on depression and not on other symptoms and disorders. Most cited studies were conducted in Western economically developed countries. We reviewed the literature on prevalence of postpartum depression and depressive symptoms in a wide range of countries. 143 studies were identified reporting prevalence in 40 countries. It is demonstrated that there is a wide range of reported prevalence of PPD ranging from almost 0% to almost 60%. In some countries like Singapore, Malta, Malaysia, Austria and Denmark there are very few reports of PPD or postpartum depressive symptoms, whereas in other countries (e.g. Brazil, Guyana, Costa Rica, Italy, Chile, South Africa, Taiwan and Korea) reported postpartum depressive symptoms are very prevalent. We believe that the widely cited mean prevalence of PPD-10-15% is not representative of the actual global prevalence and magnitude of the problem, due to the wide range of reports. The variability in reported PPD might be due to cross-cultural variables, reporting style, differences in perception of mental health and its stigma, differences in socio-economic environments (e.g. poverty, levels of social support or its perception, nutrition, stress), and biological vulnerability factors. The elucidation of the underlying processes of this variability as well as the diversity of postpartum normal versus abnormal expressions of symptoms may contribute to better understanding of the diversified ante, peri- and postpartum phenomena.

  13. Disruptive Behavior Disorders and Marijuana Use: The Role of Depressive Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie C. Morse

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective The present study sought to examine the relations among disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs; ie, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], conduct disorder [CD], oppositional defiant disorder [ODD], depressive symptoms, and marijuana use among a sample of late adolescents and emerging adults. Method A total of 900 students (75.8% female, 80.3% Caucasian, M age = 20 from a large public university completed an online survey. Results Findings indicated that depressive symptoms mediated the relation between the marijuana use and past symptoms of ADHD, past diagnosis of ADHD, CD symptoms, CD diagnosis, and ODD diagnosis. Conclusion Depressive symptoms represent a link between DBDs and marijuana use that is suggested, but not well documented in the existing literature. The current findings add to this evidence and suggest a need to assess individuals presenting with symptoms of DBDs for depressive symptoms, as this symptom pattern may result in a greater likelihood of marijuana use.

  14. Depressive symptoms in Chinese factory workers in Nagasaki, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Date, Yutaka; Abe, Yasuyo; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi; Ye, Zhaojia; Takamura, Noboru; Tomita, Masato; Osaki, Makoto; Honda, Sumihisa

    2009-08-01

    The number of foreign workers in Japan, especially temporary workers, has been increasing recently. However, little is known about the mental health status of the foreign workers working temporarily in Japan. We examined the depressive symptoms in 81 Chinese factory workers and attempted to identify the determining factors. The subjects were requested to complete individual questionnaires on sociodemographic variables (sex, age group, and residence period in Japan), working condition variables (number of working days per week and working hours per day), health administration variables (health checkups and health education), a social support variable (interpreters at workplace), and health behavior variables (alcohol consumption, current smoking, and regular exercise). The 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D) was used to measure the depressive symptoms. Of all the subjects, 95% and 84% received health checkups and health education, respectively, at their workplaces. The results of multiple linear regression analysis showed that long working hours per day were significantly associated with high CES-D score. Further, we found that older age (30-49 yr) was marginally associated with high CES-D score. Health administration considering working time and age would be important for decreasing depressive symptoms among foreign workers.

  15. Parenting intervention effects on parental depressive symptoms: examining the role of parenting and child behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jessie J; Gonzales, Nancy A; Montaño, Zorash; Dumka, Larry; Millsap, Roger E

    2014-06-01

    Parental depression is a major risk factor in child development. Growing research suggests parenting programs can positively impact parental depressive symptoms, although the specific mechanisms that explain these effects are unknown. The current study examined parenting mediated effects of a parenting program on mothers' and fathers' depressive symptoms, as well as the role of child behavior in linking parenting to reductions in depressive symptoms. The study samples included 494 mothers and 288 fathers of Mexican origin adolescents who participated in a randomized trial of the Bridges to High School Program/Proyecto Puentes a la Secundaria, a universal prevention and promotion intervention that included parent training but did not directly target parental depressive symptoms. Parenting mediator models tested program effects on parental depressive symptoms through changes in harsh and supportive parenting. Results showed a significant indirect intervention effect on maternal depressive symptoms through changes in mothers' harsh parenting. Next, child behavior models revealed a partial mediation effect of harsh parenting and a full mediation effect of supportive parenting on maternal depressive symptoms through mothers' reports of child externalizing symptoms. Indirect effects of fathers' harsh and supportive parenting on paternal depressive symptoms were also found through fathers' reports of child behavior. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. “Love Hurts”: Romantic Attachment and Depressive Symptoms in Pregnant Adolescent and Young Adult Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrosiers, Alethea; Sipsma, Heather; Callands, Tamora; Hansen, Nathan; Divney, Anna; Magriples, Urania; Kershaw, Trace

    2014-01-01

    Objective The current study investigates the relationship between romantic attachment style and depressive symptoms between both members of pregnant adolescent and young adult couples. Method Participants were 296 pregnant young females (mean age = 18.7) and their male partners (mean age = 21.3; 592 total participants) who were recruited from obstetrics and gynecology clinics in Connecticut. The dimensions of avoidant and anxious romantic attachment were assessed using the Experiences in Close Relationships Inventory. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale. Results Results showed that avoidant attachment and anxious attachment were significantly positively related to depressive symptoms. Multilevel modeling for partner effects revealed that anxious attachment and depressive symptoms in partners were significantly positively associated with depressive symptoms Conclusion Findings underscore the importance of considering couples-based approaches to supporting the transition to parenthood and developing the necessary self and relationship skills to manage attachment needs and relationship challenges. PMID:23794358

  17. Cognitive-affective depression and somatic symptoms clusters are differentially associated with maternal parenting and coparenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamela, Diogo; Jongenelen, Inês; Morais, Ana; Figueiredo, Bárbara

    2017-09-01

    Both depressive and somatic symptoms are significant predictors of parenting and coparenting problems. However, despite clear evidence of their co-occurrence, no study to date has examined the association between depressive-somatic symptoms clusters and parenting and coparenting. The current research sought to identify and cross-validate clusters of cognitive-affective depressive symptoms and nonspecific somatic symptoms, as well as to test whether clusters would differ on parenting and coparenting problems across three independent samples of mothers. Participants in Studies 1 and 3 consisted of 409 and 652 community mothers, respectively. Participants in Study 2 consisted of 162 mothers exposed to intimate partner violence. All participants prospectively completed self-report measures of depressive and nonspecific somatic symptoms and parenting (Studies 1 and 2) or coparenting (Study 3). Across studies, three depression-somatic symptoms clusters were identified: no symptoms, high depression and low nonspecific somatic symptoms, and high depression and nonspecific somatic symptoms. The high depression-somatic symptoms cluster was associated with the highest levels of child physical maltreatment risk (Study 1) and overt-conflict coparenting (Study 3). No differences in perceived maternal competence (Study 2) and cooperative and undermining coparenting (Study 3) were found between the high depression and low somatic symptoms cluster and the high depression-somatic symptoms cluster. The results provide novel evidence for the strong associations between clusters of depression and nonspecific somatic symptoms and specific parenting and coparenting problems. Cluster stability across three independent samples suggest that they may be generalizable. The results inform preventive approaches and evidence-based psychotherapeutic treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Characteristics associated with presence of depressive symptoms in adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Lindsey; Dawson, Geraldine; Estes, Annette; Greenson, Jessica

    2008-07-01

    Evidence suggests that individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often exhibit associated psychiatric symptoms, particularly related to depression. The current study investigated whether individual characteristics, specifically, severity of ASD symptoms, level of cognitive ability, and/or presence of other psychiatric disorders, are associated with occurrence of depressive symptoms in adults with ASD. Forty-six adults with ASD were administered a standardized psychiatric history interview. Twenty participants (43%) endorsed depressive symptoms. It was found that individuals with less social impairment, higher cognitive ability, and higher rates of other psychiatric symptoms, were more likely to report depressive symptoms. These characteristics may be vulnerability factors for the development of depression, and should be considered when screening and treating adults with ASD.

  19. Low serum BDNF levels in depressed patients cannot be attributed to individual depressive symptoms or symptom cluster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bus, B. A. A.; Molendijk, M. L.; Penninx, B. W. J. H.; Buitelaar, J. K.; Prickaerts, J.; Elzinga, B. M.; Oude Voshaar, R. C.

    OBJECTIVES: Low serum BDNF levels have been found in depressed patients. No study has systematically investigated whether individual symptoms or symptom profiles within a depressed population contribute to low BDNF levels found in depressed subjects. METHODS: All 1070 patients with a past 6-month

  20. Maternal postpartum depressive symptoms and infant externalizing and internalizing behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafai, Yassaman; Steinberg, Julia R; Shenassa, Edmond D

    2016-02-01

    Maternal postpartum depression has been shown to be one of the main predictors of externalizing and internalizing behaviors in toddlers and adolescents. Research suggests that presence of such behaviors can be observed as early as infancy. The current study uses longitudinal data from 247 mothers to examine the relationship between postpartum depressive symptoms at 8 weeks and the infant's externalizing and internalizing behaviors at 12 months. In unadjusted linear regression models, there were associations between postpartum depressive symptoms and infant externalizing behaviors (β=0.082, SE=0.032, p=0.012) and internalizing behaviors (β=0.111, SE=0.037, p=0.003). After controlling for potential confounding factors, including maternal age, race, education, home ownership, smoking status in the postpartum period, marital status, parenting stress, and happiness from becoming a parent, the associations between postpartum depressive symptoms and infant externalizing (β=0.051, SE=0.034, p=0.138) and internalizing behaviors (β=0.077, SE=0.040, p=0.057) were reduced and became non-significant. Furthermore, in these models the total amount of variance explained was 17.2% (pexternalizing behaviors and 10.5% (pexternalizing behaviors was maternal age (β=-0.074, SE=0.030, p=0.014), and of internalizing behaviors was white non-Hispanic ethnicity (β=-1.33, SE=0.378, p=0.0005). A combined effect of the confounding factors seems to explain the finding of no significant independent association between postpartum depressive symptoms and infant externalizing and internalizing behaviors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Anxiety and depression symptoms and migraine: a symptom-based approach research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Mario Fernando Prieto; Mercante, Juliane P P; Tobo, Patricia R; Kamei, Helder; Bigal, Marcelo Eduardo

    2017-12-01

    Anxiety and mood disorders have been shown to be the most relevant psychiatric comorbidities associated with migraine, influencing its clinical course, treatment response, and clinical outcomes. Limited information is available on how specific anxiety and depression symptoms are related to migraine. Symptoms-based approach, a current trend in mental health research, may improve our understanding in migraine comorbidity. The purpose of this study was to analyze how anxiety and depression aspects are related to migraine through a symptom-based approach. We studied 782 patients from the general population who completed a self-administered questionnaire assessing demographics, headache features, anxiety and depression symptoms. A binary logistic regression analyses were conducted to test the association between all four ratings in GAD-7 (anxiety) and PHQ-9 (depression) scales subitems as covariates, and migraine vs no headache as the outcome. The leading Odd Ratios (OR) observed in individuals with migraine relative to those without migraine were anxiety related, "Not being able to stop or control worrying" on a daily basis [OR (CI 95%)] 49.2 (13.6-178.2), "trouble relaxing" 25.7 (7.1-92.6), "Feeling nervous, anxious or on edge" on a daily basis 25.4 (6.9-93.8), and "worrying too much about different things" 24.4 (7.7-77.6). Although the hallmark symptoms of depression are emotional (hopelessness and sadness), the highest scores found were physical: apetite, fatigue, and poor sleep. Irritability had a significant increase in migraine risk [OR 3.8 (1.9-7.8) if experienced some days, 7.5 (2.7-20.7) more than half the days, and 22.0 (5.7-84.9) when experienced nearly every day]. Anxiety was more robustly associated with increase in migraine risk than depression. Lack of ability to properly control worrying and to relax are the most prominent issues in migraine psychiatric comorbidity. Physical symptoms in depression are more linked to migraine than emotional symptoms. A

  2. Burnout and depressive symptoms in intensive care nurses: relationship analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Eduardo Motta de; Martino, Milva Maria Figueiredo De; França, Salomão Patrício de Souza

    2018-01-01

    To analyze the existence of a relationship between burnout and depressive symptoms among intensive care unit nursing staff. A quantitative, descriptive, cross-sectional study with 91 intensive care nurses. Data collection used a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Maslach Burnout Inventory - Human Services Survey, and the Beck Depression Inventory - I. The Pearson test verified the correlation between the burnout dimension score and the total score from the Beck Depression Inventory. Fisher's exact test was used to analyze whether there is an association between the diseases. Burnout was presented by 14.29% of the nurses and 10.98% had symptoms of depression. The higher the level of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, and the lower professional accomplishment, the greater the depressive symptoms. The association was significant between burnout and depressive symptoms. Nurses with burnout have a greater possibility of triggering depressive symptoms.

  3. Burnout and depressive symptoms in intensive care nurses: relationship analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Motta de Vasconcelos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the existence of a relationship between burnout and depressive symptoms among intensive care unit nursing staff. Method: A quantitative, descriptive, cross-sectional study with 91 intensive care nurses. Data collection used a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Maslach Burnout Inventory - Human Services Survey, and the Beck Depression Inventory - I. The Pearson test verified the correlation between the burnout dimension score and the total score from the Beck Depression Inventory. Fisher's exact test was used to analyze whether there is an association between the diseases. Results: Burnout was presented by 14.29% of the nurses and 10.98% had symptoms of depression. The higher the level of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, and the lower professional accomplishment, the greater the depressive symptoms. The association was significant between burnout and depressive symptoms. Conclusion: Nurses with burnout have a greater possibility of triggering depressive symptoms.

  4. Rumination, depressive symptoms and awareness of illness in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Neil; Ribaux, Darryl; Phillips, Lisa J

    2014-03-01

    Depressive symptoms are common in schizophrenia. Previous studies have observed that depressive symptoms are associated with both insight and negative appraisals of illness, suggesting that the way in which the person thinks about their illness may influence the occurrence of depressive responses. In affective disorders, one of the most well-established cognitive processes associated with depressive symptoms is rumination, a pattern of perseverative, self-focused negative thinking. This study examined whether rumination focused on mental illness was predictive of depressive symptoms during the subacute phase of schizophrenia. Forty participants with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and in a stable phase of illness completed measures of rumination, depressive symptoms, awareness of illness, and positive and negative symptoms. Depressive symptoms were correlated with rumination, including when controlling for positive and negative symptoms. The content of rumination frequently focused on mental illness and its causes and consequences, in particular social disability and disadvantage. Depressive symptoms were predicted by awareness of the social consequences of mental illness, an effect that was mediated by rumination. Results suggest that a process of perseveratively dwelling upon mental illness and its social consequences may be a factor contributing to depressive symptoms in people with chronic schizophrenia.

  5. Depressive symptoms in community-dwelling persons aged ≥60 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objectives of this study were to determine if depression or depressive symptoms were significant problems in this population and to identify possible risk ..... student population in 1991, and results were comparable with those in previous ...

  6. Depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms in menopausal arab women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms in menopausal arab women: Shedding ... and stress were measured using the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales 21. ... and which had negative effects on the quality of life among Arabian women.

  7. Depressive Symptoms in Bariatric Surgery Patients with Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Carolyn J; Heinberg, Leslie J; Lapin, Brittany; Aminian, Ali; Sullivan, Amy B

    2018-04-01

    Bariatric surgery has been shown to be a safe and effective intervention for patients with comorbid obesity and multiple sclerosis (MS); however, this sub-population may be at heightened risk for pre- and postoperative depressive symptoms. This current exploratory study aims to describe the prevalence and nature of depressive symptoms in a sample of patients with MS who undergo bariatric surgery. Medical records were retrospectively reviewed to identify patients who received bariatric surgery and had a diagnosis of MS (n = 31) and a control sample of non-surgical MS patients with severe obesity (n = 828). Longitudinal outcome measures included the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and Multiple Sclerosis Performance Scale (MSPS). There were no significant differences in PHQ-9 total and item scores between groups at baseline. PHQ-9 scores significantly improved at years 1 (p bariatric surgery when compared to non-surgical controls. Higher BMI (p = 0.03) and worse overall quality of life (p bariatric group. When compared to controls, the bariatric group demonstrated improved MSPS scores on a trend level 1 year post-surgery (p = 0.08). Consistent with the literature on more general bariatric surgery populations, current findings highlight the possible early benefits of bariatric surgery for reducing depressive symptoms in this population when compared to controls. Importantly, results should be viewed as preliminary and additional research is needed to examine bariatric surgery and associations with depressive symptoms and performance in the MS population.

  8. The Effectiveness of Aromatherapy for Depressive Symptoms: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Vidaña, Dalinda Isabel; Ngai, Shirley Pui-Ching; He, Wanjia; Chow, Jason Ka-Wing; Lau, Benson Wui-Man; Tsang, Hector Wing-Hong

    2017-01-01

    Background. Depression is one of the greatest health concerns affecting 350 million people globally. Aromatherapy is a popular CAM intervention chosen by people with depression. Due to the growing popularity of aromatherapy for alleviating depressive symptoms, in-depth evaluation of the evidence-based clinical efficacy of aromatherapy is urgently needed. Purpose. This systematic review aims to provide an analysis of the clinical evidence on the efficacy of aromatherapy for depressive symptoms...

  9. Cotard Syndrome without Depressive Symptoms in a Schizophrenic Patient.

    OpenAIRE

    Morgado, P; Ribeiro, R; Cerqueira, JJ

    2015-01-01

    Cotard Syndrome without Depressive Symptoms in a Schizophrenic Patient Introduction . Cotard syndrome is a rare condition characterized by nihilistic delusions concerning body or life that can be found in several neuropsychiatry conditions. It is typically associated with depressive symptoms. Method . We present a case of Cotard syndrome without depressive symptoms in the context of known paranoid schizophrenia. A literature review of Cotard syndrome in schizophrenia was performed. Res...

  10. Selective neurocognitive deficits and poor life functioning are associated with significant depressive symptoms in alcoholism-HIV infection comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassoon, Stephanie A; Rosenbloom, Margaret J; Fama, Rosemary; Sullivan, Edith V; Pfefferbaum, Adolf

    2012-09-30

    Alcoholism, HIV, and depressive symptoms frequently co-occur and are associated with impairment in cognition and life function. We administered the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), measures of life function, and neurocognitive tests to 67 alcoholics, 56 HIV+ patients, 63 HIV+ alcoholics, and 64 controls to examine whether current depressive symptom level (significant, BDI-II>14 vs. minimal, BDI-IIalcoholism-HIV comorbidity. Participants with significant depressive symptoms demonstrated slower manual motor speed and poorer visuospatial memory than those with minimal depressive symptoms. HIV patients with depressive symptoms showed impaired manual motor speed. Alcoholics with depressive symptoms showed impaired visuospatial memory. HIV+ alcoholics with depressive symptoms reported the poorest quality of life; alcoholics with depressive symptoms, irrespective of HIV status, had poorest life functioning. Thus, significant depressive symptoms were associated with poorer selective cognitive and life functioning in alcoholism and in HIV infection, even though depressive symptoms had neither synergistic nor additive effects on cognition in alcoholism-HIV comorbidity. The results suggest the relevance of assessing and treating current depressive symptoms to reduce cognitive compromise and functional disability in HIV infection, alcoholism, and their comorbidity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Information processing biases concurrently and prospectively predict depressive symptoms in adolescents: Evidence from a self-referent encoding task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Samantha L; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2016-01-01

    Negative information processing biases have been hypothesised to serve as precursors for the development of depression. The current study examined negative self-referent information processing and depressive symptoms in a community sample of adolescents (N = 291, Mage at baseline = 12.34 ± 0.61, 53% female, 47.4% African-American, 49.5% Caucasian and 3.1% Biracial). Participants completed a computerised self-referent encoding task (SRET) and a measure of depressive symptoms at baseline and completed an additional measure of depressive symptoms nine months later. Several negative information processing biases on the SRET were associated with concurrent depressive symptoms and predicted increases in depressive symptoms at follow-up. Findings partially support the hypothesis that negative information processing biases are associated with depressive symptoms in a nonclinical sample of adolescents, and provide preliminary evidence that these biases prospectively predict increases in depressive symptoms.

  12. Association between religiosity and depressive symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuleima Cogollo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground: Several studies report a significant association between religiosity and depressive symptoms among adolescents; but, other researches do not. Up to date, this relation has not investigated in adolescent students who live in a violent and low-income country. Objective: To establish the correlation between religiosity and depressive symptoms among students in Cartagena, Colombia. Method: A cross-sectional study was done with participation of adolescents aged between 13 and 17 years old. Students completed two scales: the five-item form of the Francis scale of attitude toward Christianity (Francis-5, which asked about God, Jesus and prayer (higher scores suggest higher religiosity; and the WHO Well-Being Index (WHO-5 inquired depressive symptoms last two weeks (lower scores suggest higher depressive symptoms. It was accepted as a significant Pearson correlation (rho, r a coefficient value higher than 0.20. A total of 1,730 students answered the questionnaires. The mean age was 14.7 (SD = 1.2. According to gender, 912 (52.7% students were girls; and 818 (47.3%, boys. Francis-5 showed high internal consistency, coefficient alpha of 0.909; and coefficient omega of 0.910. WHO-5 presented coefficient alpha of 0.757; and omega of 0.759. The Francis-5 scores were between zero and twenty (Mean = 18.2, SD = 3.0, median = 20, mode = 20; and WHO-5 scores, between zero and fifteen (Mean = 10.2, SD = 3.1, median = 10, mode = 10. Religiosity had not significant correlation with depressive symptoms (r = 0.080. Conclusions: Religiosity is not associated with depressive symptoms among adolescent students in Cartagena, Colombia. (DUAZARY 2013 No. 1, 15 - 19Keywords: Depressive symptoms; religiosity; adolescents; students; cross-sectional studyResumenIntroducción: varios estudios informan asociación significativa entre religiosidad y síntomas depresivos en adolescentes; sin embargo, otras investigaciones no. Hasta la fecha, esta relación no se

  13. The Core Symptoms of Bulimia Nervosa, Anxiety, and Depression: A Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Cheri A.; Zerwas, Stephanie; Calebs, Benjamin; Forbush, Kelsie; Kordy, Hans; Watson, Hunna; Hofmeier, Sara; Levine, Michele; Crosby, Ross D.; Peat, Christine; Runfola, Cristin D.; Zimmer, Benjamin; Moesner, Markus; Marcus, Marsha D.; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2017-01-01

    Bulimia nervosa (BN) is characterized by symptoms of binge eating and compensatory behavior, and overevaluation of weight and shape, which often co-occur with symptoms of anxiety and depression. However, there is little research identifying which specific BN symptoms maintain BN psychopathology and how they are associated with symptoms of depression and anxiety. Network analyses represent an emerging method in psychopathology research to examine how symptoms interact and may become self-reinforcing. In the current study of adults with a DSM-IV diagnosis of BN (N = 196), we used network analysis to identify the central symptoms of BN, as well as symptoms that may bridge the association between BN symptoms and anxiety and depression symptoms. Results showed that fear of weight gain was central to BN psychopathology, whereas binge eating, purging, and restriction were less central in the symptom network. Symptoms related to sensitivity to physical sensations (e.g., changes in appetite, feeling dizzy, wobbly) were identified as bridge symptoms between BN, and anxiety and depressive symptoms. We discuss our findings with respect to cognitive-behavioral treatment approaches for BN. These findings suggest that treatments for BN should focus on fear of weight gain, perhaps through exposure therapies. Further, interventions focusing on exposure to physical sensations may also address BN psychopathology, as well as co-occurring anxiety and depressive symptoms. PMID:28277735

  14. The core symptoms of bulimia nervosa, anxiety, and depression: A network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Cheri A; Zerwas, Stephanie; Calebs, Benjamin; Forbush, Kelsie; Kordy, Hans; Watson, Hunna; Hofmeier, Sara; Levine, Michele; Crosby, Ross D; Peat, Christine; Runfola, Cristin D; Zimmer, Benjamin; Moesner, Markus; Marcus, Marsha D; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2017-04-01

    Bulimia nervosa (BN) is characterized by symptoms of binge eating and compensatory behavior, and overevaluation of weight and shape, which often co-occur with symptoms of anxiety and depression. However, there is little research identifying which specific BN symptoms maintain BN psychopathology and how they are associated with symptoms of depression and anxiety. Network analyses represent an emerging method in psychopathology research to examine how symptoms interact and may become self-reinforcing. In the current study of adults with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition ( DSM-IV ) diagnosis of BN (N = 196), we used network analysis to identify the central symptoms of BN, as well as symptoms that may bridge the association between BN symptoms and anxiety and depression symptoms. Results showed that fear of weight gain was central to BN psychopathology, whereas binge eating, purging, and restriction were less central in the symptom network. Symptoms related to sensitivity to physical sensations (e.g., changes in appetite, feeling dizzy, and wobbly) were identified as bridge symptoms between BN, and anxiety and depressive symptoms. We discuss our findings with respect to cognitive-behavioral treatment approaches for BN. These findings suggest that treatments for BN should focus on fear of weight gain, perhaps through exposure therapies. Further, interventions focusing on exposure to physical sensations may also address BN psychopathology, as well as co-occurring anxiety and depressive symptoms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Sleep Duration and Depressive Symptoms: A Gene-Environment Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Nathaniel F.; Harden, Kathryn Paige; Buchwald, Dedra; Vitiello, Michael V.; Pack, Allan I.; Strachan, Eric; Goldberg, Jack

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We used quantitative genetic models to assess whether sleep duration modifies genetic and environmental influences on depressive symptoms. Method: Participants were 1,788 adult twins from 894 same-sex twin pairs (192 male and 412 female monozygotic [MZ] pairs, and 81 male and 209 female dizygotic [DZ] pairs] from the University of Washington Twin Registry. Participants self-reported habitual sleep duration and depressive symptoms. Data were analyzed using quantitative genetic interaction models, which allowed the magnitude of additive genetic, shared environmental, and non-shared environmental influences on depressive symptoms to vary with sleep duration. Results: Within MZ twin pairs, the twin who reported longer sleep duration reported fewer depressive symptoms (ec = -0.17, SE = 0.06, P sleep duration interaction effect on depressive symptoms (a'c = 0.23, SE = 0.08, P sleep duration and depressive symptoms. Among individuals with sleep duration within the normal range (7-8.9 h/night), the total heritability (h2) of depressive symptoms was approximately 27%. However, among individuals with sleep duration within the low (sleep duration extremes (5 h/night: h2 = 53%; 10 h/night: h2 = 49%). Conclusion: Genetic contributions to depressive symptoms increase at both short and long sleep durations. Citation: Watson NF; Harden KP; Buchwald D; Vitiello MV; Pack AI; Stachan E; Goldberg J. Sleep duration and depressive symptoms: a gene-environment interaction. SLEEP 2014;37(2):351-358. PMID:24497663

  16. Psychosocial working conditions and depressive symptoms among Swedish employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L; Theorell, Töres; Bech, Per

    2009-01-01

    Survey 2003. Work demands, decision authority, support and conflicts at work were measured in 2003. Depressive symptoms were recorded in 2006 by a short version of the depression subscale of the Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90). Linear regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: After adjusting......PURPOSE: To investigate prospective associations between working conditions and depressive symptoms in Swedish men and women. METHODS: The study was based on SLOSH (N = 5,985), a follow-up of a representative sample of gainfully employed Swedes 16-64 years of age from the Swedish Work Environment...... authority, support and conflicts at work are predictive of depressive symptoms in the general Swedish working population....

  17. Depressive Symptoms, Exercise Capacity, and Clinical Outcomes After Lung Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Patrick J; Byrd, Rebecca; Lusby, Megan; Clausen, Emily; Snyder, Laurie D

    2018-05-01

    Depressive symptoms are common among lung transplant recipients and have been associated with worse clinical outcomes. However, few studies have examined the association between depressive symptoms assessed at multiple time points or behavioral mechanisms by which posttransplant depressive symptoms may confer greater clinical risk. We therefore examined the associations between depressive symptoms, exercise capacity, chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD), and mortality prospectively in a large sample of lung transplant recipients. Between July 2009 and February 2016, 251 lung transplant recipients were assessed before transplantation and again approximately 3 weeks and 3 months after transplant. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Centers for Epidemiologic Studies of Depression scale. Functional exercise capacity was assessed using the 6-minute walk test. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the associations between depressive symptoms, exercise capacity, CLAD, and mortality. During a median (range) follow-up of 4.5 (0.1 to 6.3) years, 53 participants (21%) died. Greater depressive symptoms (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.39 [95% CI = 1.05 to 1.84], p = .021) and poorer exercise capacity (HR = 0.58 [95% CI = 0.38 to 0.90], p = .021) assessed 3 months after transplant were both independently associated with mortality. Although greater depressive symptoms were associated with lower exercise capacity (β = -0.14, p = .039), exercise capacity did not mediate the association between depressive symptoms and mortality. In secondary analyses, depressive symptoms were independently predictive of CLAD (HR = 1.29 [95% CI = 1.01 to 1.65], p = .045) and the composite outcome of CLAD and mortality in a clustered event model (HR = 1.30 [1.09 to 1.56], p = .005). Depressive symptoms are associated with mortality and CLAD after lung transplantation, independent of exercise capacity.

  18. Workplace sexual harassment and depressive symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friborg, Maria K; Hansen, Jørgen V; Aldrich, Per T

    2017-01-01

    employees and supervisors in 1041 organizations within 5 occupations. Data were analyzed using multilevel regression and analyses adjusted for gender, age, occupation and socioeconomic position. RESULTS: Exposure to workplace sexual harassment from clients or customers was statistically significantly......BACKGROUND: Previous research has reported that sexual harassment can lead to reduced mental health. Few studies have focused on sexual harassment conducted by clients or customers, which might occur in person-related occupations such as eldercare work, social work or customer service work....... This study examined the cross-sectional association between sexual harassment by clients or customers and depressive symptoms. We also examined if this association was different compared to sexual harassment conducted by a colleague, supervisor or subordinate. Further, we investigated if psychosocial...

  19. Workplace sexual harassment and depressive symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friborg, Maria K.; Hansen, Jørgen V.; Aldrich, Per T.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Previous research has reported that sexual harassment can lead to reduced mental health. Few studies have focused on sexual harassment conducted by clients or customers, which might occur in person-related occupations such as eldercare work, social work or customer service work...... workplace initiatives modified the association between sexual harassment by clients or customers and level of depressive symptoms. Methods: We used data from the Work Environment and Health in Denmark cohort study (WEHD) and the Work Environment Activities in Danish Workplaces Study (WEADW) collected...... employees and supervisors in 1041 organizations within 5 occupations. Data were analyzed using multilevel regression and analyses adjusted for gender, age, occupation and socioeconomic position. Results: Exposure to workplace sexual harassment from clients or customers was statistically significantly...

  20. Association of Symptom Network Structure With the Course of Longitudinal Depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Borkulo, Claudia; Boschloo, Lynn; Borsboom, Denny; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Waldorp, Lourens J.; Schoevers, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a heterogeneous condition in terms of symptoms, course, and underlying disease mechanisms. Current classifications do not adequately address this complexity. In novel network approaches to psychopathology, psychiatric disorders are conceptualized as

  1. Association of Symptom Network Structure With the Course of [corrected] Depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Borkulo, Claudia; Boschloo, Lynn; Borsboom, Denny; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Waldorp, Lourens J; Schoevers, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a heterogeneous condition in terms of symptoms, course, and underlying disease mechanisms. Current classifications do not adequately address this complexity. In novel network approaches to psychopathology, psychiatric disorders are conceptualized as

  2. Association of symptom network structure with the course of longitudinal depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Borkulo, C.; Boschloo, L.; Borsboom, D.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Waldorp, L.J.; Schoevers, R.A.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a heterogeneous condition in terms of symptoms, course, and underlying disease mechanisms. Current classifications do not adequately address this complexity. In novel network approaches to psychopathology, psychiatric disorders are conceptualized as

  3. Maternal depressive symptoms in pediatric major depressive disorder: relationship to acute treatment outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennard, Betsy D; Hughes, Jennifer L; Stewart, Sunita M; Mayes, Taryn; Nightingale-Teresi, Jeanne; Tao, Rongrong; Carmody, Thomas; Emslie, Graham J

    2008-06-01

    In the present study, we assess maternal depressive symptoms at the beginning and end of treatment to investigate the possible reciprocal relationship of maternal illness with the child's depressive illness and treatment. We present data on 146 children and their mothers who were participating in a pediatric acute treatment study of fluoxetine. Patients were assessed with the Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised at baseline and at each treatment visit. Mothers completed the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Self Report at baseline and end of acute treatment. Thirty percent of mothers had moderate to severe levels of depressive symptoms at the child's baseline assessment. Overall, mothers reported improvement in maternal depressive symptoms at the end of their child's acute treatment, although maternal depression was not specifically targeted for intervention. Furthermore, mother's depressive symptoms appear to be associated with the child's depression severity both at the beginning and end of treatment. Mothers with higher levels of depressive symptoms had children with higher levels of depression severity at baseline and over the course of treatment. However, maternal depressive symptoms at baseline had no association with the rate of improvement of child depression severity. This study indicates a positive relationship between the depression severity of mothers and their children. These findings highlight potential areas of intervention in the acute treatment of childhood depression.

  4. Adolescents' and Best Friend's Depressive Symptoms and Conflict Management: Intraindividual and Interpersonal Processes Over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boersma-van Dam, Elise; Hale, Bill; Koot, Hans; Meeus, Wim; Branje, Susan

    2016-12-12

    This 6-year longitudinal study examined the relation between 3 conflict management styles (i.e., problem solving, conflict engagement, and compliance) and depressive symptoms in adolescent-best friend relationships. Participants were 479 Dutch adolescents and their best friend who reported annually on depressive symptoms and conflict management styles toward each other. Bidirectional effects between conflict management styles and depressive symptoms were studied both within adolescents (intraindividual) and between adolescent best friends (interpersonal). A positive interpersonal effect of depressive symptoms of one dyad member on depressive symptoms of the other member was found. Similarly, higher positive problem solving and conflict engagement of one dyad member predicted respectively higher problem solving and conflict engagement of the other dyad member. Adolescents who reported more depressive symptoms reported more conflict engagement and compliance over time. In addition, for boys, higher levels of depressive symptoms of one dyad member were related to more problem solving by the other member over time. The current study contributed to the literature by showing that depressive symptoms and conflict management are related constructs in adolescents and that both intrapersonal and interpersonal processes contribute to this relation.

  5. Inferential Style, School Teachers, and Depressive Symptoms in College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline M. Pittard,

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Depressive symptoms affect around half of students at some point during college. According to the hopelessness theory of depression, making negative inferences about stressful events is a vulnerability for developing depression. Negative and socioemotional teaching behavior can be stressors that are associated with depression in school students. First-time college freshmen completed the Cognitive Style Questionnaire (CSQ, Teaching Behavior Questionnaire (TBQ, and Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D. While completing the TBQ, participants reported on a teacher from prior education to college. Multiple regression analysis found significant effects of the independent variables (four teaching behavior types, inferential style, and interactions between the four teaching behavior types and inferential style on the dependent variable (depressive symptoms. More specifically, negative and socio-emotional teaching behavior were positively associated with depressive symptoms and instructional and organizational teaching behavior were negatively associated with depressive symptoms. Both organizational and negative teaching behavior interacted significantly with inferential style. Organizational and negative teaching behavior shared different relationships with depressive symptoms depending upon an individual‟s level of inferential style. Promotion of instructional and organizational teaching behavior in school as well as the reduction of negative teaching behavior may be useful in reducing students‟ depressive symptoms.

  6. Children's Depressive Symptoms in Relation to EEG Frontal Asymmetry and Maternal Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xin; Forbes, Erika E.; Kovacs, Maria; George, Charles J.; Lopez-Duran, Nestor L.; Fox, Nathan A.; Cohn, Jeffrey F.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relations of school-age children's depressive symptoms, frontal EEG asymmetry, and maternal history of childhood-onset depression (COD). Participants were 73 children, 43 of whom had mothers with COD. Children's EEG was recorded at baseline and while watching happy and sad film clips. Depressive symptoms were measured using…

  7. Depressive and post-traumatic stress symptoms following ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Depressive and post-traumatic stress symptoms following termination of pregnancy in South African women: A longitudinal study measuring the effects of ... The relationship between demographic characteristics, resilience and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression before, 1 month after and 3 ...

  8. Childhood abuse, personality traits, and depressive symptoms in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-Ah; Song, Rira

    2017-03-01

    This study examined associations among childhood abuse, personality traits, and depressive symptoms in adulthood, and whether and how the effects of childhood abuse on depressive symptoms are mediated by the Big Five personality traits (i.e., extraversion, conscientiousness, emotional stability, agreeableness, and openness). The data were drawn from the 2012 Korean General Social Survey, a nationally representative survey using a multistage area proportional probability sampling method. Random effects regression and the Sobel test were used. Random effects models showed that physical and emotional abuse in childhood significantly increased depressive symptoms in adulthood, even after controlling for personality traits and socio-demographic factors. The coefficients of childhood abuse slightly decreased when personality traits were controlled, suggesting that personality traits mediated the relationship between childhood abuse and depressive symptoms. Among the personality traits, extraversion and emotional stability were negatively associated with depressive symptoms whereas agreeableness was positively associated with depressive symptoms. The results of the Sobel test showed that only emotional stability significantly mediated the effects of childhood abuse on depressive symptoms. Those who were exposed to childhood abuse had lower levels of emotional stability, which, in turn, led to depressive symptoms in adulthood. The findings suggest that childhood abuse may have a long lasting effect on mental health over the life course by influencing the formation of personality traits through developmental periods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Emotional inertia contributes to depressive symptoms beyond perseverative thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brose, Annette; Schmiedek, Florian; Koval, Peter; Kuppens, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The autocorrelation or inertia of negative affect reflects how much negative emotions carry over from moment to moment and has been associated with increased depressive symptoms. In this study, we posed three challenges to this association by examining: (1) whether emotional inertia is relevant for depressive symptoms when assessed on a longer timescale than usual; (2) whether inertia is uniquely related to depressive symptoms after controlling for perseverative thoughts; and (3) whether inertia is related to depressive symptoms over and above the within-person association between affect and perseverative thoughts. Participants (N = 101) provided ratings of affect and perseverative thoughts for 100 days; depressive symptoms were reported before and after the study, and again after 2.5 years. Day-to-day emotional inertia was related to depressive symptoms over and above trait and state perseverative thoughts. Moreover, inertia predicted depressive symptoms when adjusting for its association with perseverative thoughts. These findings establish the relevance of emotional inertia in depressive symptoms independent of perseverative thoughts.

  10. Relation of Positive and Negative Parenting to Children's Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallaire, Danielle H.; Pineda, Ashley Q.; Cole, David A.; Ciesla, Jeffrey A.; Jacquez, Farrah; LaGrange, Beth; Bruce, Alanna E.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the combined and cumulative effects of supportive-positive and harsh-negative parenting behaviors on children's depressive symptoms. A diverse sample of 515 male and female elementary and middle school students (ages 7 to 11) and their parents provided reports of the children's depressive symptoms. Parents provided self-reports…

  11. Substance Use, Anxiety, and Depressive Symptoms among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Kenneth S.; Bulmer, Sandra Minor; Troiano, Peter F.; Obiaka, Uzoma; Bonhomme, Rebecca

    2018-01-01

    Research on college substance use and mental illness is limited and inconsistent. Measures of substance use, and anxiety and depressive symptoms, were completed by 1,316 undergraduates within a major drug transportation corridor. Hierarchical linear regressions were used to test associations between anxious and depressive symptoms and substance…

  12. Subclinical depressive symptoms during late midlife and structural brain alterations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; Sørensen, Lauge; Rozing, Maarten

    2018-01-01

    and brain structure outcomes were tested using Pearson's correlation, t test, and linear regression. Depressive symptoms at age 51 showed clear inverse correlations with total gray matter, pallidum, and hippocampal volume with the strongest estimate for hippocampal volume (r = -.22, p ... exclusion of men (n = 3) with scores in the range of clinical depression the inverse correlation between depressive symptoms and hippocampal volume became insignificant (r = -13, p = .08). Depressive symptoms at age 59 correlated positively with hippocampal and amygdala texture-potential early markers...

  13. Coparenting Behaviors as Mediators Between Postpartum Parental Depressive Symptoms and Toddler’s Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé Tissot

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Postpartum parental depression, even of mild intensity and short duration, has negative consequences on child development, including increased externalizing and internalizing symptoms. Studies revealed that the links between parental depression and child development are mediated by parenting difficulties. On the other hand, the mediating role of problematic family-level relationships, such as low coparenting support and high conflict between the parents, has rarely been considered, although coparenting difficulties have been linked with both increased depressive symptoms in parents and increased symptoms in toddlers. In the present study, we proposed testing a comprehensive mediation model linking parental depression, coparenting, and child symptoms. At 3 months postpartum, a convenience sample of 69 parental couples completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. In addition, we assessed levels of coparenting support and conflict during a mother–father–infant play situation, the Lausanne Trilogue Play. At 18 months postpartum, both parents assessed child symptoms with the Symptom Checklist Questionnaire. The results showed that coparenting support mediated the links between parental depressive symptoms and child symptoms, but only for mothers: Maternal depressive symptoms were linked with lower coparenting support, which in turn predicted increased psychofunctional symptoms and behavior problems assessed by mothers. Although coparenting conflict behaviors were not predicted by parents’ depressive symptoms, higher conflict was unexpectedly linked with fewer behavior problems assessed by both parents. The present study allowed us to unveil complex pathways between mild parental mood disturbances, family-level relationships, and child development in the first months of the child’s life.

  14. Coronary artery disease and symptoms of depression in a Kenyan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coronary artery disease and symptoms of depression in a Kenyan population. ... death. Little is known about the co-morbidity of heart disease and depression in Africa. Objective: To describe the prevalence of depression in Black Africans with and without. Coronary Artery Disease as documented on coronary angiography ...

  15. Prevalence of symptoms of depression among patients with chronic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Depression is the most common psychiatric illness in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Depression has been shown to affect mortality in end-stage renal disease patients. The objective of this study was to determine prevalence of depressive symptoms among CKD patients. Materials and Methods: A ...

  16. Stressful life events and depression symptoms: the effect of childhood emotional abuse on stress reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapero, Benjamin G; Black, Shimrit K; Liu, Richard T; Klugman, Joshua; Bender, Rachel E; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2014-03-01

    Stressful life events are associated with an increase in depressive symptoms and the onset of major depression. Importantly, research has shown that the role of stress changes over the course of depression. The present study extends the current literature by examining the effects of early life stress on emotional reactivity to current stressors. In a multiwave study (N = 281, mean age = 18.76; 68% female), we investigated the proximal changes that occur in depressive symptoms when individuals are faced with life stress and whether a history of childhood emotional abuse moderates this relationship. Results support the stress sensitivity hypothesis for early emotional abuse history. Individuals with greater childhood emotional abuse severity experienced greater increases in depressive symptoms when confronted with current dependent stressors, controlling for childhood physical and sexual abuse. This study highlights the importance of emotional abuse as an indicator for reactivity to stressful life events. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Transformational leadership and depressive symptoms: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, Fehmidah; Nielsen, Karina; Carneiro, Isabella Gomes

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between transformational leadership and depressive symptoms in employees working within healthcare. 447 employees completed a baseline survey and 274 completed a follow-up survey 18 months later. 188 completed both baseline and follow-up survey. Transformational leadership was measured using the Global Transformational Leadership Scale and depression was measured using with the Major Depression Inventory. Transformational leadership was negatively associated with depressive symptoms at baseline (beta=-0.31, ptransformational leadership style may help toward protecting employees from developing major depression.

  18. Depressive symptoms in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne S; Andersen, Christina M; Denollet, Johan

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) and co-morbid depression are at greater risk of poor quality of life and premature death. We examined if treatment expectations predict depressive symptoms 12months post implant. METHODS: First-time implant patients from...... of 12-months depressive symptoms: Model 1: Negative treatment expectations (β=0.202; p=0.020) and baseline depression (β=0.376; pdepression (β=0.350; p....051). Model 3: Baseline depression (β=0.353; p

  19. Within-person Changes in Individual Symptoms of Depression Predict Subsequent Depressive Episodes in Adolescents: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Morris, Matthew C.; Garber, Judy

    2015-01-01

    The current longitudinal study examined which individual symptoms of depression uniquely predicted a subsequent Major Depressive Episode (MDE) in adolescents, and whether these relations differed by sex. Adolescents (N=240) were first interviewed in grade 6 (M=11.86 years old; SD = 0.56; 54% female; 81.5% Caucasian) and then annually through grade 12 regarding their individual symptoms of depression as well as the occurrence of MDEs. Individual symptoms of depression were assessed with the Children’s Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R) and depressive episodes were assessed with the Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation (LIFE). Results showed that within-person changes in sleep problems and low self-esteem/excessive guilt positively predicted an increased likelihood of an MDE for both boys and girls. Significant sex differences also were found. Within-person changes in anhedonia predicted an increased likelihood of a subsequent MDE among boys, whereas irritability predicted a decreased likelihood of a future MDE among boys, and concentration difficulties predicted a decreased likelihood of an MDE in girls. These results identified individual depressive symptoms that predicted subsequent depressive episodes in male and female adolescents, and may be used to guide the early detection, treatment, and prevention of depressive disorders in youth. PMID:26105209

  20. Eating psychopathology as a risk factor for depressive symptoms in a sample of British athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Vaithehy; Jowett, Sophia; Meyer, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Within the clinical literature it is accepted that there is a strong connection between eating disorders and depression; however the nature of the casual relationship is somewhat unclear. Therefore the aim of the present study was to determine the prospective relationship between eating psychopathology and depressive symptoms among competitive British athletes. A total of 122 athletes completed the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire and the depression subscale of the Symptom Checklist-90R over a 6-month period. Partial correlations revealed that when controlling for baseline eating psychopathology, athletes' baseline depressive symptoms was not related to their eating psychopathology 6 months later. However, when controlling for baseline depressive symptoms, athletes' initial eating psychopathology was positively and significantly related to depressive symptoms 6 months later. Subsequent hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed athletes' initial levels of eating psychopathology significantly predicted depressive symptoms 6 months later. The current findings support the assertion that elevated eating psychopathology serves as a potential risk factor for the development of depression in athletes. Thus, National Governing Bodies, athletic clubs, sport organisations and universities need to recognise and be aware that exposure to the factors that increase the risk of eating disorders inadvertently serves to increase athletes' vulnerability for depression.

  1. Beta blocker therapy is associated with reduced depressive symptoms 12 months post percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battes, Linda C; Pedersen, Susanne S; Oemrawsingh, Rohit M; van Geuns, Robert J; Al Amri, Ibtihal; Regar, Evelyn; de Jaegere, Peter P T; Serruys, Patrick; van Domburg, Ron T

    2012-02-01

    Beta blocker therapy may induce depressive symptoms, although current evidence is conflicting. We examined the association between beta blocker therapy and depressive symptoms in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) patients and the extent to which there is a dose-response relationship between beta blocker dose and depressive symptoms. Patients treated with PCI (N=685) completed the depression scale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale 1 and 12 months post PCI. Information about type and dose of beta blocker use was extracted from medical records. Of all patients, 68% (466/685) were on beta blocker therapy at baseline. In adjusted analysis, beta blocker use at 1 month post PCI (OR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.53-1.26) was not significantly associated with depressive symptoms. At 12 months post PCI, there was a significant relationship between beta blocker use and depressive symptoms (OR: 0.51; 95% CI: 0.31-0.84), with beta blocker therapy associated with a 49% risk reduction in depressive symptoms. There was a dose-response relationship between beta blocker dose and depressive symptoms 12 months post PCI, with the risk reduction in depressive symptoms in relation to a low dose being 36% (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.37-1.10) and 58% (OR: 0.42; 95% CI: 0.24-0.76) in relation to a high dose. Patients treated with beta blocker therapy were less likely to experience depressive symptoms 12 months post PCI, with there being a dose-response relationship with a higher dose providing a more pronounced protective effect. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence: Longitudinal Links with Maternal Empathy and Psychological Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Lente L A A; der Graaff, Jolien Van; Meeus, Wim H J; Branje, Susan J T

    2016-08-01

    Building on self-determination theory (Deci and Ryan in Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227-268. doi: 10.1207/S15327965PLI1104_01 , 2000), the aim of the current study was to examine the role of maternal affective and cognitive empathy in predicting adolescents' depressive symptoms, through mothers' psychological control use. Less empathic mothers may be less sensitive to adolescents' need for psychological autonomy, and thus prone to violating this need using psychological control, which may in turn predict adolescents' depressive symptoms. Moreover, according to interpersonal theory of depression (Coyne in Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 85, 186-193. doi: 10.1037/0021-843x.85.2.186 , 1976), adolescents' depressive symptoms may elicit rejecting responses, such as mothers' psychological control. For six waves, 497 adolescents (57 % boys, M age T1 = 13.03) annually completed questionnaires on depressive symptoms and maternal psychological control, while mothers reported on their empathy. Cross-lagged path analyses showed that throughout adolescence, both mothers' affective and cognitive empathy indirectly predicted boys' and girls' depressive symptoms, through psychological control. Additionally, depressive symptoms predicted psychological control for boys, and early adolescent girls. These results highlight the importance of (1) mothers' affective and cognitive empathy in predicting adolescents' depressive symptoms, and (2) taking gender into account when examining adolescent-effects.

  3. A symptom profile of depression among Asian Americans: is there evidence for differential item functioning of depressive symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalibatseva, Z; Leong, F T L; Ham, E H

    2014-09-01

    Theoretical and clinical publications suggest the existence of cultural differences in the expression and experience of depression. Measurement non-equivalence remains a potential methodological explanation for the lower prevalence of depression among Asian Americans compared to European Americans. This study compared DSM-IV depressive symptoms among Asian Americans and European Americans using secondary data analysis of the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES). The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was used for the assessment of depressive symptoms. Of the entire sample, 310 Asian Americans and 1974 European Americans reported depressive symptoms and were included in the analyses. Measurement variance was examined with an item response theory differential item functioning (IRT DIF) analysis. χ2 analyses indicated that, compared to Asian Americans, European American participants more frequently endorsed affective symptoms such as 'feeling depressed', 'feeling discouraged' and 'cried more often'. The IRT analysis detected DIF for four out of the 15 depression symptom items. At equal levels of depression, Asian Americans endorsed feeling worthless and appetite changes more easily than European Americans, and European Americans endorsed feeling nervous and crying more often than Asian Americans. Asian Americans did not seem to over-report somatic symptoms; however, European Americans seemed to report more affective symptoms than Asian Americans. The results suggest that there was measurement variance in a few of the depression items.

  4. Negative Experiences on Facebook and Depressive Symptoms Among Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Samantha R; Buka, Stephen L; Marshall, Brandon D L; Carey, Kate B; Clark, Melissa A

    2016-11-01

    To examine whether negative Facebook (FB) experiences were independently associated with depressive symptoms among young adults in a longitudinal family cohort. Negative FB experiences were measured by type (e.g., bullying or meanness, unwanted contact, misunderstandings, or any), recency, number of experiences, and severity of upset. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Generalized estimating equations were used to account for sibling correlation; adjusted models were constructed for each negative FB experience measure accounting for sex, race/ethnicity, social support, adolescent depressive symptoms, parental psychological distress, average monthly income, educational attainment, and employment. In a sample of 264 young adults, all negative FB experience measures were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. There is a clear association between negative FB experience and depressive symptoms. Future work should examine: (1) whether negative FB experiences cause incident depression or exacerbate preexisting depression; and (2) who is most prone to being upset by negative FB experiences. With further research, recommendations for limiting or altering FB use among high-risk subpopulations could be useful in reducing depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Mindfulness, Quality of Life, and Severity of Depressive Symptoms Among Patients With Schizophrenia and Patients With Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayan, Ahmad Hussien Rateb

    2017-05-01

    The current study used a descriptive correlational design to examine the relationship between mindfulness and quality of life (QOL) among patients with schizophrenia (n = 160) and patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) (n = 161), controlling for demographic and clinical variables. Participants completed self-reported questionnaires regarding demographic variables, severity of depression, QOL, and mindfulness. Patients diagnosed with MDD had higher mindfulness scores than patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. Mindfulness scores were significantly associated with the severity of depression among participants. After controlling for the demographic variables and severity of depressive symptoms, mindfulness had a unique variance in QOL among patients with schizophrenia, but not among patients with MDD. The current study provides preliminary evidence regarding the role of mindfulness in improving depressive symptoms and the overall QOL among patients diagnosed with mental illness. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 55(5), 40-50.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. A Structural Equation Model of HIV-related Symptoms, Depressive Symptoms, and Medication Adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo-Jeong, Moka; Waldrop-Valverde, Drenna; McCoy, Katryna; Ownby, Raymond L

    2016-05-01

    Adherence to combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) remains critical in management of HIV infection. This study evaluated depression as a potential mechanism by which HIV-related symptoms affect medication adherence and explored if particular clusters of HIV symptoms are susceptible to this mechanism. Baseline data from a multi-visit intervention study were analyzed among 124 persons living with HIV (PLWH). A bifactor model showed two clusters of HIV-related symptom distress: general HIV-related symptoms and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. Structural equation modeling showed that both general HIV-related symptoms and GI symptoms were related to higher levels of depressive symptoms, and higher levels of depressive symptoms were related to lower levels of medication adherence. Although general HIV-related symptoms and GI symptoms were not directly related to adherence, they were indirectly associated with adherence via depression. The findings highlight the importance of early recognition and evaluation of symptoms of depression, as well as the underlying physical symptoms that might cause depression, to improve medication adherence.

  7. Somatoform symptoms and treatment nonadherence in depressed family medicine outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, R; Smith, M; Miller, J

    2000-01-01

    To examine whether somatoform symptoms, specifically symptoms of conversion, somatization, and hypochondriasis, are associated with side-effect reporting and treatment nonadherence in depressed family medicine outpatients, and to measure whether symptoms improve with pharmacotherapy. Inception cohort study with 14-week follow-up. Inner-city family medicine residency clinic. Thirty-nine consecutive adults with major depressive disorder were asked to participate, and 30 consented. Antidepressants for 14 weeks. The Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) was administered before treatment. The PAI is a self-reported inventory compatible with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, designed to measure a broad range of personality characteristics. After 14 weeks, the side-effect incidence and treatment nonadherence rates were determined, and 12 patients were readministered the PAI. Depressed family medicine patients demonstrated trends toward elevated Somatic Complaints scale and conversion subscale scores and a lower Suicidal Ideation scale score relative to those of a standardized depressed psychiatric patient profile. Conversion and hypochondriacal symptoms were associated with side-effect reporting and treatment nonadherence. Somatization and hypochondriacal symptoms improved clinically and statistically during treatment for depression. Somatoform distress is a complex, common, and understudied phenomenon in primary care that can adversely affect the treatment of depression. Somatoform symptoms of conversion and hypochondriasis, but not somatization, were found to be risk factors for treatment nonadherence. Somatization and hypochondriacal symptoms may represent personality states that improve with pharmacotherapy, and conversion symptoms may be a personality trait resistant to medical treatment for depression.

  8. Evaluating depressive symptoms in mania: a naturalistic study of patients with bipolar disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Allan H; Eberhard, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to evaluate patients with bipolar I disorder (BD-I) who have mania with depressive symptoms and who meet the new “with mixed features” specifier of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5). Method This prospective, multinational, naturalistic study surveyed psychiatrists and their patients with BD-I from October 2013 to March 2014. Eligible patients had BD-I, had a (current) manic episode, and had experienced onset of a manic episode within the previous 3 months. Psychiatrists provided patient information on depressive symptoms (DSM-5 criteria); symptoms of anxiety, irritability, and agitation; suicide attempts; and physician satisfaction with treatment response. Data were stratified according to whether patients met the criteria for the BD-I “with mixed features” specifier of DSM-5 (≥3 depressive symptoms) or not, and characteristics were compared between the two subgroups. Patients also self-reported on depressive symptoms using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview module questionnaire. Results Overall, 34% of 1,035 patients met the criteria for BD-I “with mixed features,” exhibiting ≥3 depressive symptoms during their current manic episode. This correlated with the matched patient self-reports of depressive symptoms. During their current manic episode, BD-I patients “with mixed features” had more severe symptoms of anxiety, irritability, and agitation (average composite severity score of 4.1 vs 3.4), a higher incidence of suicide attempts (38% vs 9%), and more physician dissatisfaction with treatment response (22% vs 14%), compared to patients with 0–2 depressive symptoms (all P<0.05). Conclusion This study found that patients with BD-I “with mixed features” (ie, ≥3 depressive symptoms during a manic episode), suffered, on average, from a greater burden of disease than patients with pure mania. Improved identification of these patients may help to optimize

  9. Evaluating depressive symptoms in mania: a naturalistic study of patients with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Allan H; Eberhard, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate patients with bipolar I disorder (BD-I) who have mania with depressive symptoms and who meet the new "with mixed features" specifier of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5). This prospective, multinational, naturalistic study surveyed psychiatrists and their patients with BD-I from October 2013 to March 2014. Eligible patients had BD-I, had a (current) manic episode, and had experienced onset of a manic episode within the previous 3 months. Psychiatrists provided patient information on depressive symptoms (DSM-5 criteria); symptoms of anxiety, irritability, and agitation; suicide attempts; and physician satisfaction with treatment response. Data were stratified according to whether patients met the criteria for the BD-I "with mixed features" specifier of DSM-5 (≥3 depressive symptoms) or not, and characteristics were compared between the two subgroups. Patients also self-reported on depressive symptoms using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview module questionnaire. Overall, 34% of 1,035 patients met the criteria for BD-I "with mixed features," exhibiting ≥3 depressive symptoms during their current manic episode. This correlated with the matched patient self-reports of depressive symptoms. During their current manic episode, BD-I patients "with mixed features" had more severe symptoms of anxiety, irritability, and agitation (average composite severity score of 4.1 vs 3.4), a higher incidence of suicide attempts (38% vs 9%), and more physician dissatisfaction with treatment response (22% vs 14%), compared to patients with 0-2 depressive symptoms (all Pmixed features" (ie, ≥3 depressive symptoms during a manic episode), suffered, on average, from a greater burden of disease than patients with pure mania. Improved identification of these patients may help to optimize treatment outcomes.

  10. Depressive mood, eating disorder symptoms, and perfectionism in female college students: a mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Villamisar, Domingo; Dattilo, John; Del Pozo, Araceli

    2012-01-01

    Although perfectionism has long been established as an important risk factor for depressive mood and eating disorders, the mechanisms through which this temperamental predisposition mediates the relationship between depressive mood and eating disorder symptoms are still relatively unclear. In this study we hypothesized that both perfectionism dimensions, self-oriented perfectionism and socially prescribed perfectionism, would mediate the relationship between current symptoms of depression and eating disorders in a non-clinical sample of Spanish undergraduate females. Two hundred sixteen female undergraduate students of the University Complutense of Madrid (Spain) completed the Spanish versions of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-40), the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MPS), OBQ-44, and BDI-II and BAI. Results demonstrated the importance of socially prescribed perfectionism in mediation of the relationship between depressive mood and symptoms of eating disorders. Socially prescribed perfectionism mediates the relationship between depressive mood and eating disorder symptoms for female college students.

  11. Late-life depressive symptoms, religiousness, and mood in the last week of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braam, A.W.; Klinkenberg, M.; Galenkamp, H.; Deeg, D.J.H.

    2012-01-01

    Aim of the current study is to examine whether previous depressive symptoms modify possible effects of religiousness on mood in the last week of life. After-death interviews with proxy respondents of deceased sample members of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam provided information on depressed

  12. Late-Life Depressive Symptoms, Religiousness, and Mood in the Last Week of Life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braam, A.W.; Klinkenberg, M.; Galenkamp, H.; Deeg, D.J.H.

    2012-01-01

    Aim of the current study is to examine whether previous depressive symptoms modify possible effects of religiousness on mood in the last week of life. After-death interviews with proxy respondents of deceased sample members of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam provided information on depressed

  13. [Depression Symptoms of Mothers and Fathers of Persons with Schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrowicz, Rainer W; König, Daniel; Unger, Annemarie; Klug, Günter; Soulier, Nathalie; Freidl, Marion; Friedrich, Fabian

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate if depression symptomatology of patients' parents is predicted by the symptoms of schizophrenia. 101 mothers and 101 fathers of the same patients suffering from schizophrenia were included into this study. Parents filled in the "Beck Depression Inventory". Patients were assessed by means of the "Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale". For statistical analyses a Multidimensional Random Coefficients Multinomial Logit Model was applied. We found a significant positive association between negative symptoms and depression severity of fathers and mothers. Further, a significant positive association between positive symptoms and depression severity of fathers, but not of mothers was found. Our results show that depression of mothers and of fathers is associated with symptoms of schizophrenia even when controlling for potential predictors. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Subclinical Thyroid Dysfunction and Depressive Symptoms among Elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blum, Manuel R; Wijsman, Liselotte W; Virgini, Vanessa S

    2016-01-01

    adults aged 70-82 years with pre-existing cardiovascular disease or known cardiovascular risk factors, TSH and free T4 levels were measured at baseline and repeated after 6 months to define persistent thyroid function status. Main outcome measures were depressive symptoms, assessed with the Geriatric...... on the association of persistent subclinical thyroid dysfunction and depression, subclinical hypothyroidism was not associated with increased depressive symptoms among older adults at high cardiovascular risk. Persistent subclinical hyperthyroidism might be associated with increased depressive symptoms, which......BACKGROUND: Subclinical hypothyroidism has been associated with depressive symptoms in cross-sectional studies, but prospective data and data on subclinical hyperthyroidism are scarce. METHODS: In the Leiden sub-study of the Prospective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk (PROSPER) among...

  15. Gardening/Yard Work and Depressive Symptoms in African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Elisa R; Sampselle, Carolyn M; Ronis, David L; Neighbors, Harold W; Gretebeck, Kimberlee A

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the frequency of gardening/yard work in relation to depressive symptoms in African-Americans while controlling for biological and social factors. A secondary analysis was performed on the National Survey of American Life (n=2,903) using logistic regression for complex samples. Gardening/Yard work was measured by self-reported frequency. Depressive symptoms were measured with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale. Biological and social factors, not gardening/yard work, were associated with depressive symptoms. Biological and social factors may need to be addressed before the association between gardening/yard work and depressive symptoms can be determined. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Identification of depressive symptoms during postpartum in adolescent mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Agustinho Cardillo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study objectives were to determine the prevalence of depressive symptoms in adolescent mothers and to characterize them regarding sociodemographic, behavioral and mental health aspects. An observational study, descriptive and cross-sectional, developed in health units with 72 adolescent mothers through the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D. Within the participants, 20.8% presented depressive symptoms by the EPDS. The most frequent questions referred to the feelings of guilt, anxiety, and ideas to self-harm. We highlighted the feelings of guilt (60% and feelings of not being worth living (40%. Most participants (73.3% did not recognize to be depressed. The results show the importance to have an individualized prenatal, when is possible to know vulnerabilities, psychosocial and family aspects, to include tracking of depressive symptoms in the anamnesis and, to use it the attention network, the reference and the counter-reference.

  17. Marital Conflict, Depressive Symptoms, and Functional Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Heejeong; Marks, Nadine F

    2008-01-01

    Guided by a stress process perspective, we investigated (a) whether marital conflict might directly lead to changes in depression and functional impairment, (b) whether marital conflict might indirectly lead to changes in functional impairment via depression, and (c) whether marital conflict might indirectly lead to changes in depression via…

  18. Gender Differences in Depression Symptoms Among Rice Farmers in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanklang, Suda; Kaewboonchoo, Orawan; Morioka, Ikuharu; Plernpit, Suwan-ampai

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the prevalence of depression symptoms and risk factors by gender among rice farmers in Nakhon Ratchasima Province in Thailand. A cross-sectional study was designed using interviewed questionnaire on lifestyle, work, and depression symptoms. To examine the factors associated with depression symptoms, multiple logistic regression analysis was used. Depression symptoms were found in 39.0% of males and 48.1% of females. Eating healthy food, preparing to prevent the problem, having community integration, hearing loud machines, and using personal protective equipment during work with chemical substances were associated factors among males with depression symptoms. Having family connection, being an accepted person in community, hearing loud machines, and having work-related financial hardship were predictors among females with depression symptoms. The prevalence of depression symptoms among Thai rice farmers was high. To prevent mental health problems, it is important to give males the support for health action and working styles, and females an accepting atmosphere. Corresponding to the aim, we have to define the factor by gender. © 2015 APJPH.

  19. Secular and Religious Social Support Better Protect Blacks than Whites against Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Moghani Lankarani, Maryam

    2018-05-04

    Purpose: Although the protective effect of social support against depression is well known, limited information exists on racial differences in this association. The current study examined Black-White differences in the effects of religious and secular emotional social support on depressive symptoms in a national sample of older adults in the United States. Methods: With a longitudinal prospective design, the Religion, Aging and Health Survey, 2001⁻2004, followed 1493 Black ( n = 734) and White ( n = 759) elderly individuals (age 66 and older) for three years. Race, demographics (age and gender), socio-economics (education and marital status) and frequency of church attendance were measured at baseline in 2001. Secular social support, religious social support, chronic medical conditions and depressive symptoms [8- item Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale (CES-D)] were measured in 2004. Multiple linear regression models were used for data analysis. In the pooled sample, secular and religious social support were both protective against depressive symptoms, net of all covariates. Race interacted with secular ( β = −0.62 for interaction) and religious ( β = −0.21 for interaction) social support on baseline depressive symptoms ( p social support on depressive symptoms was larger for Blacks ( β = −0.64) than Whites ( β = −0.16). Conclusion: We found Black—White differences in the protective effects of secular and religious social support against depressive symptoms. Blacks seem to benefit more from the same level of emotional social support, regardless of its source, compared to Whites.

  20. Relationship Quality Buffers Association Between Co-rumination and Depressive Symptoms Among First Year College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guassi Moreira, João F; Miernicki, Michelle E; Telzer, Eva H

    2016-03-01

    Co-rumination, the tendency to dwell on negative events and feelings with a relationship partner, is an aspect of relationships that has been associated with socioemotional adjustment tradeoffs and is found to be associated with depressive symptoms. However, depending on the context in which it occurs, co-rumination is not necessarily associated with detriments to mental well-being. Differences in relationship quality within certain relationships may explain why co-rumination is not always associated with depressive symptoms. In the current study, we utilized self-report measures in an ethnically diverse sample (53.5 % non-White) of 307 first term college students (65 % female) in order to elucidate how co-rumination between roommates may be associated with depressive symptoms. We found that the association between co-rumination and depressive symptoms was moderated by relationship quality such that co-rumination in a high quality relationship was not associated with depressive symptoms whereas the opposite was true in low quality relationships. Moreover, we found moderated mediation, such that the variance in the association between co-rumination and depressive symptoms was explained via self-esteem, but only for those co-ruminating within a low quality relationship. These results suggest that relationship quality may impact the extent to which co-rumination is associated with depressive symptoms among first year college students.

  1. Distribution of Total Depressive Symptoms Scores and Each Depressive Symptom Item in a Sample of Japanese Employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomitaka, Shinichiro; Kawasaki, Yohei; Ide, Kazuki; Yamada, Hiroshi; Miyake, Hirotsugu; Furukawa, Toshiaki A; Furukaw, Toshiaki A

    2016-01-01

    In a previous study, we reported that the distribution of total depressive symptoms scores according to the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) in a general population is stable throughout middle adulthood and follows an exponential pattern except for at the lowest end of the symptom score. Furthermore, the individual distributions of 16 negative symptom items of the CES-D exhibit a common mathematical pattern. To confirm the reproducibility of these findings, we investigated the distribution of total depressive symptoms scores and 16 negative symptom items in a sample of Japanese employees. We analyzed 7624 employees aged 20-59 years who had participated in the Northern Japan Occupational Health Promotion Centers Collaboration Study for Mental Health. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the CES-D. The CES-D contains 20 items, each of which is scored in four grades: "rarely," "some," "much," and "most of the time." The descriptive statistics and frequency curves of the distributions were then compared according to age group. The distribution of total depressive symptoms scores appeared to be stable from 30-59 years. The right tail of the distribution for ages 30-59 years exhibited a linear pattern with a log-normal scale. The distributions of the 16 individual negative symptom items of the CES-D exhibited a common mathematical pattern which displayed different distributions with a boundary at "some." The distributions of the 16 negative symptom items from "some" to "most" followed a linear pattern with a log-normal scale. The distributions of the total depressive symptoms scores and individual negative symptom items in a Japanese occupational setting show the same patterns as those observed in a general population. These results show that the specific mathematical patterns of the distributions of total depressive symptoms scores and individual negative symptom items can be reproduced in an occupational population.

  2. Effect of Anti-inflammatory Treatment on Depression, Depressive Symptoms, and Adverse Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köhler, Ole; Benros, Michael E; Nordentoft, Merete

    2014-01-01

    -controlled trials assessing the efficacy and adverse effects of pharmacologic anti-inflammatory treatment in adults with depressive symptoms, including those who fulfilled the criteria for depression. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Data were extracted by 2 independent reviewers. Pooled standard mean difference (SMD...... investigated cytokine inhibitors (n=2,004). The pooled effect estimate suggested that anti-inflammatory treatment reduced depressive symptoms (SMD, -0.34; 95% CI, -0.57 to -0.11; I2=90%) compared with placebo. This effect was observed in studies including patients with depression (SMD, -0.54; 95% CI, -1.......08 to -0.01; I2=68%) and depressive symptoms (SMD, -0.27; 95% CI, -0.53 to -0.01; I2=68%). The heterogeneity of the studies was not explained by differences in inclusion of clinical depression vs depressive symptoms or use of NSAIDs vs cytokine inhibitors. Subanalyses emphasized the antidepressant...

  3. Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Veddel; Bukh, Jens Drachmann

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of depression is not clearly established, but estimated to 3-4% in a Danish questionnaire study. Lifetime's prevalences of 12-17% are reported in other community samples. In the current diagnostic system depression is defined categorically and operationally. It has been argued......, that these diagnostic criteria represent an oversimplification, which has blurred the concept of depression. We suggest a greater emphasis on the depressed mood as the core symptom of depression, which may increase the specificity of the diagnosis. Furthermore, basic principles for the treatment of depression...

  4. PTSD and depressive symptoms are linked to DHEAS via personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savic, Danka; Knezevic, Goran; Matic, Gordana; Damjanovic, Svetozar

    2018-06-01

    Research results on dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate ester (DHEAS) in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are inconsistent. We hypothesized that personality traits could be the confounders of DHEAS levels and disease symptoms, which could in part explain the discrepancy in findings. This study was a part of a broader project in which simultaneous psychological and biological investigations were carried out in hospital conditions. 380 male subjects were categorized in four groups: A) current PTSD (n = 132), B) lifetime PTSD (n = 66), C) trauma controls (n = 101), and D) healthy controls (n = 81), matched by age. The level of DHEAS is significantly lower in the current PTSD group than in trauma controls. All groups significantly differ in personality traits Disintegration and Neuroticism (current PTSD group having the highest scores). DHEAS is related to both PTSD and depressive symptoms; however, Structural Equation Model (SEM) shows that the relations are indirect, realized via their confounder - personality trait Disintegration. According to our project results, DHEAS is the second putative biomarker for trauma-related disorders that fails to fulfil this expectation. It appears to be more directly related to personality than to the disease symptoms (the first one being basal cortisol). Our data promote personality as a biologically based construct with seemingly important role in understanding the mental health status. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Specificity of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms: an investigation of comorbidity between posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and depression in treatment-seeking veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gros, Daniel F; Simms, Leonard J; Acierno, Ron

    2010-12-01

    In response to high levels of comorbidity and symptom overlap between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and other disorders, much attention has been devoted to the role of specific and nonspecific symptoms among the disorders. The present study investigated the overlapping symptoms of PTSD and MDD in treatment-seeking veterans. Exploratory factor analyses were used to identify latent factors of both self-reported and clinician-rated symptoms of PTSD and MDD. Results of exploratory factor analyses supported a 2-factor model representing symptoms of depression and PTSD; however, a subset of PTSD symptoms, characterized by emotional numbing and dysphoria, loaded onto the depression factor, rather than the PTSD factor. These nonspecific PTSD symptoms were predictive of comorbid MDD and increased depression symptomatology in patients with PTSD. Together, these findings demonstrate the importance of accounting for nonspecific symptoms in diagnosis and treatment of PTSD, highlighting a need for revisions to our current diagnostics.

  6. Exploring the relationship between physical health, depressive symptoms, and depression diagnoses in Hispanic dementia caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucciare, Michael A; Gray, Heather; Azar, Armin; Jimenez, Daniel; Gallagher-Thompson, Dolores

    2010-04-01

    The present study examined the relationship between self-reported physical health, depressive symptoms, and the occurrence of depression diagnosis in Hispanic female dementia caregivers. Participants were 89 Hispanic female dementia caregivers. This study used a cross-sectional design. Baseline depression and physical health data were collected from participants enrolled in the 'Reducing Stress in Hispanic Anglo Dementia Caregivers' study sponsored by the National Institute on Aging. Physical health was assessed using the Medical Outcome Study Short Form-36 (SF-36), a one-item self-report health rating, body mass index, and the presence or history of self-reported physical illness. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D). The occurrence of depression diagnosis was assessed using the Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID). Multiple linear and logistic regression analysis was used to examine the extent to which indices of physical health and depressive symptoms accounted for variance in participants' depressive symptoms and depressive diagnoses. Self-reported indices of health (e.g., SF-36) accounted for a significant portion of variance in both CES-D scores and SCID diagnoses. Caregivers who reported worsened health tended to report increased symptoms of depression on the CES-D and increased likelihood of an SCID diagnosis of a depressive disorder. Self-reported health indices are helpful in identifying Hispanic dementia caregivers at risk for clinical levels of depression.

  7. [Relationship between depression symptoms and stress in occupational populations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shan-fa; Yao, San-qiao; Ding, Hui; Ma, Liang-qing; Yang, Yan; Wang, Zhi-hui

    2006-03-01

    To explore the relationship between the depression symptoms and occupational stress in occupational populations. Depression symptoms were measured by using the center for epidemiological survey-depression scale. The occupational stress instrument were employed to investigate the stressors, personalities, social support, and coping strategies as well as the subject's age, length of service, sex, educational level and marriage status. Chi(2) test was used for analyzing the difference of depression. The multiple covariance analysis was used for testing the difference of stressors, personalities, social support, and coping strategies among the groups with different scores of depression. The variables obtained in the optional prediction equation were identified by multiple stepwise regression analysis. The incidence rate of definite depression symptoms was 40.2%. The total average score was 21.74 +/- 8.99. Henan province had the highest incidence rate of depression symptoms, 43.8%, Hebei 39.4%, and Beijing the lowest, 23.4%. The male workers had the higher incidence rate of depression symptoms, 43. 0% than female, 35.4% (P affect the mental health.

  8. Evaluation of depressive symptoms and sleep alterations in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moo-Estrella, Jesús; Pérez-Benítez, Hugo; Solís-Rodríguez, Francisco; Arankowsky-Sandoval, Gloria

    2005-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that sleep alterations could favor subsequent depression development. In order to identify the simultaneous occurrence of these parameters in young people, in this work we evaluated the prevalence of depressive symptoms, sleep habits, and possible sleep disturbances in college students. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and a Sleep Habits Questionnaire were applied to students registered at the Autonomous University of Yucatan, Merida (mean age 20.2 +/- 2.6 years). The final sample was composed of 340 (53%) women and 298 (47%) men. Reliability of the BDI and ESS was assessed by Cronbach's alpha method. Taking 10 as ESS cut-off point, it was found that 31.6% of the students had a high level of sleepiness. Students with depressive symptoms had a greater number of days with somnolence during class (p students without symptoms. In comparison to subjects without depressive symptoms, students with those symptoms rated their sleep quality as poor (p sleep after going to bed (p sleep alterations in a large proportion of the studied subjects, which were more severe in those who showed depressive symptoms. Educating students for appropriate sleep hygiene and encouraging them to seek professional advice to treat sleep disturbances may be useful to prevent depression.

  9. Sexual self-schema and depressive symptoms after prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Michael A; Carpenter, Kristen M

    2015-04-01

    The years following prostate cancer treatment are characterized by changes in sexual functioning and risk for depressive symptoms. Sexual self-schema (SSS) is a cognitive generalization about sexual aspects of the self that are associated with sexual behavior, affect, and the processing of sexually relevant information. This study tested if men's SSS moderates the impact of sexual morbidity on depressive symptoms. Men (N = 66) treated for localized prostate cancer in the preceding 2 years were assessed at T1 and 4 months later (T2). Questionnaires included the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Sexual Self-schema Scale for Men, Sexual Experience Scale, and Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite. Regressions controlled for age, sexual activity, and T1 depressive symptoms revealed no significant effect of SSS on depressive symptoms; however, better sexual functioning was related to fewer depressive symptoms (B = -0.25, p < 0.05). Results showed significant interactions between SSS and sexual outcomes. Among men with high SSS, poor sexual functioning was associated with increased depressive symptoms; loss of sexual function was particularly distressing. There was no significant effect of sexual functioning. Among men with high SSS, there was an inverse relationship between sexual engagement and depressive symptoms. Among men with lower SSS, greater frequency of sexual behavior was associated with increased depressive symptoms. SSS may be an important individual difference in determining the impact of sexual morbidity on psychological adjustment. Men high on SSS are more vulnerable to psychological consequences of lower sexual functioning and less engagement in sexual activities. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. The predictive value of somatic and cognitive depressive symptoms for cytokine changes in patients with major depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dannehl K

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Katharina Dannehl,1 Winfried Rief,1 Markus J Schwarz,2 Annika Hennings,1 Sabine Riemer,1 Verena Selberdinger,3 Theresa Stapf,3 Frank Euteneuer11Division of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Philipps Universität Marburg, Marburg, Germany; 2Institute for Laboratory Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilian Universität, Munich, Germany; 3Department of Psychiatry, Ludwig-Maximilian Universität, Munich, GermanyContext: Elevated concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines have been hypothesized as an important factor in the pathophysiology of depression. Depression itself is considered to be a heterogeneous disorder. Current findings suggest that “cognitive” and “somatic” symptom dimensions are related to immune function in different ways. So far, little research has been done on the longitudinal aspects of inflammation in patients with major depression, especially with respect to different symptom dimensions of depression. Therefore, we investigated which aspects of depression may predict changes in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha and interleukin (IL-6 over 4 weeks. Methods: Forty-one patients with major depression diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV, and 45 healthy controls were enrolled. Serum measurements of TNF-alpha and IL-6 were conducted at baseline and 4 weeks later. Psychometric measures included the assessment of cognitive-affective depressive symptoms and somatic symptoms during the last 7 days as well as somatic symptoms during the last 2 years. Results: Patients with depression showed increased levels of TNF-alpha (P<0.05 compared to healthy controls. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that neither depressive nor somatic symptoms predict changes in proinflammatory cytokines in the whole sample of depressed patients. Moderation analyses and subsequent sex-stratified regression analyses indicated that higher somatoform symptoms during the last 2 years

  11. Electrophysiological Evidence for Elimination of the Positive Bias in Elderly Adults with Depressive Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huixia Zhou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundDepressed populations demonstrate a greater tendency to have negative interpretations on ambiguous situations. Cognitive theories concerning depression proposed that such a negative bias plays an important role in developing and maintaining depression. There is now fairly consistent evidence arising from different stimuli and assessment methods that depression is featured by such a bias. The current study aimed to explore the neural signatures associated with the interpretation bias in the elderly with depressive symptoms confronted with different facial expressions using event-related brain potentials (ERPs.MethodsParticipants were 14 community-dwelling older adults with depressive symptoms assessed by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale scores. We collected event-related potentials of their brain compared to that of 14 healthy aged-matched adults. The late positive potential (LPP was used to examine cognitive-affective processes associated with judgment of emotional facial expressions between the two groups.ResultsOld adults with depressive symptoms have much smaller amplitude than healthy older adults irrespective of the prime types. When processing the targets, the two groups showed different patterns regarding the LPP. The healthy control group revealed no differences between ambiguous and happy primes, irrespective of whether the targets were sad or happy facial expressions. However, significant differences were found between happy and sad and between ambiguous and sad primes. Such a pattern indicates a positive bias in healthy elderly adults. Regarding the elderly with depressive symptoms, there were no significant differences between ambiguous versus happy, ambiguous versus sad primes, and happy versus sad primes. Concerning reaction times, there was no group difference. Thus, the findings provide some support for cognitive theories of depression.ConclusionThe current study shows that there is an association

  12. Marital Conflict, Depressive Symptoms, and Functional Impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Heejeong; Marks, Nadine F.

    2008-01-01

    Guided by a stress process perspective, we investigated (a) whether marital conflict might directly lead to changes in depression and functional impairment, (b) whether marital conflict might indirectly lead to changes in functional impairment via depression, and (c) whether marital conflict might indirectly lead to changes in depression via functional impairment. We estimated a latent variable causal model using 3 waves of data from the National Survey of Families and Households (N = 1,832)....

  13. Depressive Symptoms, Emotion Dysregulation, and Bulimic Symptoms in Youth With Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young-Hyman, Deborah L.; Peterson, Claire M.; Fischer, Sarah; Markowitz, Jessica T.; Muir, Andrew B.; Laffel, Lori M.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the associations between depressive symptoms, emotion dysregulation and bulimic symptoms in youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D) in the context of the diagnosis and treatment of T1D. Study participants were 103 youth in 2 distinct groups: newly diagnosed (New) or transitioning to pump therapy (continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion [CSII]; “Pump”), who completed questionnaires regarding symptoms of depression, emotion dysregulation, and bulimia. Glycemic control (A1c), height, weight, and questionnaires were evaluated within 10 days of diagnosis (n = 58) or at education/clinic visit before starting insulin utilizing CSII (n = 45). In the newly diagnosed group, only depression accounted for significant variance in bulimia scores (β = .47, P symptoms and emotion dysregulation were associated with greater bulimic symptoms. Depressive symptoms and emotion dysregulation, an indicator of poor coping/behavioral control, could help explain adoption of disordered eating behaviors in youth with T1D who are transitioning to pump therapy. PMID:27137457

  14. Depression symptoms are persistent in Type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitworth, Stephanie; Bruce, David; Starkstein, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    Aims To describe the long‐term trajectories of depression symptom severity in people with Type 2 diabetes, and to identify predictors and associates of these trajectories. Methods A community‐dwelling cohort of 1201 individuals with Type 2 diabetes from the Fremantle Diabetes Study Phase II was f...... benefit from early and intensive depression management and ongoing follow‐up as part of routine Type 2 diabetes care.......Aims To describe the long‐term trajectories of depression symptom severity in people with Type 2 diabetes, and to identify predictors and associates of these trajectories. Methods A community‐dwelling cohort of 1201 individuals with Type 2 diabetes from the Fremantle Diabetes Study Phase II...... was followed for 5 years. The nine‐item version of the Patient Health Questionnaire was administered annually to assess depression symptoms, and biomedical and psychosocial measures were assessed at baseline and biennially. Latent class growth analysis was used to identify classes of depression severity...

  15. A hopelessness model of depressive symptoms in youth with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Janelle L; Smith, Gigi; Ferguson, Pamela L; Horton, Stephanie; Wilson, Erin

    2009-01-01

    To test the cognitive diathesis-stress and mediational components of the theory of learned hopelessness in youth with epilepsy. Seventy-seven participants ages 9-17 (35 girls, 42 boys) completed measures of depressive symptoms, hopelessness, self-efficacy for seizure management, and attitude toward epilepsy. Caregivers provided information on seizure activity. Diagnostic and treatment information was obtained via medical record review. Regression analyses revealed that hopelessness mediated the attitude towards epilepsy-depressive symptom relationship. While attitude toward epilepsy and self-efficacy were independent predictors of depressive symptoms, the relationship of attitudes toward epilepsy and depressive symptoms was not enhanced with low self-efficacy for seizure management. Findings support the mediation component of the learned hopelessness theory in youth with epilepsy, suggesting the importance of interventions that assist youth in identifying epilepsy-related aspects of functioning over which they can realistically exercise control and challenging negative thoughts about situations they cannot control.

  16. Friends, Depressive Symptoms, and Life Satisfaction Among Older Korean Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Soonhee; Lee, Yeon-Shim; Lee, Kyoung Hag; Shibusawa, Tazuko; Yoo, Grace J

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the interactive effects of social network support and depressive symptoms on life satisfaction among older Korean Americans (KAs). Using data from a sample of 200 elders in a large metropolitan area (M age = 72.50, SD = 5.15), hierarchical regression analysis was used to examine the interaction between social network support and depressive symptoms on life satisfaction among older KAs. After controlling for demographic variables, both social network support and depressive symptoms were identified as predictors for life satisfaction. Interaction effects indicated strong associations between higher social network support specifically from friends and lower depressive symptoms with higher levels of life satisfaction. Findings highlight the important role that friends play in terms of social network support for the mental health of older KAs, and the need for geriatric practitioners to monitor and assess the quality of social network support-including friendships-when working with older KAs.

  17. The prevalence of anxiety and depression symptoms and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of anxiety and depression symptoms and syndromes in Kenyan children and adolescents. David M Ndetei, Lincoln Khasakhala, Lambert Nyabola, Francisca Ongecha-Owuor, Soraya Seedat, Victoria Mutiso, Donald Kokonya, Gideon Odhiambo ...

  18. N-Acetylcysteine in depressive symptoms and functionality: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Brisa S; Dean, Olivia M; Dodd, Seetal; Malhi, Gin S; Berk, Michael

    2016-04-01

    To assess the utility of N-acetylcysteine administration for depressive symptoms in subjects with psychiatric conditions using a systematic review and meta-analysis. A computerized literature search was conducted in MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Library, SciELO, PsycINFO, Scopus, and Web of Knowledge. No year or country restrictions were used. The Boolean terms used for the electronic database search were (NAC OR N-acetylcysteine OR acetylcysteine) AND (depression OR depressive OR depressed) AND (trial). The last search was performed in November 2014. The literature was searched for double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials using N-acetylcysteine for depressive symptoms regardless of the main psychiatric condition. Using keywords and cross-referenced bibliographies, 38 studies were identified and examined in depth. Of those, 33 articles were rejected because inclusion criteria were not met. Finally, 5 studies were included. Data were extracted independently by 2 investigators. The primary outcome measure was change in depressive symptoms. Functionality, quality of life, and manic and anxiety symptoms were also examined. A full review and meta-analysis were performed. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) and odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs were calculated. Five studies fulfilled our inclusion criteria for the meta-analysis, providing data on 574 participants, of whom 291 were randomized to receive N-acetylcysteine and 283 to placebo. The follow-up varied from 12 to 24 weeks. Two studies included subjects with bipolar disorder and current depressive symptoms, 1 included subjects with MDD in a current depressive episode, and 2 included subjects with depressive symptoms in the context of other psychiatric conditions (1 trichotillomania and 1 heavy smoking). Treatment with N-acetylcysteine improved depressive symptoms as assessed by Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale when compared to placebo (SMD = 0.37; 95% CI = 0

  19. Boredom, depressive symptoms, and HIV risk behaviors among urban injection drug users

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Danielle; Latkin, Carl A.

    2013-01-01

    Boredom is closely aligned with depression, but is understood to be conceptually distinct. Little is known about boredom among active drug users and the potential association with depression and HIV risk. Current IDUs (n=845) completed a baseline behavioral survey including socio-demographic characteristics, self-reported boredom, depressive symptoms (CESD score), and HIV risk behaviors. One-third of the sample reported high boredom in the past week. In multivariate analysis, those who reported boredom were less likely to be older, African-American, have a main partner, and to be employed at least part-time. Controlling for covariates, those with high boredom were almost five times as likely to report high depressive symptoms. Co-occurrence of boredom and depressive symptoms (28%) was strongly and independently associated with a range of injection risk behaviors and sex exchange. This study demonstrates the need for more thorough understanding of mental health and HIV risk among urban drug users. PMID:22760741

  20. Paternal psychopathology and maternal depressive symptom trajectory during the first year postpartum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randal G. Ross

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding parental psychopathology interaction is important in preventing negative family outcomes. This study investigated the effect of paternal psychiatric history on maternal depressive symptom trajectory from birth to 12 months postpartum. Maternal Edinburgh Postpartum Depression screens were collected at 1, 6 and 12 months and fathers’ psychiatric diagnoses were assessed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV from 64 families. There was not a significant difference in the trajectory of maternal depressive symptoms between mothers with partners with history of or a current psychiatric condition or those without a condition. However, mothers with partners with substance abuse history had higher levels of depressive symptoms relative to those affected by mood/anxiety disorders or those without a disorder. Our results call for a closer look at paternal history of substance abuse when treating postpartum maternal depression.

  1. Paternal psychopathology and maternal depressive symptom trajectory during the first year postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Anna-Hernandez, Kimberly L; Zerbe, Gary O; Hunter, Sharon K; Ross, Randal G

    2013-02-11

    Understanding parental psychopathology interaction is important in preventing negative family outcomes. This study investigated the effect of paternal psychiatric history on maternal depressive symptom trajectory from birth to 12 months postpartum. Maternal Edinburgh Postpartum Depression screens were collected at 1, 6 and 12 months and fathers' psychiatric diagnoses were assessed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV from 64 families. There was not a significant difference in the trajectory of maternal depressive symptoms between mothers with partners with history of or a current psychiatric condition or those without a condition. However, mothers with partners with substance abuse history had higher levels of depressive symptoms relative to those affected by mood/anxiety disorders or those without a disorder. Our results call for a closer look at paternal history of substance abuse when treating postpartum maternal depression.

  2. A randomized controlled trial of an HIV/AIDS Symptom Management Manual for depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eller, Lucille S; Kirksey, Kenn M; Nicholas, Patrice K; Corless, Inge B; Holzemer, William L; Wantland, Dean J; Willard, Suzanne S; Robinson, Linda; Hamilton, Mary Jane; Sefcik, Elizabeth F; Moezzi, Shahnaz; Mendez, Marta Rivero; Rosa, Maria; Human, Sarie

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Depressive symptoms are highly prevalent, underdiagnosed, and undertreated in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH), and are associated with poorer health outcomes. This randomized controlled trial examined the effects of the HIV/AIDS Symptom Management Manual self-care symptom management strategies compared with a nutrition manual on depressive symptoms in an international sample of PLWH. The sample consisted of a sub-group (N=222) of participants in a larger study symptom management study who reported depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms of the intervention (n=124) and control (n=98) groups were compared over three months: baseline, one-month, and two-months. Use and effectiveness of specific strategies were examined. Depressive symptom frequency at baseline varied significantly by country (χ (2) 12.9; p=0.04). Within the intervention group there were significant differences across time in depressive symptom frequency [F(2, 207) = 3.27, p=0.05], intensity [F(2, 91) = 4.6, p=0.01], and impact [F(2, 252) = 2.92, p= 0.05), and these were significantly lower at one month but not at two months, suggesting that self-care strategies are effective in reducing depressive symptoms, however effects may be short term. Most used and most effective self-care strategies were distraction techniques and prayer. This study suggests that people living with HIV can be taught and will employ self-care strategies for management of depressive symptoms and that these strategies are effective in reducing these symptoms. Self-care strategies are noninvasive, have no side-effects, and can be readily taught as an adjunct to other forms of treatment. Studies are needed to identify the most effective self-care strategies and quantify optimum dose and frequency of use as a basis for evidence-based practice.

  3. Girls’ challenging social experiences in early adolescence predict neural response to rewards and depressive symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melynda D. Casement

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Developmental models of psychopathology posit that exposure to social stressors may confer risk for depression in adolescent girls by disrupting neural reward circuitry. The current study tested this hypothesis by examining the relationship between early adolescent social stressors and later neural reward processing and depressive symptoms. Participants were 120 girls from an ongoing longitudinal study of precursors to depression across adolescent development. Low parental warmth, peer victimization, and depressive symptoms were assessed when the girls were 11 and 12 years old, and participants completed a monetary reward guessing fMRI task and assessment of depressive symptoms at age 16. Results indicate that low parental warmth was associated with increased response to potential rewards in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC, striatum, and amygdala, whereas peer victimization was associated with decreased response to potential rewards in the mPFC. Furthermore, concurrent depressive symptoms were associated with increased reward anticipation response in mPFC and striatal regions that were also associated with early adolescent psychosocial stressors, with mPFC and striatal response mediating the association between social stressors and depressive symptoms. These findings are consistent with developmental models that emphasize the adverse impact of early psychosocial stressors on neural reward processing and risk for depression in adolescence.

  4. Repetitive negative thinking predicts depression and anxiety symptom improvement during brief cognitive behavioral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertz, Sarah J; Koran, Jennifer; Stevens, Kimberly T; Björgvinsson, Thröstur

    2015-05-01

    Repetitive negative thinking (RNT) is a common symptom across depression and anxiety disorders and preliminary evidence suggests that decreases in rumination and worry are related to improvement in depression and anxiety symptoms. However, despite its prevalence, relatively little is known about transdiagnostic RNT and its temporal associations with symptom improvement during treatment. The current study was designed to examine the influence of RNT on subsequent depression and anxiety symptoms during treatment. Participants (n = 131; 52% female; 93% White; M = 34.76 years) were patients presenting for treatment in a brief, cognitive behavior therapy based, partial hospitalization program. Participants completed multiple assessments of depression (Center for the Epidemiological Studies of Depression-10 scale), anxiety (the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale), and repetitive negative thinking (Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire) over the course of treatment. Results indicated statistically significant between and within person effects of RNT on depression and anxiety, even after controlling for the effect of time, previous symptom levels, referral source, and treatment length. RNT explained 22% of the unexplained variability in depression scores and 15% of the unexplained variability in anxiety scores beyond that explained by the control variables. RNT may be an important transdiagnostic treatment target for anxiety and depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Adolescent attachment, family functioning and depressive symptoms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Self-Report of Family Inventory (SFI), Experiences of Close Relationships Scale (ECR), Network of Relationships Inventory (NRI), Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) and Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) were used to assess depression, parental support and attachment. Results. Two models were examined: one ...

  6. Parenting and depressive symptoms among adolescents in four Caribbean societies

    OpenAIRE

    Lipps, Garth; Lowe, Gillian A; Gibson, Roger C; Halliday, Sharon; Morris, Amrie; Clarke, Nelson; Wilson, Rosemarie N

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The strategies that parents use to guide and discipline their children may influence their emotional health. Relatively little research has been conducted examining the association of parenting practices to depressive symptoms among Caribbean adolescents. This project examines the association of parenting styles to levels of depressive symptoms among adolescents in Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Kitts and Nevis, and St. Vincent. Methods Adolescents attending grade ten of academ...

  7. The Effectiveness of Aromatherapy for Depressive Symptoms: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngai, Shirley Pui-Ching; He, Wanjia; Chow, Jason Ka-Wing; Tsang, Hector Wing-Hong

    2017-01-01

    Background. Depression is one of the greatest health concerns affecting 350 million people globally. Aromatherapy is a popular CAM intervention chosen by people with depression. Due to the growing popularity of aromatherapy for alleviating depressive symptoms, in-depth evaluation of the evidence-based clinical efficacy of aromatherapy is urgently needed. Purpose. This systematic review aims to provide an analysis of the clinical evidence on the efficacy of aromatherapy for depressive symptoms on any type of patients. Methods. A systematic database search was carried out using predefined search terms in 5 databases: AMED, CINHAL, CCRCT, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO. Outcome measures included scales measuring depressive symptoms levels. Results. Twelve randomized controlled trials were included and two administration methods for the aromatherapy intervention including inhaled aromatherapy (5 studies) and massage aromatherapy (7 studies) were identified. Seven studies showed improvement in depressive symptoms. Limitations. The quality of half of the studies included is low, and the administration protocols among the studies varied considerably. Different assessment tools were also employed among the studies. Conclusions. Aromatherapy showed potential to be used as an effective therapeutic option for the relief of depressive symptoms in a wide variety of subjects. Particularly, aromatherapy massage showed to have more beneficial effects than inhalation aromatherapy. PMID:28133489

  8. Maternal depressive symptoms and weight-related parenting behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Taryn W

    2014-08-01

    This study examined associations between mothers' depressive symptoms and parenting behaviors related to children's nutrition and physical activity. Data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, a nationally representative study of children from infancy through kindergarten entry. Contemporaneous and lagged associations between maternal depressive symptoms and mothers' parenting behaviors were tested, controlling for background characteristics. The mediating effect of use of a physician's office or clinic as a source for routine care was tested. At each wave, between 18 and 20 % of mothers were considered as having moderate or severe depressive symptoms. These mothers were 1.3 percentage points more likely to put their infants to bed with a bottle, 2.6 percentage points less likely to have rules about the foods their children eat, and their children were 3.0 percentage points less likely to be in bed by 9:00 p.m. than mothers lacking depressive symptoms. These mothers also reported that their families ate dinner together fewer nights per week, and their children watched more television per day, than non-depressed mothers. The use of a physician's office or clinic partially mediated associations between maternal depressive symptoms and whether infants went to bed with a bottle. Interventions that identify maternal depression early may be useful in promoting healthy parenting behaviors and weight outcomes among young children.

  9. Associations of mindful eating domains with depressive symptoms and depression in three European countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkens, L.H.H.; van Strien, T.; Brouwer, I.A.; Penninx, Brenda; Visser, Marjolein; Lähteenmäki, Liisa

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine associations of mindful eating domains with depressive symptoms and depression in three European countries. Moderation by change in appetite-with increased appetite as marker for depression with atypical features - was also tested. METHODS: Data were collected in Denmark (n =

  10. Associations of mindful eating domains with depressive symptoms and depression in three European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkens, L.H.H.; van Strien, T.; Brouwer, I.A.; Penninx, Brenda; Visser, Marjolein; Lähteenmäki, Liisa

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine associations of mindful eating domains with depressive symptoms and depression in three European countries. Moderation by change in appetite-with increased appetite as marker for depression with atypical features - was also tested. METHODS: Data were collected in Denmark (n =

  11. Associations of mindful eating domains with depressive symptoms and depression in three European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkens, L.H.H.; Strien, T. van; Brouwer, I.A.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Visser, M.; Lähteenmäki, L.

    2018-01-01

    Objective: To examine associations of mindful eating domains with depressive symptoms and depression in three European countries. Moderation by change in appetite - with increased appetite as marker for depression with atypical features - was also tested. Methods: Data were collected in Denmark

  12. Factors associated with depressive symptoms among Filipino university students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo B Lee

    Full Text Available Depression can be prevented if its symptoms are addressed early and effectively. Prevention against depression among university students is rare in the Philippines, but is urgent because of the rising rates of suicide among the group. Evidence is needed to systematically identify and assist students with higher levels of depressive symptoms. We carried out a survey to determine the social and demographic factors associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms among 2,436 Filipino university students. The University Students Depression Inventory with measures on lethargy, cognition-emotion, and academic motivation, was used. Six of the 11 factors analyzed were found to be statistically significantly associated with more intense levels of depressive symptoms. These factors were: frequency of smoking, frequency of drinking, not living with biological parents, dissatisfaction with one's financial condition, level of closeness with parents, and level of closeness with peers. Sex, age category, course category, year level and religion were not significantly related. In identifying students with greater risk for depression, characteristics related to lifestyle, financial condition, parents and peers are crucial. There is a need to carry out more surveys to develop the pool of local knowledge on student depression.

  13. Major Depressive Disorder in Adolescence: The Role of Subthreshold Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiades, Katholiki; Lewinsohn, Peter M.; Monroe, Scott M.; Seeley, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine the longitudinal association between individual subthreshold symptoms and onset of major depressive disorder (MDD) in adolescence. Method: Data for analysis come from the Oregon Adolescent Depression Project, a prospective epidemiological study of psychological disorders among adolescents, ages 14 to 18 years, from the…

  14. Symptom Dimensions of Depression and Anxiety and the Metabolic Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luppino, Floriana S.; Dortland, Arianne K. B. van Reedt; Wardenaar, Klaas J.; Bouvy, Paul F.; Giltay, Erik J.; Zitman, Frans G.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    Objective: To investigate the association between depression and anxiety symptoms and the metabolic syndrome (MetSyn), using a dimensional approach. The association between depression and anxiety, on the one hand, and the MetSyn as a cluster or its individual components, on the other hand, is

  15. Depressive Symptoms Before, During, and After Delirium: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Scott; Rustad, James K; Catalano, Glenn; Stern, Theodore A; Kozel, F Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Delirium and depression are often thought of as mutually exclusive conditions. However, several studies cite depression as a risk factor for delirium whereas others note that patients with delirium often manifest depressive symptoms. Whether these depressive symptoms persist after delirium resolves remains unclear. This article reviews published studies that have investigated the relationship between depression and delirium. Literature searches on PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, and PsycInfo were conducted using search criteria "delirium" AND "depress⁎" as keywords or MeSH terms. Of 722 search results, 10 prospective cohort studies were identified for inclusion. These studies were categorized regarding the time of assessment for depressive symptoms. Included studies varied greatly (regarding their index population, their methods of assessment, and their timing of assessments). Of the studies, 3 involved patients undergoing hip fracture repair. They demonstrated more severe depressive symptoms both during delirium and after delirium ended. Conversely, the other studies did not find any statistically significant correlations between the 2 conditions. The literature suggests a correlation between depression and delirium in patients with hip fracture. Whether other specific populations have higher comorbidity is unclear. Unfortunately, studies varied widely in their methods, precluding a meta-analysis. Nonetheless, our review provides a foundation for future research. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. All rights reserved.

  16. Emotional suppression and depressive symptoms in women newly diagnosed with early breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingyan; Yang, Yanjie; He, Jincai; Yi, Jinyao; Wang, Yuping; Zhang, Jinqiang; Zhu, Xiongzhao

    2015-10-24

    Patients with breast cancer usually present varying levels of depressive symptoms. Emotional suppression, as a coping style, refers to an individual's ability to consciously control expression of negative emotions. Thus, emotional suppression is an important psychological factor related to depressive symptoms in patients with breast cancer. It has long been considered that compared to European and American women, Chinese women are more likely to ascribe to norms of negative emotion control for smooth social interaction. However, there is paucity of research focusing on emotional suppression among Chinese women with breast cancer. Thus the aims of the current study were (1) to investigate the incidence of depressive symptoms in women newly diagnosed with early breast cancer in Mainland China, and (2) to examine the relationships between emotional suppression and depressive symptoms in these patients. The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and the Chinese version of the Courtauld Emotional Control Scale (CECS) were used to assess the level of depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms and emotional suppression respectively in 247 women with early breast cancer and 362 healthy women. Analyses of variance were conducted to investigate group differences on depressive symptoms and emotional suppression. Bivariate correlations and Hierarchical regression analyses were performed to examine the effect of emotional suppression on depressive symptoms in participants after controlling the impact of group membership and anxiety level. (1) The incidence rates of clinical and severe depressive symptoms in patients were 36.4 and 36.0 % respectively. (2) Patients scored significantly higher than healthy women on CECS. (3) The scores on CECS were significantly associated with the total CES-D scores in all participants; Anger suppression significantly predicted the total CES-D scores. The majority of women newly diagnosed with

  17. Social Inequalities and Depressive Symptoms in Adults: The Role of Objective and Subjective Socioeconomic Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoebel, Jens; Maske, Ulrike E; Zeeb, Hajo; Lampert, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that lower objective socioeconomic status (SES)-as measured by education, occupation, and income-is associated with a higher risk of depression. Less is known, however, about associations between perceptions of social status and the prevalence of depression. This study investigated associations of both objective SES and subjective social status (SSS) with depressive symptoms among adults in Germany. Data were obtained from the 2013 special wave of the German Health Update study, a national health survey of the adult population in Germany. Objective SES was determined using a composite index based on education, occupation, and income. The three single dimensions of the index were also used individually. SSS was measured using the MacArthur Scale, which asks respondents to place themselves on a 10-rung 'social ladder'. Regression models were employed to examine associations of objective SES and SSS with current depressive symptoms, as assessed with the eight-item Patient Health Questionnaire depression scale (PHQ-8 sum score ≥10). After mutual adjustment, lower objective SES and lower SSS were independently associated with current depressive symptoms. The associations were found in both sexes and persisted after further adjustment for sociodemographic factors, long-term chronic conditions, and functional limitations. Mediation analyses revealed a significant indirect relationship between objective SES and depressive symptoms through SSS. When the three individual dimensions of objective SES were mutually adjusted, occupation and income were independently associated with depressive symptoms. After additional adjustment for SSS, these associations attenuated but remained significant. The findings suggest that perceptions of low social status in adults may be involved in the pathogenesis of depression and play a mediating role in the relationship between objective SES and depressive symptoms. Prospective studies are needed to establish

  18. Social Inequalities and Depressive Symptoms in Adults: The Role of Objective and Subjective Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maske, Ulrike E.; Zeeb, Hajo; Lampert, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Background There is substantial evidence that lower objective socioeconomic status (SES)—as measured by education, occupation, and income—is associated with a higher risk of depression. Less is known, however, about associations between perceptions of social status and the prevalence of depression. This study investigated associations of both objective SES and subjective social status (SSS) with depressive symptoms among adults in Germany. Methods Data were obtained from the 2013 special wave of the German Health Update study, a national health survey of the adult population in Germany. Objective SES was determined using a composite index based on education, occupation, and income. The three single dimensions of the index were also used individually. SSS was measured using the MacArthur Scale, which asks respondents to place themselves on a 10-rung ‘social ladder’. Regression models were employed to examine associations of objective SES and SSS with current depressive symptoms, as assessed with the eight-item Patient Health Questionnaire depression scale (PHQ-8 sum score ≥10). Results After mutual adjustment, lower objective SES and lower SSS were independently associated with current depressive symptoms. The associations were found in both sexes and persisted after further adjustment for sociodemographic factors, long-term chronic conditions, and functional limitations. Mediation analyses revealed a significant indirect relationship between objective SES and depressive symptoms through SSS. When the three individual dimensions of objective SES were mutually adjusted, occupation and income were independently associated with depressive symptoms. After additional adjustment for SSS, these associations attenuated but remained significant. Conclusions The findings suggest that perceptions of low social status in adults may be involved in the pathogenesis of depression and play a mediating role in the relationship between objective SES and depressive symptoms

  19. Depressive symptoms associated with hereditary Alzheimer's disease: a case description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Mónica Yicette Sánchez; Vargas, Paula Alejandra Osorio; Ramos, Lucero Rengifo; Velandia, Rafael Alarcón

    The authors describe a family group studied by the Centro de Biología Molecular y Biotecnología, and the Clínica de la Memoria, las Demencias y el Envejecimiento (Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira, Colombia), and evaluate the association of depressive symptoms with Alzheimer's disease (AD). This family presented a hereditary pattern for AD characterized by an early onset of dementia symptoms, a long preclinical depressive course, and, once the first symptoms of dementia appeared, a rapid progression to severe cognitive function impairment. The authors found a high prevalence of depressive symptoms in this family and propose that the symptoms could be an important risk factor for developing AD in the presence of other risk factors such as the APOE E4 allele.

  20. Anxiety and depressive symptoms and medical illness among adults with anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niles, Andrea N; Dour, Halina J; Stanton, Annette L; Roy-Byrne, Peter P; Stein, Murray B; Sullivan, Greer; Sherbourne, Cathy D; Rose, Raphael D; Craske, Michelle G

    2015-02-01

    Anxiety is linked to a number of medical conditions, yet few studies have examined how symptom severity relates to medical comorbidity. The current study assessed associations between severity of anxiety and depression and the presence of medical conditions in adults diagnosed with anxiety disorders. Nine-hundred eighty-nine patients diagnosed with panic, generalized anxiety, social anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorders reported on the severity of anxiety and depressive symptoms and on diagnoses of 11 medical conditions. Severity of anxiety and depressive symptoms was strongly associated with having more medical conditions over and above control variables, and the association was as strong as that between BMI and disease. Odds of having asthma, heart disease, back problems, ulcer, migraine headache and eyesight difficulties also increased as anxiety and depressive symptom severity increased. Anxiety symptoms were independently associated with ulcer, whereas depressive symptoms were independently associated with heart disease, migraine, and eyesight difficulties. These findings add to a growing body of research linking anxiety disorders with physical health problems and indicate that anxiety and depressive symptoms deserve greater attention in their association with disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. EFFECT OF PREOPERATIVE PAIN AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF POSTOPERATIVE DELIRIUM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosar, Cyrus M; Tabloski, Patricia A; Travison, Thomas G; Jones, Richard N; Schmitt, Eva M; Puelle, Margaret R; Inloes, Jennifer B; Saczynski, Jane S; Marcantonio, Edward R; Meagher, David; Reid, M Carrington; Inouye, Sharon K

    2014-11-01

    Preoperative pain and depression predispose patients to delirium. Our goal was to determine whether pain and depressive symptoms interact to increase delirium risk. We enrolled 459 persons without dementia aged ≥70 years scheduled for elective orthopedic surgery. At baseline, participants reported their worst and average pain within seven days and current pain on a 0-10 scale. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale and chart. Delirium was assessed with the Confusion Assessment Method and chart. We examined the relationship between preoperative pain, depressive symptoms and delirium using multivariable analysis of pain and delirium stratified by presence of depressive symptoms. Delirium, occurring in 23% of the sample, was significantly higher in those with depressive symptoms at baseline than those without (relative risk, RR, 1·6, 95% confidence interval, CI, 1·2-2·3). Preoperative pain was associated with an increased adjusted risk for delirium across all pain measures (RR from 1·07-1·08 per point of pain). In stratified analyses, patients with depressive symptoms had a 21% increased risk for delirium for each one-point increase in worst pain score, demonstrating a significant interaction ( P =0·049). Similarly, a significant 13% increased risk for delirium was demonstrated for a one-point increase in average pain score, but the interaction did not achieve statistical significance. Preoperative pain and depressive symptoms demonstrated increased risk for delirium independently and with substantial interaction, suggesting a cumulative impact. Thus, pain and depression are vulnerability factors for delirium that should be assessed before surgery. U.S. National Institute on Aging.

  2. Personality traits as possible mediators in the relationship between childhood trauma and depressive symptoms in Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Minli; Han, Juan; Shi, Junxin; Ding, Huisi; Wang, Kaiqiao; Kang, Chun; Gong, Jiangling

    2018-08-01

    Childhood trauma has been found to be a critical risk factor for depression in adolescents. Personality traits have been linked with mental health. However, the relationship between childhood trauma, personality traits, and depressive symptoms in adolescents is largely unclear. This study tried to examine the mediating effect of personality traits between childhood trauma and depressive symptoms among adolescents. Meanwhile, the possible bidirectional association between personality traits and depression was considered in the study. A group of community-based adolescents aged 10-17 years (N = 5793) were recruited from nine schools in Wuhan city, China. The participants completed self-report questionnaires, including the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). Results showed that childhood trauma experiences were positively related with depressive symptoms and neuroticism, and negatively related with extraversion and conscientiousness; depressive symptoms were related with high neuroticism, low extraversion, and conscientiousness. Neuroticism and extraversion partially mediated the relationship between childhood trauma and depressive symptoms. And 'childhood trauma-personality traits-depression' models showed better property than the alternative models of 'childhood trauma-depression-personality traits'. The current study provides preliminary evidence for mediation roles of neuroticism and extraversion in the effect of childhood trauma to depressive symptoms in adolescents. These findings may contribute to better prevention and interventions for depressive symptoms among adolescents with childhood trauma via personality traits improvement. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Non-work-related personal events contribute to depressive symptoms in Japanese discretionary workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogami, Ayumi; Muto, Takashi; Haruyama, Yasuo; Yoshikawa, Toru

    2013-08-01

    In Japan, the number of workers with depressive symptoms has increased recently, and long working hours are considered one of the main contributing factors. Currently, the number of workers engaging in discretionary work is small but is expected to increase, as a diverse method of employment is believed to contribute to workers' well-being. However, the factors related to discretionary workers' depressive symptoms are unclear. This study aimed to identify the factors associated with depressive symptoms in discretionary workers. The subjects were 240 male discretionary workers in a Japanese insurance company. A cross-sectional study was performed using a questionnaire that includes demographic characteristics, living and working conditions, work-related and non-work-related stressful events, and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Depressive symptoms were assessed as more than 16 points on the CES-D. Multiple logistic regression models were employed to estimate odd ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of depressive symptoms in relation to possible factors. Thirty-six subjects (15.5%) showed depressive symptoms. The depressive symptoms were significantly related to age (p = 0.04), presence of child(ren) (p = 0.02), and length of employment (p = 0.01), but unrelated to working hours. Subjects who reported "financial matters" (OR = 4.50, 95% CI = 1.89-10.72) and "own event" such as divorce or illness (OR = 2.93, 95% CI = 1.13-7.61) were more likely to show depressive symptoms. In conclusion, mental health measures for discretionary workers should focus on addressing financial difficulties and consultations and assistance in personal health and family issues.

  4. Attributional style and depressive symptoms in a male prison sample.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny J O'Sullivan

    Full Text Available The reformulated learned helplessness model proposes that people who tend to make internal, stable, and global attributions in response to uncontrollable aversive events are more likely to develop depression. The present study sought to investigate the nature of the relationship between attributional style and depression in a male prison sample. One hundred and one adult male prisoners from four medium security prisons in Ireland completed the Attributional Style Questionnaire and measures of depression (BDI-II and anxiety (BAI. Severity of self-reported depressive symptoms in the present sample was comparable to other prison and clinical samples, but higher than community samples. Participants were more severely affected by depressive symptoms than anxiety. The original attributional dimensions (i.e. internal, stable, and global predicted a significant amount of variance in depression, but the model was not significant after controlling for anxiety. A subsequent regression model, comprising attributional dimensions for both negative events and positive events including a measure of 'uncontrollability', accounted for 35% of the variance in depression and the model retained significance while controlling for anxiety. An attributional model of depression may be relevant to the prison population and could provide a valid insight into the development and treatment of depressive symptoms in prisoners. The findings are interpreted in relation to previous research and implications for theory, clinical practice, and rehabilitation are discussed.

  5. Attributional style and depressive symptoms in a male prison sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Danny J; O'Sullivan, Maura E; O'Connell, Brendan D; O'Reilly, Ken; Sarma, Kiran M

    2018-01-01

    The reformulated learned helplessness model proposes that people who tend to make internal, stable, and global attributions in response to uncontrollable aversive events are more likely to develop depression. The present study sought to investigate the nature of the relationship between attributional style and depression in a male prison sample. One hundred and one adult male prisoners from four medium security prisons in Ireland completed the Attributional Style Questionnaire and measures of depression (BDI-II) and anxiety (BAI). Severity of self-reported depressive symptoms in the present sample was comparable to other prison and clinical samples, but higher than community samples. Participants were more severely affected by depressive symptoms than anxiety. The original attributional dimensions (i.e. internal, stable, and global) predicted a significant amount of variance in depression, but the model was not significant after controlling for anxiety. A subsequent regression model, comprising attributional dimensions for both negative events and positive events including a measure of 'uncontrollability', accounted for 35% of the variance in depression and the model retained significance while controlling for anxiety. An attributional model of depression may be relevant to the prison population and could provide a valid insight into the development and treatment of depressive symptoms in prisoners. The findings are interpreted in relation to previous research and implications for theory, clinical practice, and rehabilitation are discussed.

  6. Attributional style and depressive symptoms in a male prison sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Sullivan, Danny J.; O’Sullivan, Maura E.; O’Connell, Brendan D.; O’Reilly, Ken; Sarma, Kiran M.

    2018-01-01

    The reformulated learned helplessness model proposes that people who tend to make internal, stable, and global attributions in response to uncontrollable aversive events are more likely to develop depression. The present study sought to investigate the nature of the relationship between attributional style and depression in a male prison sample. One hundred and one adult male prisoners from four medium security prisons in Ireland completed the Attributional Style Questionnaire and measures of depression (BDI-II) and anxiety (BAI). Severity of self-reported depressive symptoms in the present sample was comparable to other prison and clinical samples, but higher than community samples. Participants were more severely affected by depressive symptoms than anxiety. The original attributional dimensions (i.e. internal, stable, and global) predicted a significant amount of variance in depression, but the model was not significant after controlling for anxiety. A subsequent regression model, comprising attributional dimensions for both negative events and positive events including a measure of ‘uncontrollability’, accounted for 35% of the variance in depression and the model retained significance while controlling for anxiety. An attributional model of depression may be relevant to the prison population and could provide a valid insight into the development and treatment of depressive symptoms in prisoners. The findings are interpreted in relation to previous research and implications for theory, clinical practice, and rehabilitation are discussed. PMID:29444084

  7. Current Parental Depression and Offspring Perceived Self-Competence: A Quasi-Experimental Examination

    OpenAIRE

    Class, Quetzal A.; D’Onofrio, Brian M.; Singh, Amber L.; Ganiban, Jody M.; Spotts, E. L.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Reiss, David; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.

    2012-01-01

    A genetically-informed, quasi-experimental design was used to examine the genetic and environmental processes underlying associations between current parental depressive symptoms and offspring perceived self-competence. Participants, drawn from a population-based Swedish sample, were 852 twin pairs and their male (52%) and female offspring aged 15.7 ± 2.4 years. Parental depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale. Offspring perceived self-c...

  8. Orbitofrontal cortex activity and connectivity predict future depression symptoms in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jingwen; Narayanan, Ananth; Perlman, Greg; Luking, Katherine; DeLorenzo, Christine; Hajcak, Greg; Klein, Daniel N; Kotov, Roman; Mohanty, Aprajita

    2017-10-01

    Major depressive disorder is a leading cause of disability worldwide; however, little is known about pathological mechanisms involved in its development. Research in adolescent depression has focused on reward sensitivity and striatal mechanisms implementing it. The contribution of loss sensitivity to future depression, as well as the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) mechanisms critical for processing losses and rewards, remain unexplored. Furthermore, it is unclear whether OFC functioning interacts with familial history in predicting future depression. In this longitudinal study we recorded functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data while 229 adolescent females with or without parental history of depression completed a monetary gambling task. We examined if OFC blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) response and functional connectivity during loss and win feedback was associated with depression symptoms concurrently and prospectively (9 months later), and whether this relationship was moderated by parental history of depression. Reduced OFC response during loss was associated with higher depression symptoms concurrently and prospectively, even after controlling for concurrent depression, specifically in adolescents with parental history of depression. Similarly, increased OFC-posterior insula connectivity during loss was associated with future depression symptoms but this relationship was not moderated by parental history of depression. This study provides the first evidence for loss-related alterations in OFC functioning and its interaction with familial history of depression as possible mechanisms in the development of depression. While the current fMRI literature has mainly focused on reward, the present findings underscore the need to include prefrontal loss processing in existing developmental models of depression.

  9. Childhood trauma is associated with depressive symptoms in Mexico City women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Openshaw, Maria; Thompson, Lisa M; de Pheils, Pilar Bernal; Mendoza-Flores, Maria Eugenia; Humphreys, Janice

    2015-05-01

    To describe childhood trauma and depressive symptoms in Mexican women and to explore the relationships between number and type of childhood traumatic events and depressive symptoms. A community-based sample of 100 women was interviewed using a demographic questionnaire, the Life Stressor Checklist-Revised (LSC-R), and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Childhood trauma (trauma at or before 16 years of age) and depressive symptoms were described, and logistic and linear regressions were used to analyze the relationship between childhood traumatic events and current depressive symptoms. Participants reported a mean of 9.46 (standard deviation (SD): 4.18) lifetime traumas and 2.76 (SD: 2.34) childhood traumas. The mean CES-D score was 18.9 (SD: 12.0) and 36.0% of participants had clinically significant depression (CES-D > 24). Depression scores were correlated with lifetime trauma, childhood trauma, education level, employment status, and number of self-reported current medical conditions. Depression scores were not significantly correlated with age, marital status, number of children, or socioeconomic status. For every additional childhood trauma experienced, the odds of clinically significant depressive symptoms (CES-D > 24) increased by 50.0% (adjusted odds ratio (OR): 1.50; 95% confidence interval: 1.14-1.96), after controlling for number of children, age, education level, employment status, and number of self-reported medical conditions. The results indicated that the number of childhood trauma exposures is associated with current depression among urban Mexican women, suggesting a need for trauma-informed care in this setting.

  10. Childhood trauma is associated with depressive symptoms in Mexico City women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Openshaw

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe childhood trauma and depressive symptoms in Mexican women and to explore the relationships between number and type of childhood traumatic events and depressive symptoms. METHODS: A community-based sample of 100 women was interviewed using a demographic questionnaire, the Life Stressor Checklist-Revised (LSC-R, and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D. Childhood trauma (trauma at or before 16 years of age and depressive symptoms were described, and logistic and linear regressions were used to analyze the relationship between childhood traumatic events and current depressive symptoms. RESULTS: Participants reported a mean of 9.46 (standard deviation (SD: 4.18 lifetime traumas and 2.76 (SD: 2.34 childhood traumas. The mean CES-D score was 18.9 (SD: 12.0 and 36.0% of participants had clinically significant depression (CES-D > 24. Depression scores were correlated with lifetime trauma, childhood trauma, education level, employment status, and number of self-reported current medical conditions. Depression scores were not significantly correlated with age, marital status, number of children, or socioeconomic status. For every additional childhood trauma experienced, the odds of clinically significant depressive symptoms (CES-D > 24 increased by 50.0% (adjusted odds ratio (OR: 1.50; 95% confidence interval: 1.14-1.96, after controlling for number of children, age, education level, employment status, and number of self-reported medical conditions. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicated that the number of childhood trauma exposures is associated with current depression among urban Mexican women, suggesting a need for trauma-informed care in this setting.

  11. Gender differences in depression severity and symptoms across depressive sub-types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Gordon; Fletcher, Kathryn; Paterson, Amelia; Anderson, Josephine; Hong, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Lifetime rates of depression are distinctly higher in women reflecting both real and artefactual influences. Most prevalence studies quantifying a female preponderance have examined severity-based diagnostic groups such as major depression or dysthymia. We examined gender differences across three depressive sub-type conditions using four differing measures to determine whether any gender differences emerge more from severity or symptom prevalence, reflect nuances of the particular measure, or whether depressive sub-type is influential. A large clinical sample was recruited. Patients completed two severity-weighted depression measures: the Depression in the Medically Ill 10 (DMI-10) and Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptoms-Self-Report (QIDS-SR) and two measures weighting symptoms and illness correlates of melancholic and non-melancholic depressive disorders - the Severity of Depressive Symptoms (SDS) and Sydney Melancholia Prototype Index (SMPI). Analyses were undertaken of three diagnostic groups comprising those with unipolar melancholic, unipolar non-melancholic and bipolar depressive conditions. Women in the two unipolar groups scored only marginally (and non-significantly) higher than men on the depression severity measures. Women in the bipolar depression group, did however, score significantly higher than men on depression severity. On measures weighted to assessing melancholic and non-melancholic symptoms, there were relatively few gender differences identified in the melancholic and non-melancholic sub-sets, while more gender differences were quantified in the bipolar sub-set. The symptoms most commonly and consistently differentiating by gender were those assessing appetite/weight change and psychomotor disturbance. Our analyses of several measures and the minimal differentiation of depressive symptoms and symptom severity argues against any female preponderance in unipolar depression being contributed to distinctly by these depression rating measures

  12. Depressive symptoms and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder in women after childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaers, Stefanie; Waschke, Melanie; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2008-03-01

    This study examined the course of psychological problems in women from late pregnancy to six months postpartum, the rates of psychiatric, especially depressive and post-traumatic stress symptoms and possible related antecedent variables. During late pregnancy, one to three days postpartum, six weeks and six months postpartum, 47 of the 60 participating women completed a battery of questionnaires including the General Health Questionnaire, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, and the PTSD Symptom Scale. In general, most women recovered from psychiatric and somatic problems over the period of investigation. However, depressive and post-traumatic stress symptoms in particular were not found to decline significantly. Six weeks postpartum, 22% of the women had depressive symptoms, with this figure remaining at 21.3% six months postpartum. In addition, 6% of the women studied reported clinically significant PTSD symptoms at six weeks postpartum with 14.9% reporting such symptoms at six months postpartum. The most important predictor for depressive and post-traumatic stress symptoms was the block variable "anxiety in late pregnancy". Other predictors were the variables "psychiatric symptoms in late pregnancy", "critical life events" and the "experience of delivery". The results of our study show a high prevalence rate of psychiatric symptoms in women after childbirth and suggest, besides the experience of the delivery itself, a vulnerability or predisposing history that makes the development of psychiatric symptoms after childbirth more probable.

  13. HIV symptom distress and anxiety sensitivity in relation to panic, social anxiety, and depression symptoms among HIV-positive adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Adam; Zvolensky, Michael J; Parent, Justin; Grover, Kristin W; Hickey, Michael

    2012-03-01

    Although past work has documented relations between HIV/AIDS and negative affective symptoms and disorders, empirical work has only just begun to address explanatory processes that may underlie these associations. The current investigation sought to test the main and interactive effects of HIV symptom distress and anxiety sensitivity in relation to symptoms of panic disorder (PD), social anxiety disorder (SA), and depression among people with HIV/AIDS. Participants were 164 adults with HIV/AIDS (17.1% women; mean age, 48.40) recruited from AIDS service organizations (ASOs) in Vermont/New Hampshire and New York City. The sample identified as 40.9% white/Caucasian, 31.1% black, 22.0% Hispanic, and 6.1% mixed/other; with more than half (56.7%) reporting an annual income less than or equal to $10,000. Both men and women reported unprotected sex with men as the primary route of HIV transmission (64.4% and 50%, respectively). HIV symptom distress and anxiety sensitivity (AS) were significantly positively related to PD, SA, and depression symptoms. As predicted, there was a significant interaction between HIV symptom distress and anxiety sensitivity in terms of PD and SA symptoms, but not depressive symptoms. Results suggest that anxiety sensitivity and HIV symptom distress are clinically relevant factors to consider in terms of anxiety and depression among people living with HIV/AIDS. It may be important to evaluate these factors among patients with HIV/AIDS to identify individuals who may be at a particularly high risk for anxiety and depression problems. Limitations included recruitment from ASOs, cross-sectional self-report data, and lack of a clinical diagnostic assessment.

  14. Coping style and ecstasy use motives as predictors of current mood symptoms in ecstasy users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Rebecca M; Hides, Leanne; Allen, J Sabura; Lubman, Dan I

    2013-10-01

    Elevated depressive and anxiety symptoms during childhood and adolescence have been associated with greater risk of later ecstasy use. Ecstasy users have reported using ecstasy to reduce depression or worry, or to escape. While these findings suggest that some people use ecstasy as a form of self-medication, limited research has been conducted examining the relationship between affective symptoms, coping styles and drug use motives in ecstasy users. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine if coping style and/or ecstasy use motives are associated with current mood symptoms in ecstasy users. A community sample (n=184) of 18-35 year olds who had taken ecstasy at least once in the past 12 months completed self-report measures of depression, anxiety, ecstasy use motives and coping styles. Timeline follow back methods were used to collect information on lifetime ecstasy, recent drug use and life stress. Trauma exposure was measured using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview-Trauma List. Coping motives for ecstasy use and an emotion-focused coping style were significantly associated with current depressive and anxiety symptoms. Emotion-focused coping mediated the relationship between a history of trauma and current anxiety symptoms and moderated the relationship between recent stressful life events and current depressive symptoms. These findings highlight the importance of interventions targeting motives for ecstasy use, and providing coping skills training for managing stressful life events among people with co-occurring depressive/anxiety symptoms and ecstasy use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Sources of individual differences in depressive symptoms: analysis of two samples of twins and their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, K S; Walters, E E; Truett, K R; Heath, A C; Neale, M C; Martin, N G; Eaves, L J

    1994-11-01

    Self-reported symptoms of depression are commonly used in mental health research to assess current psychiatric state, yet wide variation in these symptoms among individuals has been found in both clinical and epidemiologic populations. The authors sought to understand, from a genetic-epidemiologic perspective, the sources of individual differences in depressive symptoms. Self-reported symptoms of depression were assessed in two samples of twins and their spouses, parents, siblings, and offspring: one sample contained volunteer twins recruited through the American Association of Retired Persons and their relatives (N = 19,203 individuals) and the other contained twins from a population-based twin registry in Virginia and their relatives (N = 11,242 individuals). Model fitting by an iterative, diagonal, weighted least squares method was applied to the 80 different family relationships in the extended twin-family design. Independent analyses of the two samples revealed that the level of depressive symptoms was modestly familial, and familial resemblance could be explained solely by genetic factors and spousal resemblance. The estimated heritability of depressive symptoms was between 30% and 37%. There was no evidence that the liability to depressive symptoms was environmentally transmitted from parents to offspring or was influenced by environmental factors shared either generally among siblings or specifically between twins. With correction for unreliability of measurement, genetic factors accounted for half of the stable variance in depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms in adulthood partly reflect enduring characteristics of temperament that are substantially influenced by hereditary factors but little, or not at all, by shared environmental experiences in the family of origin.

  16. Parenting and depressive symptoms among adolescents in four Caribbean societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The strategies that parents use to guide and discipline their children may influence their emotional health. Relatively little research has been conducted examining the association of parenting practices to depressive symptoms among Caribbean adolescents. This project examines the association of parenting styles to levels of depressive symptoms among adolescents in Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Kitts and Nevis, and St. Vincent. Methods Adolescents attending grade ten of academic year 2006/2007 in Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Vincent, and St. Kitts and Nevis were administered the Parenting Practices Scale along with the BDI-II. Authoritative, Authoritarian, Permissive and Neglectful parenting styles were created using a median split procedure of the monitoring and nurturance subscales of the Parenting Practices Scale. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the relationships of parenting styles to depressive symptoms. Results A wide cross-section of tenth grade students in each nation was sampled (n = 1955; 278 from Jamaica, 217 from the Bahamas, 737 St. Kitts and Nevis, 716 from St. Vincent; 52.1% females, 45.6% males and 2.3% no gender reported; age 12 to 19 years, mean = 15.3 yrs, sd = .95 yrs). Nearly half (52.1%) of all adolescents reported mild to severe symptoms of depression with 29.1% reporting moderate to severe symptoms of depression. In general, authoritative and permissive parenting styles were both associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms in adolescents. However, the relationship of parenting styles to depression scores was not consistent across countries (p parenting, caregivers in this study used a mixture of different parenting styles with the two most popular styles being authoritative and neglectful parenting. Conclusions There appears to be an association between parenting styles and depressive symptoms that is differentially manifested across the islands of Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Kitts and Nevis and St

  17. Parenting and depressive symptoms among adolescents in four Caribbean societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipps Garth

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The strategies that parents use to guide and discipline their children may influence their emotional health. Relatively little research has been conducted examining the association of parenting practices to depressive symptoms among Caribbean adolescents. This project examines the association of parenting styles to levels of depressive symptoms among adolescents in Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Kitts and Nevis, and St. Vincent. Methods Adolescents attending grade ten of academic year 2006/2007 in Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Vincent, and St. Kitts and Nevis were administered the Parenting Practices Scale along with the BDI-II. Authoritative, Authoritarian, Permissive and Neglectful parenting styles were created using a median split procedure of the monitoring and nurturance subscales of the Parenting Practices Scale. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the relationships of parenting styles to depressive symptoms. Results A wide cross-section of tenth grade students in each nation was sampled (n = 1955; 278 from Jamaica, 217 from the Bahamas, 737 St. Kitts and Nevis, 716 from St. Vincent; 52.1% females, 45.6% males and 2.3% no gender reported; age 12 to 19 years, mean = 15.3 yrs, sd = .95 yrs. Nearly half (52.1% of all adolescents reported mild to severe symptoms of depression with 29.1% reporting moderate to severe symptoms of depression. In general, authoritative and permissive parenting styles were both associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms in adolescents. However, the relationship of parenting styles to depression scores was not consistent across countries (p  Conclusions There appears to be an association between parenting styles and depressive symptoms that is differentially manifested across the islands of Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Kitts and Nevis and St. Vincent.

  18. Parenting and depressive symptoms among adolescents in four Caribbean societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipps, Garth; Lowe, Gillian A; Gibson, Roger C; Halliday, Sharon; Morris, Amrie; Clarke, Nelson; Wilson, Rosemarie N

    2012-09-21

    The strategies that parents use to guide and discipline their children may influence their emotional health. Relatively little research has been conducted examining the association of parenting practices to depressive symptoms among Caribbean adolescents. This project examines the association of parenting styles to levels of depressive symptoms among adolescents in Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Kitts and Nevis, and St. Vincent. Adolescents attending grade ten of academic year 2006/2007 in Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Vincent, and St. Kitts and Nevis were administered the Parenting Practices Scale along with the BDI-II. Authoritative, Authoritarian, Permissive and Neglectful parenting styles were created using a median split procedure of the monitoring and nurturance subscales of the Parenting Practices Scale. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the relationships of parenting styles to depressive symptoms. A wide cross-section of tenth grade students in each nation was sampled (n = 1955; 278 from Jamaica, 217 from the Bahamas, 737 St. Kitts and Nevis, 716 from St. Vincent; 52.1% females, 45.6% males and 2.3% no gender reported; age 12 to 19 years, mean = 15.3 yrs, sd = .95 yrs). Nearly half (52.1%) of all adolescents reported mild to severe symptoms of depression with 29.1% reporting moderate to severe symptoms of depression. In general, authoritative and permissive parenting styles were both associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms in adolescents. However, the relationship of parenting styles to depression scores was not consistent across countries (p parenting, caregivers in this study used a mixture of different parenting styles with the two most popular styles being authoritative and neglectful parenting. There appears to be an association between parenting styles and depressive symptoms that is differentially manifested across the islands of Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Kitts and Nevis and St. Vincent.

  19. Depression symptoms in boys with autism spectrum disorder and comparison samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadow, Kenneth D; Guttmann-Steinmetz, Sarit; Rieffe, Carolien; Devincent, Carla J

    2012-07-01

    This study compares severity of specific depression symptoms in boys with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), or chronic multiple tic disorder (CMTD) and typically developing boys (Controls). Children were evaluated with parent and teacher versions of the Child Symptom Inventory-4 (CSI-4) and a demographic questionnaire. Mothers' and teachers' ratings generally indicated the most severe symptoms in boys with ASD ± ADHD. Associations of depression with ASD severity and IQ varied considerably for specific symptoms of depression, ASD functional domain, and informant. Findings provide additional support for the differential influence of neurobehavioral syndromes on co-occurring symptom severity and illustrate how more fine-grained analyses of clinical phenotypes may contribute to a better understanding of etiology and current nosology.

  20. Sleep quality, internet addiction and depressive symptoms among undergraduate students in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Parash Mani; Neupane, Dipika; Rijal, Shristi; Thapa, Kiran; Mishra, Shiva Raj; Poudyal, Amod Kumar

    2017-03-21

    Evidence on the burden of depression, internet addiction and poor sleep quality in undergraduate students from Nepal is virtually non-existent. While the interaction between sleep quality, internet addiction and depressive symptoms is frequently assessed in studies, it is not well explored if sleep quality or internet addiction statistically mediates the association between the other two variables. We enrolled 984 students from 27 undergraduate campuses of Chitwan and Kathmandu, Nepal. We assessed sleep quality, internet addiction and depressive symptoms in these students using Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Young's Internet Addiction Test and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 respectively. We included responses from 937 students in the data analysis after removing questionnaires with five percent or more fields missing. Via bootstrap approach, we assessed the mediating role of internet addiction in the association between sleep quality and depressive symptoms, and that of sleep quality in the association between internet addiction and depressive symptoms. Overall, 35.4%, 35.4% and 21.2% of students scored above validated cutoff scores for poor sleep quality, internet addiction and depression respectively. Poorer sleep quality was associated with having lower age, not being alcohol user, being a Hindu, being sexually active and having failed in previous year's board examination. Higher internet addiction was associated with having lower age, being sexually inactive and having failed in previous year's board examination. Depressive symptoms were higher for students having higher age, being sexually inactive, having failed in previous year's board examination and lower years of study. Internet addiction statistically mediated 16.5% of the indirect effect of sleep quality on depressive symptoms. Sleep quality, on the other hand, statistically mediated 30.9% of the indirect effect of internet addiction on depressive symptoms. In the current study, a great proportion of

  1. Pattern of somatic symptoms in anxiety and depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, M.

    2011-01-01

    To determine the pattern of somatic symptoms in anxiety and depressive disorders. Design: Cross Sectional Comparative study Place of Study: Department of Psychiatry Military Hospital Rawalpindi. Duration of Study: From May to November 2002. Patients and Methods: Patients were divided in Group I of anxiety and group II of depression. Fifty patients considered in each group by convenience sampling. The organic basis of their symptoms was ruled out. The patterns of their somatic symptoms and other information like educational and economic status were recorded on Semi Structured Proforma. The patient's diagnosis was made on schedule based ICD-10 research criteria. The severity of anxiety and depression was assessed by using HARS and HDRS respectively. The pattern of somatic symptoms in both groups was then analyzed by the urdu version of Bradford Somatic Inventory. Patterns of somatic complaints were then analyzed by chi square test. Results: Out of 100 patients we placed 50 each in group I (anxiety) and group II (Depression). Males were higher in depression whereas females were higher in anxiety disorder group. P-value for headache was 0.017 while in rest of the somatic symptoms it was insignificant ranging from 0.4 to 1. Conclusion: We found that the patterns of somatic symptoms are present in both the groups of anxiety and depression like symptoms related to musculoskeletal and gastrointestinal system were commonly observed in cases of depression whereas symptoms related to autonomic nervous system and cardiovascular system is more significantly somatized in patients of anxiety. A larger sample is required for further studies to get better results. (author)

  2. Depressive symptoms and diabetes control in African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Julie A; Abbott, Gina L; Heapy, Alicia; Yong, Lynne

    2009-02-01

    This study of African Americans with diabetes investigated: (1) the relationship between depressive symptoms and glycemic control; (2) the relationship between depressive symptoms and long-term diabetes complications; (3) the relationship between depressive symptoms and medication usage; and (4) the effects of demographic and diabetes variables on these relationships. One-hundred twenty five African American diabetic adults who were attending health fairs reported demographic and medical history and provided blood samples for A1c assessment of glycemic control. They also completed the Centers for Epidemiological Studies Depression questionnaire, and the Diabetes Self-Care Inventory. After controlling for confounders, higher depressive symptoms were associated with higher A1c, more long-term diabetes complications, and more diabetes medications. Diabetes self-care did not fully account for these relationships. The relationship between depression and poor diabetes control exists in African Americans as it does in Whites. Providers are encouraged to attend to depression in their African American patients with diabetes.

  3. Longitudinal analyses of adoptive parents' expectations and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foli, Karen J; Lim, Eunjung; South, Susan C

    2017-12-01

    Grounded in a theoretical model specific to adoptive parents, we examined the relationship between parental expectations and depressive symptoms across time. Assessments of 129 adoptive parents of 64 children were performed at three time points before and after placement of an adopted child with the family: 4-6 weeks pre-placement and 4-6 weeks and 5-6 months post-placement. Expectations were assessed in four dimensions: expectations of self as parents, of the child, of family and friends, and of society. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale. Associations between parental expectations and depressive symptoms were analyzed, and longitudinal multilevel modeling was conducted to explore influences on expectations over time. Parental expectations changed from pre- to post-placement. With the exception of expectations of self as parent, adoptive parents' pre-adoption expectations were affirmed in the post-adoption time periods. In each expectation dimension, higher affirmation of expectations was correlated with decreased depressive symptoms before and after placement of a child. While parental expectations are not unique to adoptive parents, the essence and characteristics of certain expectations are unique to these parents. When working with adoptive parents, nurses who care for families should assess expectations both pre- and post-placement with awareness of their relationship to depressive symptoms. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Association between body image dissatisfaction and depressive symptoms in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Cornejo, Fiorela; Kamego-Tome, Mayumi; Zapata-Pachas, Mariana A; Alvarado, German F

    2017-01-01

    To determine the association between body image dissatisfaction (BID) and depressive symptoms in adolescents from a school in Lima, Peru. A cross-sectional study was performed through a census of 875 high-school students, aged 13 to 17 years, from a school in Lima. Participants completed a survey containing the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Data regarding demographics, alcohol and tobacco use, self-esteem, and family history of depression were also obtained. To identify associated factors, Poisson regression with robust variance was used. Prevalence ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Of the 875 adolescents, 55.8% were male. The mean age was 14.1±1.5 years. Depressive symptoms were observed in 19.9% of participants. An association between BID and depressive symptoms was found. Alcohol and tobacco use were also associated with the outcome of interest. Teens who had BID were 3.7 times more likely to report depressive symptoms. Additionally, those who used tobacco or alcohol were 1.5 and 1.4 times more likely to have depressive symptoms, respectively. Further studies targeting other populations and using longitudinal designs are recommended.

  5. Association between body image dissatisfaction and depressive symptoms in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorela Flores-Cornejo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the association between body image dissatisfaction (BID and depressive symptoms in adolescents from a school in Lima, Peru. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed through a census of 875 high-school students, aged 13 to 17 years, from a school in Lima. Participants completed a survey containing the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9. Data regarding demographics, alcohol and tobacco use, self-esteem, and family history of depression were also obtained. To identify associated factors, Poisson regression with robust variance was used. Prevalence ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Results: Of the 875 adolescents, 55.8% were male. The mean age was 14.1±1.5 years. Depressive symptoms were observed in 19.9% of participants. An association between BID and depressive symptoms was found. Alcohol and tobacco use were also associated with the outcome of interest. Conclusions: Teens who had BID were 3.7 times more likely to report depressive symptoms. Additionally, those who used tobacco or alcohol were 1.5 and 1.4 times more likely to have depressive symptoms, respectively. Further studies targeting other populations and using longitudinal designs are recommended.

  6. Plasma biomarkers of depressive symptoms in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, S E; Xie, S X; Leung, Y-Y; Wang, L-S; Kling, M A; Han, X; Kim, E J; Wolk, D A; Bennett, D A; Chen-Plotkin, A; Grossman, M; Hu, W; Lee, V M-Y; Mackin, R Scott; Trojanowski, J Q; Wilson, R S; Shaw, L M

    2012-01-03

    The pathophysiology of negative affect states in older adults is complex, and a host of central nervous system and peripheral systemic mechanisms may play primary or contributing roles. We conducted an unbiased analysis of 146 plasma analytes in a multiplex biochemical biomarker study in relation to number of depressive symptoms endorsed by 566 participants in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) at their baseline and 1-year assessments. Analytes that were most highly associated with depressive symptoms included hepatocyte growth factor, insulin polypeptides, pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A and vascular endothelial growth factor. Separate regression models assessed contributions of past history of psychiatric illness, antidepressant or other psychotropic medicine, apolipoprotein E genotype, body mass index, serum glucose and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) τ and amyloid levels, and none of these values significantly attenuated the main effects of the candidate analyte levels for depressive symptoms score. Ensemble machine learning with Random Forests found good accuracy (~80%) in classifying groups with and without depressive symptoms. These data begin to identify biochemical biomarkers of depressive symptoms in older adults that may be useful in investigations of pathophysiological mechanisms of depression in aging and neurodegenerative dementias and as targets of novel treatment approaches.

  7. Cognitive vulnerabilities as mediators between emotional abuse and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla Paredes, Patricia; Calvete, Esther

    2014-01-01

    This study tested whether childhood parental emotional abuse and peer emotional bullying serve as antecedents of depression in adolescence and identified the cognitive mechanisms involved in this process. It was hypothesized that the experience of emotional abuse would predict depressive symptoms via development of rumination and negative inferences. A 3-wave longitudinal study was carried out with 998 adolescents (471 girls and 526 boys) between 13 and 17 years of age. Results showed that emotional abuse by parents and peers at Time 1 predicted a worsening of several cognitive vulnerabilities at Time 2. In addition, brooding mediated between the experiences of abuse and the increase of depressive symptoms at Time 3. Thus, findings suggest that the experiences of childhood emotional abuse by parents and peers serve as antecedents to develop a negative cognitive style, vulnerability that, once developed, is a risk factor for the onset of depressive symptoms in adolescence.

  8. Prevalence of depression and depressive symptoms among outpatients: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinghui; Wu, Xiaohang; Lai, Weiyi; Long, Erping; Zhang, Xiayin; Li, Wangting; Zhu, Yi; Chen, Chuan; Zhong, Xiaojian; Liu, Zhenzhen; Wang, Dongni; Lin, Haotian

    2017-08-23

    Depression and depressive symptoms are common mental disorders that have a considerable effect on patients' health-related quality of life and satisfaction with medical care, but the prevalence of these conditions varies substantially between published studies. The aim of this study is to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to provide a precise estimate of the prevalence of depression or depressive symptoms among outpatients in different clinical specialties. Systematic review and meta-analysis. The PubMed and PsycINFO, EMBASE and Cochrane Library databases were searched to identify observational studies that contained information on the prevalence of depression and depressive symptoms in outpatients. All studies included were published before January 2016. Data characteristics were extracted independently by two investigators. The point prevalence of depression or depressive symptoms was measured using validated self-report questionnaires or structured interviews. Assessments were pooled using a random-effects model. Differences in study-level characteristics were estimated by meta-regression analysis. Heterogeneity was assessed using standard χ 2 tests and the I 2 statistic. The study protocol has been registered with PROSPERO under number CRD42017054738. Eighty-three cross-sectional studies involving 41 344 individuals were included in this study. The overall pooled prevalence of depression or depressive symptoms was 27.0% (10 943/41 344 individuals; 95% CI 24.0% to 29.0%), with significant heterogeneity between studies (pdepression and depressive symptoms was observed in outpatients than in the healthy controls (OR 3.16, 95% CI 2.66 to 3.76, I 2 =72.0%, χ 2 =25.33). The highest depression/depressive symptom prevalence estimates occurred in studies of outpatients from otolaryngology clinics (53.0%), followed by dermatology clinics (39.0%) and neurology clinics (35.0%). Subgroup analyses showed that the prevalence of depression and depressive

  9. Late-life depressive symptoms, religiousness, and mood in the last week of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braam, Arjan W; Klinkenberg, Marianne; Galenkamp, Henrike; Deeg, Dorly J H

    2012-01-01

    Aim of the current study is to examine whether previous depressive symptoms modify possible effects of religiousness on mood in the last week of life. After-death interviews with proxy respondents of deceased sample members of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam provided information on depressed mood in the last week of life, as well as on the presence of a sense of peace with the approaching end of life. Other characteristics were derived from interviews with the sample members when still alive. Significant interactions were identified between measures of religiousness and previous depressive symptoms (CES-D scores) in their associations with mood in the last week of life. Among those with previous depressive symptoms, church-membership, church-attendance and salience of religion were associated with a greater likelihood of depressed mood in the last week of life. Among those without previous depressive symptoms, church-attendance and salience of religion were associated with a higher likelihood of a sense of peace. For older adults in the last phase of life, supportive effects of religiousness were more or less expected. Fore those with recent depressive symptoms, however, religiousness might involve a component of existential doubt.

  10. Anger expression, violent behavior, and symptoms of depression among male college students in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terasaki, Dale J; Gelaye, Bizu; Berhane, Yemane; Williams, Michelle A

    2009-01-12

    Depression is an important global public health problem. Given the scarcity of studies involving African youths, this study was conducted to evaluate the associations of anger expression and violent behavior with symptoms of depression among male college students. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics and violent behavior among 1,176 college students in Awassa, Ethiopia in June, 2006. The questionnaire incorporated the Spielberger Anger-Out Expression (SAOE) scale and symptoms of depression were evaluated using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Multivariable logistic regression procedures were used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Symptoms of depression were evident in 23.6% of participants. Some 54.3% of students reported committing at least one act of violence in the current academic year; and 29.3% of students reported high (SAOE score > or = 15) levels of anger-expression. In multivariate analysis, moderate (OR = 1.97; 95%CI 1.33-2.93) and high (OR = 3.23; 95%CI 2.14-4.88) outward anger were statistically significantly associated with increased risks of depressive symptoms. Violent behavior was noted to be associated with depressive symptoms (OR = 1.82; 95%CI 1.37-2.40). Further research should be conducted to better characterize community and individual level determinants of anger-expression, violent behavior and depression among youths.

  11. Prayer and depressive symptoms in a period of secularization: patterns among older adults in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braam, Arjan W; Deeg, Dorly J H; Poppelaars, Jan L; Beekman, Aartjan T F; van Tilburg, Willem

    2007-04-01

    Prayer is generally recognized as an important aspect of religiousness. Relatively few empiric studies examined the relation between prayer and depressive symptoms in later life, and findings so far are mixed. Respondents, aged 60-91 years, participated in the third (N = 1,702) and fourth (N = 1,346) assessment cycles, with three-year intervals, of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam. Data were collected on frequency of prayer, perceived meaningfulness of prayer, religious affiliation, church attendance, salience of religion, demographics, and health variables. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale. In the total sample, there was no significant association between frequency of prayer and depressive symptoms. Among those who were not religiously affiliated, prayer was associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms. The results were particularly pronounced among nonaffiliated widowed respondents; odds ratio for praying daily associated with having Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale scores of 16 and higher amounted to 3.59 (99% confidence interval: 1.01-11.79). At three-year follow up, prayer did not predict change of depressive symptoms. As secularization in Western Europe progresses, the current results suggest that clinical exploration of private religiousness among older patients remains relevant, also among people who seem to be less religious.

  12. Perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms among immigrant-origin adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummala-Narra, Pratyusha; Claudius, Milena

    2013-07-01

    Although discrimination has been found to contribute to psychological distress among immigrant populations, there are few studies that have examined the relationship between racial and ethnic discrimination in the school setting among foreign-born immigrant and U.S.-born immigrant-origin adolescents. This study examined the relationship between perceived discrimination by adults and peers in the school setting and depressive symptoms in a sample (N = 95) of racial minority immigrant-origin adolescents (13 to 19 years of age) attending an urban high school. We examined the relation between perceived discrimination and depressive symptomology across gender and nativity status (foreign born vs. U.S. born), and the potential moderating role of ethnic identity and social support. Consistent with previous research, girls reported higher levels of depressive symptomology than boys, although the relationship between perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms was significant for both boys and girls. Perceived discrimination by adults and by peers at school was positively related to depressive symptoms for U.S.-born adolescents. For U.S.-born adolescents, ethnic identity mitigated the negative effects of perceived adult discrimination on depressive symptoms. However, ethnic identity did not moderate the relationship between perceived peer discrimination and depressive symptoms. Social support did not moderate the relationship between adult and peer discrimination and depressive symptoms for either foreign-born or U.S.-born adolescents. The findings support previous research concerning the immigrant paradox and highlight the importance of context in the relationship between perceived discrimination and mental health. Implications for future research and intervention are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Acculturation and Depressive Symptoms among Turkish Immigrants in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Morawa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study explores the impact of acculturation on depressive symptoms among Turkish immigrants in Germany, taking into account different dimensions of cultural orientation. A total of 471 patients from two selected samples (254 primary care patients and 217 outpatients of a psychosomatic department participated. Levels of acculturation were measured as orientation towards culture of origin (CO, and orientation towards the host culture (HC. Acculturation strategies (integration, assimilation, separation, and marginalization were also assessed as well as their association with depressive symptoms (BDI. Furthermore, gender- and migration-related differences in terms of acculturation and levels of depressive symptomatology were analyzed. Integration was the acculturation strategy associated with the lowest level of depressive symptoms (M = 14.6, SD = 11.9, while marginalization was associated with the highest (M = 23.5, SD = 14.7. Gender was not found to have a significant impact on acculturation but influenced depressive symptoms, with women (M = 21.8, SD = 13.3 reporting higher levels of depressive symptomatology than men (M = 15.1, SD = 14.0; p < 0.001. In first generation immigrants, significantly higher CO (M = 46.6, SD = 8.3; p < 0.001, lower HC (M = 31.0, SD = 9.6; p < 0.001, and higher levels of depressive symptoms (M = 20.2, SD = 14.1; p < 0.001 were found in comparison to second generation immigrants (CO: M = 41.3, SD = 7.4; HC: M = 36.2, SD = 8.8; depressive symptoms: M = 14.0, SD = 12.9. Our results suggest that orientation towards both the heritage and the host culture has a positive effect on the mental health status of immigrants. Future research needs to include representative samples of migrants from different cultures to further explore the association between acculturation and mental health.

  14. Prevalence and psychosocial correlates of depressive symptoms in urban Chinese women during midlife.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen K M Wong

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Depression is common in women with much research focusing on hormonal changes and menopausal symptoms but with little exploration of psychosocial problems in midlife. This study investigates the prevalence of clinically relevant depressive symptoms in midlife Chinese women and its association with psychosocial factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional, community-based household survey of women aged 45 to 64 years of age was conducted in Hong Kong from September 2010 to March 2011. The structured questionnaire included demographic data, educational status, marital status and household income, as well as perceived current stressful events and significant life events in the past 12 months. Information on clinically relevant depressive symptoms was measured by the validated chinese Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9. RESULTS: A total of 402 participants were recruited in the study period. Of the 393 women who completed the questionnaire, the prevalence of clinically relevant depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 score≧10 was 11.0%. In multiple regression analysis, being single/divorced/separated/widowed, having an educational level of primary school level or below, having multiple chronic diseases, loss of hobby or loss of close social support in the past 12 months in midlife were associated with clinically relevant depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Correlates of clinically relevant depressive symptoms in midlife Chinese women can be used to identify those at increased risk and potentiate further studies to explore early psychosocial and community interventions.

  15. Prevalence and psychosocial correlates of depressive symptoms in urban Chinese women during midlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Carmen K M; Liang, Jun; Chan, Man L; Chan, Yin H; Chan, Laam; Wan, Kwong Y; Ng, Ming S; Chan, Dicken C C; Wong, Samuel Y S; Wong, Martin C S

    2014-01-01

    Depression is common in women with much research focusing on hormonal changes and menopausal symptoms but with little exploration of psychosocial problems in midlife. This study investigates the prevalence of clinically relevant depressive symptoms in midlife Chinese women and its association with psychosocial factors. A cross-sectional, community-based household survey of women aged 45 to 64 years of age was conducted in Hong Kong from September 2010 to March 2011. The structured questionnaire included demographic data, educational status, marital status and household income, as well as perceived current stressful events and significant life events in the past 12 months. Information on clinically relevant depressive symptoms was measured by the validated chinese Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). A total of 402 participants were recruited in the study period. Of the 393 women who completed the questionnaire, the prevalence of clinically relevant depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 score≧10) was 11.0%. In multiple regression analysis, being single/divorced/separated/widowed, having an educational level of primary school level or below, having multiple chronic diseases, loss of hobby or loss of close social support in the past 12 months in midlife were associated with clinically relevant depressive symptoms. Correlates of clinically relevant depressive symptoms in midlife Chinese women can be used to identify those at increased risk and potentiate further studies to explore early psychosocial and community interventions.

  16. Recognizing Maternal Depressive Symptoms: An Opportunity to Improve Outcomes in Early Intervention Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeber, Linda S; Meltzer-Brody, Samantha; Martinez, Maria; Matsuda, Yui; Wheeler, Anne C; Mandel, Marcia; LaForett, Dore; Waldrop, Julee

    2017-04-01

    Objective A higher rate of depressive symptoms is found among mothers of children with disabilities compared to other parents. However, there is a lack of study of mothers with children maternal mental health, using gold standard clinical diagnostic and symptom measures, and test models associating depressive symptoms with contextual factors and child behavior. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted with 106 women who had at least one child enrolled in EI. Mothers were interviewed and completed reliable, valid measures to evaluate mental health, health status, family conflict, parent-child interaction, self-efficacy, social support, child behavioral problems, hardship, endangerment, and child disability. Descriptive statistics and multivariate analyses were performed. Results We found 8 % of participants met all criteria for a Major Depressive Episode (MDE) with 44 % of the sample reporting a past episode and 43 % endorsing recurrent episodes. Using the CES-D to assess depressive symptom severity approximately 34 % of mothers screened in a clinically significant range. Using linear regression to predict severity of current depressive symptoms demonstrated that current depression severity was primarily predicted by poorer maternal health status, lower self-efficacy and past MDE (p maternal mood, health and self-efficacy are important factors to assess when evaluating how to support mothers of children in EI.

  17. Leisure activities and depressive symptoms in older adults with cognitive complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poelke, Gina; Ventura, Maria I; Byers, Amy L; Yaffe, Kristine; Sudore, Rebecca; Barnes, Deborah E

    2016-01-01

    Depressive symptoms are common in older adults and associated with increased risk of cognitive impairment. Leisure activities are often promoted for individuals with mood symptoms but few studies compare the effects of different types of leisure activities on reducing depressive symptoms. Data were analyzed from participants enrolled from 2008-2009 in the Mental Activity and eXercise (MAX) Trial, which examined the effects of physical plus mental activity over 12 weeks in inactive older adults with cognitive complaints. There were no significant differences between intervention groups on the primary outcome of cognitive function or the secondary outcome of depressive symptoms; therefore, all participants were combined for the current analyses in which we examined changes in leisure activity engagement (Community Healthy Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS)), and changes in depressive symptoms (Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS)) as a function of changes in leisure activity engagement from baseline to post-intervention. Participants' mean age was 73.0 years, 61.6% were female, and 63.6% were non-Hispanic white. There was a significant change in total hours per week engaged in leisure activities from baseline (36.7 hours, SD = 12.7) to post-intervention (40.4 hours, SD = 15.7; paired t-test p = 0.02), and mean change in depressive symptoms was significantly inversely correlated with change in leisure activity hours such that increases in total leisure activity were associated with decreases in depressive symptoms (r = -0.21, p = 0.04). Increasing the total amount of leisure activity levels may help lower depressive symptoms in inactive older adults with cognitive complaints.

  18. Maternal symptoms of depression are related to observations of controlling feeding practices in mothers of young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haycraft, Emma; Farrow, Claire; Blissett, Jackie

    2013-02-01

    Maternal depression can impair parenting practices and has been linked with less sensitive feeding interactions with children, but existing research is based on self-reports of feeding practices. This study examined relationships between maternal self-reported symptoms of depression with observations of mothers' child feeding practices during a mealtime. Fifty-eight mothers of 3- and 4-year-old children were video recorded eating a standardized lunch. The recording was then coded for instances of maternal controlling feeding practices and maternal vocalizations using the Family Mealtime Coding System. Mothers also provided information on current symptoms of depression and anxiety. Mothers who reported greater symptoms of depression were observed to use more verbal and physical pressure for their child to eat and to offer more incentives or conditions in exchange for their child eating. Mothers also used more vocalizations with their child about food during the observed mealtime when they had greater symptoms of depression. There was no link between symptoms of depression and observations of maternal use of restriction. Symptoms of depression are linked with observations of mothers implementing a more controlling, less sensitive feeding style with their child. Health professionals working with families in which mothers have symptoms of depression may benefit from receiving training about the possible impact of maternal depression on child-feeding practices, and mothers with symptoms of depression may benefit from guidance regarding its potential impact on their child-feeding interactions. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. New insights into the correlation structure of DSM-IV depression symptoms in the general population v. subsamples of depressed individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, S; Mohler-Kuo, M

    2018-06-01

    Previous research failed to uncover a replicable dimensional structure underlying the symptoms of depression. We aimed to examine two neglected methodological issues in this research: (a) adjusting symptom correlations for overall depression severity; and (b) analysing general population samples v. subsamples of currently depressed individuals. Using population-based cross-sectional and longitudinal data from two nations (Switzerland, 5883 young men; USA, 2174 young men and 2244 young women) we assessed the dimensions of the nine DSM-IV depression symptoms in young adults. In each general-population sample and each subsample of currently depressed participants, we conducted a standardised process of three analytical steps, based on exploratory and confirmatory factor and bifactor analysis, to reveal any replicable dimensional structure underlying symptom correlations while controlling for overall depression severity. We found no evidence of a replicable dimensional structure across samples when adjusting symptom correlations for overall depression severity. In the general-population samples, symptoms correlated strongly and a single dimension of depression severity was revealed. Among depressed participants, symptom correlations were surprisingly weak and no replicable dimensions were identified, regardless of severity-adjustment. First, caution is warranted when considering studies assessing dimensions of depression because general population-based studies and studies of depressed individuals generate different data that can lead to different conclusions. This problem likely generalises to other models based on the symptoms' inter-relationships such as network models. Second, whereas the overall severity aligns individuals on a continuum of disorder intensity that allows non-affected individuals to be distinguished from affected individuals, the clinical evaluation and treatment of depressed individuals should focus directly on each individual's symptom profile.

  20. Suicidality and symptoms of anxiety, irritability, and agitation in patients experiencing manic episodes with depressive symptoms: a naturalistic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eberhard J

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Jonas Eberhard,1 Emmanuelle Weiller2 1Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden; 2H. Lundbeck A/S, Copenhagen, Denmark Purpose: Patients with a bipolar I disorder (BD-I manic episode meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5, criteria for “with mixed features” have a high incidence of suicide attempts and of anxiety, irritability, and agitation (AIA symptoms. The aim of this analysis was to explore the relationship between suicidality and AIA symptoms in patients with BD-I experiencing mania with depressive symptoms, using data from a previous naturalistic study.Patients and methods: Psychiatrists completed an online questionnaire about their adult patients who had a current BD-I manic episode. Questions covered the DSM-5 “with mixed features” specifier, the severity of AIA symptoms, the frequency and controllability of suicidal ideation, and the number of suicide attempts.Results: Of 1,035 patients with BD-I mania who were included in the analyses, 348 (33.6% met the criteria for the DSM-5 “with mixed features” specifier (three or more depressive symptoms. These patients were further stratified according to the severity of their AIA symptoms: “mild AIA” (zero or one AIA symptom above a severity threshold; 105 patients or “severe AIA” (all three AIA symptoms above a severity threshold; 167 patients. A greater incidence of suicidal ideation was observed in the severe AIA group (71.9% than in the mild AIA group (47.6%. Twice as many patients had easily controlled suicidal ideation than difficult-to-control suicidal ideation in both subgroups. The mean number of suicide attempts was higher in the severe AIA group than in the mild AIA group, during the current episode (0.84 vs 0.34 attempts, respectively; P<0.05 and over the patient’s lifetime (1.56 vs 1.04 attempts, respectively.Conclusion: The high risk of suicide among BD-I mania patients with depressive

  1. Older Adults with and without Depressive Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilani Feliciano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairment represents a common mental health problem in community-dwelling and institutionalized older adults, and the prevalence increases with age. Multidisciplinary teams are often asked to assess cognitive and functional impairment in this population. The Cognitive Assessment of Minnesota was created by occupational therapists for this purpose and is frequently used, but has not been extensively validated. This study examined the performance of the CAM and compared it to the MMSE with 113 outpatient clinic patients over the age of 60. Subgroups were established based on scores on a depression inventory to determine if the presence of depressed mood altered the relationship between the measures. Both measures demonstrated good internal consistency. The overall correlation between the two measures was high, statistically significant and remained high regardless of depression status. We offer recommendations about the utility of each measure in screening cognitive functioning for older adults.

  2. Depressive symptoms in schizophrenia and dopamine and serotonin gene polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peitl, Vjekoslav; Štefanović, Mario; Karlović, Dalibor

    2017-07-03

    Although depressive symptoms seem to be frequent in schizophrenia they have received significantly less attention than other symptom domains. As impaired serotonergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission is implicated in the pathogenesis of depression and schizophrenia this study sought to investigate the putative association between several functional gene polymorphisms (SERT 5-HTTLPR, MAO-A VNTR, COMT Val158Met and DAT VNTR) and schizophrenia. Other objectives of this study were to closely examine schizophrenia symptom domains by performing factor analysis of the two most used instruments in this setting (Positive and negative syndrome scale - PANSS and Calgary depression rating scale - CDSS) and to examine the influence of investigated gene polymorphisms on the schizophrenia symptom domains, focusing on depressive scores. A total of 591 participants were included in the study (300 schizophrenic patients and 291 healthy volunteers). 192 (64%) of schizophrenic patients had significant depressive symptoms. Genotype distribution revealed no significant differences regarding all investigated polymorphisms except the separate gender analysis for MAO-A gene polymorphism which revealed significantly more allele 3 carriers in schizophrenic males. Factor analysis of the PANSS scale revealed the existence of five separate factors (symptom domains), while the CDSS scale revealed two distinct factors. Several investigated gene polymorphisms (mostly SERT and MAO-A, but also COMT) significantly influenced two factors from the PANSS (aggressive/impulsive and negative symptoms) and one from the CDSS scale (suicidality), respectively. Depressive symptoms in schizophrenic patients may be influenced by functional gene polymorphisms, especially those implicated in serotonergic neurotransmission. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. An audit on public awareness of depression symptoms in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayer Al-Azzam

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Depression is acommon mental health disorder. The aim of this study is to determine the level of public awareness regarding this illness, its symptoms, associated factors, available forms of treatment, and the attitude towards depressed people. Methods: A self administered questionnaire was filled in by approximately 5000 individuals selected from various regions of Jordan. Results: The majority of participants thought that depression is a treatable condition that can affect patient at any age, and may be controlled by the will power. Loss of interest in things and presence of negative feelings were the most commonly recognized symptoms of depression, while, unemployment and poverty were found to be the most recognized risk factors for depression. In addition, most participants considered support from family and friends (93.6% as well as exercise (80.4% to be the best available forms of depression treatment. Respondents found it acceptable to work, make friends with, or marry depressed individuals. The first choice persons for seeking help by most participants were family members and friends (49.8%. Conclusion: Collectively, the level of awareness of depression was acceptable. However, further efforts are necessary to establish public educational programs related to depression in order to raise awareness regarding the disease.

  4. Evaluating depressive symptoms in mania: a naturalistic study of patients with bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young AH

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Allan H Young,1 Jonas Eberhard1,21Institute of Psychiatry, King’s College London, London, UK; 2Corporate Medical Affairs, H. Lundbeck A/S, Copenhagen, DenmarkObjective: This study aimed to evaluate patients with bipolar I disorder (BD-I who have mania with depressive symptoms and who meet the new “with mixed features” specifier of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5.Method: This prospective, multinational, naturalistic study surveyed psychiatrists and their patients with BD-I from October 2013 to March 2014. Eligible patients had BD-I, had a (current manic episode, and had experienced onset of a manic episode within the previous 3 months. Psychiatrists provided patient information on depressive symptoms (DSM-5 criteria; symptoms of anxiety, irritability, and agitation; suicide attempts; and physician satisfaction with treatment response. Data were stratified according to whether patients met the criteria for the BD-I “with mixed features” specifier of DSM-5 (≥3 depressive symptoms or not, and characteristics were compared between the two subgroups. Patients also self-reported on depressive symptoms using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview module questionnaire.Results: Overall, 34% of 1,035 patients met the criteria for BD-I “with mixed features,” exhibiting ≥3 depressive symptoms during their current manic episode. This correlated with the matched patient self-reports of depressive symptoms. During their current manic episode, BD-I patients “with mixed features” had more severe symptoms of anxiety, irritability, and agitation (average composite severity score of 4.1 vs 3.4, a higher incidence of suicide attempts (38% vs 9%, and more physician dissatisfaction with treatment response (22% vs 14%, compared to patients with 0–2 depressive symptoms (all P<0.05.Conclusion: This study found that patients with BD-I “with mixed features” (ie, ≥3 depressive symptoms

  5. Consensually defined facets of personality as prospective predictors of change in depression symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naragon-Gainey, Kristin; Watson, David

    2014-08-01

    Depression has robust associations with personality, showing a strong relation with neuroticism and more moderate associations with extraversion and conscientiousness. In addition, each Big Five domain can be decomposed into narrower facets. However, we currently lack consensus as to the contents of Big Five facets, with idiosyncrasies across instruments; moreover, few studies have examined associations with depression. In the current study, community participants completed six omnibus personality inventories; self-reported depressive symptoms were assessed at baseline and 5 years later. Exploratory factor analyses suggested three to five facets in each domain, and these facets served as prospective predictors of depression in hierarchical regressions, after accounting for baseline and trait depression. In these analyses, high anger (from neuroticism), low positive emotionality (extraversion), low conventionality (conscientiousness), and low culture (openness to experiences) were significant prospective predictors of depression. Results are discussed in regard to personality structure and assessment, as well as personality-psychopathology associations. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. A study on level of physical activity, depression, anxiety and stress symptoms among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajik, Esra; Abd Latiff, Latiffah; Adznam, Siti N; Awang, Hamidin; Yit Siew, Chin; Abu Bakar, Azrin S

    2017-10-01

    Inadequate physical activity has adverse health consequences among adolescents. Mental health problem can be developed by lack of physical activity however it is controversial. The current study aimed to examine the association between level of physical activity with depression, anxiety and stress symptoms among adolescents. A representative sample of 1747 adolescents (13-14 years) was randomly selected from 6 schools in a south part of Malaysia. Respondents were asked to fill consent form, and questionnaires including Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 and Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents. Majority of respondents (71.9%) was Malay and more than half of the adolescents had low physical activity. About 40% had depression symptoms, followed by anxiety symptoms (65.9%) and stress symptoms (38.5%). Level of physical activity was significantly associated with gender, anxiety and stress (P<0.001). There were no associations with race, religion and depression symptom. This study provides some evidence among school-going adolescents related to anxiety and stress symptoms and low physical activities. Further studies are needed to show the protection effects of higher physical activity for depression, anxiety and stress symptoms in adolescents.

  7. Association between endothelial dysfunction and depression-like symptoms in chronic mild stress model of depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouzinova, Elena; Bødtkjer, Donna Marie Briggs; Kudryavtseva, Olga

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular diseases have high comorbidity with major depression. Endothelial dysfunction may explain the adverse cardiovascular outcome in depression; therefore, we analyzed it in vitro. In the chronic mild stress model, some rats develop depression-like symptoms (including...... "anhedonia"), whereas others are stress resilient. METHODS: After 8 weeks of chronic mild stress, anhedonic rats reduced their sucrose intake by 55% (7%), whereas resilient rats did not. Acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation of norepinephrine-preconstricted mesenteric arteries was analyzed......-like response) was reduced in anhedonic rats (p depression-like symptoms are associated with reduced endothelium-dependent relaxation due to suppressed...

  8. Detailed course of depressive symptoms and risk for developing depression in late adolescents with subthreshold depression: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinnin R

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ran Jinnin,1 Yasumasa Okamoto,1 Koki Takagaki,1 Yoshiko Nishiyama,1 Takanao Yamamura,1 Yuri Okamoto,2 Yoshie Miyake,2 Yoshitake Takebayashi,3 Keisuke Tanaka,4 Yoshinori Sugiura,5 Haruki Shimoda,6 Norito Kawakami,6 Toshi A Furukawa,7 Shigeto Yamawaki1 1Department of Psychiatry and Neurosciences, 2Health Service Center, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan; 3Risk Analysis Research Center, The Institute of Statistical Mathematics, Tokyo, Japan; 4Graduated School of Education, Joetsu University of Education, Niigata, Japan; 5Graduated School of Integrated Arts and Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan; 6Department of Mental Health, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; 7Department of Health Promotion and Human Behavior, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine/School of Public Health, Kyoto, Japan Purpose: Despite its clinical importance, adolescent subthreshold depression remains a largely neglected topic. The aims of this study were to accurately identify the natural course of depressive symptoms and the risk for developing major depressive episode (MDE in late adolescents with subthreshold depression over 1 year.Patients and methods: One hundred and seventy-two participants <20 years of age (mean age: 18.32 years, standard deviation: 0.50, who did not meet the full criteria for an MDE, were selected from 2,494 screened freshmen based on the Beck Depression Inventory, 2nd edition (BDI-II. We conducted a cohort study of three groups (low-, middle-, and high-symptom groups divided based on BDI-II scores, over a 1 year period with the use of bimonthly assessments. Temporal changes of depressive symptoms were analyzed using linear mixed modeling and growth mixture modeling.Results: First, we found that late adolescents with subthreshold depression (high depressive symptoms were split between the increasing and decreasing depressive symptoms groups, whereas the majority of the less-symptoms group remained

  9. Adolescent attachment, family functioning and depressive symptoms

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    their sample, the depression rate was still higher in their adolescent sample compared ..... KwaZulu-Natal provincial Department of Education, as well as the. Ethics Review ... obtained from the relevant school authorities, teachers and parents. ..... Integrative guide for the 1991 CBCL 4-18, YSR, and TRF profiles. Burlington,.

  10. Acculturation and depressive symptoms among Turkish immigrants in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawa, Eva; Erim, Yesim

    2014-09-12

    The present study explores the impact of acculturation on depressive symptoms among Turkish immigrants in Germany, taking into account different dimensions of cultural orientation. A total of 471 patients from two selected samples (254 primary care patients and 217 outpatients of a psychosomatic department) participated. Levels of acculturation were measured as orientation towards culture of origin (CO), and orientation towards the host culture (HC). Acculturation strategies (integration, assimilation, separation, and marginalization) were also assessed as well as their association with depressive symptoms (BDI). Furthermore, gender- and migration-related differences in terms of acculturation and levels of depressive symptomatology were analyzed. Integration was the acculturation strategy associated with the lowest level of depressive symptoms (M = 14.6, SD = 11.9), while marginalization was associated with the highest (M = 23.5, SD = 14.7). Gender was not found to have a significant impact on acculturation but influenced depressive symptoms, with women (M = 21.8, SD = 13.3) reporting higher levels of depressive symptomatology than men (M = 15.1, SD = 14.0; p acculturation and mental health.

  11. Income inequality within urban settings and depressive symptoms among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabayo, Roman; Dunn, Erin C; Gilman, Stephen E; Kawachi, Ichiro; Molnar, Beth E

    2016-10-01

    Although recent evidence has shown that area-level income inequality is related to increased risk for depression among adults, few studies have tested this association among adolescents. We analysed the cross-sectional data from a sample of 1878 adolescents living in 38 neighbourhoods participating in the 2008 Boston Youth Survey. Using multilevel linear regression modelling, we: (1) estimated the association between neighbourhood income inequality and depressive symptoms, (2) tested for cross-level interactions between sex and neighbourhood income inequality and (3) examined neighbourhood social cohesion as a mediator of the relationship between income inequality and depressive symptoms. The association between neighbourhood income inequality and depressive symptoms varied significantly by sex, with girls in higher income inequality neighbourhood reporting higher depressive symptom scores, but not boys. Among girls, a unit increase in Gini Z-score was associated with more depressive symptoms (β=0.38, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.47, p=0.01) adjusting for nativity, neighbourhood income, social cohesion, crime and social disorder. There was no evidence that the association between income inequality and depressive symptoms was due to neighbourhood-level differences in social cohesion. The distribution of incomes within an urban area adversely affects adolescent girls' mental health; future work is needed to understand why, as well as to examine in greater depth the potential consequences of inequality for males, which may have been difficult to detect here. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. Social protection spending and inequalities in depressive symptoms across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedzwiedz, Claire L; Mitchell, Richard J; Shortt, Niamh K; Pearce, Jamie R

    2016-07-01

    Common mental disorders are an increasing global public health concern. The least advantaged in society experience a greater burden of mental illness, but inequalities in mental health vary by social, political, and economic contexts. This study investigates whether spending on different types of social protection alters the extent of social inequality in depressive symptoms. Data were obtained from the 2006 and 2012 cross-sectional waves of the European Social Survey, which included 48,397 individuals from 18 European countries. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D 8). Statistical interactions between country-level social protection spending and individuals' education level, employment and family status were explored using multilevel regression models. Higher spending on active labour market programmes was related to narrower inequality in depressive symptoms by education level. Compared to men with high education, the marginal effect of having low education was 1.67 (95 % CI, 1.46-1.87) among men in countries with lower spending and 0.85 (95 % CI, 0.66-1.03) in higher spending countries. Single parents exhibited fewer depressive symptoms, as spending on family policies increased. Little evidence was found for an overall association between spending on unemployment benefits and employment-related inequalities in depressive symptoms, but in 2012, unemployment spending appeared beneficial to mental health among the unemployed. Greater investment in social protection may act to reduce inequalities in depressive symptoms. Reductions in spending levels or increased conditionality may adversely affect the mental health of disadvantaged social groups.

  13. Impact of depressive symptoms on outcome of Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita de Paula Eduardo Garavello

    Full Text Available Abstract There is no consensus in the medical literature about the impact of depressive symptoms on the evolution of Alzheimer's disease (AD. Objective: To compare the evolution of AD patients, with and without depressive symptoms, in terms of cognition, functionality and caregiver stress. Methods: The study entailed 2 stages: an initial retrospective stage involving review of medical charts of patients with mild and moderate AD. Patients were divided according to the presence or absence of depressive symptoms, defined by medical interview and questions on depressed mood from the CAMDEX (Cambridge Examination for Mental Disorders of the Elderly and Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI. Twenty-nine patients were evaluated, 37.9% with depression (Group D+ and 62.1% without depression (Group D-. The groups were compared regarding demographic and medical characteristics, cognitive and functional performance, presence of apathy as a separate symptom, and caregiver stress, using standardized tests and questionnaires. In the second transversal step, the same tools were reapplied after 2 to 4 years of follow-up, and evolution for the two groups was compared. Results: The two groups were highly homogeneous in demographic and clinic characteristics, as well as in length of follow-up, and presented no significant difference in cognitive or functional evaluation at the time of diagnoses or after follow-up. Only caregiver stress was greater in Group D+ at the two time points (p<0.001. Conclusions: No differences in the evolution of AD patients with or without depressive symptoms were evident. Nevertheless, these symptoms were associated to emotional burden of caregivers.

  14. Depressive symptoms in patients with coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Maria Mendonça da Cunha

    Full Text Available Objective.To assess the presence of depressive symptoms in patients with coronary artery disease in the preoperative period for coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG in Aracaju, Sergipe, Brazil. Methods. A cross-sectional study with 63 hospitalized patients prior to CABG. Two instruments were used for data collection; one for the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, and the other to evaluate the presence of depressive symptoms, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. Results. The mean age was 58 years; most were male (60.3%; with a partner (81% low educational level (71.4% attended school through elementary school. Among the patients, 36.5% were classified with dysphoria, and 25.4% had some degree of depression (6.3% mild, 17.5% moderate, and 1.6% severe. The group of patients with lower educational level presented higher depressive symptoms. Conclusion. Six of every ten patients with coronary artery disease showed dysphoria or some degree of depression. The results of this study can support the planning of nursing care for patients before and after CABG, as well as the development of public health policies to ensure complete, quality care for these patients, understanding depression as a variable that can interfere with recovery after cardiac surgery.

  15. Symptoms of depression as possible markers of bipolar II disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benazzi, Franco

    2006-05-01

    Underdiagnosis and misdiagnosis of bipolar-II disorder (BP-II) as a major depressive disorder (MDD) are frequently reported. The study aim was to find which symptoms of depression could be possible cross-sectional markers of BP-II, in order to reduce underdiagnosing BP-II. Consecutive 379 BP-II and 271 MDD major depressive episode (MDE) outpatients were interviewed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, the Hypomania Interview Guide, and the Family History Screen, by a senior psychiatrist in a private practice. Inside-MDE hypomanic symptoms (elevated mood and increased self-esteem always absent by definition) were systematically assessed. Mixed depression was defined as an MDE plus 3 or more inside-MDE hypomanic symptoms, a definition validated by Akiskal and Benazzi. The MDE symptoms significantly more common in BP-II versus MDD were weight gain, increased eating, hypersomnia, psychomotor agitation, worthlessness, and diminished ability to concentrate. The inside-MDE hypomanic symptoms significantly more common in BP-II were distractibility, racing/crowded thoughts, irritability, psychomotor agitation, more talkativeness, increased risky and goal-directed activities. Multiple logistic regression showed that hypersomnia, racing/crowded thoughts, irritability, and psychomotor agitation were independent predictors of BP-II. Irritability had the most balanced combination of sensitivity and specificity predicting BP-II. Psychomotor agitation had the highest specificity but the lowest sensitivity. Racing/crowded thoughts had the highest sensitivity but the lowest specificity. These symptoms had a similar positive predictive value (PPV) for BP-II, which was around 70% (PPV is more clinically useful than sensitivity and specificity), which in turn was similar to the PPV of mixed depression and atypical depression (two diagnostic clinical markers of BP-II). All possible combinations of these symptoms had a PPV similar to that of the individual symptoms. The

  16. Effects of a chemical imbalance causal explanation on individuals' perceptions of their depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Joshua J; Lickel, James J; Deacon, Brett J

    2014-05-01

    Although the chemical imbalance theory is the dominant causal explanation of depression in the United States, little is known about the effects of this explanation on depressed individuals. This experiment examined the impact of chemical imbalance test feedback on perceptions of stigma, prognosis, negative mood regulation expectancies, and treatment credibility and expectancy. Participants endorsing a past or current depressive episode received results of a bogus but credible biological test demonstrating their depressive symptoms to be caused, or not caused, by a chemical imbalance in the brain. Results showed that chemical imbalance test feedback failed to reduce self-blame, elicited worse prognostic pessimism and negative mood regulation expectancies, and led participants to view pharmacotherapy as more credible and effective than psychotherapy. The present findings add to a growing literature highlighting the unhelpful and potentially iatrogenic effects of attributing depressive symptoms to a chemical imbalance. Clinical and societal implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Depressive symptoms among adolescents and older adults in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-García, Sergio; García-Peña, Carmen; González-Forteza, Catalina; Jiménez-Tapia, Alberto; Gallo, Joseph J; Wagner, Fernando A

    2014-06-01

    Determine the structure of depressive symptoms among adolescents and older adults through the person-centered approach of latent class analysis (LCA). The study is based on data from two independent samples collected in Mexico City (2,444 adolescents and 2,223 older adults) which included the revised version of the CES-D. The presence or absence of depressed mood (dysphoria), diminished pleasure (anhedonia), drastic change in weight, sleep problems, thinking and concentration difficulties, excessive or inappropriate guilt, fatigue, psychomotor agitation/retardation, and suicide ideation were used in LCA to determine the structure of depressive symptoms for adolescents and older adults. Adolescents reported higher excessive or inappropriate guilt compared to older adults, while older adults had higher proportions of anhedonia, sleep problems, fatigue, and psychomotor agitation/retardation. Similar proportions were found in other symptoms. The LCA analysis showed the best fit with four latent classes (LC): LC 1, "symptoms suggestive of major depressive episode (MDE)" with prevalence of 5.9 % (n = 144) and 10.3 % (n = 230) among adolescents and older adults, respectively; LC 2, "probable MDE symptoms" 18.2 % (n = 446) and 23.0 % (n = 512); LC 3, "possible MDE" 27.7 % (n = 676) and 21.8 % (n = 485); LC 4, "without significant depressive symptoms" 48.2 % (n = 1,178) and 44.8 % (n = 996). The differences in item thresholds between the two groups (adolescents vs. older adults) were statistically significant (Wald test = 255.684, df = 1, p depressive symptoms between adolescents and older adults that merit acknowledgment, further study, and consideration of their potential clinical and public health implications.

  18. [Psychosocial factors predicting postnatal anxiety symptoms and their relation to symptoms of postpartum depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, Laura Elena; Lara-Cantú, María Asunción; Navarro, Claudia; Gómez, María Eugenia; Morales, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    To study perinatal anxiety symptoms in a sample of Mexican mothers. A) To evaluate the effect of certain psychosocial factors during pregnancy on anxiety symptoms at two postpartum time intervals; and B) to determine whether this symptomatology is related to symptoms of postnatal depression. In this secondary data analysis, 156 women were interviewed during pregnancy (T1): 149 were interviewed again at 6 weeks postpartum (T2) and 156 at 4-6 months postpartum (T3). Subjects were selected from women seeking prenatal attention at three health centers in Mexico City who presented with depressive symptomatology and/or previous history of depression. Two models were subjected to multivariate regression analysis to determine the influence of psychosocial factors in pregnancy (age, education, partner status, social support [APGAR], stress events, self-esteem [Coopersmith], depressive symptomatology [BDI-II], and anxiety [SCL-90]) on anxiety symptomatology (SCL-90) in T2 and T3. Two additional linear regression analyses were performed to evaluate the influence of prenatal anxiety symptomatology (SCL-90) on postpartum depression symptoms (BDI-II), one for each postnatal period (T2, T3). The variables that predicted postpartum anxiety symptomatology in T2 were anxiety symptoms and lack of social support; in T3 they were anxiety symptoms, lack of a partner, and lack of social support. Prenatal anxiety symptoms predicted postpartum depressive symptomatology at both postpartum intervals (T2, T3). Untreated prenatal anxiety symptomatology is predictive of symptoms of anxiety and depression in the postpartum period, suggesting the need for timely detection and treatment. Women lacking social support or partners are a population particularly vulnerable to anxiety symptoms, and merit interventions that address these issues.

  19. Is there an association between depressive and urinary symptoms during and after pregnancy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, G. van de; Brummen, H.J. van; Bruinse, H.W.; Heintz, A.P.M.; Vaart, C.H. van der

    2007-01-01

    Depressive symptoms and urinary symptoms are both highly prevalent in pregnancy. In the general population, an association is reported between urinary symptoms and depressive symptoms. The association of depressive and urinary symptoms has not yet been assessed in pregnancy. In this study, we

  20. Selective neurocognitive deficits and poor life functioning are associated with significant depressive symptoms in alcoholism-HIV infection comorbidity

    OpenAIRE

    Sassoon, Stephanie A.; Rosenbloom, Margaret J.; Fama, Rosemary; Sullivan, Edith V.; Pfefferbaum, Adolf

    2012-01-01

    Alcoholism, HIV, and depressive symptoms frequently co-occur and are associated with impairment in cognition and life function. We administered the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), measures of life function, and neurocognitive tests to 67 alcoholics, 56 HIV+ patients, 63 HIV+ alcoholics, and 64 controls to examine whether current depressive symptom level (significant, BDI-II ≥ 14 vs. minimal, BDI-II < 14) was associated with poorer cognitive or psychosocial function in alcoholism-HIV co...

  1. The effects of probiotics on depressive symptoms in humans: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline J. K. Wallace

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients suffering from depression experience significant mood, anxiety, and cognitive symptoms. Currently, most antidepressants work by altering neurotransmitter activity in the brain to improve these symptoms. However, in the last decade, research has revealed an extensive bidirectional communication network between the gastrointestinal tract and the central nervous system, referred to as the “gut–brain axis.” Advances in this field have linked psychiatric disorders to changes in the microbiome, making it a potential target for novel antidepressant treatments. The aim of this review is to analyze the current body of research assessing the effects of probiotics, on symptoms of depression in humans. Methods A systematic search of five databases was performed and study selection was completed using the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses process. Results Ten studies met criteria and were analyzed for effects on mood, anxiety, and cognition. Five studies assessed mood symptoms, seven studies assessed anxiety symptoms, and three studies assessed cognition. The majority of the studies found positive results on all measures of depressive symptoms; however, the strain of probiotic, the dosing, and duration of treatment varied widely and no studies assessed sleep. Conclusion The evidence for probiotics alleviating depressive symptoms is compelling but additional double-blind randomized control trials in clinical populations are warranted to further assess efficacy.

  2. Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Depressive Symptoms among Korean Adolescents: JS High School Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Na Hyun; Park, Ji Hye; Choi, Dong Phil; Lee, Joo Young; Kim, Hyeon Chang

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that secondhand smoke exposure (SHSE) may affect not only physical health, but also mental health. Therefore, we evaluated the association between SHSE and depressive symptoms among Korean adolescents. The JS High School Study enrolled 1071 high school freshmen from a rural community of South Korea. The current analysis was limited to 989 adolescents (495 male and 494 female adolescents), after excluding 48 ever-smokers, 3 students with physician-diagnosed depression, and 31 students who did not complete the depression questionnaire. SHSE was assessed using a self-reported questionnaire and was classified into three groups: none, occasional exposure, and regular exposure. Depressive symptoms were assessed according to the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) score, ranging from 0 to 63, and the presence of depressive symptoms was defined as a BDI score ≥10. Overall, adolescents with SHSE were more likely to have depressive symptoms than those without SHSE (p = 0.042).In a sex-specific analysis treating the BDI score as a continuous variable, regular SHSE was independently associated with higher BDI scores in male adolescents (β = 2.25, p = 0.026), but not in female adolescents (β = 1.11, p = 0.253). Compared to no SHSE, the odds ratio for having depressive symptoms among male adolescents with regular SHSE was 2.17 (95% confidence interval, 1.11 to 4.25) after adjusting for age, body mass index, and study year, and 3.65 (95% confidence interval, 1.52 to 8.73) after adjusting for age, body mass index, study year, exercise, and household income. Regular exposure to secondhand smoke was associated with having depressive symptoms among Korean male adolescents.

  3. Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Depressive Symptoms among Korean Adolescents: JS High School Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Hyun Kim

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that secondhand smoke exposure (SHSE may affect not only physical health, but also mental health. Therefore, we evaluated the association between SHSE and depressive symptoms among Korean adolescents.The JS High School Study enrolled 1071 high school freshmen from a rural community of South Korea. The current analysis was limited to 989 adolescents (495 male and 494 female adolescents, after excluding 48 ever-smokers, 3 students with physician-diagnosed depression, and 31 students who did not complete the depression questionnaire. SHSE was assessed using a self-reported questionnaire and was classified into three groups: none, occasional exposure, and regular exposure. Depressive symptoms were assessed according to the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI score, ranging from 0 to 63, and the presence of depressive symptoms was defined as a BDI score ≥10.Overall, adolescents with SHSE were more likely to have depressive symptoms than those without SHSE (p = 0.042.In a sex-specific analysis treating the BDI score as a continuous variable, regular SHSE was independently associated with higher BDI scores in male adolescents (β = 2.25, p = 0.026, but not in female adolescents (β = 1.11, p = 0.253. Compared to no SHSE, the odds ratio for having depressive symptoms among male adolescents with regular SHSE was 2.17 (95% confidence interval, 1.11 to 4.25 after adjusting for age, body mass index, and study year, and 3.65 (95% confidence interval, 1.52 to 8.73 after adjusting for age, body mass index, study year, exercise, and household income.Regular exposure to secondhand smoke was associated with having depressive symptoms among Korean male adolescents.

  4. Gender differences in the social pathways linking neighborhood disadvantage to depressive symptoms in adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Bassett

    Full Text Available Depression debilitates the lives of millions and is projected to be the second leading disease burden worldwide by 2020. At the population level, the causes of depression are found in the everyday social and physical environments in which people live. Research has shown that men and women often experience neighbourhood environments differently and that these variations are often reflected in health outcomes. The current study examines whether social and environmental correlates of depression are similar in men and women. This study examines whether (i there are gender differences in the association between neighbourhood disadvantage and depressive symptoms, and (ii dimensions of social capital and cohesion mediate these associations. Data come from the Montreal Neighbourhood Networks and Healthy Aging Study, which consists of a cluster stratified sample of Montreal census tracts (n(ct = 300 and individuals within those tracts (ni = 2707. Depressive symptoms and social capital were measured with a questionnaire. Neighbourhood disadvantage was measured at the census tract level using data from the 2006 Canada Census. Multilevel logistic regression stratified by gender and a three-step mediation analysis procedure were used. Final sample size for these analyses was 2574 adults. Depressive symptoms had a prevalence of 17.3% in the overall sample. Disadvantage was associated with depressive symptoms in women only (OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.01-1.55. Perceived neighbourhood cohesion was shown to mediate the association of disadvantage and depressive symptoms in women (ab = 0.02; 95% CI = 0.003-0.04, p<0.05. Other socio-relational variables, specifically generalized trust and trust in neighbours were associated with depression in women but did not act as mediating variables. Health promotion initiatives meant to combat depression may wish to consider gender differences in the design and implementation of neighbourhood or peer-based programs.

  5. Longitudinal Mediation Modeling of Unhealthy Behaviors as Mediators between Workplace Demands/Support and Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L; Peristera, Paraskevi; Chungkham, Holendro Singh; Westerlund, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    Lifestyle has been regarded as a key pathway through which adverse psychosocial working characteristics can give rise to long-term health problems. The purpose of this study was to estimate the indirect/mediated effect of health behaviors in the longitudinal work characteristics-depression relationship. The analyses were based on the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health, including 3706 working participants with repeat survey measures on four occasions (2008, 2010, 2012 and 2014). Psychosocial work characteristics including demands and social support were analyzed in relation to depressive symptoms. Autoregressive longitudinal mediation models using structural equation modeling were used to estimate the intermediate effects of unhealthy behaviors including current smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, unhealthy diet and physical inactivity. Both workplace demands and social support were related to later depressive symptoms. In bivariate models we found no significant paths from workplace demands to health behaviors, but two out of three significant time-specific paths from workplace support to excessive drinking and from excessive drinking to depressive symptoms. Social support was also associated with subsequent unhealthy diet, and one path from unhealthy diet to depressive symptoms was found. However, despite indications of certain longitudinal relationships between psychosocial working conditions and health behaviors as well as between health behaviors and depressive symptoms, no significant intermediate effects were found (p>0.05). We conclude that changes in unhealthy behaviors over a period of two years are unlikely to act as strong intermediaries in the longitudinal relationship between job demands and depressive symptoms and between social support and depressive symptoms.

  6. Longitudinal Mediation Modeling of Unhealthy Behaviors as Mediators between Workplace Demands/Support and Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.; Peristera, Paraskevi; Chungkham, Holendro Singh; Westerlund, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    Lifestyle has been regarded as a key pathway through which adverse psychosocial working characteristics can give rise to long-term health problems. The purpose of this study was to estimate the indirect/mediated effect of health behaviors in the longitudinal work characteristics-depression relationship. The analyses were based on the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health, including 3706 working participants with repeat survey measures on four occasions (2008, 2010, 2012 and 2014). Psychosocial work characteristics including demands and social support were analyzed in relation to depressive symptoms. Autoregressive longitudinal mediation models using structural equation modeling were used to estimate the intermediate effects of unhealthy behaviors including current smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, unhealthy diet and physical inactivity. Both workplace demands and social support were related to later depressive symptoms. In bivariate models we found no significant paths from workplace demands to health behaviors, but two out of three significant time-specific paths from workplace support to excessive drinking and from excessive drinking to depressive symptoms. Social support was also associated with subsequent unhealthy diet, and one path from unhealthy diet to depressive symptoms was found. However, despite indications of certain longitudinal relationships between psychosocial working conditions and health behaviors as well as between health behaviors and depressive symptoms, no significant intermediate effects were found (p>0.05). We conclude that changes in unhealthy behaviors over a period of two years are unlikely to act as strong intermediaries in the longitudinal relationship between job demands and depressive symptoms and between social support and depressive symptoms. PMID:28036376

  7. Associations of depression and depressive symptoms with preeclampsia: results from a Peruvian case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia Pedro

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preeclampsia involves endothelial dysfunction, platelet dysfunction/activation and sympathetic over-activity similar to cardiovascular disorders (CVD. Depression, an independent risk factor for progression of CVD, was found to be associated with an increased risk of preeclampsia among Finnish women. We examined the relation between depression/depressive symptoms and preeclampsia risk among Peruvian women. Methods The study included 339 preeclamptic cases and 337 normotensive controls. Depression and depressive symptoms during pregnancy were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated from logistic regression models. Results The prevalence of moderate depression was 11.5% among cases and 5.3% among controls. The corresponding figures for moderate-severe depression were 3.5% for cases and 2.1% for controls. Compared with non-depressed women, those with moderate depression had a 2.3-fold increased risk of preeclampsia (95% CI: 1.2–4.4, while moderate-severe depression was associated with a 3.2-fold (95% CI: 1.1–9.6 increased risk of preeclampsia. Associations of each of the 9-items of the PHQ-9 depression screening module with preeclampsia risk were also observed. Conclusion Our findings are consistent with the only other published report on this topic. Collectively, available data support recent calls for expanded efforts to study and address depression among pregnant women.

  8. The Role of Family Routines in the Intergenerational Transmission of Depressive Symptoms between Parents and their Adolescent Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manczak, Erika M; Williams, Deanna; Chen, Edith

    2017-05-01

    Whereas previous research on environmental factors implicated in the intergenerational transmission of depression has tended to focus on the role of parenting quality (e.g., harshness), the current study sought to assess whether structural aspects of families may contribute to depression-relevant affective and immune processes in youths. Specifically, the present study examined the role of family routines in linking parental depressive symptoms to youth emotion regulation, a depression-relevant marker of low-grade inflammation, and depressive symptoms in youths. 261 parent-adolescent dyads reported on their own depressive symptoms, family routines, and youths' emotion regulation abilities. In addition, peripheral blood was drawn from youths to assess levels of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin 6 (IL-6). Path analyses provided support for a model in which parental depressive symptoms related to fewer family routines, which in turn were associated with higher IL-6 and depressive symptoms in youths as well as marginally associated with worse youth emotion regulation. Moreover, family routines were found to statistically account for part of the association between parent- and youth- depressive symptoms. Together, these results suggest that family routines may represent an additional facet of the family environment that can potentially contribute to the intergenerational transmission of depressive symptoms.

  9. The influence of past unemployment duration on symptoms of depression among young women and men in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossakowski, Krysia N

    2009-10-01

    I examined whether unemployment while looking for a job and being out of the labor force while not seeking work have distinct effects on symptoms of depression among young women and men in the United States. I also investigated whether past unemployment duration predicts depressive symptoms. I used ordinary least squares regression to analyze data from the 1979-1994 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Cross-sectional results suggested that current unemployment status and out-of-the-labor-force status were significantly associated with depressive symptoms at ages 29 through 37 years. The association between being out of the labor force and depressive symptoms was stronger for men. Longitudinal results revealed that past unemployment duration across 15 years of the transition to adulthood significantly predicted depressive symptoms, net of demographics, family background, current socioeconomic status, and prior depressive symptoms. However, duration out of the labor force did not predict depressive symptoms. Longer durations of unemployment predict higher levels of depressive symptoms among young adults. Future research should measure duration longitudinally and distinguish unemployment from being out of the labor force to advance our understanding of socioeconomic mental health disparities.

  10. Occupational Hazard Exposures and Depressive Symptoms of Pregnant Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Sherri S; Lee, Chien-Nan; Wu, Ying-Hsuan; Tu, Nai-Chi; Guo, Yue-Leon; Chen, Pau-Chung; Chen, Chi-Hsien

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of exposure to occupational hazards and depressive mood with associated underlying risk factors among pregnant workers. Women at 12 weeks of gestation (n = 172) were recruited during regular prenatal screening. Data were obtained via questionnaires that explored job details and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. The most commonly encountered hazard was prolonged standing. The majority of women reported that the workplace provided no information on the safety or rights of pregnant women, but those exposed to at least four hazards had more access to such services (P workplace support were significantly associated with possible antenatal depressive symptoms. Pregnant workers are exposed to substantial levels of occupational hazards and may experience depressive symptoms; thus, their work conditions require monitoring and improvement.

  11. Unhealthy lifestyle factors and depressive symptoms: A Japanese general adult population survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furihata, Ryuji; Konno, Chisato; Suzuki, Masahiro; Takahashi, Sakae; Kaneita, Yoshitaka; Ohida, Takashi; Uchiyama, Makoto

    2018-07-01

    To investigate the relationship between unhealthy lifestyles factors and depressive symptoms among the general adult population in Japan. Participants were randomly selected from the Japanese general adult population. Data from 2334 people aged 20 years or older were analyzed. This cross-sectional survey was conducted in August and September 2009. Participants completed a face-to-face interview about unhealthy lifestyle factors, including lack of exercise, skipping breakfast, a poorly balanced diet, snacking between meals, insufficient sleep, current smoking, alcohol drinking, and obesity. Presence of depressive symptoms was defined as a score of ≥ 16 on the Japanese version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Relationships between unhealthy lifestyle factors and depressive symptoms were evaluated by multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusting for sociodemographic variables and other unhealthy lifestyle factors. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that insufficient sleep, a poorly balanced diet, snacking between meals and lack of exercise were significantly associated with the prevalence of depressive symptoms, with odds ratios ranging from 1.56 for lack of exercise to 3.98 for insufficient sleep. Since this study was a cross-sectional study, causal relationships could not be determined. These results suggest that promoting a healthy lifestyle focused on sleep, food intake and exercise may be important for individuals with depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Social relations, depressive symptoms, and incident type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Karin Rosenkilde; Hulman, Adam; Witte, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    of Ageing” (3398 men) aged 50–91 years were followed until 2012/2013, after baseline assessment of depressive symptoms, social support, relational strain, and network size. Hazard ratios (HR) for incident diabetes were calculated using Cox proportional hazard models, adjusting for relevant confounders...... behaviour, and body mass index the associations were attenuated and were no longer statistically significant. Depressive symptoms were associated with higher diabetes risk. This effect was not modified by any of the social variables. Conclusions People with stronger social relations are at lower risk...... of developing T2DM; however, this effect is largely explained by known diabetes risk factors. No evidence was found that stronger social relations reduce the association between depressive symptoms and incident T2DM....

  13. Depressive symptoms in mothers of prematurely born infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Margaret Shandor; Holditch-Davis, Diane; Schwartz, Todd A; Scher, Mark

    2007-02-01

    This longitudinal, descriptive study described the level of depressive symptoms in mothers of preterm infants from birth through 27 months corrected age and examined factors associated with depressive symptoms. The framework for the study was guided by an ecological developmental systems perspective and an adaptation of the Preterm Parental Distress Model. In this model, we hypothesize that a mother's emotional distress to the birth and parenting of a prematurely born child is influenced by personal and family factors, severity of the infant's health status, and illness-related stress and worry. Participants were 102 mothers of preterm infants who were off the ventilator and not otherwise dependent on major technology at enrollment. Mean depressive symptoms scores on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) during hospitalization were high and more than half the mothers (63%) had scores of > or =16 indicating risk of depression. Depressive scores declined over time until 6 months and then were fairly stable. Unmarried mothers, mothers of infants who were rehospitalized, and mothers who reported more maternal role alteration stress during hospitalization and worry about the child's health had more depressive symptoms through the first year. Mothers who reported more parental role alteration stress during hospitalization (odds ratio [OR] = 1.570, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.171-2.104) and more worry about the child's health (OR = 2.350, 95% CI: 1.842-2.998) were more likely to experience elevated CES-D scores that put them at risk of depression. Also, mothers of rehospitalized infants had decreasing odds of elevated CES-D scores over time (OR = 0.982 per week, 95% CI: 0.968-0.996). Findings have implications for the support of mothers during hospitalization and in the early years of parenting a preterm infant.

  14. Transgender women of color: discrimination and depression symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Kevin; Neilands, Torsten B.; Sevelius, Jae

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Trans women of color contend with multiple marginalizations; the purpose of this study is to examine associations between experiencing discriminatory (racist/transphobic) events and depression symptoms. It uses a categorical measure of combined discrimination, and examines a protective association of transgender identity on depression symptoms. Design/methodology/approach Data from a subset of trans women of color participants in the Sheroes study were analyzed with linear and logistic regression. Associations of depression symptoms with racist and transphobic events, combined discrimination, coping self-efficacy, and transgender identity were assessed with odds ratios. Findings Exposure to discriminatory events and combined discrimination positively associated with depression symptom odds. Increased transgender identity associated with increased coping self-efficacy, which negatively associated with depression symptom odds. Research limitations/implications Cross-sectional study data prohibits inferring causality; results support conducting longitudinal research on discrimination’s health effects, and research on transgender identity. Results also support operationalizing intersectionality in health research. The study’s categorical approach to combined discrimination may be replicable in studies with hard to reach populations and small sample sizes. Practical implications Health programs could pursue psychosocial interventions and anti-discrimination campaigns. Interventions might advocate increasing participants’ coping self-efficacy while providing space to explore and develop social identity. Social implications There is a need for policy and health programs to center trans women of color concerns. Originality/value This study examines combined discrimination and identity in relation to depression symptoms among trans women of color, an underserved population. Paper type Research paper PMID:25346778

  15. The Mutual Effect of Marital Quality and Parenting Stress on Child and Parent Depressive Symptoms in Families of Children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiuyun; Zhang, Yulin; Chi, Peilian; Ding, Wan; Heath, Melissa A; Fang, Xiaoyi; Xu, Shousen

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the mutual relationships between dyadic level (i.e., marital quality and parenting stress) and individual level factors (i.e., children and parental depressive symptoms) in families of children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD). Specifically, we explored whether marital interaction (marital quality) was associated with symptoms of child depression through parent-child interaction (parenting stress) and parent depressive symptoms. We also explored whether parent-child interaction was associated with symptoms of parent depression through marital interaction and child depressive symptoms. This study was conducted with 256 parent-child dyads, consisting of children with ODD and one of each child's parents. Participants were recruited from 14 primary schools located in northern, eastern, and southwestern China. Results revealed that marital quality predicted symptoms of child depression through the parenting stress, but not parent depressive symptoms; and parenting stress predicted symptoms of parent depression through marital quality, but not through child depressive symptoms. Also, parenting stress significantly and directly predicted parent depressive symptoms. We concluded in families of children with ODD, the association of marital interaction and parent-child interaction on both symptoms of parent and child depression highlighted the mutual effects of the couple subsystem and the parent-child subsystem. Furthermore, in regard to parental and child depressive symptoms, implications for intervention are provided.

  16. The Mutual Effect of Marital Quality and Parenting Stress on Child and Parent Depressive Symptoms in Families of Children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiuyun; Zhang, Yulin; Chi, Peilian; Ding, Wan; Heath, Melissa A.; Fang, Xiaoyi; Xu, Shousen

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the mutual relationships between dyadic level (i.e., marital quality and parenting stress) and individual level factors (i.e., children and parental depressive symptoms) in families of children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD). Specifically, we explored whether marital interaction (marital quality) was associated with symptoms of child depression through parent-child interaction (parenting stress) and parent depressive symptoms. We also explored whether parent-child interaction was associated with symptoms of parent depression through marital interaction and child depressive symptoms. This study was conducted with 256 parent-child dyads, consisting of children with ODD and one of each child's parents. Participants were recruited from 14 primary schools located in northern, eastern, and southwestern China. Results revealed that marital quality predicted symptoms of child depression through the parenting stress, but not parent depressive symptoms; and parenting stress predicted symptoms of parent depression through marital quality, but not through child depressive symptoms. Also, parenting stress significantly and directly predicted parent depressive symptoms. We concluded in families of children with ODD, the association of marital interaction and parent-child interaction on both symptoms of parent and child depression highlighted the mutual effects of the couple subsystem and the parent-child subsystem. Furthermore, in regard to parental and child depressive symptoms, implications for intervention are provided. PMID:29104548

  17. The Mutual Effect of Marital Quality and Parenting Stress on Child and Parent Depressive Symptoms in Families of Children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuyun Lin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current study was to examine the mutual relationships between dyadic level (i.e., marital quality and parenting stress and individual level factors (i.e., children and parental depressive symptoms in families of children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD. Specifically, we explored whether marital interaction (marital quality was associated with symptoms of child depression through parent-child interaction (parenting stress and parent depressive symptoms. We also explored whether parent-child interaction was associated with symptoms of parent depression through marital interaction and child depressive symptoms. This study was conducted with 256 parent-child dyads, consisting of children with ODD and one of each child's parents. Participants were recruited from 14 primary schools located in northern, eastern, and southwestern China. Results revealed that marital quality predicted symptoms of child depression through the parenting stress, but not parent depressive symptoms; and parenting stress predicted symptoms of parent depression through marital quality, but not through child depressive symptoms. Also, parenting stress significantly and directly predicted parent depressive symptoms. We concluded in families of children with ODD, the association of marital interaction and parent-child interaction on both symptoms of parent and child depression highlighted the mutual effects of the couple subsystem and the parent-child subsystem. Furthermore, in regard to parental and child depressive symptoms, implications for intervention are provided.

  18. Symptom Dimensions of Anxiety Following Myocardial Infarction : Associations With Depressive Symptoms and Prognosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roest, Annelieke M.; Heideveld, Anne; Martens, Elisabeth J.; de Jonge, Peter; Denollet, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Differential associations of symptom dimensions with prognosis in myocardial infarction (MI) patients have been shown for depression, but no studies have focused on anxiety dimensions. The aim of this study was to assess the association between somatic and psychological symptoms of

  19. Factor analysis of the scale of prodromal symptoms: differentiating between negative and depression symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, Rianne M. C.; Velthorst, Eva; Nieman, Dorien H.; de Haan, Lieuwe; Becker, Hiske E.; Dingemans, Peter M.; van de Fliert, J. Reinaud; van der Gaag, Mark; Linszen, Don H.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the ability of the Scale of Prodromal Symptoms (SOPS) to differentiate between negative and depression symptoms in a young help-seeking ultrahigh risk (UHR) group. SOPS data of 77 help-seeking patients at UHR for psychosis were analyzed with an exploratory factor analysis. The

  20. Emotion Regulation Protects Against Recurrence of Depressive Symptoms Following Inpatient Care for Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, David D; Hopfinger, Lisa; Bockting, Claudi L H; Berking, Matthias

    2017-11-01

    Relapse following response in psychotherapy for major depressive disorder (MDD) is a major concern. Emotion regulation (ER) has been discussed as a putative emerging and maintaining factor for depression. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether ER protects against recurrence of depression over and above residual symptoms of depression following inpatient care for MDD. ER skills (ERSQ-ES) and depression (HEALTH-49) were assessed in 193 patients with MDD (age, M = 47.4, SD = 9.6, 75.1% female, 100% Caucasian) at treatment discontinuation, 3 and 12 months after treatment. Multiple hierarchical regressions were used to examine general and specific ER as predictors of depressive symptoms at follow-ups. Higher general ER predicted lower depression over and beyond residual symptoms of depression at 3-month follow-up among treatment responders but not among treatment nonresponders. With regard to specific ER skills, readiness to confront and acceptance of undesired emotions predicted lower depressive symptoms beyond residual symptoms of depression 12 months, respectively 3 and 12 months after treatment. Findings of the present study indicate that targeting general ER might be more important for remitted and less important for nonremitted patients. Enhancing ER should hence be realized in a sequential treatment design, in which a continuation phase treatment with a specific focus on ER directly follows, once patients sufficiently responded to treatment. Acceptance of undesired emotion and readiness to confront situations that cue these emotions appear to be particularly important for protecting against recurrence of depression. Future research should clarify whether findings can be generalized to outpatient care. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. CBT for children with depressive symptoms: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnberg, Alexandra; Ost, Lars-Göran

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric depression entails a higher risk for psychiatric disorders, somatic complaints, suicide, and functional impairment later in life. Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is recommended for the treatment of depression in children, yet research is based primarily on adolescents. The present meta-analysis investigated the efficacy of CBT in children aged 8-12 years with regard to depressive symptoms. We included randomized controlled trials of CBT with participants who had an average age of  ≤ 12 years and were diagnosed with either depression or reported elevated depressive symptoms. The search resulted in 10 randomized controlled trials with 267 participants in intervention and 256 in comparison groups. The mean age of participants was 10.5 years. The weighted between-group effect size for CBT was moderate, Cohen's d = 0.66. CBT outperformed both attention placebo and wait-list, although there was a significant heterogeneity among studies with regard to effect sizes. The weighted within-group effect size for CBT was large, d = 1.02. Earlier publication year, older participants, and more treatment sessions were associated with a larger effect size. In conclusion, the efficacy of CBT in the treatment of pediatric depression symptoms was supported. Differences in efficacy, methodological shortcomings, and lack of follow-up data limit the present study and indicate areas in need of improvement.

  2. Testing specificity among parents' depressive symptoms, parenting, and child internalizing and externalizing symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruhn, Meredith A; Dunbar, Jennifer P; Watson, Kelly H; Reising, Michelle M; McKee, Laura; Forehand, Rex; Cole, David A; Compas, Bruce E

    2016-04-01

    The present study examined the specificity in relations between observed withdrawn and intrusive parenting behaviors and children's internalizing and externalizing symptoms in an at-risk sample of children (ages 9 to 15 years old) of parents with a history of depression (N = 180). Given past findings that parental depression and parenting behaviors may differentially impact boys and girls, gender was examined as a moderator of the relations between these factors and child adjustment. Correlation and linear regression analyses showed that parental depressive symptoms were significantly related to withdrawn parenting for parents of boys and girls and to intrusive parenting for parents of boys only. When controlling for intrusive parenting, preliminary analyses demonstrated that parental depressive symptoms were significantly related to withdrawn parenting for parents of boys, and this association approached significance for parents of girls. Specificity analyses yielded that, when controlling for the other type of problem (i.e., internalizing or externalizing), withdrawn parenting specifically predicted externalizing problems but not internalizing problems in girls. No evidence of specificity was found for boys in this sample, suggesting that impaired parenting behaviors are diffusely related to both internalizing and externalizing symptoms for boys. Overall, results highlight the importance of accounting for child gender and suggest that targeting improvement in parenting behaviors and the reduction of depressive symptoms in interventions with parents with a history of depression may have potential to reduce internalizing and externalizing problems in this high-risk population. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Testing Specificity Among Parents’ Depressive Symptoms, Parenting, and Child Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruhn, Meredith A.; Dunbar, Jennifer P.; Watson, Kelly H.; Reising, Michelle M.; McKee, Laura; Forehand, Rex; Cole, David A.; Compas, Bruce E.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the specificity in relations between observed withdrawn and intrusive parenting behaviors and children's internalizing and externalizing symptoms in an at risk sample of children (ages 9 to 15-years-old) of parents with a history of depression (N = 180). Given past findings that parental depression and parenting behaviors may differentially impact boys and girls, gender was examined as a moderator of the relations between these factors and child adjustment. Correlation and linear regression analyses showed that parental depressive symptoms were significantly related to withdrawn parenting for parents of boys and girls and to intrusive parenting for parents of boys only. When controlling for intrusive parenting, preliminary analyses demonstrated that parental depressive symptoms were significantly related to withdrawn parenting for parents of boys, and this association approached significance for parents of girls. Specificity analyses yielded that, when controlling for the other type of problem (i.e., internalizing or externalizing), withdrawn parenting specifically predicted externalizing problems but not internalizing problems in girls. No evidence of specificity was found for boys in this sample, suggesting that impaired parenting behaviors are diffusely related to both internalizing and externalizing symptoms for boys. Overall, results highlight the importance of accounting for child gender and suggest that targeting improvement in parenting behaviors and the reduction of depressive symptoms in interventions with parents with a history of depression may have potential to reduce internalizing and externalizing problems in this high-risk population. PMID:26882467

  4. Depressive Symptom Trajectories, Aging-Related Stress, and Sexual Minority Stress Among Midlife and Older Gay Men: Linking Past and Present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wight, Richard G; Harig, Frederick; Aneshensel, Carol S; Detels, Roger

    2016-05-01

    We concatenate 28 years of historical depressive symptoms data from a longitudinal cohort study of U.S. gay men who are now midlife and older (n = 312), with newly collected survey data to analyze trajectories of depressive symptomatology over time and their impact on associations between current stress and depressive symptoms. Symptoms are high over time, on average, and follow multiple trajectories. Aging-related stress, persistent life-course sexual minority stress, and increasing sexual minority stress are positively associated with depressive symptoms, net of symptom trajectories. Men who had experienced elevated and increasing trajectories of depressive symptoms are less susceptible to the damaging effects of aging-related stress than those who experienced a decrease in symptoms over time. Intervention efforts aimed at assisting gay men as they age should take into account life-course depressive symptom histories to appropriately contextualize the health effects of current social stressors. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Depressive symptoms in breast cancer: Beck Depression Inventory - Short Form

    OpenAIRE

    Cangussu, Renata de Oliveira; Soares, Thiago Barbabela de Castro; Barra, Alexandre de Almeida; Nicolato, Rodrigo

    2010-01-01

    Objetivos: Verificar a prevalência de sintomas depressivos em mulheres com câncer de mama e identificar os fatores de risco associados à sua ocorrência. Métodos: Foi realizado um estudo transversal, em que foram entrevistadas 71 mulheres com câncer de mama. Foram empregados dois instrumentos: um questionário para verificar os dados sociodemográficos e clínicos e o Inventário de Depressão de Beck – Short Form (BDI-SF), para avaliação dos sintomas depressivos. Para análise dos da...

  6. Investigating Environmental Links between Parent Depression and Child Depressive/Anxiety Symptoms Using an Assisted Conception Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Gemma; Rice, Frances; Harold, Gordon T.; Collishaw, Stephan; Thapar, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Links between maternal and offspring depression symptoms could arise from inherited factors, direct environmental exposure, or shared adversity. A novel genetically sensitive design was used to test the extent of environmental links between maternal depression symptoms and child depression/anxiety symptoms, accounting for inherited…

  7. A Structural Equation Model of HIV-related Symptoms, Depressive Symptoms, and Medication Adherence

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo-Jeong, Moka; Waldrop-Valverde, Drenna; McCoy, Katryna; Ownby, Raymond L

    2016-01-01

    Adherence to combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) remains critical in management of HIV infection. This study evaluated depression as a potential mechanism by which HIV-related symptoms affect medication adherence and explored if particular clusters of HIV symptoms are susceptible to this mechanism. Baseline data from a multi-visit intervention study were analyzed among 124 persons living with HIV (PLWH). A bifactor model showed two clusters of HIV-related symptom distress: general HIV-rela...

  8. Prenatal and Postpartum Evening Salivary Cortisol Levels in Association with Peripartum Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliadis, Stavros I.; Comasco, Erika; Sylvén, Sara; Hellgren, Charlotte; Sundström Poromaa, Inger; Skalkidou, Alkistis

    2015-01-01

    Background The biology of peripartum depression remains unclear, with altered stress and the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal axis response having been implicated in its pathophysiology. Methods The current study was undertaken as a part of the BASIC project (Biology, Affect, Stress, Imaging, Cognition), a population-based longitudinal study of psychological wellbeing during pregnancy and the postpartum period in Uppsala County, Sweden, in order to assess the association between evening salivary cortisol levels and depressive symptoms in the peripartum period. Three hundred and sixty-five pregnant women from the BASIC cohort were recruited at pregnancy week 18 and instructed to complete a Swedish validated version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale at the 36th week of pregnancy as well as the sixth week after delivery. At both times, they were also asked to provide evening salivary samples for cortisol analysis. A comprehensive review of the relevant literature is also provided. Results Women with postpartum EPDS score ≥ 10 had higher salivary evening cortisol at six weeks postpartum compared to healthy controls (median cortisol 1.19 vs 0.89 nmol/L). A logistic regression model showed a positive association between cortisol levels and depressive symptoms postpartum (OR = 4.1; 95% CI 1.7–9.7). This association remained significant even after controlling for history of depression, use of tobacco, partner support, breastfeeding, stressful life events, and sleep problems, as possible confounders (aOR = 4.5; 95% CI 1.5–14.1). Additionally, women with postpartum depressive symptoms had higher postpartum cortisol levels compared to both women with depressive symptoms antenatally and controls (p = 0.019 and p = 0.004, respectively). Conclusions Women with depressive symptoms postpartum had higher postpartum cortisol levels, indicating an altered response of the HPA-axis in postpartum depression. PMID:26322643

  9. Self-help interventions for depressive disorders and depressive symptoms: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorm Anthony F

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research suggests that depressive disorders exist on a continuum, with subthreshold symptoms causing considerable population burden and increasing individual risk of developing major depressive disorder. An alternative strategy to professional treatment of subthreshold depression is population promotion of effective self-help interventions that can be easily applied by an individual without professional guidance. The evidence for self-help interventions for depressive symptoms is reviewed in the present work, with the aim of identifying promising interventions that could inform future health promotion campaigns or stimulate further research. Methods A literature search for randomised controlled trials investigating self-help interventions for depressive disorders or depressive symptoms was performed using PubMed, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Reference lists and citations of included studies were also checked. Studies were grouped into those involving participants with depressive disorders or a high level of depressive symptoms, or non-clinically depressed participants not selected for depression. A number of exclusion criteria were applied, including trials with small sample sizes and where the intervention was adjunctive to antidepressants or psychotherapy. Results The majority of interventions searched had no relevant evidence to review. Of the 38 interventions reviewed, the ones with the best evidence of efficacy in depressive disorders were S-adenosylmethionine, St John's wort, bibliotherapy, computerised interventions, distraction, relaxation training, exercise, pleasant activities, sleep deprivation, and light therapy. A number of other interventions showed promise but had received less research attention. Research in non-clinical samples indicated immediate beneficial effects on depressed mood for distraction, exercise, humour, music, negative air ionisation, and singing; while potential

  10. Symptoms associated with the DSM IV diagnosis of depression in pregnancy and post partum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerer, Martin; Marks, Maureen N; Pinard, Claudia; Taylor, Alyx; von Castelberg, Brida; Künzli, Hansjörg; Glover, Vivette

    2009-06-01

    Pregnancy and the postpartum may affect symptoms of depression. However it has not yet been tested how the symptoms used for the DSM IV diagnosis of depression discriminate depressed from non depressed women perinatally. A modified version of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM IV (SCID interview) was used that allowed assessment of all associated DSM IV symptoms of depression with depressed and non depressed women in pregnancy and the postpartum period. Loss of appetite was not associated with depression either ante or postnatally. The antenatal symptom pattern was different from the postnatal. The sensitivity of the symptoms ranged from 0.7% to 51.6%, and specificity from 61.3% to 99.1%. The best discriminating symptoms were motor retardation/agitation and concentration antenatally, and motor retardation/agitation, concentration and fatigue postnatally. Depression in pregnancy and postpartum depression show significantly different symptom profiles. Appetite is not suitable for the diagnosis of depression in the perinatal period.

  11. Distinguishing between Unipolar Depression and Bipolar Depression: Current and Future Clinical and Neuroimaging Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    de Almeida, Jorge Renner Cardoso; Phillips, Mary Louise

    2012-01-01

    Differentiating bipolar disorder (BD) from recurrent unipolar depression (UD) is a major clinical challenge. Main reasons for this include the higher prevalence of depressive relative to hypo/manic symptoms during the course of BD illness and the high prevalence of subthreshold manic symptoms in both BD and UD depression. Identifying objective markers of BD might help improve accuracy in differentiating between BD and UD depression, to ultimately optimize clinical and functional outcome for a...

  12. Prevalence of depressive symptoms among schoolchildren in Cyprus: a cross-sectional descriptive correlational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokratis, Sokratous; Christos, Ζilides; Despo, Panagi; Maria, Karanikola

    2017-01-01

    Depressive symptoms in the young constitute a public health issue. The current study aims to estimate: (a) the frequency of depressive symptoms in a sample of final grade elementary-school children in Cyprus, (b) the association among frequency of depressive symptoms, gender and nationality and, (c) the metric properties of the Greek-Cypriot version of the children's depression inventory (CDI). A descriptive cross-sectional study with internal comparison was performed. The occurrence of depressive symptoms was assessed with the CDI, which includes 5 subscales: depressive mood, interpersonal difficulties, ineffectiveness, anhedonia and negative self-esteem. Clinical depressive symptoms were reported as CDI score ≥19. CDI was anonymously and voluntarily completed by 439 schoolchildren [mean age 12.3 (±0.51) years old] from fifteen public elementary schools (217 boys and 222 girls), yielding a response rate of 58.2%. The metric properties of the CDI were assessed in terms of internal consistency reliability and construct validity via exploratory factor analysis (rotated and unrotated principal component analysis). Descriptive and inferential statistics were explored. 10.25% of Cypriot schoolchildren reported clinical depressive symptoms (CDI score ≥19). Statistically significant differences were reported between boys and girls in all five subscales of the CDI. Girls reported higher scores in "Depressive mood", "Negative self-esteem" and "Anhedonia" subscales, while boys scored higher in "Interpersonal difficulties" and "Ineffectiveness" subscales. There were no statistically significant differences among ethnicity groups regarding the entire CDI or the subscales of it. Concerning the metric properties of the Greek-Cypriot version of the CDI, internal consistency reliability was adequate (Cronbach's alpha = 0.84). Factor analysis with varimax rotation resulted in five factors explaining 42% of the variance. The Greek-Cypriot version of the CDI is a reliable

  13. Rest-activity rhythm and sleep characteristics associated with depression symptom severity in strained dementia caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smagula, Stephen F; Krafty, Robert T; Taylor, Briana J; Martire, Lynn M; Schulz, Richard; Hall, Martica H

    2017-12-01

    Depression is associated with disturbances to sleep and the 24-h sleep-wake pattern (known as the rest-activity rhythm: RAR). However, there remains a need to identify the specific sleep/RAR correlates of depression symptom severity in population subgroups, such as strained dementia caregivers, who are at elevated risk for major depressive disorder. We assessed the cross-sectional associations of sleep/RARs with non-sleep depression symptom severity among 57 (mean age: 74 years, standard deviation: 7.4) strained dementia caregivers who were currently without clinical depression. We derived sleep measures from polysomnography and actigraphy, modelled RARs using a sigmoidally transformed cosine curve and measured non-sleep depression symptom severity using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HRDS) with sleep items removed. The following sleep-wake measures were associated with greater depression symptom severity (absolute Spearman's correlations ranged from 0.23 to 0.32): more time awake after sleep onset (WASO), higher RAR middle level (mesor), relatively shorter active periods (alpha), earlier evening settling time (down-mesor) and less steep RARs (beta). In multivariable analysis, high WASO and low RAR beta were associated independently with depression symptom severity. Predicted non-sleep HDRS means (95% confidence intervals) in caregivers with and without these characteristics were: normal WASO/beta = 3.7 (2.3-5.0), high WASO/normal beta = 5.5 (3.5-7.6), normal WASO/low beta = 6.3 (3.6-8.9) and high WASO/low beta = 8.1 (5.3-10.9). Thus, in our sample of strained caregivers, greater sleep fragmentation (WASO) and less sustained/sharply segregated resting and active periods (low RAR beta) correlate uniquely with depression symptom severity. Longitudinal studies are needed to establish whether these independent sleep-wake correlates of depression symptoms explain heightened depression risk in dementia caregivers. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  14. Dwelling on it may make it worse: the links between relational victimization, relational aggression, rumination, and depressive symptoms in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieson, Lindsay C; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Crick, Nicki R

    2014-08-01

    Although there is considerable evidence that relational victimization is associated with depressive symptoms in youth, our understanding about the mechanisms by which victimization and depressive symptoms are linked is limited. The current study explored ruminating about victimization experiences as a potential mechanism that might contribute to an understanding of the association between relational victimization and depressive symptoms. We also tested the specificity of the proposed models by controlling for and testing parallel models of a highly related behavior: relational aggression. A sample of 499 adolescents from sixth through eighth grades participated. Teacher reports were used to assess relational victimization and relational aggression. Self-reports were used to assess depressive symptoms and rumination. The results showed that rumination partially mediated the association between relational victimization and depressive symptoms. No moderation effect was found. In contrast, rumination moderated the association between relational aggression and depressive symptoms. Specifically, relational aggression was associated with depressive symptoms for those adolescents who were also ruminators. Thus, ruminating about victimization experiences appears to be an important mechanism that functions differently for relational aggression and relational victimization in conferring risk for depressive symptoms. The findings offer important practical implications for those working with adolescents and also lay the groundwork for future research.

  15. Atypical depressive symptoms and obesity in a national sample of older adults with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Kee-Lee; Yu, Kar-Ming

    2013-06-01

    The objectives of this study are to present findings on the rate of obesity associated with classic, atypical, and undifferentiated depression by comparing with those without depression in a nationally representative sample of United States older adults. The authors used data from the 2001 to 2002 National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), which included 10,557 adults 60 years of age and older. Chi-square tests were used to compare classic, atypical, and undifferentiated as well as nondepressed control in sociodemographic characteristics. Then, logistic regressions adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics were used to evaluate associations of rate of current obesity (defined as Body Mass Index (BMI) > 30) across the three depressive groups (classic, atypical, and undifferentiated depression) and nondepressed control. Lifetime, current, and past depression were examined. Significant differences were found between atypical and classic depression in sex, age, marital status, race, and personal income. After adjusting for sex, age, marital status, race, and personal income, the rate of obesity was significantly greater for respondents with atypical depression than respondents with classic, undifferentiated depression, or without depression. Same results were found in lifetime, current, and past depression. Our findings suggest that the heterogeneity of depression should be considered when examining the effect of depression on obesity in old age. Prevention measures should be designed and delivered to older adults with atypical depression. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. High C-reactive protein levels are associated with depressive symptoms in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faugere, M; Micoulaud-Franchi, J-A; Faget-Agius, C; Lançon, C; Cermolacce, M; Richieri, R

    2018-01-01

    Depressive symptoms are frequently associated with schizophrenia symptoms. C - Reactive protein (CRP), a marker of chronic inflammation, had been found elevated in patients with schizophrenia and in patients with depressive symptoms. However, the association between CRP level and depressive symptoms has been poorly investigated in patients with schizophrenia. The only study conducted found an association between high CRP levels and antidepressant consumption, but not with depressive symptoms investigated with the Calgary Depression Rating Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS). The aim of this study was to evaluate CRP levels and depressive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia, and to determine whether high CRP levels are associated with depressive symptoms and/or antidepressant consumption, independently of potential confounding factors, especially tobacco-smoking and metabolic syndrome. Three hundred and seven patients with schizophrenia were enrolled in this study (mean age = 35.74 years, 69.1% male gender). Depressive symptoms was investigated with the CDSS. Patients were classified in two groups: normal CRP level (≤ 3.0mg/L) and high CRP level (> 3.0mg/L). Current medication was recorded. 124 subjects (40.4%) were classified in the high CRP level group. After adjusting for confounding factors, these patients were found to have higher CDSS scores than those with normal CRP levels in multivariate analyses (p = 0.035, OR = 1.067, 95% CI = 1.004-1.132). No significant association between CRP levels and antidepressants consumption was found. The size sample is relatively small. The cut-off point for high cardiovascular risk was used to define the two groups. CRP was the sole marker of inflammation in this study and was collected at only one time point. The design of this study is cross-sectional and there are no conclusions about the directionality of the association between depression and inflammation in schizophrenia. This study found an association between high

  17. Personality, depressive symptoms during pregnancy and their influence on postnatal depression in Spanish pregnant Spanish women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Marín-Morales

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyse the influence of personality factors and antenatal depressive symptomatology in postnatal depression. A prospective ex post facto design was carried out. The sample consisted of 116 women, recruited in their first trimester of pregnancy and followed up until four months postpartum. The measurement instruments used were the Edinburg Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS to assess postpartum depression, the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI to analyse personality traits and the depression subscale of the Symptoms Check List 90 (SCL-90-R to assess depressive symptomatology in the first half of pregnancy. Socio-demographic variables (age, parity, educational level, employment status, and planned pregnancy and clinical variables (neonatal Apgar score and mode of delivery were also taken into account. A positive correlation was found between postpartum depression and depressive symptomatology in the first trimester; however after the regression analysis neuroticism was the only factor that predicted postpartum depressive symptoms, explaining 24.8% of the variance. Neuroticism significantly influences psychological health during life events such as motherhood. Due to its stable condition, personality could be assessed from the beginning of pregnancy, contributing to the care of pregnant women with high scores in neuroticism, to prevent, detect and treat early postnatal depression.

  18. Depressive symptoms in HIV-infected and seronegative control subjects in Cameroon: Effect of age, education and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanmogne, Georgette D; Qiu, Fang; Ntone, Félicien E; Fonsah, Julius Y; Njamnshi, Dora M; Kuate, Callixte T; Doh, Roland F; Kengne, Anne M; Tagny, Claude T; Nchindap, Emilienne; Kenmogne, Léopoldine; Mbanya, Dora; Cherner, Mariana; Heaton, Robert K; Njamnshi, Alfred K

    2017-01-01

    Depression is a leading cause of HIV/AIDS disease burden; it worsens health outcomes and quality of life. Addressing this problem requires accurate quantification of the extra burden of depression to HIV/AIDS in a given population, and knowledge of the baseline depression prevalence in the general population. There has been no previous study of depression in the general Cameroonian population. The current study attempts to address that important need. We used the Beck Depression Inventory-II to assess the prevalence and severity of depressive symptoms in 270 HIV-infected and seronegative Cameroonians. Univariate analyses showed a trend toward higher depressive symptoms among cases, compared to controls (p = 0.055), and among older subjects (>40 years), compared to younger subjects (≤40 years) (p = 0.059). Analysis of depression severity showed that 33.73% of cases had moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms, compared to 19.8% of controls (pHIV status, CD4 levels, viral loads, ART, or opportunistic infections on the risk of depressive symptoms. Both univariate and multivariable regression analyses showed significantly higher risk of depressive symptoms among females compared to males; this was significant for both female controls and female cases. Female cases had significantly higher CD4 cell counts and lower viral loads, compared to males. Both univariate and multivariable regression analyses showed that lower education (≤10 years) was associated with increased risk of depressive symptoms. This study shows a high prevalence of depressive symptoms among seronegative controls and HIV-infected Cameroonians. Integrating care for mental disorders such as depression into primary health care and existing HIV/AIDS treatment programs in Cameroon may improve the wellbeing of the general population and could lower the HIV/AIDS burden.

  19. Direct and indirect influences of childhood abuse on depression symptoms in patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yumi; Okamoto, Yasumasa; Takagaki, Koki; Okada, Go; Toki, Shigeru; Inoue, Takeshi; Tanabe, Hajime; Kobayakawa, Makoto; Yamawaki, Shigeto

    2015-10-14

    It is known that the onset, progression, and prognosis of major depressive disorder are affected by interactions between a number of factors. This study investigated how childhood abuse, personality, and stress of life events were associated with symptoms of depression in depressed people. Patients with major depressive disorder (N = 113, 58 women and 55 men) completed the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), the Neuroticism Extroversion Openness Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale (CATS), and the Life Experiences Survey (LES), which are self-report scales. Results were analyzed with correlation analysis and structural equation modeling (SEM), by using SPSS AMOS 21.0. Childhood abuse directly predicted the severity of depression and indirectly predicted the severity of depression through the mediation of personality. Negative life change score of the LES was affected by childhood abuse, however it did not predict the severity of depression. This study is the first to report a relationship between childhood abuse, personality, adulthood life stresses and the severity of depression in depressed patients. Childhood abuse directly and indirectly predicted the severity of depression. These results suggest the need for clinicians to be receptive to the possibility of childhood abuse in patients suffering from depression. SEM is a procedure used for hypothesis modeling and not for causal modeling. Therefore, the possibility of developing more appropriate models that include other variables cannot be excluded.

  20. Food and mental health: relationship between food and perceived stress and depressive symptoms among university students in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ansari, Walid; Adetunji, Hamed; Oskrochi, Reza

    2014-06-01

    The current study assessed, by university and sex, the association between nutritional behaviour (twelve independent variables), and stress and depressive symptoms (dependent variables) in a sample from three UK countries. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken among undergraduates enrolled across seven universities in England, Wales and Northern Ireland (N = 3,706). Self-administered questionnaires included a 12-item food frequency questionnaire, Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale and modified Beck Depression Inventory. Sex and university comparisons were undertaken. Univariable and multivariable regression analyses were computed for each of the two outcomes--perceived stress and depressive symptoms. The frequencies of consuming of the various food groups differed by university and sex, as did depressive symptoms and perceived stress. Multivariable regression analyses indicated that consuming 'unhealthy' foods (e.g. sweets, cookies, snacks, fast food) was significantly positively associated with perceived stress (females only) and depressive symptoms (both males and females). Conversely, consuming 'healthy' foods (e.g. fresh fruits, salads, cooked vegetables) was significantly negatively associated with perceived stress and depressive symptoms scores for both sexes. There was significant negative association between consuming fish/sea food and depressive symptoms among males only. For males and for females, consuming lemonade/soft drinks, meat/sausage products, dairy/dairy products, and cereal/cereal products were not associated with either perceived stress or depressive symptoms. The associations between consuming 'unhealthy' foods and higher depressive symptoms and perceived stress among male and female students as well as the associations between consuming 'healthy' foods and lower depressive symptoms and perceived stress among male and female students in three UK countries suggest that interventions to reduce depressive symptoms and stress among students could

  1. Predictors of depressive symptoms among Hispanic women in South Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeesch, Amber L; Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa M; Hall, Rosemary; McCabe, Brian E; Cianelli, Rosina; Peragallo, Nilda P

    2013-11-01

    U.S. Hispanics, especially women, experience a disproportionate amount of disease burden for depression. This disparity among Hispanic women necessitates examination of factors associated with depression. The objective of this study was to use an adaptation of the Stress Process Model to test whether self-esteem mediated the relationship between Hispanic stress and depressive symptoms. Data for this secondary analysis were from a previous randomized-control HIV prevention trial. Participants were 548 Hispanic women (19-52 years). Data collection measures included the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and Hispanic Stress Scale. The bootstrap method in Mplus 6 was used to test mediation. Results indicated that self-esteem was inversely related to depression, and Hispanic stress was found to be positively related to depression. Self-esteem partially mediated the relationship between stress and depression. Strategies to improve/maintain self-esteem should be considered in future interventions for Hispanic women with depression.

  2. Depression and Anxiety Symptoms in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders without Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, John F.; Kenworthy, Lauren; Daniolos, Peter; Case, Laura; Wills, Meagan C.; Martin, Alex; Wallace, Gregory L.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that rates of depression and anxiety symptoms are elevated among individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) of various ages and IQs and that depression/anxiety symptoms are associated with higher IQ and fewer ASD symptoms. In this study which examined correlates of depression and anxiety symptoms in the full…

  3. Parenting and Early Adolescent Internalizing: The Importance of Teasing Apart Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lesley E.; Greenberg, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    This community-based study examined differences in parenting quality and parent symptoms for youth in four categories: anxious (elevated anxiety symptoms), depressed (elevated depressive symptoms), comorbid (elevated anxiety and depressive symptoms), and nonelevated (elevations of neither type). Respondents were 976 young adolescents (mean age =…

  4. Emotional Distress Following Childbirth: An Intervention to Buffer Depressive and PTSD Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Paola Di Blasio; Sarah Miragoli; Elena Camisasca; Angela Maria Di Vita; Rosalia Pizzo; Laura Pipitone

    2015-01-01

    Childbirth for some women is a negative experience associated with depressive and post-traumatic symptoms. The preventive actions focusing on helping mothers to cope with negative emotions experienced after childbirth are strongly recommended. It is also recommended both to intervene early and on all women to avoid the risk that these symptoms can worsen in the months after childbirth. The intervention described in the current study is focalized on the elaboration of post-partum negative thou...

  5. Prevalence and factors associated with depression symptoms among school-going adolescents in Central Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalugya-Sserunjogi, Joyce; Rukundo, Godfrey Zari; Ovuga, Emilio; Kiwuwa, Steven M; Musisi, Seggane; Nakimuli-Mpungu, Etheldreda

    2016-01-01

    Depression in adolescents constitutes a global public health concern. However, data on its prevalence and associated factors are limited in low income countries like Uganda. Using a cross-sectional descriptive study design, 519 adolescent students in 4 secondary schools in Mukono district, Uganda, were randomly selected after meeting study criteria. The 4 school types were: boarding mixed (boys and girls) school; day mixed school; girls' only boarding school; and, boys' only boarding school. The 519 participants filled out standardized questionnaires regarding their socio-demographic characteristics and health history. They were then screened for depression using the Children Depression Inventory (CDI) and those with a cut-off of 19 were administered the Mini International Neuro-Psychiatric Interview for Children and Adolescents 2.0 (MINI-KID), to ascertain the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition (DSM IV) diagnostic types of depression and any co morbidity. Logistic regression analyses were used to assess factors associated with significant depression symptoms (a score of 19 or more on the CDI). There were 301 (58 %) boys and 218 (42 %) girls with age range 14-16 years and a mean age of 16 years (SD 2.18). Of 519 participants screened with the CDI, 109 (21 %) had significant depression symptoms. Of the 109 participants with significant depression symptoms, only 74 were evaluated with the MINI-KID and of these, 8 (11 %) met criteria for major depression and 6 (8 %) met criteria for dysthymia. Therefore, among participants that were assessed with both the CDI and the MINI-KID (n = 484), the prevalence of depressive disorders was 2.9 %. In this sample, 15 (3.1 %) reported current suicidal ideation. In the logistic regression analyses, significant depression symptoms were associated with single-sex schools, loss of parents and alcohol consumption. This is a cross-sectional study therefore, causal relationships are difficult to

  6. Cannabis exacerbates depressive symptoms in rat model induced by reserpine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadrawy, Yasser A; Sawie, Hussein G; Abdel-Salam, Omar M E; Hosny, Eman N

    2017-05-01

    Cannabis sativa is one of the most widely recreational drugs and its use is more prevalent among depressed patients. Some studies reported that Cannabis has antidepressant effects while others showed increased depressive symptoms in Cannabis users. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the effect of Cannabis extract on the depressive-like rats. Twenty four rats were divided into: control, rat model of depression induced by reserpine and depressive-like rats treated with Cannabis sativa extract (10mg/kg expressed as Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol). The depressive-like rats showed a severe decrease in motor activity as assessed by open field test (OFT). This was accompanied by a decrease in monoamine levels and a significant increase in acetylcholinesterase activity in the cortex and hippocampus. Na + ,K + -ATPase activity increased in the cortex and decreased in the hippocampus of rat model. In addition, a state of oxidative stress was evident in the two brain regions. This was indicated from the significant increase in the levels of lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide. No signs of improvement were observed in the behavioral and neurochemical analyses in the depressive-like rats treated with Cannabis extract. Furthermore, Cannabis extract exacerbated the lipid peroxidation in the cortex and hippocampus. According to the present findings, it could be concluded that Cannabis sativa aggravates the motor deficits and neurochemical changes induced in the cortex and hippocampus of rat model of depression. Therefore, the obtained results could explain the reported increase in the depressive symptoms and memory impairment among Cannabis users. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Cyber Victimization and Depressive Symptoms in Sexual Minority College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Jaimi L.; DiLalla, Lisabeth F.; McCrary, Megan K.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relations between sexual orientation, cyber victimization, and depressive symptoms in college students. Study aims were to determine whether sexual minority college students are at greater risk for cyber victimization and to examine whether recent cyber victimization (self-reported cyber victimization over the last…

  8. Effect of person centered counselling on depressive symptoms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of person centered counselling on depressive symptoms among Type II diabetic patients attending the general ... The clinic visits in both groups were repeated at weeks 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 making a total of six sessions for both groups.

  9. Social Support Seeking and Early Adolescent Depression and Anxiety Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, Clorinda E.; Krause, Elizabeth D.; McKinnon, Allison; Brunwasser, Steven M.; Freres, Derek R.; Abenavoli, Rachel M.; Gillham, Jane E.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how social support seeking and rumination interacted to predict depression and anxiety symptoms 6 months later in early adolescents (N = 118; 11-14 years at baseline). We expected social support seeking would be more helpful for adolescents engaging in low rather than high levels of rumination. Adolescents self-reported on all…

  10. Antisocial Behavior and Depressive Symptoms: Longitudinal and Concurrent Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieno, Alessio; Kiesner, Jeff; Pastore, Massimiliano; Santinello, Massimo

    2008-01-01

    The relations between antisocial behavior and depressive symptoms were examined both longitudinally and concurrently in a sample of Italian early-adolescents. Structural equation modelling was applied to 10-month longitudinal data from a sample of 107 youths (54 girls; mean age at baseline = M = 12.5). Early adolescents completed a questionnaire…

  11. Undergraduate Physical Activity and Depressive Symptoms: A National Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Catherine A.; Kennedy, Catherine; Morgan, George; Anderson, Sharon K.; Morris, Debra

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of college students' physical activity and gender on depressive and suicidal symptoms. Method: The National College Health Assessment survey was administered to college students nationwide. Data were analyzed with 4x2 ANOVAs and Games-Howell post hoc tests when appropriate. Results: More frequent physical activity…

  12. Depression, anxiety symptoms and substance use amongst sex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Sex work is a high-risk occupation for mental health problems as sex workers are vulnerable to high rates of violence, sexual coercion, stigma and HIV. Aim: To determine the prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms and substance use in sex workers.Method: A crosssectional questionnaire survey of all ...

  13. Discrimination, Mastery, and Depressive Symptoms among African American Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Daphne C.; Hudson, Darrell L.; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Siefert, Kristine; Jackson, James S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines the influence of discrimination and mastery on depressive symptoms for African American men at young (18-34), middle (35-54), and late (55+) adulthood. Method: Analyses are based on responses from 1,271 African American men from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL). Results: Discrimination was significantly…

  14. Trajectories of Depression Symptoms among Older Youths Exiting Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, Michelle R.; McMillen, Curtis

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the trajectories of depressive symptoms as older youths from the foster care system mature while also examining the correlates of these trajectories. Data came from a longitudinal study of 404 youths from the foster care system in Missouri, who were interviewed nine times between their 17th and 19th…

  15. Depressive Symptoms, Friend and Partner Relationship Quality, and Posttreatment Abstinence*

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Laura G.; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O.; Moos, Rudolf H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study employed a prospective design to examine the role of friend and partner relationship quality 1 year following substance use disorder treatment in the association between depressive symptoms at discharge from treatment and abstinence from substance use 2 years after treatment. Method: The sample consisted of 1,453 male veterans who used alcohol and at least one other substance in the 3 months before treatment admission, who completed treatment, and who were abstinent from substances during the 2 weeks before discharge. Results: Fewer depressive symptoms at treatment discharge predicted better relationship quality with friends and a partner at 1 -year follow-up, as well as abstinence from substance use at 2-year follow-up. Furthermore, friend and partner relationship quality at 1 year predicted abstinence from substance use at 2 years. Friend relationship quality at 1 year mediated part of the association between fewer depressive symptoms at treatment discharge and abstinence at 2-year follow-up. Conclusions: A stronger focus in treatment on reducing depressive symptoms and enhancing the quality of patients' relationships with their friends and partner may increase the likelihood of long-term abstinence. PMID:21138721

  16. Shame, Guilt, and Depressive Symptoms: A Meta-Analytic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangmoon; Thibodeau, Ryan; Jorgensen, Randall S.

    2011-01-01

    Recent theoretical and empirical work has facilitated the drawing of sharp conceptual distinctions between shame and guilt. A clear view of these distinctions has permitted development of a research literature aimed at evaluating the differential associations of shame and guilt with depressive symptoms. This study quantitatively summarized the…

  17. Symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) moderate suicidal behaviors in college students with depressed mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patros, Connor H G; Hudec, Kristen L; Alderson, R Matt; Kasper, Lisa J; Davidson, Collin; Wingate, LaRicka R

    2013-09-01

    College students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder-related hyperactive/impulsive (HI) and/or inattentive (IA) symptoms may be at greater risk for suicidal behavior due to core and secondary symptoms that increase their potential to engage in behaviors that put them at risk for suicidal behavior. Consequently, the current study examined the moderating effect of combined HI/IA symptoms, in addition to independent HI and IA symptoms on the relationship between depressed mood and suicidal thoughts and behavior. A sample of 1,056 undergraduate students (61.5% female, 96.4% aged 18-24 years) provided self-report ratings of mood, suicidal behavior (thoughts, self-harm, attempts, and need for medical attention), and current HI/IA symptoms. Significant moderation effects were detected, such that greater HI/IA symptoms were associated with a stronger relationship between depressed mood and suicidal ideation and attempts, but not self-harm. Current HI and IA symptoms significantly moderated the relationship between depressed mood and suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts, but did not moderate the relationship between depressed mood and self-harm and need for medical attention. The current findings suggest that the presence of combined HI/IA symptoms conveys increased suicide risk for depressed college students. Additionally, results suggest a complex relationship between independent HI and IA symptoms and severe suicidal outcomes. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Bullying in school and cyberspace: Associations with depressive symptoms in Swiss and Australian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perren, Sonja; Dooley, Julian; Shaw, Thérèse; Cross, Donna

    2010-11-23

    Cyber-bullying (i.e., bullying via electronic means) has emerged as a new form of bullying that presents unique challenges to those victimised. Recent studies have demonstrated that there is a significant conceptual and practical overlap between both types of bullying such that most young people who are cyber-bullied also tend to be bullied by more traditional methods. Despite the overlap between traditional and cyber forms of bullying, it remains unclear if being a victim of cyber-bullying has the same negative consequences as being a victim of traditional bullying. The current study investigated associations between cyber versus traditional bullying and depressive symptoms in 374 and 1320 students from Switzerland and Australia respectively (52% female; Age: M = 13.8, SD = 1.0). All participants completed a bullying questionnaire (assessing perpetration and victimisation of traditional and cyber forms of bullying behaviour) in addition to scales on depressive symptoms. Across both samples, traditional victims and bully-victims reported more depressive symptoms than bullies and non-involved children. Importantly, victims of cyber-bullying reported significantly higher levels of depressive symptoms, even when controlling for the involvement in traditional bullying/victimisation. Overall, cyber-victimisation emerged as an additional risk factor for depressive symptoms in adolescents involved in bullying.

  19. Emotional Distress Following Childbirth: An Intervention to Buffer Depressive and PTSD Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Blasio, Paola; Miragoli, Sarah; Camisasca, Elena; Di Vita, Angela Maria; Pizzo, Rosalia; Pipitone, Laura

    2015-05-01

    Childbirth for some women is a negative experience associated with depressive and post-traumatic symptoms. The preventive actions focusing on helping mothers to cope with negative emotions experienced after childbirth are strongly recommended. It is also recommended both to intervene early and on all women to avoid the risk that these symptoms can worsen in the months after childbirth. The intervention described in the current study is focalized on the elaboration of post-partum negative thoughts and emotion through a writing task, with the purpose to help new mothers to reflect, understand, evaluate and, thus, reformulate the stressful situation with new beliefs and emotions. 176 women aged from 19 to 43 years (M = 31.55, SD = 4.58) were assessed for depression and PTSD in the prenatal phase (T1). In about 96 hours after childbirth they were randomly assigned to either "Making Sense condition" (MS: in which they wrote about the thoughts and emotions connected with delivery and childbirth) or "Control-Neutral condition" (NC: in which they wrote about the daily events in behavioural terms) and then reassessed for depression and PTSD (T2). A follow up was conducted 3 months later (T3) to verify depression and posttraumatic symptoms. The results showed that depressive symptoms decreased both at 96 hours and at 3 months as a result of making-sense task. Regarding the posttraumatic symptoms the positive effect emerged at three months and not at 96 hours after birth.

  20. Emotional Distress Following Childbirth: An Intervention to Buffer Depressive and PTSD Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Di Blasio

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Childbirth for some women is a negative experience associated with depressive and post-traumatic symptoms. The preventive actions focusing on helping mothers to cope with negative emotions experienced after childbirth are strongly recommended. It is also recommended both to intervene early and on all women to avoid the risk that these symptoms can worsen in the months after childbirth. The intervention described in the current study is focalized on the elaboration of post-partum negative thoughts and emotion through a writing task, with the purpose to help new mothers to reflect, understand, evaluate and, thus, reformulate the stressful situation with new beliefs and emotions. 176 women aged from 19 to 43 years (M = 31.55, SD = 4.58 were assessed for depression and PTSD in the prenatal phase (T1. In about 96 hours after childbirth they were randomly assigned to either “Making Sense condition” (MS: in which they wrote about the thoughts and emotions connected with delivery and childbirth or “Control-Neutral condition” (NC: in which they wrote about the daily events in behavioural terms and then reassessed for depression and PTSD (T2. A follow up was conducted 3 months later (T3 to verify depression and posttraumatic symptoms. The results showed that depressive symptoms decreased both at 96 hours and at 3 months as a result of making-sense task. Regarding the posttraumatic symptoms the positive effect emerged at three months and not at 96 hours after birth.

  1. Bullying in school and cyberspace: Associations with depressive symptoms in Swiss and Australian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaw Thérèse

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyber-bullying (i.e., bullying via electronic means has emerged as a new form of bullying that presents unique challenges to those victimised. Recent studies have demonstrated that there is a significant conceptual and practical overlap between both types of bullying such that most young people who are cyber-bullied also tend to be bullied by more traditional methods. Despite the overlap between traditional and cyber forms of bullying, it remains unclear if being a victim of cyber-bullying has the same negative consequences as being a victim of traditional bullying. Method The current study investigated associations between cyber versus traditional bullying and depressive symptoms in 374 and 1320 students from Switzerland and Australia respectively (52% female; Age: M = 13.8, SD = 1.0. All participants completed a bullying questionnaire (assessing perpetration and victimisation of traditional and cyber forms of bullying behaviour in addition to scales on depressive symptoms. Results Across both samples, traditional victims and bully-victims reported more depressive symptoms than bullies and non-involved children. Importantly, victims of cyber-bullying reported significantly higher levels of depressive symptoms, even when controlling for the involvement in traditional bullying/victimisation. Conclusions Overall, cyber-victimisation emerged as an additional risk factor for depressive symptoms in adolescents involved in bullying.

  2. Cotard Syndrome without Depressive Symptoms in a Schizophrenic Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgado, Pedro; Ribeiro, Ricardo; Cerqueira, João J

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Cotard syndrome is a rare condition characterized by nihilistic delusions concerning body or life that can be found in several neuropsychiatry conditions. It is typically associated with depressive symptoms. Method. We present a case of Cotard syndrome without depressive symptoms in the context of known paranoid schizophrenia. A literature review of Cotard syndrome in schizophrenia was performed. Results. Although there are few descriptions of this syndrome in schizophrenia, patients usually present depressive mood and psychomotor retardation, features not seen in our patient. Loss of the sense of the inner self, present in schizophrenia, could explain patient's symptomatology but neurobiological bases of this syndrome remain unclear. Conclusion. Despite not being considered in actual classifications, Cotard syndrome is still relevant and psychiatric evaluation is critical to diagnosing and treating this condition in psychiatric patients.

  3. Cotard Syndrome without Depressive Symptoms in a Schizophrenic Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Morgado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cotard syndrome is a rare condition characterized by nihilistic delusions concerning body or life that can be found in several neuropsychiatry conditions. It is typically associated with depressive symptoms. Method. We present a case of Cotard syndrome without depressive symptoms in the context of known paranoid schizophrenia. A literature review of Cotard syndrome in schizophrenia was performed. Results. Although there are few descriptions of this syndrome in schizophrenia, patients usually present depressive mood and psychomotor retardation, features not seen in our patient. Loss of the sense of the inner self, present in schizophrenia, could explain patient’s symptomatology but neurobiological bases of this syndrome remain unclear. Conclusion. Despite not being considered in actual classifications, Cotard syndrome is still relevant and psychiatric evaluation is critical to diagnosing and treating this condition in psychiatric patients.

  4. The association between workplace bullying and depressive symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Török, Eszter; Hansen, Åse Marie; Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the depressive symptoms of the bullied respondents differed according to who the perpetrator was. METHODS: We used cross-sectional questionnaire data from two representative cohorts: the Danish Working Environment Cohort Study...... (DWECS 2010) and the Work and Health Study (WH 2012). After excluding respondents not having a leader, or being self-employed, assisting spouses, and those reporting multiple perpetrators in WH 2012, the statistical analysis included 2478 bullied individuals. We compared respondents reporting being...... bullied by their (1) leader, (2) subordinates, (3) clients / customers / patients / students, or (4) colleagues, respectively. The occurrence of depressive symptoms was measured by the Major Depression Inventory (MDI). RESULTS: The most frequent perpetrator of bullying was clients (41.5 %) in DWECS 2010...

  5. The association between depressive symptoms, cognitive function, and inflammation in major depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Jesper; Benros, Michael E; Jørgensen, Martin Balslev

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the association between IL-6 and CRP with depressive items and cognitive function. We included 112 outpatients with major depression from an exercise trial and 57 healthy controls. IL-6, high sensitive CRP (hsCRP), and cognitive function were assessed in all...... subjects. After baseline assessment, patients were randomised to either a 3months exercise intervention or an exercise control group. Post-intervention IL-6, hsCRP, depressive symptoms, and cognitive function were reassessed in the patient group. IL-6 and hsCRP were significantly increased in depressed...... patients compared to healthy controls (p=0.02 and 0.04). These differences were no longer significant after adjustment for lifestyle associated variables. We found no association between immune markers and specific depressive symptoms at baseline or as change over time. Regarding the cognitive tests, IL-6...

  6. Depressive symptoms in adolescence : Longitudinal links with maternal empathy and psychological control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werner, Lente L. A. A.; Van der Graaff, Jolien; Meeus, W.H.J.; Branje, Susan J. T.

    Building on self-determination theory (Deci and Ryan in Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227-268. doi:10.1207/S15327965PLI1104_01, 2000), the aim of the current study was to examine the role of maternal affective and cognitive empathy in predicting adolescents' depressive symptoms, through mothers'

  7. Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence: Longitudinal Links with Maternal Empathy and Psychological Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werner, L.A.A.; van der Graaff, J.; Meeus, W.H.J.; Branje, S.J.T.

    2016-01-01

    Building on self-determination theory (Deci and Ryan in Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227-268. doi:10.1207/ S15327965PLI1104_01, 2000), the aim of the current study was to examine the role of maternal affective and cognitive empathy in predicting adolescents’ depressive symptoms, through mothers’

  8. Coping Styles and Sex Differences in Depressive Symptoms and Delinquent Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kort-Butler, Lisa A.

    2009-01-01

    Building on research that links gender to differences in well-being and differences in stress exposure and vulnerability, the current study examines how coping styles are gendered in ways that may contribute to sex differences in depressive symptoms and delinquent behavior. The study disaggregates stress measures to reflect gender differences in…

  9. Abuse, Depressive Symptoms, Executive Functioning, and Overgeneral Memory among a Psychiatric Sample of Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentino, Kristin; Bridgett, David J.; Hayden, Lisa C.; Nuttall, Amy K.

    2012-01-01

    Prior research has established the independent associations of depressive symptoms and childhood trauma to overgeneral memory (OGM); the present study addresses the potentially interactive effects between these two risk factors on OGM. In addition, the current study comprehensively evaluates whether executive functions (EF) mediate the relation…

  10. Longitudinal Associations between Maternal Work Stress, Negative Work-Family Spillover, and Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, W. Benjamin; Crouter, Ann C.

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined associations over an 18-month period between maternal work stressors, negative work-family spillover, and depressive symptoms in a sample of 414 employed mothers with young children living in six predominantly nonmetropolitan counties in the Eastern United States. Results from a one-group mediation model showed that a…

  11. Social Skills and Depressive Symptoms across Adolescence: Social Support as a Mediator in Girls versus Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Wendy; Karevold, Evalill; Roysamb, Espen; Gustavson, Kristin; Mathiesen, Kristin S.

    2013-01-01

    The current population-based study of Norwegian adolescents examined gender-specific patterns in the prospective association between social skills in early adolescence (age 12.5; n = 566) and changes in depressive symptoms from early to late adolescence (age 16.5; n = 375). Further, a potential mediation effect of social support (from peers,…

  12. Conceptualizing the Prospective Relationship between Social Support, Stress, and Depressive Symptoms among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Randy Patrick; Bigda-Peyton, Joseph S.; Eberhart, Nicole K.; Webb, Christian A.; Ho, Moon-Ho Ringo

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the current study is to examine the relationship amongst social support, stress, and depressive symptoms within a transactional and diathesis-stress framework using a multi-wave, longitudinal design. At the initial assessment, adolescents (n = 258) completed self-report measures assessing social support (peer, classmate, parent, and…

  13. Network Financial Support and Conflict as Predictors of Depressive Symptoms among a Highly Disadvantaged Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlton, Amy R.; Latkin, Carl A.

    2007-01-01

    The study examined multiple dimensions of social support as predictors of depressive symptoms among a highly vulnerable population. Social network analysis was used to assess perceived and enacted dimensions of support (emotional, financial, instrumental), network conflict, closeness, and composition. Participants were 393 current and former…

  14. The Role of Family Conflict in the Relation between Exposure to Community Violence and Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzman, Rochelle J.; Roberts, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the role of family conflict as a mediator in the relation between exposure to community violence and depressive symptoms. Two hundred thirty-two early adolescents (aged 11-16 years) completed a demographics questionnaire, the Survey of Exposure to Community Violence, the 9-item conflict subscale of the Family Environment…

  15. Parent-Child Cultural Marginalization and Depressive Symptoms in Asian American Family Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Yeong; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Stroh, Kunise; Wang, Jenny Jiun-Ling

    2006-01-01

    The current study findings refute the recent claim that marginality theory lacks construct validity. Cultural marginalization is significantly related to depressive symptoms in Korean American, Chinese American, and Japanese American parents and adolescents living in the United States. Correlational analyses indicate that adolescents' depressive…

  16. Social Problems as a Mediator of the Link between Reactive Aggression and Withdrawn/Depressed Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fite, Paula J.; Rathert, Jamie L.; Stoppelbein, Laura; Greening, Leilani

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined whether social problems accounted for the relation between reactive aggression and withdrawn/depressed symptoms in a sample of 147 children (54.4% male) ranging from 5 to 13 years of age (M = 8.22 years) who attended a community based after-school program. Findings suggested that indeed social problems mediated the link…

  17. Attachment organization and patterns of conflict resolution in friendships predicting adolescents' depressive symptoms over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chango, Joanna M; McElhaney, Kathleen Boykin; Allen, Joseph P

    2009-07-01

    The current study examined the moderating effects of observed conflict management styles with friends on the link between adolescents' preoccupied attachment organization and changing levels of depressive symptoms from age 13 to age 18 years. Adolescents and their close friends were observed during a revealed differences task, and friends' behaviors were coded for both conflict avoidance and overpersonalizing attacks. Results indicated that preoccupied adolescents showed greater relative increases in depressive symptoms when their friends demonstrated overpersonalizing behaviors, vs. greater relative decreases in depressive symptoms when their friends avoided conflict by deferring to them. Results suggest the exquisite sensitivity of preoccupied adolescents to qualities of peer relationships as predictors of future levels of psychological functioning.

  18. The Influence of Discrimination on Inmigrant Adolescents' Depressive Symptoms: What Buffers its Detrimental Effects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Cristini

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the link between perceived discrimination, depressive symptoms, cultural identity and social support at school reported by immigrant adolescents. Participants were 214 mostly male, immigrant adolescents in grades 9 through 13 of high schools in two small cities in northern Italy. Results showed that discrimination has a significant detrimental effect on psychological well-being of foreign-born adolescents. Additionally, the current study outlined that the only protective factor for depressive symptoms, among the analyzed variables concerning cultural identity and school social support, was social support from teachers. None of the analyzed moderators buffered the relationship between discrimination and depressive symptoms reported by immigrant adolescents. These results have implications for preventive interventions for immigrant adolescents and suggest a protective role for teachers. Future research should detect strategies to reduce discrimination and prejudice toward immigrant adolescents and detect factors that may buffer detrimental effects of discrimination on psychological well-being.

  19. Parent–Child Acculturation, Parenting, and Adolescent Depressive Symptoms in Chinese Immigrant Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Yeong; Chen, Qi; Li, Jing; Huang, Xuan; Moon, Ui Jeong

    2009-01-01

    Using a sample of 388 father–adolescent and 399 mother–adolescent dyads in Chinese immigrant families, the current investigation tested Portes and Rumbaut's (1996) assertion that generational dissonance may indicate a family context that places children at increased risk for adverse outcomes. Study findings suggest that a high discrepancy in father–adolescent acculturation levels relates significantly to more adolescent depressive symptoms. The study further demonstrates that the quality of the parenting relationship between fathers and adolescents operates as a mediator between father–adolescent acculturation discrepancy and adolescent depressive symptoms. Specifically, a high level of discrepancy in American orientation between fathers and adolescents is associated with unsupportive parenting practices, which, in turn, are linked to more adolescent depressive symptoms. These relationships are significant even after controlling for the influence of family socioeconomic status and parents’ and adolescents’ sense of discrimination within the larger society. PMID:19586205

  20. Acute traumatic and depressive symptoms in family members of hospitalized individuals with delirium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Robert B; Rosenthal, Lisa J

    2015-01-01

    This study characterized symptoms of acute stress and depression in caregivers present during the hospitalization of a loved one with delirium. This is an observational, cross-sectional analysis of caregivers of patients hospitalized with delirium. Standardized questionnaires were used in caregiver interviews to assess psychological reactions to traumatic situations and understanding of medical care. Of the 40 caregivers recruited, half had significant symptoms of acute stress and 12.5% of caregivers were highly symptomatic across all domains related to trauma. Elevated acute stress was positively correlated with both past or current depression and prior mental health treatment (p delirium as having a negative impact on their lives were also at elevated risk (p delirium are at elevated risk for experiencing severe acute traumatic and depressive symptoms, and this response might place them at risk for developing traumatic disorders. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Work and home stress: associations with anxiety and depression symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, L-B; Blumenthal, J A; Watkins, L L; Sherwood, A

    2015-03-01

    In the evolving work environment of global competition, the associations between work and home stress and psychological well-being are not well understood. To examine the impact of psychosocial stress at work and at home on anxiety and depression. In medically healthy employed men and women (aged 30-60), serial regression analyses were used to determine the independent association of psychosocial stress at work and at home with depression symptoms, measured using the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), and anxiety symptoms, measured using the Spielberger Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Psychosocial stress at work was measured using the Job Content Questionnaire to assess job psychological demands, job control, job social support and job insecurity. Psychosocial stress at home was assessed by 12 questions including stress at home, personal problems, family demands and feelings about home life. Serial regression analyses in 129 subjects revealed that job insecurity and home stress were most strongly associated with depression and anxiety symptoms. Job insecurity accounted for 9% of the variation both in BDI-II scores and in STAI scores. Home stress accounted for 13 and 17% of the variation in BDI-II scores and STAI scores, respectively. In addition, job social support was significantly and independently associated with STAI scores but not BDI-II scores. Work and home stress were associated with anxiety and depression symptoms in both men and women. Both work and home stress should be considered in studies evaluating anxiety and depression in working populations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Ethnic Variation in the Cross-sectional Association between Domains of Depressive Symptoms and Clinical Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin eAssari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe degree by which depressive symptoms and clinical depression reflect each other may vary across populations. The present study compared Blacks and Whites for the magnitude of the cross-sectional associations between various domains of depressive symptoms and endorsement of clinical disorders of depression. MethodsData came from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL, 2001–2003. We included 3,570 Black (African Americans, and 891 Non-Hispanic Whites. Predictors were positive affect, negative affect, and interpersonal problems measured using the 12-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D. Outcomes were lifetime MDD, lifetime MDE, 12 month MDE, 30 days MDE, and 30 days MDDH based on the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI. Logistic regression models were applied in the pooled sample, as well as Blacks and Whites.ResultsRegarding CES-D, Blacks had lower total scores, positive affect, negative affect, and interpersonal problems compared to Whites (p < 0.05 for all comparisons. Blacks also had lower odds of meeting criteria for lifetime MDD and MDE, 12 month MDE, and 30 days MDE and MDDH (p < 0.05 for all comparisons. For most depressive diagnoses, ethnicity showed a positive and significant interaction with the negative affect and interpersonal domains, suggesting stronger associations for Blacks compared to Whites. CES-D total and CES-D positive affect did not interact with ethnicity on CIDI based diagnoses.ConclusionStronger associations between multiple domains of depressive symptoms and clinical MDD may be due to higher severity of depression among Blacks, when they endorse the disorder. This finding may explain some of previously observed ethnic differences in social, psychological, and medical correlates of depressive symptoms and clinical depression in the general population as well as clinical settings.

  3. Differential relationships between social adversity and depressive symptoms by HIV status and racial/ethnic identity.

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    Williamson, Timothy J; Mahmood, Zanjbeel; Kuhn, Taylor P; Thames, April D

    2017-02-01

    Historically marginalized groups are likely to be exposed to social adversity, which predicts important mental health outcomes (e.g., depression). Despite the well-established relationship between adversity and poor health, few studies have examined how adversity differentially predicts mental health among people living with multiple, co-occurring marginalized identities or statuses. The current study fills this gap by examining whether relationships between social adversity and depressive symptoms differed between those living with or without a stigmatized disease (i.e., HIV) and/or marginalized racial/ethnic identity (i.e., African American). A community sample of men and women (N = 149) completed questionnaires assessing demographics and depressive symptoms. Additionally, a composite index of social adversity was derived from measures of perceived discrimination, socioeconomic status, financial restriction to receiving medical care, and perceived neighborhood characteristics. Multiple regression was used to test whether relationships between adversity and depressive symptoms differed as a function of HIV status and racial/ethnic identity. A significant 3-way interaction between social adversity, HIV status, and racial/ethnic identity indicated that there was a direct relationship between adversity and depressive symptoms for HIV-positive (HIV+) African Americans but not for HIV-negative (HIV-) African Americans, HIV+ Caucasians, or HIV- Caucasians. Further, HIV+ African Americans evidenced a significantly greater relationship between adversity and depressive symptoms compared with HIV- African Americans, but not compared with other groups. The findings suggest that HIV+ African Americans may be at risk for higher depressive symptoms amid adversity, highlighting the importance of evaluating intersectional identities/statuses in the context of mental health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Cognitive functioning in patients with bipolar disorder: association with depressive symptoms and alcohol use.

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    Marieke J van der Werf-Eldering

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cognitive dysfunction is clearly recognized in bipolar patients, but the degree of impairment varies due to methodological factors as well as heterogeneity in patient populations. The goal of this study was to evaluate cognitive functioning in bipolar patients and to assess its association with depressive symptoms. Post hoc the relationship with lifetime alcohol use disorder was explored. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The study included 110 bipolar patients and 75 healthy controls. Patients with severe depressive symptoms, (hypomanic symptoms and current severe alcohol use disorder were excluded. Diagnoses were evaluated via the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Cognitive functioning was measured in domains of psychomotor speed, speed of information processing, attentional switching, verbal memory, visual memory, executive functioning and an overall mean score. Severity of depression was assessed by the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-self rating. Patients were euthymic (n = 46 or with current mild (n = 38 or moderate (n = 26 depressive symptoms. Cognitive impairment was found in 26% (z-score 2 or more above reference control group for at least one domain of patients, most prominent in executive functioning (effect size; ES 0.49 and speed of information processing (ES 0.47. Depressive symptoms were associated with dysfunction in psychomotor speed (adjusted beta 0.43; R(2 7%, speed of information processing (adjusted beta 0.36; R(2 20%, attentional switching (adjusted beta 0.24; R(2 16% and the mean score (adjusted beta 0.23; R(2 24%, but not with verbal and visual memory and executive functioning. Depressive symptoms explained 24% of the variance in the mean z-score of all 6 cognitive domains. Comorbid lifetime alcohol use (n = 21 was not associated with cognitive dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Cognitive dysfunction in bipolar disorder is more severe in patients with depressive symptoms, especially

  5. Eating disorder symptom trajectories in adolescence: effects of time, participant sex, and early adolescent depressive symptoms.

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    Allen, Karina L; Crosby, Ross D; Oddy, Wendy H; Byrne, Susan M

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of developmental risk for eating disorders and eating disorder symptoms. This study aimed to describe the prevalence and trajectory of five core eating disorder behaviours (binge eating, purging, fasting, following strict dietary rules, and hard exercise for weight control) and a continuous index of dietary restraint and eating, weight and shape concerns, in a cohort of male and female adolescents followed from 14 to 20 years. It also aimed to determine the effect of early adolescent depressive symptoms on the prevalence and trajectory of these different eating disorder symptoms. Participants (N = 1,383; 49% male) were drawn from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study, a prospective cohort study that has followed participants from pre-birth to age 20 years. An adapted version of the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire was used to assess eating disorder symptoms at ages 14, 17 and 20 years. The Beck Depression Inventory for Youth was used to assess depressive symptoms at age 14. Longitudinal changes in the prevalence of eating disorder symptoms were tested using generalised estimating equations and linear mixed models. Symptom trajectories varied according to the eating disorder symptom studied, participant sex, and the presence of depressive symptoms in early adolescence. For males, eating disorder symptoms tended to be stable (for purging, fasting and hard exercise) or decreasing (for binge eating and global symptom scores) from 14 to 17 years, and then stable to 20 years. For females, fasting and global symptom scores increased from age 14 to peak in prevalence at age 17. Rates of binge eating in females were stable from age 14 to age 17 and increased significantly thereafter, whilst rates of purging and hard exercise increased from age 14 to age 17, and then remained elevated through to age 20. Depressive symptoms at age 14 impacted on eating disorder symptom trajectories in females, but not in males. Prevention

  6. Long-term incidence of depression and predictors of depressive symptoms in older stroke survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Louise M; Rowan, Elise N; Thomas, Alan J; Polvikoski, Tuomo M; O'Brien, John T; Kalaria, Raj N

    2013-12-01

    Depression is common and an important consequence of stroke but there is limited information on the longer-term relationship between these conditions. To identify the prevalence, incidence and predictors of depression in a secondary-care-based cohort of stroke survivors aged over 75 years, from 3 months to up to 10 years post-stroke. Depression was assessed annually by three methods: major depression by DSM-IV criteria, the self-rated Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and the observer-rated Cornell scale. We found the highest rates, 31.7% baseline prevalence, of depressive symptoms with the GDS compared with 9.7% using the Cornell scale and 1.2% using DSM-IV criteria. Incidence rates were 36.9, 5.90 and 4.18 episodes per 100 person years respectively. Baseline GDS score was the most consistent predictor of depressive symptoms at all time points in both univariate and multivariate analyses. Other predictors included cognitive impairment, impaired activities of daily living and in the early period, vascular risk factor burden and dementia. Our results emphasise the importance of psychiatric follow-up for those with early-onset post-stroke depression and long-term monitoring of mood in people who have had a stroke and remain at high risk of depression.

  7. Association Between Depressive Symptoms, Multiple Dimensions of Depression, and Elder Abuse: A Cross-Sectional, Population-Based Analysis of Older Adults in Urban Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roepke-Buehler, Susan K; Simon, Melissa; Dong, XinQi

    2015-09-01

    Depression is conceptualized as both a risk factor for and a consequence of elder abuse; however, current research is equivocal. This study examined associations between elder abuse and dimensions of depressive symptoms in older adults. Participants were 10,419 older adults enrolled in theChicago Health and Aging Project (CHAP), a population-based study of older adults. Regression was used to determine the relationships between depressive symptoms, depression dimensions, and abuse variables. Depressive symptoms were consistently associated with elder abuse. Participants in the highest tertile of depressive symptoms were twice as likely to have confirmed abuse with a perpetrator (odds ratio = 2.07, 95% confidence interval = [1.21, 3.52], p = .008). Elder abuse subtypes and depression dimensions were differentially associated. These findings highlight the importance of routine depression screening in older adults as a component of abuse prevention and intervention. They also provide profiles of depressive symptoms that may more accurately characterize risk for specific types of abuse. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Differences in depressive symptoms between Korean and American outpatients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hong Jin; Walker, Rosemary S; Inamori, Aya; Hong, Jin Pyo; Cho, Maeng Je; Baer, Lee; Clain, Alisabet; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David

    2014-05-01

    Previous epidemiologic studies have revealed that East-Asian populations experience fewer depressive symptoms than American populations do. However, it is unclear whether this difference applies to clinical patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). This present study included 1592 Korean and 3744 American outpatients who were 18 years of age or older and met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. criteria for single or recurrent episodes of nonpsychotic MDD, and evaluated their symptoms of depression using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire Short Form. Korean patients scored significantly lower for guilt and depressed mood items, and higher for hypochondriasis and suicidality items than American patients did, after adjusting for total Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scores. Conversely, no significant differences were found in quality and function of daily life between groups. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that Korean patients experienced less frequent depressed mood and guilt, including verbal and nonverbal expression of depressed mood [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.08-0.23] and feelings of punishment (AOR = 0.036, 95% CI 0.025-0.054) when compared with Americans after adjusting for age and sex. Conversely, Korean patients experienced more frequent suicidality and hypochondriasis, including suicidal ideas or gestures (AOR = 2.10, 95% CI 1.60-2.76) and self-absorption of hypochondriasis (AOR = 1.94, 95% CI 1.70-2.20). In conclusion, decreased expression of depressed mood and guilt may cause underdiagnosis of MDD in Korean patients. Early diagnosis of and intervention for depression and suicide may be delayed because of this specific cross-cultural difference in depression symptoms.

  9. The Role of Self-Compassion in Buffering Symptoms of Depression in the General Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annett Körner

    Full Text Available Self-compassion, typically operationalized as the total score of the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS; Neff, 2003b, has been shown to be related to increased psychological well-being and lower depression in students of the social sciences, users of psychology websites and psychotherapy patients. The current study builds on the existing literature by examining the link between self-compassion and depressive symptomatology in a sample representative of the German general population (n = 2,404. The SCS subscales of self-judgment, isolation, and over-identification, and the "self-coldness", composite score, which encompass these three negative subscales, consistently differed between subsamples of individuals without any depressive symptoms, with any depressive syndromes, and with major depressive disorder. The contribution of the positive SCS subscales of self-kindness, common humanity, and mindfulness to the variance in depressive symptomatology was almost negligible. However, when combined to a "self-compassion composite", the positive SCS subscales significantly moderated the relationship between "self-coldness" and depressive symptoms in the general population. This speaks for self-compassion having the potential to buffer self-coldness related to depression--providing an argument for interventions that foster self-caring, kind, and forgiving attitudes towards oneself.

  10. Stress generation in a developmental context: the role of youth depressive symptoms, maternal depression, the parent-child relationship, and family stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Priscilla T; Doan, Stacey N; Tompson, Martha C

    2014-02-01

    The present study examined stress generation in a developmental and family context among 171 mothers and their preadolescent children, ages 8-12 years, at baseline (Time 1) and 1-year follow-up (Time 2). In the current study, we examined the bidirectional relationship between children's depressive symptoms and dependent family stress. Results suggest that children's baseline level of depressive symptoms predicted the generation of dependent family stress 1 year later. However, baseline dependent family stress did not predict an increase in children's depressive symptoms 1 year later. In addition, we examined whether a larger context of both child chronic strain (indicated by academic, behavioral, and peer stress) and family factors, including socioeconomic status and parent-child relationship quality, would influence the stress generation process. Although both chronic strain and socioeconomic status were not associated with dependent family stress at Time 2, poorer parent-child relationship quality significantly predicted greater dependent family stress at Time 2. Child chronic strain, but neither socioeconomic status nor parent-child relationship quality, predicted children's depression symptoms at Time 2. Finally, gender, maternal depression history, and current maternal depressive symptoms did not moderate the relationship between level of dependent family stress and depressive symptoms. Overall, findings provide partial support for a developmental stress generation model operating in the preadolescent period.

  11. Depressive symptoms, anxiety, and quality of life in women with pelvic endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulcri, Rodrigo de P; do Amaral, Vivian F

    2009-01-01

    To assess depressive symptoms, anxiety and quality of life in women with pelvic endometriosis. A prospective study of 104 women diagnosed with pelvic endometriosis. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) were used to evaluate depressive symptoms; the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (HAM-A) to evaluate anxiety symptoms; and the short (26-item) version of the World Health Organization Quality Of Life instrument (WHOQOL-BREF) to evaluate quality of life. Of the patients evaluated, 86.5% presented depressive symptoms (mild in 22.1%, moderate in 31.7%, and severe in 32.7%) and 87.5% presented anxiety (minor in 24% and major in 63.5%). Quality of life was found to be substandard. Age correlated positively with depressive symptoms, as determined using the BDI (P=0.013) and HAM-D (P=0.037). There was a positive correlation between current pain intensity and anxiety symptoms, as assessed using the STAI (state, P=0.009; trait, P=0.048) and HAM-A (P=0.0001). The complaints related to physical limitations increased in parallel with the intensity of pain (P=0.017). There was an inverse correlation between duration of treatment and quality of life (P=0.017). There was no correlation between psychiatric symptoms and endometriosis stage. A rational approach to endometriosis should include an evaluation of the emotional profile and quality of life. That approach would certainly reduce the functional damage caused by the endometriosis.

  12. SHARPSports mental Health Awareness Research Project: Prevalence and risk factors of depressive symptoms and life stress in elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beable, Sarah; Fulcher, Mark; Lee, Arier C; Hamilton, Bruce

    2017-12-01

    Our study aims to estimate the prevalence of symptoms of depression and daily life hassles in elite athletes. A cross-sectional prospective epidemiological study design. An online anonymous survey was administered during a 2-month period from May to July 2015. Athletes 18 years of age (or older) who were members of the High Performance Sport New Zealand programme were invited to participate. Of 370 potential participants, 187 completed responses were received (51%). Symptoms of depression were measured by the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale-Revised (CESD-R). Life stress was measured by the Daily Hassles Questionnaire. Overall 21% (n=39) of participants reported symptoms consistent with depression. Only 2 of the 39 athletes were currently taking an anti-depressant medication. Those contemplating retirement, partaking in individual sport, and who were less than 25 years old had significantly increased odds of experiencing depression. Reported life stressors were higher in females, in those who play an individual sport and those in a centralised programme. There was a significant correlation between higher levels of life stress and experiencing depressive symptoms. This study highlights that depressive symptoms are prevalent in elite athletes with multiple potential risk factors identified including high life stress. These variables warrant further exploration to enable the early identification of athletes with depressive symptoms, screening and support for elite athletes. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Depression-dementia medius: between depression and the manifestation of dementia symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Toshiyuki; Kato, Satoshi

    2011-09-01

    Depression and dementia, among the most common conditions in clinical practice, sometimes coexist, sometimes succeed each other, and often confuse clinicians. In the present paper, the clinical concept of 'depression-dementia medius' (which includes pseudodementia and depression in Alzheimer's disease as exemplars) is proposed, in reference to Janet's concept of psychological tension. Because psychosomatically complex human lives are always in a state of dynamic equilibrium, it seems sensible to propose that pseudodementia and depression in Alzheimer's disease are located within a spectrum extending from depression without dementia symptoms to dementia without depression. From the Janetian viewpoint, pseudodementia is regarded as uncovered latent dementia as a result of reduced psychological tension. Dementia is more than a fixed progressive condition under this view, and is a manifestation of dynamic mental activities. Characterizing these entities through perspectives such as psychological tension may yield deep insights in clinical practice. © 2011 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2011 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  14. Current and emerging somatic treatment strategies in psychotic major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannon, Pinhas N; Lowengrub, Katherine; Gonopolski, Yehudit; Kotler, Moshe

    2006-01-01

    Psychotic major depressive disorder (MDD) is a mood disorder characterized by severe affective and neurovegetative symptoms together with the presence of delusions and/or hallucinations. It is a common disorder seen in a quarter of consecutively admitted depressed patients and is often associated with severe symptomatology, increased suicide risk, poor acute response to antidepressants and poor acute and long-term treatment outcome. It is possible that poor response in psychotic depression is caused by the fact that we have yet to identify the most efficacious treatment protocol for psychotic MDD. Multiple studies have shown that modifications in the treatment paradigm may increase treatment efficacy in psychotic MDD. It has been generally accepted that, during the acute treatment phase, antidepressant-antipsychotic drug combination therapy is more effective than either treatment alone, although this strategy has recently been challenged. The question of the optimal duration of pharmacotherapy in order to prevent relapse and improve long-term (i.e., 5-year) outcome is a focus of current investigation. This article will review currently recommended treatment strategies for the acute, continuation and maintenance phases of therapy. In particular, it will address the role of newer-generation antidepressants, the role of second-generation antipsychotics, the use of mood stabilizers and indications for electroconvulsive therapy. Other possible treatment strategies such as transcranial magnetic stimulation, vagus nerve stimulation, deep-brain stimulation and glucocorticoid receptor antagonists will be discussed. Current recommendations for the prevention of relapse and improvement of long-term outcome will be reviewed.

  15. Correlations between sexual dysfunction, depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms among patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chiao-Fan; Juang, Yeong-Yuh; Wen, Jung-Kwang; Liu, Chia-Yih; Hung, Ching-I

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the degree of correlation between sexual dysfunction and depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms among patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and to identify the dimension most predictive of sexual dysfunction. One-hundred and thirty-five outpatients with MDD were enrolled and were treated with open-label venlafaxine 75 mg daily for one month. The Arizona Sexual Experience Scale-Chinese Version (ASEX-CV), Depression and Somatic Symptoms Scale (DSSS), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were administered at baseline and at one-month follow-up and the improvement percentage (IP) of each scale posttreatment was calculated. Multiple linear regression was used to determine the dimension most predictive of the total ASEX-CV score. Seventy subjects (20 men, 50 women) completed the one-month pharmacotherapy and the four scales. The depression subscale of the HADS was most strongly correlated with the ASEX-CV scale and was the only subscale to independently predict the total ASEX-CV score at the two points. However, the somatic subscale of the DSSS was not correlated with any ASEX-CV item. At the endpoint, depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms were significantly improved (IP 48.5% to 26.0%); however, very little improvement was observed in the total ASEX-CV score (IP -1.6%). The severity of sexual dysfunction among patients with MDD was most correlated with the severity of the depressive dimension, but not the severity of the somatic dimension. Further studies are indicated to explore the relationships between sexual dysfunction, depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms.

  16. Physical activity and depression symptom profiles in young men and women with major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKercher, Charlotte; Patton, George C; Schmidt, Michael D; Venn, Alison J; Dwyer, Terence; Sanderson, Kristy

    2013-05-01

    This study explored whether young adults with major depression who are physically active differ in their depression symptom profile from those physically inactive. Analyses included data from 950 (47.6%) men and 1045 women (mean [standard deviation] age = 31.5 [2.6] years) participating in a national study. Participants reported leisure physical activity (International Physical Activity Questionnaire) and ambulatory activity (pedometer steps per day). Diagnosis and symptoms of major depression were assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Prevalence of major depression was 5.5% (n = 52) for men and 11.6% (n = 121) for women. Interactions between physical activity and sex were observed for depressed mood, appetite changes, vacillating thoughts, and suicidality (all, p physically active men were significantly less likely to endorse the presence of insomnia (prevalence ratio [PR] = 0.78, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.63-0.96), fatigue (PR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.69-0.99), and suicidality (PR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.49-0.96) compared with inactive men. Physically active women were significantly less likely to endorse hypersomnia (PR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.27-0.95), excessive/irrational guilt (PR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.59-0.97), vacillating thoughts (PR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.58-0.95), and suicidality (PR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.20-0.89) compared with inactive women. Associations were adjusted for age, physical health, educational attainment, depression severity, and other depressive symptoms. Among adults with major depression, those physically active seem to differ in their depression symptom profile from those physically inactive.

  17. Diagnostic depressive symptoms of the mixed bipolar episode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, F; Ahearn, E; Murry, E; Forest, K; Carroll, B J

    2000-03-01

    There is not yet consensus on the best diagnostic definition of mixed bipolar episodes. Many have suggested the DSM-III-R/-IV definition is too rigid. We propose alternative criteria using data from a large patient cohort. We evaluated 237 manic in-patients using DSM-III-R criteria and the Scale for Manic States (SMS). A bimodally distributed factor of dysphoric mood has been reported from the SMS data. We used both the factor and the DSM-III-R classifications to identify candidate depressive symptoms and then developed three candidate depressive symptom sets. Using ROC analysis we determined the optimal threshold number of symptoms in each set and compared the three ROC solutions. The optimal solution was tested against the DSM-III-R classification for crossvalidation. The optimal ROC solution was a set, derived from both the DSM-III-R and the SMS, and the optimal threshold for diagnosis was two or more symptoms. Applying this set iteratively to the DSM-III-R classification produced the identical ROC solution. The prevalence of mixed episodes in the cohort was 13.9% by DSM-III-R, 20.2% by the dysphoria factor and 27.4% by the new ROC solution. A diagnostic set of six dysphoric symptoms (depressed mood, anhedonia, guilt, suicide, fatigue and anxiety), with a threshold of two symptoms, is proposed for a mixed episode. This new definition has a foundation in clinical data, in the proved diagnostic performance of the qualifying symptoms, and in ROC validation against two previous definitions that each have face validity.

  18. Relations among symptoms of social phobia subtypes, avoidant personality disorder, panic, and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Shawn A; Wu, Kevin D

    2010-03-01

    This study's primary goal was to examine relations between symptoms of specific social phobia (SSP), generalized social phobia (GSP), avoidant personality disorder (APD), and panic and depression. Past research has suggested a single social phobia continuum in which SSP displays less symptom severity than GSP or APD. We found SSP symptoms correlated less strongly with depression but more strongly with panic relative to both GSP and APD symptoms. These findings challenge a unidimensional model of social phobia, suggesting a multidimensional model may be more appropriate. These findings also inform current research aimed at classifying mood and anxiety disorders more broadly by identifying that the different factors of fear versus distress appear to underlie different subtypes of social phobia. 2008. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Stress, Sleep and Depressive Symptoms in Active Duty Military Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Han-Wei; Tzeng, Wen-Chii; Chou, Yu-Ching; Yeh, Hui-Wen; Chang, Hsin-An; Kao, Yu-Chen; Huang, San-Yuan; Yeh, Chin-Bin; Chiang, Wei-Shan; Tzeng, Nian-Sheng

    2016-08-01

    The military is a unique occupational group and, because of this, military personnel face different kinds of stress than civilian populations. Sleep problems are an example. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between sleep problems, depression level and coping strategies among military personnel. In this cross-sectional study, military personnel completed the Beck Depression Inventory, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Jalowiec Coping Scale. An evaluation of the test scores showed that officers had better sleep quality and fewer depressive symptoms than enlisted personnel. Military personnel with higher educational levels and less physical illness also had fewer depressive symptoms. Officers and noncommissioned officers preferred problem-focused strategies. Those with higher Beck Depression Inventory and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores and those who drank alcohol frequently preferred affective-focused strategies. Our results revealed that sleep quality, physical illness and alcohol consumption were associated with the mental health of military personnel. Treating these factors may improve the mental health of military personnel and enhance effective coping strategies. Copyright © 2016 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Temporary work and depressive symptoms in South Korean workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W; Kim, T-H; Lee, T-H; Ju, Y J; Chun, S Y; Park, E-C

    2017-08-01

    In many countries, including South Korea, labour market changes have led to an increase in unstable, temporary jobs. There is evidence that workers in such jobs may experience poorer mental health than those in more stable employment. To investigate the association between temporary employment and depressive symptoms in South Korean workers. We analysed data from the 2010-2014 Korean Welfare Panel Study (KOWEPS). Employment type was categorized into workers paid per day of labour (day labourers), those on short-term contracts (fixed-term workers) and permanent workers. The association between employment type and depressive symptoms, measured using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CES-D 11), was examined using the generalized estimating equation model. A total of 3756 workers aged 20-59 were included in the 2010 baseline population. Day labourers had the highest mean CES-D 11 score, followed by fixed-term workers and permanent workers. With the day labourer group as reference, fixed-term workers (β: -1.5027, P < 0.001) and permanent workers (β: -2.1848, P < 0.001) showed statistically significant decreases in depression scores. Compared with day labourers, fixed-term workers and permanent workers had progressively lower depression scores. The findings of this study suggest that mental health inequalities based on employment type exist in South Korea. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  1. Longitudinal sex differences of externalising and internalising depression symptom trajectories: Implications for assessment of depression in men from an online study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Simon M; Fallon, Barry J; Aucote, Helen M; Möller-Leimkühler, AnneMaria; Treeby, Matt S; Amminger, G Paul

    2015-05-01

    Clinical reports indicate that men tend to engage in a range of externalising behaviours in response to negative emotional states. Such externalising behaviours have been theorised to reflect a male sub-type of depression that is inconsistent with current diagnostic criteria, resulting in impeded detection and treatment rates of depressed men. In addressing previous study design limitations, this article presents self-report longitudinal data for the multidimensional Male Depression Risk Scale (MDRS-22) against ratings of diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder as assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire-Depression Module (PHQ-9). Longitudinal psychometric properties of the MDRS-22 are reported and symptom trajectories described. A sample of 233 adults (males = 125; 54%) completed measures of externalising and prototypic depression symptoms at Time 1, and again at Time 2 (15 weeks later). Psychometric properties were examined and within-subjects analyses undertaken. The MDRS-22 demonstrated stable internal consistency and test-retest correlations equivalent to those observed for the PHQ-9. Both prototypic and externalising depression symptoms increased with experiences of recent negative life events. Marked gender differences were observed. Males experiencing ≥ 2 stressful negative life events reported significantly higher MDRS-22 scores at both Time 1 and Time 2 relative to comparable females. Findings contribute to the validity of the MDRS-22 as a measure of externalising depression symptoms. Results suggest that while both males and females experience externalising depression symptoms, these symptoms may be particularly elevated for men following experiences of negative life events. Findings suggest that externalising symptoms may be a special feature of depression for men. Given the problematic nature of such externalising symptoms (e.g. excessive substance use, aggression, risk-taking), their clinical assessment appears warranted. © The Author

  2. Longitudinal study of perinatal maternal stress, depressive symptoms and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Shwu-Ru; Wang, Panchalli; Cheng, Ching-Yu

    2014-06-01

    to understand the trends in, and relationships between, maternal stress, depressive symptoms and anxiety in pregnancy and post partum. a prospective longitudinal survey study was undertaken to explore maternal psychological distress throughout the perinatal period. The participants were recruited after 24 completed weeks of gestation, and were followed-up monthly until one month post partum (four surveys in total). participants were recruited from a single hospital in southern Taiwan, and asked to complete questionnaires in the hospital waiting area. inclusion criteria were: age ≥18 years, able to read and write Chinese, ≥24 weeks of gestation, singleton pregnancy and no pregnancy complications (including a diagnosis of antenatal depression or anxiety disorder). In total, 197 women completed all four surveys (response rate 74.62%). stress was measured with the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale, depressive symptoms were measured with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies' Depression scale, and anxiety was measured with the Zung Self-reported Anxiety Scale. Participants were followed-up at four time points: T1 (25-29 gestational weeks), T2 (30-34 gestational weeks), T3 (>34 gestational weeks) and T4 (4-6 weeks post partum). Appointments for data collection were made in accordance with the participants' antenatal and postnatal check-ups. The three types of maternal distress had different courses of change throughout the perinatal period, as levels of depressive symptoms remained unchanged, anxiety levels increased as gestation advanced but declined after birth, and stress decreased gradually during pregnancy but returned to the T1 level after birth. There was a low to high degree of correlation in maternal stress, depressive symptoms and anxiety in pregnancy and post partum. around one-quarter of the study participants had depressive symptoms during pregnancy and post partum. Stress and anxiety showed opposing courses during the perinatal period. Regardless of the

  3. The relationship between parental depressive symptoms, family type and adolescent functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sieh, D.S.; Visser-Meily, J.M.A.; Meijer, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    It is evident that parental depressive symptoms negatively influence adolescent behavior and various psychosocial outcomes. Certain family types like families with a chronically ill parent and single parent families are more vulnerable to parental depressive symptoms. However, the relationship

  4. Drinking to Cope With Depressive Symptoms and Ruminative Thinking: A Multiple Mediation Model Among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Adrian J; Pearson, Matthew R; Henson, James M

    2017-01-02

    Understanding the potential psychosocial mechanisms that explain (i.e., mediate) the associations between depressive symptoms and alcohol-related problems can improve interventions targeting college students. The current research examined four distinct facets of rumination (e.g., problem-focused thoughts, counterfactual thinking, repetitive thoughts, and anticipatory thoughts) and drinking to cope motives as potential explanatory mechanisms by which depressive symptoms are associated with increased alcohol-related problems. Participants were undergraduate students from a large, southeastern university in the United States that consumed at least one drink per typical week in the previous month (n = 403). The majority of participants were female (n = 291; 72.2%), identified as being either White, non-Hispanic (n = 210; 52.1%), or African American (n = 110; 27.3%), and reported a mean age of 21.92 (SD = 5.75) years. Structural equation modeling was conducted examining the concurrent associations between depressive symptoms, rumination facets, drinking to cope motives, and alcohol-related problems (i.e., cross-sectional). There was one significant double-mediated association that suggested that increased depressive symptoms is associated with increased problem-focused thoughts, which is associated with higher drinking to cope motives and alcohol-related problems. Conclusions/Importance: Our results suggests that problem-focused thoughts at least partially explains the associations between depression and maladaptive coping (i.e., drinking to cope), which in turn is related to problematic drinking among college students. Limitations and future directions are discussed.

  5. Organic solvent exposure and depressive symptoms among licensed pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Miriam; Starks, Sarah E; Sanderson, Wayne T; Kamel, Freya; Hoppin, Jane A; Gerr, Fred

    2017-11-01

    Although organic solvents are often used in agricultural operations, neurotoxic effects of solvent exposure have not been extensively studied among farmers. The current analysis examined associations between questionnaire-based metrics of organic solvent exposure and depressive symptoms among farmers. Results from 692 male Agricultural Health Study participants were analyzed. Solvent type and exposure duration were assessed by questionnaire. An "ever-use" variable and years of use categories were constructed for exposure to gasoline, paint/lacquer thinner, petroleum distillates, and any solvent. Depressive symptoms were ascertained with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D); scores were analyzed separately as continuous (0-60) and dichotomous (distillates, and short duration of petroleum distillate exposure and continuous CES-D score (p < 0.05). Although nearly all associations were positive, fewer statistically significant associations were observed between metrics of solvent exposure and the dichotomized CES-D variable. Solvent exposures were associated with depressive symptoms among farmers. Efforts to limit exposure to organic solvents may reduce the risk of depressive symptoms among farmers.

  6. DESPERATELY SEEKING HAPPINESS: VALUING HAPPINESS IS ASSOCIATED WITH SYMPTOMS AND DIAGNOSIS OF DEPRESSION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Brett Q; Shallcross, Amanda J; Mauss, Iris B; Floerke, Victoria A; Gruber, June

    Culture shapes the emotions people feel and want to feel. In Western cultures, happiness is an emotion that many people want to feel. Although experiencing happiness is associated with increased well-being and psychological health, recent evidence suggests wanting to feel happy to an extreme degree, or, highly valuing happiness, leads to decreased well-being. To examine whether these effects of valuing happiness might extend to clinical outcomes, we examined the hypothesis that depression is associated with highly valuing happiness. To do so, we examined the relationship between valuing happiness and depression in two U.S. samples. As hypothesized, valuing happiness was associated with increased depressive symptoms in a community sample with remitted major depressive disorder (MDD), even when controlling for social desirability and neuroticism (Study 1). Furthermore, valuing happiness was elevated in a remitted MDD sample (vs. healthy controls), even when controlling for current depressive symptoms, general affect valuation, and extreme goal pursuit (Study 2). Taken together, these findings suggest that the culturally-pervasive value placed on attaining happiness can represent a risk factor for symptoms and a diagnosis of depression. More broadly, they indicate that a cultural approach can meaningfully extend our understanding of clinical phenomena.

  7. Depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation in adolescents accompanying a parent in recyclable trash collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etcheverry, Gabriela B; Pereira, Érico F; Cordeiro, Mara L

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between mental health and poverty has been well documented in adults. However, few studies have addressed how low socioeconomic status and psychosocial vulnerabilities may influence depressive symptoms in adolescents. The current study was carried out in a non-randomly selected sample of 239 adolescents whose parents work as ragpickers (waste collectors for recycling) in Brazil. In-person interviews were conducted, and the presence of depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation were assessed using the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI). We observed that 23% (CI ± 5.34) of the adolescents presented with depressive symptoms and 35% (CI ± 6.05) had suicidal ideation. Fatigue or loss of energy (p = .012) and irritable mood (p = .013) were significantly higher among boys than girls according to DSM-IV criteria. However, we found no gender differences in DSM-IV criteria for Major Depressive Disorders (MDD) or Dysthymic Disorder (DD) in diminished interest or pleasure, weight loss or weight gain, decreased appetite, sleep problems, feelings of worthlessness, diminished concentration or ability to think, recurrent thoughts of death, suicidal ideation, or low self-esteem. There were no significant gender differences in total CDI score, however a greater percentage of girls presented with depressed mood than boys (29.9% vs. 17.1%, p < .05).

  8. Cyber victimization by peers: Prospective associations with adolescent social anxiety and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landoll, Ryan R; La Greca, Annette M; Lai, Betty S; Chan, Sherilynn F; Herge, Whitney M

    2015-07-01

    Peer victimization that occurs via electronic media, also termed cybervictimization, is a growing area of concern for adolescents. The current study evaluated the short-term prospective relationship between cybervictimization and adolescents' symptoms of social anxiety and depression over a six-week period. Participants were 839 high-school aged adolescents (14-18 years; 58% female; 73% Hispanic White), who completed measures of traditional peer victimization, cybervictimization, depression, and social anxiety at two time points. Findings supported the distinctiveness of cybervictimization as a unique form of peer victimization. Furthermore, only cybervictimization was associated with increased levels of depressive symptoms over time, and only relational victimization was associated with increased social anxiety over time, after controlling for the comorbidity of social anxiety and depression among youth. Cybervictimization appears to be a unique form of victimization that contributes to adolescents' depressive symptoms and may be important to target in clinical and preventive interventions for adolescent depression. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Relationship Between Physical Activity and Depressive Symptoms in Healthy Older Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Overdorf EdD

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Depression and inactivity in the elderly are major health problems with significant ramifications for healthy aging. Research shows an inverse relationship between depression and physical activity levels. The purpose of the current investigation is to examine the relationship between physical activity and depressive symptoms in healthy older women, first within the framework of exercise programs, and second via the impact of an intervention. Method: Two experiments were conducted. In the first, 65 women, all above the age of 60, participated. Measures of physical activity were gained by self-report using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire while the measure of depressive symptomatology was the Beck Depression Inventory. In the second, 11 women participated in a line dancing intervention, and their self-reported depressive symptomatology was measured prior to and just after the 6-week exercise intervention using the Beck Depression Inventory. In addition, during the second experiment, pedometer data were gathered during the fourth week. Results and Conclusion: The data of the first study revealed a relationship between the total amount of physical activity and scores on the Beck Depression Inventory; that is, the more active a person is, the lower her self-reported depressive symptoms. Significant correlations were found between the Beck Depression Inventory and the reports of vigorous and moderate exercise levels, but not with walking. Participants who were part of an organized exercise group exercised significantly more than those who exercised on their own. In the second study, those who participated in a line dancing intervention had significantly lower Beck Depression Inventory scores post intervention. The implications of these findings for public health are discussed.

  10. Antenatal dietary patterns and depressive symptoms during pregnancy and early post-partum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin, Rachel; Hill, Briony; Jacka, Felice N; O'Neil, Adrienne; Skouteris, Helen

    2017-01-01

    Perinatal depression is a debilitating disorder experienced during pregnancy and/or the first year post-partum. Recently, maternal dietary intake during pregnancy has emerged as a possible area of intervention for the prevention of mental disorders in women and their offspring. However, the relationship between antenatal diet quality and perinatal depressive symptoms remains poorly understood. The current study explored the predictive role of antenatal diet quality for antenatal and post-natal depressive symptoms. Pregnant women (n = 167) were recruited between February 2010 and December 2011. Women completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale at time 1 [T1, mean weeks gestation = 16.70, standard deviation (SD) = 0.91], time 2 (T2, mean weeks gestation = 32.89, SD = 0.89) and time 3 (T3, mean weeks post-partum = 13.51, SD = 1.97) and a food frequency questionnaire at T1 and T2. Diet quality was determined by extracting dietary patterns via principal components analysis. Two dietary patterns were identified: 'healthy' (including fruit, vegetables, fish and whole grains) and 'unhealthy' (including sweets, refined grains, high-energy drinks and fast foods). Associations between dietary patterns and depressive symptoms were investigated by path analyses. While both 'healthy' and 'unhealthy' path models showed good fit, only one significant association consistent with study hypotheses was found, an 'unhealthy' diet was associated with increased depressive symptoms at 32 weeks gestation. Given that this association was cross-sectional, it was not possible to make any firm conclusions about the predictive nature of either dietary patterns or depressive symptoms. Dietary intervention studies or larger prospective studies are therefore recommended. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Anger expression, violent behavior, and symptoms of depression among male college students in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berhane Yemane

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression is an important global public health problem. Given the scarcity of studies involving African youths, this study was conducted to evaluate the associations of anger expression and violent behavior with symptoms of depression among male college students. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics and violent behavior among 1,176 college students in Awassa, Ethiopia in June, 2006. The questionnaire incorporated the Spielberger Anger-Out Expression (SAOE scale and symptoms of depression were evaluated using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9. Multivariable logistic regression procedures were used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI. Results Symptoms of depression were evident in 23.6% of participants. Some 54.3% of students reported committing at least one act of violence in the current academic year; and 29.3% of students reported high (SAOE score ≥ 15 levels of anger-expression. In multivariate analysis, moderate (OR = 1.97; 95%CI 1.33–2.93 and high (OR = 3.23; 95%CI 2.14–4.88 outward anger were statistically significantly associated with increased risks of depressive symptoms. Violent behavior was noted to be associated with depressive symptoms (OR = 1.82; 95%CI 1.37–2.40. Conclusion Further research should be conducted to better characterize community and individual level determinants of anger-expression, violent behavior and depression among youths.

  12. Infidelity and separations precipitate major depressive episodes and symptoms of nonspecific depression and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, A; O'Leary, K D

    2000-10-01

    This study examined whether humiliating marital events (HMEs; husbands' infidelity, threats of marital dissolution) precipitated Major Depressive Episodes (MDEs) when controlling for marital discord. Participants were 25 women who recently experienced an HME and 25 control women who did not experience an HME. Both groups reported similar levels of marital discord. Results indicated that HME participants were 6 times more likely to be diagnosed with an MDE than control participants. These results remained even after controlling for family and lifetime histories of depression. HME participants also reported significantly more symptoms of nonspecific depression and anxiety than control participants. However, HME and control participants did not report significantly different numbers of anhedonic depression and anxious arousal symptoms. The research and clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  13. Depressive Symptoms Affect Working Memory in Healthy Older Adult Hispanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Villanea, Monica; Liebmann, Edward; Garnier-Villarreal, Mauricio; Montenegro-Montenegro, Esteban; Johnson, David K

    2015-10-01

    -age and education matched peers. CFA and SEM found that increased depressive symptomatology had deleterious effects on Working Memory made up of subtest scores sampling simple attention and vigilance for numbers. Verbal Memory, Verbal Reasoning, and Processing Speed were not affected by self-reported Positive Affect, Negative Affect or Depressive symptoms. Costa Rican older adults were happy, as evidenced by the high ratio of positive affect to relatively low negative affect. Thus, we were somewhat surprised to find that depressive symptoms were selectively correlated to decrements in working memory and that negative and positive affect contributed negligible amounts of variance to any of the cognitive factors. Because of the methodological rigor of latent variable analysis, these results are very specific. The Working Memory factor is not contaminated with Speed of Processing or other measured cognitive factors. Likewise, the measured Geriatric Depression represents symptoms that are richly cognitive, not overtly affective.

  14. Employment, income, and education and prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy: the Kyushu Okinawa Maternal and Child Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Keiko; Arakawa, Masashi

    2012-08-19

    Epidemiological evidence for the association of socioeconomic status with prenatal depression has been inconsistent. The current cross-sectional study examined the association between employment, job type, household income, and educational level and the prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Subjects were 1741 Japanese women. Depressive symptoms were defined as present when subjects had a Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale score of 16 or higher. Adjustment was made for age, gestation, region of residence, family structure, personal and family history of depression, smoking, secondhand smoke exposure at home and at work, employment, household income, and education. The prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy was 19.3%. Compared with unemployment, employment, part-time employment, and full-time employment were significantly associated with a lower prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy: the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were 0.65 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.50 - 0.86), 0.66 (95% CI: 0.46 - 0.95), and 0.66 (95% CI: 0.48 - 0.90), respectively. Regarding the job type held, women with a professional or technical job and those with a clerical or related occupation had a significantly lower prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy: the adjusted ORs were 0.67 (95% CI: 0.47 - 0.96) and 0.62 (95% CI: 0.43 - 0.90), respectively. Sales, service, production, and other occupations were not significantly related to the prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy. There were no relationships between household income or education and the prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Employment, whether full-time or part-time, and holding a professional or technical job or a clerical or related occupation may be inversely associated with the prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy.

  15. Employment, income, and education and prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy: the Kyushu Okinawa Maternal and Child Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyake Yoshihiro

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological evidence for the association of socioeconomic status with prenatal depression has been inconsistent. The current cross-sectional study examined the association between employment, job type, household income, and educational level and the prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Methods Subjects were 1741 Japanese women. Depressive symptoms were defined as present when subjects had a Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale score of 16 or higher. Adjustment was made for age, gestation, region of residence, family structure, personal and family history of depression, smoking, secondhand smoke exposure at home and at work, employment, household income, and education. Results The prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy was 19.3%. Compared with unemployment, employment, part-time employment, and full-time employment were significantly associated with a lower prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy: the adjusted odds ratios (ORs were 0.65 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.50 − 0.86, 0.66 (95% CI: 0.46 − 0.95, and 0.66 (95% CI: 0.48 − 0.90, respectively. Regarding the job type held, women with a professional or technical job and those with a clerical or related occupation had a significantly lower prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy: the adjusted ORs were 0.67 (95% CI: 0.47 − 0.96 and 0.62 (95% CI: 0.43 − 0.90, respectively. Sales, service, production, and other occupations were not significantly related to the prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy. There were no relationships between household income or education and the prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Conclusions Employment, whether full-time or part-time, and holding a professional or technical job or a clerical or related occupation may be inversely associated with the prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy.

  16. Excessive Reassurance Seeking, Hassles, and Depressive Symptoms in Children of Affectively Ill Parents: A Multiwave Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abela, John R. Z.; Zuroff, David C.; Ho, Moon-Ho R.; Adams, Philippe; Hankin, Benjamin L.

    2006-01-01

    The current study examined whether excessive reassurance seeking serves as a vulnerability factor to depression in a sample of high-risk youth using a multiwave longitudinal design. At Time 1, 140 children (aged 6-14) of affectively disordered parents completed measures assessing reassurance seeking and depressive symptoms. In addition, every 6…

  17. The omega-3 index is inversely associated with depressive symptoms among individuals with elevated oxidative stress biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid (FA) consumption is thought to improve depressive symptoms. However, current evidence is limited, and whether this association exists among Puerto Ricans, a population burdened by depression, remains uncertain. Objectives: We examined the association between ...

  18. Associations of Parent-Child Anxious and Depressive Symptoms when a Caregiver Has a History of Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colletti, Christina J. M.; Forehand, Rex; Garai, Emily; McKee, Laura; Potts, Jennifer; Haker, Kelly; Champion, Jennifer; Compas, Bruce E.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the associations between parent and child anxious and depressive symptoms controlling for co-occurring symptoms in both. One hundred and four families participated, including 131 9-15 year old children considered at risk for anxiety and/or depression due to a history of depression in a parent. Parents and children completed…

  19. Anxiety and Depression Symptoms in Children with Asperger Syndrome Compared with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Park, Min-Hyeon; Kim, Hyo Jin; Yoo, Hee Jeong

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine (a) anxiety and depression symptoms in children with Asperger syndrome (AS) compared to children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and children with depressive disorder; (b) parental anxiety and depressive symptoms in the three groups; and (c) the association between the anxiety and…

  20. Independent and combined relationship of habitual unhealthy eating behaviors with depressive symptoms: A prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Cong; Momma, Haruki; Cui, Yufei; Chujo, Masahiko; Otomo, Atsushi; Sugiyama, Shota; Ren, Zhongyu; Niu, Kaijun; Nagatomi, Ryoichi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Unhealthy eating has been found to be associated with the prevalence of depressive symptoms. However, prospective evidence of the combined effects of unhealthy eating and depressive symptoms has not been reported. This study aimed to elucidate the prospective relationship between habitual unhealthy eating habits and depressive symptoms. Methods: A 2-year prospective cohort study of 376 Japanese adults aged 24–83 years without depressive symptoms at baseline was conducted. Infor...

  1. Testing Specificity: Associations of Stress and Coping with Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression in Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Bettis, Alexandra H.; Forehand, Rex; McKee, Laura; Dunbar, Jennifer P.; Watson, Kelly H.; Compas, Bruce E.

    2015-01-01

    Research has documented the co-occurrence of symptoms of anxiety and depression across the lifespan, suggesting that these symptoms share common correlates and etiology. The present study aimed to examine potential specific and/or transdiagnostic correlates of symptoms of anxiety and depression in at-risk youth. The present study examined youth stress associated with parental depression and youth coping as potential correlates of symptoms of anxiety and depression in a sample of children of d...

  2. Close Friends’ Psychopathology as a Pathway from Early Adversity to Young Adulthood Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposa, Elizabeth; Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Objective Past research has highlighted the negative impact of early adverse experiences on childhood social functioning, including friendship selection, and later mental health. The current study explored the long-term effects of early adversity on young adults’ close friends’ psychological symptoms, and the impact of these close friendships on later depressive symptoms. Method A prospective longitudinal design was used to examine 816 youth from a large community-based sample, who were followed from birth through age 25. Participants’ mothers provided contemporaneous information about adversity exposure prior to age 5, and participants completed questionnaires about their own depressive symptoms at age 20 and in their early 20’s. Youth also nominated a best friend to complete questionnaires about their own psychopathology at age 20. Results Individuals who experienced more early adversity by age 5 had best friends with higher rates of psychopathology at age 20. Moreover, best friends’ psychopathology predicted target youth depressive symptoms two to five years later. Conclusions Results indicate that early adversity continues to affect social functioning throughout young adulthood, and that best friendships marked by elevated psychopathology in turn negatively affect mental health. Findings have implications for clinical interventions designed to prevent the development of depressive symptoms in youth who have been exposed to early adversity. PMID:24871609

  3. The prevalence of depressive symptoms among elderly Chinese private nursing home residents in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Eddie Siu Lun; Kong, Bernard Ming Hei; Wong, Mike Tak Po; Draper, Brian; Lin, Ka Leung; Ho, Shuk Kuen Sabrina; Wong, Chun Por

    2004-08-01

    Privately-owned Nursing homes (PNH) in Hong Kong present a unique setting of institutional care where elderly with the whole spectrum of health status live together. This cross-sectional descriptive study aimed to determine the prevalence of significant depressive symptoms in a group of Cantonese-speaking Chinese private nursing home elderly living in Hong Kong, and to identify associated psychosocial and health factors. METHODOLOGICAL RESULTS: Two hundred and forty five residents fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Using the Chinese version of the Geriatric Depression Scale--Short Form (GDS-SF), we detected significant depressive symptoms in 29% of subjects. Univariate analysis revealed some associated socio-economic risk factors including current non-Comprehensive Social Security Assistance (CSSA) recipients, education levels and low abilities for social activities. Low vision, swallowing difficulties and low levels of basic activities of daily living (BADL) as reflected by the total Modified Barthel Index of less than 61 were important health predictors. Depression was also associated with features of self-perception of financial inadequacy, life dissatisfaction, poor self-perceived health, poor attitudes towards living arrangement and suicidal thoughts. Stepwise logistic regression identified swallowing problems, current non-CSSA recipient and low BADL ability as independent risk factors. The high prevalence of depressive symptoms in the nursing home elderly requires the attention of Government authorities, health care and social service providers.

  4. Depressive symptoms, smoking, and cigarette price elasticity: results from a population-based survey in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hung-Hao; Chiang, Tung-Liang

    2009-01-01

    To understand the association between depressive symptoms and smoking. In addition, we investigate how smokers with and without depressive symptoms may respond to cigarette price change differently. We used data drawn from a nationally representative survey in Taiwan. Totally, 13,030 male adults were included in the analysis. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Taiwanese depression questionnaire. A logistic regression model was estimated to examine the odds ratio of smoking for those with depressive symptoms versus those without depressive symptoms. Focused on smokers, the ordinary least squares multivariate regression method was used to estimate the cigarette price elasticity. Compared to those without depressive symptoms, those with depressive symptoms were more likely to smoke (44.5 vs. 50.1%) and consume more cigarettes per day (18.4 vs. 21.0). The odds ratio of smoking for those with depressive symptoms, adjusted for demographic variables, was 1.3 (95% confidence interval, 1.1-1.6). The cigarette price elasticity was estimated at -0.82 and -0.41 for depressive smokers and non-depressive smokers, respectively. Although the association between depression and smoking had been documented, this study contributes to previous literature by investigating the extent to which cigarette price elasticities may differ between smokers with and without depressive symptoms. Results indicate that depressive smokers are more sensitive to the change of cigarette price. Therefore, tax/price increases can also be a very effective means of tobacco control for depressive smokers.

  5. Prevalence of Depressive Symptoms and Related Factors in Korean Employees: The Third Korean Working Conditions Survey (2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji Nam; Han, Mi Ah; Park, Jong; Ryu, So Yeon

    2016-04-14

    The aim of this study was to analyze the association between general working conditions and depressive symptoms among Korean employees. The target population of the study was native employees nationwide who were at least 15 years old, and 50,032 such individuals were enrolled in the study. Depressive symptoms was assessed using the WHO-5 wellbeing index. Associations between general characteristics, job-related characteristics, work environment, and depressive symptoms were tested using chi-square tests, t-tests, and multiple logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 39% (40.7% in males and 36.5% in females). Multiple regression analysis revealed that male subjects, older subjects, subjects with higher education status, subjects with lower monthly income, current smokers, and frequent drinkers were more likely to have depressive symptoms. In addition, longer weekly work hours, occupation type (skilled, unskilled, operative, or economic sector), shift work, working to tight deadlines, exposure to stress at work, and hazard exposure were associated with depressive symptoms. This representative study will be a guide to help manage depression among Korean employees. We expect that further research will identify additional causal relationships between general or specific working conditions and depression.

  6. Prevalence of Depressive Symptoms and Related Factors in Korean Employees: The Third Korean Working Conditions Survey (2011

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    Ji Nam Park

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the association between general working conditions and depressive symptoms among Korean employees. The target population of the study was native employees nationwide who were at least 15 years old, and 50,032 such individuals were enrolled in the study. Depressive symptoms was assessed using the WHO-5 wellbeing index. Associations between general characteristics, job-related characteristics, work environment, and depressive symptoms were tested using chi-square tests, t-tests, and multiple logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 39% (40.7% in males and 36.5% in females. Multiple regression analysis revealed that male subjects, older subjects, subjects with higher education status, subjects with lower monthly income, current smokers, and frequent drinkers were more likely to have depressive symptoms. In addition, longer weekly work hours, occupation type (skilled, unskilled, operative, or economic sector, shift work, working to tight deadlines, exposure to stress at work, and hazard exposure were associated with depressive symptoms. This representative study will be a guide to help manage depression among Korean employees. We expect that further research will identify additional causal relationships between general or specific working conditions and depression.

  7. Development of health and depressive symptoms among Danish adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Johan Hviid; Labriola, Merete; Lund, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    ) deteriorated slightly in adolescents (-0.24; 95% CI = -0.28 to -0.19) across all socioeconomic status (SES) groups and depressive symptoms increased (0.64; 95% CI = 0.52 to 0.75). High household income was protective for decrease in SRH (0.62; 0.43 - 0.91). Negative life-style changes were associated...... relationship between lifestyle changes and health and the possible positive effect of maintaining and enhancing positive lifestyle factors.......While the existence of social inequality in health in childhood as well as among adults is well established, research of mechanisms underlying this inequality is still sparse. The study aim was to report on the development of self-rated health and depressive symptoms from age 15 to18 years...

  8. Trajectories of Individual Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents: Gender and Family Relationships as Predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Garber, Judy

    2014-01-01

    Depressive syndrome and disorders increase substantially during adolescence. Little is known, however, about how "individual" symptoms of depression change over the course of this developmental period. The present study examined within-person changes in symptom severity of each individual symptom of depression, utilizing longitudinal…

  9. Prevalence and Factors Associated with Depressive Symptoms in Mothers with Infants or Toddlers

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    Hua-Pin Chang

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: Depressive symptoms were common among mothers of young children. Family function and neurotic personality were highly correlated with depressive symptoms in mothers caring for young children. Pediatric health care providers are suggested to screen for maternal depressive symptoms and provide family-oriented support in Taiwan.

  10. Temporary work and depressive symptoms: a propensity score analysis.

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    Quesnel-Vallée, Amélie; DeHaney, Suzanne; Ciampi, Antonio

    2010-06-01

    Recent decades have seen a tremendous increase in the complexity of work arrangements, through job sharing, flexible hours, career breaks, compressed work weeks, shift work, reduced job security, and part-time, contract and temporary work. In this study, we focus on one specific group of workers that arguably most embodies non-standard employment, namely temporary workers, and estimate the effect of this type of employment on depressive symptom severity. Accounting for the possibility of mental health selection into temporary work through propensity score analysis, we isolate the direct effects of temporary work on depressive symptoms with varying lags of time since exposure. We use prospective data from the U.S. National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79), which has followed, longitudinally, from 1979 to the present, a nationally representative cohort of American men and women between 14 and 22 years of age in 1979. Three propensity score models were estimated, to capture the effect of different time lags (immediately following exposure, and 2 and 4 years post exposure) between the period of exposure to the outcome. The only significant effects were found among those who had been exposed to temporary work in the two years preceding the outcome measurement. These workers report 1.803 additional depressive symptoms from having experienced this work status (than if they had not been exposed). Moreover, this difference is both statistically and substantively significant, as it represents a 50% increase from the average level of depressive symptoms in this population. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Depressive symptoms and depression in people screened positive for dementia in primary care - results of the DelpHi-study.

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    Thyrian, Jochen René; Eichler, Tilly; Reimann, Melanie; Wucherer, Diana; Dreier, Adina; Michalowsky, Bernhard; Hoffmann, Wolfgang

    2016-06-01

    Dementia and depression are common syndromes in the elderly. There is lack of knowledge concerning the frequency of depressive symptoms in people with dementia (PWD) and factors associated with depression. The aim of this analysis is to (a) describe the frequency of depressive symptoms in people screened positive for dementia, (b) describe differences between PWD with and without depressive symptoms, and (c) analyze associations between depressive symptoms and other dementia-related variables. Analyses are based on data of the GP-based intervention trial DelpHi-MV. A sample of 430 (6.29%) people screened positive for dementia in primary care was analyzed regarding depression according to the German version of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS, 15-items), demographic variables, and dementia/depression-related variables. Multivariate analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with depressive symptoms. The mean GDS-score of depressive symptoms in n = 430 PWD was m = 3.21 (SD 2.45) with 67 PWD (15.55%) showing clinically relevant depression (GDS depression and n = 62 (14.42%) received antidepressive drug treatment. Depressive symptoms are significantly associated with age (OR = 0.93), functional impairment (OR = 1.36), and quality of life (OR = 0.01, CI: 0.00-0.06). Our results support previous findings that clinically relevant depressive symptoms are more common in people screened positive for dementia than in the general population and are often missed or mismanaged. Our findings underline the importance of managing quality of life, functional status, or depressive symptoms. Also, the results highlight the benefit of including the partner (and probably other carers) for adequate treatment of PWD.

  12. Symptom Similarities and Differences in Anxiety and Depressive Disorders

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    Dilek Sirvanli Ozen

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The question if there is a valid distinction between depression and anxiety disorders remains controversial. These two disorders have various overlaps in the symptomatology and sometimes it is difficult to make a clear diagnosis. The difficulty in making a definite diagnosis destined researchers to determine the differences and the similarities between anxiety and depression. The negative affect which has multiple dimensions such as low self-esteem, negative mood and negative cognitions is seen as the common factor in both disorders. The positive affect which has been defined as the harmony and satisfaction with others and milieu, is regarded as the discriminating factor for the diagnosis of depression. Further research has characterized somatic arousal as the third dimension, a candidate to be the discriminating factor for anxiety disorders. Although phenotypic models appear to find a solution for this problem the facts that negative affect dimension is more loaded compared to the other two dimensions and predominance of negative affect on several symptom patterns prevent researchers to reach a conclusive results regarding the differences between these two disorders. In this review article, symptom similarities and differences of anxiety and depressive disorders are discussed within the frame of phenotypic models and some alternative ideas are provided for possible changes in upcoming versions of classification systems.

  13. Lower urinary tract symptoms and erectile dysfunction associated with depression among Japanese patients with late-onset hypogonadism symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takao, Tetsuya; Tsujimura, Akira; Okuda, Hidenobu; Yamamoto, Keisuke; Fukuhara, Shinichiro; Matsuoka, Yasuhiro; Miyagawa, Yasushi; Nonomura, Norio; Okuyama, Akihiko

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), erectile dysfunction (ED) and depression in Japanese patients with late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) symptoms. The study comprised 87 Japanese patients with LOH symptoms (>27 points on the Aging Males Symptoms Scale). Thirty-four patients were diagnosed as having depression and the remaining 53 patients were diagnosed as not having depression by the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. We compared the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) 5, International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), IPSS quality-of-life (QOL) index, King's Health Questionnaire (KHQ), endocrinological data, and free uroflow study between depression and non-depression patients and performed multiple logistic regression analysis. IIEF5 scores of depression patients were significantly lower than those of non-depression patients. In KHQ, only the category of general health perceptions was significantly higher in depression patients than non-depression patients. However, IPSS, QOL index, and endocrinological and uroflowmetric data showed no significant difference between the groups. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed moderate and severe ED to be risk factors for depression. However, LUTS are not related to depression. Moderate and severe ED is correlated with depression, whereas LUTS are not related to depression in Japanese LOH patients.

  14. The impact of chronic physical illness, maternal depressive symptoms, family functioning, and self-esteem on symptoms of anxiety and depression in children.

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    Ferro, Mark A; Boyle, Michael H

    2015-01-01

    The present study extends earlier research identifying an increased risk of anxiety among children with chronic physical illness (CwCPI) by examining a more complete model that explains how physical illness leads to increased symptoms of anxiety and depression. We tested a stress-generation model linking chronic physical illness to symptoms of anxiety and depression in a population-based sample of children aged 10 to 15 years. We hypothesized that having a chronic physical illness would be associated with more symptoms of anxiety and depression, increased levels of maternal depressive symptoms, more family dysfunction, and lower self-esteem; and, that maternal depressive symptoms, family dysfunction, and child self-esteem would mediate the influence of chronic physical illness on symptoms of anxiety and depression. Data came from the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (N = 10,646). Mediating processes were analyzed using latent growth curve modeling. Childhood chronic physical illness was associated with increases in symptoms of anxiety and depression, β = 0.20, p self-esteem, and in turn, increases in symptoms of anxiety and depression. CwCPI are at-risk for symptoms of anxiety and depression. Some of this elevated risk appears to work through family processes and child self-esteem. This study supports the use of family-centered care approaches among CwCPI to minimize burden on families and promote healthy psychological development for children.

  15. NEIGHBORHOOD CRIME AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS AMONG AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN: GENETIC MODERATION AND EPIGENETIC MEDIATOIN OF EFFECTS

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    Lei, Man-Kit; Beach, Steven R. H.; Simons, Ronald L.; Philibert, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Social scientists have long recognized the important role that neighborhood crime can play in stress-related disease, but very little is known about potential biosocial mechanisms that may link the experience of living in high-crime neighborhoods with depression. Objective The current study introduces an integrated model that combines neighborhood, genetic, and epigenetic factors. Methods Hypotheses were tested with a sample of 99 African American women from the Family and Community Health Study (FACHS). Results Allele variants of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTT) interact with neighborhood crime to predict depressive symptoms in a manner consonant with the differential susceptibility perspective. Furthermore, this association is mediated by DNA methylation of the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene. Conclusion The findings provide support for an integrated model in which changes in DNA methylation, resulting from neighborhood crime, can result in an increase or decrease in gene activity which, in turn, influences depressive symptoms. PMID:26513121

  16. Neighborhood crime and depressive symptoms among African American women: Genetic moderation and epigenetic mediation of effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Man-Kit; Beach, Steven R H; Simons, Ronald L; Philibert, Robert A

    2015-12-01

    Social scientists have long recognized the important role that neighborhood crime can play in stress-related disease, but very little is known about potential biosocial mechanisms that may link the experience of living in high-crime neighborhoods with depression. The current study introduces an integrated model that combines neighborhood, genetic, and epigenetic factors. Hypotheses were tested with a sample of 99 African American women from the Family and Community Health Study (FACHS). Allele variants of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTT) interact with neighborhood crime to predict depressive symptoms in a manner consonant with the differential susceptibility perspective. Furthermore, this association is mediated by DNA methylation of the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene. The findings provide support for an integrated model in which changes in DNA methylation, resulting from neighborhood crime, can result in an increase or decrease in gene activity which, in turn, influences depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Yes: The Symptoms of OCD and Depression Are Discrete and Not Exclusively Negative Affectivity

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    Kathleen A. Moore

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Although Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD and Depression are classified as separate disorders, the high incidence of co-morbidity and the strong correlations between measures of each has led to debate about the nature of their relationship. Some authors have proposed that OCD is in fact a mood disorder while others have suggested that the two disorders are grounded in negative affectivity. A third proposition is that depression is an essential part of OCD but that OCD is a separate disorder from depression. The aim in this study was to investigate these diverse propositions in a non-clinical sample and also to determine whether factors implicated in each, that is anxious and depressive cognitions, hopelessness, and self-criticism, would demonstrate commonality as predictors of the symptoms of OCD and of depression. Two hundred participants (59% female (M age = 34 years, SD = 16 completed the Padua Inventory, Carroll Rating Scale, Cognitions Checklist, Self-Criticism Scale, Beck Hopelessness Scale, Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory-Revised and a Negative Affectivity Schedule. Results indicated a strong correlation between OCD and depression, depression, and negative affectivity but a weaker relationship between OCD and negative affectivity. Path analyses revealed that both anxious and depressive cognitions, as well as hostility predicted both disorders but the Beta-weights were stronger on OCD. Self-criticism predicted only depression while hopelessness failed to predict either disorder but was itself predicted by depressive cognitions. Depression was a stronger indicator of negative affect than OCD and while OCD positively predicted depression, depression was a negative indicator of OCD. These results support the hypothesis that OCD and depression are discrete disorders and indicate that while depression is implicated in OCD, the reverse does not hold. While both disorders are related to negative affectivity, this relationship is much stronger

  18. Yes: The Symptoms of OCD and Depression Are Discrete and Not Exclusively Negative Affectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kathleen A; Howell, Jacqui

    2017-01-01

    Although Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and Depression are classified as separate disorders, the high incidence of co-morbidity and the strong correlations between measures of each has led to debate about the nature of their relationship. Some authors have proposed that OCD is in fact a mood disorder while others have suggested that the two disorders are grounded in negative affectivity. A third proposition is that depression is an essential part of OCD but that OCD is a separate disorder from depression. The aim in this study was to investigate these diverse propositions in a non-clinical sample and also to determine whether factors implicated in each, that is anxious and depressive cognitions, hopelessness, and self-criticism, would demonstrate commonality as predictors of the symptoms of OCD and of depression. Two hundred participants (59% female) ( M age = 34 years, SD = 16) completed the Padua Inventory, Carroll Rating Scale, Cognitions Checklist, Self-Criticism Scale, Beck Hopelessness Scale, Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory-Revised and a Negative Affectivity Schedule. Results indicated a strong correlation between OCD and depression, depression, and negative affectivity but a weaker relationship between OCD and negative affectivity. Path analyses revealed that both anxious and depressive cognitions, as well as hostility predicted both disorders but the Beta-weights were stronger on OCD. Self-criticism predicted only depression while hopelessness failed to predict either disorder but was itself predicted by depressive cognitions. Depression was a stronger indicator of negative affect than OCD and while OCD positively predicted depression, depression was a negative indicator of OCD. These results support the hypothesis that OCD and depression are discrete disorders and indicate that while depression is implicated in OCD, the reverse does not hold. While both disorders are related to negative affectivity, this relationship is much stronger for depression

  19. Childhood hunger and depressive symptoms in adulthood: Findings from a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickley, Andrew; Leinsalu, Mall

    2018-01-15

    Several studies have linked childhood hunger to an increased risk for later depression. However, as yet, there has been little research on this relation in adults of all ages or whether there are sex differences in this association. The current study examined these issues using data from a national population-based sample. Data were analyzed from 5095 adults aged 25-84 collected during the Estonian Health Interview Survey 2006. Information was obtained on the frequency of going to bed hungry in childhood and on depressive symptoms using the Emotional State Questionnaire (EST-Q). Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between hunger and depression while controlling for other demographic, socioeconomic and health-related variables. In a fully adjusted model, going to bed hungry in childhood either sometimes or often was associated with significantly increased odds for depressive symptoms. When the analysis was stratified by sex the association was more evident in men where any frequency of childhood hunger was linked to adult depression while only women who had experienced hunger often had higher odds for depressive symptoms in the final model. Data on childhood hunger were retrospectively reported and may have been affected by recall bias. We also lacked information on potentially relevant variables such as other childhood adversities that might have been important for the observed associations. Childhood hunger is associated with an increased risk for depressive symptoms among adults. Preventing hunger in childhood may be important for mental health across the life course. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The genealogy of major depression: symptoms and signs of melancholia from 1880 to 1900.

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    Kendler, K S

    2017-11-01

    How deep are the historical roots of our concept of major depression (MD)? I showed previously that psychiatric textbooks published in 1900-1960 commonly described 18 characteristic depressive symptoms/signs that substantially but incompletely overlapped with the current DSM (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) MD criteria. I here expand that inquiry to the key years of 1880-1900 during which our major diagnostic categories of manic-depressive illness (MDI) and dementia praecox were developed. I review the symptoms of depression/melancholia in 28 psychiatric textbooks and 8 other relevant documents from this period including monographs, reviews and the first portrayal of melancholia Kraepelin in 1883. Descriptions of melancholia in the late nineteenth and twentieth century textbooks closely resembled each other, both reporting a mean of 12.4 characteristic symptoms, and emphasizing core features of mood change and alterations in cognitive content and psychomotor behavior. The detailed monographs, reviews and the early description of Kraepelin were more thorough, reporting a mean of 16.6 of these characteristic symptoms. These nineteenth century texts often contained phenomenologically rich descriptions of changes in mood and cognition, loss of interest and anhedonia and emphasized several features not in DSM including changes in volition/motivation, posture/facial expression and derealization/depersonalization. In the early nineteenth century, melancholia was often defined primarily by delusions or as the initial phase of a unitary psychosis transitioning to mania and then dementia. By 1880, the concept of depression as an independent mood disorder with characteristic symptoms/signs and a good prognosis had stabilized. Kraepelin incorporated this syndrome into his diagnostic concept of MDI, changing its name to 'Depressive States', but did not alter its underlying nature or clinical description.

  1. Alcohol use, depressive symptoms, and impulsivity as risk factors for suicide proneness among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, Robert D; Lamis, Dorian A; Malone, Patrick S

    2013-07-01

    Alcohol use, depression, and suicide are significant public health problems, particularly among college students. Impulsivity is associated with all of these factors. Additionally, impulsivity increases the effects of negative mood and alcohol use on maladaptive behavior. The current cross-sectional study examined the association between the four-factor model of impulsivity (urgency, (lack of) perseverance, (lack of) premeditation, and sensation seeking), depressive symptoms, and alcohol use as predictors of suicide proneness among college students. Participants (n=1100) completed online assessments of demographics, impulsivity, depressive symptoms, and suicide proneness. All predictors were positively related to suicide proneness. The relation between depressive symptoms and suicide proneness was moderated by (lack of) perseverance, alcohol use, and joint interactions of urgency×alcohol use and sensation seeking×alcohol use. Despite some paradoxical findings regarding the depressive symptoms-suicide proneness relation when only one risk factor was elevated, the average level of suicide proneness increased as risk factors increased. This cross-sectional self-report data comes from a non-clinical sample of college students from a homogeneous background, limiting generalizability and causal predictions. Overall, these findings indicate that the association between depressive symptoms and suicide proneness varies considerably by different facets of impulsivity and alcohol use. The results suggest that clinical risk-assessments should weigh two forms of impulsivity (urgency and sensation seeking) as particularly vital in the presence of heavy alcohol use. These findings highlight the importance of considering and exploring moderators of the mood-suicide relationship. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Relationship between physical activity and depression and anxiety symptoms: a population study.

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    De Mello, Marco Tulio; Lemos, Valdir de Aquino; Antunes, Hanna Karen Moreira; Bittencourt, Lia; Santos-Silva, Rogerio; Tufik, Sergio

    2013-07-01

    There are few studies evaluating the association between practice of physical activity and mood in a population sample. This study evaluated the frequency of symptoms of depression and anxiety in the population of the city of Sao Paulo and their association with the report of practice of regular physical activity. This survey was conducted with the adult population of Sao Paulo between July and December of 2007. The sample was composed of 1042 volunteers (both genders) with a mean age of 41.9±14.4 years. The volunteers were evaluated using the Beck Depression Inventory, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and two simple questions designed to evaluate and classify physical activity. Socioeconomic status was also determined according to Brazil's Economic Classification Criterion. People who do not engage in physical activity are two times more likely to exhibit symptoms of depression (PR: 2.1) and anxiety (PR: 2.5) compared with those who regularly practice physical activity and a higher prevalence of symptoms for anxiety (9.8%) and depression (10.9%) was observed among those claiming to not practice regular physical activity and 63.2% related did not practice any physical activity regularly. Altogether, these results suggest that people who do not practice physical activity have a higher chance of exhibiting symptoms of depression and anxiety when compared to those who perform physical activity regularly. In this sense, regular physical activity must be encouraged, and this incentive should be routine in both current and future public health policies. Although the methodology in the present study does not allow assigning a relation of cause and effect, we observed associations between symptoms of depression, anxiety and physical activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Acculturative stress negatively impacts maternal depressive symptoms in Mexican-American women during pregnancy

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    D’Anna-Hernandez, Kimberly L.; Aleman, Brenda; Flores, Ana-Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    Background Mexican-American women exhibit high rates of prenatal maternal depressive symptoms relative to the general population. Though pregnant acculturated Mexican-American women experience cultural stressors such as acculturation, acculturative stress and discrimination that may contribute to elevated depressive symptoms, the contribution of these socio-cultural correlates to depressive symptomology is unknown. Method Ninety-eight pregnant women of Mexican descent were recruited from a community hospital clinic during their first trimester. Women completed surveys about acculturation, acculturative stress, perceived discrimination, general perceived stress, and maternal depressive symptoms as well as the potential protective factor of Mexican cultural values. Results Women who experienced greater acculturative and perceived stress, but not perceived discrimination or acculturation, reported significantly elevated depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Also, women who experienced greater acculturative stress identified with a mixture of Mexican and American cultural values. However, only the Mexican cultural value of respect was protective against maternal depressive symptoms while adhering to the Anglo value of independence and self-reliance was a risk factor. Limitations A limitation in the study is the cross-sectional and descriptive self-report nature of the work, underscoring the need for additional research. Moreover, physiological measures of stress were not analyzed in the current study. Conclusions Results point to acculturative stress, above other cultural stressors, as a potential intervention target in culturally competent obstetric care. These findings have implications for maternal mental health treatment during pregnancy, which likely affects maternal-fetal programming and may favorably affect perinatal outcomes in the vulnerable Mexican-American population. PMID:25699668

  4. Problematic assumptions have slowed down depression research: why symptoms, not syndromes are the way forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiko I Fried

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Major Depression (MD is a highly heterogeneous diagnostic category. Diverse symptoms such as sad mood, anhedonia, and fatigue are routinely added to an unweighted sum-score, and cutoffs are used to distinguish between depressed participants and healthy controls. Researchers then investigate outcome variables like MD risk factors, biomarkers, and treatment response in such samples. These practices presuppose that (1 depression is a discrete condition, and that (2 symptoms are interchangeable indicators of this latent disorder. Here I review these two assumptions, elucidate their historical roots, show how deeply engrained they are in psychological and psychiatric research, and document that they contrast with evidence. Depression is not a consistent syndrome with clearly demarcated boundaries, and depression symptoms are not interchangeable indicators of an underlying disorder. Current research practices lump individuals with very different problems into one category, which has contributed to the remarkably slow progress in key research domains such as the development of efficacious antidepressants or the identification of biomarkers for depression.The recently proposed network framework offers an alternative to the problematic assumptions. MD is not understood as a distinct condition, but as heterogeneous symptom cluster that substantially overlaps with other syndromes such as anxiety disorders. MD is not framed as an underlying disease with a number of equivalent indicators, but as a network of symptoms that have direct causal influence on each other: insomnia can cause fatigue which then triggers concentration and psychomotor problems. This approach offers new opportunities for constructing an empirically based classification system and has broad implications for future research.

  5. [Internet dependency as a symptom of depressive mood disorders].

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    te Wildt, Bert T; Putzig, Inken; Zedler, Markus; Ohlmeier, Martin D

    2007-09-01

    In psychiatric contexts, the quick distribution of virtual techniques in private and professional everyday life gives rise to the question, if these can evoke a psychological addiction. Yet, the diagnostic assessment of internet or computer game dependency remains problematic. Within a study with 23 internet-dependent patients with significant psychological strain, 18 (77.8%) were diagnosed with a depressive mood disorder by thorough clinical examination and structured interviews. The presented work compares psychometric test results of the depressed subpopulation with healthy controls matched for age, sex and school education. In the Barrat Impulsiveness Scale patients with internet dependency scored significantly higher than the control group (p Internet Addiction Scale. Becks Depression Inventory and the Symptom-Checklist subscale for depression revealed significantly higher scores within the patient group as compared to controls (p internet dependent subjects showed significantly more pathological scores than the healthy subjects (p internet dependency can be understood as a novel psychopathology of well known psychiatric conditions, every psychiatrist should be able to detect and treat it adequately, as long as there is a willingness to deal with the contents and impacts of cyberspace. Especially with depressed patients, it seems to be crucial to include questions about media usage in psychiatric examination taking.

  6. Executive Functions in Students With Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajilchi, Bita; Nejati, Vahid

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate and compare the executive functions of students with depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms with those functions in healthy ones. This study was a comparative and non-clinical analysis. The study population comprised all students of Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran. A total of 448 students were recruited using convenience sampling method. They were also screened using the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) test comprising 21 items. Of study participants, 30 people were depressed, 27 had anxiety, and 15 suffered from stress. Then, 50 control people were matched with them. Next, both groups were compared using the Stroop test, Wisconsin card sorting, and cognitive ability test. Using MANOVA test, data analysis revealed no significant differences among 4 groups with regard to selective attention and shifting attention. Depressed group reacted rapidly as opposed to the anxiety group with regard to measures of shifting attention and cognitive abilities; it was observed that the memory, inhibition control, planning, and flexibility of the healthy group were better than those of the 3 other groups. The findings of this research raised specific issues in relation to the role of depression, anxiety, and stress in the disruption of the executive functions of sufferers. Selective and shifting attention and cognitive abilities are specifically affected in this regard. Meanwhile, the role of stress in impairing decision making and the major role of anxiety in impairing sustained attention was shown to be considerable.

  7. Metabolic syndrome in subjects with bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder in a current depressive episode: Population-based study: Metabolic syndrome in current depressive episode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Fernanda Pedrotti; Jansen, Karen; Cardoso, Taiane de Azevedo; Mondin, Thaíse Campos; Magalhães, Pedro Vieira da Silva; Kapczinski, Flávio; Souza, Luciano Dias de Mattos; da Silva, Ricardo Azevedo; Oses, Jean Pierre; Wiener, Carolina David

    2017-09-01

    To assess the differences in the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and their components in young adults with bipolar disorder (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) in a current depressive episode. This was a cross-sectional study with young adults aged 24-30 years old. Depressive episode (bipolar or unipolar) was assessed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview - Plus version (MINI Plus). The MetS was assessed using the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP/ATP III). The sample included 972 subjects with a mean age of 25.81 (±2.17) years. Both BD and MDD patients showed higher prevalence of MetS compared to the population sample (BD = 46.9%, MDD = 35.1%, population = 22.1%, p depressive episode compared to the general population. Moreover, there was a significant difference on BMI values in the case of BD and MDD subjects (p = 0.016). Metabolic components were significantly associated with the presence of depressive symptoms, independently of the diagnosis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Low vitamin D is associated with negative and depressive symptoms in psychotic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerhus, Mari; Berg, Akiah O; Kvitland, Levi R; Dieset, Ingrid; Hope, Sigrun; Dahl, Sandr