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Sample records for current depressive symptoms

  1. Symptom severity of depressive symptoms impacts on social cognition performance in current but not remitted major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air, Tracy; Weightman, Michael J; Baune, Bernhard T

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the social cognitive functioning of participants with depression when compared with healthy controls, and to assess the impact of symptom severity. One hundred and eight patients with depression (66 remitted and 42 current) and 52 healthy controls were assessed using the Wechsler Advanced Clinical Solutions: Social Perception Subtest, measuring facial affect recognition in isolation and in combination with prosody and body language interpretation. When healthy controls, remitted depression and currently depressed groups were compared, no associations were found on any of the social cognition subscales. Severity of depressive and anxious symptoms predicted performance on all social cognition subscales in currently depressed participants, controlling for age, gender, education and psychotropic medication. Affective depressive symptoms were inversely related to ACS Pairs and Prosody subscales, while somatic symptoms were inversely related to the ACS Affect Recognition and Total scores. There was no association between severity and the WAIS ACS in remitted depression participants. People with MDD exhibiting more severe depressive and anxious symptoms and a cluster of affective symptoms have greater difficulty undertaking complex social cognitive tasks. Given the state like nature to these deficits, these impairments may cause problems with day to day functioning and have implications in targeted therapeutic interventions.

  2. Current maternal depression moderates the relation between critical expressed emotion in mothers and depressive symptoms in their adolescent daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellick, William; Kalpakci, Allison; Sharp, Carla

    2015-06-30

    Prior studies have examined critical expressed emotion (EE-Crit) in mothers in the intergenerational transmission of depression. However, the potential moderating effect of maternal depression diagnostic status in relation to EE-Crit and youth depressive symptoms has yet to be determined. A total of N=121 biological mother/daughter dyads that differed in maternal depression diagnostic status were recruited for the present study: (1) currently depressed mothers (current depression, n=29); (2) formerly depressed mothers (past depression, n=39); and (3) mothers free from any psychiatric history (healthy controls, n=53). Mothers were administered structured clinical interviews and completed self-report measures of EE-Crit and psychopathology, and daughters self-reported depressive symptoms. Results indicated no significant group differences in EE-Crit; however, current maternal depression status moderated EE-Crit such that the magnitude of the relation between EE-Crit and adolescent depressive symptoms was significantly greater in daughters of currently depressed mothers. These findings highlight the importance of considering current maternal depression, rather than a history of maternal depression, in relation to EE-Crit and adolescent depressive symptoms, providing impetus for future investigations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cortical Amyloid β Deposition and Current Depressive Symptoms in Alzheimer Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jun Ku; Plitman, Eric; Nakajima, Shinichiro; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Caravaggio, Fernando; Gerretsen, Philip; Iwata, Yusuke; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2016-05-01

    Depressive symptoms are frequently seen in patients with dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Evidence suggests that there may be a link between current depressive symptoms and Alzheimer disease (AD)-associated pathological changes, such as an increase in cortical amyloid-β (Aβ). However, limited in vivo studies have explored the relationship between current depressive symptoms and cortical Aβ in patients with MCI and AD. Our study, using a large sample of 455 patients with MCI and 153 patients with AD from the Alzheimer's disease Neuroimaging Initiatives, investigated whether current depressive symptoms are related to cortical Aβ deposition. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale and Neuropsychiatric Inventory-depression/dysphoria. Cortical Aβ was quantified using positron emission tomography with the Aβ probe(18)F-florbetapir (AV-45).(18)F-florbetapir standardized uptake value ratio (AV-45 SUVR) from the frontal, cingulate, parietal, and temporal regions was estimated. A global AV-45 SUVR, defined as the average of frontal, cingulate, precuneus, and parietal cortex, was also used. We observed that current depressive symptoms were not related to cortical Aβ, after controlling for potential confounds, including history of major depression. We also observed that there was no difference in cortical Aβ between matched participants with high and low depressive symptoms, as well as no difference between matched participants with the presence and absence of depressive symptoms. The association between depression and cortical Aβ deposition does not exist, but the relationship is highly influenced by stressful events in the past, such as previous depressive episodes, and complex interactions of different pathways underlying both depression and dementia.

  4. Symptom severity, affective and somatic symptom clusters predict poorer social cognition performance in current but not remitted major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy eAir

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the social cognitive functioning of participants with major depressive disorder when compared with healthy controls, and to assess the impact of symptom severity and affective and somatic symptom clusters on social cognition. One hundred and eight adult patients with depression (66 remitted and 42 current and 52 healthy controls were assessed using the Wechsler Advanced Clinical Solutions: Social Perception Subtest, measuring facial affect recognition in isolation and in combination with prosody and body language interpretation. While no associations between the diagnostic status (MDD vs controls and any of the social cognition measures were found, severity of depressive and anxious symptoms predicted performance on all social cognition subscales in currently depressed participants, controlling for age, gender, education and psychotropic medication. Moreover, in the current MDD group, an affective depressive symptom cluster was inversely related to performance on the more complex ACS Pairs and Prosody tasks, while a somatic symptom cluster was inversely related to ACS Affect Recognition and Total scores. In contrast, there were no associations between symptom severity or symptom clusters and the WAIS ACS in remitted depression participants. Given the state like nature social deficits in this study, these impairments may cause problems with day to day functioning and have implications in targeted therapeutic interventions.

  5. Prevalence, Recurrence, and Incidence of Current Depressive Symptoms among People Living with HIV in Ontario, Canada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Stephanie K Y; Boyle, E.; Cairney, John

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Current studies of depression among people living with HIV focus on describing its point prevalence. Given the fluctuating nature of depression and its profound impacts on clinical and quality-of-life outcomes, this study aimed to examine the prevalence, recurrence and incidence...... to afford housing-related expenses. Conclusions: Depressive symptoms are prevalent and likely to recur among people living with HIV. Our results support the direction of Ontario's HIV/AIDS Strategy to 2026, which addresses medical concerns associated with HIV (such as depression) and the social drivers...... of health in order to enhance the overall well-being of people living with or at risk of HIV. Our findings reinforce the importance of providing effective mental health care and demonstrate the need for long-term support and routine management of depression, particularly for individuals at high risk. © 2016...

  6. The relationship of current depressive symptoms and past depression with cognitive impairment and instrumental activities of daily living in an elderly population: the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reppermund, S; Brodaty, H; Crawford, J D; Kochan, N A; Slavin, M J; Trollor, J N; Draper, B; Sachdev, P S

    2011-12-01

    Depressive symptoms are common in the elderly and they have been associated with cognitive and functional impairment. However, relatively less is known about the relationship of a lifetime history of depression to cognitive impairment and functional status. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess whether current depressive symptoms and past depression are associated with cognitive or functional impairment in a community-based sample representative of east Sydney, Australia. We also examined whether there was an interaction between current and past depression in their effects on cognitive performance. Eight hundred non-demented aged participants received a neuropsychological assessment, a past psychiatric history interview and the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale. The Bayer-Activities of Daily Living scale was completed by an informant to determine functional ability. Clinically relevant depressive symptoms were present in 6.1% of the sample and 16.6% reported a history of depression. Participants with current depression had significantly higher levels of psychological distress and anxiety, and lower life satisfaction and performed worse on memory and executive function compared to participants without current depression. After controlling for anxiety the effect on executive function was no longer significant while the effect on memory remained significant. A history of depression was associated with worse executive function, higher levels of psychological distress and anxiety, and lower life satisfaction. After controlling for psychological distress the effect of past depression on executive function was no longer significant. There were no significant interactions between current and past depression in their effects on cognitive performance. There were no differences between participants with or without current depression and with or without past depression on functional abilities. These results support the view that current and past depressive

  7. [Depressive symptoms and sexuality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Robert

    2014-10-01

    The mutually reinforcing dyad of depressive symptoms and erectile dysfunction is scientifically established. The cure of depression improves sexual dysfunction (SD) and the treatment of SD induces improvement of depression. Most of anti-depressants induce negative sexual side effects that lead to non-compliance of these treatments. The knowledge of interrelation between depression, anti-depressants and sexuality is of great importance in clinical practice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Depressive symptoms in neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baquero, Miquel; Martín, Nuria

    2015-08-16

    Depressive symptoms are very common in chronic conditions. This is true so for neurodegenerative diseases. A number of patients with cognitive decline and dementia due to Alzheimer's disease and related conditions like Parkinson's disease, Lewy body disease, vascular dementia, frontotemporal degeneration amongst other entities, experience depressive symptoms in greater or lesser grade at some point during the course of the illness. Depressive symptoms have a particular significance in neurological disorders, specially in neurodegenerative diseases, because brain, mind, behavior and mood relationship. A number of patients may develop depressive symptoms in early stages of the neurologic disease, occurring without clear presence of cognitive decline with only mild cognitive deterioration. Classically, depression constitutes a reliable diagnostic challenge in this setting. However, actually we can recognize and evaluate depressive, cognitive or motor symptoms of neurodegenerative disease in order to establish their clinical significance and to plan some therapeutic strategies. Depressive symptoms can appear also lately, when the neurodegenerative disease is fully developed. The presence of depression and other neuropsychiatric symptoms have a negative impact on the quality-of-life of patients and caregivers. Besides, patients with depressive symptoms also tend to further decrease function and reduce cognitive abilities and also uses to present more affected clinical status, compared with patients without depression. Depressive symptoms are treatable. Early detection of depressive symptoms is very important in patients with neurodegenerative disorders, in order to initiate the most adequate treatment. We review in this paper the main neurodegenerative diseases, focusing in depressive symptoms of each other entities and current recommendations of management and treatment.

  9. Adverse childhood events and current depressive symptoms among women in Hawaii: 2010 BRFSS, Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remigio-Baker, Rosemay A; Hayes, Donald K; Reyes-Salvail, Florentina

    2014-12-01

    Research on the association between adverse childhood events (ACEs) and depression among women in Hawaii is scarce. ACEs have been linked to unfavorable health behaviors such as smoking and binge drinking which are more prevalent in the state compared to the US overall. The concomitant presence of ACEs with smoking or binge drinking may explain the excess depression prevalence in Hawaii compared to the national average. Using data of women residing in the state (2010 Hawaii Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey), we examined the association between ACEs count or type (household dysfunction and physical, verbal and sexual abuse) and current depressive symptoms (CDS), in addition to modification by current smoking status (smoked >100 cigarettes in a lifetime and currently smoke) and binge drinking (consumed ≥4 alcoholic beverage within the past month and in ≥1 occasion(s)). Evaluation of ACEs before age 18 consisted of 11 indicators. Eight indicators of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-8) were used to assess CDS. All analyses utilized logistic regression taking into account sampling design. The odds ratio of having CDS between those with versus without ACEs increased per increasing number of ACEs (1 ACE: OR = 2.11, CI = 1.16-3.81; 2 ACEs: OR = 2.90, CI = 1.51-5.58; 3 or 4 ACEs: OR = 3.94, CI = 2.13-7.32; 5+ ACEs: OR = 4.04, CI = 2.26-7.22). Household dysfunction (OR = 2.10, CI = 1.37-3.23), physical abuse (OR = 1.67, CI = 1.08-2.59), verbal abuse (OR = 3.21, CI = 2.03-5.09) and sexual abuse (OR = 1.68, CI = 1.04-2.71) were all positively associated with CDS. Verbal abuse had the strongest magnitude of association. Neither current smoking status nor binge drinking modified the relationship between ACEs count (or type) and CDS. In conclusion, the presence of ACEs among women in Hawaii was indicative of CDS in adulthood, notably verbal abuse. Further, a dose response existed between the number of ACEs and the odds for CDS. The concomitant exposure

  10. PLASMA OXYTOCIN CONCENTRATION AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS: A REVIEW OF CURRENT EVIDENCE AND DIRECTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Suena H; Backes, Katherine A; Schuette, Stephanie A

    2016-04-01

    There is substantial recent interest in the role of oxytocin in social and affiliative behaviors-animal models of depression have suggested a link between oxytocin and mood. We reviewed literature to date for evidence of a potential relationship between peripheral oxytocin concentration and depressive symptoms in humans. Pubmed(®) and PsychINFO(®) were searched for biomedical and social sciences literature from 1960 to May 19, 2015 for empirical articles in English involving human subjects focused on the relationship between peripheral oxytocin concentration and depressive symptoms, excluding articles on the oxytocin receptor gene, or involving exogenous (i.e. intranasal) administration of oxytocin. Eight studies meeting criteria were identified and formally reviewed. Studies of pregnant women suggested an inverse relationship between oxytocin level and depressive symptom severity. Findings in nonpregnant women were broadly consistent with the role of oxytocin release in response to stress supported by animal studies. The relationship between oxytocin and depression in men appeared to be in the opposite direction, possibly reflecting the influence of gonadal hormones on oxytocinergic functioning found in other mammalian species. Overall, small sample sizes, heterogeneity in study designs, and other methodological limitations may account for inconsistent findings. Future research utilizing reliable oxytocin measurement protocols including measurements across time, larger sample sizes, and sample homogeneity with respect to multiple possible confounders (age, gender, race and ethnicity, ovarian status among women, and psychosocial context) are needed to elucidate the role of oxytocin in the pathogenesis of depression, and could guide the design of novel pharmacologic agents.

  11. Cooperation and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendan Clark, C; Thorne, Christopher B; Hardy, Sonya; Cropsey, Karen L

    2013-09-25

    Deficits in pro-social cooperation are common in many individuals with mental illnesses such as depression. For decades, researchers have used economic game paradigms to compare cross-cultural cooperative behavior. However, research using economic games to assess cooperative behavior in clinical populations is in the early stages. We hypothesized that individuals with greater depressive symptoms would struggle to maintain reciprocity in iterative games, but not in single-iteration games measuring personal values. Participants (n=41) played four computer-based economic games (prisoner's dilemma, the public goods game, the ultimatum game, and the trust game) measuring different aspects of cooperation. Participants completed the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) and other measures of personality and demographics. Analyses assessed the relationships between game performance and psychological distress as measured by the DASS. Significant correlations were found between game performance and depressive symptoms, but not symptoms of anxiety or stress. Performance in the prisoner's dilemma and public goods game was significantly related to depression in a linear regression even when known associations with depressive affect such as age, gender, race, education, marital status, and neuroticism were controlled for. Depressive symptoms were associated with an inability to sustain reciprocal cooperation. Participants showed the predicted deficits in cooperation in these economic games. Economic games show the potential for assessing the social deficits associated with depressive symptoms. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Poverty and adolescent depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Amy C

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal data on non-Hispanic White children from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (N = 1,056) were used to examine whether the relationship between poverty (early childhood poverty, poverty persistence, and current poverty) and adolescent depressive symptoms (measured by the Children's Depression Inventory and the Internalizing Index) can be explained by the mother's own childhood depression and family characteristics measured during the child's first year of life. Associations between poverty and depressive symptoms among adolescents were explained by mother's childhood depression and whether the adolescent had lived with both parents during the first year of life. The findings highlight the need for appropriate treatment of childhood depression so as to reduce the adverse consequences in adulthood and for the next generation.

  13. Predicting depressive symptoms in unemployed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Zorica

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we review recent research literature focused on relationship between unemployment and depression, and theories emphasizing the mechanisms by which unemployment may contribute to increased levels of depression. Our research investigated depressive symptomatology and its predictors among unemployed people (N = 453 varying in length of unemployment. Results showed that self - mastery, self - esteem, financial strain, gender, intensity of job - seek behavior and length on unemployment were significant predictors of depressive symptoms. Results are discussed in light of current theories of unemployment and mental health and recommendations are made for practice.

  14. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... 3 items) Institute Announcements (24 items) Symptoms and Treatment of Depression February 1, 2010 People with depression ... why it affects some people but not others. Treatments for depression do work. One type of effective ...

  15. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... 3 items) Institute Announcements (24 items) Symptoms and Treatment of Depression February 1, 2010 People with depression ... why it affects some people but not others. Treatments for depression do work. One type of effective ...

  16. Prevalence, Recurrence, and Incidence of Current Depressive Symptoms among People Living with HIV in Ontario, Canada: Results from the Ontario HIV Treatment Network Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Stephanie K. Y.; Boyle, Eleanor; Cairney, John; Collins, Evan J.; Gardner, Sandra; Bacon, Jean; Rourke, Sean B.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Current studies of depression among people living with HIV focus on describing its point prevalence. Given the fluctuating nature of depression and its profound impacts on clinical and quality-of-life outcomes, this study aimed to examine the prevalence, recurrence and incidence of current depressive symptoms and its underlying catalysts longitudinally and systematically among these individuals. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study between October 1, 2007 and December 31, 2012 using longitudinal linked data sources. Current depressive symptoms was identified using the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale or the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, first at baseline and again during follow-up interviews. Multivariable regressions were used to characterize the three outcomes. Results Of the 3,816 HIV-positive participants, the point prevalence of depressive symptoms was estimated at 28%. Of the 957 participants who were identified with depressive symptoms at baseline and who had at least two years of follow-up, 43% had a recurrent episode. The cumulative incidence among 1,745 previously depressive symptoms free participants (at or prior to baseline) was 14%. During the five-year follow-up, our multivariable models showed that participants with greater risk of recurrent cases were more likely to feel worried about their housing situation. Participants at risk of developing incident cases were also likely to be younger, gay or bisexual, and unable to afford housing-related expenses. Conclusions Depressive symptoms are prevalent and likely to recur among people living with HIV. Our results support the direction of Ontario’s HIV/AIDS Strategy to 2026, which addresses medical concerns associated with HIV (such as depression) and the social drivers of health in order to enhance the overall well-being of people living with or at risk of HIV. Our findings reinforce the importance of providing effective mental health care and

  17. Gender, Anxiety, and Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, Tara M.; Gillham, Jane E.; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2009-01-01

    Does anxiety lead to depression more for girls than for boys? This study prospectively examines gender differences in the relationship between anxiety and depressive symptoms in early adolescence. One hundred thirteen 11- to 14-year-old middle school students complete questionnaires assessing depressive symptoms and three dimensions of anxiety (worry and oversensitivity, social concerns and concentration, and physiological anxiety) as well as total anxiety symptoms at an initial assessment and 1 year later. Total anxiety and worry and oversensitivity symptoms are found to predict later depressive symptoms more strongly for girls than for boys. There is a similar pattern of results for social concerns and concentration symptoms, although this does not reach statistical significance. Physiological anxiety predicts later depressive symptoms for both boys and girls. These findings highlight the importance of anxiety for the development of depression in adolescence, particularly worry and oversensitivity among girls. PMID:19756209

  18. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... Opportunities & Announcements Funding Strategy for Grants Application Process Managing Grants Clinical Research Training Labs at NIMH Labs ... Symptoms and Treatment of Depression February 1, 2010 People with depression discuss how they got help. & ...

  19. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... a serious illness that affects many people. Symptoms can vary, but many depressed people lose interest in ... lot of weight. NARRATOR : A person with depression can feel irritable and restless, and have sleep problems. ...

  20. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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  1. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... the road to recovery. Depression treatment can take time to work, so don't give up. Read more about depression on this Web page. If the symptoms fit, get help now. Share More Video and Audio about Depression Contact ...

  2. Maternal Depressive Symptoms following Autism Spectrum Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Julie Lounds; Warren, Zachary E.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined depressive symptoms, concerning the week following autism spectrum diagnosis and an average of 1.4 years later, in mothers (n = 75) of young children diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Over three-quarters of mothers (78.7%) provided retrospective reports of clinically significant depressive symptoms…

  3. Maternal Depressive Symptoms following Autism Spectrum Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Julie Lounds; Warren, Zachary E.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined depressive symptoms, concerning the week following autism spectrum diagnosis and an average of 1.4 years later, in mothers (n = 75) of young children diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Over three-quarters of mothers (78.7%) provided retrospective reports of clinically significant depressive symptoms…

  4. Pathways from maternal depressive symptoms to adolescent depressive symptoms:the unique contribution of irritability symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Whelan, Y.M.; Leibenluft, E.; Stringaris, A; Edward D Barker

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The authors tested three possible pathways linking prenatal maternal depressive symptoms to adolescent depressive symptoms. These pathways went through childhood Irritability Symptoms, Anxiety/Depressive Symptoms or Conduct Problems.METHOD: Data were collected from 3,963 mother-child pairs participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Measures include maternal depressive symptoms (pre- and postnatal); toddler temperament (2 years); childhood (7-13 years) ir...

  5. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... for a few days. It is a serious illness that affects many people. Symptoms can vary, but ... fighting. NARRATOR : Depression is a real and complex illness that is not yet completely understood. We do ...

  6. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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  7. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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  8. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... me to do anything for myself. NARRATOR : Depression is more than just a feeling of being down ... dumps or blue for a few days. It is a serious illness that affects many people. Symptoms ...

  9. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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  10. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... a minute really to do anything that took deep concentration. I tried a journal and I tried ... give up. Read more about depression on this Web page. If the symptoms fit, get help now. ...

  11. Perfectionism, Shame, and Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Jeffrey S.; Rice, Kenneth G.; Martin, James L.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between depression, maladaptive perfectionism, and shame. Regression analyses were used to replicate a model in which maladaptive perfectionism was negatively associated with self-esteem and positively associated with symptoms of depression, with self-esteem mediating the effects of maladaptive perfectionism…

  12. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... to recovery. Depression treatment can take time to work, so don't give up. Read more about depression on this Web page. If the symptoms fit, get help now. ... of Scientific Meetings Information about NIMH RePORTER : Research Portfolio Online ...

  13. Perfectionism, Shame, and Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Jeffrey S.; Rice, Kenneth G.; Martin, James L.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between depression, maladaptive perfectionism, and shame. Regression analyses were used to replicate a model in which maladaptive perfectionism was negatively associated with self-esteem and positively associated with symptoms of depression, with self-esteem mediating the effects of maladaptive perfectionism…

  14. Cognitive/affective and somatic/affective symptom dimensions of depression are associated with current and future inflammation in heart failure patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kupper, Nina; Widdershoven, Jos W; Pedersen, Susanne S.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about whether cognitive/affective depressive symptoms or somatic/affective depressive symptoms are associated with inflammation in heart failure (HF), or that the relation is confounded with disease severity....

  15. Diabetes Complications and Depressive Symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deschênes, Sonya S; Burns, Rachel J; Pouwer, Frans

    2017-01-01

    the course of the follow-up period (β= 0.74, p diabetes complications and depressive symptoms and underscores the psychological burden of diabetes complications by prospectively demonstrating the increased risk and recurrence......OBJECTIVE: Prospective studies testing the potential impact of diabetes complications on depression are limited. The present study examined the longitudinal associations between diabetes complications and the risk and recurrence/persistence of depressive symptoms. METHODS: Data were from...... a prospective community cohort telephone survey of adults with diabetes (N= 1,314). Diabetes complications and depressive symptoms were assessed via self-report (Diabetes Complications Index and Patient Health Questionnaire-9, respectively) at baseline and annually for 5 years. Statistical models adjusted...

  16. Individualized Treatment for Tobacco Dependence in Addictions Treatment Settings: The Role of Current Depressive Symptoms on Outcomes at 3 and 6 Months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawertailo, Laurie A; Baliunas, Dolly; Ivanova, Anna; Selby, Peter L

    2015-08-01

    Individuals with concurrent tobacco dependence and other addictions often report symptoms of low mood and depression and as such may have more difficulty quitting smoking. We hypothesized that current symptoms of depression would be a significant predictor of quit success among a group of smokers receiving individualized treatment for tobacco dependence within addiction treatment settings. Individuals in treatment for other addictions were enrolled in a smoking cessation program involving brief behavioral counseling and individualized dosing of nicotine replacement therapy. The baseline assessment included the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ9) for depression. Smoking cessation outcomes were measured at 3 and 6 months post-enrollment. Bivariate associations between cessation outcomes and PHQ9 score were analyzed. Of the 1,196 subjects enrolled to date, 1,171 (98%) completed the PHQ9. Moderate to severe depression (score >9) was reported by 28% of the sample, and another 29% reported mild depression (score between 5 and 9). Contrary to the extant literature and other findings by our own group, there was no association between current depression and cessation outcome at either 3 months (n = 1,171) (17.0% in those with PHQ9 > 9 vs. 19.8% in those with PHQ9 addictions treatment setting. These data indicate that patients in an addictions treatment setting can successfully quit smoking regardless of current depressive symptoms. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. The Impact of Residual Symptoms in Major Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Israel, Joshua A.

    2010-01-01

    The current definition of remission from major depressive disorder does not fully take into account all aspects of patient recovery. Residual symptoms of depression are very common in patients who are classified as being in remission. Patients with residual symptoms are at increased risk of functional and interpersonal impairments, and are at high risk for recurrence of depression. This article discusses the incidence of residual symptoms of depression, as well as the risks and consequences o...

  18. CNR1 gene is associated with high neuroticism and low agreeableness and interacts with recent negative life events to predict current depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhasz, Gabriella; Chase, Diana; Pegg, Emma; Downey, Darragh; Toth, Zoltan G; Stones, Kathryn; Platt, Hazel; Mekli, Krisztina; Payton, Antony; Elliott, Rebecca; Anderson, Ian M; Deakin, J F William

    2009-07-01

    Cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) gene (CNR1) knockout mice are prone to develop anhedonic and helpless behavior after chronic mild stress. In humans, the CB1 antagonist rimonabant increases the risk of depressed mood disorders and anxiety. These studies suggest the hypothesis that genetic variation in CB1 receptor function influences the risk of depression in humans in response to stressful life events. In a population sample (n=1269), we obtained questionnaire measures of personality (Big Five Inventory), depression and anxiety (Brief Symptom Inventory), and life events. The CNR1 gene was covered by 10 SNPs located throughout the gene to determine haplotypic association. Variations in the CNR1 gene were significantly associated with a high neuroticism and low agreeableness phenotype (explained variance 1.5 and 2.5%, respectively). Epistasis analysis of the SNPs showed that the previously reported functional 5' end of the CNR1 gene significantly interacts with the 3' end in these phenotypes. Furthermore, current depression scores significantly associated with CNR1 haplotypes but this effect diminished after covariation for recent life events, suggesting a gene x environment interaction. Indeed, rs7766029 showed highly significant interaction between recent negative life events and depression scores. The results represent the first evidence in humans that the CNR1 gene is a risk factor for depression--and probably also for co-morbid psychiatric conditions such as substance use disorders--through a high neuroticism and low agreeableness phenotype. This study also suggests that the CNR1 gene influences vulnerability to recent psychosocial adversity to produce current symptoms of depression.

  19. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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  20. Stressful life events and depressive symptoms: influences of gender, event severity, and depression history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Sungeun; Conner, Kenneth R

    2009-11-01

    Informed by Post's (1992) kindling hypothesis, the study examined the association between depressive symptoms and varying levels of perceived life events as determined by respondents, as well as the moderating role of depression history and gender. Severe life events were significantly associated with current depressive symptoms among never depressed women but not among women with depression history. Such a moderating role of depression history was not observed among men where severe life events were associated with current depressive symptoms in men regardless of depression history. No moderating effects of gender and depression history were obtained for mild and moderate life events, but these events were significantly associated with current depressive symptoms. These results support Post's kindling hypothesis for severe life events but not for mild or moderate life events, and further only in women.

  1. The Impact of Residual Symptoms in Major Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua A. Israel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The current definition of remission from major depressive disorder does not fully take into account all aspects of patient recovery. Residual symptoms of depression are very common in patients who are classified as being in remission. Patients with residual symptoms are at increased risk of functional and interpersonal impairments, and are at high risk for recurrence of depression. This article discusses the incidence of residual symptoms of depression, as well as the risks and consequences of these symptoms, and will review the state of current treatment.

  2. Depressive symptoms and risk of uterine leiomyomata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Lauren A; Li, Se; Palmer, Julie R; Rosenberg, Lynn

    2015-05-01

    Uterine leiomyomata (UL) are a major source of gynecologic morbidity and the primary indication for hysterectomy. Depression can cause dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, which may affect the synthesis of reproductive hormones involved in UL pathogenesis. We assessed the association between depressive symptoms and UL among 15,963 premenopausal women. Data were derived from the Black Women's Health Study, a prospective cohort study. In 1999 and 2005, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) was used to ascertain depressive symptoms. On biennial follow-up questionnaires from 1999 through 2011, women reported physician-diagnosed depression, antidepressant use, and UL diagnoses. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using multivariable Cox regression. There were 4722 incident UL cases diagnosed by ultrasound (n=3793) or surgery (n=929) during 131,262 person-years of follow-up. Relative to baseline CES-D scores<16, IRRs were 1.05 (95% CI, 0.98-1.13) for CES-D scores 16-24 and 1.16 (95% CI, 1.06-1.27) for CES-D scores≥25 (P-trend=.001). IRRs for current and past physician-diagnosed depression relative to no depression were 1.15 (95% CI, 0.98-1.34) and 1.25 (95% CI, 1.13-1.39), respectively. Results persisted after further control for antidepressant use. IRRs for current and past use of antidepressants (any indication) relative to never use were 1.11 (95% CI, 0.97-1.28) and 1.32 (95% CI, 1.14-1.52), respectively. In this cohort of black women, greater depressive symptoms were associated with UL, independent of antidepressant use, supporting the hypothesis that dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis increases UL risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Poststroke depression: Diagnosis of depression, phenomenology and specificity of depressive symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabi-Žikić Tamara

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of depression. Depressive disorder is nowadays diagnosed by the two widely used diagnostic systems - International Classification of Diseases of the World Health Organization, 10th revision and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual Criteria of the American Psychiatric Organisation, 4th edition. The criteria for depressive disorder used in these two systems are almost identical. Poststroke depression. The diagnosis of depression may be difficult to establish in stroke patients, especially in patients with aphasia/dysphasia, anosognosia and other cognitive dysfunction. Major vs. minor poststroke depression, specificity and sensitivity of depressive symptoms: The phenomenology of major poststroke depression has been found to be similar to that of primary depression, and it appears that minor and major are not stages of the same continuum, but rather separate entities. Contrary to common opinion, non specific somatic symptoms do not hinder the diagnosis of poststroke depression and can be highly discriminative and crucial in the evaluation of poststroke depression. Validity of the poststroke depression diagnosis Studies have shown that a valid diagnosis of poststroke depression may be established successfully using structured or semi-structured neuropsychiatric interviews, according to the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual Criteria. Conclusion. It appears that no new diagnostic tools specific for major depression in stroke patients are necessary. The existing diagnostic procedures will fail to diagnose or misdiagnose depression only in few stroke patients.

  4. Correlations among insomnia symptoms, sleep medication use and depressive symptoms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Komada, Yoko; Nomura, Takashi; Kusumi, Masayoshi; Nakashima, Kenji; Okajima, Isa; Sasai, Taeko; Inoue, Yuichi

    2011-01-01

    Aim:  To elucidate the factors associated with insomnia symptoms and the use of sleep medication, and the correlations among insomnia symptoms, sleep medication use and depressive symptoms in the general population. Methods...

  5. Depressive symptoms and concussions in aging retired NFL players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didehbani, Nyaz; Munro Cullum, C; Mansinghani, Sethesh; Conover, Heather; Hart, John

    2013-08-01

    We examined the relationship between a remote history of concussions with current symptoms of depression in retired professional athletes. Thirty retired National Football League (NFL) athletes with a history of concussion and 29 age- and IQ-matched controls without a history of concussion were recruited. We found a significant correlation between the number of lifetime concussions and depressive symptom severity using the Beck Depression Inventory II. Upon investigating a three-factor model of depressive symptoms (affective, cognitive, and somatic; Buckley et al., 2001) from the BDI-II, the cognitive factor was the only factor that was significantly related to concussions. In general, NFL players endorsed more symptoms of depression on all three Buckley factors compared with matched controls. Findings suggest that the number of self-reported concussions may be related to later depressive symptomology (particularly cognitive symptoms of depression).

  6. Depressive Symptoms and Concussions in Aging Retired NFL Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didehbani, Nyaz; Munro Cullum, C.; Mansinghani, Sethesh; Conover, Heather; Hart, John

    2013-01-01

    We examined the relationship between a remote history of concussions with current symptoms of depression in retired professional athletes. Thirty retired National Football League (NFL) athletes with a history of concussion and 29 age- and IQ-matched controls without a history of concussion were recruited. We found a significant correlation between the number of lifetime concussions and depressive symptom severity using the Beck Depression Inventory II. Upon investigating a three-factor model of depressive symptoms (affective, cognitive, and somatic; Buckley et al., 2001) from the BDI-II, the cognitive factor was the only factor that was significantly related to concussions. In general, NFL players endorsed more symptoms of depression on all three Buckley factors compared with matched controls. Findings suggest that the number of self-reported concussions may be related to later depressive symptomology (particularly cognitive symptoms of depression). PMID:23644673

  7. Exploring the Relations between Parent Depressive Symptoms, Family Religious Involvement, and Adolescent Depressive Symptoms: A Test of Moderation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Lisa M.; Caroline R. Newman

    2011-01-01

    Building on previous research, the current study examined the relations between parent depressive symptoms, family religious involvement, and adolescent depressive symptoms in a convenience sample of 74 parent-adolescent dyads of southern U.S. families. We used hierarchical regression analysis to explore whether family religious involvement…

  8. Symptoms of Major Depression and Complicated Grief

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss of a Loved One Symptoms of major depression and complicated grief Depression It’s common for people to have sadness, pain, ... ball game; reading a good book; listening to music; or getting a massage or manicure. Prepare for ...

  9. [Family functioning of elderly with depressive symptoms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Rosely Almeida; Desani da Costa, Gislaine; Yamashita, Cintia Hitomi; Amendola, Fernanda; Gaspar, Jaqueline Correa; Alvarenga, Márcia Regina Martins; Faccenda, Odival; Oliveira, Maria Amélia de Campos

    2014-06-01

    To classify families of elderly with depressive symptoms regarding their functioning and to ascertain the presence of an association between these symptoms, family functioning and the characteristics of the elderly. This was an observational, analytical, cross-sectional study performed with 33 teams of the Family Health Strategy in Dourados, MS. The sample consisted of 374 elderly divided into two groups (with and without depressive symptoms). The instruments for data collection were a sociodemographic instrument, the GeriatricDepression Scale (15 items) and the Family Apgar. An association was observed between depressive symptoms and family dysfunction, female gender, four or more people living together, and physical inactivity. The functional family may represent effective support for the elderly with depressive symptoms, because it offers a comfortable environment that ensures the well-being of its members. The dysfunctional family can barely provide necessary care for the elderly, which can exacerbate depressive symptoms.

  10. Family functioning of elderly with depressive symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosely Almeida Souza

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To classify families of elderly with depressive symptoms regarding their functioning and to ascertain the presence of an association between these symptoms, family functioning and the characteristics of the elderly. Method: This was an observational, analytical, cross-sectional study performed with 33 teams of the Family Health Strategy in Dourados, MS. The sample consisted of 374 elderly divided into two groups (with and without depressive symptoms. The instruments for data collection were a sociodemographic instrument, the GeriatricDepression Scale (15 items and the Family Apgar. Results: An association was observed between depressive symptoms and family dysfunction, female gender, four or more people living together, and physical inactivity. Conclusion: The functional family may represent effective support for the elderly with depressive symptoms, because it offers a comfortable environment that ensures the well-being of its members. The dysfunctional family can barely provide necessary care for the elderly, which can exacerbate depressive symptoms.

  11. Anxiety and depression symptoms in recurrent painful renal lithiasis colic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, D H M P; Blay, S L; Schor, N

    2007-07-01

    Several studies have reported that symptoms of anxiety and depression are significantly associated with diseases characterized by painful crises. However, there is little information about the psychological aspects of recurrent painful episodes of renal stone disease. Our objective was to evaluate the association of symptoms of anxiety, depression and recurrent painful renal colic in a case-control study involving 64 subjects (32 cases/32 controls) matched for age and sex. Cases were outpatients with a confirmed diagnosis of nephrolithiasis as per their case history, physical examination, image examination and other laboratory exams. Patients had a history of at least two episodes within a 3-year period, and were currently in an intercrisis interval. The control group consisted of subjects seen at the Ophthalmology Outpatient Clinic of this University Hospital with only eye refraction symptoms, and no other associated disease. Symptoms of anxiety were evaluated by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and symptoms of depression by the Beck Depression Inventory. Statistically significant differences were observed between patients with nephrolithiasis and controls for anxiety state (P = 0.001), anxiety trait (P = 0.005) and symptoms of depression (odds ratio = 3.74; 95%CI = 1.31-10.62). The Beck Depression Inventory showed 34.5% of respondents with moderate and 6% with severe levels of depression. There was a significant linear correlation between symptoms of anxiety (P = 0.002) and depression (P renal colic and symptoms of both anxiety and depression.

  12. Maladaptive Coping, Adaptive Coping, and Depressive Symptoms: Variations across Age and Depressive State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Renee J.; Mata, Jutta; Jaeggi, Susanne M.; Buschkuehl, Martin; Jonides, John; Gotlib, Ian H.

    2010-01-01

    Rumination has consistently been found to be associated with the onset and duration of major depressive episodes. Little research, however, has examined factors that may weaken the association between maladaptive coping, such as rumination, and depressive symptoms. In three samples of participants, including 149 never-depressed adolescent girls, 41 never-depressed women, and 39 depressed women, we examined whether generally adaptive forms of coping interacted with generally maladaptive coping to predict depressive symptoms. Age-appropriate measures of coping and depression were administered to participants in each sample. In never-depressed females, maladaptive coping / rumination were more strongly related to depressive symptoms in the presence of lower levels of adaptive coping. The relation between depression and maladaptive coping / rumination was weaker in the context of higher levels of adaptive coping. In contrast, for the depressed females, we found main effects for rumination and adaptive coping, with higher levels of rumination and lower levels of adaptive coping being associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms. The present findings highlight how adaptive coping and maladaptive coping, including rumination, differentially relate to each other and depressive symptoms depending on individuals’ current depressive state. PMID:20211463

  13. Depressive symptoms in first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sönmez, Nasrettin; Røssberg, Jan Ivar; Evensen, Julie

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: The present study examined if any patient characteristics at baseline predicted depressive symptoms at 10 years and whether patients prone to depressive symptoms in the first year of treatment had a different prognosis in the following years. METHOD: A total of 299 first-episode psychosis...

  14. Associations between depressive symptoms and insulin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriaanse, M C; Dekker, J M; Nijpels, G

    2006-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The association between depression and insulin resistance has been investigated in only a few studies, with contradictory results reported. The aim of this study was to determine whether the association between symptoms of depression and insulin resistance varies across glucose...... established type 2 diabetes mellitus. Main outcome measures were insulin resistance defined by the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and symptoms of depression using the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). RESULTS: In the total sample, we found a weak.......942). The association between depressive symptoms and insulin resistance was similar for men and women. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: We found only weak associations between depressive symptoms and insulin resistance, which did not differ among different glucose metabolism subgroups or between men and women....

  15. Fatigue and Depressive Symptoms in Older People

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mänty, Minna; Rantanen, Taina; Era, Pertti

    2014-01-01

    Fatigue is considered an important indicator of aging-related declines in health and functional abilities. Previous studies have indicated strong associations between fatigue and depressive symptoms among younger populations and in patient groups with specific diseases. However, it is not known how...... different measures of fatigue are associated with depressive symptoms among general older populations. The purpose of this study is to describe the prevalence of depressive symptoms among community-dwelling older adults reporting mobility-related or general feelings fatigue. The study population consisted...... of 75-year-old community-living individuals (n = 561). Both, mobility-related and general fatigue, were associated in a stepwise relationship with depressive symptoms: a higher level of fatigue was related to higher level of depressive symptoms. Especially major general fatigue was strongly associated...

  16. Gender, depressive symptoms, and daily cigarette use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bares, Cristina B

    2014-01-01

    It is widely known that cigarette use and depressive symptoms co-occur during adolescence and young adulthood and that there are gender differences in smoking initiation, progression, and co-occurrence with other drug use. Given that females have an earlier onset of depressive symptoms while males have an earlier onset of cigarette use, this study explored the possible bidirectional development of cigarette use and depressive symptoms by gender across the transition from adolescence to young adulthood. Gender differences in the stability and crossed effects of depressive symptoms and cigarette smoking during the transition to young adulthood, controlling for other known risk factors, were examined using a nationally representative longitudinal sample. A bivariate autoregressive multi-group structural equation model examined the longitudinal stability and crossed relationships between a latent construct of depressive symptoms and cigarette smoking over four waves of data. Data for this study came from four waves of participants (N = 6,501) from the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health. At each of four waves, participants completed a battery of measures including questions on depressive symptoms and an ordinal measure of number of cigarettes smoked per day. The best-fitting bivariate autoregressive models were gender-specific, included both crossed and parallel associations between depressive symptoms and cigarette use during the transition to adulthood, and controlled for wave-specific parental smoking, alcohol use, and number of friends who smoke. For females, greater depressive symptoms at each wave, except the first one, were associated with greater subsequent cigarette use. There were bidirectional associations between depressive symptoms and cigarette use only for females during young adulthood, but not for males. The development of depressive symptoms and cigarette use from adolescence and into young adulthood follows similar patterns for males

  17. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Autism (13 items) Bipolar Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (28 items) Eating Disorders ( ... Autism (13 items) Bipolar Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (28 items) Eating Disorders ( ...

  18. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... why. Scientists at the National Institute of Mental Health are studying brain images of people who suffer from depression trying to learn why it affects some people but not others. Treatments for depression ...

  19. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... suffer from depression trying to learn why it affects some people but not others. Treatments for depression do work. One type of effective psychotherapy is called cognitive behavioral therapy or CBT. ...

  20. Stress sensitivity interacts with depression history to predict depressive symptoms among youth: prospective changes following first depression onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technow, Jessica R; Hazel, Nicholas A; Abela, John R Z; Hankin, Benjamin L

    2015-04-01

    Predictors of depressive symptoms may differ before and after the first onset of major depression due to stress sensitization. Dependent stressors, or those to which characteristics of individuals contribute, have been shown to predict depressive symptoms in youth. The current study sought to clarify how stressors' roles may differ before and after the first depressive episode. Adolescents (N = 382, aged 11 to 15 at baseline) were assessed at baseline and every 3 months over the course of 2 years with measures of stressors and depressive symptoms. Semi-structured interviews were conducted every 6 months to assess for clinically significant depressive episodes. Hierarchical linear modeling showed a significant interaction between history of depression and idiographic fluctuations in dependent stressors to predict prospective elevations of symptoms, such that dependent stressors were more predictive of depressive symptoms after onset of disorder. Independent stressors predicted symptoms, but the strength of the association did not vary by depression history. These results suggest a synthesis of dependent stress and stress sensitization processes that might maintain inter-episode depressive symptoms among youth with a history of clinical depression.

  1. Depression Begets Depression: Comparing the Predictive Utility of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms to Later Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Kate; Feng, Xin; Hipwell, Alison; Klostermann, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Background: The high comorbidity between depressive and anxiety disorders, especially among females, has called into question the independence of these two symptom groups. It is possible that childhood anxiety typically precedes depression in girls. Comparing of the predictive utility of symptoms of anxiety with the predictive utility of symptoms…

  2. The therapeutic or prophylactic effect of exogenous melatonin against depression and depressive symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voigt Hansen, Melissa; Danielsen, A K; Hageman, I

    2014-01-01

    Circadian- and sleep disturbances may be central for understanding the pathophysiology and treatment of depression. The effect of melatonin on depression/depressive symptoms has been investigated previously. This systematic review assesses the current evidence of a therapeutic- and prophylactic...... effect of melatonin in adult patients against depression or depressive symptoms. A search was performed in The Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE and PsycINFO for published trials on November 14th 2013. Inclusion criteria were English language, RCTs or crossover trials. Our outcome was measurement...... of depression/depressive symptoms with a validated clinician-administered or self-rating questionnaire. PRISMA recommendations were followed and the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool used. Ten studies in 486 patients were included in the final qualitative synthesis and four studies, 148 patients, were included in two...

  3. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (27 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post-Traumatic ... Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (27 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post-Traumatic ...

  4. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... at the National Institute of Mental Health are studying brain images of people who suffer from depression trying to learn why it affects some people but not others. Treatments for depression do work. One type of effective psychotherapy is called cognitive ...

  5. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (28 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post-Traumatic ... Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (28 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post-Traumatic ...

  6. Depressive symptoms in institutionalized older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Maria Santiago

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of depressive symptoms among institutionalized elderly individuals and to analyze factors associated with this condition. METHODS This was a cross-sectional study involving 462 individuals aged 60 or older, residents in long stay institutions in four Brazilian municipalities. The dependent variable was assessed using the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale. Poisson’s regression was used to evaluate associations with co-variables. We investigated which variables were most relevant in terms of presence of depressive symptoms within the studied context through factor analysis. RESULTS Prevalence of depressive symptoms was 48.7%. The variables associated with depressive symptoms were: regular/bad/very bad self-rated health; comorbidities; hospitalizations; and lack of friends in the institution. Five components accounted for 49.2% of total variance of the sample: functioning, social support, sensory deficiency, institutionalization and health conditions. In the factor analysis, functionality and social support were the components which explained a large part of observed variance. CONCLUSIONS A high prevalence of depressive symptoms, with significant variation in distribution, was observed. Such results emphasize the importance of health conditions and functioning for institutionalized older individuals developing depression. They also point to the importance of providing opportunities for interaction among institutionalized individuals.

  7. Sickness absence due to depressive symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, P. C.; Roelen, C. A. M.; Groothoff, J. W.

    Objective There is no information on the duration of absence of depressed Dutch workers. The aim of this study was to determine the duration of sickness absence due to depressive symptoms in the working population. Methods In this observational study of 15% of the Dutch working population, all

  8. Depression, Life Events and Somatic Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozzini, Renzo; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between somatic symptoms, depression, and life events (health status, function, social satisfaction, income) in a population of 1,201 elderly persons living at home. Found depression was the most important factor in the appearance of somatic complaints; however, life events were important cofactors in defining…

  9. Cerebral emboli and depressive symptoms in dementia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purandare, N.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.; Hardicre, J.; Byrne, J.; McCollum, C.N.; Burns, A.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The vascular depression hypothesis and our recent findings of increased frequency of spontaneous cerebral emboli in dementia suggest that such emboli may be involved in the causation of depressive symptoms in dementia. AIMS: To evaluate the association between spontaneous cerebral emboli

  10. Beta blocker therapy is associated with reduced depressive symptoms 12 months post percutaneous coronary intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battes, Linda C; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Oemrawsingh, Rohit M

    2012-01-01

    Beta blocker therapy may induce depressive symptoms, although current evidence is conflicting. We examined the association between beta blocker therapy and depressive symptoms in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) patients and the extent to which there is a dose-response relationship between...... beta blocker dose and depressive symptoms....

  11. Anxiety and depression symptoms in recurrent painful renal lithiasis colic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.H.M.P. Diniz

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have reported that symptoms of anxiety and depression are significantly associated with diseases characterized by painful crises. However, there is little information about the psychological aspects of recurrent painful episodes of renal stone disease. Our objective was to evaluate the association of symptoms of anxiety, depression and recurrent painful renal colic in a case-control study involving 64 subjects (32 cases/32 controls matched for age and sex. Cases were outpatients with a confirmed diagnosis of nephrolithiasis as per their case history, physical examination, image examination and other laboratory exams. Patients had a history of at least two episodes within a 3-year period, and were currently in an intercrisis interval. The control group consisted of subjects seen at the Ophthalmology Outpatient Clinic of this University Hospital with only eye refraction symptoms, and no other associated disease. Symptoms of anxiety were evaluated by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and symptoms of depression by the Beck Depression Inventory. Statistically significant differences were observed between patients with nephrolithiasis and controls for anxiety state (P = 0.001, anxiety trait (P = 0.005 and symptoms of depression (odds ratio = 3.74; 95%CI = 1.31-10.62. The Beck Depression Inventory showed 34.5% of respondents with moderate and 6% with severe levels of depression. There was a significant linear correlation between symptoms of anxiety (P = 0.002 and depression (P < 0.001 and the number of recurrent colic episodes (anxiety-state: P = 0.016 and anxiety-trait: P < 0.001. These data suggest an association between recurrent renal colic and symptoms of both anxiety and depression.

  12. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... Research Areas Collaborations & Partnerships Administrative Oversight & Support Join A Study News & Events News & Events Home Science News ... for myself. NARRATOR : Depression is more than just a feeling of being down in the dumps or ...

  13. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... Treatments for depression do work. One type of effective psychotherapy is called cognitive behavioral therapy or CBT. ... the most, and how to make better, more effective ones. For many people, a combination of medication ...

  14. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... are the first steps on the road to recovery. Depression treatment can take time to work, so ... of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Contact Us Staff Directories Privacy Notice Policies FOIA ...

  15. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... more than just a feeling of being down in the dumps or blue for a few days. ... can vary, but many depressed people lose interest in activities they normally enjoyed, have feelings of sadness, ...

  16. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... ADHD) (3 items) Autism (13 items) Bipolar Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (28 ... Disorder (7 items) Schizophrenia (3 items) Social Phobia (2 items) Populations Children and Adolescents (26 items) Diversity ...

  17. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... Investigators Research Areas Collaborations & Partnerships Intramural Offices Join A Study News News Home Science News Multimedia Image ... for myself. NARRATOR : Depression is more than just a feeling of being down in the dumps or ...

  18. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... depression can feel irritable and restless, and have sleep problems. RODOLFO : Sometimes I would sleep only 3 hours a night or cause I couldn't sleep for weeks. And then but most of the ...

  19. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... Investigators Research Areas Collaborations & Partnerships Intramural Offices Join A Study News & Events News & Events Home Science News ... for myself. NARRATOR : Depression is more than just a feeling of being down in the dumps or ...

  20. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... not others. Treatments for depression do work. One type of effective psychotherapy is called cognitive behavioral therapy ... Scientific Meetings Information about NIMH RePORTER : Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tool Expenditures and Results Recommendations for Reporting ...

  1. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... Principal Investigators Administrative Oversight & Support Collaborations & Partnerships Join A Study News & Events News & Events Home Science News ... for myself. NARRATOR : Depression is more than just a feeling of being down in the dumps or ...

  2. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... NIMH continues to study the genetic, biological and environmental factors that influence depression so that new and ... Science on EurekAlert How the brain recognizes familiar faces ...

  3. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... thinking about that I did have depression. NARRATOR : Medications called antidepressants can also help. NIMH researchers are getting closer to figuring out exactly how these medications work, who benefits from them the most, and ...

  4. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... depression can feel irritable and restless, and have sleep problems. RODOLFO : Sometimes I would sleep only 3 hours a night or cause I couldn't sleep for weeks. And then but most of the ...

  5. Depressive symptoms and cognitive performance in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Hiroyuki; Park, Hyuntae; Makizako, Hyuma; Doi, Takehiko; Lee, Sangyoon; Suzuki, Takao

    2014-10-01

    Many longitudinal studies have found that older adults with depressive symptoms or depression have increased risk of cognitive impairment. We investigated the relationships between depressive symptoms or depression, cognitive function, serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and volumetric MRI measurements in older adults. A total of 4352 individuals aged 65 years or older (mean age 72 years) participated in the study. We investigated medical history and geriatric depression scale-15 (GDS-15) items to determine depression and depressive symptoms. Cognitive tests included the mini-mental state examination (MMSE), story memory, word list memory, trail-making tests, and the symbol digit substitution task. Of the 4352 participants, 570 (13%) fulfilled the criteria for depressive symptoms (GDS-15: 6 + points) and 87 (2%) were diagnosed with depression. All cognitive tests showed significant differences between the 'no depressive symptoms', 'depressive symptoms', and 'depression' groups. The 'depressive symptoms' and 'depression' groups showed lower serum BDNF (p depressive symptoms' group. The 'depressive symptoms' group exhibited greater atrophy of the right medial temporal lobe than did the 'no depressive symptoms' group (p = 0.023). These results suggest that memory, executive function, and processing speed examinations are useful to identify cognitive decline in older adults who have depressive symptoms and depression. Serum BDNF concentration and atrophy of the right medial temporal lobe may in part mediate the relationships between depressive symptoms and cognitive decline.

  6. Subthreshold Symptoms of Depression in Preadolescent Girls Are Stable and Predictive of Depressive Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Kate; Hipwell, Alsion; Feng, Xin; Babinski, Dara; Hinze, Amanda; Rischall, Michal; Henneberger, Angela

    2008-01-01

    Symptoms of depression are investigated among 232 preadolescent girls to study if they were predictive and stable of depression. Findings show that early symptoms of depression among preadolescent girls predict depressive disorders. Implications for preventive measures are discussed.

  7. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... people but not others. Treatments for depression do work. One type of effective psychotherapy is called cognitive behavioral therapy or CBT. ... closer to figuring out exactly how these medications work, who benefits from them ... more effective ones. For many people, a combination of medication ...

  8. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... Share More Video and Audio about Depression Contact the Press Office 301-443-4536 NIMHpress@nih.gov ... on Suicide News from the Field News from the Field NIMH-Funded Science on EurekAlert Schizophrenia-associated ...

  9. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (28 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (7 items) Schizophrenia (3 items) Social Phobia (2 items) Populations Children and Adolescents (26 items) Diversity and Ethnic Groups (4 items) ...

  10. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... a lot of weight. NARRATOR : A person with depression can feel irritable and restless, and have sleep problems. RODOLFO : Sometimes I would sleep only 3 hours a night or cause I couldn't sleep for weeks. And then ...

  11. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... work. One type of effective psychotherapy is called cognitive behavioral therapy or CBT. CBT can help you change ways of thinking and behaving that may be damaging or contribute to depression. RODOLFO : I had one really good therapist and ...

  12. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... funded by $3.1 million NIH grant Human brain networks developing in adolescence related to evolutionary expansion Low levels of 'anti-anxiety' hormone linked to postpartum depression Dopamine neurons factor ambiguity into predictions enabling us to 'win ...

  13. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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  14. Depressive Symptoms and Psychosocial Functioning in Preadolescent Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marita McCabe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study was designed to determine the percentage of children “at-risk” of depression or evidencing clinical levels of depression. In addition, the study examined how the “at-risk” and the clinical groups differed from children who demonstrated no depressive symptoms on positive and negative affect, four aspects of self-concept, and peer ratings of popularity. Respondents were 510 children (270 boys 240 girls who ranged in age from 7 to 13 years (mean = 9.39. The results demonstrated that 23% of children were either in the “at-risk” or clinical range of depression. Children in both the clinical and the “at-risk” range demonstrated higher negative affect but lower positive affect and lower self-concepts than children in the normal range. However, children's peers only differentiated between the “clinical” and “normal” groups. It is harder for peers, and other informants such as teachers and parents, to detect the problems of children with elevated depressive symptoms but who do not meet the diagnostic criteria. It is important to implement intervention programs for children who evidence depression symptoms, as well as “at-risk” children. “At-risk” children with elevated levels of depressive symptoms may be more disadvantaged, as their problems are less likely to be detected and treated.

  15. Maternal depressive symptoms, toddler emotion regulation, and subsequent emotion socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premo, Julie E; Kiel, Elizabeth J

    2016-03-01

    Although many studies have examined how maternal depressive symptoms relate to parenting outcomes, less work has examined how symptoms affect emotion socialization, a parenting construct linked to a myriad of socioemotional outcomes in early childhood. In line with a transactional perspective on the family, it is also important to understand how children contribute to these emotional processes. The current study examined how toddler emotion regulation strategies moderated the relation between maternal depressive symptoms and emotion socialization responses, including nonsupportive responses (e.g., minimizing, responding punitively to children's negative emotions) and wish-granting, or the degree to which mothers give in to their children's demands in order to decrease their children's and their own distress. Mothers (n = 91) and their 24-month-old toddlers participated in laboratory tasks from which toddler emotion regulation behaviors were observed. Mothers reported depressive symptoms and use of maladaptive emotion socialization strategies concurrently and at a 1-year follow-up. The predictive relation between maternal depressive symptoms and emotion socialization was then examined in the context of toddlers' emotion regulation. Toddlers' increased use of caregiver-focused regulation interacted with depressive symptoms in predicting increased wish-granting socialization responses at 36 months. At high levels of toddlers' caregiver-focused regulation, depressive symptoms related to increased wish-granting socialization at 36 months. There was no relation for nonsupportive socialization responses. Results suggest that toddler emotional characteristics influence how depressive symptoms may put mothers at risk for maladaptive parenting. Family psychologists must strive to understand the role of both parent and toddler characteristics within problematic emotional interactions.

  16. Prenatal maternal depression symptoms and nutrition, and child cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Edward D; Kirkham, Natasha; Ng, Jane; Jensen, Sarah K G

    2013-12-01

    Little is currently known about how maternal depression symptoms and unhealthy nutrition during pregnancy may developmentally interrelate to negatively affect child cognitive function. To test whether prenatal maternal depression symptoms predict poor prenatal nutrition, and whether this in turn prospectively associates with reduced postnatal child cognitive function. In 6979 mother-offspring pairs participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) in the UK, maternal depression symptoms were assessed five times between 18 weeks gestation and 33 months old. Maternal reports of the nutritional environment were assessed at 32 weeks gestation and 47 months old, and child cognitive function was assessed at age 8 years. During gestation, higher depressive symptoms were related to lower levels of healthy nutrition and higher levels of unhealthy nutrition, each of which in turn was prospectively associated with reduced cognitive function. These results were robust to postnatal depression symptoms and nutrition, as well as a range of potential prenatal and postnatal confounds (i.e. poverty, teenage mother, low maternal education, parity, birth complications, substance use, criminal lifestyle, partner cruelty towards mother). Prenatal interventions aimed at the well-being of children of parents with depression should consider targeting the nutritional environment.

  17. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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  18. Maternal Psychological Control, Use of Supportive Parenting, and Childhood Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazer, Andrew L; Fite, Paula J

    2016-06-01

    The current study, operating from a stress-process framework, examined the interactive effects of supportive parenting practices (i.e., mothers' use of positive communication, positive parenting, and parental involvement) and maternal psychological control on mother- and child-reported child depressive symptoms in a community-recruited sample of 9-12 year-olds. Discrepancies between reports of depressive symptoms were also examined. Maternal psychological control was uniquely associated with child-, not mother-, reported depressive symptoms. Parental involvement was uniquely associated with mother-, not child-, reported depressive symptoms. Positive parent-child communication was associated with both reports of child depressive symptoms at the bivariate level, but not when unique associations were examined. Positive parenting was unrelated to either report of depressive symptoms. No interaction effects were detected. The current findings highlight the differential importance of parenting practices on child depressive symptoms, and also indicate the necessity of gathering both parent and child reports of symptomatology and family functioning.

  19. Pituitary gland volume in currently depressed and remitted depressed patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzetti, Valentina; Allen, Nicholas B; Fornito, Alex; Pantelis, Christos; De Plato, Giovanni; Ang, Anthony; Yücel, Murat

    2009-04-30

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) has been associated with increased pituitary gland volume (PGV), which is thought to reflect stress-related dysregulation related to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. However, it is unclear whether PGV alteration reflects a "dynamic" change related to current mood instability or if it is a stable marker of illness vulnerability. In this study we investigated PGV in currently depressed patients (cMDD) (n=31), remitted depressed patients (rMDD) (n=31) and healthy controls (n=33), using 1.5 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The groups were matched for age and gender. We found no significant PGV, intra-cranial volume (ICV) or whole brain volume (WBV) differences between cMDD patients, rMDD patients and healthy controls. Furthermore, PGV was not correlated with clinical features of depression (e.g., age of onset; number of episodes; and scores on subscales of the Beck Depression Inventory, the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale, and the Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire). In conclusion, PGV does not appear to be a marker of current or past MDD in adult patients.

  20. Emotion Regulation and Depressive Symptoms in Preadolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siener, Shannon; Kerns, Kathryn A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined associations among several measures of emotion regulation, and their links to depressive symptoms, in a sample of children ages 10-12 years old (N = 87). Both temporal features of emotion regulation and regulation processes involved in the evaluation, monitoring, and modification of emotion were assessed through parent and…

  1. Does Early Adolescent Sex Cause Depressive Symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabia, Joseph J.

    2006-01-01

    A recent study by the Heritage Foundation (Rector, Johnson, & Noyes, 2003) found evidence of a positive relationship between early sexual intercourse and depressive symptoms. This finding has been used to bolster support for funding abstinence only sex education. However, promoting abstinence will only yield mental health benefits if there is…

  2. Social anxiety and insomnia: the mediating role of depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Julia D; Bernert, Rebecca A; Cromer, Kiara R; Joiner, Thomas E; Schmidt, Norman B

    2008-01-01

    Anxiety is commonly associated with insomnia. Given that social anxiety disorder is one of the most prevalent anxiety disorders, socially anxious individuals may be particularly vulnerable to insomnia. However, there is currently very little empirical work on this relationship. This study used bivariate correlations to examine whether social anxiety was related to insomnia in an undergraduate sample (n=176) using the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and the Insomnia Severity Index. Further, we utilized responses from the Beck Depression Inventory to investigate the role of depressive symptoms in the association between social anxiety and insomnia. Hierarchical linear regressions were used to examine the moderational and mediational role of depressive symptoms in the link between social anxiety and insomnia. To increase generalizability to clinical samples, analyses were repeated on a subset of the sample with clinically significant social anxiety symptoms (n=23) compared to a matched control group (n=23). Consistent with expectation, social anxiety was associated with increased insomnia symptoms. Specifically, social anxiety was correlated with sleep dissatisfaction, sleep-related functional impairment, perception of a sleep problem to others, and distress about sleep problems. Importantly, depressive symptoms mediated the relationship between social anxiety and insomnia, thereby at least partially accounting for insomnia among socially anxious individuals. Our data support the contention that social anxiety is associated with insomnia and suggest that depression may play a vital role in this co-occurrence.

  3. School Climate, Discrimination, and Depressive Symptoms among Asian American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cixin; Atwal, Kavita

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined a multidimensional, developmental, and transactional model for depressive symptoms among Asian American adolescents using longitudinal data from 1,664 Asian American adolescents in the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study (CILS). Specifically, the relationships among school climate, acculturation, perceived…

  4. Self-compassion in depression: associations with depressive symptoms, rumination, and avoidance in depressed outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Tobias; Altenstein, David; Baettig, Isabelle; Doerig, Nadja; Holtforth, Martin Grosse

    2013-09-01

    Self-compassion involves being kind to oneself when challenged with personal weaknesses or hardship and has been claimed to be associated with resilience in various areas. So far, there are only a handful of studies that investigate self-compassion and its relation to clinical depression. Therefore, the principal goals of the present study were (a) to compare self-compassion in clinically depressed patients and never-depressed subjects, (b) to investigate self-compassion and its relation to cognitive-behavioral avoidance and rumination in depressed outpatients, and (c) to investigate rumination and avoidance as mediators of the relationship between self-compassion and depressive symptoms. One hundred and forty-two depressed outpatients and 120 never-depressed individuals from a community sample completed a self-report measure of self-compassion along with other measures. Results indicate that depressed patients showed lower levels of self-compassion than never-depressed individuals, even when controlled for depressive symptoms. In depressed outpatients, self-compassion was negatively related to depressive symptoms, symptom-focused rumination, as well as cognitive and behavioral avoidance. Additionally, symptom-focused rumination and cognitive and behavioral avoidance mediated the relationship between self-compassion and depressive symptoms. These findings extend previous research on self-compassion, its relation to depression, as well as processes mediating this relationship, and highlight the importance of self-compassion in clinically depressed patients. Since depressed patients seem to have difficulties adopting a self-compassionate attitude, psychotherapists are well advised to explore and address how depressed patients treat themselves.

  5. Vegetarian diets and depressive symptoms among men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbeln, Joseph R; Northstone, Kate; Evans, Jonathan; Golding, Jean

    2018-01-01

    Vegetarian diets are associate with cardiovascular and other health benefits, but little is known about mental health benefits or risks. To determine whether self-identification of vegetarian dietary habits is associated with significant depressive symptoms in men. Self-report data from 9668 adult male partners of pregnant women in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) included identification as vegetarian or vegan, dietary frequency data and the Edinburgh Post Natal Depression Scale (EPDS). Continuous and binary outcomes were assessed using multiple linear and logistic regression taking account of potential confounding variables including: age, marital status, employment status, housing tenure, number of children in the household, religion, family history of depression previous childhood psychiatric contact, cigarette and alcohol consumption. Vegetarians [n = 350 (3.6% of sample)], had higher depression scores on average than non-vegetarians (mean difference 0.96 points [95%CI + 0.53, + 1.40]) and a greater risk for EPDS scores above 10 (adjusted OR = 1.67 [95% CI: 1.14,2.44]) than non-vegetarians after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Vegetarian men have more depressive symptoms after adjustment for socio-demographic factors. Nutritional deficiencies (e.g. in cobalamin or iron) are a possible explanation for these findings, however reverse causation cannot be ruled out. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Patterns of depressive symptoms in epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos I. Triantafyllou

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the nature and extent of depressive symptoms among patients with epilepsy.Methods:Ninety patients were investigated over a three-month period: 42 were suffering from generalized epilepsy, 29 from focal epilepsy and 19 from undetermined epilepsy. All completed the Zung self-rating scale for assessment of the depressive symptoms.Results:Sixty-seven patients felt stigmatized because of epilepsy (67%: 73.6% in the undetermined epilepsy group, 55.1% in the focal epilepsy group and 88% in the generalized epilepsy group. Moreover, among the 90 epileptic patients studied, symptoms of irritability, indecisiveness, personal devaluation and emptiness showed a constant increasing trend for their presence from the undetermined epilepsy group through the generalized epilepsy group to the focal epilepsy group.Conclusions:These findings indicate that although the focal epilepsy patients felt less stigmatized, they did not differ greatly in terms of depressive symptoms, in relation to the undetermined epilepsy and generalized epilepsy patients.

  7. Metacognitions and Mindful Attention Awareness in Depression: A Comparison Of Currently Depressed, Previously Depressed and Never Depressed Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solem, Stian; Hagen, Roger; Wang, Catharina E A; Hjemdal, Odin; Waterloo, Knut; Eisemann, Martin; Halvorsen, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    The primary aim of the study was to test (1) how metacognition relates to the concept of mindful attention awareness, and (2) whether metacognitions or mindful attention awareness best predicted symptoms of depression. Data was collected from three samples: currently depressed (n = 37), previously depressed (n = 81) and never depressed controls (n = 50). There was a moderate correlation between mindful attention awareness and three of five metacognitive subscales. Both mindful attention awareness and metacognition were significantly correlated with depression severity scores after controlling for anxiety. The depressed group had significantly more dysfunctional metacognitions and less mindful attention awareness than the never depressed group. Negative beliefs about worry and mindful attention awareness were also significantly different in the previously depressed group compared with the never depressed. This suggests that metacognitions and mindful attention awareness can be vulnerability factors for depression. The results also indicated that anxiety symptoms and negative beliefs about worry were the most important factors in predicting depression. In conclusion, the study shows that metacognitions and mindful attention awareness are two related but separate constructs and that metacognitions emerged as the best predictor of depression. These results provide support for the metacognitive model of emotional disorders. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Metacognitions and mindful attention awareness are related but separate constructs Both mindful attention awareness and metacognition are associated with depression Anxiety and negative beliefs about worry (metacognitions) are most important in predicting depression Addressing metacognitions in therapy should be considered in treatment of depression. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Association between burnout and depressive symptoms among Turkish dentists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meral Huri

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Dentists may face burnout and depressive symptoms during their professional life. Increased burnout level can give an idea on depressive symptoms, and may provide an opportunity to identify depression earlier. Creating and raising awareness about burnout are important to avoid and prevent depression among dentists. Further longitudinal studies analyzing the effects of interdisciplinary client-centered self-management programs for dentists on depressive symptoms and burnout must be planned.

  9. School functioning in adolescents with chronic pain: the role of depressive symptoms in school impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Deirdre E; Simons, Laura E; Kaczynski, Karen J

    2009-09-01

    To explore associations between depressive symptoms and school functioning, including school attendance, academic performance, self-perceived academic competence, and teacher-rated school adjustment among predominantly Caucasian and female adolescent chronic pain patients. A total of 217 clinically referred adolescents (aged 12-17 years) and their parents completed measures of pain characteristics, depression, and school functioning. Additional data were collected from school records and teacher reports. Depressive symptoms strongly correlated with school functioning indicators. In linear regression analyses, higher levels of depressive symptoms predicted more school impairment. A model testing whether depressive symptoms mediated the association between current pain intensity and parent perceptions of the interference of pain on school functioning was supported by the data. Depressive symptoms play a key role in influencing the extent of school impairment in adolescents with chronic pain. Interventions to alleviate depressive symptoms may enhance treatments designed to improve school functioning in this population.

  10. Emotion work within eldercare and depressive symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Louise M.; Jorgensen, Anette F. B.; Thomsen, Birthe L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Danish professional caregivers have high rates of depressive symptoms. One proposed cause is exposure to emotion work. However, emotion work is usually measured by self-report which may bias results. Objectives: The objective of this study was to examine the association of emotion work...... professional caregivers working in 56 work units across 10 eldercare homes. Emotion work stressors were defined as i) barriers for empathetic care, ii) taxing aggressive events, and iii) taxing non-aggressive events. Emotion work resources were defined as i) meaningful events, and ii) social interactions...... between professional caregivers and residents. Depressive symptoms were measured by a questionnaire sent to all professional caregivers at the 10 eldercare homes. We constructed two samples for analysis: a) a sample of 95 directly observed professional caregivers with full information on covariates, and b...

  11. Trajectories of Postpartum Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Children's Social Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yelena P.; Selig, James P.; Roberts, Michael C.; Steele, Ric G.

    2011-01-01

    The vast majority of new mothers experience at least some depressive symptoms. Postpartum maternal depressive symptoms can greatly influence children's outcomes (e.g., emotional, cognitive, language, and social development). However, there have been relatively few longitudinal studies of how maternal depressive symptoms may influence children's…

  12. Pathways from Depressive Symptoms to Low Social Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agoston, Anna M.; Rudolph, Karen D.

    2013-01-01

    This research examined two pathways through which depressive symptoms contribute to low social status (i.e., neglect and rejection) within the peer group over time: (a) depressive symptoms promote socially helpless behavior and consequent neglect by peers; and (b) depressive symptoms promote aggressive behavior and consequent rejection by peers.…

  13. Predictivity of Early Depressive Symptoms for Post-Stroke Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin-Richter, A; Volz, M; Jöbges, M; Werheid, K

    2015-08-01

    Depression is a frequent complication after stroke. However, little is known about the predictive value of early self-reported depressive symptoms (DS) for later development of post-stroke depression (PSD) 6 months after discharge. Using a prospective longitudinal design, we investigated the prevalence of DS and examined their predictive value for depressive disorders 6 months after stroke while statistically controlling major established PSD risk factors. During inpatient rehabilitation, 96 stroke patients were screened for DS. After 6 months, 71 patients were attainable for a follow-up. DS was assessed using the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15). At follow-up a telephone interview that included the Structured Clinical Interview for Psychiatric Disorders (SCID), which is based on DSM-IV criteria, and the GDS-15 was conducted. Patients with major depression (MD) at the follow-up were considered to have PSD. Regression analyses were conducted to examine the influence of early DS on PSD after 6 months while controlling for age, premorbid depression, and functional and cognitive impairments. The percentage of patients who scored above the GDS-15 cut-off for clinically relevant DS increased significantly, from 37% to 44%, after 6 months. According to the SCID, 27% of stroke patients fulfilled the criteria for MD, and another 16% fulfilled those for minor depression. Logistic regression showed that DS at baseline significantly predicted PSD at follow-up (odds ratio: 1.43; 95% CI: 1.15-1.8). Self-reported DS during inpatient rehabilitation are predictive for PSD 6 months after discharge. Assessment of early DS contributes to identifying stroke patients at risk for PSD, thereby facilitating prevention and treatment.

  14. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment options for depression and depressive symptoms in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania S. Grigoriou

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Depression is a mental disorder with a high prevalence among patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD. It is reported that depression afflicts approximately 20-30% of this patient population, being associated, amongst other, with high mortality rate, low adherence to medication and low perceived quality of life. There is a variety of medications known to be effective for the treatment of depression but due to poor adherence to treatment as well as due to the high need for medications addressing other ESRD comorbidities, depression often remains untreated. According to the literature, depression is under-diagnosed and undertreated in the majority of the patients with chronic kidney disease. In the current review the main pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches and research outcomes for the management of depressive symptoms in hemodialysis patients are discussed.

  15. Is postpartum depression a homogenous disorder: time of onset, severity, symptoms and hopelessness in relation to the course of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettunen, Pirjo; Koistinen, Eeva; Hintikka, Jukka

    2014-12-10

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a common illness, but due to the underlying processes and the diversity of symptoms, some variability is exhibited. The risk of postpartum depression is great if the mother has previously suffered from depression, but there is some evidence that a certain subgroup of women only experience depression during the postpartum period. The study group consisted of 104 mothers with postpartum major depression and a control group of 104 postpartum mothers without depression. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I) was used for data collection. The severity of depression and other mental symptoms were assessed using several validated rating scales. A history of past depression (82%), including depression during pregnancy (42%) and during the postpartum period (53%), was very common in those with current PPD. Eighteen per cent of mothers with current PPD had previously not had any depressive episodes and four per cent had experienced depression only during the postpartum period. Therefore, pure PPD was rare. The onset of PPD was usually (84%) within six weeks of childbirth. Obsessive-compulsive symptoms, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, depressed mood, diminished pleasure/interest, decreased energy, and psychomotor agitation/retardation were common with all kinds of depression histories. Pure PPD was the most similar to the first depressive episode. Nevertheless, the severity of depression, the level of hopelessness, somatisation, interpersonal sensitivity, anxiety, hostility, psychoticism, sleep disturbance, and suicidal ideation were lower, appetite changed less, and concentration was better than in other recurrent depressions. According to this study, PPD is not a homogenous disorder. The time of onset, severity, symptoms, level of hopelessness, and the course of depression vary. Recurrent depression is common. All mothers must be screened during the sixth week postpartum at the latest. Screening alone is not

  16. Bidirectionality Between Sleep Symptoms and Cores Depressive Symptoms and Their Long-Term Course in Major Depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwmans, Mara E J; Conradi, Henk Jan; Bos, Elisabeth H; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; de Jonge, Peter

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the bidirectional dynamic relationship between sleep symptoms and core depressive symptoms and to identify subgroups differing with respect to their course. METHODS: The weekly state of depressive symptoms in depressed primary care patients (N = 267) was assessed retrospec

  17. A systematic review of instruments to measure depressive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lako, Irene M.; Bruggeman, R.; Knegtering, H.; Wiersma, D.; Schoevers, R. A.; Slooff, C. J.; Taxis, K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Depressive symptoms require accurate recognition and monitoring in clinical practice of patients with schizophrenia. Depression instruments developed for use in depressed patients may not discriminate depressive symptoms from negative psychotic symptoms. Objective: We reviewed depression

  18. Children's symptoms of posttraumatic stress and depression after a natural disaster: comorbidity and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Betty S; La Greca, Annette M; Auslander, Beth A; Short, Mary B

    2013-03-20

    The current study examined rates of comorbidity among children's symptoms of posttraumatic stress (PTS) and depression after a natural disaster, Hurricane Ike. We also compared children with comorbid symptoms to children without comorbid symptoms, examining recovery, severity of symptoms, and risk factors. Children (n=277; 52% girls; 38% Hispanic, 28% White, 19% Black; grades 2-4) were assessed at 8 and 15 months postdisaster. Children completed measures of PTS and depressive symptoms at both time points and measures of exposure and recovery stressors at 8 months postdisaster. At 8 months postdisaster, 13% of children reported elevated PTS-only, 11% depression-only, and 10% comorbid symptoms of PTS and depression. At 15 months postdisaster, 7% of children reported elevated PTS-only, 11% depression-only, and 7% comorbid symptoms of PTS and depression. Children with comorbid symptoms of PTS and depression had poorer recovery, more severe symptoms, and they reported greater exposure and recovery stressors. We lacked information on children's predisaster functioning and diagnostic interview of psychological distress symptoms. Children with comorbid symptoms need to be identified early postdisaster. Levels of stressors should be monitored postdisaster, as highly stressed youth have difficulties recovering and may need help. Interventions should be tailored for children with comorbid symptoms of PTS and depression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Major depression and depressive symptoms in Australian Gulf War veterans 20 years after the Gulf War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikin, J F; McKenzie, D P; Gwini, S M; Kelsall, H L; Creamer, M; McFarlane, A C; Clarke, D M; Wright, B; Sim, M

    2016-01-01

    Risk of major depression (depression) was elevated in Australia's Gulf War veterans in a 2000-2002 (baseline) study. A follow up study has measured the Gulf War-related risk factors for depression, also the current prevalence and severity of depression, use of anti-depressant medication, and persistence, remittance or incidence of depression since baseline in Gulf War veterans and a military comparison group. Participants completed the Composite International Diagnostic Interview v.2.1, the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire and the Military Service Experience Questionnaire, and consented to Repatriation Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (RPBS) and PBS linkage. Prevalence of depression (9.7% Gulf War veterans and 7.7% comparison group; adj RR=1.2, 95% CI 0.8-1.7), and pattern of persistence, remittance and incidence of depression since baseline, were similar in the two groups, however veterans reported slightly more severe symptoms (adj median difference 1, 95% CI 0.26-1.74) and were more likely to have been dispensed anti-depressant medication (adj RR=1.56, 95% CI 1.05-2.32). Depression amongst veterans was associated with self-reported Gulf War-related stressors in a dose-response relationship (adj RR 1.06, 95% CI 1.02-1.09). Lower participation rates at follow up resulted in reduced statistical power compared with baseline, Gulf War related stressor data collected at baseline was at risk of recall bias, and RPBS and PBS databases do not capture all dispensed Nervous System medications. More than 20 years after the Gulf War, veterans are experiencing slightly more severe depressive symptoms than a military comparison group, and depression continues to be associated with Gulf War-related stressors. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Promoting resilience in children with depressive symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Sánchez-Hernández

    Full Text Available A pilot study was conducted with the primary objective to study the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral intervention inspired by the Penn Resiliency Program (PRP; Gillham, Jaycox, Reivich, Seligman, & Silver, 1990; Seligman, Reivich, Jaycox, & Gillham, 2005, for the prevention of depression in students from primary education. The main components of the program include modifying explanatory style and resolving interpersonal problems. Results indicated that there was significant improvement from pre-test to post-test in the experimental group for children with "high depressive symptoms" compared with controls. Qualitative analysis were consistent with this trend. Conclusions in light of these results are discussed and potential directions for future research are recommended.

  1. An Open Trial Investigation of a Transdiagnostic Group Treatment for Children with Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilek, Emily L.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill

    2012-01-01

    The current study investigates the feasibility and preliminary outcomes associated with a transdiagnostic emotion-focused group protocol for the treatment of anxiety disorders and depressive symptoms in youth. Twenty-two children (ages 7 to 12; M = 9.79) with a principal anxiety disorder and varying levels of comorbid depressive symptoms were…

  2. Maternal Depressive Symptoms as a Predictor of Alcohol Use Onset and Heavy Episodic Drinking in Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamis, Dorian A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Lochman, John E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The current study addressed a gap in the literature by investigating the association between maternal depressive symptoms and subsequent timing of their children's alcohol use onset and heavy episodic drinking (HED). Childhood depression/dysthymia symptoms, harsh discipline, and parental positive regard were examined as potential…

  3. Implications of Timing of Maternal Depressive Symptoms for Early Cognitive and Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohr-Preston, Sara L.; Scaramella, Laura V.

    2006-01-01

    Statistically, women, particularly pregnant women and new mothers, are at heightened risk for depression. The present review describes the current state of the research linking maternal depressed mood and children's cognitive and language development. Exposure to maternal depressive symptoms, whether during the prenatal period, postpartum period,…

  4. Disasters and Depressive Symptoms in Children: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Betty S.; Auslander, Beth A.; Fitzpatrick, Stephanie L.; Podkowirow, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    Background: Disasters are destructive, potentially traumatic events that affect millions of youth each year. Objective: The purpose of this paper was to review the literature on depressive symptoms among youth after disasters. Specifically, we examined the prevalence of depression, risk factors associated with depressive symptoms, and theories…

  5. Longitudinal associations between smoking and depressive symptoms among adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, Sarah J; Negriff, Sonya; Dorn, Lorah D; Pabst, Stephanie; Schulenberg, John

    2014-08-01

    Adolescence is an important period for initiation of smoking and manifestation of depression, which are often comorbid. Researchers have examined associations between depressive symptoms and smoking to elucidate whether those with increased depressive symptoms smoke more to self-medicate, whether those who smoke experience increased subsequent depressive symptoms, or both. Collectively, there have been mixed findings; however, studies have been limited by (1) cross-sectional or short-term longitudinal data or (2) the use of methods that test associations, or only one direction in the associations, rather than a fully-reciprocal model to examine directionality. This study examined the associations between smoking and depressive symptoms in a sample of adolescent girls using latent dual change scores to model (1) the effect of smoking on change in depressive symptoms, and simultaneously (2) the effect of depressive symptoms on change in smoking across ages 11-20. Data were from a cohort-sequential prospective longitudinal study (N = 262). Girls were enrolled by age cohort (11, 13, 15, and 17 years) and were primarily White (61 %) or African American (31 %). Data were restructured by age. Every 6 months, girls reported depressive symptoms and cigarette use. Results indicated that controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, higher levels of smoking predicted a greater increase in depressive symptoms across adolescence. These findings suggest that a higher level of cigarette smoking does contribute to more depressive symptoms, which has implications for prevention of depression and for intervention and future research.

  6. Maternal Depressive Symptoms in Pediatric Major Depressive Disorder: Relationship to Acute Treatment Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennard, Betsy D.; Hughes, Jennifer L.; Stewart, Sunita M.; Mayes, Taryn; Nightingale-Teresi, Jeanne; Tao, Rongrong; Carmody, Thomas; Emslie, Graham J.

    2008-01-01

    A study examined maternal depressive symptoms at the beginning and end of acute pediatric treatment of children with major depressive disorder (MDD). Results suggested a direct and possible reciprocal association between maternal and child depression severity.

  7. Disruptive Behavior Disorders and Marijuana Use: The Role of Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Melanie C.; Benson, Kari; Flory, Kate

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The present study sought to examine the relations among disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs; ie, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], conduct disorder [CD], oppositional defiant disorder [ODD]), depressive symptoms, and marijuana use among a sample of late adolescents and emerging adults. METHOD A total of 900 students (75.8% female, 80.3% Caucasian, Mage = 20) from a large public university completed an online survey. RESULTS Findings indicated that depressive symptoms mediated the relation between the marijuana use and past symptoms of ADHD, past diagnosis of ADHD, CD symptoms, CD diagnosis, and ODD diagnosis. CONCLUSION Depressive symptoms represent a link between DBDs and marijuana use that is suggested, but not well documented in the existing literature. The current findings add to this evidence and suggest a need to assess individuals presenting with symptoms of DBDs for depressive symptoms, as this symptom pattern may result in a greater likelihood of marijuana use. PMID:27594786

  8. Social networks and depressive symptoms among elderly women and men in Havana, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicotte, Maryline; Alvarado, Beatriz Eugenia; León, Esther-Maria; Zunzunegui, Maria-Victoria

    2008-03-01

    To examine the main and the stress-buffering effects of social networks on depressive symptoms among elderly Cuban men and women living in La Havana. Information was gathered from a representative sample of the elderly population in Havana (n = 1905), as part of the SABE (Salud, Bienestary Enuejecimiento) study. Depressive symptoms were measured using the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale. The structure and function of social networks were studied. Gender-specific multivariate logistic regressions were fitted to test the main (independent of stressors) and the stress-buffering effects (in the presence of financial strain or disabilities) on depressive symptoms. Social ties were associated with a lower prevalence of depressive symptoms in women and men independently of the presence of stressors. Women who were or had been married, lived in an extended family, and enjoyed balanced exchanges with relatives and children reported low prevalence of depressive symptoms. Men were less likely to report depressive symptoms if they were currently married, and did not live alone. Social networks buffered the effect of financial strain on depression, but not in the event of disability. In Cuba, networks centered on children and extended family were associated with low frequency of depressive symptoms, ruling contrary to common findings in developed societies. These living arrangements have an important role in buffering the impact of financial strain on depressive symptoms.

  9. Parenting intervention effects on parental depressive symptoms: examining the role of parenting and child behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jessie J; Gonzales, Nancy A; Montaño, Zorash; Dumka, Larry; Millsap, Roger E

    2014-06-01

    Parental depression is a major risk factor in child development. Growing research suggests parenting programs can positively impact parental depressive symptoms, although the specific mechanisms that explain these effects are unknown. The current study examined parenting mediated effects of a parenting program on mothers' and fathers' depressive symptoms, as well as the role of child behavior in linking parenting to reductions in depressive symptoms. The study samples included 494 mothers and 288 fathers of Mexican origin adolescents who participated in a randomized trial of the Bridges to High School Program/Proyecto Puentes a la Secundaria, a universal prevention and promotion intervention that included parent training but did not directly target parental depressive symptoms. Parenting mediator models tested program effects on parental depressive symptoms through changes in harsh and supportive parenting. Results showed a significant indirect intervention effect on maternal depressive symptoms through changes in mothers' harsh parenting. Next, child behavior models revealed a partial mediation effect of harsh parenting and a full mediation effect of supportive parenting on maternal depressive symptoms through mothers' reports of child externalizing symptoms. Indirect effects of fathers' harsh and supportive parenting on paternal depressive symptoms were also found through fathers' reports of child behavior.

  10. “Love Hurts”: Romantic Attachment and Depressive Symptoms in Pregnant Adolescent and Young Adult Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrosiers, Alethea; Sipsma, Heather; Callands, Tamora; Hansen, Nathan; Divney, Anna; Magriples, Urania; Kershaw, Trace

    2014-01-01

    Objective The current study investigates the relationship between romantic attachment style and depressive symptoms between both members of pregnant adolescent and young adult couples. Method Participants were 296 pregnant young females (mean age = 18.7) and their male partners (mean age = 21.3; 592 total participants) who were recruited from obstetrics and gynecology clinics in Connecticut. The dimensions of avoidant and anxious romantic attachment were assessed using the Experiences in Close Relationships Inventory. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale. Results Results showed that avoidant attachment and anxious attachment were significantly positively related to depressive symptoms. Multilevel modeling for partner effects revealed that anxious attachment and depressive symptoms in partners were significantly positively associated with depressive symptoms Conclusion Findings underscore the importance of considering couples-based approaches to supporting the transition to parenthood and developing the necessary self and relationship skills to manage attachment needs and relationship challenges. PMID:23794358

  11. "Love hurts": romantic attachment and depressive symptoms in pregnant adolescent and young adult couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrosiers, Alethea; Sipsma, Heather; Callands, Tamora; Hansen, Nathan; Divney, Anna; Magriples, Urania; Kershaw, Trace

    2014-01-01

    The current study investigates the relationship between romantic attachment style and depressive symptoms between both members of pregnant adolescent and young adult couples. Participants were 296 pregnant young females (mean age = 18.7) and their male partners (mean age = 21.3; 592 total participants) who were recruited from obstetrics and gynecology clinics in Connecticut. The dimensions of avoidant and anxious romantic attachment were assessed using the Experiences in Close Relationships Inventory. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale. Results showed that avoidant attachment and anxious attachment were significantly positively related to depressive symptoms. Multilevel modeling for partner effects revealed that anxious attachment and depressive symptoms in partners were significantly positively associated with depressive symptoms Findings underscore the importance of considering couples-based approaches to supporting the transition to parenthood and developing the necessary self and relationship skills to manage attachment needs and relationship challenges. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Factors associated with antenatal depression in pregnant Korean females: the effect of bipolarity on depressive symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Chul Min; Seo, Hye-Jin; Jung, Young-Eun; Kim, Moon-Doo; Hong,Seong-Chul; Bahk, Won-Myong; Yoon, Bo-Hyun; Hur, Min Hee; Song, Jae Min

    2014-01-01

    Background This cross-sectional study sought to identify factors associated with antenatal depression in pregnant Korean females, including sociodemographic parameters, social support, social conflict, and bipolarity. Methods Eighty-four pregnant women were recruited to complete questionnaires on sociodemographic factors, obstetric history, depressive symptoms, and bipolarity. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Korean version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Bipolarity wa...

  13. Impact of Comorbidity in Prevention of Adolescent Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possel, Patrick; Seemann, Simone; Hautzinger, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Despite the well-known relevance of comorbidity, few studies have examined the impact of comorbid anxiety or externalizing symptoms on the prevention of depressive symptoms in adolescents. To replicate earlier positive effects of a cognitive-behavioral prevention program of depressive symptoms and to test the hypothesis that the prevention program…

  14. Inferential Style, School Teachers, and Depressive Symptoms in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittard, Caroline M.; Pössel, Patrick; Lau, Timothy

    2017-01-01

    Depressive symptoms affect around half of students at some point during college. According to the hopelessness theory of depression, making negative inferences about stressful events is a vulnerability for developing depression. Negative and socio-emotional teaching behavior can be stressors that are associated with depression in school students.…

  15. A Genome-Wide Association Study of Depressive Symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hek, Karin; Demirkan, Ayse; Lahti, Jari; Terracciano, Antonio; Teumer, Alexander; Cornelis, Marilyn C.; Amin, Najaf; Bakshis, Erin; Baumert, Jens; Ding, Jingzhong; Liu, Yongmei; Marciante, Kristin; Meirelles, Osorio; Nalls, Michael A.; Sun, Yan V.; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Yu, Lei; Bandinelli, Stefania; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Bennett, David A.; Boomsma, Dorret; Cannas, Alessandra; Coker, Laura H.; de Geus, Eco; De Jager, Philip L.; Diez-Roux, Ana V.; Purcell, Shaun; Hu, Frank B.; Rimm, Eric B.; Hunter, David J.; Jensen, Majken K.; Curhan, Gary; Rice, Kenneth; Penman, Alan D.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Emeny, Rebecca; Eriksson, Johan G.; Evans, Denis A.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Fornage, Myriam; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Hofman, Albert; Illig, Thomas; Kardia, Sharon; Kelly-Hayes, Margaret; Koenen, Karestan; Kraft, Peter; Kuningas, Maris; Massaro, Joseph M.; Melzer, David; Mulas, Antonella; Mulder, Cornelis L.; Murray, Anna; Oostra, Ben A.; Palotie, Aarno; Penninx, Brenda; Petersmann, Astrid; Pilling, Luke C.; Psaty, Bruce; Rawal, Rajesh; Reiman, Eric M.; Schulz, Andrea; Shulman, Joshua M.; Singleton, Andrew B.; Smith, Albert V.; Sutin, Angelina R.; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Voelzke, Henry; Widen, Elisabeth; Yaffe, Kristine; Zonderman, Alan B.; Cucca, Francesco; Harris, Tamara; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz; Llewellyn, David J.; Raikkonen, Katri; Tanaka, Toshiko; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Grabe, Hans J.; Launer, Lenore J.; Lunetta, Kathryn L.; Mosley, Thomas H.; Newman, Anne B.; Tiemeier, Henning; Murabito, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    Background: Depression is a heritable trait that exists on a continuum of varying severity and duration. Yet, the search for genetic variants associated with depression has had few successes. We exploit the entire continuum of depression to find common variants for depressive symptoms. Methods: In t

  16. A genome-wide association study of depressive symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Hek (Karin); A. Demirkan (Ayşe); J. Lahti (Jari); A. Terracciano; A. Teumer (Alexander); M. Cornelis (Marilyn); N. Amin (Najaf); E. Bakshis (Erin); J. Baumert (Jens); J. Ding (Jinhui); Y. Liu (Yongmei); K. Marciante (Kristin); O. Meirelles; M.A. Nalls (Michael); Y.V. Sun (Yan); N. Vogelzangs (Nicole); L. Yu (Lei); S. Bandinelli (Stefania); E.J. Benjamin (Emelia); D.A. Bennett (David); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); A. Cannas; L.H. Coker (Laura); E.J.C. de Geus (Eco); P.L. de Jager (Philip); A.V. Diez-Roux (Ana); S. Purcell (Shaun); F.B. Hu (Frank); E. Rimm; D.J. Hunter (David); M.K. Jensen (Majken); G.C. Curhan (Gary); K.M. Rice (Kenneth); A.D. Penman (Alan); J.I. Rotter (Jerome); N. Sotoodehnia (Nona); R. Emeny (Rebecca); J.G. Eriksson (Johan); D.A. Evans (Denis); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); M. Fornage (Myriam); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); A. Hofman (Albert); T. Illig (Thomas); S.L.R. Kardia (Sharon); M. Kelly-Hayes (Margaret); M.E. Koenen (Marjorie); P. Kraft (Peter); M. Kuningas (Maris); J. Massaro (Joseph); D. Melzer (David); A. Mulas (Antonella); C.L. Mulder (Niels); A. Murray (Anna); B.A. Oostra (Ben); A. Palotie (Aarno); B.W.J.H. Penninx (Brenda); A. Petersmann (Astrid); L.C. Pilling (Luke); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); R. Rawal (R.); E.M. Reiman (Eric); A. Schulz (Ansgar); L. Shulman (Lee); A.B. Singleton (Andrew); G.D. Smith; A.R. Sutin; A.G. Uitterlinden (André); H. Völzke (Henry); E. Widen (Elisabeth); K. Yaffe (Kristine); A.B. Zonderman (Alan); F. Cucca (Francesco); T.B. Harris (Tamara); K.-H. Ladwig (Karl-Heinz); D.J. Llewellyn (David); K. Räikkönen (Katri); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); H.J. Grabe (Hans Jörgen); L.J. Launer (Lenore); K.L. Lunetta (Kathryn); T.H. Mosley (Thomas); A.B. Newman (Anne); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); J. Murabito (Joanne)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Depression is a heritable trait that exists on a continuum of varying severity and duration. Yet, the search for genetic variants associated with depression has had few successes. We exploit the entire continuum of depression to find common variants for depressive symptoms. M

  17. Acculturation, discrimination and depressive symptoms among Korean immigrants in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Kunsook Song; Park, So-Youn; Shin, Jinah; Cho, Sunhee; Park, Yeddi

    2011-02-01

    Immigrant mental health issues, especially depression in relation to discrimination and acculturation, are reported to be serious problems in the United States. The current study examines the prevalence of depressive symptoms among Korean immigrants in New York City (NYC) and its relation to self-reported discrimination and acculturation. A sample of 304 Korean immigrants residing in NYC completed a survey utilizing the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale-Korean version, Discrimination Scale, and Acculturation Stress Scale. Results indicated that 13.2% of the sample population demonstrated some symptoms of depression and that variable such as living alone, marital status, education, years in US and income impact high depression scores. Results also indicate that higher self-reported exposure to discrimination and lower self-reported language proficiency were related to higher depressive symptoms. In a regression analysis, discrimination and English language proficiency were significant predictors of depression, but acculturation stress was not significantly related to depression.

  18. Low serum BDNF levels in depressed patients cannot be attributed to individual depressive symptoms or symptom cluster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bus, B. A. A.; Molendijk, M. L.; Penninx, B. W. J. H.; Buitelaar, J. K.; Prickaerts, J.; Elzinga, B. M.; Oude Voshaar, R. C.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Low serum BDNF levels have been found in depressed patients. No study has systematically investigated whether individual symptoms or symptom profiles within a depressed population contribute to low BDNF levels found in depressed subjects. METHODS: All 1070 patients with a past 6-month di

  19. Anxiety and depression symptoms and migraine: a symptom-based approach research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Mario Fernando Prieto; Mercante, Juliane P P; Tobo, Patricia R; Kamei, Helder; Bigal, Marcelo Eduardo

    2017-12-01

    Anxiety and mood disorders have been shown to be the most relevant psychiatric comorbidities associated with migraine, influencing its clinical course, treatment response, and clinical outcomes. Limited information is available on how specific anxiety and depression symptoms are related to migraine. Symptoms-based approach, a current trend in mental health research, may improve our understanding in migraine comorbidity. The purpose of this study was to analyze how anxiety and depression aspects are related to migraine through a symptom-based approach. We studied 782 patients from the general population who completed a self-administered questionnaire assessing demographics, headache features, anxiety and depression symptoms. A binary logistic regression analyses were conducted to test the association between all four ratings in GAD-7 (anxiety) and PHQ-9 (depression) scales subitems as covariates, and migraine vs no headache as the outcome. The leading Odd Ratios (OR) observed in individuals with migraine relative to those without migraine were anxiety related, "Not being able to stop or control worrying" on a daily basis [OR (CI 95%)] 49.2 (13.6-178.2), "trouble relaxing" 25.7 (7.1-92.6), "Feeling nervous, anxious or on edge" on a daily basis 25.4 (6.9-93.8), and "worrying too much about different things" 24.4 (7.7-77.6). Although the hallmark symptoms of depression are emotional (hopelessness and sadness), the highest scores found were physical: apetite, fatigue, and poor sleep. Irritability had a significant increase in migraine risk [OR 3.8 (1.9-7.8) if experienced some days, 7.5 (2.7-20.7) more than half the days, and 22.0 (5.7-84.9) when experienced nearly every day]. Anxiety was more robustly associated with increase in migraine risk than depression. Lack of ability to properly control worrying and to relax are the most prominent issues in migraine psychiatric comorbidity. Physical symptoms in depression are more linked to migraine than emotional symptoms. A

  20. Prevalence of symptoms of depression among patients with chronic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chronic kidney disease (CKD) and these include depression, dementia ..... mortality among patients hospitalized with congestive heart failure. Am J ... quality of life, depressive symptoms, anemia, and malnutrition at hemodialysis initiation.

  1. Association between religiosity and depressive symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuleima Cogollo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground: Several studies report a significant association between religiosity and depressive symptoms among adolescents; but, other researches do not. Up to date, this relation has not investigated in adolescent students who live in a violent and low-income country. Objective: To establish the correlation between religiosity and depressive symptoms among students in Cartagena, Colombia. Method: A cross-sectional study was done with participation of adolescents aged between 13 and 17 years old. Students completed two scales: the five-item form of the Francis scale of attitude toward Christianity (Francis-5, which asked about God, Jesus and prayer (higher scores suggest higher religiosity; and the WHO Well-Being Index (WHO-5 inquired depressive symptoms last two weeks (lower scores suggest higher depressive symptoms. It was accepted as a significant Pearson correlation (rho, r a coefficient value higher than 0.20. A total of 1,730 students answered the questionnaires. The mean age was 14.7 (SD = 1.2. According to gender, 912 (52.7% students were girls; and 818 (47.3%, boys. Francis-5 showed high internal consistency, coefficient alpha of 0.909; and coefficient omega of 0.910. WHO-5 presented coefficient alpha of 0.757; and omega of 0.759. The Francis-5 scores were between zero and twenty (Mean = 18.2, SD = 3.0, median = 20, mode = 20; and WHO-5 scores, between zero and fifteen (Mean = 10.2, SD = 3.1, median = 10, mode = 10. Religiosity had not significant correlation with depressive symptoms (r = 0.080. Conclusions: Religiosity is not associated with depressive symptoms among adolescent students in Cartagena, Colombia. (DUAZARY 2013 No. 1, 15 - 19Keywords: Depressive symptoms; religiosity; adolescents; students; cross-sectional studyResumenIntroducción: varios estudios informan asociación significativa entre religiosidad y síntomas depresivos en adolescentes; sin embargo, otras investigaciones no. Hasta la fecha, esta relación no se

  2. Longitudinal relations between employment and depressive symptoms in low-income, suicidal African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascaro, Nathan; Arnette, Natalie C; Santana, M Carmen; Kaslow, Nadine J

    2007-06-01

    Unemployment and depression are problematic at both individual and societal levels, and research suggests that the two phenomena are related. More thorough and longitudinal analyses, particularly ones within low-income minority populations, are needed to guide the development of programs to increase employment in persons with mental health problems. The current study aimed to specify the relations over time between depressive symptoms and employment status within a sample of 46 low-income African American women participating in an intervention study for intimate partner violence and suicidal behavior. Hierarchical logistic regression analysis indicated that baseline levels of depressive symptoms predicted employment status at the end of a 10-week intervention period, controlling for baseline employment status. Chi-square analysis and qualitative analyses of trends in depression scores showed that changes in employment status during the 10-week intervention period predicted 6-month and one-year follow-up levels of depressive symptoms. Results imply that, for women in the currently sampled population, depressive symptoms create vulnerability for job loss, but the ability to gain employment despite high levels of depressive symptoms is linked to lowered depression levels over the long term. Community programs assisting such women could therefore not just lower the vulnerability to job loss by treating depressive symptoms, but they could potentially lower long-term depression levels through interventions that enhance employability and motivation to pursue work.

  3. Depressive Symptoms, Drinking Problems, and Smoking Cessation in Older Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Kenney, Brent A.; Holahan, Charles J.; Holahan, Carole K.; Brennan, Penny L.; Schutte, Kathleen K.; Moos, Rudolf H.

    2009-01-01

    This study modeled the predictive association between depressive symptoms and smoking cessation in a sample of 442 late-middle-aged smokers; assessments occurred at four time-points across a 10-year period. In addition, the study examined the role of baseline drinking problems in moderating the relationship between depressive symptoms and smoking cessation. Findings supported hypotheses. More depressive symptoms prospectively predicted a lower likelihood of smoking cessation. In addition, the...

  4. Additive genetic contribution to symptom dimensions in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Rahel; Palmer, Rohan H C; Brick, Leslie A; McGeary, John E; Knopik, Valerie S; Beevers, Christopher G

    2016-05-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a phenotypically heterogeneous disorder with a complex genetic architecture. In this study, genomic-relatedness-matrix restricted maximum-likelihood analysis (GREML) was used to investigate the extent to which variance in depression symptoms/symptom dimensions can be explained by variation in common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a sample of individuals with MDD (N = 1,558) who participated in the National Institute of Mental Health Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) study. A principal components analysis of items from the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) obtained prior to treatment revealed 4 depression symptom components: (a) appetite, (b) core depression symptoms (e.g., depressed mood, anhedonia), (c) insomnia, and (d) anxiety. These symptom dimensions were associated with SNP-based heritability (hSNP2) estimates of 30%, 14%, 30%, and 5%, respectively. Results indicated that the genetic contribution of common SNPs to depression symptom dimensions were not uniform. Appetite and insomnia symptoms in MDD had a relatively strong genetic contribution whereas the genetic contribution was relatively small for core depression and anxiety symptoms. While in need of replication, these results suggest that future gene discovery efforts may strongly benefit from parsing depression into its constituent parts. (PsycINFO Database Record

  5. Facets of Mindfulness Mediate the Relationship between Depressive Symptoms and Smoking Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinci, Christine; Spears, Claire A; Peltier, MacKenzie R; Copeland, Amy L

    2016-12-01

    The relationship between cigarette smoking and depressive symptoms is well-established. Dispositional mindfulness has been associated with lower depressive symptoms, lower smoking dependence, and higher odds of smoking cessation. Given that mindfulness is multi-faceted, the current study examined which facets of mindfulness might mediate the relationship between depressive symptoms and smoking behavior. Participants (n = 72) completed the Smoking Consequences Questionnaire (SCQ), Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD), and Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills (KIMS; subscales-Observe, Describe, Acting with Awareness, Accepting without Judgment), and indicated number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD). Simple mediation models (followed by multiple mediation when more than one facet was significant) tested whether mindfulness facets mediated the relationship between CESD and smoking behavior (CPD and SCQ subscales). Results indicated that 1) lower depressive symptoms were associated with higher Accepting without Judgment, which was related to lower Negative Reinforcement expectancies, 2) lower depressive symptoms were associated with increased Describe, which was associated with greater perceived Negative Consequences, 3) lower depressive symptoms were associated with higher Accepting without Judgment, which was associated with lower Negative Consequences expectancies, and 4) higher depressive symptoms were associated with higher scores on Observe, which related to both greater Positive Reinforcement and Negative Consequences expectancies. Greater Accepting without Judgment and Describe aspects of mindfulness may serve as protective factors in the relationship of depressive symptoms and smoking.

  6. Detailed course of depressive symptoms and risk for developing depression in late adolescents with subthreshold depression: a cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinnin, Ran; Okamoto, Yasumasa; Takagaki, Koki; Nishiyama, Yoshiko; Yamamura, Takanao; Okamoto, Yuri; Miyake, Yoshie; Takebayashi, Yoshitake; Tanaka, Keisuke; Sugiura, Yoshinori; Shimoda, Haruki; Kawakami, Norito; Furukawa, Toshi A; Yamawaki, Shigeto

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Despite its clinical importance, adolescent subthreshold depression remains a largely neglected topic. The aims of this study were to accurately identify the natural course of depressive symptoms and the risk for developing major depressive episode (MDE) in late adolescents with subthreshold depression over 1 year. Patients and methods One hundred and seventy-two participants <20 years of age (mean age: 18.32 years, standard deviation: 0.50), who did not meet the full criteria for an MDE, were selected from 2,494 screened freshmen based on the Beck Depression Inventory, 2nd edition (BDI-II). We conducted a cohort study of three groups (low-, middle-, and high-symptom groups) divided based on BDI-II scores, over a 1 year period with the use of bimonthly assessments. Temporal changes of depressive symptoms were analyzed using linear mixed modeling and growth mixture modeling. Results First, we found that late adolescents with subthreshold depression (high depressive symptoms) were split between the increasing and decreasing depressive symptoms groups, whereas the majority of the less-symptoms group remained stable during 1 year. Second, in comparison with late adolescents with less depressive symptoms, those with subthreshold depression had an elevated risk of later depression. Conclusion Some late adolescents with subthreshold depression had increased depressive symptoms and developed an MDE during 1 year. Therefore, it is necessary for us to rigorously assess the changes in subthreshold depressive symptoms over time in late adolescents. PMID:28053534

  7. Selective neurocognitive deficits and poor life functioning are associated with significant depressive symptoms in alcoholism-HIV infection comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassoon, Stephanie A; Rosenbloom, Margaret J; Fama, Rosemary; Sullivan, Edith V; Pfefferbaum, Adolf

    2012-09-30

    Alcoholism, HIV, and depressive symptoms frequently co-occur and are associated with impairment in cognition and life function. We administered the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), measures of life function, and neurocognitive tests to 67 alcoholics, 56 HIV+ patients, 63 HIV+ alcoholics, and 64 controls to examine whether current depressive symptom level (significant, BDI-II>14 vs. minimal, BDI-IIalcoholism-HIV comorbidity. Participants with significant depressive symptoms demonstrated slower manual motor speed and poorer visuospatial memory than those with minimal depressive symptoms. HIV patients with depressive symptoms showed impaired manual motor speed. Alcoholics with depressive symptoms showed impaired visuospatial memory. HIV+ alcoholics with depressive symptoms reported the poorest quality of life; alcoholics with depressive symptoms, irrespective of HIV status, had poorest life functioning. Thus, significant depressive symptoms were associated with poorer selective cognitive and life functioning in alcoholism and in HIV infection, even though depressive symptoms had neither synergistic nor additive effects on cognition in alcoholism-HIV comorbidity. The results suggest the relevance of assessing and treating current depressive symptoms to reduce cognitive compromise and functional disability in HIV infection, alcoholism, and their comorbidity.

  8. Information processing biases concurrently and prospectively predict depressive symptoms in adolescents: Evidence from a self-referent encoding task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Samantha L; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2016-01-01

    Negative information processing biases have been hypothesised to serve as precursors for the development of depression. The current study examined negative self-referent information processing and depressive symptoms in a community sample of adolescents (N = 291, Mage at baseline = 12.34 ± 0.61, 53% female, 47.4% African-American, 49.5% Caucasian and 3.1% Biracial). Participants completed a computerised self-referent encoding task (SRET) and a measure of depressive symptoms at baseline and completed an additional measure of depressive symptoms nine months later. Several negative information processing biases on the SRET were associated with concurrent depressive symptoms and predicted increases in depressive symptoms at follow-up. Findings partially support the hypothesis that negative information processing biases are associated with depressive symptoms in a nonclinical sample of adolescents, and provide preliminary evidence that these biases prospectively predict increases in depressive symptoms.

  9. Sleep Duration and Depressive Symptoms: A Gene-Environment Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Nathaniel F.; Harden, Kathryn Paige; Buchwald, Dedra; Vitiello, Michael V.; Pack, Allan I.; Strachan, Eric; Goldberg, Jack

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We used quantitative genetic models to assess whether sleep duration modifies genetic and environmental influences on depressive symptoms. Method: Participants were 1,788 adult twins from 894 same-sex twin pairs (192 male and 412 female monozygotic [MZ] pairs, and 81 male and 209 female dizygotic [DZ] pairs] from the University of Washington Twin Registry. Participants self-reported habitual sleep duration and depressive symptoms. Data were analyzed using quantitative genetic interaction models, which allowed the magnitude of additive genetic, shared environmental, and non-shared environmental influences on depressive symptoms to vary with sleep duration. Results: Within MZ twin pairs, the twin who reported longer sleep duration reported fewer depressive symptoms (ec = -0.17, SE = 0.06, P sleep duration interaction effect on depressive symptoms (a'c = 0.23, SE = 0.08, P sleep duration and depressive symptoms. Among individuals with sleep duration within the normal range (7-8.9 h/night), the total heritability (h2) of depressive symptoms was approximately 27%. However, among individuals with sleep duration within the low (sleep duration extremes (5 h/night: h2 = 53%; 10 h/night: h2 = 49%). Conclusion: Genetic contributions to depressive symptoms increase at both short and long sleep durations. Citation: Watson NF; Harden KP; Buchwald D; Vitiello MV; Pack AI; Stachan E; Goldberg J. Sleep duration and depressive symptoms: a gene-environment interaction. SLEEP 2014;37(2):351-358. PMID:24497663

  10. Correlates of Depressive Symptoms in Older Adults with Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LaRita C. Jones

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigators examined correlates of depressive symptoms within a sample of older adults with diabetes. Participants completed a structured telephone interview with measures including depressive symptoms, health conditions, cognitive function, and diabetes distress. Correlations and hierarchical linear regression models were utilized to examine bivariate and covariate-adjusted correlates of depressive symptoms. The sample included 246 community-dwelling adults with diabetes (≥65 years old. In bivariate analyses, African Americans, individuals with specific health issues (neuropathy, stroke, respiratory issues, arthritis, and cardiac issues, and those with higher levels of diabetes distress reported more depressive symptoms. Older age, higher education, more income, and better cognitive function were inversely associated with depressive symptoms. In the final covariate-adjusted regression model, stroke (B = .22, p<.001, cognitive function (B = −.14, p<.01, and higher levels of diabetes-related distress (B = .49, p<.001 each were uniquely associated with more depressive symptoms. Diabetes distress partially mediated the associations between cardiac issues and depressive symptoms and between cognitive function and depressive symptoms. Findings suggest that interventions targeted at helping older adults manage their diabetes-related distress and reducing the likelihood of experiencing additional health complications may reduce depressive symptoms within this population.

  11. Correlates of Depressive Symptoms in Older Adults with Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, LaRita C; Clay, Olivio J; Ovalle, Fernando; Cherrington, Andrea; Crowe, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Investigators examined correlates of depressive symptoms within a sample of older adults with diabetes. Participants completed a structured telephone interview with measures including depressive symptoms, health conditions, cognitive function, and diabetes distress. Correlations and hierarchical linear regression models were utilized to examine bivariate and covariate-adjusted correlates of depressive symptoms. The sample included 246 community-dwelling adults with diabetes (≥ 65 years old). In bivariate analyses, African Americans, individuals with specific health issues (neuropathy, stroke, respiratory issues, arthritis, and cardiac issues), and those with higher levels of diabetes distress reported more depressive symptoms. Older age, higher education, more income, and better cognitive function were inversely associated with depressive symptoms. In the final covariate-adjusted regression model, stroke (B = .22, p < .001), cognitive function (B = -.14, p < .01), and higher levels of diabetes-related distress (B = .49, p < .001) each were uniquely associated with more depressive symptoms. Diabetes distress partially mediated the associations between cardiac issues and depressive symptoms and between cognitive function and depressive symptoms. Findings suggest that interventions targeted at helping older adults manage their diabetes-related distress and reducing the likelihood of experiencing additional health complications may reduce depressive symptoms within this population.

  12. Postconcussive symptom report: the relative influence of head injury and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhr, Julie A; Gunstad, John

    2002-12-01

    The present study explored whether any subset of self-reported postconcussion (PCS) symptoms or specific PCS symptom is sensitive and/or specific to head injury in non-self-selected samples of individuals aged 18-21 with head injury and depression (n = 32), head injury without depression (n = 31), depression without head injury (n = 25), and controls (n = 50). All participants completed a self-report PCS symptom scale based on their current symptoms. Results showed that depression, not head-injury status, largely accounted for elevation in PCS symptom reports, including cognitive symptoms. Thus, report of cognitive PCS symptoms is not specific to head injury, raising concerns about using such items to screen for head injury in the general population.

  13. Prevalence, severity and risk factors for depressive symptoms and insomnia in college undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gress-Smith, Jenna L; Roubinov, Danielle S; Andreotti, Charissa; Compas, Bruce E; Luecken, Linda J

    2015-02-01

    Although the college years represent a high-risk period for depressive symptoms and insomnia, little research has explored their prevalence, comorbidities and risk factors within this developmental period. Two studies were conducted; the first evaluated the prevalence and comorbidity of depressive symptoms and insomnia in 1338 students (ages 18-23 years) from a large Southwestern University. Mild depressive symptoms were endorsed by 19% of students and 14.5% reported moderate to severe symptoms. Forty-seven percent of students reported mild insomnia and 22.5% endorsed moderate to severe insomnia severity. A second study investigated perceived stress as a potential mediator of the relation between self-reported childhood adversity and concurrent depressive symptoms and insomnia. Undergraduates (N = 447) from a Southwestern and Southeastern University reported prior childhood adversity, current perceived stress, insomnia and depressive symptoms. Self-reported childhood adversity predicted higher levels of depressive symptoms and insomnia severity, partially mediated by perceived stress. Results support the high prevalence of depressive symptoms and insomnia among undergraduates. The risk for depressive and insomnia symptoms may be increased among students who experienced greater levels of childhood adversity.

  14. Depressive symptoms and associated factors in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karol, David E; Criscione-Schreiber, Lisa G; Lin, Min; Clowse, Megan E B

    2013-01-01

    Depressive symptoms affect anywhere from 11% to 71% of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), which may be related to SLE disease activity, other clinical variables, or sociodemographic factors. We aimed to measure the rate of depressive symptoms in our cohort of patients with SLE and to identify modifiable factors associated with depressive symptoms. Patients in our university-based SLE registry completed the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), pain scores, and demographic information. Disease activity was measured using the physician's global assessment (PGA) and Selena-SLE disease activity index (Selena-systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index (SLEDAI)). Patients were identified as having moderate or severe depressive symptoms (BDI-II ≥ 18) or not (BDI-II lupus arthritis (P lupus arthritis, may result in alleviation of depressive symptoms in patients with SLE. Copyright © 2013 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Childhood depressive symptoms predict psychiatric problems in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronen, E T; Soininen, M

    2000-06-01

    To evaluate the predictive value of childhood depressive symptoms for psychiatric symptoms, adaptive functioning, and self-performance in young adults. The study sample consisted of 111 young adults born during 1975-1976 in the Helsinki region. The young adults were assessed in childhood (10 to 11 years of age) using the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) and at the age of 20 to 21 years using Achenbach's Young Adult Self Report (YASR), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the Wallston Self-Performance Survey. Self-reported depressive symptoms in childhood predicted psychiatric symptoms (especially aggression), poor adaptive functioning, and low self-esteem in young adulthood. Depressive symptoms in children should be addressed to prevent later psychiatric problems. The CDI may be a measure of nonspecific psychopathology rather than of pure depression--thus, it may be a good screening tool for child populations.

  16. Do manualized treatments for depression reduce insomnia symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yon, Adriana; Scogin, Forrest; DiNapoli, Elizabeth A; McPherron, Jesse; Arean, Patricia A; Bowman, Daniel; Jamison, Christine S; Karpe, Jennifer A; Latour, David; Reynolds, Charles F; Rohen, Noelle; Pardini, Jamie E L; Thompson, Larry W

    2014-07-01

    Researchers evaluated the effect of manualized treatments for depression on comorbid symptoms of insomnia. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to analyze archival data collected from 14 studies (N = 910) examining the efficacy of psychological treatments for depression in adults. Participants receiving a psychological treatment for depression experienced significantly more relief from symptoms of insomnia with overall, early-, middle-, and late-night sleep than those not receiving such treatment. Symptoms of insomnia in those with an average (or lower) level of depression can be reduced through psychological treatment for depression. However, more severe depressive symptoms do not receive great relief from sleep disturbance and may require an additional treatment component targeting symptoms of insomnia. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Contingency management for cigarette smokers with depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secades-Villa, Roberto; Vallejo-Seco, Guillermo; García-Rodríguez, Olaya; López-Núñez, Carla; Weidberg, Sara; González-Roz, Alba

    2015-10-01

    Despite depressive symptoms being very common among smokers from the general population, few studies have examined the effects of depressive symptoms on smoking treatment outcomes, and even less research has been carried out in the context of contingency management (CM). The authors conducted a secondary analysis to assess the interrelation between treatment condition, depressive symptoms and treatment outcomes among treatment-seeking smokers. The sample was made up of 147 treatment-seeking smokers who were randomly allocated 2 treatment conditions: cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT; n = 74), or CBT + CM (n = 73). CBT was applied in 1-hr group-based sessions over 6 weeks. The CM protocol was voucher-based with maximum earnings of €300 (US$339). Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Smoking abstinence was verified though cotinine and carbon monoxide. Several analyses were conducted to explore the effect of treatment condition and baseline depressive symptoms on treatment outcomes, as well as the effect of treatment condition and smoking status on depressive symptoms. The CBT + CM condition was more effective than CBT, independent of depressive symptoms. The presence of depressive symptoms decreased the number of days of continuous smoking abstinence. Participants with a greater number of days of continuous smoking abstinence had fewer depressive symptoms than those with fewer days of continuous smoking abstinence. Findings suggest that health care providers should consider encouraging their patients with depressive symptoms to seek smoking cessation services that include both smoking cessation protocols and behavioral activation for mood management, thus maximizing both smoking and depressive outcomes.

  18. What do childhood attention deficit/hyperactivity symptoms in depressed adults tell us about the bipolar spectrum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purper-Ouakil, D; Porfirio, M C; Le Strat, Y; Falissard, B; Gorwood, P; Masi, G

    2017-03-01

    This study aims to establish if adult patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and childhood Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms would be more frequently within the bipolar spectrum than depressed patients without childhood ADHD. This study was carried out in outpatients recruited by psychiatrists in private practice, with 3963 participants being included in the final sample. Clinicians filled out questionnaires about current depressive symptoms in their patients, lifetime bipolar symptoms, global assessment of functioning and parental history of both major depression and bipolar disorder. Patients assessed current level of anxiety and depressive symptoms and antecedents of childhood ADHD symptoms. Depressed adults with significant childhood ADHD symptoms had a specific pattern of their major depressive episode compared to depressed patients without such symptoms. Subjects with childhood ADHD symptoms were more likely to report lifetime symptoms of mania/hypomania and to have a parent with type I or II bipolar disorder. The developmental trajectories of familial risk for lifetime bipolar symptoms showed that parental bipolar disorder influenced lifetime bipolar symptoms both through a direct pathway and an indirect pathway involving childhood ADHD symptoms. Childhood ADHD and number of depressive symptoms both made direct contributions to lifetime bipolar symptoms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Self-examination therapy as an adjunct treatment for depressive symptoms in substance abusing patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, V; Ward, L C; Bowman, D; Scogin, F

    1996-01-01

    To determine the efficacy of Self-Examination Therapy as an adjunct treatment for depressive symptoms in substance abusing patients, 28 adult male volunteers from a substance abuse unit at a VA Medical Center were randomly assigned to either Self-Examination Therapy or a Current Events comparison group. Analyses indicated that participants in Self-Examination Therapy showed significantly greater improvement in depressive symptoms and overall psychopathology than participants in the Current Events comparison group. These results suggest that Self-Examination Therapy is a viable adjunct treatment for substance abusers, particularly those with depressive symptoms.

  20. Sexual intercourse among adolescent daughters of mothers with depressive symptoms from minority families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Jina; Cederbaum, Julie A; Hurlburt, Michael S

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the association between maternal depressive symptoms and adolescent engagement in sexual intercourse in a non-clinical sample of mothers and their adolescent daughters from minority families. The current study explores ways in which maternal depression, family factors, and adolescent sex interact. Data were from a cross-sectional study of 176 mother-daughter dyads, including a subset of mothers with HIV. Logistic regression analyses revealed that among mothers who were not current marijuana users, more maternal depressive symptoms was associated with daughters' engagement in sexual intercourse. Neither parent-child conflict nor parental involvement significantly mediated the relationship between maternal depressive symptoms and adolescent sex. This study provides the first empirical evidence that non-clinical depressive symptoms in mothers are associated with adolescent engagement in sexual intercourse.

  1. Adolescents' and Best Friend's Depressive Symptoms and Conflict Management: Intraindividual and Interpersonal Processes Over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boersma-van Dam, Elise; Hale, Bill; Koot, Hans; Meeus, Wim; Branje, Susan

    2016-12-12

    This 6-year longitudinal study examined the relation between 3 conflict management styles (i.e., problem solving, conflict engagement, and compliance) and depressive symptoms in adolescent-best friend relationships. Participants were 479 Dutch adolescents and their best friend who reported annually on depressive symptoms and conflict management styles toward each other. Bidirectional effects between conflict management styles and depressive symptoms were studied both within adolescents (intraindividual) and between adolescent best friends (interpersonal). A positive interpersonal effect of depressive symptoms of one dyad member on depressive symptoms of the other member was found. Similarly, higher positive problem solving and conflict engagement of one dyad member predicted respectively higher problem solving and conflict engagement of the other dyad member. Adolescents who reported more depressive symptoms reported more conflict engagement and compliance over time. In addition, for boys, higher levels of depressive symptoms of one dyad member were related to more problem solving by the other member over time. The current study contributed to the literature by showing that depressive symptoms and conflict management are related constructs in adolescents and that both intrapersonal and interpersonal processes contribute to this relation.

  2. Minding the gap: Subjective relative deprivation and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshai, Shadi; Mishra, Sandeep; Meadows, Tyler J S; Parmar, Priya; Huang, Vivian

    2017-01-01

    Substantial evidence has linked depressive symptoms to various indices of societal-level inequality and relative deprivation. A larger literature has also addressed cognitive vulnerability and correlates of depression. Despite this evidence, little research to date has examined the relationship of depressive symptoms with such downstream individual-level consequences of inequality as subjective relative deprivation, or whether relative deprivation is associated with cognitive vulnerability in depression. We conducted two investigations among four separate samples (total N = 2999) to examine associations between subjective relative deprivation and depressive symptoms and cognitions. Across our studies and four different self-report measures of depressive symptoms, we found consistent significant positive associations between subjective relative deprivation and depression symptoms. Further, we found that subjective relative deprivation was predictive of depressive symptoms over and above other known vulnerability factors. Finally, we found that the relationship between subjective relative deprivation and depressive symptoms was fully mediated by negative automatic thoughts about self. These results provide further evidence of the importance of subjective deprivation in maintaining negative mental health outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Depressive Symptoms and Cigarette Smoking in a College Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Brent A.; Holahan, Charles J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective and Participants: The authors examined (1) the relationship between depressive symptoms and cigarette smoking in a college sample and (2) the role of smoking self-efficacy (one's perceived ability to abstain from smoking) in explaining the relationship between depressive symptoms and cigarette smoking. Methods: Predominantly first-year…

  4. Psychomotor symptoms in depression: A diagnostic, pathophysiological and therapeutic tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrijvers, D.; Hulstijn, W.; Sabbe, B.G.C.C.

    2008-01-01

    Psychomotor disturbances have been described repeatedly over many centuries. More recently, Sobin and Sackeim [Sobin, C., Sackeim, H.A., 1997. Psychomotor symptoms of depression. Am. J. Psychiatry. 154, 4–17.] discussed the relevance of psychomotor symptoms in depression in an extensive review. Sinc

  5. Childhood abuse, personality traits, and depressive symptoms in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-Ah; Song, Rira

    2017-03-01

    This study examined associations among childhood abuse, personality traits, and depressive symptoms in adulthood, and whether and how the effects of childhood abuse on depressive symptoms are mediated by the Big Five personality traits (i.e., extraversion, conscientiousness, emotional stability, agreeableness, and openness). The data were drawn from the 2012 Korean General Social Survey, a nationally representative survey using a multistage area proportional probability sampling method. Random effects regression and the Sobel test were used. Random effects models showed that physical and emotional abuse in childhood significantly increased depressive symptoms in adulthood, even after controlling for personality traits and socio-demographic factors. The coefficients of childhood abuse slightly decreased when personality traits were controlled, suggesting that personality traits mediated the relationship between childhood abuse and depressive symptoms. Among the personality traits, extraversion and emotional stability were negatively associated with depressive symptoms whereas agreeableness was positively associated with depressive symptoms. The results of the Sobel test showed that only emotional stability significantly mediated the effects of childhood abuse on depressive symptoms. Those who were exposed to childhood abuse had lower levels of emotional stability, which, in turn, led to depressive symptoms in adulthood. The findings suggest that childhood abuse may have a long lasting effect on mental health over the life course by influencing the formation of personality traits through developmental periods.

  6. Assessing Secondary Control and Its Association with Youth Depression Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, John R.; Francis, Sarah E.; Bearman, Sarah Kate

    2010-01-01

    Extensive research has linked youth depression symptoms to low levels of perceived control, using measures that reflect "primary control" (i.e., influencing objective conditions to make them fit one's wishes). We hypothesized that depressive symptoms are also linked to low levels of "secondary control" (i.e., influencing the psychological impact…

  7. Changes in Parental Depression Symptoms during Family Preservation Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffin, Mark; Bard, David

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Parental depression symptoms often change over the course of child welfare family preservation and parenting services. This raises the question of whether certain processes in family preservation services might be associated with depression symptom change. This study tests three correlational models of change among family preservation…

  8. Ethnic and Sex Differences in Children's Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistner, Janet A.; David-Ferdon, Corinne F.; Lopez, Cristina M.; Dunkel, Stephanie B.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined ethnic and sex differences in children's depressive symptoms, along with hypothesized mediators of those differences (academic achievement, peer acceptance), in a follow-up of African American (n = 179) and Euro-American (n= 462) children in Grades 3 to 5. African American boys reported more depressive symptoms than African…

  9. Depressive Symptoms and Cigarette Smoking in a College Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Brent A.; Holahan, Charles J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective and Participants: The authors examined (1) the relationship between depressive symptoms and cigarette smoking in a college sample and (2) the role of smoking self-efficacy (one's perceived ability to abstain from smoking) in explaining the relationship between depressive symptoms and cigarette smoking. Methods: Predominantly first-year…

  10. Children's Depressive Symptoms in Relation to EEG Frontal Asymmetry and Maternal Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xin; Forbes, Erika E.; Kovacs, Maria; George, Charles J.; Lopez-Duran, Nestor L.; Fox, Nathan A.; Cohn, Jeffrey F.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relations of school-age children's depressive symptoms, frontal EEG asymmetry, and maternal history of childhood-onset depression (COD). Participants were 73 children, 43 of whom had mothers with COD. Children's EEG was recorded at baseline and while watching happy and sad film clips. Depressive symptoms were measured using…

  11. Coparenting Behaviors as Mediators Between Postpartum Parental Depressive Symptoms and Toddler’s Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé Tissot

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Postpartum parental depression, even of mild intensity and short duration, has negative consequences on child development, including increased externalizing and internalizing symptoms. Studies revealed that the links between parental depression and child development are mediated by parenting difficulties. On the other hand, the mediating role of problematic family-level relationships, such as low coparenting support and high conflict between the parents, has rarely been considered, although coparenting difficulties have been linked with both increased depressive symptoms in parents and increased symptoms in toddlers. In the present study, we proposed testing a comprehensive mediation model linking parental depression, coparenting, and child symptoms. At 3 months postpartum, a convenience sample of 69 parental couples completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. In addition, we assessed levels of coparenting support and conflict during a mother–father–infant play situation, the Lausanne Trilogue Play. At 18 months postpartum, both parents assessed child symptoms with the Symptom Checklist Questionnaire. The results showed that coparenting support mediated the links between parental depressive symptoms and child symptoms, but only for mothers: Maternal depressive symptoms were linked with lower coparenting support, which in turn predicted increased psychofunctional symptoms and behavior problems assessed by mothers. Although coparenting conflict behaviors were not predicted by parents’ depressive symptoms, higher conflict was unexpectedly linked with fewer behavior problems assessed by both parents. The present study allowed us to unveil complex pathways between mild parental mood disturbances, family-level relationships, and child development in the first months of the child’s life.

  12. Depressive Symptoms, Drinking Problems, and Smoking Cessation in Older Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Brent A.; Holahan, Charles J.; Holahan, Carole K.; Brennan, Penny L.; Schutte, Kathleen K.; Moos, Rudolf H.

    2009-01-01

    This study modeled the predictive association between depressive symptoms and smoking cessation in a sample of 442 late-middle-aged smokers; assessments occurred at four time-points across a 10-year period. In addition, the study examined the role of baseline drinking problems in moderating the relationship between depressive symptoms and smoking cessation. Findings supported hypotheses. More depressive symptoms prospectively predicted a lower likelihood of smoking cessation. In addition, the presence of baseline drinking problems strengthened the relationship between depressive symptoms and a lower likelihood of smoking cessation. Understanding the mechanisms underlying depression and cigarette smoking among older adults is applicable to secondary prevention and treatment and suggests additional public health benefits from treating depression in older persons. PMID:19372009

  13. Transformational leadership and depressive symptoms: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, Fehmidah; Nielsen, Karina; Carneiro, Isabella Gomes

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between transformational leadership and depressive symptoms in employees working within healthcare. 447 employees completed a baseline survey and 274 completed a follow-up survey 18 months later. 188 completed both baseline and follow-up survey. Transformational leadership was measured using the Global Transformational Leadership Scale and depression was measured using with the Major Depression Inventory. Transformational leadership was negatively associated with depressive symptoms at baseline (beta=-0.31, ptransformational leadership style may help toward protecting employees from developing major depression.

  14. An IRT Analysis of the Symptoms of Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmert-Aronson, Benjamin O; Brown, Timothy A

    2015-06-01

    This study examines the psychometric properties of a major depressive episode using a large sample (N = 2,907) of outpatients with mood and anxiety disorders. A two-parameter logistic model yielded item threshold and discrimination parameters. A two-group confirmatory factor analysis was used to evaluate gender bias. Item thresholds fell along a continuum with the core features of depressed mood and anhedonia, along with fatigue, endorsed at lower levels of depression, and change in appetite and suicidal ideation endorsed at more severe levels. Item discriminations were highest for depressed mood and anhedonia, and lowest for change in appetite and suicidal ideation. The data indicate that the symptoms of depression assess a range of severity, with varying precision in discriminating depression. No gender differences were observed. Three exploratory symptom sets were compared with the full symptom set for depression, offering quantitative evidence that can be used to modify the psychiatric classification system.

  15. Unique contributions of metacognition and cognition to depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Adviye Esin; Gençöz, Tülin; Wells, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    This study attempts to examine the unique contributions of "cognitions" or "metacognitions" to depressive symptoms while controlling for their intercorrelations and comorbid anxiety. Two-hundred-and-fifty-one university students participated in the study. Two complementary hierarchical multiple regression analyses were performed, in which symptoms of depression were regressed on the dysfunctional attitudes (DAS-24 subscales) and metacognition scales (Negative Beliefs about Rumination Scale [NBRS] and Positive Beliefs about Rumination Scale [PBRS]). Results showed that both NBRS and PBRS individually explained a significant amount of variance in depressive symptoms above and beyond dysfunctional schemata while controlling for anxiety. Although dysfunctional attitudes as a set significantly predicted depressive symptoms after anxiety and metacognitions were controlled for, they were weaker than metacognitive variables and none of the DAS-24 subscales contributed individually. Metacognitive beliefs about ruminations appeared to contribute more to depressive symptoms than dysfunctional beliefs in the "cognitive" domain.

  16. Depressive and paradepressive symptoms clinical features in patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Sincha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Depressive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia, etiology and pathogenesis of which is still not completely uncovered and cause number of complications, decrease quality of life and hinder rehabilitation of the patients. Materials and metods. In order to establish depression and paradepressive symptoms features in patients with schizophrenia the next methods were used: clinical- psychopathological, anamnestic and catamnestic methods. 107 patients with schizophrenia (F20 and 30 patients with schizoaffective disorder, mixed type (F25 were examined. Conclusion. Correlative relationship between depressive, hallucinatory-delusional, deficits and neuroleptic manifestations symptoms has been indicated. factors of induction and amplification of depressive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia were determined. Ethiopsychopathogenic variants of depressive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia were obtained.

  17. Depressive symptoms can amplify embarrassment in essential tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Elan D; Cosentino, Stephanie; Huey, Edward D

    2016-01-01

    Embarrassment can be a considerable problem for patients with essential tremor (ET) and is a major motivator for treatment. Depression is also a common feature of ET; as many as 35 % of patients report moderate to severe depressive symptoms. Our goal was to assess the associations between these motor and psychosocial factors (tremor, depression, embarrassment) in ET, with a particular interest in more fully assessing the possible association between depression and embarrassment. Ninety one ET cases (age 70.4 ± 12.8 years) enrolled in a prospective, clinical-epidemiological study. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CESD-10, 0-30 [maximum]), embarrassment, with the Essential Tremor Embarrassment Assessment (ETEA, 0-70 [maximum]), and action tremor, with a detailed in-person neurological examination. Higher CESD-10 score was significantly associated with higher ETEA score (p = 0.005), but not with increasing tremor severity (p = 0.94). In stratified analyses, cases with no or minimal depressive symptoms had the lowest ETEA scores, cases with moderate depressive symptoms had intermediate ETEA scores, and cases with severe depressive symptoms had the highest ETEA scores (p = 0.01). Furthermore, at each level of tremor severity, cases with more depressive symptoms had more embarrassment. Depressive symptoms seem to be more than a secondary response to the tremor in ET; they seem to amplify the level of embarrassment and, in addition to their own importance, seem to be a driver of other important clinical outcomes. Earlier treatment of depressive symptoms in ET patients could lessen the burden of secondary embarrassment.

  18. Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence: Longitudinal Links with Maternal Empathy and Psychological Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Lente L A A; der Graaff, Jolien Van; Meeus, Wim H J; Branje, Susan J T

    2016-08-01

    Building on self-determination theory (Deci and Ryan in Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227-268. doi: 10.1207/S15327965PLI1104_01 , 2000), the aim of the current study was to examine the role of maternal affective and cognitive empathy in predicting adolescents' depressive symptoms, through mothers' psychological control use. Less empathic mothers may be less sensitive to adolescents' need for psychological autonomy, and thus prone to violating this need using psychological control, which may in turn predict adolescents' depressive symptoms. Moreover, according to interpersonal theory of depression (Coyne in Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 85, 186-193. doi: 10.1037/0021-843x.85.2.186 , 1976), adolescents' depressive symptoms may elicit rejecting responses, such as mothers' psychological control. For six waves, 497 adolescents (57 % boys, M age T1 = 13.03) annually completed questionnaires on depressive symptoms and maternal psychological control, while mothers reported on their empathy. Cross-lagged path analyses showed that throughout adolescence, both mothers' affective and cognitive empathy indirectly predicted boys' and girls' depressive symptoms, through psychological control. Additionally, depressive symptoms predicted psychological control for boys, and early adolescent girls. These results highlight the importance of (1) mothers' affective and cognitive empathy in predicting adolescents' depressive symptoms, and (2) taking gender into account when examining adolescent-effects.

  19. Negative symptoms in psychometrically defined schizotypy: The role of depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campellone, Timothy R; Elis, Ori; Mote, Jasmine; Sanchez, Amy H; Kring, Ann M

    2016-06-30

    People high in schizotypy, a risk factor for schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, can have negative symptoms, including diminished experience of motivation/pleasure (MAP) and emotional expressivity (EXP). Additionally, people high in schizotypy often report elevated depressive symptoms, which are also associated with diminished MAP and EXP. In this study, we examined whether negative symptoms were related to schizotypy above and beyond the presence of depressive symptoms. Thirty-one people high in schizotypy and 24 people low in schizotypy were administered the Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS), an interview-based measure of MAP and EXP negative symptoms and completed a self-report measure of cognitive and somatic-affective depressive symptoms. People high in schizotypy had more MAP negative symptoms than people low in schizotypy, but we found no group differences in EXP negative symptoms. Importantly, the relationship between MAP negative symptoms and schizotypy was fully mediated by cognitive depressive symptoms. These findings suggest that depressive symptoms, specifically cognitive depressive symptoms, may be a pathway for motivation and pleasure impairment, in people at elevated risk for developing schizophrenia-spectrum disorders.

  20. Mindfulness, Quality of Life, and Severity of Depressive Symptoms Among Patients With Schizophrenia and Patients With Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayan, Ahmad Hussien Rateb

    2017-05-01

    The current study used a descriptive correlational design to examine the relationship between mindfulness and quality of life (QOL) among patients with schizophrenia (n = 160) and patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) (n = 161), controlling for demographic and clinical variables. Participants completed self-reported questionnaires regarding demographic variables, severity of depression, QOL, and mindfulness. Patients diagnosed with MDD had higher mindfulness scores than patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. Mindfulness scores were significantly associated with the severity of depression among participants. After controlling for the demographic variables and severity of depressive symptoms, mindfulness had a unique variance in QOL among patients with schizophrenia, but not among patients with MDD. The current study provides preliminary evidence regarding the role of mindfulness in improving depressive symptoms and the overall QOL among patients diagnosed with mental illness. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 55(5), 40-50.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. Depressive mood, eating disorder symptoms, and perfectionism in female college students: a mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Villamisar, Domingo; Dattilo, John; Del Pozo, Araceli

    2012-01-01

    Although perfectionism has long been established as an important risk factor for depressive mood and eating disorders, the mechanisms through which this temperamental predisposition mediates the relationship between depressive mood and eating disorder symptoms are still relatively unclear. In this study we hypothesized that both perfectionism dimensions, self-oriented perfectionism and socially prescribed perfectionism, would mediate the relationship between current symptoms of depression and eating disorders in a non-clinical sample of Spanish undergraduate females. Two hundred sixteen female undergraduate students of the University Complutense of Madrid (Spain) completed the Spanish versions of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-40), the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MPS), OBQ-44, and BDI-II and BAI. Results demonstrated the importance of socially prescribed perfectionism in mediation of the relationship between depressive mood and symptoms of eating disorders. Socially prescribed perfectionism mediates the relationship between depressive mood and eating disorder symptoms for female college students.

  2. Cyber victimization by peers: Prospective associations with adolescent social anxiety and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landoll, Ryan R; La Greca, Annette M; Lai, Betty S; Chan, Sherilynn F; Herge, Whitney M

    2015-07-01

    Peer victimization that occurs via electronic media, also termed cybervictimization, is a growing area of concern for adolescents. The current study evaluated the short-term prospective relationship between cybervictimization and adolescents' symptoms of social anxiety and depression over a six-week period. Participants were 839 high-school aged adolescents (14-18 years; 58% female; 73% Hispanic White), who completed measures of traditional peer victimization, cybervictimization, depression, and social anxiety at two time points. Findings supported the distinctiveness of cybervictimization as a unique form of peer victimization. Furthermore, only cybervictimization was associated with increased levels of depressive symptoms over time, and only relational victimization was associated with increased social anxiety over time, after controlling for the comorbidity of social anxiety and depression among youth. Cybervictimization appears to be a unique form of victimization that contributes to adolescents' depressive symptoms and may be important to target in clinical and preventive interventions for adolescent depression.

  3. Correlates of irritability in college students with depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrelli, Paola; Nyer, Maren; Holt, Daphne; Bakow, Brianna R; Fava, Maurizio; Baer, Lee; Cassiello, Clair; Mulligan, Maura; Cusin, Cristina; Farabaugh, Amy

    2013-11-01

    Depression is a prevalent psychiatric disorder associated with significant personal and societal burden. There is accumulating evidence for the presence of a subtype of depression characterized by the presence of irritability that is associated with increased morbidity, risk for suicidal ideation, and functional impairments in adults. Little is known about the features of depressive symptoms with and without irritability among young adults in college. The primary aim of this study was to characterize the presentation of college students with depressive symptoms and irritability. Two-hundred eighty-seven undergraduate college students with depressive symptoms with and without irritability were compared across several psychiatric and functional outcome variables. Independent samples t-tests or logistic regressions were conducted for each outcome variable using the irritability item of the Beck Depression Inventory as a dichotomous grouping variable. Analyses were conducted separately for the men and the women. Both male and female students with depressive symptoms and severe irritability reported a greater severity of depressive symptoms compared with their peers with no or mild irritability. In the women, the presence of irritability was associated with greater symptoms of anxiety, whereas in the men, it was associated with increased likelihood of engaging in risky behaviors, including compulsive use of alcohol, illicit drugs, and prescription drugs. The male and female college students with depressive symptoms with and without irritability did not differ on severity of suicidal ideation, hopelessness, or cognitive functioning. The findings from this study suggest that depressive symptoms and irritability may characterize a subtype of college students who have a greater symptom burden and with the potential need for more aggressive and prompt treatment.

  4. Race, depressive symptoms, and all-cause mortality in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin eAssari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Despite the well-established association between baseline depressive symptoms and risk of all cause-mortality, limited information exists on racial differences in the residual effects of baseline depressive symptoms above and beyond socio-economic status (SES and physical health on this link. The current study compared Blacks and Whites for the residual effects of depressive symptoms over SES and health on risk of long-term all-cause mortality in the United States. Methods: Data came from the Americans’ Changing Lives Study, a nationally representative longitudinal cohort of U.S. adults with up to 25 years of follow up. The study followed 3,361 Blacks or Whites for all-cause mortality between 1986 and 2011. The main predictor of interest was baseline depressive symptoms measured at 1986 using an 11- item Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale (CES-D. Covariates included baseline demographics (age and gender, SES (education and income, and health [chronic medical conditions (CMC, self-rated health, and body mass index (BMI] measured at 1986. Race (Black versus White was the focal moderator. We ran a series of Cox proportional hazard models, in the pooled sample and also stratified by race. Results: In the pooled sample, higher depressive symptoms at baseline were associated with higher risk of all-cause mortality except when the CMC, SRH, and BMI were added to the model. In this later model, race interacted with baseline depressive symptoms, suggesting a larger effect of depressive symptoms on mortality among Whites compared to Blacks. Among Whites, depressive symptoms were associated with increased risk of mortality, after controlling for SES, but not after controlling for health (CMC, SRH and BMI as well. Among Blacks, depressive symptoms were not associated with mortality before that health was introduced to the model. After controlling for health, baseline depressive symptoms showed an inverse association with all

  5. Subclinical Thyroid Dysfunction and Depressive Symptoms among Elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blum, Manuel R; Wijsman, Liselotte W; Virgini, Vanessa S

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Subclinical hypothyroidism has been associated with depressive symptoms in cross-sectional studies, but prospective data and data on subclinical hyperthyroidism are scarce. METHODS: In the Leiden sub-study of the Prospective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk (PROSPER) among...... adults aged 70-82 years with pre-existing cardiovascular disease or known cardiovascular risk factors, TSH and free T4 levels were measured at baseline and repeated after 6 months to define persistent thyroid function status. Main outcome measures were depressive symptoms, assessed with the Geriatric...... on the association of persistent subclinical thyroid dysfunction and depression, subclinical hypothyroidism was not associated with increased depressive symptoms among older adults at high cardiovascular risk. Persistent subclinical hyperthyroidism might be associated with increased depressive symptoms, which...

  6. The interplay of loneliness and depressive symptoms across adolescence: Exploring the role of personality traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanhalst, J.; Klimstra, T.A.; Luyckx, K.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Goossens, L.

    2012-01-01

    Based on current theories of depression, reciprocal links between loneliness and depressive symptoms are expected to occur. However, longitudinal studies on adolescent samples are scarce and have yielded conflicting results. The present five-wave longitudinal study from mid- to late adolescence (N =

  7. A Cross-Cultural Measure of Depressive Symptoms among Vietnamese Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thanh V.; Ngo, Dung; Conway, Kerry

    2003-01-01

    This study developed a culturally valid measure of depressive symptoms among Vietnamese Americans in two ways--by systematically exploring issues of cultural meaning and gender differences, and by using current methodological tools to assess the factor structure of a widely used depression scale. (Contains 38 references and 2 tables.) (GCP)

  8. Late-Life Depressive Symptoms, Religiousness, and Mood in the Last Week of Life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braam, A.W.; Klinkenberg, M.; Galenkamp, H.; Deeg, D.J.H.

    2012-01-01

    Aim of the current study is to examine whether previous depressive symptoms modify possible effects of religiousness on mood in the last week of life. After-death interviews with proxy respondents of deceased sample members of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam provided information on depressed

  9. Depressive symptoms in low-income women in rural Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Nancy L; Fernald, Lia C; Hubbard, Alan E

    2007-11-01

    Depression is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. This paper reports a cross-sectional analysis of demographic, socioeconomic, physical, and psychosocial factors associated with depressive symptoms among poor women in rural Mexico. A cross-sectional study of 5457 women, age 20-70 years, were interviewed from a random sample of households from 279 poor communities with fewer than 2500 inhabitants in 7 rural Mexican states. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Spanish translation of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale. Several other individual- and household-level variables were also obtained. Using hierarchical modeling, linear regression analysis, and population intervention model parameters, we explored correlates of depressive symptoms in this population. Most of the variation in depressive symptoms was at the individual level. Psychosocial factors were most strongly correlated with depressive symptoms; perceived stress, lack of personal control or social support, and low social status exhibited the strongest associations. Using the US-based standard Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression cutoff score of 16, 51% of this population fall into the category "at risk" for clinical depression; however, this cutoff may not be the most appropriate in this context. This sample of low-income women in rural Mexico reported a relatively high prevalence of depressive symptoms. The analyses suggest that reducing perceived stress would have the largest potential impact on depressive symptoms in this population. However, any interventions should take into account the broad context of the population's overall health. The alleviation of poverty, improvement of educational opportunities, and other interventions to address root causes of poor mental health must also be considered.

  10. Depression symptom ratings in geriatric patients with bipolar mania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajatovic, Martha; Al Jurdi, Rayan; Gildengers, Ariel; Greenberg, Rebecca L; Tenhave, Thomas; Bruce, Martha L; Mulsant, Benoit; Young, Robert C

    2011-11-01

    Given the paucity of information available regarding standardized ratings of depression symptoms in bipolar manic states, and in particular those in older adults, we explored depression ratings in symptomatic participants in a multicenter study of treatment of bipolar I disorder in late life. Baseline data was obtained from the first 100 patients enrolled in an NIMH-funded, 9-week, randomized, double-blind RCT comparing treatment with lithium or valproate in patients of age 60 years and older with Type I Bipolar mania or hypomania. This multi-site study was conducted at six academic medical centers in the United States and enrolled inpatients and outpatients with a total Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) score of 18 or greater. Depressive symptoms were evaluated with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) and the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). The criterion for at least moderate bipolar depressive symptoms was the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology (ECNP) Consensus Meeting definition of HAM-D 17 total score >20. Eleven percent of patients had mixed symptoms defined by depression scale severity according to ECNP criterion. In the overall sample, total scores on the two depression scales were highly correlated. Total YMRS scores of this mixed symptom group were similar to the remainder of the sample. These preliminary findings suggest that moderate to severe depressive symptoms occur in about one in ten bipolar manic elders. Future studies are needed to further evaluate symptom profiles, clinical correlates, and treatments for bipolar older adults with combined manic and depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Correlates of depressive symptom severity in problem and pathological gamblers in couple relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier-Arbour, Alisson; Trudel, Gilles; Boyer, Richard; Harvey, Pascale; Goldfarb, Maria Rocio

    2014-03-01

    Problem and pathological gamblers (PPG) often suffer from depressive symptoms. Gambling problems have negative consequences on multiple aspects of gamblers' lives, including family and marital relationships. The objectives of the current study were to (1) replicate the results of studies that have suggested a stronger and more significant relationship between gambling and depression in PPG than in non-problem gamblers (NPG) and (2) explore specific correlates of depressive symptom severity in PPG in couple relationships. Variables demonstrated to be significantly correlated with depressive symptoms in the general population were selected. It was hypothesized that gender, age, gambler's mean annual income, perceived poverty, employment status, clinical status (i.e., problem or pathological gambler versus non-problem gambler), trait anxiety, alcoholism, problem-solving skills, and dyadic adjustment would be significant predictors of depressive symptoms. Sixty-seven PPG were recruited, primarily from an addiction treatment center; 40 NPG were recruited, primarily through the media. Results revealed that PPG reported significantly greater depressive symptoms than did NPG. Further, elevated trait anxiety and poor dyadic adjustment were demonstrated to be significant and specific correlates of depressive symptom severity in PPG. These findings contribute to the literature on depressive symptomatology in PPG in relationships, and highlight the importance of the influence of the couple relationship on PPG.

  12. Dietary folate and depressive symptoms are associated in middle-aged Finnish men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolmunen, Tommi; Voutilainen, Sari; Hintikka, Jukka; Rissanen, Tiina; Tanskanen, Antti; Viinamäki, Heimo; Kaplan, George A; Salonen, Jukka T

    2003-10-01

    Several cross-sectional studies have focused on the low blood folate levels of depressed patients. However, no published studies have examined the association between dietary folate and current symptoms of depression in a general population. We investigated the association between dietary folate, cobalamin, pyridoxine and riboflavin and current symptoms of depression in a cross-sectional general population study. We recruited 2682 men aged between 42 and 60 y from eastern Finland. Those who had a previous history of psychiatric disorder were excluded (n = 146, 5.6% of the cohort). Depressive symptoms were assessed with the 18-item Human Population Laboratory Depression Scale. Those who scored 5 or more at baseline were considered to have elevated depressive symptoms (n = 228, 9.3% of the cohort). The participants were grouped into thirds according to their dietary folate intake. Those in the lowest third of energy-adjusted folate intake had a higher risk of being depressed [odds ratio (OR) 1.67, 95% CI = 1.19-2.35, P = 0.003] than those in the highest folate intake third. This increased risk remained significant after adjustment for smoking habits, alcohol consumption, appetite, BMI, marital status, education, adulthood socioeconomic status and total fat consumption (OR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.01-2.12, P = 0.044). There were no associations between the intake of cobalamin, pyridoxine or riboflavin, and depression. These results indicate that nutrition may have a role in the prevention of depression.

  13. Vilazodone in the treatment of major depressive disorder: efficacy across symptoms and severity of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Arif; Sambunaris, Angelo; Edwards, John; Ruth, Adam; Robinson, Donald S

    2014-03-01

    Vilazodone is a potent selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and serotonin 1A receptor partial agonist approved for the treatment of major depressive disorder in adults. To assess the efficacy of vilazodone across a range of symptoms and severities of depression, data from two phase III, 8-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials were pooled for analysis. Overall improvement in depressive symptoms measured using the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale was statistically significant (Pdepression subgroups, with no consistent pattern associated with depression severity. These findings support the efficacy of vilazodone across a broad range of depressive symptoms and severities for the treatment of major depressive disorder.

  14. Prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms among patients with hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Bathla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The association between depression and thyroid function is well known. Both conditions express many similar symptoms, thus making the diagnosis and treatment difficult. Aims: To find the prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms among patients with hypothyroid. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional study. Materials and Methodology: A total of 100 patients diagnosed as hypothyroidism were evaluated using Hamilton depression rating scale (HDRS and Hamilton scale for anxiety (HAM-A. Statistical Analysis Used: The data were analyzed using the SPSS for Windows version 17.0 software. The quantitative data were expressed in number and percentage. The results obtained were compared using the Chi-square test. Results: Females constituted 70% of the sample. A total of 60% reported some degree of depression based on HDRS (males – 56.63% and females – 64.29% whereas about 63% out of the total patients screened showed some degree of anxiety (males –56.66% and females – 65.72% based on HAM-A. The most common depressive symptom among the males was depressed mood (73.33% and among females was gastrointestinal somatic symptoms (68.54%. The most common anxiety symptom among the males was depressed mood (70.0% and among females was anxious mood (92.85%. Conclusions: Psychiatric symptoms/disorders are common in patients with thyroid dysfunction.

  15. Correlates of depressive symptoms in individuals attending outpatient stroke clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, Julianne; Rice, Danielle; McIntyre, Amanda; Viana, Ricardo; Macaluso, Steven; Teasell, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose Depressive symptoms are common post-stroke. We examined stroke deficits and lifestyle factors that are independent predictors for depressive symptomology. Methods A retrospective chart review was performed for patients' post-stroke who attended outpatient clinics at a hospital in Southwestern Ontario between 1 January 2014 and 30 September 2014. Demographic variables, stroke deficits, secondary stroke risk factors and disability study measures [Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA)] were analyzed. Results Of the 221 outpatients who attended the stroke clinics (53% male; mean age = 65.2 ± 14.9 years; mean time post-stroke 14.6 ± 20.1 months), 202 patients were used in the final analysis. About 36% of patients (mean = 5.17 ± 5.96) reported mild to severe depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 ≥ 5). Cognitive impairment (CI), smoking, pain and therapy enrollment (p depressive symptoms. Patients reporting CI were 4 times more likely to score highly on the PHQ-9 than those who did not report CI (OR = 4.72). While controlling for age, MoCA scores negatively related to depressive symptoms with higher PHQ-9 scores associated with lower MoCA scores (r= -0.39, p depressive symptoms are common in the chronic phase post-stroke and were partially related to cognition, pain, therapy enrollment and lifestyle factors. Implications for Rehabilitation Stroke patients who report cognitive deficits, pain, tobacco use or being enrolled in therapy may experience increased depressive symptoms. A holistic perspective of disease and lifestyle factors should be considered while assessing risk of depressive symptoms in stroke patients. Patients at risk for depressive symptoms should be monitored at subsequent outpatient visits.

  16. Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Veddel; Bukh, Jens Otto Drachmann

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of depression is not clearly established, but estimated to 3-4% in a Danish questionnaire study. Lifetime's prevalences of 12-17% are reported in other community samples. In the current diagnostic system depression is defined categorically and operationally. It has been argued......, that these diagnostic criteria represent an oversimplification, which has blurred the concept of depression. We suggest a greater emphasis on the depressed mood as the core symptom of depression, which may increase the specificity of the diagnosis. Furthermore, basic principles for the treatment of depression...

  17. Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Veddel; Bukh, Jens Drachmann

    2014-01-01

    , that these diagnostic criteria represent an oversimplification, which has blurred the concept of depression. We suggest a greater emphasis on the depressed mood as the core symptom of depression, which may increase the specificity of the diagnosis. Furthermore, basic principles for the treatment of depression......The prevalence of depression is not clearly established, but estimated to 3-4% in a Danish questionnaire study. Lifetime's prevalences of 12-17% are reported in other community samples. In the current diagnostic system depression is defined categorically and operationally. It has been argued...

  18. The predictive value of somatic and cognitive depressive symptoms for cytokine changes in patients with major depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dannehl K

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Katharina Dannehl,1 Winfried Rief,1 Markus J Schwarz,2 Annika Hennings,1 Sabine Riemer,1 Verena Selberdinger,3 Theresa Stapf,3 Frank Euteneuer11Division of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Philipps Universität Marburg, Marburg, Germany; 2Institute for Laboratory Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilian Universität, Munich, Germany; 3Department of Psychiatry, Ludwig-Maximilian Universität, Munich, GermanyContext: Elevated concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines have been hypothesized as an important factor in the pathophysiology of depression. Depression itself is considered to be a heterogeneous disorder. Current findings suggest that “cognitive” and “somatic” symptom dimensions are related to immune function in different ways. So far, little research has been done on the longitudinal aspects of inflammation in patients with major depression, especially with respect to different symptom dimensions of depression. Therefore, we investigated which aspects of depression may predict changes in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha and interleukin (IL-6 over 4 weeks. Methods: Forty-one patients with major depression diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV, and 45 healthy controls were enrolled. Serum measurements of TNF-alpha and IL-6 were conducted at baseline and 4 weeks later. Psychometric measures included the assessment of cognitive-affective depressive symptoms and somatic symptoms during the last 7 days as well as somatic symptoms during the last 2 years. Results: Patients with depression showed increased levels of TNF-alpha (P<0.05 compared to healthy controls. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that neither depressive nor somatic symptoms predict changes in proinflammatory cytokines in the whole sample of depressed patients. Moderation analyses and subsequent sex-stratified regression analyses indicated that higher somatoform symptoms during the last 2 years

  19. Chronobiology, cognitive function and depressive symptoms in surgical patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Melissa Voigt

    2014-01-01

    in this limited population. With regard to safety in our study, melatonin treatment for three months did not cause any serious adverse effects. Finally, we systematically reviewed the literature on the prophylactic or therapeutic effect of melatonin for depression or depressive symptoms in adult patients...... disorders, such as anxiety and depression, are common problems arising around the time of surgery or in the course of a cancer diagnosis and subsequent treatment period. The importance of investigating prevention or treatment possibilities in these populations is significant due to the extent...... investigated the effect of 6 mg oral melatonin on depressive symptoms, anxiety, sleep, cognitive function and fatigue in patients with breast cancer in a three month time period after surgery. Melatonin had an effect on reducing the risk of developing depressive symptoms and also increased sleep efficiency...

  20. Hopelessness depression as a distinct dimension of depressive symptoms among clinical and non-clinical samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, T E; Steer, R A; Abramson, L Y; Alloy, L B; Metalsky, G I; Schmidt, N B

    2001-05-01

    Subtyping depression has been an interest of theorists and clinicians for at least four centuries. In this paper, we examined the validity of the symptom cluster component of the hopelessness theory of depression. We used structural equation modeling analyses on large samples of psychiatric outpatients (N=1604, 844, and 680) and Air Force cadets (N=1404) who completed the items of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Findings were supportive of the hopelessness depression cluster as a distinct depressive syndrome. Implications for the nosology of depression and for depression theory were discussed.

  1. Friends, Depressive Symptoms, and Life Satisfaction Among Older Korean Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Soonhee; Lee, Yeon-Shim; Lee, Kyoung Hag; Shibusawa, Tazuko; Yoo, Grace J

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the interactive effects of social network support and depressive symptoms on life satisfaction among older Korean Americans (KAs). Using data from a sample of 200 elders in a large metropolitan area (M age = 72.50, SD = 5.15), hierarchical regression analysis was used to examine the interaction between social network support and depressive symptoms on life satisfaction among older KAs. After controlling for demographic variables, both social network support and depressive symptoms were identified as predictors for life satisfaction. Interaction effects indicated strong associations between higher social network support specifically from friends and lower depressive symptoms with higher levels of life satisfaction. Findings highlight the important role that friends play in terms of social network support for the mental health of older KAs, and the need for geriatric practitioners to monitor and assess the quality of social network support-including friendships-when working with older KAs.

  2. Depressive symptoms among women with an abnormal mammogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderete, Ethel; Juarbe, Teresa C; Kaplan, Celia Patricia; Pasick, Rena; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J

    2006-01-01

    An abnormal mammography finding constitutes a stressful event that may increase vulnerability by developing or intensifying pre-existing psychological morbidity. We evaluated depressive symptoms using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview among women of four ethnic groups who had an abnormal mammography result controlling for the effect of demographic, psychosocial and medical factors on recent onset of depressive symptoms. Telephone surveys were conducted among women aged 40-80 years recruited from four clinical sites in the San Francisco Bay Area after receiving a screening mammography result that was classified as abnormal but probably benign, suspicious or highly suspicious, or indeterminate using standard criteria. Among the 910 women who completed the interview, mean age was 56 (S.D.=10), 42% were White, 19% Latina, 25% African American, and 14% Asian. Prevalence of lifetime depressive symptoms was 44%, and 11% of women had symptoms in the previous month. Multivariate logistic regression models showed that Asian ethnicity, annual income >$10 000 and weekly attendance at religious services were significantly associated with decreased depressive symptoms. Having an indeterminate result on mammography and being on disability were significantly associated with more depressive symptoms. Reporting a first episode of depression more than a year before the interview was associated with significant increase in depressive symptoms in the month prior to the interview regardless of mammography result. Women with an indeterminate interpretation on mammography were at greater risk of depressive episode in the month prior to the interview compared to women with probably benign results (odds ratio=2.41; 95% CI=1.09-5.31) or with a suspicious finding. Clinicians need to consider depression as a possible consequence after an abnormal mammography result. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Measurement invariance of the depressive symptoms scale during adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Brunet, Jennifer; Sabiston, Catherine M.; Chaiton, Michael; Low, Nancy CP; Contreras, Gisèle; Barnett, Tracie A.,; O’Loughlin, Jennifer L

    2014-01-01

    Background This study examined (1) the factor structure of a depressive symptoms scale (DSS), (2) the sex and longitudinal invariance of the DSS, and (3) the predictive validity of the DSS scale during adolescence in terms of predicting depression and anxiety symptoms in early adulthood. Methods Data were drawn from the Nicotine Dependence in Teens (NDIT) study, an ongoing prospective cohort study of 1,293 adolescents. Results The analytical sample included 527 participants who provided compl...

  4. Girls’ challenging social experiences in early adolescence predict neural response to rewards and depressive symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melynda D. Casement

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Developmental models of psychopathology posit that exposure to social stressors may confer risk for depression in adolescent girls by disrupting neural reward circuitry. The current study tested this hypothesis by examining the relationship between early adolescent social stressors and later neural reward processing and depressive symptoms. Participants were 120 girls from an ongoing longitudinal study of precursors to depression across adolescent development. Low parental warmth, peer victimization, and depressive symptoms were assessed when the girls were 11 and 12 years old, and participants completed a monetary reward guessing fMRI task and assessment of depressive symptoms at age 16. Results indicate that low parental warmth was associated with increased response to potential rewards in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC, striatum, and amygdala, whereas peer victimization was associated with decreased response to potential rewards in the mPFC. Furthermore, concurrent depressive symptoms were associated with increased reward anticipation response in mPFC and striatal regions that were also associated with early adolescent psychosocial stressors, with mPFC and striatal response mediating the association between social stressors and depressive symptoms. These findings are consistent with developmental models that emphasize the adverse impact of early psychosocial stressors on neural reward processing and risk for depression in adolescence.

  5. Repetitive negative thinking predicts depression and anxiety symptom improvement during brief cognitive behavioral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertz, Sarah J; Koran, Jennifer; Stevens, Kimberly T; Björgvinsson, Thröstur

    2015-05-01

    Repetitive negative thinking (RNT) is a common symptom across depression and anxiety disorders and preliminary evidence suggests that decreases in rumination and worry are related to improvement in depression and anxiety symptoms. However, despite its prevalence, relatively little is known about transdiagnostic RNT and its temporal associations with symptom improvement during treatment. The current study was designed to examine the influence of RNT on subsequent depression and anxiety symptoms during treatment. Participants (n = 131; 52% female; 93% White; M = 34.76 years) were patients presenting for treatment in a brief, cognitive behavior therapy based, partial hospitalization program. Participants completed multiple assessments of depression (Center for the Epidemiological Studies of Depression-10 scale), anxiety (the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale), and repetitive negative thinking (Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire) over the course of treatment. Results indicated statistically significant between and within person effects of RNT on depression and anxiety, even after controlling for the effect of time, previous symptom levels, referral source, and treatment length. RNT explained 22% of the unexplained variability in depression scores and 15% of the unexplained variability in anxiety scores beyond that explained by the control variables. RNT may be an important transdiagnostic treatment target for anxiety and depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Marital status, social support, and depressive symptoms among lesbian and heterosexual women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornblith, Erica; Green, Robert-Jay; Casey, Shannon; Tiet, Quyen

    2016-01-01

    The current study investigated social support and relationship status (single, dating-but-not-cohabiting, cohabiting, domestic partnership/civil union, married) as predictors of depressive symptoms among lesbian and heterosexual women. The study aimed to determine whether the documented higher rates of depressive symptoms among lesbians compared to heterosexual women could be accounted for by lesbians' reduced access to, or in many cases exclusion from, legalized relationship statuses. The effect of social support from family and social support from friends on depressive symptoms also was examined. Contrary to expectations, results indicated no difference in levels of depressive symptoms among lesbian compared to heterosexual women in this sample. However, regardless of sexual orientation, married women had lower levels of depressive symptoms than unmarried women. Thus, marriage seems to be associated with less depression in lesbian and heterosexual women alike. The interaction of social support and relationship status added to the prediction of depressive symptoms over and above the predictive power of either variable alone, although this effect was small and should be interpreted with caution.

  7. Depressive Symptoms of Older Adults Living Alone: The Role of Community Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyeongmo; Lee, Minhong

    2015-03-01

    Although some evidence suggests that community characteristics may play an important role in the development of depressive symptoms among older adults, current literature has not attended to the role of community characteristics in depression in South Korea. This study begins to address this gap in the literature by examining the relationship of community characteristics and depressive symptoms, controlling for individual characteristics. Using a cross-sectional design and probability sampling, we surveyed 949 older adults living alone in 70 communities in the Busan metropolitan area in South Korea in 2012. A multilevel logistic regression analysis was conducted to test the hypothesis that community characteristics are predictive of depressive symptoms. We find that both the proportion of older adults and the number of senior citizen facilities in a community are associated with depressive symptoms, whereas community poverty is not related to depressive symptoms. Men with lower income, with lower levels of functional abilities, and without stronger family and friend social networks have a higher risk of depressive symptoms. Implications for research, practice, and policy are discussed.

  8. Driving in mild cognitive impairment: The role of depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beratis, Ion N; Andronas, Nikos; Kontaxopoulou, Dionysia; Fragkiadaki, Stella; Pavlou, Dimosthenis; Papatriantafyllou, John; Economou, Alexandra; Yannis, George; Papageorgiou, Sokratis G

    2017-07-04

    Previous studies indicate a negative association between depression and driving fitness in the general population. Our goal was to cover a gap in the literature and to explore the link between depressive symptoms and driving behavior in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) through the use of a driving simulator experiment. Twenty-four individuals with MCI (mean age = 67.42, SD = 7.13) and 23 cognitively healthy individuals (mean age = 65.13, SD = 7.21) were introduced in the study. A valid driving license and regular car use served as main inclusion criteria. Data collection included a neurological/neuropsychological assessment and a driving simulator evaluation. Depressive symptomatology was assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Significant interaction effects indicating a greater negative impact of depressive symptoms in drivers with MCI than in cognitively healthy drivers were observed in the case of various driving indexes, namely, average speed, accident risk, side bar hits, headway distance, headway distance variation, and lateral position variation. The associations between depressive symptoms and driving behavior remained significant after controlling for daytime sleepiness and cognition. Depressive symptoms could be a factor explaining why certain patients with MCI present altered driving skills. Therefore, interventions for treating the depressive symptoms of individuals with MCI could prove to be beneficial regarding their driving performance.

  9. The Effectiveness of Aromatherapy for Depressive Symptoms: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalinda Isabel Sánchez-Vidaña

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Depression is one of the greatest health concerns affecting 350 million people globally. Aromatherapy is a popular CAM intervention chosen by people with depression. Due to the growing popularity of aromatherapy for alleviating depressive symptoms, in-depth evaluation of the evidence-based clinical efficacy of aromatherapy is urgently needed. Purpose. This systematic review aims to provide an analysis of the clinical evidence on the efficacy of aromatherapy for depressive symptoms on any type of patients. Methods. A systematic database search was carried out using predefined search terms in 5 databases: AMED, CINHAL, CCRCT, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO. Outcome measures included scales measuring depressive symptoms levels. Results. Twelve randomized controlled trials were included and two administration methods for the aromatherapy intervention including inhaled aromatherapy (5 studies and massage aromatherapy (7 studies were identified. Seven studies showed improvement in depressive symptoms. Limitations. The quality of half of the studies included is low, and the administration protocols among the studies varied considerably. Different assessment tools were also employed among the studies. Conclusions. Aromatherapy showed potential to be used as an effective therapeutic option for the relief of depressive symptoms in a wide variety of subjects. Particularly, aromatherapy massage showed to have more beneficial effects than inhalation aromatherapy.

  10. The Effectiveness of Aromatherapy for Depressive Symptoms: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Vidaña, Dalinda Isabel; Ngai, Shirley Pui-Ching; He, Wanjia; Chow, Jason Ka-Wing; Lau, Benson Wui-Man; Tsang, Hector Wing-Hong

    2017-01-01

    Background. Depression is one of the greatest health concerns affecting 350 million people globally. Aromatherapy is a popular CAM intervention chosen by people with depression. Due to the growing popularity of aromatherapy for alleviating depressive symptoms, in-depth evaluation of the evidence-based clinical efficacy of aromatherapy is urgently needed. Purpose. This systematic review aims to provide an analysis of the clinical evidence on the efficacy of aromatherapy for depressive symptoms on any type of patients. Methods. A systematic database search was carried out using predefined search terms in 5 databases: AMED, CINHAL, CCRCT, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO. Outcome measures included scales measuring depressive symptoms levels. Results. Twelve randomized controlled trials were included and two administration methods for the aromatherapy intervention including inhaled aromatherapy (5 studies) and massage aromatherapy (7 studies) were identified. Seven studies showed improvement in depressive symptoms. Limitations. The quality of half of the studies included is low, and the administration protocols among the studies varied considerably. Different assessment tools were also employed among the studies. Conclusions. Aromatherapy showed potential to be used as an effective therapeutic option for the relief of depressive symptoms in a wide variety of subjects. Particularly, aromatherapy massage showed to have more beneficial effects than inhalation aromatherapy.

  11. Depressive symptoms and cognitive functioning among older adults with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Ruth T; Midlarsky, Elizabeth

    2017-08-08

    The US population of older adults is growing, with an increase in diseases like cancer. As cancer rates increase, there is a concomitant increase in adverse correlates, such as cognitive impairment and depressive symptomatology. In order to develop appropriate interventions, it is vital to assess relationships among cancer, depressive symptoms and cognitive functioning. The sample consisted of 403 older adults with cancer diagnoses from the Health and Retirement Study. Using latent class growth analysis, longitudinal data were explored. The goals were to investigate trajectories of cognitive functioning, and to identify whether depressive symptoms and demographic factors predicted membership in the cognitive classes. Three classes of cognitive functioning best fit the data: High, Middle and Low Recall, fairly stable trajectories from pre-diagnosis to a period four years after diagnosis. More depressive symptoms after diagnosis (but not prior) significantly predicted membership in the Low Recall class. Depressive symptoms did not distinguish between the High and Middle Recall classes. Depressive symptomatology is thought to affect cognition in late life. We found that depressive symptoms after a cancer diagnosis, but not before, successfully differentiated between those who had Low Recall from those with Middle and High Recall. Implications are discussed.

  12. Cognitive impairment and depressive symptoms coexisting in an elderly man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiran, Ruziana; Pang, Nicholas Tze Ping

    2017-02-08

    We report a case of a man aged 67 years presenting with recent depressive symptoms and paranoid ideations in addition to 1-year cognitive impairment. He has vascular risk factors and family history of memory loss. An episode of depression 2 decades ago resolved spontaneously but was followed by occupational decline. On mental state examination, he denied having depressed mood, hallucinations or delusions, but there were prominent word-finding difficulties and impaired attention and concentration.

  13. Mother-son relationship as a risk factor for depressive symptoms among methamphetamine users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Shirley J; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Zians, Jim; Patterson, Thomas L

    2012-02-01

    Retrospective reports of children's relationships with their parents have been associated with increased risk for depressive symptoms in adulthood. This study examined four dimensions of the current mother-child relationship (affection, criticism, over-involvement, conflict) in relation to depressive symptoms in a sample of 270 HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). Depressive symptoms were positively associated with overt conflict or disagreement with mothers and perceived over-involvement by mothers, and inversely related to frequency of contact with mothers. These findings suggest that clinicians who treat HIV-positive methamphetamine-using MSM with depressive symptoms should evaluate issues in the mother-son relationship and consider family-based therapies as an adjunct to treatment.

  14. Depressive symptoms and early retirement intentions among Danish eldercare workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nexo, Mette Andersen; Borg, Vilhelm; Sejbaek, Camilla Sandal

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Depression increases the risk of disability pension and represents a health related strain that pushes people out of the labour market. Although early voluntary retirement is an important alternative to disability pension, few studies have examined whether depressive symptoms incur...

  15. Major Depressive Disorder in Adolescence: The Role of Subthreshold Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiades, Katholiki; Lewinsohn, Peter M.; Monroe, Scott M.; Seeley, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine the longitudinal association between individual subthreshold symptoms and onset of major depressive disorder (MDD) in adolescence. Method: Data for analysis come from the Oregon Adolescent Depression Project, a prospective epidemiological study of psychological disorders among adolescents, ages 14 to 18 years, from the…

  16. Depressive symptom clusters are differentially associated with atherosclerotic disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bus, B. A. A.; Marijnissen, R. M.; Holewijn, S.; Franke, B.; Purandare, N.; de Graaf, J.; den Heijer, M.; Buitelaar, J. K.; Voshaar, R. C. Oude

    2011-01-01

    Background. Depression increases the risk of subsequent vascular events in both cardiac and non-cardiac patients. Atherosclerosis, the underlying process leading to vascular events, has been associated with depression. This association, however, may be confounded by the somatic-affective symptoms be

  17. Teenage Childbearing, Marital Status, and Depressive Symptoms in Later Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalil, Ariel; Kunz, James

    2002-01-01

    This longitudinal study tested the contribution of age and marital status at first birth to depressive symptomatology in early adulthood. Findings indicated that unmarried teenage childbearers displayed higher levels of depressive symptoms than women who first gave birth as married adults. The psychological health of married teenage mothers in…

  18. Factors associated with depressive symptoms among Filipino university students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo B Lee

    Full Text Available Depression can be prevented if its symptoms are addressed early and effectively. Prevention against depression among university students is rare in the Philippines, but is urgent because of the rising rates of suicide among the group. Evidence is needed to systematically identify and assist students with higher levels of depressive symptoms. We carried out a survey to determine the social and demographic factors associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms among 2,436 Filipino university students. The University Students Depression Inventory with measures on lethargy, cognition-emotion, and academic motivation, was used. Six of the 11 factors analyzed were found to be statistically significantly associated with more intense levels of depressive symptoms. These factors were: frequency of smoking, frequency of drinking, not living with biological parents, dissatisfaction with one's financial condition, level of closeness with parents, and level of closeness with peers. Sex, age category, course category, year level and religion were not significantly related. In identifying students with greater risk for depression, characteristics related to lifestyle, financial condition, parents and peers are crucial. There is a need to carry out more surveys to develop the pool of local knowledge on student depression.

  19. The association of depression status with menopause symptoms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    VMS and sleep disturbances tends to change with menopausal status in Chinese rural midlife women. Keywords: depression, poor sleep, vasomotor symptoms, menopause, rural women ..... Pharmaceutical Journal (14), 2013. 20-22,23. Doi: 10.3969/j. ... Associa- tions between anxiety, depression and insomnia in peri-.

  20. Depressive symptoms associated with hereditary Alzheimer's disease: a case description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Mónica Yicette Sánchez; Vargas, Paula Alejandra Osorio; Ramos, Lucero Rengifo; Velandia, Rafael Alarcón

    The authors describe a family group studied by the Centro de Biología Molecular y Biotecnología, and the Clínica de la Memoria, las Demencias y el Envejecimiento (Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira, Colombia), and evaluate the association of depressive symptoms with Alzheimer's disease (AD). This family presented a hereditary pattern for AD characterized by an early onset of dementia symptoms, a long preclinical depressive course, and, once the first symptoms of dementia appeared, a rapid progression to severe cognitive function impairment. The authors found a high prevalence of depressive symptoms in this family and propose that the symptoms could be an important risk factor for developing AD in the presence of other risk factors such as the APOE E4 allele.

  1. Anxiety and depressive symptoms and medical illness among adults with anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niles, Andrea N; Dour, Halina J; Stanton, Annette L; Roy-Byrne, Peter P; Stein, Murray B; Sullivan, Greer; Sherbourne, Cathy D; Rose, Raphael D; Craske, Michelle G

    2015-02-01

    Anxiety is linked to a number of medical conditions, yet few studies have examined how symptom severity relates to medical comorbidity. The current study assessed associations between severity of anxiety and depression and the presence of medical conditions in adults diagnosed with anxiety disorders. Nine-hundred eighty-nine patients diagnosed with panic, generalized anxiety, social anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorders reported on the severity of anxiety and depressive symptoms and on diagnoses of 11 medical conditions. Severity of anxiety and depressive symptoms was strongly associated with having more medical conditions over and above control variables, and the association was as strong as that between BMI and disease. Odds of having asthma, heart disease, back problems, ulcer, migraine headache and eyesight difficulties also increased as anxiety and depressive symptom severity increased. Anxiety symptoms were independently associated with ulcer, whereas depressive symptoms were independently associated with heart disease, migraine, and eyesight difficulties. These findings add to a growing body of research linking anxiety disorders with physical health problems and indicate that anxiety and depressive symptoms deserve greater attention in their association with disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Non-work-related personal events contribute to depressive symptoms in Japanese discretionary workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogami, Ayumi; Muto, Takashi; Haruyama, Yasuo; Yoshikawa, Toru

    2013-08-01

    In Japan, the number of workers with depressive symptoms has increased recently, and long working hours are considered one of the main contributing factors. Currently, the number of workers engaging in discretionary work is small but is expected to increase, as a diverse method of employment is believed to contribute to workers' well-being. However, the factors related to discretionary workers' depressive symptoms are unclear. This study aimed to identify the factors associated with depressive symptoms in discretionary workers. The subjects were 240 male discretionary workers in a Japanese insurance company. A cross-sectional study was performed using a questionnaire that includes demographic characteristics, living and working conditions, work-related and non-work-related stressful events, and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Depressive symptoms were assessed as more than 16 points on the CES-D. Multiple logistic regression models were employed to estimate odd ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of depressive symptoms in relation to possible factors. Thirty-six subjects (15.5%) showed depressive symptoms. The depressive symptoms were significantly related to age (p = 0.04), presence of child(ren) (p = 0.02), and length of employment (p = 0.01), but unrelated to working hours. Subjects who reported "financial matters" (OR = 4.50, 95% CI = 1.89-10.72) and "own event" such as divorce or illness (OR = 2.93, 95% CI = 1.13-7.61) were more likely to show depressive symptoms. In conclusion, mental health measures for discretionary workers should focus on addressing financial difficulties and consultations and assistance in personal health and family issues.

  3. Adolescent attachment, family functioning and depressive symptoms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adolescent-parent attachment style, perceived support and family ... Participants included a maternal parent and an adolescent (65.5% female) from each family. ... (CBCL) were used to assess depression, parental support and attachment.

  4. What are 'good' depression symptoms? : Comparing the centrality of DSM and non-DSM symptoms of depression in a network analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fried, E.I.; Epskamp, S.; Nesse, R.M.; Tuerlinckx, F.; Borsboom, D.

    2016-01-01

    Background The symptoms for Major Depression (MD) defined in the DSM-5 differ markedly from symptoms assessed in common rating scales, and the empirical question about core depression symptoms is unresolved. Here we conceptualize depression as a complex dynamic system of interacting symptoms to

  5. Parenting and depressive symptoms among adolescents in four Caribbean societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The strategies that parents use to guide and discipline their children may influence their emotional health. Relatively little research has been conducted examining the association of parenting practices to depressive symptoms among Caribbean adolescents. This project examines the association of parenting styles to levels of depressive symptoms among adolescents in Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Kitts and Nevis, and St. Vincent. Methods Adolescents attending grade ten of academic year 2006/2007 in Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Vincent, and St. Kitts and Nevis were administered the Parenting Practices Scale along with the BDI-II. Authoritative, Authoritarian, Permissive and Neglectful parenting styles were created using a median split procedure of the monitoring and nurturance subscales of the Parenting Practices Scale. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the relationships of parenting styles to depressive symptoms. Results A wide cross-section of tenth grade students in each nation was sampled (n = 1955; 278 from Jamaica, 217 from the Bahamas, 737 St. Kitts and Nevis, 716 from St. Vincent; 52.1% females, 45.6% males and 2.3% no gender reported; age 12 to 19 years, mean = 15.3 yrs, sd = .95 yrs). Nearly half (52.1%) of all adolescents reported mild to severe symptoms of depression with 29.1% reporting moderate to severe symptoms of depression. In general, authoritative and permissive parenting styles were both associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms in adolescents. However, the relationship of parenting styles to depression scores was not consistent across countries (p parenting, caregivers in this study used a mixture of different parenting styles with the two most popular styles being authoritative and neglectful parenting. Conclusions There appears to be an association between parenting styles and depressive symptoms that is differentially manifested across the islands of Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Kitts and Nevis and St

  6. Parenting and depressive symptoms among adolescents in four Caribbean societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipps Garth

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The strategies that parents use to guide and discipline their children may influence their emotional health. Relatively little research has been conducted examining the association of parenting practices to depressive symptoms among Caribbean adolescents. This project examines the association of parenting styles to levels of depressive symptoms among adolescents in Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Kitts and Nevis, and St. Vincent. Methods Adolescents attending grade ten of academic year 2006/2007 in Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Vincent, and St. Kitts and Nevis were administered the Parenting Practices Scale along with the BDI-II. Authoritative, Authoritarian, Permissive and Neglectful parenting styles were created using a median split procedure of the monitoring and nurturance subscales of the Parenting Practices Scale. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the relationships of parenting styles to depressive symptoms. Results A wide cross-section of tenth grade students in each nation was sampled (n = 1955; 278 from Jamaica, 217 from the Bahamas, 737 St. Kitts and Nevis, 716 from St. Vincent; 52.1% females, 45.6% males and 2.3% no gender reported; age 12 to 19 years, mean = 15.3 yrs, sd = .95 yrs. Nearly half (52.1% of all adolescents reported mild to severe symptoms of depression with 29.1% reporting moderate to severe symptoms of depression. In general, authoritative and permissive parenting styles were both associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms in adolescents. However, the relationship of parenting styles to depression scores was not consistent across countries (p  Conclusions There appears to be an association between parenting styles and depressive symptoms that is differentially manifested across the islands of Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Kitts and Nevis and St. Vincent.

  7. Anxiety and Depression Symptoms Among Farmers: The HUNT Study, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torske, Magnhild Oust; Hilt, Bjørn; Glasscock, David; Lundqvist, Peter; Krokstad, Steinar

    2016-01-01

    Agriculture has undergone profound changes, and farmers face a wide variety of stressors. Our aim was to study the levels of anxiety and depression symptoms among Norwegian farmers compared with other occupational groups. Working participants in the HUNT3 Survey (The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, 2006-2008), aged 19-66.9 years, were included in this cross-sectional study. We compared farmers (women, n = 317; men, n = 1,100) with HUNT3 participants working in other occupational groups (women, n = 13,429; men, n = 10,026), classified according to socioeconomic status. We used the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) to measure anxiety and depression symptoms. Both male and female farmers had higher levels of depression symptoms than the general working population, but the levels of anxiety symptoms did not differ. The differences in depression symptom levels between farmers and the general working population increased with age. In an age-adjusted logistic regression analysis, the odds ratio (OR) for depression caseness (HADS-D ≥8) when compared with the general working population was 1.49 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22-1.83) in men and 1.29 (95% CI: 0.85-1.95) in women. Male farmers had a higher OR of depression caseness than any other occupational group (OR = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.52-2.49, using higher-grade professionals as reference). Female farmers had an OR similar to men (2.00, 95% CI: 1.26-3.17), but lower than other manual occupations. We found that farmers had high levels of depression symptoms and average levels of anxiety symptoms compared with other occupational groups.

  8. Vitamin D Deficiency and Depressive Symptomatology in Psychiatric Patients Hospitalized with a Current Depressive Episode: A Factor Analytic Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland von Känel

    Full Text Available Low vitamin D levels have been associated with depressive symptoms in population-based studies and non-clinical samples as well as with clinical depression. This study aimed to examine the association of vitamin D levels with the severity and dimensions of depressive symptoms in hospitalized patients with a current episode of depression taking into account confounding variables.We investigated 380 patients (mean age 47 ± 12 years, 70% women who were consecutively hospitalized with a main diagnosis of an ICD-10 depressive episode. All patients self-rated depressive symptom severity with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D, the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II, and the Brief Symptom Inventory. A principal component analysis was performed with all 34 items of these questionnaires and serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-OH D were measured.Vitamin D deficiency ( 75 nmol/l were present in 55.5%, 31.8% and 12.6%, respectively, of patients. Patients with vitamin D deficiency scored higher on the HADS-D scale and on an anhedonia symptom factor than those with insufficient (p-values ≤ 0.023 or sufficient (p-values ≤ 0.008 vitamin D. Vitamin D deficient patients also scored higher on the BDI-II scale than those with sufficient vitamin D (p = 0.007; BDI-II cognitive/affective symptoms, but not somatic/affective symptoms, were higher in patients with vitamin D deficiency (p = 0.005 and insufficiency (p = 0.041 relative to those with sufficient vitamin D. Effect sizes suggested clinically relevant findings.Low vitamin D levels are frequent in hospitalized patients with a current episode of depression. Especially 25-OH D levels < 50 nmol/l were associated with cognitive/affective depressive symptoms, and anhedonia symptoms in particular.

  9. Vitamin D Deficiency and Depressive Symptomatology in Psychiatric Patients Hospitalized with a Current Depressive Episode: A Factor Analytic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Känel, Roland; Fardad, Nasser; Steurer, Nadine; Horak, Nicole; Hindermann, Esther; Fischer, Franz; Gessler, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    Low vitamin D levels have been associated with depressive symptoms in population-based studies and non-clinical samples as well as with clinical depression. This study aimed to examine the association of vitamin D levels with the severity and dimensions of depressive symptoms in hospitalized patients with a current episode of depression taking into account confounding variables. We investigated 380 patients (mean age 47 ± 12 years, 70% women) who were consecutively hospitalized with a main diagnosis of an ICD-10 depressive episode. All patients self-rated depressive symptom severity with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D), the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), and the Brief Symptom Inventory. A principal component analysis was performed with all 34 items of these questionnaires and serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-OH D) were measured. Vitamin D deficiency ( 75 nmol/l) were present in 55.5%, 31.8% and 12.6%, respectively, of patients. Patients with vitamin D deficiency scored higher on the HADS-D scale and on an anhedonia symptom factor than those with insufficient (p-values ≤ 0.023) or sufficient (p-values ≤ 0.008) vitamin D. Vitamin D deficient patients also scored higher on the BDI-II scale than those with sufficient vitamin D (p = 0.007); BDI-II cognitive/affective symptoms, but not somatic/affective symptoms, were higher in patients with vitamin D deficiency (p = 0.005) and insufficiency (p = 0.041) relative to those with sufficient vitamin D. Effect sizes suggested clinically relevant findings. Low vitamin D levels are frequent in hospitalized patients with a current episode of depression. Especially 25-OH D levels < 50 nmol/l were associated with cognitive/affective depressive symptoms, and anhedonia symptoms in particular.

  10. Mothers' depressive symptoms and children's facial emotions: examining the depression-inhibition hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dix, Theodore; Meunier, Leah N; Lusk, Kathryn; Perfect, Michelle M

    2012-02-01

    Vibrant expression of emotion is the principal means infants and young children use to elicit appropriate and timely caregiving, stimulation, and support. This study examined the depression-inhibition hypothesis: that declines in mothers' support as their depressive symptoms increase inhibit children's emotional communication. Ninety-four mothers and their 14- to 27-month-olds interacted in a university playroom. Based on microanalytic coding of discrete facial displays, results supported three components of the hypothesis. (a) As mothers' depressive symptoms increased, children displayed less facial emotion (more flat affect, less joy, less sadness, less negative). (b) Mothers' low emotional and behavioral support predicted children's low facial communication and mediated relations between mothers' depressive symptoms and children's infrequent emotion. (c) Children who were passive with mothers behaviorally expressed emotion infrequently. Children's passivity mediated relations between mothers' depressive symptoms and children's infrequent emotion displays. Contrary to modeling and contagion theories, mothers' facial displays did not mediate relations between their depressive symptoms and children's facial displays. Nor were the outcomes children experienced regulating their facial displays. Rather, findings suggest that, even when depressive symptoms are modest, young children inhibit emotion as mothers' depressive symptoms increase to withdraw from unresponsive mothers, which may adversely affect children's subsequent relationships and competencies.

  11. Depressive Symptoms and Cigarette Demand as a Function of Induced Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahne, Jennifer; Murphy, James G; MacPherson, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Depressed smokers may disproportionately value cigarettes as compared to other reinforcers in the context of increases in negative affect (NA). Thus, cigarette demand may be an important construct for understanding the relationship between depression, NA change, and tobacco use. The aim of the current study was to examine the interaction between depressive symptoms and change in NA as a function of induced mood as a predictor of cigarette demand. Participants included 73 young adult daily smokers (41.70% female, 73.60% White, age M (SD) = 19.70 (1.15)) who attended two experimental sessions: one stress and one neutral. During each session, participants completed ratings of depressive symptoms, NA, and cigarette demand. We examined the predictive utility of depressive symptoms, change in NA as a result of a stressor, and the interaction between depressive symptoms and NA change on demand indices. Separate models were constructed by session. Results indicated significant interactive effects between depressive symptoms and change in NA for predicting intensity, breakpoint, and P max during the stress session. Specifically, change in NA moderated the relationship between depression and demand indices such that among individuals high in NA change, depressive symptoms were positively related to P max and breakpoint, whereas among individuals low in NA change, depressive symptoms were positively related to intensity. When exposed to stress, cigarettes may become more valuable for individuals with depressive symptoms. This study contributes to the literature attempting to understand the complex relationships between depression, stress-related changes in NA, and tobacco use. This study suggests that one mechanism that may be important to the relationship between depression and tobacco use is cigarette demand. Specifically, for individuals with elevated depressive symptoms, certain aspects of cigarette demand may be higher (intensity, breakpoint, and P max) when exposed to

  12. Sleep quality, internet addiction and depressive symptoms among undergraduate students in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Parash Mani; Neupane, Dipika; Rijal, Shristi; Thapa, Kiran; Mishra, Shiva Raj; Poudyal, Amod Kumar

    2017-03-21

    Evidence on the burden of depression, internet addiction and poor sleep quality in undergraduate students from Nepal is virtually non-existent. While the interaction between sleep quality, internet addiction and depressive symptoms is frequently assessed in studies, it is not well explored if sleep quality or internet addiction statistically mediates the association between the other two variables. We enrolled 984 students from 27 undergraduate campuses of Chitwan and Kathmandu, Nepal. We assessed sleep quality, internet addiction and depressive symptoms in these students using Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Young's Internet Addiction Test and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 respectively. We included responses from 937 students in the data analysis after removing questionnaires with five percent or more fields missing. Via bootstrap approach, we assessed the mediating role of internet addiction in the association between sleep quality and depressive symptoms, and that of sleep quality in the association between internet addiction and depressive symptoms. Overall, 35.4%, 35.4% and 21.2% of students scored above validated cutoff scores for poor sleep quality, internet addiction and depression respectively. Poorer sleep quality was associated with having lower age, not being alcohol user, being a Hindu, being sexually active and having failed in previous year's board examination. Higher internet addiction was associated with having lower age, being sexually inactive and having failed in previous year's board examination. Depressive symptoms were higher for students having higher age, being sexually inactive, having failed in previous year's board examination and lower years of study. Internet addiction statistically mediated 16.5% of the indirect effect of sleep quality on depressive symptoms. Sleep quality, on the other hand, statistically mediated 30.9% of the indirect effect of internet addiction on depressive symptoms. In the current study, a great proportion of

  13. Mindfulness Is Associated with Fewer PTSD Symptoms, Depressive Symptoms, Physical Symptoms, and Alcohol Problems in Urban Firefighters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bruce W.; Ortiz, J. Alexis; Steffen, Laurie E.; Tooley, Erin M.; Wiggins, Kathryn T.; Yeater, Elizabeth A.; Montoya, John D.; Bernard, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the association between mindfulness, other resilience resources, and several measures of health in 124 urban firefighters. Method: Participants completed health measures of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depressive symptoms, physical symptoms, and alcohol problems and measures of resilience…

  14. Depression: Current Scenario with reference to India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megha Luthra

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Depression is an illness characterized by persistent sadness and a loss of interest in activities that you normally enjoy, accompanied by an inability to carry out daily activities, for at least two weeks. In addition, people with depression normally have several of the following symptoms: Loss of energy, Change in appetite, Sleeping more or less, Anxiety, Reduced concentration, Indecisiveness, Restlessness, Feelings of worthlessness, Guilt or hopelessness, Thoughts of self-harm or suicide, (WHO World Health Day Campaign Essentials

  15. BMI and depressive symptoms: the role of media pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffers, Amy J; Cotter, Elizabeth W; Snipes, Daniel J; Benotsch, Eric G

    2013-12-01

    Obese and overweight individuals experience higher risk for depression and emotional distress. One factor that may contribute to depression in obese or overweight individuals is exposure to unrealistic images in the media. Indeed, overall media consumption is associated with body image dissatisfaction in adolescents and young adults. Despite these compelling links, prior work has not examined the mediating effect of media pressures on the link between BMI and depression. In the present study, young adults (N = 743) completed an online survey assessing demographic information, perceived pressure from the media to conform to a certain body standard, and symptoms of depression. Structural equation modeling analyses indicated a direct effect of BMI on media pressure, a direct effect of media pressure on depressive symptoms, and an indirect effect of BMI on depressive symptoms mediated by media pressures. Findings indicate that higher BMI levels are associated with greater depressive symptoms when there is greater perceived media pressure on body image. Results suggest the need for clinicians to assess media consumption and perceived pressure to conform to physical appearance standards in individuals who are obese or overweight as well as individuals at risk for eating disorders.

  16. Stress-Reactive Rumination, Negative Cognitive Style, and Stressors in Relationship to Depressive Symptoms in Non-Clinical Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rood, Lea; Roelofs, Jeffrey; Bogels, Susan M.; Meesters, Cor

    2012-01-01

    The role of cognitive vulnerability in the development of depressive symptoms in youth might depend on age and gender. The current study examined cognitive vulnerability models in relationship to depressive symptoms from a developmental perspective. For that purpose, 805 youth (aged 10-18, 59.9% female) completed self-report measures.…

  17. Sexual orientation identity change and depressive symptoms: a longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Bethany

    2015-03-01

    Several new studies have documented high rates of sexual identity mobility among young adults, but little work has investigated the links between identity change and mental health. This study uses the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (N = 11,727) and employs multivariate regression and propensity score matching to investigate the impact of identity change on depressive symptoms. The results reveal that only changes in sexual identity toward more same-sex-oriented identities are associated with increases in depressive symptoms. Moreover, the negative impacts of identity change are concentrated among individuals who at baseline identified as heterosexual or had not reported same-sex romantic attraction or relationships. No differences in depressive symptoms by sexual orientation identity were found among respondents who reported stable identities. Future research should continue to investigate the factors that contribute to the relationship between identity change and depression, such as stigma surrounding sexual fluidity.

  18. Cognitive vulnerabilities as mediators between emotional abuse and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla Paredes, Patricia; Calvete, Esther

    2014-01-01

    This study tested whether childhood parental emotional abuse and peer emotional bullying serve as antecedents of depression in adolescence and identified the cognitive mechanisms involved in this process. It was hypothesized that the experience of emotional abuse would predict depressive symptoms via development of rumination and negative inferences. A 3-wave longitudinal study was carried out with 998 adolescents (471 girls and 526 boys) between 13 and 17 years of age. Results showed that emotional abuse by parents and peers at Time 1 predicted a worsening of several cognitive vulnerabilities at Time 2. In addition, brooding mediated between the experiences of abuse and the increase of depressive symptoms at Time 3. Thus, findings suggest that the experiences of childhood emotional abuse by parents and peers serve as antecedents to develop a negative cognitive style, vulnerability that, once developed, is a risk factor for the onset of depressive symptoms in adolescence.

  19. Spousal similarity in coping and depressive symptoms over 10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holahan, Charles J; Moos, Rudolf H; Moerkbak, Marie L; Cronkite, Ruth C; Holahan, Carole K; Kenney, Brent A

    2007-12-01

    Following a baseline sample of 184 married couples over 10 years, the present study develops a broadened conceptualization of linkages in spouses' functioning by examining similarity in coping as well as in depressive symptoms. Consistent with hypotheses, results demonstrated (a) similarity in depressive symptoms within couples across 10 years, (b) similarity in coping within couples over 10 years, and (c) the role of coping similarity in strengthening depressive similarity between spouses. Spousal similarity in coping was evident for a composite measure of percent approach coping as well as for component measures of approach and avoidance coping. The role of coping similarity in strengthening depressive symptom similarity was observed for percent approach coping and for avoidance coping. These findings support social contextual models of psychological adjustment that emphasize the importance of dynamic interdependencies between individuals in close relationships.

  20. [Posttraumatic Stress and Depressive Symptoms amongst Asylum Seekers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröger, Christoph; Frantz, Inga; Friel, Pauline; Heinrichs, Nina

    2016-09-01

    Background and Objectives: Currently, there is a large number of refugees that are coming to Germany from (civil) war zones. The aim of this study was to estimate the extent of posttraumatic stress and depressive symptoms amongst asylum seekers in Germany. Methods: In the summer of 2015, 280 adult refugees (88,2% men) were interviewed with the support of translators in the Lower Saxony State Refugee Reception Center, Brunswick. Data was categorized due to country of origin (Balkan States, Middle East, Northern Africa, Rest of Africa). The Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale-8 (PDS-8) and the Patient-Health-Questionnaire (PHQ-8) were employed as screening measures. If the threshold values of 12 in the PDS-8 or 15 in the PHQ are exceeded, respectively, the diagnosis of PTSD or depression is highly likely. Results: Participants reported an overall high number of potentially traumatic experiences (72,5% war experiences; 67,9% violent attacks; 51,4% another very burdensome experience; 50,0% torture; 47,9% imprisonment; 11,1% sexual assault), whereby multiple answers were possible. The prevalence rates for possible PTSD were 16,1% (Balkan States), 20,5% (Middle East), 23,4% (Rest of Africa) and 28,1% (Northern Africa); rates for a possible depression varied between the countries of origin from 17,9, 35,9, 28,1 to 24,0%, respectively. Conclusions: Compared to the German population, the rates of traumatic experiences and the prevalence of a possible PTSD were significantly higher amongst asylum seekers of the present sample; this was not the case for depression. The integration of affected asylum seekers may be considerably complicated due to health impairments, e. g. with regard to learning the German language and admission to educational or occupational services. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Insomnia in relation to depression and somatic symptoms.

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    El-Anzi, Freih O

    2006-08-01

    A sample of 358 Kuwaiti volunteer college students responded to the Insomnia Scale, the Somatic Symptoms Inventory, and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale. The only significant sex difference was in somatic symptoms on which women had a higher mean score than the men. Correlations between scores on the Insomnia Scale and both Depression scales were .51 and .54 and for Somatic Symptoms were .53 and .61 (p < .01) among men and women, respectively. The factor analysis of the intercorrelations yielded a highly loaded general factor for Psychological Disorder in both samples.

  2. Sleep quality during pregnancy: associations with depressive and anxiety symptoms.

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    Polo-Kantola, Päivi; Aukia, Linda; Karlsson, Hasse; Karlsson, Linnea; Paavonen, E Juulia

    2017-02-01

    Sleep disturbances are common during pregnancy, yet underdiagnosed and under-investigated. We evaluated sleep quality during pregnancy and assessed associated factors, especially depressive and anxiety symptoms. A total of 78 healthy pregnant women from the FinnBrain Birth Cohort Study were studied twice prospectively during pregnancy (in mid-pregnancy and late pregnancy). Sleep quality was evaluated by the Basic Nordic Sleep Questionnaire, depressive symptoms by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, and anxiety symptoms by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Poor general sleep quality, difficulty falling asleep, the number of nocturnal awakenings per night, and too-early morning awakenings increased in late pregnancy compared with mid-pregnancy (all p-values anxiety symptoms were cross-sectionally related to sleep disturbances, but depressive or anxiety symptoms in mid-pregnancy were not associated with sleep disturbances in late pregnancy. We found deterioration in sleep quality across pregnancy. However, no increase in negative daytime consequences was found, presumably indicating a compensatory capacity against sleep impairment. Additionally, depressive and anxiety symptoms and sleep disturbances were only cross-sectionally associated. Our study calls for further research on the factors that influence sleep disturbances during pregnancy. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  3. Perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms among immigrant-origin adolescents.

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    Tummala-Narra, Pratyusha; Claudius, Milena

    2013-07-01

    Although discrimination has been found to contribute to psychological distress among immigrant populations, there are few studies that have examined the relationship between racial and ethnic discrimination in the school setting among foreign-born immigrant and U.S.-born immigrant-origin adolescents. This study examined the relationship between perceived discrimination by adults and peers in the school setting and depressive symptoms in a sample (N = 95) of racial minority immigrant-origin adolescents (13 to 19 years of age) attending an urban high school. We examined the relation between perceived discrimination and depressive symptomology across gender and nativity status (foreign born vs. U.S. born), and the potential moderating role of ethnic identity and social support. Consistent with previous research, girls reported higher levels of depressive symptomology than boys, although the relationship between perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms was significant for both boys and girls. Perceived discrimination by adults and by peers at school was positively related to depressive symptoms for U.S.-born adolescents. For U.S.-born adolescents, ethnic identity mitigated the negative effects of perceived adult discrimination on depressive symptoms. However, ethnic identity did not moderate the relationship between perceived peer discrimination and depressive symptoms. Social support did not moderate the relationship between adult and peer discrimination and depressive symptoms for either foreign-born or U.S.-born adolescents. The findings support previous research concerning the immigrant paradox and highlight the importance of context in the relationship between perceived discrimination and mental health. Implications for future research and intervention are discussed.

  4. Risk factors for prenatal depressive symptoms among Hispanic women.

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    Fortner, Renée Turzanski; Pekow, Penelope; Dole, Nancy; Markenson, Glenn; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2011-11-01

    Prior studies of risk factors for depressive symptoms during pregnancy are sparse and the majority have focused on non-Hispanic white women. Hispanics are the largest minority group in the US and have the highest birth rates. We examined associations between pre and early pregnancy factors and depressive symptoms in early pregnancy among 921 participants in Proyecto Buena Salud, an ongoing cohort of pregnant Puerto Rican and Dominican women in Western Massachusetts. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (mean=13 weeks gestation) by bilingual interviewers who also collected data on sociodemographic, acculturation, behavioral, and psychosocial factors. A total of 30% of participants were classified as having depressive symptoms (EPDS scores>12) with mean+SD scores of 9.28+5.99. Higher levels of education (college/graduate school vs. depressive symptoms. There was the suggestion that failure to discontinue cigarette smoking with the onset of pregnancy (RR=1.32; 95% CI 0.97-1.71) and English language preference (RR=1.33; 95% CI 0.96-1.70) were associated with higher risk. Single marital status, second generation in the U.S., and higher levels of alcohol consumption were associated with higher risk of depressive symptoms in univariate analyses, but were attenuated after adjustment for other risk factors. Findings in the largest, fastest-growing ethnic minority group can inform intervention studies targeting Hispanic women at risk of depression in pregnancy.

  5. Acculturation and Depressive Symptoms among Turkish Immigrants in Germany

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    Eva Morawa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study explores the impact of acculturation on depressive symptoms among Turkish immigrants in Germany, taking into account different dimensions of cultural orientation. A total of 471 patients from two selected samples (254 primary care patients and 217 outpatients of a psychosomatic department participated. Levels of acculturation were measured as orientation towards culture of origin (CO, and orientation towards the host culture (HC. Acculturation strategies (integration, assimilation, separation, and marginalization were also assessed as well as their association with depressive symptoms (BDI. Furthermore, gender- and migration-related differences in terms of acculturation and levels of depressive symptomatology were analyzed. Integration was the acculturation strategy associated with the lowest level of depressive symptoms (M = 14.6, SD = 11.9, while marginalization was associated with the highest (M = 23.5, SD = 14.7. Gender was not found to have a significant impact on acculturation but influenced depressive symptoms, with women (M = 21.8, SD = 13.3 reporting higher levels of depressive symptomatology than men (M = 15.1, SD = 14.0; p < 0.001. In first generation immigrants, significantly higher CO (M = 46.6, SD = 8.3; p < 0.001, lower HC (M = 31.0, SD = 9.6; p < 0.001, and higher levels of depressive symptoms (M = 20.2, SD = 14.1; p < 0.001 were found in comparison to second generation immigrants (CO: M = 41.3, SD = 7.4; HC: M = 36.2, SD = 8.8; depressive symptoms: M = 14.0, SD = 12.9. Our results suggest that orientation towards both the heritage and the host culture has a positive effect on the mental health status of immigrants. Future research needs to include representative samples of migrants from different cultures to further explore the association between acculturation and mental health.

  6. Late-Life Depressive Symptoms, Religiousness, and Mood in the Last Week of Life

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    Arjan W. Braam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the current study is to examine whether previous depressive symptoms modify possible effects of religiousness on mood in the last week of life. After-death interviews with proxy respondents of deceased sample members of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam provided information on depressed mood in the last week of life, as well as on the presence of a sense of peace with the approaching end of life. Other characteristics were derived from interviews with the sample members when still alive. Significant interactions were identified between measures of religiousness and previous depressive symptoms (CES-D scores in their associations with mood in the last week of life. Among those with previous depressive symptoms, church-membership, church-attendance and salience of religion were associated with a greater likelihood of depressed mood in the last week of life. Among those without previous depressive symptoms, church-attendance and salience of religion were associated with a higher likelihood of a sense of peace. For older adults in the last phase of life, supportive effects of religiousness were more or less expected. Fore those with recent depressive symptoms, however, religiousness might involve a component of existential doubt.

  7. Older Adults with and without Depressive Symptoms

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    Leilani Feliciano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairment represents a common mental health problem in community-dwelling and institutionalized older adults, and the prevalence increases with age. Multidisciplinary teams are often asked to assess cognitive and functional impairment in this population. The Cognitive Assessment of Minnesota was created by occupational therapists for this purpose and is frequently used, but has not been extensively validated. This study examined the performance of the CAM and compared it to the MMSE with 113 outpatient clinic patients over the age of 60. Subgroups were established based on scores on a depression inventory to determine if the presence of depressed mood altered the relationship between the measures. Both measures demonstrated good internal consistency. The overall correlation between the two measures was high, statistically significant and remained high regardless of depression status. We offer recommendations about the utility of each measure in screening cognitive functioning for older adults.

  8. Serum testosterone levels and symptom-based depression subtypes in men

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    Stephanie eRodgers

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this preliminary study was to further clarify the association between T levels and depression by investigating symptom-based depression subtypes in a sample of 64 men. The data was taken from the ZInEP epidemiology survey. Gonadal hormones of a melancholic (n=25 and an atypical (n=14 depression subtype, derived from latent class analysis, were compared with those of healthy controls (n=18. Serum T was assayed using an ELISA procedure. Analysis of variance, analysis of covariance, non-parametrical tests and generalized linear regression models were performed to examine group differences. The atypical depressive subtype showed significantly lower T levels compared with the melancholic depressives. While accumulative evidence indicates that, beyond psychosocial characteristics, the melancholic and atypical depressive subtypes are also distinguishable by biological correlates, the current study expanded this knowledge to include gonadal hormones. Further longitudinal research is warranted to disclose causality by linking the multiple processes in pathogenesis of depression.

  9. An audit on public awareness of depression symptoms in Jordan

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    Sayer Al-Azzam

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Depression is acommon mental health disorder. The aim of this study is to determine the level of public awareness regarding this illness, its symptoms, associated factors, available forms of treatment, and the attitude towards depressed people. Methods: A self administered questionnaire was filled in by approximately 5000 individuals selected from various regions of Jordan. Results: The majority of participants thought that depression is a treatable condition that can affect patient at any age, and may be controlled by the will power. Loss of interest in things and presence of negative feelings were the most commonly recognized symptoms of depression, while, unemployment and poverty were found to be the most recognized risk factors for depression. In addition, most participants considered support from family and friends (93.6% as well as exercise (80.4% to be the best available forms of depression treatment. Respondents found it acceptable to work, make friends with, or marry depressed individuals. The first choice persons for seeking help by most participants were family members and friends (49.8%. Conclusion: Collectively, the level of awareness of depression was acceptable. However, further efforts are necessary to establish public educational programs related to depression in order to raise awareness regarding the disease.

  10. Suicidality and symptoms of anxiety, irritability, and agitation in patients experiencing manic episodes with depressive symptoms: a naturalistic study

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    Eberhard J

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Jonas Eberhard,1 Emmanuelle Weiller2 1Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden; 2H. Lundbeck A/S, Copenhagen, Denmark Purpose: Patients with a bipolar I disorder (BD-I manic episode meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5, criteria for “with mixed features” have a high incidence of suicide attempts and of anxiety, irritability, and agitation (AIA symptoms. The aim of this analysis was to explore the relationship between suicidality and AIA symptoms in patients with BD-I experiencing mania with depressive symptoms, using data from a previous naturalistic study.Patients and methods: Psychiatrists completed an online questionnaire about their adult patients who had a current BD-I manic episode. Questions covered the DSM-5 “with mixed features” specifier, the severity of AIA symptoms, the frequency and controllability of suicidal ideation, and the number of suicide attempts.Results: Of 1,035 patients with BD-I mania who were included in the analyses, 348 (33.6% met the criteria for the DSM-5 “with mixed features” specifier (three or more depressive symptoms. These patients were further stratified according to the severity of their AIA symptoms: “mild AIA” (zero or one AIA symptom above a severity threshold; 105 patients or “severe AIA” (all three AIA symptoms above a severity threshold; 167 patients. A greater incidence of suicidal ideation was observed in the severe AIA group (71.9% than in the mild AIA group (47.6%. Twice as many patients had easily controlled suicidal ideation than difficult-to-control suicidal ideation in both subgroups. The mean number of suicide attempts was higher in the severe AIA group than in the mild AIA group, during the current episode (0.84 vs 0.34 attempts, respectively; P<0.05 and over the patient’s lifetime (1.56 vs 1.04 attempts, respectively.Conclusion: The high risk of suicide among BD-I mania patients with depressive

  11. Consensually defined facets of personality as prospective predictors of change in depression symptoms.

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    Naragon-Gainey, Kristin; Watson, David

    2014-08-01

    Depression has robust associations with personality, showing a strong relation with neuroticism and more moderate associations with extraversion and conscientiousness. In addition, each Big Five domain can be decomposed into narrower facets. However, we currently lack consensus as to the contents of Big Five facets, with idiosyncrasies across instruments; moreover, few studies have examined associations with depression. In the current study, community participants completed six omnibus personality inventories; self-reported depressive symptoms were assessed at baseline and 5 years later. Exploratory factor analyses suggested three to five facets in each domain, and these facets served as prospective predictors of depression in hierarchical regressions, after accounting for baseline and trait depression. In these analyses, high anger (from neuroticism), low positive emotionality (extraversion), low conventionality (conscientiousness), and low culture (openness to experiences) were significant prospective predictors of depression. Results are discussed in regard to personality structure and assessment, as well as personality-psychopathology associations.

  12. Evaluating depressive symptoms in mania: a naturalistic study of patients with bipolar disorder

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    Young AH

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Allan H Young,1 Jonas Eberhard1,21Institute of Psychiatry, King’s College London, London, UK; 2Corporate Medical Affairs, H. Lundbeck A/S, Copenhagen, DenmarkObjective: This study aimed to evaluate patients with bipolar I disorder (BD-I who have mania with depressive symptoms and who meet the new “with mixed features” specifier of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5.Method: This prospective, multinational, naturalistic study surveyed psychiatrists and their patients with BD-I from October 2013 to March 2014. Eligible patients had BD-I, had a (current manic episode, and had experienced onset of a manic episode within the previous 3 months. Psychiatrists provided patient information on depressive symptoms (DSM-5 criteria; symptoms of anxiety, irritability, and agitation; suicide attempts; and physician satisfaction with treatment response. Data were stratified according to whether patients met the criteria for the BD-I “with mixed features” specifier of DSM-5 (≥3 depressive symptoms or not, and characteristics were compared between the two subgroups. Patients also self-reported on depressive symptoms using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview module questionnaire.Results: Overall, 34% of 1,035 patients met the criteria for BD-I “with mixed features,” exhibiting ≥3 depressive symptoms during their current manic episode. This correlated with the matched patient self-reports of depressive symptoms. During their current manic episode, BD-I patients “with mixed features” had more severe symptoms of anxiety, irritability, and agitation (average composite severity score of 4.1 vs 3.4, a higher incidence of suicide attempts (38% vs 9%, and more physician dissatisfaction with treatment response (22% vs 14%, compared to patients with 0–2 depressive symptoms (all P<0.05.Conclusion: This study found that patients with BD-I “with mixed features” (ie, ≥3 depressive symptoms

  13. Acculturation and depressive symptoms among Turkish immigrants in Germany.

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    Morawa, Eva; Erim, Yesim

    2014-09-12

    The present study explores the impact of acculturation on depressive symptoms among Turkish immigrants in Germany, taking into account different dimensions of cultural orientation. A total of 471 patients from two selected samples (254 primary care patients and 217 outpatients of a psychosomatic department) participated. Levels of acculturation were measured as orientation towards culture of origin (CO), and orientation towards the host culture (HC). Acculturation strategies (integration, assimilation, separation, and marginalization) were also assessed as well as their association with depressive symptoms (BDI). Furthermore, gender- and migration-related differences in terms of acculturation and levels of depressive symptomatology were analyzed. Integration was the acculturation strategy associated with the lowest level of depressive symptoms (M = 14.6, SD = 11.9), while marginalization was associated with the highest (M = 23.5, SD = 14.7). Gender was not found to have a significant impact on acculturation but influenced depressive symptoms, with women (M = 21.8, SD = 13.3) reporting higher levels of depressive symptomatology than men (M = 15.1, SD = 14.0; p acculturation and mental health.

  14. Detailed course of depressive symptoms and risk for developing depression in late adolescents with subthreshold depression: a cohort study

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    Jinnin R

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ran Jinnin,1 Yasumasa Okamoto,1 Koki Takagaki,1 Yoshiko Nishiyama,1 Takanao Yamamura,1 Yuri Okamoto,2 Yoshie Miyake,2 Yoshitake Takebayashi,3 Keisuke Tanaka,4 Yoshinori Sugiura,5 Haruki Shimoda,6 Norito Kawakami,6 Toshi A Furukawa,7 Shigeto Yamawaki1 1Department of Psychiatry and Neurosciences, 2Health Service Center, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan; 3Risk Analysis Research Center, The Institute of Statistical Mathematics, Tokyo, Japan; 4Graduated School of Education, Joetsu University of Education, Niigata, Japan; 5Graduated School of Integrated Arts and Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan; 6Department of Mental Health, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; 7Department of Health Promotion and Human Behavior, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine/School of Public Health, Kyoto, Japan Purpose: Despite its clinical importance, adolescent subthreshold depression remains a largely neglected topic. The aims of this study were to accurately identify the natural course of depressive symptoms and the risk for developing major depressive episode (MDE in late adolescents with subthreshold depression over 1 year.Patients and methods: One hundred and seventy-two participants <20 years of age (mean age: 18.32 years, standard deviation: 0.50, who did not meet the full criteria for an MDE, were selected from 2,494 screened freshmen based on the Beck Depression Inventory, 2nd edition (BDI-II. We conducted a cohort study of three groups (low-, middle-, and high-symptom groups divided based on BDI-II scores, over a 1 year period with the use of bimonthly assessments. Temporal changes of depressive symptoms were analyzed using linear mixed modeling and growth mixture modeling.Results: First, we found that late adolescents with subthreshold depression (high depressive symptoms were split between the increasing and decreasing depressive symptoms groups, whereas the majority of the less-symptoms group remained

  15. Impact of depressive symptoms on outcome of Alzheimer's disease

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    Anita de Paula Eduardo Garavello

    Full Text Available Abstract There is no consensus in the medical literature about the impact of depressive symptoms on the evolution of Alzheimer's disease (AD. Objective: To compare the evolution of AD patients, with and without depressive symptoms, in terms of cognition, functionality and caregiver stress. Methods: The study entailed 2 stages: an initial retrospective stage involving review of medical charts of patients with mild and moderate AD. Patients were divided according to the presence or absence of depressive symptoms, defined by medical interview and questions on depressed mood from the CAMDEX (Cambridge Examination for Mental Disorders of the Elderly and Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI. Twenty-nine patients were evaluated, 37.9% with depression (Group D+ and 62.1% without depression (Group D-. The groups were compared regarding demographic and medical characteristics, cognitive and functional performance, presence of apathy as a separate symptom, and caregiver stress, using standardized tests and questionnaires. In the second transversal step, the same tools were reapplied after 2 to 4 years of follow-up, and evolution for the two groups was compared. Results: The two groups were highly homogeneous in demographic and clinic characteristics, as well as in length of follow-up, and presented no significant difference in cognitive or functional evaluation at the time of diagnoses or after follow-up. Only caregiver stress was greater in Group D+ at the two time points (p<0.001. Conclusions: No differences in the evolution of AD patients with or without depressive symptoms were evident. Nevertheless, these symptoms were associated to emotional burden of caregivers.

  16. The effect of prenatal Hatha yoga on affect, cortisol and depressive symptoms.

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    Bershadsky, Svetlana; Trumpfheller, Linda; Kimble, Holly Beck; Pipaloff, Diana; Yim, Ilona S

    2014-05-01

    Perinatal depression impacts maternal and child health, and little is known about effective interventions. The effects of prenatal Hatha yoga on cortisol, affect and depressive symptoms were investigated in 51 women. Twice during pregnancy, yoga group participants reported on affect and provided a saliva sample before and after a 90-min prenatal Hatha yoga session. Corresponding measures were obtained from yoga and control group participants on days of usual activity. Depressive symptoms were assessed in pregnancy and post partum. Cortisol was lower (p yoga compared to usual activity days. Negative affect and contentment (p yoga session. Yoga group participants showed fewer postpartum (p yoga may improve current mood and may be effective in reducing postpartum depressive symptoms.

  17. Social capital and depressive symptoms: the association of psychosocial and network dimensions of social capital with depressive symptoms in Montreal, Canada.

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    Bassett, Emma; Moore, Spencer

    2013-06-01

    Depression is the most common mental illness worldwide, and although aspects of the social environment, including social capital, have been linked to depression, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. In this study, we assessed whether (1) network and psychosocial dimensions of individual social capital were each associated with depressive symptoms, and (2) the association varied according to the location of the capital, i.e., outside or inside a person's neighbourhood. The current study used data from the Montreal Neighbourhood Networks and Healthy Ageing Study (MoNNET-HA). MoNNET-HA consisted of a representative sample of 2707 adults from 300 census tracts in the Montreal Metropolitan Area. The CESD-10 instrument was used to assess the presence of depressive symptoms with a cut off of more than three symptoms used to indicate depressive symptomatology. Name and position generator instruments were used to assess the existence of a core tie, core tie diversity, and network social capital both inside and outside the neighbourhood. Questions on generalized trust, trust in neighbours, and neighbourhood cohesion were used to assess psychosocial dimensions of social capital inside and outside the neighbourhood. Community and general group participation were also included as structural dimensions of social capital. Analyses adjusted for a range of socio-demographic and economic characteristics. Results from multilevel logistic regressions indicated that the core tie diversity as well as the psychosocial dimensions of generalized trust, trust in neighbours, and perceptions of neighbourhood cohesion reduced the likelihood of depressive symptoms in urban-dwelling adults. Network and psychosocial components of social capital within neighbourhood contexts should be considered when examining social capital and depressive symptoms.

  18. Symptoms of depression as possible markers of bipolar II disorder.

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    Benazzi, Franco

    2006-05-01

    Underdiagnosis and misdiagnosis of bipolar-II disorder (BP-II) as a major depressive disorder (MDD) are frequently reported. The study aim was to find which symptoms of depression could be possible cross-sectional markers of BP-II, in order to reduce underdiagnosing BP-II. Consecutive 379 BP-II and 271 MDD major depressive episode (MDE) outpatients were interviewed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, the Hypomania Interview Guide, and the Family History Screen, by a senior psychiatrist in a private practice. Inside-MDE hypomanic symptoms (elevated mood and increased self-esteem always absent by definition) were systematically assessed. Mixed depression was defined as an MDE plus 3 or more inside-MDE hypomanic symptoms, a definition validated by Akiskal and Benazzi. The MDE symptoms significantly more common in BP-II versus MDD were weight gain, increased eating, hypersomnia, psychomotor agitation, worthlessness, and diminished ability to concentrate. The inside-MDE hypomanic symptoms significantly more common in BP-II were distractibility, racing/crowded thoughts, irritability, psychomotor agitation, more talkativeness, increased risky and goal-directed activities. Multiple logistic regression showed that hypersomnia, racing/crowded thoughts, irritability, and psychomotor agitation were independent predictors of BP-II. Irritability had the most balanced combination of sensitivity and specificity predicting BP-II. Psychomotor agitation had the highest specificity but the lowest sensitivity. Racing/crowded thoughts had the highest sensitivity but the lowest specificity. These symptoms had a similar positive predictive value (PPV) for BP-II, which was around 70% (PPV is more clinically useful than sensitivity and specificity), which in turn was similar to the PPV of mixed depression and atypical depression (two diagnostic clinical markers of BP-II). All possible combinations of these symptoms had a PPV similar to that of the individual symptoms. The

  19. The effect of pramipexole on depressive symptoms in Parkinson's disease.

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    Yasui, Naoko; Sekiguchi, Kenji; Hamaguchi, Hirotoshi; Kanda, Fumio

    2011-02-02

    Depression is a common occurrence in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Pramipexole is a dopamine agonist that has been used to treat both motor and non-motor symptoms associated with PD. We conducted a study to elucidate the effect of pramipexole on each of the depressive symptoms as assessed by the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS). Twenty patients with PD were treated with pramipexole 1.5-3.0 mg daily for 2-3 months. The SDS and the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Score (UPDRS) were measured in each subject before and after the treatment. Both the SDS and the UPDRS decreased significantly after treatment with pramipexole. Individual assessment of each item in the SDS indicated that "crying spell", "confusion", "psychomotor retardation", "emptiness", and "dissatisfaction" symptoms improved significantly following treatment, while "depressed affect", "decreased libido", "constipation", and "indecisiveness" symptoms were worse after the treatment. As the symptom of "indecisiveness" did not respond to treatment, it might be an essential symptom in patients with PD.

  20. A PROSPECTIVE STUDY OF MEDICALLY UNEXPLAINED PHYSICAL SYMPTOMS IN DEPRESSIVE DISORDERS

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    John Dinesh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available : Physical symptoms in depression are highly prevalent and associated with substantial functional impairment. The prevalence of physical illness in psychiatric patients is higher than that in the general population. Both in developed & developing countries, very little attention is paid to the physical illness of psychiatric patients, which leads to a poorer outcome. Hence we decided to conduct this study and find out the effect of antidepressant treatment on somatic symptoms in depressive disorders. The study was conducted at Sri Venkateshwaraa medical college hospital & research center, Puducherry. Our study sample consisted of 72 consecutive new patients who fulfilled inclusion criteria and had consented to participate in the study. All new patients in the age group 18 to 60 years, who fulfill ICD-10-DCR (Diagnostic criteria for Research criteria for the Depressive episode (F 32, recurrent depressive disorder (F33, Dysthymia (F 34.1, bipolar affective disorder, current episode depression (F 31.3 were included in our study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A semi-structured proforma was used to collect socio demographic and clinical data from all the subjects included in the study. Enrolment of cases was done over a period of 6 months. All the subjects were rated on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17 to quantify the baseline severity of the depressive symptoms. Screenings for physical symptoms were done for all patients using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-15. The patients were classified into 4 groups based on physical complaints & co-morbid medical/ surgical diagnosis. HDRS-17 rating was recorded at baseline, 1 month & 6 months for the entire study sample. PHQ-15 scores were recorded at baseline, 1 month & 6 months after initiation of antidepressant treatment for all patients enrolled in the study. RESULTS: The study revealed the prevalence of medically unexplained physical symptoms in depressive disorders in patients attending our

  1. Associations of depression and depressive symptoms with preeclampsia: results from a Peruvian case-control study

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    Garcia Pedro

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preeclampsia involves endothelial dysfunction, platelet dysfunction/activation and sympathetic over-activity similar to cardiovascular disorders (CVD. Depression, an independent risk factor for progression of CVD, was found to be associated with an increased risk of preeclampsia among Finnish women. We examined the relation between depression/depressive symptoms and preeclampsia risk among Peruvian women. Methods The study included 339 preeclamptic cases and 337 normotensive controls. Depression and depressive symptoms during pregnancy were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated from logistic regression models. Results The prevalence of moderate depression was 11.5% among cases and 5.3% among controls. The corresponding figures for moderate-severe depression were 3.5% for cases and 2.1% for controls. Compared with non-depressed women, those with moderate depression had a 2.3-fold increased risk of preeclampsia (95% CI: 1.2–4.4, while moderate-severe depression was associated with a 3.2-fold (95% CI: 1.1–9.6 increased risk of preeclampsia. Associations of each of the 9-items of the PHQ-9 depression screening module with preeclampsia risk were also observed. Conclusion Our findings are consistent with the only other published report on this topic. Collectively, available data support recent calls for expanded efforts to study and address depression among pregnant women.

  2. The Role of Family Routines in the Intergenerational Transmission of Depressive Symptoms between Parents and their Adolescent Children.

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    Manczak, Erika M; Williams, Deanna; Chen, Edith

    2017-05-01

    Whereas previous research on environmental factors implicated in the intergenerational transmission of depression has tended to focus on the role of parenting quality (e.g., harshness), the current study sought to assess whether structural aspects of families may contribute to depression-relevant affective and immune processes in youths. Specifically, the present study examined the role of family routines in linking parental depressive symptoms to youth emotion regulation, a depression-relevant marker of low-grade inflammation, and depressive symptoms in youths. 261 parent-adolescent dyads reported on their own depressive symptoms, family routines, and youths' emotion regulation abilities. In addition, peripheral blood was drawn from youths to assess levels of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin 6 (IL-6). Path analyses provided support for a model in which parental depressive symptoms related to fewer family routines, which in turn were associated with higher IL-6 and depressive symptoms in youths as well as marginally associated with worse youth emotion regulation. Moreover, family routines were found to statistically account for part of the association between parent- and youth- depressive symptoms. Together, these results suggest that family routines may represent an additional facet of the family environment that can potentially contribute to the intergenerational transmission of depressive symptoms.

  3. Financial Difficulty Effects on Depressive Symptoms Among Dementia Patient Caregivers.

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    Nam, Ilsung

    2016-11-01

    The financial difficulty of dementia caregivers and its effects on mental health has gained increasing attention from researchers. The present study examines the longitudinal relationship between financial difficulty and the depressive symptoms of dementia caregivers using matching methods to account for potential selection bias. Propensity score matching methods and mixed-effects models were used to determine the effects of financial difficulty on depressive symptoms among caregivers participating in the Resources for Enhancing Alzheimer's Caregiver Health (REACH) intervention program. Propensity score matching confirmed that caregivers experiencing financial difficulty were more likely to have depressive symptoms. The results suggest that dementia caregivers require support for their financial difficulty. Future research should fully examine the complex relationship between financial difficulty and the mental health of caregivers and how this issue can be addressed through assessment and intervention methods.

  4. Development of health and depressive symptoms among Danish adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Johan Hviid; Labriola, Merete; Lund, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    in a cohort study of Danish adolescents. Methods: The cohort comprised 3,681 individuals born in 1989, 3058 individuals answered the baseline questionnaire in 2004, and 2400 responded to a follow-up questionnaire in 2007, with 2181 individuals participating in both rounds (59% of the original cohort). Social......) deteriorated slightly in adolescents (-0.24; 95% CI = -0.28 to -0.19) across all socioeconomic status (SES) groups and depressive symptoms increased (0.64; 95% CI = 0.52 to 0.75). High household income was protective for decrease in SRH (0.62; 0.43 - 0.91). Negative life-style changes were associated...... with poorer SRH and more depressive symptoms. Conclusions: Self-rated health and depressive symptoms changed to the worse among Danish adolescents from age 15 to 18 years. Negative changes in several lifestyle factors were found to accompany the deterioration of health. This result stresses the intrinsic...

  5. Depressive symptoms in patients with cancer: does cortisol keep cytokines from singing the blues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Carissa A; Bovbjerg, Dana H

    2014-05-01

    Depressive symptoms are common among patients with cancer, and both psychological stress and physiological factors have been implicated in the etiology of depression. Scientific progress in this area is challenged by the changing nature of psychological and physiological processes over the course of cancer diagnosis and treatment. The article by Wu and colleagues in the current issue of Psychosomatic Medicine provides an example of thoughtful consideration of the complex longitudinal relationships between psychological stress, physiology, and depressive symptoms. These findings are put into context by discussing broader challenges in this area, with a focus on the contribution of inflammatory processes caused by cancer and/or its treatment to depressive and related sickness behavior symptoms. We outline several regulatory pathways by which cortisol, inflammatory processes, and depressive symptoms may interact in the context of cancer and highlight implications of these interactions for tumor progression. Additional research is needed to delineate these pathways and advance scientific understanding of the biobehavioral mechanisms underlying depressive symptoms in the context of cancer, with important implications for the development of effective interventions for patients undergoing initial cancer treatment, as well as for long-term survivors.

  6. Maternal and Peer Regulation of Adolescent Emotion: Associations with Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lougheed, Jessica P; Craig, Wendy M; Pepler, Debra; Connolly, Jennifer; O'Hara, Arland; Granic, Isabela; Hollenstein, Tom

    2016-07-01

    Emotion socialization by close relationship partners plays a role in adolescent depression. In the current study, a microsocial approach was used to examine how adolescents' emotions are socialized by their mothers and close friends in real time, and how these interpersonal emotion dynamics are related to adolescent depressive symptoms. Participants were 83 adolescents aged 16 to 17 years who participated in conflict discussions with their mothers and self-nominated close friends. Adolescents' positive and negative emotions, and mothers' and peers' supportive regulation of adolescent emotions, were coded in real time. Two multilevel survival analyses in a 2-level Cox hazard regression framework predicted the hazard rate of (1) mothers' supportive regulation of adolescents' emotions, and (2) peers' supportive regulation of adolescents' emotions. The likelihood of maternal supportiveness, regardless of adolescent emotions, was lower for adolescents with higher depressive symptoms. In addition, peers were less likely to up-regulate adolescent positive emotions at higher levels of adolescent depressive symptoms. The results of the current study support interpersonal models of depression and demonstrate the importance of real-time interpersonal emotion processes in adolescent depressive symptoms.

  7. Genetic susceptibility to family environment: BDNF Val66met and 5-HTTLPR influence depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Elizabeth D; Hammen, Constance L; Najman, Jake M; Brennan, Patricia A

    2014-12-01

    Functional genetic polymorphisms associated with Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and serotonin (5-HTTLPR) have demonstrated associations with depression in interaction with environmental stressors. In light of evidence for biological connections between BDNF and serotonin, it is prudent to consider genetic epistasis between variants in these genes in the development of depressive symptoms. The current study examined the effects of val66met, 5-HTTLPR, and family environment quality on youth depressive symptoms in adolescence and young adulthood in a longitudinal sample oversampled for maternal depression history. A differential susceptibility model was tested, comparing the effects of family environment on depression scores across different levels of a cumulative plasticity genotype, defined as presence of both, either, or neither plasticity alleles (defined here as val66met Met and 5-HTTLPR 'S'). Cumulative plasticity genotype interacted with family environment quality to predict depression among males and females at age 15. After age 15, however, the interaction of cumulative plasticity genotype and early family environment quality was only predictive of depression among females. Results supported a differential susceptibility model at age 15, such that plasticity allele presence was associated with more or less depressive symptoms depending on valence of the family environment, and a diathesis-stress model of gene-environment interaction after age 15. These findings, although preliminary because of the small sample size, support prior results indicating interactive effects of 5-HTTLPR, val66met, and environmental stress, and suggest that family environment may have a stronger influence on genetically susceptible women than men.

  8. Muscle fatigability and depressive symptoms in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Patrick J; Badreddine, Dala; Roose, Steven P; Rutherford, Bret; Ayonayon, Hilsa N; Yaffe, Kristine; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Goodpaster, Bret

    2017-02-15

    Fatigability is the degree to which performance decreases during a specific activity of a given intensity and duration. Depression is known to heighten subjective fatigue, but whether its association with physical fatigability is unknown. Further, whether fatigability is a precursor or risk factor for the development of subsequent depressive symptoms is also unclear. Data are from the Health Aging and Body Composition Study with fatigability assessed using isokinetic dynamometry of the knee extensors at year 3, and depressive symptoms ascertained longitudinally using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale. The relationship between fatigability and depressive symptoms was evaluated using linear and Cox regression models. There was a significant cross-sectional association between fatigability and depressive symptomatology (β = -0.06, p = 0.02), after adjusting for demographic variables, medical comorbidities, cognition, gait speed, and physical activity levels. Greater fatigability was associated with greater adjusted scores on the 10-item CES-D (F2, 1695  = 38.65, p John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. CBT for children with depressive symptoms: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnberg, Alexandra; Ost, Lars-Göran

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric depression entails a higher risk for psychiatric disorders, somatic complaints, suicide, and functional impairment later in life. Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is recommended for the treatment of depression in children, yet research is based primarily on adolescents. The present meta-analysis investigated the efficacy of CBT in children aged 8-12 years with regard to depressive symptoms. We included randomized controlled trials of CBT with participants who had an average age of  ≤ 12 years and were diagnosed with either depression or reported elevated depressive symptoms. The search resulted in 10 randomized controlled trials with 267 participants in intervention and 256 in comparison groups. The mean age of participants was 10.5 years. The weighted between-group effect size for CBT was moderate, Cohen's d = 0.66. CBT outperformed both attention placebo and wait-list, although there was a significant heterogeneity among studies with regard to effect sizes. The weighted within-group effect size for CBT was large, d = 1.02. Earlier publication year, older participants, and more treatment sessions were associated with a larger effect size. In conclusion, the efficacy of CBT in the treatment of pediatric depression symptoms was supported. Differences in efficacy, methodological shortcomings, and lack of follow-up data limit the present study and indicate areas in need of improvement.

  10. [Multiplicity of syndromes associating manic and depressive symptoms: the need for a dimensional approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, C; M'baïlara, K; Desage, A; Antoniol, B

    2006-01-01

    The heterogeneity of mood states in bipolar disorders leads to some confusion in diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Apart from the classical syndromes characterizing euphoric mania and melancholic depression, recent literature has pointed to alternative mood states associating both manic and depressive symptoms. This resulted in the definition of various syndromes including mixed states, dysphoric mania, agitated depression and more recently the depressive mixed state. This consequently raises the question of the best therapeutic strategies. As the boundaries between the various states associating both depressive and manic symptoms have yet to be clarified, there is a need to further discuss whether dimensional rather than categorical approaches could help to further refine their definitions and define the best therapeutic strategies. As stated by Kraepelin, mood episodes in manic-depressive illness were defined according to three dimensions: mood, cognitive processes, and motor and motivational drive. Cognitive and motor processes were regarded as quantitative items whose alterations may correspond to either an increase or a decrease. The current definitions are far from this dimensional approach. Thus, the current diagnostic criteria make it difficult to define mixed states. Such poorly convincing diagnostic criteria may account for the description of many other states exhibiting both manic and depressive symptoms. A dimensional approach could be useful to define mood states in bipolar disorders. These dimensions should progressive, from inhibition to excitation. Because tonality affects is not a dimension, the emotional reactivity (hyper-reactivity versus hypo-reactivity) represents an additional dimension that would help characterize these states better.

  11. Role of adolescent and maternal depressive symptoms on transactional emotion recognition: context and state affect matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebbe, Aaron M; Fussner, Lauren M; Kiel, Elizabeth J; Early, Martha C; Bell, Debora J

    2013-12-01

    Depressive symptomatology is associated with impaired recognition of emotion. Previous investigations have predominantly focused on emotion recognition of static facial expressions neglecting the influence of social interaction and critical contextual factors. In the current study, we investigated how youth and maternal symptoms of depression may be associated with emotion recognition biases during familial interactions across distinct contextual settings. Further, we explored if an individual's current emotional state may account for youth and maternal emotion recognition biases. Mother-adolescent dyads (N = 128) completed measures of depressive symptomatology and participated in three family interactions, each designed to elicit distinct emotions. Mothers and youth completed state affect ratings pertaining to self and other at the conclusion of each interaction task. Using multiple regression, depressive symptoms in both mothers and adolescents were associated with biased recognition of both positive affect (i.e., happy, excited) and negative affect (i.e., sadness, anger, frustration); however, this bias emerged primarily in contexts with a less strong emotional signal. Using actor-partner interdependence models, results suggested that youth's own state affect accounted for depression-related biases in their recognition of maternal affect. State affect did not function similarly in explaining depression-related biases for maternal recognition of adolescent emotion. Together these findings suggest a similar negative bias in emotion recognition associated with depressive symptoms in both adolescents and mothers in real-life situations, albeit potentially driven by different mechanisms.

  12. Italian neurologists' perception on cognitive symptoms in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, G; Serrati, C; Zolo, P; Cataldo, N; Ripellino, C

    2016-09-01

    The assessment of cognition is an important part of major depressive disorder (MDD) evaluation and a crucial issue is the physicians' perception of cognitive dysfunction in MDD that remains nowadays a little known matter. The present study aims at investigating the understanding of neurologists' perception about cognitive dysfunction in MDD. An on-line survey addressed to 85 Italian neurologists in the period between May and June 2015 was performed. The questionnaire comprised three sections: the first section collecting information on neurologists' socio-demographic profile, the second investigating cognitive symptoms relevance in relation with different aspects and the third one explicitly focusing on cognitive symptoms in MDD. Cognitive symptoms are considered most significant among DSM-5 symptoms to define the presence of a Major Depressive Episode in a MDD, to improve antidepressant therapy adherence, patients' functionality and concurrent neurological condition, once resolved. Furthermore, an incongruity came to light from this survey: the neurologists considered cognitive symptoms a not relevant aspect to choose the antidepressant treatment in comparison with the other DSM-5 symptoms on one side, but they declared the opposite in the third part of the questionnaire focused on cognitive symptoms. Cognitive symptoms appeared to be a relevant aspect in MDD and neurologists have a clear understanding of this issue. Nevertheless, the discrepancy between neurologists' perception on cognitive symptoms and the antidepressant treatment highlights the feeling of an unmet need that could be filled increasing the awareness of existing drugs with pro-cognitive effects.

  13. Repetitive thinking and depressive symptoms in a normal population : responses to normal negative events

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Simen Mjøen

    2016-01-01

    Some theories view repetitive thinking as a maladaptive coping response that exacerbates depressive symptoms and explains the sex difference in depression. Other theories view repetitive thinking as the chief mechanism for solving complex social problems. A central theoretical assumption in evolutionary psychology is that psychological mechanisms are sensitive to modern cues to ancestral fitness-relevant contexts. The measures that are currently used to probe repetitive thinking does not refl...

  14. Early Manifestations of Childhood Depression: Influences of Infant Temperament and Parental Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartstein, Maria A.; Bateman, Alison E.

    2008-01-01

    In this longitudinal study, 83 parents of infants between 3 and 12 months completed questionnaires assessing demographic information, infant temperament, and maternal depression. When these children were at least 18 months of age, parents completed follow-up questionnaires assessing toddler temperament and depression-like symptoms. We were…

  15. Acupuncture Alleviated the Nonmotor Symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease including Pain, Depression, and Autonomic Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Chifumi Iseki; Taiga Furuta; Masao Suzuki; Shingo Koyama; Keiji Suzuki; Tomoko Suzuki; Akiyo Kaneko; Tadamichi Mitsuma

    2014-01-01

    A woman started to feel intractable pain on her lower legs when she was 76. At the age of 78, she was diagnosed as having Parkinson’s disease (PD). The leg pain was suspected to be a symptom of PD after eliminating other causes. The patient also suffered from nonmotor symptoms, depression, anxiety, hot flashes, and paroxysmal sweating. Though the patient had received pharmacotherapy including levodopa for 5 years, she still suffered from the nonmotor symptoms and was referred to our departmen...

  16. Investigating Environmental Links between Parent Depression and Child Depressive/Anxiety Symptoms Using an Assisted Conception Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Gemma; Rice, Frances; Harold, Gordon T.; Collishaw, Stephan; Thapar, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Links between maternal and offspring depression symptoms could arise from inherited factors, direct environmental exposure, or shared adversity. A novel genetically sensitive design was used to test the extent of environmental links between maternal depression symptoms and child depression/anxiety symptoms, accounting for inherited…

  17. PHQ-8 minor depression among pregnant women: association with somatic symptoms of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Adrienne B; Arms-Chavez, Clarissa J; Harper, Bridgette D; LoBello, Steven G

    2017-06-01

    It was recently reported that pregnant women were more likely to have minor depression as measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire-8 depression scale (PHQ-8), (as reported by Kroenke and Spitzer (Psychiatr Ann 32(9):1-7, 2002), and Kroenke et al. (J Affect 114(1-3):163-173, 2009)) compared to women who were not pregnant (as reported by Ashley et al. (Arch Womens Ment Health 19(2):395-400, 2015)). The present study is designed to investigate if somatic symptoms (energy level, appetite, sleep) associated with both pregnancy and depression were responsible for this increased prevalence of minor depression. A sample of pregnant women (n = 404) was compared to women who were not pregnant (n = 6754). Both groups scored within the minor depression range on the PHQ-8 and comparisons were based on participants' responses to PHQ-8 items. Results indicate that of the somatic symptoms of depression, only changes in energy level accounted for the elevated prevalence of minor depression among pregnant women compared to women who are not pregnant. Removing the decreased energy item from the score determination reduces the prevalence of minor depression among pregnant women to a level significantly below that of women who are not pregnant. Emotional symptoms such as feeling down and feeling like a failure were less likely to be reported by pregnant women compared to women who were not pregnant. Implications for depression screening during pregnancy are discussed.

  18. Prenatal and Postpartum Evening Salivary Cortisol Levels in Association with Peripartum Depressive Symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavros I Iliadis

    Full Text Available The biology of peripartum depression remains unclear, with altered stress and the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal axis response having been implicated in its pathophysiology.The current study was undertaken as a part of the BASIC project (Biology, Affect, Stress, Imaging, Cognition, a population-based longitudinal study of psychological wellbeing during pregnancy and the postpartum period in Uppsala County, Sweden, in order to assess the association between evening salivary cortisol levels and depressive symptoms in the peripartum period. Three hundred and sixty-five pregnant women from the BASIC cohort were recruited at pregnancy week 18 and instructed to complete a Swedish validated version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale at the 36th week of pregnancy as well as the sixth week after delivery. At both times, they were also asked to provide evening salivary samples for cortisol analysis. A comprehensive review of the relevant literature is also provided.Women with postpartum EPDS score ≥ 10 had higher salivary evening cortisol at six weeks postpartum compared to healthy controls (median cortisol 1.19 vs 0.89 nmol/L. A logistic regression model showed a positive association between cortisol levels and depressive symptoms postpartum (OR = 4.1; 95% CI 1.7-9.7. This association remained significant even after controlling for history of depression, use of tobacco, partner support, breastfeeding, stressful life events, and sleep problems, as possible confounders (aOR = 4.5; 95% CI 1.5-14.1. Additionally, women with postpartum depressive symptoms had higher postpartum cortisol levels compared to both women with depressive symptoms antenatally and controls (p = 0.019 and p = 0.004, respectively.Women with depressive symptoms postpartum had higher postpartum cortisol levels, indicating an altered response of the HPA-axis in postpartum depression.

  19. Depressive Symptoms and their Association With Adverse Environmental Factors and Substance Use in Runaway and Homeless Youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Caroline; Rice, Eric; Rhoades, Harmony

    2016-09-01

    We used diathesis-stress and stress-sensitization models to determine whether family maltreatment, street-related traumatic events, stressful life events, and substance use were associated with depressive symptoms in runaway and homeless youths (RHY) in Los Angeles. Greater severity of depressive symptoms was significantly related to family maltreatment, being exposed to more traumatic stressors during homelessness, and current substance use compared to no substance use. Family maltreatment was also found to moderate the relationship between traumatic stressors and depressive symptoms. Importantly, cumulative exposure to the investigated risk factors at varying levels was associated with more severe depressive symptoms. Using a trauma-informed approach to screen for RHY at risk of depression may pave the way for secondary prevention of major depression in RHY.

  20. Self-help interventions for depressive disorders and depressive symptoms: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorm Anthony F

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research suggests that depressive disorders exist on a continuum, with subthreshold symptoms causing considerable population burden and increasing individual risk of developing major depressive disorder. An alternative strategy to professional treatment of subthreshold depression is population promotion of effective self-help interventions that can be easily applied by an individual without professional guidance. The evidence for self-help interventions for depressive symptoms is reviewed in the present work, with the aim of identifying promising interventions that could inform future health promotion campaigns or stimulate further research. Methods A literature search for randomised controlled trials investigating self-help interventions for depressive disorders or depressive symptoms was performed using PubMed, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Reference lists and citations of included studies were also checked. Studies were grouped into those involving participants with depressive disorders or a high level of depressive symptoms, or non-clinically depressed participants not selected for depression. A number of exclusion criteria were applied, including trials with small sample sizes and where the intervention was adjunctive to antidepressants or psychotherapy. Results The majority of interventions searched had no relevant evidence to review. Of the 38 interventions reviewed, the ones with the best evidence of efficacy in depressive disorders were S-adenosylmethionine, St John's wort, bibliotherapy, computerised interventions, distraction, relaxation training, exercise, pleasant activities, sleep deprivation, and light therapy. A number of other interventions showed promise but had received less research attention. Research in non-clinical samples indicated immediate beneficial effects on depressed mood for distraction, exercise, humour, music, negative air ionisation, and singing; while potential

  1. Atypical depressive symptoms and obesity in a national sample of older adults with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Kee-Lee; Yu, Kar-Ming

    2013-06-01

    The objectives of this study are to present findings on the rate of obesity associated with classic, atypical, and undifferentiated depression by comparing with those without depression in a nationally representative sample of United States older adults. The authors used data from the 2001 to 2002 National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), which included 10,557 adults 60 years of age and older. Chi-square tests were used to compare classic, atypical, and undifferentiated as well as nondepressed control in sociodemographic characteristics. Then, logistic regressions adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics were used to evaluate associations of rate of current obesity (defined as Body Mass Index (BMI) > 30) across the three depressive groups (classic, atypical, and undifferentiated depression) and nondepressed control. Lifetime, current, and past depression were examined. Significant differences were found between atypical and classic depression in sex, age, marital status, race, and personal income. After adjusting for sex, age, marital status, race, and personal income, the rate of obesity was significantly greater for respondents with atypical depression than respondents with classic, undifferentiated depression, or without depression. Same results were found in lifetime, current, and past depression. Our findings suggest that the heterogeneity of depression should be considered when examining the effect of depression on obesity in old age. Prevention measures should be designed and delivered to older adults with atypical depression. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Prevalence of Depression, Depressive Symptoms, and Suicidal Ideation Among Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotenstein, Lisa S.; Ramos, Marco A.; Torre, Matthew; Segal, J. Bradley; Peluso, Michael J.; Guille, Constance; Sen, Srijan; Mata, Douglas A.

    2017-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Medical students are at high risk for depression and suicidal ideation. However, the prevalence estimates of these disorders vary between studies. OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of depression, depressive symptoms, and suicidal ideation in medical students. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SELECTION Systematic search of EMBASE, ERIC, MEDLINE, psycARTICLES, and psycINFO without language restriction for studies on the prevalence of depression, depressive symptoms, or suicidal ideation in medical students published before September 17, 2016. Studies that were published in the peer-reviewed literature and used validated assessment methods were included. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS Information on study characteristics; prevalence of depression or depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation; and whether students who screened positive for depression sought treatment was extracted independently by 3 investigators. Estimates were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. Differences by study-level characteristics were estimated using stratified meta-analysis and meta-regression. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Point or period prevalence of depression, depressive symptoms, or suicidal ideation as assessed by validated questionnaire or structured interview. RESULTS Depression or depressive symptom prevalence data were extracted from 167 cross-sectional studies (n = 116 628) and 16 longitudinal studies (n = 5728) from 43 countries. All but 1 study used self-report instruments. The overall pooled crude prevalence of depression or depressive symptoms was 27.2% (37 933/122 356 individuals; 95% CI, 24.7% to 29.9%, I2 = 98.9%). Summary prevalence estimates ranged across assessment modalities from 9.3% to 55.9%. Depressive symptom prevalence remained relatively constant over the period studied (baseline survey year range of 1982–2015; slope, 0.2% increase per year [95% CI, −0.2% to 0.7%]). In the 9 longitudinal studies that assessed depressive symptoms before and during

  3. The Prospective Associations between Self-Efficacy and Depressive Symptoms from Early to Middle Adolescence: A Cross-Lagged Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, Yuli R; Brunwasser, Steven M; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, Anna; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2017-04-01

    Over the course of adolescence, an increasing number of adolescents experience depression. In order to effectively target depression, identifying risk factors for depressive symptoms is pivotal. Since low levels of self-efficacy were associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms in previous studies, the current study investigated the bidirectional and prospective associations between depressive symptoms and academic, social and emotional self-efficacy from early to mid adolescence in a cross-lagged path model. The sample consisted of 1,341 adolescents (47 % girls) with a mean age of 14 years, SD = 0.56. Depressive symptoms and self-efficacy levels were assessed every 6 months over a period of 2.5 years. Depressive symptoms predicted subsequent levels of academic and emotional self-efficacy on all time points, and social self-efficacy on one time point. Self-efficacy did not predict subsequent levels of depressive symptoms. There was no evidence of sex differences in the cross-lagged associations between depressive symptoms and self-efficacy levels. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  4. Australian adolescents beliefs and help-seeking intentions towards peers experiencing symptoms of depression and alcohol misuse

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    D I Lubman; A Cheetham; A F Jorm; B J Berridge; C Wilson; F Blee; L Mckay-Brown; N Allen; J Proimos

    2017-01-01

    .... The current study examined adolescents’ ability to recognise symptoms of depression and alcohol misuse, perceived barriers to help-seeking, and their intentions to encourage a peer to seek help from a range of informal and formal help sources...

  5. Prevalence of depressive symptoms among schoolchildren in Cyprus: a cross-sectional descriptive correlational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokratis, Sokratous; Christos, Ζilides; Despo, Panagi; Maria, Karanikola

    2017-01-01

    Depressive symptoms in the young constitute a public health issue. The current study aims to estimate: (a) the frequency of depressive symptoms in a sample of final grade elementary-school children in Cyprus, (b) the association among frequency of depressive symptoms, gender and nationality and, (c) the metric properties of the Greek-Cypriot version of the children's depression inventory (CDI). A descriptive cross-sectional study with internal comparison was performed. The occurrence of depressive symptoms was assessed with the CDI, which includes 5 subscales: depressive mood, interpersonal difficulties, ineffectiveness, anhedonia and negative self-esteem. Clinical depressive symptoms were reported as CDI score ≥19. CDI was anonymously and voluntarily completed by 439 schoolchildren [mean age 12.3 (±0.51) years old] from fifteen public elementary schools (217 boys and 222 girls), yielding a response rate of 58.2%. The metric properties of the CDI were assessed in terms of internal consistency reliability and construct validity via exploratory factor analysis (rotated and unrotated principal component analysis). Descriptive and inferential statistics were explored. 10.25% of Cypriot schoolchildren reported clinical depressive symptoms (CDI score ≥19). Statistically significant differences were reported between boys and girls in all five subscales of the CDI. Girls reported higher scores in "Depressive mood", "Negative self-esteem" and "Anhedonia" subscales, while boys scored higher in "Interpersonal difficulties" and "Ineffectiveness" subscales. There were no statistically significant differences among ethnicity groups regarding the entire CDI or the subscales of it. Concerning the metric properties of the Greek-Cypriot version of the CDI, internal consistency reliability was adequate (Cronbach's alpha = 0.84). Factor analysis with varimax rotation resulted in five factors explaining 42% of the variance. The Greek-Cypriot version of the CDI is a reliable

  6. Personality, depressive symptoms during pregnancy and their influence on postnatal depression in Spanish pregnant Spanish women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Marín-Morales

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyse the influence of personality factors and antenatal depressive symptomatology in postnatal depression. A prospective ex post facto design was carried out. The sample consisted of 116 women, recruited in their first trimester of pregnancy and followed up until four months postpartum. The measurement instruments used were the Edinburg Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS to assess postpartum depression, the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI to analyse personality traits and the depression subscale of the Symptoms Check List 90 (SCL-90-R to assess depressive symptomatology in the first half of pregnancy. Socio-demographic variables (age, parity, educational level, employment status, and planned pregnancy and clinical variables (neonatal Apgar score and mode of delivery were also taken into account. A positive correlation was found between postpartum depression and depressive symptomatology in the first trimester; however after the regression analysis neuroticism was the only factor that predicted postpartum depressive symptoms, explaining 24.8% of the variance. Neuroticism significantly influences psychological health during life events such as motherhood. Due to its stable condition, personality could be assessed from the beginning of pregnancy, contributing to the care of pregnant women with high scores in neuroticism, to prevent, detect and treat early postnatal depression.

  7. Dwelling on it may make it worse: the links between relational victimization, relational aggression, rumination, and depressive symptoms in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieson, Lindsay C; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Crick, Nicki R

    2014-08-01

    Although there is considerable evidence that relational victimization is associated with depressive symptoms in youth, our understanding about the mechanisms by which victimization and depressive symptoms are linked is limited. The current study explored ruminating about victimization experiences as a potential mechanism that might contribute to an understanding of the association between relational victimization and depressive symptoms. We also tested the specificity of the proposed models by controlling for and testing parallel models of a highly related behavior: relational aggression. A sample of 499 adolescents from sixth through eighth grades participated. Teacher reports were used to assess relational victimization and relational aggression. Self-reports were used to assess depressive symptoms and rumination. The results showed that rumination partially mediated the association between relational victimization and depressive symptoms. No moderation effect was found. In contrast, rumination moderated the association between relational aggression and depressive symptoms. Specifically, relational aggression was associated with depressive symptoms for those adolescents who were also ruminators. Thus, ruminating about victimization experiences appears to be an important mechanism that functions differently for relational aggression and relational victimization in conferring risk for depressive symptoms. The findings offer important practical implications for those working with adolescents and also lay the groundwork for future research.

  8. Patterns of symptom onset and remission in episodes of hopelessness depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacoviello, Brian M; Alloy, Lauren B; Abramson, Lyn Y; Choi, Jimmy Y; Morgan, Julia E

    2013-06-01

    Hopelessness depression (HD) is a subtype of depression postulated by the Hopelessness Theory of Depression to present as a constellation of symptoms occurring when an individual with a specific cognitive vulnerability (negative inferential style) experiences negative life events. In the current study, the course of HD episodes was evaluated prospectively and analyzed to explore patterns of symptom onset and remission. In 169 HD episodes reported by 65 participants, survival analyses were conducted on the time to onset or remission for 29 individual symptoms. Survival analyses yielded probability density graphs for risk of onset and risk of offset that indicated whether the symptom tended to appear or remit early, late, or unpredictably during the episode. The symptom of hopelessness often appeared earliest in HD episodes, followed by self-blame, brooding/worry, decreased self-esteem, dependency, and decreased appetite. Hopelessness, decreased self-esteem, self-blame, brooding/worry, dependency, and increased appetite were typically the latest symptoms to remit. The current study provided evidence for patterns of symptom onset and remission in HD episodes. Hopelessness and other symptoms predicted to appear according to the Hopelessness Theory were generally the earliest to appear, latest to remit, and appeared to form the core syndrome of these HD episodes. Identifying patterns of symptom onset and remission may provide a tool for subtyping depression episodes. Clinically, these results point to the utility of attending to patterns of symptom onset and remission in patients presenting with HD episodes, particularly for treatment planning and monitoring. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Cannabis exacerbates depressive symptoms in rat model induced by reserpine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadrawy, Yasser A; Sawie, Hussein G; Abdel-Salam, Omar M E; Hosny, Eman N

    2017-05-01

    Cannabis sativa is one of the most widely recreational drugs and its use is more prevalent among depressed patients. Some studies reported that Cannabis has antidepressant effects while others showed increased depressive symptoms in Cannabis users. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the effect of Cannabis extract on the depressive-like rats. Twenty four rats were divided into: control, rat model of depression induced by reserpine and depressive-like rats treated with Cannabis sativa extract (10mg/kg expressed as Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol). The depressive-like rats showed a severe decrease in motor activity as assessed by open field test (OFT). This was accompanied by a decrease in monoamine levels and a significant increase in acetylcholinesterase activity in the cortex and hippocampus. Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity increased in the cortex and decreased in the hippocampus of rat model. In addition, a state of oxidative stress was evident in the two brain regions. This was indicated from the significant increase in the levels of lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide. No signs of improvement were observed in the behavioral and neurochemical analyses in the depressive-like rats treated with Cannabis extract. Furthermore, Cannabis extract exacerbated the lipid peroxidation in the cortex and hippocampus. According to the present findings, it could be concluded that Cannabis sativa aggravates the motor deficits and neurochemical changes induced in the cortex and hippocampus of rat model of depression. Therefore, the obtained results could explain the reported increase in the depressive symptoms and memory impairment among Cannabis users. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. [Transcranial direct current stimulation for depressive disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aust, S; Palm, U; Padberg, F; Bajbouj, M

    2015-12-01

    Major depressive disorders are one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders worldwide but approximately 20-30 % of patients do not respond to standard guideline conform treatment. Recent neuroimaging studies in depressive patients revealed altered activation patterns in prefrontal brain areas and that successful cognitive behavioral therapy and psychopharmacological interventions are associated with a reversal of these neural alterations. Therefore, a direct modulation of prefrontal brain activation by non-invasive brain stimulation techniques, such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) seems to be a promising and innovative approach for the treatment of depressive disorders. In addition, recent neuropsychological findings indicated an augmentation of positive tDCS effects by simultaneous external activation of the stimulated brain area, for example by cognitive training tasks. Based on these findings, the possibility to augment cognitive-emotional learning processes during cognitive behavioral therapy by simultaneous tDCS to increase antidepressive therapeutic effects is discussed in this article.

  11. Interpersonal difficulties mediate the relationship between child sexual abuse and depression symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Laura C; Scarpa, Angela

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the influence of interpersonal functioning as a mediator in the relationship between child sexual abuse and depression symptoms, after accounting for the influence of child physical abuse. The research questions build on the existing knowledge base by examining mechanisms of adult adjustment among child sexual abuse survivors. In the current study, 2,892 young adult women (18-29 years old; M = 19.06) reported on child sexual and physical abuse, 5 domains of interpersonal functioning, and depression symptoms. The results supported aggression, sensitivity, ambivalence, and lack of sociability as mediators in the relationship between child sexual abuse and depression symptoms. These results suggest that interpersonal difficulties related to hostility, emotional reactivity, inability to collaborate, and isolation may be of particular interest when understanding depression in child sexual abuse survivors. The findings support interpersonal problems as a key mechanism of depression symptoms following child sexual abuse and is even demonstrated when examining long-term outcomes and controlling for child physical abuse. The hypotheses and findings are discussed in the context of interpersonal psychotherapy for depression.

  12. Depressive Symptoms and Unmitigated Communion in Support Providers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, Lihua; Van Yperen, Nico W.; Sanderman, Robbert; Hagedoorn, Mariet

    2010-01-01

    In this research, we argue and demonstrate that the association between enacted (un)supportive behaviour and depressive symptoms is a function of the providers' levels of unmitigated communion (UC). UC is characterized by overinvolvement in others' problems, self-neglect and externalized self-evalua

  13. Psychosocial working conditions and depressive symptoms among Swedish employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L; Theorell, Töres; Bech, Per

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate prospective associations between working conditions and depressive symptoms in Swedish men and women. METHODS: The study was based on SLOSH (N = 5,985), a follow-up of a representative sample of gainfully employed Swedes 16-64 years of age from the Swedish Work Environment...

  14. Cyber Victimization and Depressive Symptoms in Sexual Minority College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Jaimi L.; DiLalla, Lisabeth F.; McCrary, Megan K.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relations between sexual orientation, cyber victimization, and depressive symptoms in college students. Study aims were to determine whether sexual minority college students are at greater risk for cyber victimization and to examine whether recent cyber victimization (self-reported cyber victimization over the last…

  15. Social Support Seeking and Early Adolescent Depression and Anxiety Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, Clorinda E.; Krause, Elizabeth D.; McKinnon, Allison; Brunwasser, Steven M.; Freres, Derek R.; Abenavoli, Rachel M.; Gillham, Jane E.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how social support seeking and rumination interacted to predict depression and anxiety symptoms 6 months later in early adolescents (N = 118; 11-14 years at baseline). We expected social support seeking would be more helpful for adolescents engaging in low rather than high levels of rumination. Adolescents self-reported on all…

  16. Depressive symptoms in community-dwelling persons aged ≥60 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    orphaned children. ... population of mixed ethnicity >65 years old living in Cape Town in 1987 .... The relationship between depressive symptoms and ... CES-D 10 scale [6-7]. Reliability 0.90[6]. Validity 0.84[7]. Cognition. Short Memory Scale – 6 item[8-9] .... prevalence, and should be considered in terms of the findings from.

  17. Shame, Guilt, and Depressive Symptoms: A Meta-Analytic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangmoon; Thibodeau, Ryan; Jorgensen, Randall S.

    2011-01-01

    Recent theoretical and empirical work has facilitated the drawing of sharp conceptual distinctions between shame and guilt. A clear view of these distinctions has permitted development of a research literature aimed at evaluating the differential associations of shame and guilt with depressive symptoms. This study quantitatively summarized the…

  18. Hostility, Depressive Symptoms, and Smoking in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jie Wu; Mouttapa, Michele; Chou, Chih-Ping; Nezami, Elahe; Johnson, C. Anderson; Palmer, Paula H.; Cen, Steven; Gallaher, Peggy; Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Azen, Stanley; Unger, Jennifer B.

    2005-01-01

    Using logistic and multiple regression, we examined the association between hostility, level of depressive symptoms, and smoking in a sample of 1699 ethnically diverse students in California. Self-reports were collected twice from each student, at the beginning of the 6th and 7th grade years. Among 6th graders who had not smoked, depressive…

  19. Social Support Seeking and Early Adolescent Depression and Anxiety Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, Clorinda E.; Krause, Elizabeth D.; McKinnon, Allison; Brunwasser, Steven M.; Freres, Derek R.; Abenavoli, Rachel M.; Gillham, Jane E.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how social support seeking and rumination interacted to predict depression and anxiety symptoms 6 months later in early adolescents (N = 118; 11-14 years at baseline). We expected social support seeking would be more helpful for adolescents engaging in low rather than high levels of rumination. Adolescents self-reported on all…

  20. Bullying and Symptoms of Depression in Chilean Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Lila C.; Jacobsen, Kathryn H.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The goal of this study was to assess the association between bullying and symptoms of depression among middle school students in Chile. Methods: Secondary data analysis of Chile's 2004 Global School-Based Health Survey. Results: A total of 8131 middle school students participated in the study. Forty-seven percent of students reported…

  1. Cyber Victimization and Depressive Symptoms in Sexual Minority College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Jaimi L.; DiLalla, Lisabeth F.; McCrary, Megan K.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relations between sexual orientation, cyber victimization, and depressive symptoms in college students. Study aims were to determine whether sexual minority college students are at greater risk for cyber victimization and to examine whether recent cyber victimization (self-reported cyber victimization over the last…

  2. Depressive symptoms in community-dwelling persons aged ≥60 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Depressive symptoms in community-dwelling persons aged ≥60 years in ... and environmental factors on the health status and quality of life in older persons living in ... nutritional status (p≤0.001), the inability to count on family (p=0.008) and ...

  3. Perfectionism, Rumination, Worry, and Depressive Symptoms in Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flett, Gordon L.; Coulter, Lisa-Marie; Hewitt, Paul L.; Nepon, Taryn

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined trait perfectionism, automatic perfectionistic thoughts, rumination, worry, and depressive symptoms in early adolescents. A group of 81 elementary school students in Grades 7 and 8 completed 5 questionnaires: the Child-Adolescent Perfectionism Scale, the Perfectionism Cognitions Inventory, the Children's Response Styles…

  4. Trajectories of Depression Symptoms among Older Youths Exiting Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, Michelle R.; McMillen, Curtis

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the trajectories of depressive symptoms as older youths from the foster care system mature while also examining the correlates of these trajectories. Data came from a longitudinal study of 404 youths from the foster care system in Missouri, who were interviewed nine times between their 17th and 19th…

  5. Depressive Symptoms and Unmitigated Communion in Support Providers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, Lihua; Van Yperen, Nico W.; Sanderman, Robbert; Hagedoorn, Mariet

    2010-01-01

    In this research, we argue and demonstrate that the association between enacted (un)supportive behaviour and depressive symptoms is a function of the providers' levels of unmitigated communion (UC). UC is characterized by overinvolvement in others' problems, self-neglect and externalized self-evalua

  6. Discrimination, Mastery, and Depressive Symptoms among African American Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Daphne C.; Hudson, Darrell L.; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Siefert, Kristine; Jackson, James S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines the influence of discrimination and mastery on depressive symptoms for African American men at young (18-34), middle (35-54), and late (55+) adulthood. Method: Analyses are based on responses from 1,271 African American men from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL). Results: Discrimination was significantly…

  7. Depressive symptoms in HIV-infected and seronegative control subjects in Cameroon: Effect of age, education and gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanmogne, Georgette D.; Qiu, Fang; Ntone, Félicien E.; Fonsah, Julius Y.; Njamnshi, Dora M.; Kuate, Callixte T.; Doh, Roland F.; Kengne, Anne M.; Tagny, Claude T.; Nchindap, Emilienne; Kenmogne, Léopoldine; Mbanya, Dora; Cherner, Mariana; Heaton, Robert K.; Njamnshi, Alfred K.

    2017-01-01

    Depression is a leading cause of HIV/AIDS disease burden; it worsens health outcomes and quality of life. Addressing this problem requires accurate quantification of the extra burden of depression to HIV/AIDS in a given population, and knowledge of the baseline depression prevalence in the general population. There has been no previous study of depression in the general Cameroonian population. The current study attempts to address that important need. We used the Beck Depression Inventory-II to assess the prevalence and severity of depressive symptoms in 270 HIV-infected and seronegative Cameroonians. Univariate analyses showed a trend toward higher depressive symptoms among cases, compared to controls (p = 0.055), and among older subjects (>40 years), compared to younger subjects (≤40 years) (p = 0.059). Analysis of depression severity showed that 33.73% of cases had moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms, compared to 19.8% of controls (p<0.01). However, multivariable negative binomial regression analyses showed no effect of age, HIV status, CD4 levels, viral loads, ART, or opportunistic infections on the risk of depressive symptoms. Both univariate and multivariable regression analyses showed significantly higher risk of depressive symptoms among females compared to males; this was significant for both female controls and female cases. Female cases had significantly higher CD4 cell counts and lower viral loads, compared to males. Both univariate and multivariable regression analyses showed that lower education (≤10 years) was associated with increased risk of depressive symptoms. This study shows a high prevalence of depressive symptoms among seronegative controls and HIV-infected Cameroonians. Integrating care for mental disorders such as depression into primary health care and existing HIV/AIDS treatment programs in Cameroon may improve the wellbeing of the general population and could lower the HIV/AIDS burden. PMID:28231258

  8. Depressive symptoms in HIV-infected and seronegative control subjects in Cameroon: Effect of age, education and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanmogne, Georgette D; Qiu, Fang; Ntone, Félicien E; Fonsah, Julius Y; Njamnshi, Dora M; Kuate, Callixte T; Doh, Roland F; Kengne, Anne M; Tagny, Claude T; Nchindap, Emilienne; Kenmogne, Léopoldine; Mbanya, Dora; Cherner, Mariana; Heaton, Robert K; Njamnshi, Alfred K

    2017-01-01

    Depression is a leading cause of HIV/AIDS disease burden; it worsens health outcomes and quality of life. Addressing this problem requires accurate quantification of the extra burden of depression to HIV/AIDS in a given population, and knowledge of the baseline depression prevalence in the general population. There has been no previous study of depression in the general Cameroonian population. The current study attempts to address that important need. We used the Beck Depression Inventory-II to assess the prevalence and severity of depressive symptoms in 270 HIV-infected and seronegative Cameroonians. Univariate analyses showed a trend toward higher depressive symptoms among cases, compared to controls (p = 0.055), and among older subjects (>40 years), compared to younger subjects (≤40 years) (p = 0.059). Analysis of depression severity showed that 33.73% of cases had moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms, compared to 19.8% of controls (p<0.01). However, multivariable negative binomial regression analyses showed no effect of age, HIV status, CD4 levels, viral loads, ART, or opportunistic infections on the risk of depressive symptoms. Both univariate and multivariable regression analyses showed significantly higher risk of depressive symptoms among females compared to males; this was significant for both female controls and female cases. Female cases had significantly higher CD4 cell counts and lower viral loads, compared to males. Both univariate and multivariable regression analyses showed that lower education (≤10 years) was associated with increased risk of depressive symptoms. This study shows a high prevalence of depressive symptoms among seronegative controls and HIV-infected Cameroonians. Integrating care for mental disorders such as depression into primary health care and existing HIV/AIDS treatment programs in Cameroon may improve the wellbeing of the general population and could lower the HIV/AIDS burden.

  9. Food and mental health: relationship between food and perceived stress and depressive symptoms among university students in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ansari, Walid; Adetunji, Hamed; Oskrochi, Reza

    2014-06-01

    The current study assessed, by university and sex, the association between nutritional behaviour (twelve independent variables), and stress and depressive symptoms (dependent variables) in a sample from three UK countries. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken among undergraduates enrolled across seven universities in England, Wales and Northern Ireland (N = 3,706). Self-administered questionnaires included a 12-item food frequency questionnaire, Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale and modified Beck Depression Inventory. Sex and university comparisons were undertaken. Univariable and multivariable regression analyses were computed for each of the two outcomes--perceived stress and depressive symptoms. The frequencies of consuming of the various food groups differed by university and sex, as did depressive symptoms and perceived stress. Multivariable regression analyses indicated that consuming 'unhealthy' foods (e.g. sweets, cookies, snacks, fast food) was significantly positively associated with perceived stress (females only) and depressive symptoms (both males and females). Conversely, consuming 'healthy' foods (e.g. fresh fruits, salads, cooked vegetables) was significantly negatively associated with perceived stress and depressive symptoms scores for both sexes. There was significant negative association between consuming fish/sea food and depressive symptoms among males only. For males and for females, consuming lemonade/soft drinks, meat/sausage products, dairy/dairy products, and cereal/cereal products were not associated with either perceived stress or depressive symptoms. The associations between consuming 'unhealthy' foods and higher depressive symptoms and perceived stress among male and female students as well as the associations between consuming 'healthy' foods and lower depressive symptoms and perceived stress among male and female students in three UK countries suggest that interventions to reduce depressive symptoms and stress among students could

  10. Duloxetine: A New Treatment for the Emotional and Physical Symptoms of Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Mallinckrodt, Craig H.; Goldstein, David J; Detke, Michael J.; Lu, Yili; Watkin, John G.; Tran, Pierre V.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Depression is underdiagnosed in the primary care setting. Physical symptoms such as aches, pains, and gastrointestinal disturbance are frequently associated with major depressive disorder (MDD) and are often the presenting symptoms. Duloxetine, a dual-reuptake inhibitor of serotonin and norepinephrine, may have a positive effect on physical symptoms in addition to efficacy in treating emotional symptoms of depression.

  11. Depression and Anxiety Symptoms in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders without Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, John F.; Kenworthy, Lauren; Daniolos, Peter; Case, Laura; Wills, Meagan C.; Martin, Alex; Wallace, Gregory L.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that rates of depression and anxiety symptoms are elevated among individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) of various ages and IQs and that depression/anxiety symptoms are associated with higher IQ and fewer ASD symptoms. In this study which examined correlates of depression and anxiety symptoms in the full…

  12. Depression and Anxiety Symptoms in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders without Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, John F.; Kenworthy, Lauren; Daniolos, Peter; Case, Laura; Wills, Meagan C.; Martin, Alex; Wallace, Gregory L.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that rates of depression and anxiety symptoms are elevated among individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) of various ages and IQs and that depression/anxiety symptoms are associated with higher IQ and fewer ASD symptoms. In this study which examined correlates of depression and anxiety symptoms in the full…

  13. Parenting and Early Adolescent Internalizing: The Importance of Teasing Apart Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lesley E.; Greenberg, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    This community-based study examined differences in parenting quality and parent symptoms for youth in four categories: anxious (elevated anxiety symptoms), depressed (elevated depressive symptoms), comorbid (elevated anxiety and depressive symptoms), and nonelevated (elevations of neither type). Respondents were 976 young adolescents (mean age =…

  14. Stress and depressive symptoms among Mexican American elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiriboga, David A; Black, Sandra A; Aranda, Maria; Markides, Kyriakos

    2002-11-01

    Although social stressors have successfully predicted depressive symptomatology in a number of populations, few studies have examined the relevance of stressors for Mexican American elders. Results are reported here from a multistage probability sample of 3,050 Mexican Americans aged 65 and older drawn from a 5-state region. Participants reported low levels of education and income, and most reported difficulty in reading or writing in English. Deaths, illness of close other, and financial problems were the three most frequent life events, and many reported financial strains. Depressive symptoms were then regressed on demographic indicators, cognitive status, linguistic acculturation, social supports, and three types of stressors. Being a woman, lower income, decreased income, chronic financial strain, and several health stressors were associated with greater symptomatology. Results identified a cluster of economic stressors and conditions that may play a critical role in the etiology of depressive symptoms in this minority population.

  15. Cotard Syndrome without Depressive Symptoms in a Schizophrenic Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgado, Pedro; Ribeiro, Ricardo; Cerqueira, João J

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Cotard syndrome is a rare condition characterized by nihilistic delusions concerning body or life that can be found in several neuropsychiatry conditions. It is typically associated with depressive symptoms. Method. We present a case of Cotard syndrome without depressive symptoms in the context of known paranoid schizophrenia. A literature review of Cotard syndrome in schizophrenia was performed. Results. Although there are few descriptions of this syndrome in schizophrenia, patients usually present depressive mood and psychomotor retardation, features not seen in our patient. Loss of the sense of the inner self, present in schizophrenia, could explain patient's symptomatology but neurobiological bases of this syndrome remain unclear. Conclusion. Despite not being considered in actual classifications, Cotard syndrome is still relevant and psychiatric evaluation is critical to diagnosing and treating this condition in psychiatric patients.

  16. Cotard Syndrome without Depressive Symptoms in a Schizophrenic Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Morgado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cotard syndrome is a rare condition characterized by nihilistic delusions concerning body or life that can be found in several neuropsychiatry conditions. It is typically associated with depressive symptoms. Method. We present a case of Cotard syndrome without depressive symptoms in the context of known paranoid schizophrenia. A literature review of Cotard syndrome in schizophrenia was performed. Results. Although there are few descriptions of this syndrome in schizophrenia, patients usually present depressive mood and psychomotor retardation, features not seen in our patient. Loss of the sense of the inner self, present in schizophrenia, could explain patient’s symptomatology but neurobiological bases of this syndrome remain unclear. Conclusion. Despite not being considered in actual classifications, Cotard syndrome is still relevant and psychiatric evaluation is critical to diagnosing and treating this condition in psychiatric patients.

  17. The association between workplace bullying and depressive symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Török, Eszter; Hansen, Åse Marie; Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the depressive symptoms of the bullied respondents differed according to who the perpetrator was. METHODS: We used cross-sectional questionnaire data from two representative cohorts: the Danish Working Environment Cohort Study...... (DWECS 2010) and the Work and Health Study (WH 2012). After excluding respondents not having a leader, or being self-employed, assisting spouses, and those reporting multiple perpetrators in WH 2012, the statistical analysis included 2478 bullied individuals. We compared respondents reporting being...... bullied by their (1) leader, (2) subordinates, (3) clients / customers / patients / students, or (4) colleagues, respectively. The occurrence of depressive symptoms was measured by the Major Depression Inventory (MDI). RESULTS: The most frequent perpetrator of bullying was clients (41.5 %) in DWECS 2010...

  18. Serotonin transporter genotype and depressive symptoms moderate effects of nicotine on spatial working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Joshua M; Gilbert, David G; Riise, Hege; Rabinovich, Norka E; Sugai, Chihiro; Froeliger, Brett

    2009-06-01

    Smokers may use nicotine to self-medicate for situation-specific or person-specific cognitive or affective deficits. Although evidence suggests that nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), relative to placebo, enhances spatial working memory (SWM) in smoking-abstinent smokers with schizophrenia, the extent to which NRT may be helpful in attenuating abstinence-related SWM in other groups with deficits in SWM is unknown. Depressive symptoms are associated with both tobacco smoking and deficits in SWM. Previous studies have found that smoking abstinence increases depressive affect and depression-related hemispheric asymmetries in brain activation. Although the serotonin neurotransmitter system is closely associated with depression and the effects of nicotine, the authors are not aware of any studies that have evaluated the possible role of individual differences in serotonin transporter (5-HTT) genotype and depressive symptoms as moderators of the effects of NRT on SWM. Thus, the current study assessed the effects of NRT (nicotine patch) on SWM in relation to: (1) depressive traits and (2) 5-HTT genotype. Smoking-deprived habitual smokers (N = 64) completed the dot recall test of SWM during counterbalanced and double-blind nicotine and placebo testing sessions. There was a marginal overall effect of NRT on SWM. More importantly, NRT enhanced SWM in 5-HTT short allele carriers, relative to those with two long alleles, and this enhancement in short-allele carriers was greater for individuals with higher levels of depressive symptoms.

  19. The association between depressive symptoms, cognitive function, and inflammation in major depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Jesper; Benros, Michael E; Jørgensen, Martin Balslev

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the association between IL-6 and CRP with depressive items and cognitive function. We included 112 outpatients with major depression from an exercise trial and 57 healthy controls. IL-6, high sensitive CRP (hsCRP), and cognitive function were assessed in all...... subjects. After baseline assessment, patients were randomised to either a 3months exercise intervention or an exercise control group. Post-intervention IL-6, hsCRP, depressive symptoms, and cognitive function were reassessed in the patient group. IL-6 and hsCRP were significantly increased in depressed...... patients compared to healthy controls (p=0.02 and 0.04). These differences were no longer significant after adjustment for lifestyle associated variables. We found no association between immune markers and specific depressive symptoms at baseline or as change over time. Regarding the cognitive tests, IL-6...

  20. Effect of Anti-inflammatory Treatment on Depression, Depressive Symptoms, and Adverse Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köhler, Ole; Benros, Michael E; Nordentoft, Merete

    2014-01-01

    -controlled trials assessing the efficacy and adverse effects of pharmacologic anti-inflammatory treatment in adults with depressive symptoms, including those who fulfilled the criteria for depression. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Data were extracted by 2 independent reviewers. Pooled standard mean difference (SMD......) and odds ratios (ORs) were calculated. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Depression scores after treatment and adverse effects. RESULTS: Ten publications reporting on 14 trials (6262 participants) were included: 10 trials evaluated the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (n=4,258) and 4...... investigated cytokine inhibitors (n=2,004). The pooled effect estimate suggested that anti-inflammatory treatment reduced depressive symptoms (SMD, -0.34; 95% CI, -0.57 to -0.11; I2=90%) compared with placebo. This effect was observed in studies including patients with depression (SMD, -0.54; 95% CI, -1...

  1. Bullying in school and cyberspace: Associations with depressive symptoms in Swiss and Australian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perren, Sonja; Dooley, Julian; Shaw, Thérèse; Cross, Donna

    2010-11-23

    Cyber-bullying (i.e., bullying via electronic means) has emerged as a new form of bullying that presents unique challenges to those victimised. Recent studies have demonstrated that there is a significant conceptual and practical overlap between both types of bullying such that most young people who are cyber-bullied also tend to be bullied by more traditional methods. Despite the overlap between traditional and cyber forms of bullying, it remains unclear if being a victim of cyber-bullying has the same negative consequences as being a victim of traditional bullying. The current study investigated associations between cyber versus traditional bullying and depressive symptoms in 374 and 1320 students from Switzerland and Australia respectively (52% female; Age: M = 13.8, SD = 1.0). All participants completed a bullying questionnaire (assessing perpetration and victimisation of traditional and cyber forms of bullying behaviour) in addition to scales on depressive symptoms. Across both samples, traditional victims and bully-victims reported more depressive symptoms than bullies and non-involved children. Importantly, victims of cyber-bullying reported significantly higher levels of depressive symptoms, even when controlling for the involvement in traditional bullying/victimisation. Overall, cyber-victimisation emerged as an additional risk factor for depressive symptoms in adolescents involved in bullying.

  2. Loneliness and depressive symptoms among older adults: The moderating role of subjective life expectancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodner, Ehud; Bergman, Yoav S

    2016-03-30

    Loneliness and depressive symptoms are closely related, and both are indicators of reduced physical and mental well-being in old age. In recent years, the subjective perception of how long an individual expects to live (subjective life expectancy) has gained importance as a significant predictor of future psychological functioning, as well as of physical health. The current study examined whether subjective life expectancy moderates the connection between loneliness and depressive symptoms in a representative sample of older adults. Data was collected from the Israeli component of the fifth wave of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE-Israel). Participants (n=2210; mean age=70.35) completed measures of loneliness, depressive symptoms, and life expectancy target age. A hierarchical regression analysis predicting depressive symptoms yielded a significant interaction of loneliness and subjective life expectancy. Further analyses demonstrated that low subjective life expectancy mitigated the loneliness-depressive symptoms connection. Findings are discussed in light of the potential burden of higher subjective life expectancy for lonesome older adults, and practical implications are suggested.

  3. Bullying in school and cyberspace: Associations with depressive symptoms in Swiss and Australian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaw Thérèse

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyber-bullying (i.e., bullying via electronic means has emerged as a new form of bullying that presents unique challenges to those victimised. Recent studies have demonstrated that there is a significant conceptual and practical overlap between both types of bullying such that most young people who are cyber-bullied also tend to be bullied by more traditional methods. Despite the overlap between traditional and cyber forms of bullying, it remains unclear if being a victim of cyber-bullying has the same negative consequences as being a victim of traditional bullying. Method The current study investigated associations between cyber versus traditional bullying and depressive symptoms in 374 and 1320 students from Switzerland and Australia respectively (52% female; Age: M = 13.8, SD = 1.0. All participants completed a bullying questionnaire (assessing perpetration and victimisation of traditional and cyber forms of bullying behaviour in addition to scales on depressive symptoms. Results Across both samples, traditional victims and bully-victims reported more depressive symptoms than bullies and non-involved children. Importantly, victims of cyber-bullying reported significantly higher levels of depressive symptoms, even when controlling for the involvement in traditional bullying/victimisation. Conclusions Overall, cyber-victimisation emerged as an additional risk factor for depressive symptoms in adolescents involved in bullying.

  4. Elevated morning cortisol is a stratified population-level biomarker for major depression in boys only with high depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Matthew; Herbert, Joe; Jones, Peter B; Sahakian, Barbara J; Wilkinson, Paul O; Dunn, Valerie J; Croudace, Timothy J; Goodyer, Ian M

    2014-03-04

    Major depressive disorder (MD) is a debilitating public mental health problem with severe societal and personal costs attached. Around one in six people will suffer from this complex disorder at some point in their lives, which has shown considerable etiological and clinical heterogeneity. Overall there remain no validated biomarkers in the youth population at large that can aid the detection of at-risk groups for depression in general and for boys and young men in particular. Using repeated measurements of two well-known correlates of MD (self-reported current depressive symptoms and early-morning cortisol), we undertook a population-based investigation to ascertain subtypes of adolescents that represent separate longitudinal phenotypes. Subsequently, we tested for differential risks for MD and other mental illnesses and cognitive differences between subtypes. Through the use of latent class analysis, we revealed a high-risk subtype (17% of the sample) demarcated by both high depressive symptoms and elevated cortisol levels. Membership of this class of individuals was associated with increased levels of impaired autobiographical memory recall in both sexes and the greatest likelihood of experiencing MD in boys only. These previously unidentified findings demonstrate at the population level a class of adolescents with a common physiological biomarker specifically for MD in boys and for a mnemonic vulnerability in both sexes. We suggest that the biobehavioral combination of high depressive symptoms and elevated morning cortisol is particularly hazardous for adolescent boys.

  5. Depressive symptoms in adolescence : Longitudinal links with maternal empathy and psychological control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werner, Lente L. A. A.; Van der Graaff, Jolien; Meeus, W.H.J.; Branje, Susan J. T.

    2016-01-01

    Building on self-determination theory (Deci and Ryan in Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227-268. doi:10.1207/S15327965PLI1104_01, 2000), the aim of the current study was to examine the role of maternal affective and cognitive empathy in predicting adolescents' depressive symptoms, through mothers' psycho

  6. Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence: Longitudinal Links with Maternal Empathy and Psychological Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werner, L.A.A.; van der Graaff, J.; Meeus, W.H.J.; Branje, S.J.T.

    2016-01-01

    Building on self-determination theory (Deci and Ryan in Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227-268. doi:10.1207/ S15327965PLI1104_01, 2000), the aim of the current study was to examine the role of maternal affective and cognitive empathy in predicting adolescents’ depressive symptoms, through mothers’ psych

  7. Social Skills and Depressive Symptoms across Adolescence: Social Support as a Mediator in Girls versus Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Wendy; Karevold, Evalill; Roysamb, Espen; Gustavson, Kristin; Mathiesen, Kristin S.

    2013-01-01

    The current population-based study of Norwegian adolescents examined gender-specific patterns in the prospective association between social skills in early adolescence (age 12.5; n = 566) and changes in depressive symptoms from early to late adolescence (age 16.5; n = 375). Further, a potential mediation effect of social support (from peers,…

  8. Social Skills and Depressive Symptoms across Adolescence: Social Support as a Mediator in Girls versus Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Wendy; Karevold, Evalill; Roysamb, Espen; Gustavson, Kristin; Mathiesen, Kristin S.

    2013-01-01

    The current population-based study of Norwegian adolescents examined gender-specific patterns in the prospective association between social skills in early adolescence (age 12.5; n = 566) and changes in depressive symptoms from early to late adolescence (age 16.5; n = 375). Further, a potential mediation effect of social support (from peers,…

  9. Abuse, Depressive Symptoms, Executive Functioning, and Overgeneral Memory among a Psychiatric Sample of Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentino, Kristin; Bridgett, David J.; Hayden, Lisa C.; Nuttall, Amy K.

    2012-01-01

    Prior research has established the independent associations of depressive symptoms and childhood trauma to overgeneral memory (OGM); the present study addresses the potentially interactive effects between these two risk factors on OGM. In addition, the current study comprehensively evaluates whether executive functions (EF) mediate the relation…

  10. Longitudinal Associations between Maternal Work Stress, Negative Work-Family Spillover, and Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, W. Benjamin; Crouter, Ann C.

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined associations over an 18-month period between maternal work stressors, negative work-family spillover, and depressive symptoms in a sample of 414 employed mothers with young children living in six predominantly nonmetropolitan counties in the Eastern United States. Results from a one-group mediation model showed that a…

  11. Longitudinal Associations between Maternal Work Stress, Negative Work-Family Spillover, and Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, W. Benjamin; Crouter, Ann C.

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined associations over an 18-month period between maternal work stressors, negative work-family spillover, and depressive symptoms in a sample of 414 employed mothers with young children living in six predominantly nonmetropolitan counties in the Eastern United States. Results from a one-group mediation model showed that a…

  12. Diagnosing major depressive disorder VIII: are some symptoms better than others?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlinchey, Joseph B; Zimmerman, Mark; Young, Diane; Chelminski, Iwona

    2006-10-01

    The present report from the Rhode Island Methods to Improve Diagnostic Assessment and Services project examined whether symptoms that are not part of the DSM-IV definition of major depressive disorder (MDD) are better at discriminating depressed from nondepressed patients than the current criteria. Symptoms assessed included diminished drive, helplessness, hopelessness, nonreactive mood, psychic anxiety, somatic anxiety, subjective anger, and overtly expressed anger. A total of 1538 psychiatric outpatients were administered a semistructured diagnostic interview. We inquired about all of the symptoms of depression for all patients. Diminished drive exhibited stronger performance in differentiating MDD from non-MDD relative to all DSM-IV criteria except depressed mood, reduced interest/pleasure, and impaired concentration/indecisiveness. A compound criterion combining diminished drive with loss of energy was endorsed by nearly all MDD patients. Helplessness and hopelessness, when combined into a single criterion, performed more strongly than some of the DSM-IV criteria. Lack of reactivity, anxiety, and anger symptoms failed to differentiate more strongly than current DSM-IV criteria. The implications of these results for revising the diagnostic criteria for major depression are discussed.

  13. Parent-child acculturation, parenting, and adolescent depressive symptoms in Chinese immigrant families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Yeong; Chen, Qi; Li, Jing; Huang, Xuan; Moon, Ui Jeong

    2009-06-01

    Using a sample of 388 father-adolescent and 399 mother-adolescent dyads in Chinese immigrant families, the current investigation tested Portes and Rumbaut's (1996) assertion that generational dissonance may indicate a family context that places children at increased risk for adverse outcomes. Study findings suggest that a high discrepancy in father-adolescent acculturation levels relates significantly to more adolescent depressive symptoms. The study further demonstrates that the quality of the parenting relationship between fathers and adolescents operates as a mediator between father-adolescent acculturation discrepancy and adolescent depressive symptoms. Specifically, a high level of discrepancy in American orientation between fathers and adolescents is associated with unsupportive parenting practices, which, in turn, are linked to more adolescent depressive symptoms. These relationships are significant even after controlling for the influence of family socioeconomic status and parents' and adolescents' sense of discrimination within the larger society. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Ethnic Variation in the Cross-sectional Association between Domains of Depressive Symptoms and Clinical Depression

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    Shervin eAssari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe degree by which depressive symptoms and clinical depression reflect each other may vary across populations. The present study compared Blacks and Whites for the magnitude of the cross-sectional associations between various domains of depressive symptoms and endorsement of clinical disorders of depression. MethodsData came from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL, 2001–2003. We included 3,570 Black (African Americans, and 891 Non-Hispanic Whites. Predictors were positive affect, negative affect, and interpersonal problems measured using the 12-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D. Outcomes were lifetime MDD, lifetime MDE, 12 month MDE, 30 days MDE, and 30 days MDDH based on the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI. Logistic regression models were applied in the pooled sample, as well as Blacks and Whites.ResultsRegarding CES-D, Blacks had lower total scores, positive affect, negative affect, and interpersonal problems compared to Whites (p < 0.05 for all comparisons. Blacks also had lower odds of meeting criteria for lifetime MDD and MDE, 12 month MDE, and 30 days MDE and MDDH (p < 0.05 for all comparisons. For most depressive diagnoses, ethnicity showed a positive and significant interaction with the negative affect and interpersonal domains, suggesting stronger associations for Blacks compared to Whites. CES-D total and CES-D positive affect did not interact with ethnicity on CIDI based diagnoses.ConclusionStronger associations between multiple domains of depressive symptoms and clinical MDD may be due to higher severity of depression among Blacks, when they endorse the disorder. This finding may explain some of previously observed ethnic differences in social, psychological, and medical correlates of depressive symptoms and clinical depression in the general population as well as clinical settings.

  15. Rumination, anxiety, depressive symptoms and subsequent depression in adolescents at risk for psychopathology: a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Paul O; Croudace, Tim J; Goodyer, Ian M

    2013-10-08

    A ruminative style of responding to low mood is associated with subsequent high depressive symptoms and depressive disorder in children, adolescents and adults. Scores on self-report rumination scales correlate strongly with scores on anxiety and depression symptom scales. This may confound any associations between rumination and subsequent depression. Our sample comprised 658 healthy adolescents at elevated risk for psychopathology. This study applied ordinal item (non-linear) factor analysis to pooled items from three self-report questionnaires to explore whether there were separate, but correlated, constructs of rumination, depression and anxiety. It then tested whether rumination independently predicted depressive disorder and depressive symptoms over the subsequent 12 months, after adjusting for confounding variables. We identified a single rumination factor, which was correlated with factors representing cognitive symptoms of depression, somatic symptoms of depression and anxiety symptoms; and one factor representing adaptive responses to low mood. Elevated rumination scores predicted onset of depressive disorders over the subsequent year (p = 0.035), and levels of depressive symptoms 12 months later (p depressive and anxiety symptoms. High rumination predicts onset of depressive disorder in healthy adolescents. Therapy that reduces rumination and increases distraction/problem-solving may reduce onset and relapse rates of depression.

  16. Low blood pressure and depressive symptoms among Chinese older subjects: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Tze-Pin; Feng, Liang; Niti, Mathew; Yap, Keng-Bee

    2010-04-01

    The relationships between blood pressure and depression are unclear. There are inconsistent reports of an association between low blood pressure and depressive symptoms. In a population-based sample of 2611 Chinese older adults aged 55 years and above, including participants with treated (n=1088), untreated (n=545), or no hypertension (n=978), depressive symptoms were determined by the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (> or =5), and current systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure measurements were used to classify participants into high, normal, and low blood pressure groups. Estimates of association were adjusted for confounding by use of antihypertensive and depressogenic drugs and other covariables in hierarchical regression analyses. Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure were negatively associated with Geriatric Depression Scale scores, independent of other variables. Low systolic blood pressure (odds ratio [OR] 1.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07-2.22), low diastolic blood pressure (OR 1.67; 95% CI, 0.98-2.85), and low systolic blood pressure or diastolic blood pressure (or both) (OR 1.55; 95% CI, 1.10-2.19) were independently associated with depressive symptoms. The associations with depressive symptoms were particularly observed for low systolic blood pressure (OR 2.13; 95% CI, 1.13-4.03) among treated hypertensive participants, and low diastolic blood pressure (OR 2.42; 95% CI, 1.26-4.68) among untreated or nonhypertensive participants. Low blood pressure was independently associated with depressive symptoms in both older subjects who were treated for hypertension and those who were not.

  17. Long-term incidence of depression and predictors of depressive symptoms in older stroke survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Louise M; Rowan, Elise N; Thomas, Alan J; Polvikoski, Tuomo M; O'Brien, John T; Kalaria, Raj N

    2013-12-01

    Depression is common and an important consequence of stroke but there is limited information on the longer-term relationship between these conditions. To identify the prevalence, incidence and predictors of depression in a secondary-care-based cohort of stroke survivors aged over 75 years, from 3 months to up to 10 years post-stroke. Depression was assessed annually by three methods: major depression by DSM-IV criteria, the self-rated Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and the observer-rated Cornell scale. We found the highest rates, 31.7% baseline prevalence, of depressive symptoms with the GDS compared with 9.7% using the Cornell scale and 1.2% using DSM-IV criteria. Incidence rates were 36.9, 5.90 and 4.18 episodes per 100 person years respectively. Baseline GDS score was the most consistent predictor of depressive symptoms at all time points in both univariate and multivariate analyses. Other predictors included cognitive impairment, impaired activities of daily living and in the early period, vascular risk factor burden and dementia. Our results emphasise the importance of psychiatric follow-up for those with early-onset post-stroke depression and long-term monitoring of mood in people who have had a stroke and remain at high risk of depression.

  18. Cognitive functioning in patients with bipolar disorder: association with depressive symptoms and alcohol use.

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    Marieke J van der Werf-Eldering

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cognitive dysfunction is clearly recognized in bipolar patients, but the degree of impairment varies due to methodological factors as well as heterogeneity in patient populations. The goal of this study was to evaluate cognitive functioning in bipolar patients and to assess its association with depressive symptoms. Post hoc the relationship with lifetime alcohol use disorder was explored. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The study included 110 bipolar patients and 75 healthy controls. Patients with severe depressive symptoms, (hypomanic symptoms and current severe alcohol use disorder were excluded. Diagnoses were evaluated via the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Cognitive functioning was measured in domains of psychomotor speed, speed of information processing, attentional switching, verbal memory, visual memory, executive functioning and an overall mean score. Severity of depression was assessed by the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-self rating. Patients were euthymic (n = 46 or with current mild (n = 38 or moderate (n = 26 depressive symptoms. Cognitive impairment was found in 26% (z-score 2 or more above reference control group for at least one domain of patients, most prominent in executive functioning (effect size; ES 0.49 and speed of information processing (ES 0.47. Depressive symptoms were associated with dysfunction in psychomotor speed (adjusted beta 0.43; R(2 7%, speed of information processing (adjusted beta 0.36; R(2 20%, attentional switching (adjusted beta 0.24; R(2 16% and the mean score (adjusted beta 0.23; R(2 24%, but not with verbal and visual memory and executive functioning. Depressive symptoms explained 24% of the variance in the mean z-score of all 6 cognitive domains. Comorbid lifetime alcohol use (n = 21 was not associated with cognitive dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Cognitive dysfunction in bipolar disorder is more severe in patients with depressive symptoms, especially

  19. Sleep in midlife women: effects of menopause, vasomotor symptoms, and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampio, Laura; Polo-Kantola, Päivi; Polo, Olli; Kauko, Tommi; Aittokallio, Jenni; Saaresranta, Tarja

    2014-11-01

    This study aims to evaluate subjective sleep quality in premenopausal and postmenopausal women and to study its association with night sweats, hot flashes, and depressive symptoms. A total of 158 healthy women were recruited; 107 were premenopausal (44-48 y) and 51 were postmenopausal (53-58 y). Sleep quality was evaluated with the Basic Nordic Sleep Questionnaire, night sweats and hot flashes were evaluated with a specific symptom questionnaire, and depressive symptoms were evaluated with the Beck Depression Inventory. Postmenopausal women had poorer general sleep quality (P menopause status. Maintenance insomnia, most evidently because of night sweats and hot flashes, seems to be the major type of insomnia in postmenopausal women and has to be considered when choosing insomnia treatment for this group. Initiation of sleep and daytime vitality are not, in general, affected by menopause.

  20. Prevalence and Correlates of Clinically Significant Depressive Symptoms in an Urban Hospital Emergency Department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichmann, William M.; Safren, Steven A.; Losina, Elena; Arbelaez, Christian; Walensky, Rochelle P.

    2010-01-01

    Background: In hospital settings, depression is an underdetected, undertreated, but prevalent and interfering illness that is associated with significant disability, morbidity, and mortality. A general hospital emergency department (ED) setting may be well suited to identify individuals with clinically significant depressive symptoms, facilitating their referral and treatment. Method: Cross-sectional data of adult ED patients in a general hospital enrolling in a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) screening study between February 2007 and March 2008 were analyzed. Data included demographic factors, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), alcohol and substance use history, sexual risk taking, and brief medical history. The primary outcome was a dichotomous measure of self-reported clinically significant depressive symptoms. Patients who scored ≥ 16 on the CES-D were considered to screen positive for depressive symptoms. Results: Of the 3,262 patients enrolled in the screening trial, 2,588 (79%) completed the survey between February 2007 and March 2008. Among these, 1,945 (75%) completed the psychosocial assessment battery; 596 (31%) survey completers screened positive for clinically significant depressive symptoms. In a multivariable model, female sex (RR = 1.36; 95% CI, 1.16–1.57), being unemployed (RR = 1.61; 95% CI, 1.32–1.93), and lower annual income (RR from 1.73 to 2.24) were associated with increased rates of clinically significant depressive symptoms (CES-D score ≥ 16). Clinically significant depressive symptoms were more often present in patients who screened positive for alcohol dependence (RR = 1.48; 95% CI, 1.19–1.78), individuals reporting current smoking (RR = 1.39; 95% CI, 1.17–1.62), those with a prior psychiatric disorder diagnosis (RR = 2.20; 95% CI, 1.80–2.57) or history of hypertension (RR = 1.47; 95% CI, 1.18–1.79), and those who reported ever having sex with an HIV-infected partner (RR = 1.58; 95% CI, 1.08

  1. Differences in depressive symptoms between Korean and American outpatients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hong Jin; Walker, Rosemary S; Inamori, Aya; Hong, Jin Pyo; Cho, Maeng Je; Baer, Lee; Clain, Alisabet; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David

    2014-05-01

    Previous epidemiologic studies have revealed that East-Asian populations experience fewer depressive symptoms than American populations do. However, it is unclear whether this difference applies to clinical patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). This present study included 1592 Korean and 3744 American outpatients who were 18 years of age or older and met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. criteria for single or recurrent episodes of nonpsychotic MDD, and evaluated their symptoms of depression using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire Short Form. Korean patients scored significantly lower for guilt and depressed mood items, and higher for hypochondriasis and suicidality items than American patients did, after adjusting for total Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scores. Conversely, no significant differences were found in quality and function of daily life between groups. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that Korean patients experienced less frequent depressed mood and guilt, including verbal and nonverbal expression of depressed mood [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.08-0.23] and feelings of punishment (AOR = 0.036, 95% CI 0.025-0.054) when compared with Americans after adjusting for age and sex. Conversely, Korean patients experienced more frequent suicidality and hypochondriasis, including suicidal ideas or gestures (AOR = 2.10, 95% CI 1.60-2.76) and self-absorption of hypochondriasis (AOR = 1.94, 95% CI 1.70-2.20). In conclusion, decreased expression of depressed mood and guilt may cause underdiagnosis of MDD in Korean patients. Early diagnosis of and intervention for depression and suicide may be delayed because of this specific cross-cultural difference in depression symptoms.

  2. The Role of Self-Compassion in Buffering Symptoms of Depression in the General Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annett Körner

    Full Text Available Self-compassion, typically operationalized as the total score of the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS; Neff, 2003b, has been shown to be related to increased psychological well-being and lower depression in students of the social sciences, users of psychology websites and psychotherapy patients. The current study builds on the existing literature by examining the link between self-compassion and depressive symptomatology in a sample representative of the German general population (n = 2,404. The SCS subscales of self-judgment, isolation, and over-identification, and the "self-coldness", composite score, which encompass these three negative subscales, consistently differed between subsamples of individuals without any depressive symptoms, with any depressive syndromes, and with major depressive disorder. The contribution of the positive SCS subscales of self-kindness, common humanity, and mindfulness to the variance in depressive symptomatology was almost negligible. However, when combined to a "self-compassion composite", the positive SCS subscales significantly moderated the relationship between "self-coldness" and depressive symptoms in the general population. This speaks for self-compassion having the potential to buffer self-coldness related to depression--providing an argument for interventions that foster self-caring, kind, and forgiving attitudes towards oneself.

  3. The Role of Self-Compassion in Buffering Symptoms of Depression in the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körner, Annett; Coroiu, Adina; Copeland, Laura; Gomez-Garibello, Carlos; Albani, Cornelia; Zenger, Markus; Brähler, Elmar

    2015-01-01

    Self-compassion, typically operationalized as the total score of the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS; Neff, 2003b), has been shown to be related to increased psychological well-being and lower depression in students of the social sciences, users of psychology websites and psychotherapy patients. The current study builds on the existing literature by examining the link between self-compassion and depressive symptomatology in a sample representative of the German general population (n = 2,404). The SCS subscales of self-judgment, isolation, and over-identification, and the "self-coldness", composite score, which encompass these three negative subscales, consistently differed between subsamples of individuals without any depressive symptoms, with any depressive syndromes, and with major depressive disorder. The contribution of the positive SCS subscales of self-kindness, common humanity, and mindfulness to the variance in depressive symptomatology was almost negligible. However, when combined to a "self-compassion composite", the positive SCS subscales significantly moderated the relationship between "self-coldness" and depressive symptoms in the general population. This speaks for self-compassion having the potential to buffer self-coldness related to depression--providing an argument for interventions that foster self-caring, kind, and forgiving attitudes towards oneself.

  4. Association Between Depressive Symptoms, Multiple Dimensions of Depression, and Elder Abuse: A Cross-Sectional, Population-Based Analysis of Older Adults in Urban Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roepke-Buehler, Susan K; Simon, Melissa; Dong, XinQi

    2015-09-01

    Depression is conceptualized as both a risk factor for and a consequence of elder abuse; however, current research is equivocal. This study examined associations between elder abuse and dimensions of depressive symptoms in older adults. Participants were 10,419 older adults enrolled in theChicago Health and Aging Project (CHAP), a population-based study of older adults. Regression was used to determine the relationships between depressive symptoms, depression dimensions, and abuse variables. Depressive symptoms were consistently associated with elder abuse. Participants in the highest tertile of depressive symptoms were twice as likely to have confirmed abuse with a perpetrator (odds ratio = 2.07, 95% confidence interval = [1.21, 3.52], p = .008). Elder abuse subtypes and depression dimensions were differentially associated. These findings highlight the importance of routine depression screening in older adults as a component of abuse prevention and intervention. They also provide profiles of depressive symptoms that may more accurately characterize risk for specific types of abuse. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Stress generation in a developmental context: the role of youth depressive symptoms, maternal depression, the parent-child relationship, and family stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Priscilla T; Doan, Stacey N; Tompson, Martha C

    2014-02-01

    The present study examined stress generation in a developmental and family context among 171 mothers and their preadolescent children, ages 8-12 years, at baseline (Time 1) and 1-year follow-up (Time 2). In the current study, we examined the bidirectional relationship between children's depressive symptoms and dependent family stress. Results suggest that children's baseline level of depressive symptoms predicted the generation of dependent family stress 1 year later. However, baseline dependent family stress did not predict an increase in children's depressive symptoms 1 year later. In addition, we examined whether a larger context of both child chronic strain (indicated by academic, behavioral, and peer stress) and family factors, including socioeconomic status and parent-child relationship quality, would influence the stress generation process. Although both chronic strain and socioeconomic status were not associated with dependent family stress at Time 2, poorer parent-child relationship quality significantly predicted greater dependent family stress at Time 2. Child chronic strain, but neither socioeconomic status nor parent-child relationship quality, predicted children's depression symptoms at Time 2. Finally, gender, maternal depression history, and current maternal depressive symptoms did not moderate the relationship between level of dependent family stress and depressive symptoms. Overall, findings provide partial support for a developmental stress generation model operating in the preadolescent period.

  6. Depression Dimensions: Integrating Clinical Signs and Symptoms from the Perspectives of Clinicians and Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Arrua Vares

    Full Text Available Several studies have recognized that depression is a multidimensional construct, although the scales that are currently available have been shown to be limited in terms of the ability to investigate the multidimensionality of depression. The objective of this study is to integrate information from instruments that measure depression from different perspectives-a self-report symptomatic scale, a clinician-rated scale, and a clinician-rated scale of depressive signs-in order to investigate the multiple dimensions underlying the depressive construct.A sample of 399 patients from a mood disorders outpatient unit was investigated with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS, and the Core Assessment of Psychomotor Change (CORE. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA were used to investigate underlying dimensions of depression, including item level analysis with factor loadings and item thresholds.A solution of six depression dimensions has shown good-fit to the data, with no cross-loading items, and good interpretability. Item-level analysis revealed that the multidimensional depressive construct might be organized into a continuum of severity in the following ascending order: sexual, cognitive, insomnia, appetite, non-interactiveness/motor retardation, and agitation.An integration of both signs and symptoms, as well as the perspectives of clinicians and patients, might be a good clinical and research alternative for the investigation of multidimensional issues within the depressive syndrome. As predicted by theoretical models of depression, the melancholic aspects of depression (non-interactiveness/motor retardation and agitation lie at the severe end of the depressive continuum.

  7. Temporomandibular disorders, otologic symptoms and depression levels in tinnitus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgenberg, P B; Saldanha, A D D; Cunha, C O; Rubo, J H; Conti, P C R

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and otologic symptoms in patients with and without tinnitus. The influence of the level of depression was also addressed. The tinnitus group was comprised of 100 patients with tinnitus, and control group was comprised of 100 individuals without tinnitus. All subjects were evaluated using the research diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders (RDC/TMD) to determine the presence of TMD and depression level. Chi-square, Spearman Correlation and Mann-Whitney tests were used in statistical analysis, with a 5% significance level. TMD signs and symptoms were detected in 85% of patients with tinnitus and in 55% of controls (P≤0·001). The severity of pain and higher depression levels were positively associated with tinnitus (P≤0·001). It was concluded that tinnitus is associated with TMD and with otalgia, dizziness/vertigo, stuffy sensations, hypoacusis sensation and hyperacusis, as well as with higher depression levels.

  8. Chronobiology, cognitive function and depressive symptoms in surgical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Melissa Voigt

    2014-09-01

    Biological rhythms are essential for the regulation of many life processes. Disturbances of the circadian rhythm are known to affect human health, performance and well-being and the negative consequences are numerous and widespread. Cognitive dysfunction, fatigue, pain, sleep disturbances and mood disorders, such as anxiety and depression, are common problems arising around the time of surgery or in the course of a cancer diagnosis and subsequent treatment period. The importance of investigating prevention or treatment possibilities in these populations is significant due to the extent of the problems and the derived consequences on morbidity and mortality. Genetic predisposition to these problems is also an issue in focus. In this thesis we initially investigated whether the specific clock gene genotype PER(5/5) was associated with the development of postoperative cognitive dysfunction one week after non-cardiac surgery. We did not find any association, although this could have been due to the size of the study. Yet, if PER3(5/5) is associated with a higher incidence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction, the risk seems to be only modestly increased and by less than 10%. Melatonin is a hormone with well-known chronobiotic and hypnotic effects. In addition, exogenous melatonin is also known to have anxiolytic, analgesic, antidepressant and positive cognitive effects. Based on the lack of studies investigating these effects of melatonin, we conducted the MELODY trial in which we investigated the effect of 6 mg oral melatonin on depressive symptoms, anxiety, sleep, cognitive function and fatigue in patients with breast cancer in a three month time period after surgery. Melatonin had an effect on reducing the risk of developing depressive symptoms and also increased sleep efficiency perioperatively and total sleep time postoperatively. No effect was found on anxiety, sleep quality, sleepiness, general well-being or pain, however melatonin seemed to positively

  9. Depression, Depressive Somatic or Nonsomatic Symptoms, and Function in a Primarily Hispanic Chronic Pain Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Kristynia M; Monsivais, Jose J

    2013-01-01

    Chronic pain and depression are two major causes of disability. Comorbidity decreases psychosocial and physical functioning while increasing economic burden. The prevailing belief that Hispanics somaticize depression may hinder the diagnostic process and, thus, may impact outcomes. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among depression and depressive symptoms (somatic or nonsomatic) and function in chronic pain sufferers residing along the USA-Mexico border. Like other studies, as level of depression increased, level of pain increased and level of functioning decreased. So much so that almost a quarter of the participants reported moderate-to-severe depression, and another quarter of the participants reported suicidal ideation independent of depression or treatment. Unlike other published reports, we used a sample of chronic pain patients who received individualized, multimodal pain treatment. Compared to our previous work in a similar population, pain intensity and suicidal ideation were lower in this study. A plausible explanation is the use of antidepressants as adjuvant treatment for pain. Regardless of gender or ethnicity, persons with chronic pain will disclose symptoms of depression when appropriate tools are used to collect the data. Implications for future research and clinical practice are discussed.

  10. Depressive symptoms in medical students: prevalence and related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bomi; Roh, Hyerin

    2014-03-01

    This study was designed to estimate the prevalence of depression and the factors that influence it in Korean medical students. We evaluated depression in 122 first- and second-year medical students in December 2011 using the Korean Beck Depression Inventory (K-BDI). Sixteen potential factors were considered: gender, class year, grade point average, breakfast habits, residence type, leisure activity, sleep satisfaction, relationship status, a close friend or a significant other, finances, present health status, history of mood disorders, family history of mood disorders, religion, and self-esteem. The average BDI score was 8.9. There were 80 (65.6%), 16 (13.1%), 15 (12.3%), and 11 (9.0%) students with minimal, mild, moderate, and severe depression, respectively. The group with depressive symptoms comprised males with a total BDI score > or =24 and females with total BDI > or =25 and constituted 9.0% of students. Students in the depressive symptom group had lower self-esteem and lower grade point averages and were more frequently ill, less likely to be in a relationship, and more likely to have a history of mood disorders (pself-esteem score was an independent factor. The BDI scores in our study were similar to those that have been reported in other countries but slightly higher than in other Korean medical and university students. Self-esteem, grade point average, health status, history of mood disorders, family history of mood disorders, and presence of a significant other correlated significantly with depression in medical students.

  11. Depressive Symptoms Affect Working Memory in Healthy Older Adult Hispanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Villanea, Monica; Liebmann, Edward; Garnier-Villarreal, Mauricio; Montenegro-Montenegro, Esteban; Johnson, David K

    2015-10-01

    -age and education matched peers. CFA and SEM found that increased depressive symptomatology had deleterious effects on Working Memory made up of subtest scores sampling simple attention and vigilance for numbers. Verbal Memory, Verbal Reasoning, and Processing Speed were not affected by self-reported Positive Affect, Negative Affect or Depressive symptoms. Costa Rican older adults were happy, as evidenced by the high ratio of positive affect to relatively low negative affect. Thus, we were somewhat surprised to find that depressive symptoms were selectively correlated to decrements in working memory and that negative and positive affect contributed negligible amounts of variance to any of the cognitive factors. Because of the methodological rigor of latent variable analysis, these results are very specific. The Working Memory factor is not contaminated with Speed of Processing or other measured cognitive factors. Likewise, the measured Geriatric Depression represents symptoms that are richly cognitive, not overtly affective.

  12. The Relationship Between Physical Activity and Depressive Symptoms in Healthy Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overdorf, Virginia; Kollia, Betty; Makarec, Katherine; Alleva Szeles, Cassandra

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Depression and inactivity in the elderly are major health problems with significant ramifications for healthy aging. Research shows an inverse relationship between depression and physical activity levels. The purpose of the current investigation is to examine the relationship between physical activity and depressive symptoms in healthy older women, first within the framework of exercise programs, and second via the impact of an intervention. Method: Two experiments were conducted. In the first, 65 women, all above the age of 60, participated. Measures of physical activity were gained by self-report using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire while the measure of depressive symptomatology was the Beck Depression Inventory. In the second, 11 women participated in a line dancing intervention, and their self-reported depressive symptomatology was measured prior to and just after the 6-week exercise intervention using the Beck Depression Inventory. In addition, during the second experiment, pedometer data were gathered during the fourth week. Results and Conclusion: The data of the first study revealed a relationship between the total amount of physical activity and scores on the Beck Depression Inventory; that is, the more active a person is, the lower her self-reported depressive symptoms. Significant correlations were found between the Beck Depression Inventory and the reports of vigorous and moderate exercise levels, but not with walking. Participants who were part of an organized exercise group exercised significantly more than those who exercised on their own. In the second study, those who participated in a line dancing intervention had significantly lower Beck Depression Inventory scores post intervention. The implications of these findings for public health are discussed.

  13. The Relationship Between Physical Activity and Depressive Symptoms in Healthy Older Women

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    Virginia Overdorf EdD

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Depression and inactivity in the elderly are major health problems with significant ramifications for healthy aging. Research shows an inverse relationship between depression and physical activity levels. The purpose of the current investigation is to examine the relationship between physical activity and depressive symptoms in healthy older women, first within the framework of exercise programs, and second via the impact of an intervention. Method: Two experiments were conducted. In the first, 65 women, all above the age of 60, participated. Measures of physical activity were gained by self-report using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire while the measure of depressive symptomatology was the Beck Depression Inventory. In the second, 11 women participated in a line dancing intervention, and their self-reported depressive symptomatology was measured prior to and just after the 6-week exercise intervention using the Beck Depression Inventory. In addition, during the second experiment, pedometer data were gathered during the fourth week. Results and Conclusion: The data of the first study revealed a relationship between the total amount of physical activity and scores on the Beck Depression Inventory; that is, the more active a person is, the lower her self-reported depressive symptoms. Significant correlations were found between the Beck Depression Inventory and the reports of vigorous and moderate exercise levels, but not with walking. Participants who were part of an organized exercise group exercised significantly more than those who exercised on their own. In the second study, those who participated in a line dancing intervention had significantly lower Beck Depression Inventory scores post intervention. The implications of these findings for public health are discussed.

  14. The Relationship Between Mindfulness, Depressive Symptoms, and Non-Suicidal Self-Injury Amongst Adolescents.

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    Heath, Nancy L; Carsley, Dana; De Riggi, Melissa E; Mills, Devin; Mettler, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Mindfulness is often part of treatment for non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI); however, there has been limited research examining the role of mindfulness in NSSI. Thus, the current study sought to investigate the relationship among mindfulness, depressive symptoms, and NSSI (past year) in adolescents (N = 764; 56.8% female, M age = 14.42, SD = 0.64) with consideration of gender. Adolescents with recent NSSI (n = 74; 83.8% female, M age = 14.36, SD = 0.56) and a matched for age and gender no-NSSI group completed measures of mindfulness and depression. Findings revealed that mindfulness and depressive symptoms were negatively correlated, although significantly less so for the NSSI group. Second, the NSSI group reported greater depressive symptoms and less mindfulness. Finally, mindfulness was found to partially mediate the effect of depressive symptoms on NSSI. The present study is the first to provide empirical support for the protective role of mindfulness in NSSI.

  15. Organic solvent exposure and depressive symptoms among licensed pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study.

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    Siegel, Miriam; Starks, Sarah E; Sanderson, Wayne T; Kamel, Freya; Hoppin, Jane A; Gerr, Fred

    2017-07-12

    Although organic solvents are often used in agricultural operations, neurotoxic effects of solvent exposure have not been extensively studied among farmers. The current analysis examined associations between questionnaire-based metrics of organic solvent exposure and depressive symptoms among farmers. Results from 692 male Agricultural Health Study participants were analyzed. Solvent type and exposure duration were assessed by questionnaire. An "ever-use" variable and years of use categories were constructed for exposure to gasoline, paint/lacquer thinner, petroleum distillates, and any solvent. Depressive symptoms were ascertained with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D); scores were analyzed separately as continuous (0-60) and dichotomous (exposure and CES-D score. Forty-one percent of the sample reported some solvent exposure. The mean CES-D score was 6.5 (SD 6.4; median 5; range 0-44); 92% of the sample had a score below 16. After adjusting for covariates, statistically significant associations were observed between ever-use of any solvent, long duration of any solvent exposure, ever-use of gasoline, ever-use of petroleum distillates, and short duration of petroleum distillate exposure and continuous CES-D score (p exposure and the dichotomized CES-D variable. Solvent exposures were associated with depressive symptoms among farmers. Efforts to limit exposure to organic solvents may reduce the risk of depressive symptoms among farmers.

  16. Depressive symptoms and harmful alcohol use in hepatitis C patients: prevalence and correlates

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    Danusa de Almeida Machado

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction It is important to understand the characteristics and vulnerabilities of people who have hepatitis C because this disease is currently an important public health problem. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of depressive symptoms and harmful alcohol use in patients with hepatitis C and to study the association between these outcomes and demographic, psychosocial and clinical variables. Methods This cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical study involved 82 hepatitis C patients who were being treated with pegylated interferon and ribavirin at a public university hospital. The primary assessments used in the study were the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test and the Beck Depression Inventory. Bivariate analyses were followed by logistic regression. Results The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 30.5% (n=25, and that of harmful alcohol use was 34.2% (n=28. Logistic regression analysis showed that individuals who were dissatisfied with their social support (OR=4.41; CI=1.00-19.33 and were unemployed (OR=6.31; CI=1.44-27.70 were at a higher risk for depressive symptoms, whereas harmful alcohol use was associated with the male sex (OR=6.78; CI=1.38-33.19 and the use of illicit substances (OR=7.42; CI=1.12-49.00. Conclusions High prevalence rates of depressive symptoms and harmful alcohol use were verified, indicating vulnerabilities that must be properly monitored and treated to reduce emotional suffering in this population.

  17. The relationship between parental depressive symptoms, family type and adolescent functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sieh, D.S.; Visser-Meily, J.M.A.; Meijer, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    It is evident that parental depressive symptoms negatively influence adolescent behavior and various psychosocial outcomes. Certain family types like families with a chronically ill parent and single parent families are more vulnerable to parental depressive symptoms. However, the relationship betwe

  18. Depressive Symptoms, Health Behaviors, and Risk of Cardiovascular Events in Patients With Coronary Heart Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Whooley, Mary A.; de Jonge, Peter; Vittinghoff, Eric; Otte, Christian; Moos, Rudolf; Carney, Robert M.; Ali, Sadia; Dowray, Sunaina; Na, Beeya; Feldman, Mitchell D.; Schiller, Nelson B.; Browner, Warren S.

    2008-01-01

    Context Depressive symptoms predict adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with coronary heart disease, but the mechanisms responsible for this association are unknown. Objective To determine why depressive symptoms are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. Design and Part

  19. The relationship between parental depressive symptoms, family type and adolescent functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sieh, D.S.; Visser-Meily, J.M.A.; Meijer, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    It is evident that parental depressive symptoms negatively influence adolescent behavior and various psychosocial outcomes. Certain family types like families with a chronically ill parent and single parent families are more vulnerable to parental depressive symptoms. However, the relationship

  20. The relationship between parental depressive symptoms, family type and adolescent functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sieh, D.S.; Visser-Meily, J.M.A.; Meijer, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    It is evident that parental depressive symptoms negatively influence adolescent behavior and various psychosocial outcomes. Certain family types like families with a chronically ill parent and single parent families are more vulnerable to parental depressive symptoms. However, the relationship betwe

  1. DESPERATELY SEEKING HAPPINESS: VALUING HAPPINESS IS ASSOCIATED WITH SYMPTOMS AND DIAGNOSIS OF DEPRESSION

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    Ford, Brett Q.; Shallcross, Amanda J.; Mauss, Iris B.; Floerke, Victoria A.; Gruber, June

    2015-01-01

    Culture shapes the emotions people feel and want to feel. In Western cultures, happiness is an emotion that many people want to feel. Although experiencing happiness is associated with increased well-being and psychological health, recent evidence suggests wanting to feel happy to an extreme degree, or, highly valuing happiness, leads to decreased well-being. To examine whether these effects of valuing happiness might extend to clinical outcomes, we examined the hypothesis that depression is associated with highly valuing happiness. To do so, we examined the relationship between valuing happiness and depression in two U.S. samples. As hypothesized, valuing happiness was associated with increased depressive symptoms in a community sample with remitted major depressive disorder (MDD), even when controlling for social desirability and neuroticism (Study 1). Furthermore, valuing happiness was elevated in a remitted MDD sample (vs. healthy controls), even when controlling for current depressive symptoms, general affect valuation, and extreme goal pursuit (Study 2). Taken together, these findings suggest that the culturally-pervasive value placed on attaining happiness can represent a risk factor for symptoms and a diagnosis of depression. More broadly, they indicate that a cultural approach can meaningfully extend our understanding of clinical phenomena. PMID:25678736

  2. Anger expression, violent behavior, and symptoms of depression among male college students in Ethiopia

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    Berhane Yemane

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression is an important global public health problem. Given the scarcity of studies involving African youths, this study was conducted to evaluate the associations of anger expression and violent behavior with symptoms of depression among male college students. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics and violent behavior among 1,176 college students in Awassa, Ethiopia in June, 2006. The questionnaire incorporated the Spielberger Anger-Out Expression (SAOE scale and symptoms of depression were evaluated using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9. Multivariable logistic regression procedures were used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI. Results Symptoms of depression were evident in 23.6% of participants. Some 54.3% of students reported committing at least one act of violence in the current academic year; and 29.3% of students reported high (SAOE score ≥ 15 levels of anger-expression. In multivariate analysis, moderate (OR = 1.97; 95%CI 1.33–2.93 and high (OR = 3.23; 95%CI 2.14–4.88 outward anger were statistically significantly associated with increased risks of depressive symptoms. Violent behavior was noted to be associated with depressive symptoms (OR = 1.82; 95%CI 1.37–2.40. Conclusion Further research should be conducted to better characterize community and individual level determinants of anger-expression, violent behavior and depression among youths.

  3. The management of depressive symptoms in patients with COPD: a postal survey of general practitioners.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yohannes, A.M.; Hann, M.; Sibbald, B.S.

    2011-01-01

    AIMS: We examined the management of depression by general practitioners (GPs), through the use of case vignettes, in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), severe osteoarthritis and depressive symptoms alone. BACKGROUND: Depression is common in patients with COPD. Untreated

  4. The Development of a Transdiagnostic, Cognitive Behavioral Group Intervention for Childhood Anxiety Disorders and Co-Occurring Depression Symptoms

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    Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Bilek, Emily L.

    2012-01-01

    Anxiety and depression are highly prevalent and frequently comorbid classes of disorder associated with significant impairment in youth. While current transdiagnostic protocols address a range of potential anxiety and depression symptoms among adult and adolescent populations, there are few similar treatment options for school-aged children with…

  5. The Development of a Transdiagnostic, Cognitive Behavioral Group Intervention for Childhood Anxiety Disorders and Co-Occurring Depression Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Bilek, Emily L.

    2012-01-01

    Anxiety and depression are highly prevalent and frequently comorbid classes of disorder associated with significant impairment in youth. While current transdiagnostic protocols address a range of potential anxiety and depression symptoms among adult and adolescent populations, there are few similar treatment options for school-aged children with…

  6. The omega-3 index is inversely associated with depressive symptoms among individuals with elevated oxidative stress biomarkers

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    Background: Omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid (FA) consumption is thought to improve depressive symptoms. However, current evidence is limited, and whether this association exists among Puerto Ricans, a population burdened by depression, remains uncertain. Objectives: We examined the association between ...

  7. Anxiety and Depression Symptoms in Children with Asperger Syndrome Compared with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Park, Min-Hyeon; Kim, Hyo Jin; Yoo, Hee Jeong

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine (a) anxiety and depression symptoms in children with Asperger syndrome (AS) compared to children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and children with depressive disorder; (b) parental anxiety and depressive symptoms in the three groups; and (c) the association between the anxiety and…

  8. Anxiety and Depression Symptoms in Children with Asperger Syndrome Compared with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Park, Min-Hyeon; Kim, Hyo Jin; Yoo, Hee Jeong

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine (a) anxiety and depression symptoms in children with Asperger syndrome (AS) compared to children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and children with depressive disorder; (b) parental anxiety and depressive symptoms in the three groups; and (c) the association between the anxiety and…

  9. Employment, income, and education and prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy: the Kyushu Okinawa Maternal and Child Health Study

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    Miyake Yoshihiro

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological evidence for the association of socioeconomic status with prenatal depression has been inconsistent. The current cross-sectional study examined the association between employment, job type, household income, and educational level and the prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Methods Subjects were 1741 Japanese women. Depressive symptoms were defined as present when subjects had a Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale score of 16 or higher. Adjustment was made for age, gestation, region of residence, family structure, personal and family history of depression, smoking, secondhand smoke exposure at home and at work, employment, household income, and education. Results The prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy was 19.3%. Compared with unemployment, employment, part-time employment, and full-time employment were significantly associated with a lower prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy: the adjusted odds ratios (ORs were 0.65 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.50 − 0.86, 0.66 (95% CI: 0.46 − 0.95, and 0.66 (95% CI: 0.48 − 0.90, respectively. Regarding the job type held, women with a professional or technical job and those with a clerical or related occupation had a significantly lower prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy: the adjusted ORs were 0.67 (95% CI: 0.47 − 0.96 and 0.62 (95% CI: 0.43 − 0.90, respectively. Sales, service, production, and other occupations were not significantly related to the prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy. There were no relationships between household income or education and the prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Conclusions Employment, whether full-time or part-time, and holding a professional or technical job or a clerical or related occupation may be inversely associated with the prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy.

  10. Perceived Injustice Moderates the Relationship between Pain and Depressive Symptoms among Individuals with Persistent Musculoskeletal Pain

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    Whitney Scott

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Numerous investigations report that depressive symptoms frequently coexist with persistent pain. However, evidence suggests that symptoms of depression are not an inevitable consequence of pain. Diathesis-stress formulations suggest that psychological factors interact with the stress of pain to heighten the risk of depressive symptoms. Perceptions of injustice have recently emerged as a factor that may interact with the stress of pain to increase depressive symptoms.

  11. Close Friends' Psychopathology as a Pathway From Early Adversity to Young Adulthood Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposa, Elizabeth B; Hammen, Constance L; Brennan, Patricia A

    2015-01-01

    Past research has highlighted the negative impact of early adverse experiences on childhood social functioning, including friendship selection, and later mental health. The current study explored the long-term effects of early adversity on young adults' close friends' psychological symptoms and the impact of these close friendships on later depressive symptoms. A prospective longitudinal design was used to examine 816 youth from a large community-based sample, who were followed from birth through age 25. Participants' mothers provided contemporaneous information about adversity exposure up to age 5, and participants completed questionnaires about their own depressive symptoms at age 20 and in their early 20s. Youth also nominated a best friend to complete questionnaires about his or her own psychopathology at age 20. Individuals who experienced more early adversity by age 5 had best friends with higher rates of psychopathology at age 20. Moreover, best friends' psychopathology predicted target youth depressive symptoms 2 to 5 years later. Results indicate that early adversity continues to affect social functioning throughout young adulthood and that best friendships marked by elevated psychopathology in turn negatively affect mental health. Findings have implications for clinical interventions designed to prevent the development of depressive symptoms in youth who have been exposed to early adversity.

  12. Close Friends’ Psychopathology as a Pathway from Early Adversity to Young Adulthood Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposa, Elizabeth; Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Objective Past research has highlighted the negative impact of early adverse experiences on childhood social functioning, including friendship selection, and later mental health. The current study explored the long-term effects of early adversity on young adults’ close friends’ psychological symptoms, and the impact of these close friendships on later depressive symptoms. Method A prospective longitudinal design was used to examine 816 youth from a large community-based sample, who were followed from birth through age 25. Participants’ mothers provided contemporaneous information about adversity exposure prior to age 5, and participants completed questionnaires about their own depressive symptoms at age 20 and in their early 20’s. Youth also nominated a best friend to complete questionnaires about their own psychopathology at age 20. Results Individuals who experienced more early adversity by age 5 had best friends with higher rates of psychopathology at age 20. Moreover, best friends’ psychopathology predicted target youth depressive symptoms two to five years later. Conclusions Results indicate that early adversity continues to affect social functioning throughout young adulthood, and that best friendships marked by elevated psychopathology in turn negatively affect mental health. Findings have implications for clinical interventions designed to prevent the development of depressive symptoms in youth who have been exposed to early adversity. PMID:24871609

  13. Anxiety and depression symptoms in patients with dengue fever and their correlation with symptom severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashmi, Ali M; Butt, Zeeshan; Idrees, Zaidan; Niazi, Mehreen; Yousaf, Zohaib; Haider, Syed Furqan; Bhatti, Muhammad R

    2012-01-01

    To study the prevalence of anxiety and depression symptoms in patients with dengue and to examine their correlation with symptom severity. In this cross sectional study, 531 consecutive patients who met the World Health Organization criteria for dengue fever admitted to Mayo Hospital, Lahore between September and November 2011 were administered the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). In addition to the HADS, the severity of their symptoms, like headache, myalgias/arthralgias, fever, and retro/periorbital pain, was assessed on a 3-point scale (mild, moderate, and severe). About 60% of the patients in our study met the criteria for anxiety and 62.2% of the patients met criteria for depression. Severity of fever, headache, myalgias and arthralgias, and retro/periorbital pain was positively correlated with both anxiety (Correlation coefficients: 0.148, 0.247, 0.184, 0.184 respectively and P dengue have anxiety and depression symptoms. Psychiatric evaluation should be done in all Dengue patients so timely treatment can be initiated.

  14. Elevated social stress levels and depressive symptoms in primary hyperhidrosis.

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    Gross, Katharina M; Schote, Andrea B; Schneider, Katja Kerstin; Schulz, André; Meyer, Jobst

    2014-01-01

    Primary hyperhidrosis is defined as excessive sweating of certain body areas without physiological reasons. Hyperhidrotic individuals report a high psychological strain and an impairment of their quality of life. Thus, the aim of the study is to investigate the relation between hyperhidrosis and different psychological as well as physiological aspects of chronic stress as a co-factor for the etiology of depression. In this study, forty hyperhidrotic subjects were compared to forty age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects. The Trier Inventory of Chronic Stress ('Trierer Inventar zum chronischen Stress': TICS), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and the Screening for Somatoform Disorders (SOMS-2) were used to examine the correlation between primary hyperhidrosis and stress as well as accompanying depressive and somatic symptoms. The cortisol awakening response of each subject was analyzed as a physiological stress correlate. In hyperhidrotics, we found a significant lack of social recognition as well as significantly more depressive symptoms compared to the control subjects. A subgroup of patients with axillary hyperhidrosis had the highest impact on these increased issues of chronic stress, pointing to a higher embarrassment in these subjects. Especially in social situations, hyperhidrotics showed higher stress levels, whereby a vicious circle of stress and sweating is triggered. However, the cortisol awakening response did not significantly differ between hyperhidrotics and controls. Moreover, affected persons suffer from more depressive symptoms, which may be caused by feelings of shame and a lack of self-confidence. This initial study provides an impetus for further investigation to reveal a causative relationship between hyperhidrosis and its psychological concomitants.

  15. Elevated social stress levels and depressive symptoms in primary hyperhidrosis.

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    Katharina M Gross

    Full Text Available Primary hyperhidrosis is defined as excessive sweating of certain body areas without physiological reasons. Hyperhidrotic individuals report a high psychological strain and an impairment of their quality of life. Thus, the aim of the study is to investigate the relation between hyperhidrosis and different psychological as well as physiological aspects of chronic stress as a co-factor for the etiology of depression. In this study, forty hyperhidrotic subjects were compared to forty age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects. The Trier Inventory of Chronic Stress ('Trierer Inventar zum chronischen Stress': TICS, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II and the Screening for Somatoform Disorders (SOMS-2 were used to examine the correlation between primary hyperhidrosis and stress as well as accompanying depressive and somatic symptoms. The cortisol awakening response of each subject was analyzed as a physiological stress correlate. In hyperhidrotics, we found a significant lack of social recognition as well as significantly more depressive symptoms compared to the control subjects. A subgroup of patients with axillary hyperhidrosis had the highest impact on these increased issues of chronic stress, pointing to a higher embarrassment in these subjects. Especially in social situations, hyperhidrotics showed higher stress levels, whereby a vicious circle of stress and sweating is triggered. However, the cortisol awakening response did not significantly differ between hyperhidrotics and controls. Moreover, affected persons suffer from more depressive symptoms, which may be caused by feelings of shame and a lack of self-confidence. This initial study provides an impetus for further investigation to reveal a causative relationship between hyperhidrosis and its psychological concomitants.

  16. Functional Correlates of childhood maltreatment and symptom severity during affective theory of mind tasks in chronic depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentze, Charlotte; Walter, Henrik; Schramm, Elisabeth; Drost, Sarah; Schoepf, Dieter; Fangmeier, Thomas; Mattern, Margarete; Normann, Claus; Zobel, Ingo; Schnell, Knut

    2016-04-30

    Among multiple etiological factors of depressive disorders, childhood maltreatment (CM) gains increasing attention as it confers susceptibility for depression and predisposes to chronicity. CM assumedly inhibits social-cognitive development, entailing interactional problems as observed in chronic depression (CD), especially in affective theory of mind (ToM). However, the extent of CM among CD patients varies notably as does the severity of depressive symptoms. We tested whether the extent of CM or depressive symptoms correlates with affective ToM functions in CD patients. Regional brain activation measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging during an affective ToM task was tested for correlation with CM, assessed by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), and symptom severity, assessed by the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), in 25 unmedicated CD patients (mean age 41.52, SD 11.13). Amygdala activation during affective ToM correlated positively with CTQ total scores, while (para)hippocampal response correlated negatively with MADRS scores. Our findings suggest that differential amygdala activation in affective ToM in CD is substantially modulated by previous CM and not by the pathophysiological equivalents of current depressive symptoms. This illustrates the amygdala's role in the mediation of CM effects. The negative correlation of differential (para)hippocampal activation and depressive symptom severity indicates reduced integration of interactional experiences during depressive states.

  17. Prevalence of Depressive Symptoms and Related Factors in Korean Employees: The Third Korean Working Conditions Survey (2011

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    Ji Nam Park

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the association between general working conditions and depressive symptoms among Korean employees. The target population of the study was native employees nationwide who were at least 15 years old, and 50,032 such individuals were enrolled in the study. Depressive symptoms was assessed using the WHO-5 wellbeing index. Associations between general characteristics, job-related characteristics, work environment, and depressive symptoms were tested using chi-square tests, t-tests, and multiple logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 39% (40.7% in males and 36.5% in females. Multiple regression analysis revealed that male subjects, older subjects, subjects with higher education status, subjects with lower monthly income, current smokers, and frequent drinkers were more likely to have depressive symptoms. In addition, longer weekly work hours, occupation type (skilled, unskilled, operative, or economic sector, shift work, working to tight deadlines, exposure to stress at work, and hazard exposure were associated with depressive symptoms. This representative study will be a guide to help manage depression among Korean employees. We expect that further research will identify additional causal relationships between general or specific working conditions and depression.

  18. Prevalence of Depressive Symptoms and Related Factors in Korean Employees: The Third Korean Working Conditions Survey (2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji Nam; Han, Mi Ah; Park, Jong; Ryu, So Yeon

    2016-04-14

    The aim of this study was to analyze the association between general working conditions and depressive symptoms among Korean employees. The target population of the study was native employees nationwide who were at least 15 years old, and 50,032 such individuals were enrolled in the study. Depressive symptoms was assessed using the WHO-5 wellbeing index. Associations between general characteristics, job-related characteristics, work environment, and depressive symptoms were tested using chi-square tests, t-tests, and multiple logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 39% (40.7% in males and 36.5% in females). Multiple regression analysis revealed that male subjects, older subjects, subjects with higher education status, subjects with lower monthly income, current smokers, and frequent drinkers were more likely to have depressive symptoms. In addition, longer weekly work hours, occupation type (skilled, unskilled, operative, or economic sector), shift work, working to tight deadlines, exposure to stress at work, and hazard exposure were associated with depressive symptoms. This representative study will be a guide to help manage depression among Korean employees. We expect that further research will identify additional causal relationships between general or specific working conditions and depression.

  19. Attention Bias Modification for Major Depressive Disorder: Effects on Attention Bias, Resting State Connectivity, and Symptom Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beevers, Christopher G.; Clasen, Peter C.; Enock, Philip M.; Schnyer, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive theories of depression posit that selective attention for negative information contributes to the maintenance of depression. The current study experimentally tested this idea by randomly assigning adults with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) to four weeks of computer-based attention bias modification designed to reduce negative attention bias or four weeks of placebo attention training. Findings indicate that compared to placebo training, attention bias modification reduced negative attention bias and increased resting-state connectivity within a neural circuit (i.e., middle frontal gyrus and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex) that supports control over emotional information. Further, pre- to post-training change in negative attention bias was significantly correlated with depression symptom change only in the active training condition. Exploratory analyses indicated that pre- to post-training changes in resting state connectivity within a circuit associated with sustained attention to visual information (i.e., precuenus and middle frontal gyrus) contributed to symptom improvement in the placebo condition. Importantly, depression symptoms did not change differentially between the training groups—overall, a 40% decrease in symptoms was observed across attention training conditions. Findings suggest that negative attention bias is associated with the maintenance of depression; however, general attentional control may also maintain depression symptoms, as evidenced by resting state connectivity and depression symptom improvement in the placebo training condition. PMID:25894440

  20. Enhanced Depression Care for Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome and Persistent Depressive Symptoms

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    Davidson, Karina W.; Rieckmann, Nina; Clemow, Lynn; Schwartz, Joseph E.; Shimbo, Daichi; Medina, Vivian; Albanese, Gabrielle; Kronish, Ian; Hegel, Mark; Burg, Matthew M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Depressive symptoms are an established predictor of mortality and major adverse cardiac events (defined as nonfatal myocardial infarction or hospitalization for unstable angina or urgent/emergency revascularizations) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). This study was conducted to determine the acceptability and efficacy of enhanced depression treatment in patients with ACS. Methods A 3-month observation period to identify patients with ACS and persistent depressive symptoms was followed by a 6-month randomized controlled trial. From January 1, 2005, through February 29, 2008, 237 patients with ACS from 5 hospitals were enrolled, including 157 persistently depressed patients randomized to intervention (initial patient preference for problem-solving therapy and/or pharmacotherapy, then a stepped-care approach; 80 patients) or usual care (77 patients) and 80 nondepressed patients who underwent observational evaluation. The primary outcome was patient satisfaction with depression care. Secondary outcomes were depressive symptom changes (assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory), major adverse cardiac events, and death. Results At the end of the trial, the proportion of patients who were satisfied with their depression care was higher in the intervention group (54% of 80) than in the usual care group (19% of 77) (odds ratio, 5.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.2–12.9 [P<.001]). The Beck Depression Inventory score decreased significantly more (t155=2.85 [P=.005]) for intervention patients (change, −5.7; 95% CI, −7.6 to −3.8; df=155) than for usual care patients (change, −1.9; 95% CI, −3.8 to −0.1; df=155); the depression effect size was 0.59 of the standard deviation. At the end of the trial, 3 intervention patients and 10 usual care patients had experienced major adverse cardiac events (4% and 13%, respectively; log-rank test, χ12=3.93 [P=.047]), as well as 5 nondepressed patients (6%) (for the intervention vs nondepressed

  1. Trajectories of Individual Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents: Gender and Family Relationships as Predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Garber, Judy

    2014-01-01

    Depressive syndrome and disorders increase substantially during adolescence. Little is known, however, about how "individual" symptoms of depression change over the course of this developmental period. The present study examined within-person changes in symptom severity of each individual symptom of depression, utilizing longitudinal…

  2. Determinants of depressive symptoms in hospitalised men and women with heart failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lesman-Leegte, Ivonne; Jaarsma, Trijntje (Tiny); Sanderman, R.; Hillege, Hans; van Veldhuisen, Dirk Jan

    Background: Depressive symptoms are prominent and related to an increased risk on cardiovascular disease outcomes and all cause mortality in HF patients. Aim: To intervene effectively, factors related to depressive symptoms in men and women should be identified. Methods: Depressive symptoms of 921

  3. Trajectories of Individual Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents: Gender and Family Relationships as Predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Garber, Judy

    2014-01-01

    Depressive syndrome and disorders increase substantially during adolescence. Little is known, however, about how "individual" symptoms of depression change over the course of this developmental period. The present study examined within-person changes in symptom severity of each individual symptom of depression, utilizing longitudinal…

  4. Stress in romantic relationships and adolescent depressive symptoms: Influence of parental support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Samantha F; Salk, Rachel H; Hyde, Janet S

    2015-06-01

    It is well known that stressful life events can play a role in the development of adolescent depressive symptoms; however, there has been little research on romantic stress specifically. The relationship between romantic stress and depressive symptoms is particularly salient in adolescence, as adolescence often involves the onset of dating. This and other stressors are often dealt with in the context of the family. The present study examined the relationship between romantic stress and depressive symptoms both concurrently and prospectively, controlling for preexisting depressive symptoms. We then explored whether support from parents buffers the negative effects of romantic stress on depressive symptoms. In addition, the study sought to determine whether the benefits of support vary by parent and child gender. A community sample of 375 adolescents completed self-report measures of parental support (both maternal and paternal), romantic stress, and depressive symptoms. A behavioral measure of maternal support was also obtained. For boys and girls, romantic stress at age 15 predicted depressive symptoms at ages 15 and 18, even when controlling for age 13 depressive symptoms. Perceived maternal support buffered the stress-depressive symptom relationship for both genders at age 15, even when controlling for age 13 depressive symptoms. Higher perceived paternal support was associated with lower adolescent depressive symptoms; however, it did not have a buffering effect. These results have implications for the development of effective family-centered methods to prevent the development of depressive symptoms in adolescents.

  5. Prevalence of depressive symptoms in school aged children with type 1 diabetes – a questionnaire study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Sendela

    2015-10-01

    Depressive symptoms were observed in 1 out of 12 T1D children in a primary school and in 1 out of 5 teenagers. Depressive symptoms may affect metabolic control and quality of life. Therefore, early detection and treatment of depressive symptoms in T1D school children is needed.

  6. Heterosexual romantic involvement and depressive symptoms in black adolescent girls: effects of menarche and perceived social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Rona; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Matusko, Niki; Jackson, James S

    2015-04-01

    Research has accumulated to demonstrate that depressive symptoms are associated with heterosexual romantic involvement during adolescence, but relatively little work has linked this body of literature to the existing literature on associations between early pubertal timing and adolescent depressive symptoms. This study extends prior research by examining whether early menarche and heterosexual romantic involvement interact to predict depressive symptoms in a national sample of Black adolescent girls (N = 607; M age = 15 years; 32 % Caribbean Black and 68 % African American). We further examined whether the adverse effects of heterosexual romantic involvement and early menarche would be mediated by perceived social support from mothers, fathers, and peers. Path analysis results indicated that girls who report current involvement in a heterosexual romantic relationship also reported high levels of perceived peer support than girls with no romantic involvement. High levels of perceived peer support, in turn, predicted low levels of depressive symptoms. Romantically involved girls with an early menarche also reported significantly less depressive symptoms than girls not romantically involved with an early menarche. Neither perceived maternal support nor perceived paternal support mediated associations between heterosexual romantic involvement, menarche, and depressive symptoms. The findings suggest that individual and social factors can impede heterosexual romantic involvement effects on depressive symptoms in Black adolescent girls.

  7. Cannabis use expectancies mediate the relation between depressive symptoms and cannabis use among cannabis-dependent veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Samantha G; Zvolensky, Michael J; Boden, Matthew Tyler; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined the cross-sectional associations between depressive symptoms and cannabis use, and the mediating role of positive and negative expectancies of cannabis use. Participants (n = 100) were cannabis-dependent veterans recruited as part of a larger self-guided cannabis quit study. Baseline (prequit) data were used. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the General Depression subscale of the Inventory of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms (IDAS), and cannabis use expectancies were assessed using the Marijuana Effect Expectancies Questionnaire. Quantity of cannabis use in the past 90 days was assessed with the Timeline Follow-Back. A parallel multiple mediation path analysis was conducted to simultaneously examine the effects of positive and negative expectancies as mediators of the relation between IDAS-Depression and prequit cannabis use. Results indicated that depressive symptoms were indirectly related to cannabis use through positive, but not negative, expectancies. This effect was unique to IDAS-Dysphoria symptoms. Depressive symptoms, particularly cognitive-affective symptom features, may be important to consider in better understanding positive cannabis effect expectancies among veterans in regard to cannabis use.

  8. Executive functioning moderates the relationship between motivation and adolescent depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara-Lopez, Chrystal; Lopez-Vergara, Hector I; Colder, Craig R

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the association between adolescent depressive symptoms and components of executive functioning (EF), including planning (Tower of London), set-shifting (Wisconsin Card Sorting Task), and inhibition (Stop Signal Task) in a community sample of 12-14 year olds. Further, EF was tested as a moderator of motivation (as operationalized by revised Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory) effects on depressive symptoms. Results suggested that planning ability was associated with depressive symptoms. Furthermore, planning ability moderated the relationship between motivation (fight-flight- freeze system; FFFS) and depressive symptoms, such that among adolescents with poor planning ability the FFFS positively predicted depressive symptoms, but among adolescents with strong planning ability the FFFS negatively predicts depressive symptoms. Neither set-shifting nor inhibition was associated with depressive symptoms. Findings highlight the need to consider multiple components of EF and to integrate motivational and executive dysfunction models to the study of depression.

  9. Amygdala activity during autobiographical memory recall as a biomarker for residual symptoms in patients remitted from depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kymberly D; Drevets, Wayne C; Bodurka, Jerzy; Preskorn, Sheldon S

    2016-02-28

    We performed a linear regression analysis on demographic, memory performance, and amygdala activity during memory recall on 23 unmedicated participants remitted from major depressive disorder. Amygdala activity during positive memory recall, and the percent of specific positive memories recalled were the variables that explained the most variance in residual depressive symptoms. This model was not significant in control or currently depressed participants. Longitudinal follow up is necessary to assess whether these variables predict relapse. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of the association between placental corticotrophin-releasing hormone and postpartum depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Laura M; Sandman, Curt A

    2014-06-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) represents a significant threat to maternal-child health. Although PPD is common, with an estimated prevalence of 10% to 15%, critical questions concerning its etiology remain unanswered. Existing studies seem to provide conflicting evidence regarding the relation between placental corticotrophin-releasing hormone (pCRH) and the development of PPD. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine whether maternal prepartum hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and placental dysregulation, in particular elevated midgestational pCRH, represent markers of risk for the development of PPD symptoms. One hundred seventy adult women with singleton, term pregnancies were recruited during the first trimester and participated in study visits at 15, 19, 25, 31, and 36+ weeks' gestation and at 3 and 6 months postpartum. At each prenatal visit, blood samples were obtained and assayed to determine maternal cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and pCRH concentrations. Depressive symptoms were assessed at all visits. Depressive symptoms at 3 months postpartum were associated with elevated midgestational pCRH (partial r = 0.26; p < .01) and also accelerated trajectories of pCRH (B values ranged from 6.9 to 8.3, p < .05). Placental CRH was not predictive of PPD symptoms at 6 months postpartum. Furthermore, prepartum cortisol and corticotrophin profiles were not associated with PPD symptoms. The current prospective study provides results that reconcile both the positive and negative findings in the existing literature and identifies elevated pCRH as a marker of risk for the development of PPD symptoms.

  11. Risk assessment and predicting outcomes in patients with depressive symptoms: A review of potential role of peripheral blood based biomarkers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhautesh Dinesh Jani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Depression is one of the major global health challenges and a leading contributor of health related disability and costs. Depression is a heterogeneous disorder and current methods for assessing its severity in clinical practice rely on symptom count, however this approach is unreliable and inconsistent. The clinical evaluation of depressive symptoms is particularly challenging in primary care, where the majority of patients with depression are managed, due to the presence of co-morbidities. Current methods for risk assessment of depression do not accurately predict treatment response or clinical outcomes. Several biological pathways have been implicated in the pathophysiology of depression; however, accurate and predictive biomarkers remain elusive. We conducted a systematic review of the published evidence supporting the use of peripheral biomarkers to predict outcomes in depression, using Medline and Embase. Peripheral biomarkers in depression were found to be statistically significant predictors of mental health outcomes such as treatment response, poor outcome and symptom remission; and physical health outcomes such as increased incidence of cardiovascular events and deaths, and all-cause mortality. However, the available evidence has multiple methodological limitations which must be overcome to make any real clinical progress. Despite extensive research on the relationship of depression with peripheral biomarkers, its translational application in practice remains uncertain. In future, peripheral biomarkers identified with novel techniques and combining multiple biomarkers may have a potential role in depression risk assessment but further research is needed in this area.

  12. Unexplained Painful Physical Symptoms in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder: Prevalence, Pathophysiology and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaracz, Jan; Gattner, Karolina; Jaracz, Krystyna; Górna, Krystyna

    2016-04-01

    Patients with major depression often report pain. In this article, we review the current literature regarding the prevalence and consequences, as well as the pathophysiology, of unexplained painful physical symptoms (UPPS) in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). UPPS are experienced by approximately two-thirds of depressed patients. The presence of UPPS makes a correct diagnosis of depression more difficult. Moreover, UPPS are a predictor of a poor response to treatment and a more chronic course of depression. Pain, in the course of depression, also has a negative impact on functioning and quality of life. Frequent comorbidity of depression and UPPS has inspired the formulation of an hypothesis regarding a shared neurobiological mechanism of both conditions. Evidence from neuroimaging studies has shown that frontal-limbic dysfunction in depression may explain abnormal pain processing, leading to the presence of UPPS. Increased levels of proinflamatory cytokines and substance P in patients with MDD may also clarify the pathophysiology of UPPS. Finally, dysfunction of the descending serotonergic and noradrenergic pathways that normally suppress ascending sensations has been proposed as a core mechanism of UPPS. Psychological factors such as catastrophizing also play a role in both depression and chronic pain. Therefore, pharmacological treatment and/or cognitive therapy are recommended in the treatment of depression with UPPS. Some data suggest that serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) are more effective than selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in the alleviation of depression and UPPS. However, the pooled analysis of eight randomised clinical trials showed similar efficacy of duloxetine (an SNRI) and paroxetine (an SSRI) in reducing UPPS in depression. Further integrative studies examining genetic factors (e.g. polymorphisms of genes for interleukins, serotonin transporter and receptors), molecular factors (e.g. cytokines

  13. Yes: The Symptoms of OCD and Depression Are Discrete and Not Exclusively Negative Affectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen A. Moore

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Although Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD and Depression are classified as separate disorders, the high incidence of co-morbidity and the strong correlations between measures of each has led to debate about the nature of their relationship. Some authors have proposed that OCD is in fact a mood disorder while others have suggested that the two disorders are grounded in negative affectivity. A third proposition is that depression is an essential part of OCD but that OCD is a separate disorder from depression. The aim in this study was to investigate these diverse propositions in a non-clinical sample and also to determine whether factors implicated in each, that is anxious and depressive cognitions, hopelessness, and self-criticism, would demonstrate commonality as predictors of the symptoms of OCD and of depression. Two hundred participants (59% female (M age = 34 years, SD = 16 completed the Padua Inventory, Carroll Rating Scale, Cognitions Checklist, Self-Criticism Scale, Beck Hopelessness Scale, Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory-Revised and a Negative Affectivity Schedule. Results indicated a strong correlation between OCD and depression, depression, and negative affectivity but a weaker relationship between OCD and negative affectivity. Path analyses revealed that both anxious and depressive cognitions, as well as hostility predicted both disorders but the Beta-weights were stronger on OCD. Self-criticism predicted only depression while hopelessness failed to predict either disorder but was itself predicted by depressive cognitions. Depression was a stronger indicator of negative affect than OCD and while OCD positively predicted depression, depression was a negative indicator of OCD. These results support the hypothesis that OCD and depression are discrete disorders and indicate that while depression is implicated in OCD, the reverse does not hold. While both disorders are related to negative affectivity, this relationship is much stronger

  14. [Internet dependency as a symptom of depressive mood disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    te Wildt, Bert T; Putzig, Inken; Zedler, Markus; Ohlmeier, Martin D

    2007-09-01

    In psychiatric contexts, the quick distribution of virtual techniques in private and professional everyday life gives rise to the question, if these can evoke a psychological addiction. Yet, the diagnostic assessment of internet or computer game dependency remains problematic. Within a study with 23 internet-dependent patients with significant psychological strain, 18 (77.8%) were diagnosed with a depressive mood disorder by thorough clinical examination and structured interviews. The presented work compares psychometric test results of the depressed subpopulation with healthy controls matched for age, sex and school education. In the Barrat Impulsiveness Scale patients with internet dependency scored significantly higher than the control group (p Internet Addiction Scale. Becks Depression Inventory and the Symptom-Checklist subscale for depression revealed significantly higher scores within the patient group as compared to controls (p internet dependent subjects showed significantly more pathological scores than the healthy subjects (p internet dependency can be understood as a novel psychopathology of well known psychiatric conditions, every psychiatrist should be able to detect and treat it adequately, as long as there is a willingness to deal with the contents and impacts of cyberspace. Especially with depressed patients, it seems to be crucial to include questions about media usage in psychiatric examination taking.

  15. Leisure Time Physical Activity in Relation to Depressive Symptoms in the Black Women’s Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Lauren A.; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L.; Palmer, Julie R.; Rosenberg, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    Background A growing body of evidence suggests that physical activity might reduce the risk of depressive symptoms, but there are limited data on Black women. Purpose The objective was to evaluate the association between leisure time physical activity and depressive symptoms in U.S. Black women. Methods Participants included 35,224 women ages 21 to 69 from the Black Women’s Health Study, a follow-up study of African American women in which data are collected biennially by mail questionnaire. Women answered questions on past and current exercise levels at baseline (1995) and follow-up (1997). The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) was used to measure depressive symptoms in 1999. Women who reported a diagnosis of depression before 1999 were excluded. We used multivariate logistic regression models to compute odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for physical activity in relation to depressive symptoms (CES-D score ≥ 16) with control for potential confounders. Results Adult vigorous physical activity was inversely associated with depressive symptoms. Women who reported vigorous exercise both in high school (≥ 5 hr per week) and adulthood (≥ 2 hr per week) had the lowest odds of depressive symptoms (OR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.71–0.82) relative to never active women; the OR was 0.90 for women who were active in high school but not adulthood (95% CI = 0.85–0.96) and 0.83 for women who were inactive in high school but became active in adulthood (95% CI = 0.77–0.91). Although walking for exercise was not associated with risk of depressive symptoms overall, there was evidence of a weak inverse relation among obese women (Body Mass Index ≥ 30). Conclusions Leisure time vigorous physical activity was associated with a reduced odds of depressive symptoms in U.S. Black women. PMID:16827631

  16. Depressive symptoms and disability in acute patients with comorbidities in departments of internal medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore La Carrubba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There are few data on the prevalence of depression among acute patients with comorbidities. The current study aimed to determine the prevalence of depressive symptoms in hospitalized patients admitted to Internal Medicine Units and the correlation between these symptoms and comorbidities and disability indexes. Materials and methods: All consecutive patients admitted to 26 Internal Medicine Units of the Italian National Public Health System in Sicily, Italy, from September 2001 to March 2002 were screened. Within 24 hours of admission, patients were administered the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS, Mini-Mental State Examination, Activities of Daily Living (ADL, Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL and Charlson’s Comorbidity Index. Results: 1,947 subjects were included in the analyses. Of the patients, 509 (26.1% showed depressive symptoms (indicated by GDS score > 15. Depression was significantly associated (univariate analyses with hypertension (OR 1.45; CI 95% 1.18-1.79, diabetes (OR 1.48, CI 95% 1.17-1.87, cerebrovascular disease (OR 1.50, CI 95% 1.08-2.07, cirrhosis (OR 1.49, CI 95% 1.01- 2.19, ADL score (OR 0.72: CI 95% 0.63-0.82, and IADL score (OR 0.83; CI 95% 0.78-0.87, but not with Charlson’s Comorbidity Index (OR 1.04; CI 95% 0.98-1.10. Multivariate analysis showed that independent predictive factors for depression were age (OR 1.02, CI 95% 1.01-1.02, female gender (OR 2.29, CI 95% 1.83 - 2.87, and IADL score (OR 0.86, CI 95% 0.81 - 0.93. Conclusions: The data suggest that depressive symptoms are not linked to worse clinical conditions but are associated with the loss of autonomy in Instrumental Activities of Daily Living.

  17. Short-Term Trajectories of Depressive Symptoms in Stroke Survivors and Their Family Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Rahul; Chei, Choy-Lye; Menon, Edward; Chow, Wai Leng; Quah, Stella; Chan, Angelique; Matchar, David Bruce

    2016-01-01

    We utilize group-based trajectory modeling (GBTM) to delineate depressive symptom trajectories among stroke survivor-caregiver dyads, to identify predictors of the delineated trajectories, and to assess the influence of time-varying covariates (stroke survivor depressive symptoms and functional disability, caregiver depressive symptoms, and foreign domestic worker [FDW] assistance) on the level of the depressive symptom trajectories. Data on 172 stroke survivor-caregiver dyads in Singapore, for whom depressive symptoms were assessed thrice (baseline/3 months/6 months), were utilized. GBTM was applied to delineate depressive symptom trajectories, and to identify their predictors and time-varying covariates. Three stroke survivor depressive symptom trajectories (low and decreasing [47.6%], low and increasing [43.1%], and high and increasing [9.3%]) and 2 caregiver depressive symptom trajectories (low and stable [71.5%] and high and decreasing [28.5%]) were delineated. Caregivers with chronic diseases were more likely (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 8.09[2.04-32.07]) and those caring for older stroke survivors (0.94[0.90-0.98]) were less likely to follow the high and decreasing than the low and stable depressive symptom trajectory. An increase in stroke survivor functional disability and caregiver depressive symptoms led to a rise (~worsening) in stroke survivor depressive symptom trajectories. Whereas an increase in stroke survivor depressive symptoms led to a rise in caregiver depressive symptom trajectories, FDW assistance led to a decline (~improvement). Care professionals should be mindful of heterogeneity in depressive symptom patterns over time among stroke survivor-caregiver dyads. Reciprocal association of depressive symptoms in the stroke survivor-caregiver dyad suggests that addressing mood problems in 1 member may benefit the other member, and calls for dyadic mental health interventions. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by

  18. Why does Income Relate to Depressive Symptoms? Testing the Income Rank Hypothesis Longitudinally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osafo Hounkpatin, Hilda; Wood, Alex M; Brown, Gordon D A; Dunn, Graham

    This paper reports a test of the relative income rank hypothesis of depression, according to which it is the rank position of an individual's income amongst a comparison group, rather than the individual's absolute income, that will be associated with depressive symptoms. A new methodology is developed to test between psychosocial and material explanations of why income relates to well-being. This method was used to test the income rank hypothesis as applied to depressive symptoms. We used data from a cohort of 10,317 individuals living in Wisconsin who completed surveys in 1992 and 2003. The utility assumed to arise from income was represented with a constant relative risk aversion function to overcome limitations of previous work in which inadequate specification of the relationship between absolute income and well-being may have inappropriately favoured relative income specifications. We compared models in which current and future depressive symptoms were predicted from: (a) income utility alone, (b) income rank alone, (c) the transformed difference between the individual's income and the mean income of a comparison group and (d) income utility, income rank and distance from the mean jointly. Model comparison overcomes problems involving multi-collinearity amongst the predictors. A rank-only model was consistently supported. Similar results were obtained for the association between depressive symptoms and wealth and rank of wealth in a cohort of 32,900 British individuals who completed surveys in 2002 and 2008. We conclude that it is the rank of a person's income or wealth within a social comparison group, rather than income or wealth themselves or their deviations from the mean within a reference group, that is more strongly associated with depressive symptoms.

  19. Acculturative stress negatively impacts maternal depressive symptoms in Mexican-American women during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Anna-Hernandez, Kimberly L; Aleman, Brenda; Flores, Ana-Mercedes

    2015-05-01

    Mexican-American women exhibit high rates of prenatal maternal depressive symptoms relative to the general population. Though pregnant acculturated Mexican-American women experience cultural stressors such as acculturation, acculturative stress and discrimination that may contribute to elevated depressive symptoms, the contribution of these socio-cultural correlates to depressive symptomology is unknown. Ninety-eight pregnant women of Mexican descent were recruited from a community hospital clinic during their first trimester. Women completed surveys about acculturation, acculturative stress, perceived discrimination, general perceived stress, and maternal depressive symptoms as well as the potential protective factor of Mexican cultural values. Women who experienced greater acculturative and perceived stress, but not perceived discrimination or acculturation, reported significantly elevated depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Also, women who experienced greater acculturative stress identified with a mixture of Mexican and American cultural values. However, only the Mexican cultural value of respect was protective against maternal depressive symptoms while adhering to the Anglo value of independence and self-reliance was a risk factor. A limitation in the study is the cross-sectional and descriptive self-report nature of the work, underscoring the need for additional research. Moreover, physiological measures of stress were not analyzed in the current study. Results point to acculturative stress, above other cultural stressors, as a potential intervention target in culturally competent obstetric care. These findings have implications for maternal mental health treatment during pregnancy, which likely affects maternal-fetal programming and may favorably affect perinatal outcomes in the vulnerable Mexican-American population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Problematic assumptions have slowed down depression research: why symptoms, not syndromes are the way forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiko I Fried

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Major Depression (MD is a highly heterogeneous diagnostic category. Diverse symptoms such as sad mood, anhedonia, and fatigue are routinely added to an unweighted sum-score, and cutoffs are used to distinguish between depressed participants and healthy controls. Researchers then investigate outcome variables like MD risk factors, biomarkers, and treatment response in such samples. These practices presuppose that (1 depression is a discrete condition, and that (2 symptoms are interchangeable indicators of this latent disorder. Here I review these two assumptions, elucidate their historical roots, show how deeply engrained they are in psychological and psychiatric research, and document that they contrast with evidence. Depression is not a consistent syndrome with clearly demarcated boundaries, and depression symptoms are not interchangeable indicators of an underlying disorder. Current research practices lump individuals with very different problems into one category, which has contributed to the remarkably slow progress in key research domains such as the development of efficacious antidepressants or the identification of biomarkers for depression.The recently proposed network framework offers an alternative to the problematic assumptions. MD is not understood as a distinct condition, but as heterogeneous symptom cluster that substantially overlaps with other syndromes such as anxiety disorders. MD is not framed as an underlying disease with a number of equivalent indicators, but as a network of symptoms that have direct causal influence on each other: insomnia can cause fatigue which then triggers concentration and psychomotor problems. This approach offers new opportunities for constructing an empirically based classification system and has broad implications for future research.

  1. Seasonality in depressive and anxiety symptoms among primary care patients and in patients with depressive and anxiety disorders; results from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Winthorst Wim H; Post Wendy J; Meesters Ybe; Penninx Brenda WHJ; Nolen Willem A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Little is known about seasonality of specific depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms in different patient populations. This study aims to assess seasonal variation of depressive and anxiety symptoms in a primary care population and across participants who were classified in diagnostic groups 1) healthy controls 2) patients with a major depressive disorder, 3) patients with any anxiety disorder and 4) patients with a major depression and any anxiety disorder. Methods Data...

  2. The infertility trap: how defeat and entrapment affect depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galhardo, A; Moura-Ramos, M; Cunha, M; Pinto-Gouveia, J

    2016-02-01

    Does the perception of failure without a solution or way forward of infertile couples have a mediator role between the importance couples attribute to parenthood and depressive symptoms? The perception of failure without a solution or way forward, assessed by feelings of entrapment and defeat, mediates the effect of the importance of parenthood on depressive symptoms of infertile men and women. Research has documented that the heightened importance of parenthood affects infertile couples' adjustment to infertility and medical treatments. However, it remains unclear which psychological mechanisms and perceptions may underlie the association between having parenthood as a nuclear aspect of life and presenting depressive symptoms related to difficulties in accomplishing that important life goal. Although these links have been scantly addressed in infertility, previous studies have pointed to the role that perceptions of defeat and entrapment have in several psychopathological conditions. The study was cross-sectional. Couples pursuing medical treatment for their fertility problems were invited to participate by their doctors in several public and private clinics. Data collection took place between July 2009 and 2011. One hundred forty-seven infertile couples consented to participate in the study. Both couple members (147 women and 147 men) completed a set of self-report instruments for the assessment of depressive symptoms, perceptions of defeat and entrapment, importance of parenthood and rejection of a childfree lifestyle. Analyses were conducted through Structural Equation Modeling and followed a dyadic analysis strategy, allowing for controlling the interdependence of the data. The hypothesized tested model showed a very good fit to the data [(χ(2) = 68.45, P = 0.014, comparative fit index = 0.98, standardized root-mean-square residual = 0.06 and root mean square error of approximation = 0.06] and explained 67 and 58% of the variability in depressive symptoms in

  3. Factors associated with antenatal depression in pregnant Korean females: the effect of bipolarity on depressive symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park CM

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Chul Min Park,1 Hye-Jin Seo,2 Young-Eun Jung,3 Moon-Doo Kim,3 Seong-Chul Hong,4 Won-Myong Bahk,5 Bo-Hyun Yoon,6 Min Hee Hur,7 Jae Min Song31Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, Jeju National University, Jeju, 2Department of Psychiatry, Yeonkang Hospital, Jeju, 3Department of Psychiatry, 4Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, Jeju National University, Jeju, 5Department of Psychiatry, Yeouido St Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, 6Department of Psychiatry, Naju National Hospital, Naju, 7School of Medicine, Jeju National University, Jeju, KoreaBackground: This cross-sectional study sought to identify factors associated with antenatal depression in pregnant Korean females, including sociodemographic parameters, social support, social conflict, and bipolarity.Methods: Eighty-four pregnant women were recruited to complete questionnaires on sociodemographic factors, obstetric history, depressive symptoms, and bipolarity. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Korean version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Bipolarity was assessed using the Korean version of the Mood Disorder Questionnaire.Results: Nineteen participants (22.6% had positive Mood Disorder Questionnaire scores, suggesting the presence of bipolarity, and were significantly more likely to score high on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Antenatal depression was associated with bad marital communication and marital dissatisfaction.Conclusion: These results suggest that spousal interactions play a significant role in antenatal depression, and pregnant women with bipolarity may be more depressed than those without bipolarity.Keywords: antenatal depression, bipolarity, pregnancy, Korea

  4. Posttraumatic and depressive symptoms in β-endorphin dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savic, Danka; Knezevic, Goran; Matic, Gordana; Damjanovic, Svetozar; Spiric, Zeljko

    2015-08-01

    A disturbed beta-endorphin system can be a part of the post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression allostasis. Study subjects (N=392) included those with PTSD and/or (stress-induced) depression, and healthy controls with and without traumas. The aim of the study was to examine the network of relations centered around plasma beta-endorphin. The network included anxiety (as a personality trait), traumatic events, pain, aggressiveness, depressive symptoms, and three clusters of PTSD symptoms: intrusions, avoidance, and hyperarousal. Beta-endorphin was represented by individual mean from 13 time points (BEmean), reflecting the total amount of the peripherally secreted hormone, and the coefficient of variation (BEvar), calculated as the ratio of standard deviation to the mean, reflecting the hormone׳s dynamics. BEvar correlated with all other variables, BEmean had no correlations. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to examine all interrelations (including their directions) of BEvar and the state/trait variables in the context of their entirety. The model revealed that hyperarousal and anxiety were the only direct agents of peripheral beta-endorphin fluctuations, mediating the effects of other variables. Traumatic events and intrusions act on BEvar via hyperarousal, while depressive symptoms, avoidance, and pain act via anxiety. Hyperarousal should be emphasized as the main agent not only because its effect on BEvar is larger than that of anxiety, but also because it increases anxiety itself (via avoidance and pain). All influences on BEvar are positive and they indicate long-term (sensitizing) effects (as opposed to direct stimulation, for example, by acute pain, anger, etc.). Relations apart from beta-endorphin are also discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluating depressive symptom interactions on adolescent smoking prevention program mediators: a mediated moderation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, Kari-Lyn Kobayakawa; Sun, Ping; Unger, Jennifer B; Johnson, C Anderson

    2010-11-01

    Smoking prevention interventions have been shown to be effective in reducing smoking prevalence in the United States. Further work is needed to address smoking in China, where over one third of the world's current smokers reside. China, with more than 60% of the male population being smokers, also presents a unique opportunity to test cognitive processes involved in depression, social influences, and smoking. Adolescents at-risk for developing depression may process social information differently from low-risk counterparts. The Wuhan Smoking Prevention Trial was a school-based longitudinal randomized controlled trial aimed at preventing initiation and escalation of adolescent smoking behaviors. Thousand three hundred and ninety-one male seventh-grade students were assessed with a 200-item paper-and-pencil baseline survey, and it was readministered 1 year later following program implementation. Friend prevalence estimates were significantly higher among 30-day smokers and among those at highest risk for depression symptoms. The program appeared to be successful in changing the perception of friend smoking prevalence only among adolescents with a comorbidity of high scores of depression symptoms and who have experimented previously with smoking. This Program x Comorbidity interaction on perceived friend smoking prevalence was significant in predicting 30-day smoking 1 year after program implementation. This study provides evidence that those adolescents with high levels of depressive symptoms may be more sensitive to social influences associated with smoking prevalence. Individual Disposition x Social Environmental Influences may be important when developing future effective prevention programming.

  6. Sleep quality moderates the relation between depression symptoms and problematic cannabis use among medical cannabis users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babson, Kimberly A; Boden, Matthew Tyler; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O

    2013-05-01

    This study sought to extend research on the relation between depression symptoms and problematic cannabis use by evaluating the potential moderating role of perceived sleep quality among medical cannabis users. This employed a cross-sectional design. The sample consisted of 162 adults (mean age = 42.05 years, SD = 14.8; 22% female), with current recommendations from a doctor for medical cannabis, recruited from a medical cannabis dispensary. Consistent with previous research, individuals with heightened depression symptoms had greater problematic cannabis use. In addition, perceived sleep quality moderated this relation, such that depression symptoms differentially related to problematic cannabis use as a function of perceived quality of sleep (ΔR(2) = .03, p = .02). Participants with higher levels of depression and good perceived sleep quality had the greatest rates of problematic cannabis use. These results suggest that individuals with heightened depression may have higher rates of problematic cannabis use, in part, because of the beneficial effects of cannabis in terms of perceived sleep quality.

  7. Acupuncture Alleviated the Nonmotor Symptoms of Parkinson's Disease including Pain, Depression, and Autonomic Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iseki, Chifumi; Furuta, Taiga; Suzuki, Masao; Koyama, Shingo; Suzuki, Keiji; Suzuki, Tomoko; Kaneko, Akiyo; Mitsuma, Tadamichi

    2014-01-01

    A woman started to feel intractable pain on her lower legs when she was 76. At the age of 78, she was diagnosed as having Parkinson's disease (PD). The leg pain was suspected to be a symptom of PD after eliminating other causes. The patient also suffered from nonmotor symptoms, depression, anxiety, hot flashes, and paroxysmal sweating. Though the patient had received pharmacotherapy including levodopa for 5 years, she still suffered from the nonmotor symptoms and was referred to our department. We treated her with acupuncture based on the Chinese traditional medicine and electroacupuncture five times per week. After the 2-week treatment, the assessment for the symptoms was as follows; visual analogue scale (VAS) score of the leg pain was 16 mm (70 mm, before), Hamilton's rating scales for depression (HAM-D) score was 9 (18, before), timed 3 m Up and Go took 20 steps in 30 sec (24 steps in 38 sec, before), and the Movement Disorder Society-sponsored revision of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS) Part 1 score was 13 (21, before). Autonomic symptoms, hot flashes and paroxysmal sweating, were also alleviated. Acupuncture may be a good treatment modality for nonmotor symptoms in PD.

  8. Volunteering and depressive symptoms among residents in a continuing care retirement community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinedinst, N Jennifer; Resnick, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    This descriptive study examined the relationship between volunteer activities, depressive symptoms, and feelings of usefulness among older adults using path analysis. Survey data was collected via interview from residents of a continuing care retirement community. Neither feelings of usefulness nor volunteering were directly associated with depressive symptoms. Volunteering was directly associated with feelings of usefulness and indirectly associated with depressive symptoms through total physical activity. Age, fear of falling, pain, physical activity, and physical resilience explained 31% of the variance in depressive symptoms. Engaging in volunteer work may be beneficial for increasing feelings of usefulness and indirectly improving depressive symptoms among older adults.

  9. Current understanding of the neurobiology of major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiriţă, Anca Livia; Gheorman, Victor; Bondari, Dan; Rogoveanu, Ion

    2015-01-01

    Depression is highly prevalent worldwide and associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Approximately 340 million people worldwide suffer from depression at any given time. Based on estimates from the World Health Organization (WHO), depression is responsible for the greatest proportion of burden associated with non-fatal health outcomes and accounts for approximately 12% total years lived with disability. Probably no single risk factor can be completely isolated in major depressive disorder (MDD), as interactions between many sources of vulnerability are the most likely explanation. Buttressing the identification of grief, demoralization, hopelessness and styles of psychological coping of the depressed patient are vital, ongoing scientific developments that flow from an increased understanding of this interplay amongst the immune system, endocrine system and brain. The rapidly accumulating body of neurobiological knowledge has catalyzed fundamental changes in how we conceptualize depressive symptoms and has important implications regarding the treatment and even prevention of depressive symptoms in patients.

  10. The Interrelations Between Internalized Homophobia, Depressive Symptoms, and Suicidal Ideation Among Australian Gay Men, Lesbians, and Bisexual Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Internalized homophobia has been linked to depression among gay men, lesbians, and bisexuals. Relatively little research has investigated the link between internalized homophobia and suicidal thoughts and behaviors. The current research investigated the interrelations among internalized homophobia, depressive symptoms, and suicidal ideation by testing additive, mediation, and moderation models. Self-identified Australian gay men (n = 360), lesbians (n = 444), and bisexual women (n = 114) completed the Internalized Homophobia Scale, the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, and the suicide subscale of the General Health Questionnaire. Results supported the additive and partial mediation models for gay men and the mediation and moderation models for lesbians. None of the models were supported for bisexual women. The findings imply that clinicians should focus on reducing internalized homophobia and depressive symptoms among gay men and lesbians, and depressive symptoms among bisexual women, to reduce suicidal ideation.

  11. Do dimensions of ethnic identity mediate the association between perceived ethnic group discrimination and depressive symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittian, Aerika S; Kim, Su Yeong; Armenta, Brian E; Lee, Richard M; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Schwartz, Seth J; Villalta, Ian K; Zamboanga, Byron L; Weisskirch, Robert S; Juang, Linda P; Castillo, Linda G; Hudson, Monika L

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic group discrimination represents a notable risk factor that may contribute to mental health problems among ethnic minority college students. However, cultural resources (e.g., ethnic identity) may promote psychological adjustment in the context of group-based discriminatory experiences. In the current study, we examined the associations between perceptions of ethnic group discrimination and depressive symptoms, and explored dimensions of ethnic identity (i.e., exploration, resolution, and affirmation) as mediators of this process among 2,315 ethnic minority college students (age 18 to 30 years; 37% Black, 63% Latino). Results indicated that perceived ethnic group discrimination was associated positively with depressive symptoms among students from both ethnic groups. The relationship between perceived ethnic group discrimination and depressive symptoms was mediated by ethnic identity affirmation for Latino students, but not for Black students. Ethnic identity resolution was negatively and indirectly associated with depressive symptoms through ethnic identity affirmation for both Black and Latino students. Implications for promoting ethnic minority college students' mental health and directions for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Rumination mediates the association between cyber-victimization and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Brian A; Bhatia, Vickie; Davila, Joanne

    2014-06-01

    The current study examined the 3-week prospective associations between cyber-victimization and both depressive symptoms and rumination. In addition, a mediation model was tested, wherein rumination mediated the association between cyber-victimization and depressive symptoms. Participants (N = 565 college-age young adults) completed online surveys at two time points 3 weeks apart. Results indicated that cyber-victimization was associated with increases in both depressive symptoms and rumination over time. Furthermore, results of the path analysis indicated that cyber-victimization was associated with increases in rumination over time, which were then associated with greater depressive symptoms, providing support for the proposed mediation effect for women, but not men. Findings extend previous correlational findings by demonstrating that cyber-victimization is associated with increases in symptomatology over time. Findings also suggest that the negative consequences of cyber-victimization extend beyond mental health problems to maladaptive emotion regulation. In fact, rumination may be a mechanism through which cyber-victimization influences mental health problems, at least for women. Mental health professionals are encouraged to assess cyber-victimization as part of standard victimization assessments and to consider targeting maladaptive emotion regulation in addition to mental health problems in clients who have experienced cyber-victimization.

  13. Stability of maternal depressive symptoms among urban, low-income, African American adolescent mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Marcuse, Fatima; Oberlander, Sarah E; Papas, Mia A; McNary, Scot W; Hurley, Kristen M; Black, Maureen M

    2010-04-01

    Maternal depressive symptomatology is an important public health issue with negative consequences for both mothers and infants. This study examined prevalence and patterns of depressive symptoms among 181 urban, low-income, first-time, African American adolescent mothers recruited from urban hospitals following delivery. Follow-up evaluations were conducted at 6 (N=148; 82%) and 24 (N=147; 81%) month home visits. Depressive symptoms were measured with Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Half of mothers (49%) had BDI scores >9 at baseline, with significant correlations between BDI scores across all visits (r=0.28-0.50). Depressive symptom trajectories analyzed using group-based trajectory modeling revealed three trajectories of depressive symptoms: Low (41%), Medium (45%), and High (14%). The high depressive symptom group reported lower self-esteem, more negative life events, and lower parenting satisfaction than the low and moderate depressive symptoms groups. Depressive symptoms were self-reported and not verified with a clinical interview. Findings are limited to urban, low-income, African American adolescent mothers and may not be generalizable to other populations. The high prevalence and relative stability of depressive symptoms through 2years of parenting suggest the need for early identification and treatment of maternal depressive symptoms. Brief screening for maternal depressive symptoms conducted during pediatric well-child visits is a feasible and effective method for identifying mothers with depressive symptoms, however, screening measures can not differentiate between high and low levels of depressive symptoms. Brief intervention may be an effective treatment for mothers with mild symptoms of depression; mothers with moderate to severe symptoms may require more intensive intervention. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Gender Differences in Self-Reported Symptoms of Depression among Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine Frazier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the prevalence of self-reported depressive symptoms and the self reported somatic depressive symptoms as measured by the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II among patients hospitalized for acute coronary syndrome (ACS, and explored the impact of gender on both. A convenience sample of 789 adults (248 women and 541 men was recruited for the study during hospital admission for ACS and participants were screened for self-reported depressive symptoms. BDI-II scores of ≥14 indicate a moderate level of depressive symptoms and this cut-off score was used to categorize patients into depressed and non-depressed groups. Pearson chi-square tests for independence (categorical variables and t tests for independent samples (continuous variables were used for gender comparisons. Results showed that depressive symptoms during ACS episodes were different between women and men. Women reported greater overall depressive symptoms (BDI-II mean = 11.89, S.D. = 9.68 than men (BDI-II mean = 9.00, S.D. = 7.93 (P<0.000. Significantly more women (7.66% were identified positive for somatic depressive symptoms (sleep and appetite disturbances and fatigue than men (2.22% (P=0.0003. Findings support that there are gender differences in depressive symptoms experienced by patients hospitalized for ACS. Somatic symptoms of depression may be important indicators of depression especially among female ACS patients.

  15. Serotonin transporter genotype modulates the association between depressive symptoms and amygdala activity among psychiatrically healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillihan, Seth J; Rao, Hengyi; Brennan, Lauretta; Wang, Danny J J; Detre, John A; Sankoorikal, Geena Mary V; Brodkin, Edward S; Farah, Martha J

    2011-09-30

    Recent attempts to understand the biological bases of depression vulnerability have revealed that both the short allele of the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) and activity in the amygdala are associated with depression. Other studies have reported amygdala hyperactivity associated with the 5-HTTLPR short allele, linking the genetic and neuroimaging lines of research and suggesting a mechanism whereby the short allele confers depression risk. However, fewer investigations have examined the associations among depression, 5-HTTLPR variability, and amygdala activation in a single study. The current study thus investigated whether 5-HTTLPR genotype modulates the association between depressive symptoms and amygdala activity among psychiatrically healthy adults. Regional cerebral blood flow was measured with perfusion fMRI during a task-free scan. We hypothesized differential associations between depressive symptoms and amygdala activity among individuals homozygous for the short allele and individuals homozygous for the long allele. Both whole brain analyses and region-of-interest analyses confirmed this prediction, revealing a significant negative association among the long allele group and a trend of positive association among the short allele group. These results complement existing reports of short allele related amygdala hyperactivity and suggest an additional neurobiological mechanism whereby the 5-HTTLPR is associated with psychiatric outcomes.

  16. Early adolescent depressive symptoms: prediction from clique isolation, loneliness, and perceived social acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witvliet, Miranda; Brendgen, Mara; van Lier, Pol A C; Koot, Hans M; Vitaro, Frank

    2010-11-01

    This study examined whether clique isolation predicted an increase in depressive symptoms and whether this association was mediated by loneliness and perceived social acceptance in 310 children followed from age 11-14 years. Clique isolation was identified through social network analysis, whereas depressive symptoms, loneliness, and perceived social acceptance were assessed using self ratings. While accounting for initial levels of depressive symptoms, peer rejection, and friendlessness at age 11 years, a high probability of being isolated from cliques from age 11 to 13 years predicted depressive symptoms at age 14 years. The link between clique isolation and depressive symptoms was mediated by loneliness, but not by perceived social acceptance. No sex differences were found in the associations between clique isolation and depressive symptoms. These results suggest that clique isolation is a social risk factor for the escalation of depressive symptoms in early adolescence. Implications for research and prevention are discussed.

  17. Emotion regulation and depressive symptoms: examining the mediation effects of school connectedness in Chinese late adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanhua; Zhao, Guoxiang

    2015-04-01

    This study tested Gross's process model of emotion regulation in a Chinese adolescent sample. It hypothesized that emotion regulation strategies (cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression) would predict adolescents' perception of school connectedness and depressive symptoms. It also posited that school connectedness may be a possible mediator between emotion regulation and depressive symptoms. Participants were 504 adolescents aged 16-18 from two Chinese public upper secondary schools. Structural equation modeling analyses indicated that reappraisal and suppression significantly associated with school connectedness and depressive symptoms, and school connectedness mediated the link between emotion regulation and depressive symptoms, even when the general emotion experiences were controlled. Although boys unexpectedly reported higher level depressive symptoms, the hypothesized model was invariant across gender except for the link between suppression and depressive symptoms. These findings demonstrate that it is meaningful to involve both emotion regulation processes and school connectedness in explaining adolescent depressive symptoms.

  18. Use of health services in people with multiple sclerosis with and without depressive symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ytterberg, Charlotte; Lundqvist, Sanna; Johansson, Sverker

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To organize tailored healthcare for people with multiple sclerosis (MS), knowledge about patterns in the use of healthcare among subgroups, such as those with depressive symptoms, is essential. Thus, the purpose of this study was to explore and compare the use of health services...... in people with MS and depressive symptoms, and without depressive symptoms over a period of 30 months. METHODS: Data on the use of health services by 71 people with MS and depressive symptoms, and 102 with no depressive symptoms were collected from a computerised register and by interview, then categorized...... with regard to disease severity (Expanded Disability Status Scale). RESULTS: People with EDSS mild and depressive symptoms used more outpatient and inpatient care compared to those with no depressive symptoms. Furthermore, they received more unsalaried informal care as well as intense rehabilitation periods...

  19. Negative thinking: a key factor in depressive symptoms in Thai adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoensuk, Sukjai

    2007-01-01

    Negative thinking, self-esteem, parental bonding, and everyday stressors are factors related to depressive symptoms in studies conducted in the United States, but they have been rarely explored in Thailand. An understanding of factors influencing depressive symptoms in Thai youth will lead to the development of interventions to decrease depressive symptoms among this age group. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of parental bonding, everyday stressors, self-esteem, and negative thinking on depressive symptoms among Thai adolescents. A random sample of 812 high school students in Chon Buri, Thailand, participated in the study. The prevalence of depressive symptoms varied from 20-21% depending on the measures used. Negative thinking was the best predictor of depressive symptoms in Thai adolescents. Negative thinking also mediated the effects of parental bonding, everyday stressors, and self-esteem on depressive symptoms.

  20. The role of timing of maltreatment and child intelligence in pathways to low symptoms of depression and anxiety in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpur, Lisa Jane; Polek, Ela; van Harmelen, Anne-Laura

    2015-09-01

    Research indicates that childhood maltreatment is strongly associated with high levels of adolescent depression and anxiety symptoms. Using LONGSCAN data and taking into account the range of family characteristics related to adversity (poverty, primary caregiver substance abuse) and protective factors (living with biological mother and father), the present study assessed the complex resilience process in which child intelligence (age 6) mediated the relationship between early childhood maltreatment (age 0-4) and adolescent symptoms of depression and anxiety (age 14). We also assessed if mid (age 6-8) and late (age 10-12) childhood maltreatment moderated this mediation. We found that mid-childhood intelligence mediated the negative effect of early childhood maltreatment (age 0-4) on anxiety symptoms (age 14), but not on depressive symptoms (age 14). We also found the effect of timing of maltreatment: early childhood maltreatment (age 0-4) predicted more anxiety symptoms in adolescence, whereas late childhood/early adolescent (age 10-12) maltreatment predicted more symptoms of depression in adolescence. In addition, mid (age 6-8) and late (age 10-12) childhood maltreatment dampened the protective effect of IQ (age 6) against anxiety (age 14). In sum, current evidence shows that low anxiety and depression symptoms in adolescence following childhood maltreatment was achieved through different pathways, and that early and late childhood/early adolescence were more sensitive periods for development of psychopathology related to depression and anxiety in adolescence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Clinical Significance of the Number of Depressive Symptoms in Major Depressive Disorder: Results from the CRESCEND Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seon-Cheol; Sakong, Jeongkyu; Koo, Bon Hoon; Kim, Jae-Min; Jun, Tae-Youn; Lee, Min-Soo; Kim, Jung-Bum; Yim, Hyeon-Woo; Park, Yong Chon

    2016-04-01

    Our study aimed to establish the relationship between the number of depressive symptoms and the clinical characteristics of major depressive disorder (MDD). This would enable us to predict the clinical significance of the number of depressive symptoms in MDD patients. Using data from the Clinical Research Center for Depression (CRESCEND) study in Korea, 853 patients with DSM-IV MDD were recruited. The baseline and clinical characteristics of groups with different numbers of depressive symptoms were compared using the χ(2) test for discrete variables and covariance (ANCOVA) for continuous variables. In addition, the scores of these groups on the measurement tools were compared by ANCOVA after adjusting the potential effects of confounding variables. After adjusting the effects of monthly income and history of depression, a larger number of depressive symptoms indicated higher overall severity of depression (F [4, 756] = 21.458, P depressive symptoms (F [4, 767] = 19.145, P symptoms (F [4, 765] = 12.890, P depressive symptoms can be used as an index of greater illness burden in clinical psychiatry.

  2. 阳性症状为主型精神分裂症和伴有精神病性症状双相障碍患者MMPI对照研究%A study on the difference of MMPI between schizophrenia with positive symptoms and bipolar disorder, current episode manic or depression with psychotic symptoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟舒明; 刘滔; 廖潇潇; 贾艳滨

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the differences of personality characteristics between schizophrenia with positive symptoms and bipolar disorder, current episode manic or depression with psychotic symptoms by MMPI, which can provide clues to their differential diagnosis. Methods Twenty-four schizophrenia patients with positive symptoms and thirty-seven bipolar disorder patients, current episode manic or depression with psychotic symptoms were enrolled in this study. Subjects were tested personality with MMPI software, and then calculated the scores of ten clinical scales. All data analyses were performed using SPSS for Windows software, version 13.0, to find the differences between the two groups. Results The male schizophrenia with positive symptoms patients' social introversion(Si) score was significantly higher than female schizophrenia patients(t=2.186, P=0.040). There was no significant difference between the genders in bipolar disorder patients. No significant differences of the clinical scales were found between the two patient groups(P>0.05), however, the scores of psychopathic deviate, paranoia, schizophrenia and hypomania in schizophrenia patients with positive symptoms were higher than the T score of China norm, as well as the score of paranoia in bipolar disorder patients. Conclusions Personality characteristics changes exist in both schizophrenia with positive symptoms and bipolar disorder patients when compared with China norm, there is no significant difference between the two patient groups, social introversion in schizophrenia patients with positive symptoms may have gender differences.%目的:探讨阳性症状为主型精神分裂症和伴有精神病性症状的躁狂或抑郁的双相障碍患者的个性特征,为其鉴别诊断提供线索。方法采用MMPI测试软件,评估24例精神分裂症阳性症状为主型患者(精神分裂症组)和37例伴有精神病性症状的躁狂或抑郁的双相障碍患者(双相障碍组)人格

  3. Contingency management improves outcomes in cocaine-dependent outpatients with depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Fernández, Gloria; Secades-Villa, Roberto; García-Rodríguez, Olaya; Peña-Suárez, Elsa; Sánchez-Hervás, Emilio

    2013-12-01

    Despite depressive symptoms being very common among patients seeking treatment for cocaine dependence, few studies have examined the effects of depressive symptoms on cocaine outpatient treatment outcomes, and there is even less research in the context of Contingency Management (CM). The purpose of this study was to assess the main and interactive effects of co-occurring depressive symptoms on CM outcomes. Cocaine-dependent individuals (N = 108) were randomized to Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA) or CRA plus CM in two outpatient community clinical settings. Participants were categorized according to depression symptoms, self-reported by means of the BDI at treatment entry. Outcome measures included treatment retention and documented cocaine abstinence over a 6-month treatment period. Depressive symptoms were more commonly found in females and in unemployed participants, and were associated with more drug-related, social, and psychiatric problems at treatment entry. Individuals with baseline depressive symptoms had poorer treatment outcomes than patients without depressive symptoms. The addition of CM to CRA made the program more effective than with CRA alone, regardless of depressive symptoms. CM was associated with better abstinence treatment outcomes, while the interaction between unemployment and depressive symptoms was associated with negative retention treatment outcomes. This study supports the efficacy of CM for cocaine-dependent outpatients with and without depressive symptoms, and highlights its importance for improving treatment for unemployed and depressed cocaine-dependent individuals.

  4. Maternal Depression, Parenting, and Youth Depressive Symptoms: Mediation and Moderation in a Short-Term Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olino, Thomas M; McMakin, Dana L; Nicely, Terri A; Forbes, Erika E; Dahl, Ronald E; Silk, Jennifer S

    2016-01-01

    Although multiple studies find that offspring of depressed mothers are at risk for depressive disorders, there is uncertainty about the specific mechanisms that are at work--particularly with respect to modifiable factors that might be targeted for early intervention. The present work examines that parenting behaviors may operate as mediators, moderators, or independent influences on the development of youth depressive symptoms. One hundred one mothers and their early adolescent children participated in positive and negative interaction tasks. Maternal and youth self-reports of youth depressive symptoms were collected at baseline, 9-month, and 18-month assessments. Maternal history of depression was significantly associated with maternal-reported, but not youth self-reported, depressive symptomatology. Maternal positive and negative interaction behaviors in positive contexts were associated with higher youth self-reported depressive symptoms. Maternal positive interaction behaviors in positive contexts and maternal negative interactive behaviors in conflict contexts were associated with higher youth self-reported depressive symptoms. We found no evidence for maternal interaction behaviors serving as a mediator and little evidence of maternal interaction behaviors serving as a moderator of the relationship between maternal and offspring depression. Low maternal positive engagement tended to be more consistently associated with maternal- and self-reported youth depressive symptoms. The present findings suggest that characteristics of mother-child interactions that are associated with youth depressive symptomatology are pertinent to youth with and without a mother with a history of depression.

  5. Trajectories of Individual Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents: Gender and Family Relationships as Predictors

    OpenAIRE

    Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Garber, Judy

    2014-01-01

    Depressive syndrome and disorders increase substantially during adolescence. Little is known, however, about how individual symptoms of depression change over the course of this developmental period. The present study examined within-person changes in symptom severity of each individual symptom of depression, utilizing longitudinal data collected across six years of adolescence. Adolescent gender and family relationship variables were tested as predictors of the symptom trajectories (i.e., in...

  6. Current Issues in the Classification of Psychotic Major Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Jennifer; Schatzberg, Alan F.; Maj, Mario

    2007-01-01

    Depression is one of the most common mental disorders worldwide. There are a number of depression subtypes, and there has been much debate about how to most accurately capture and organize the features and subtypes of major depression. We review the current state of categorizing unipolar major depression with psychotic features (psychotic major depression, PMD), including clinical, biological, and treatment aspects of the disorder. We then propose some improvements to the current unipolar major depression categorization system. Finally, we identify important issues in need of further research to help elucidate the subtype of unipolar PMD. PMID:17548842

  7. The impact of accepting biological changes during adolescence on the severity of depression symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radziwiłłowicz Wioletta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to establish whether any relation exists between depression symptoms and the extent to which adolescents accept the changes their bodies undergo (the physical changes they experience at different stages of growing up, and if the connection does exist - is it gender-related. Method: Data were collected from four sub-groups: younger girls (aged 12-13, older girls (aged 17-18, younger boys (aged 12-13, and older boys (aged 17-18. The participants were asked to complete questionnaires that allow to measure the subjective intensity of depression symptoms (BDI, the current stage of biological changes (the Tanner scale and whether these changes are accepted by the individual who experiences them (the original Feelings Towards the Body questionnaire. Results: The less adolescents accept the changes in their bodies, the higher depression symptoms they demonstrate. For younger girls, older girls and older boys, no links were established between levels of accepting bodily changes and early/late maturation (in comparison with the population of their peers. For younger boys, the later the stage of their development, the less likely they are to accept the changes in their bodies. Girls report more intense depression symptoms than boys do, but their levels of accepting changes that occur around puberty are significantly lower only when compared to those of older boys. Conclusions: Whether biological changes during puberty (mainly feelings of anxiety and shame related to the body are accepted or not, was proven to be a significant predictor of more intense depression symptoms.

  8. Relationship between burnout and depressive symptoms: A study using the person-centred approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsi Ahola

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We applied a person-centred approach to study the relationship between burnout and depressive symptoms at baseline and over seven years. We examined how the symptom clusters and trajectories are related to the baseline sociodemographic and psychosocial work characteristics. At baseline, burnout and depressive symptoms clustered into three groups: low, intermediate, and high level of symptoms. Four developmental trajectories – low, high, increasing and decreasing symptoms – emerged in the longitudinal analysis. The psychosocial work characteristics were reflected in the level and development of the symptoms. The results support the conceptual similarity between burnout and depressive symptoms in the work context.

  9. The prevalence and correlates of depressive symptoms from an Arabian setting: a wake up call.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Faris, E A; Irfan, F; Van der Vleuten, C P M; Naeem, Naghma; Alsalem, A; Alamiri, N; Alraiyes, T; Alfowzan, M; Alabdulsalam, A; Ababtain, A; Aljabab, S; Bukhari, M; Alsinaidi, O; Alofaisan, Y

    2012-01-01

    It has been shown that medical students have a higher rate of depressive symptoms than the general population and age- and sex-matched peers. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of depressive symptoms among the medical students of a large school following a traditional curriculum and its relation to personal background variables. A descriptive-analytic, cross-sectional study was conducted in a medical school in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The medical students of King Saud University in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, were screened for depressive symptoms using the 21-item Beck Depression Inventory. A high prevalence of depressive symptoms (48.2%) was found, it was either mild (21%), moderate (17%), or severe (11%). The presence and severity of depressive symptoms had a statistically significant association with early academic years (p depressive symptoms is an alarming sign and calls for remedial action, particularly for the junior and female students.

  10. Cognitive schemas as longitudinal predictors of self-reported adolescent depressive symptoms and resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann, Jordan S; Lumley, Margaret N; Lerman, Bethany

    2016-01-01

    Given that depression risk intensifies in adolescence, examining associates of depressive symptoms during the shift from childhood to adolescence is important for expanding knowledge about the etiology of depression symptoms and disorder. A longitudinal youth report was employed to examine the trajectory of both the content and structure of positive and negative schemas in adolescence and also whether these schemas could prospectively predict depressive symptoms and youth-reported resilience. One hundred and ninety-eight participants (aged 9 to 14) were recruited from four schools to complete measures of youth depressive symptoms, resilience, and schema content and structure. Those who consented to a follow-up study completed the same measures online (50 participants completed). Negative and positive schema content and structure were related over time. After controlling depressive symptoms/resilience at Time 1, negative schema content was the only significant predictor (trend level) of depressive symptoms and resilience at Time 2. Implications for cognitive theories and clinical practice are discussed.

  11. Seasonality in depressive and anxiety symptoms among primary care patients and in patients with depressive and anxiety disorders; results from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winthorst, Wim H.; Post, Wendy J.; Meesters, Ybe; Penninx, Brenda W. H. J.; Nolen, Willem A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Little is known about seasonality of specific depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms in different patient populations. This study aims to assess seasonal variation of depressive and anxiety symptoms in a primary care population and across participants who were classified in diagnostic

  12. The mediating role of self-criticism and dependency in the association between perceptions of maternal caring and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Rui C; Besser, Avi; Blatt, Sidney J

    2010-12-01

    This study examined a theoretically based mediation model including participants' perceptions of early relationships with their mother, self-criticism, dependency, and current depressive symptoms. We expect that (a) early relationships characterized by low levels of care and high levels of overprotection will be positively associated with both current depressive state and self-criticism and dependency; (b) high levels of self-criticism and dependency will be positively associated with depressive symptoms; and (c) self-criticism and dependency will play a mediating role in the association between participants' perceptions of early relationships characterized by low levels of care and high levels of overprotection and their current depressive symptoms. A nonclinical community sample of 200 Portuguese adults participated in the study. Perceptions of early relationships were measured using the mother scales of the Parental Bonding Instrument (Parker et al. [1979: Br J Med Psychol 52:1-10]), levels of self-criticism and dependency were measured using the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire (Blatt et al. [1976: J Abn Psy 6:383-389]), and depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for the Epidemiological Studies of Depression Scale (Radloff [1977: Appl Psychol Meas 1:385-401]. Structural equation modeling showed that the link between participants' perceptions of early caretaking relationships with their mothers and their current depressive symptoms is mediated by high levels of self-criticism--a personality trait associated with vulnerability to depression--but not Dependency. However, an ancillary analysis indicated that the link between participants' perceptions of early maternal overprotective relationships and their current depressive symptoms is mediated by high levels of Neediness. Findings underscore the role of perceived early relationships in psychological vulnerability to depression among highly self-critical and among highly needy individuals and

  13. Depressive Symptoms in Chinese Elementary School Children: Child Social-Cognitive Factors and Parenting Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Siu Mui; Oi Poon, Scarlet Fung

    2016-01-01

    This study examined child cognitive-behavioural factors and parenting factors related to childhood depressive symptoms. Results indicate that positive and negative attributional styles were protective and vulnerable factors of depression symptoms, respectively, and the attribution-depression link was mediated by self-esteem and coping responses.…

  14. Depressive Symptoms and Romantic Relationship Qualities from Adolescence through Emerging Adulthood: A Longitudinal Examination of Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujeva, Hana M.; Furman, Wyndol

    2011-01-01

    Research has consistently demonstrated the negative consequences of depression on adolescents' functioning in peer and family relationships, but little work has examined how depressive symptoms affect the quality of adolescents' and emerging adults' romantic relationships. Five waves of data on depressive symptoms, romantic relationship conflict,…

  15. Gender, Anxiety, and Depressive Symptoms: A Longitudinal Study of Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, Tara M.; Gillham, Jane E.; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2009-01-01

    Does anxiety lead to depression more for girls than for boys? This study prospectively examines gender differences in the relationship between anxiety and depressive symptoms in early adolescence. One hundred thirteen 11- to 14-year-old middle school students complete questionnaires assessing depressive symptoms and three dimensions of anxiety…

  16. Symptoms of depression among adults in rural areas of western Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Łojko

    2015-02-01

    Symptoms of depression were noted in approx. 30% of patients who consulted their family physician. The Beck questionnaire is a simple tool whose application could decidedly improve the recognition of depression. It is worth taking note of factors that may be connected with the intensity of depressive symptoms – gender, the number of diagnosed somatic illnesses, and the quantity of drugs administered.

  17. Depressive Symptoms and Romantic Relationship Qualities from Adolescence through Emerging Adulthood: A Longitudinal Examination of Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujeva, Hana M.; Furman, Wyndol

    2011-01-01

    Research has consistently demonstrated the negative consequences of depression on adolescents' functioning in peer and family relationships, but little work has examined how depressive symptoms affect the quality of adolescents' and emerging adults' romantic relationships. Five waves of data on depressive symptoms, romantic relationship conflict,…

  18. The Utilization of Exercise to Decrease Depressive Symptoms in Young Adult Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkin, Richard S.; Tietjen-Smith, Tara; Caldwell, Charmaine; Shen, Yu-Pei

    2007-01-01

    Depression is a prevalent issue for women on college campuses. Undergraduate women participated in (a) an aerobic exercise class, (b) a weight-lifting class, or (c) a control group to determine the effect of exercise on depressive symptoms. Participants in the aerobic exercise group exhibited a significant decrease in depressive symptoms.…

  19. Relations between Suicidal Ideation and Dimensions of Depressive Symptoms in High-School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabrol, Henri; Rodgers, Rachel; Rousseau, Amelie

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the link between the different dimensions of depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation in adolescents. A sample of 1057 adolescents completed the CES-D (Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale) and three additional items measuring suicidal ideation. The four dimensions of depressive symptoms on the…

  20. Gender, Anxiety, and Depressive Symptoms: A Longitudinal Study of Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, Tara M.; Gillham, Jane E.; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2009-01-01

    Does anxiety lead to depression more for girls than for boys? This study prospectively examines gender differences in the relationship between anxiety and depressive symptoms in early adolescence. One hundred thirteen 11- to 14-year-old middle school students complete questionnaires assessing depressive symptoms and three dimensions of anxiety…

  1. Depressive Symptoms in Chinese Elementary School Children: Child Social-Cognitive Factors and Parenting Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Siu Mui; Oi Poon, Scarlet Fung

    2016-01-01

    This study examined child cognitive-behavioural factors and parenting factors related to childhood depressive symptoms. Results indicate that positive and negative attributional styles were protective and vulnerable factors of depression symptoms, respectively, and the attribution-depression link was mediated by self-esteem and coping responses.…

  2. Organizational and Individual Conditions Associated with Depressive Symptoms among Nursing Home Residents over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassie, Kimberly M.; Cassie, William E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the effect of organizational culture and climate on depressive symptoms among nursing home residents. Design and Methods: Using a pooled cross-sectional design, this study examines a sample of 23 nursing homes, 1,114 employees, and 5,497 residents. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Minimum Data Set, Depression Rating…

  3. Differential associations between depressive symptoms and glycaemic control in outpatients with diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bot, M.; Pouwer, F.; Jonge, P. de; Tack, C.J.J.; Geelhoed-Duijvestijn, P.H.; Snoek, F.J.

    2013-01-01

    AIMS: Depression is common in people with diabetes, and related to higher HbA(1c) levels. Depression, however, is a heterogeneous construct that involves a variety of symptoms. As little is known about the associations of individual depressive symptoms with HbA(1c) , we explored these associations i

  4. Age, Race, and Gender Differences in Depressive Symptoms: A Lifespan Developmental Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, Bruce A.; Reintjes, Cristina

    2010-01-01

    This study considered depressive symptoms among a normative sample of 1,900 children, adolescents, and adults (950 males and 950 females) divided across four age-levels to investigate the developmental progression of depressive symptoms by age, race/ethnicity, and gender. The national normative sample of the Clinical Assessment of Depression (CAD)…

  5. Non-suicidal self-injury prospectively predicts interpersonal stressful life events and depressive symptoms among adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Taylor A; Hamilton, Jessica L; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2015-08-30

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is the deliberate self-harm of one's tissue, engaged in without lethal intent, and occurs frequently among late adolescents. Although research has indicated that NSSI predicts depression, the potential psychosocial mechanisms through which engagement in NSSI makes one susceptible to future depressive symptoms remain unclear. The present study examined whether NSSI increases the risk of experiencing stressful life events, which, in turn, heightens the risk for subsequent depressive symptoms. Drawn from a sample specifically selected for adolescents at high and low risk for developing bipolar spectrum disorders, a total of 110 late-adolescents (mean age=18.74, SD=.69; 73% female) were administered measures of lifetime and past year engagement in NSSI and current depressive symptomatology. Approximately 6 months later, they completed a measure of depressive symptoms and a questionnaire and interview assessing life events that occurred over the 6-month interval. Results suggest that the frequency of lifetime and past year NSSI predicted the occurrence of interpersonal stressful life events beyond the effects of initial depressive symptoms, but only for late adolescent girls. Results further suggest that higher levels of interpersonal stressful life events mediated the relationship between NSSI frequency and prospective increases in depressive symptoms among girls.

  6. The mediating effect of adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies on executive functioning impairment and depressive symptoms among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wante, Laura; Mezulis, Amy; Van Beveren, Marie-Lotte; Braet, Caroline

    2017-11-01

    Past research results suggest that executive functioning (EF) impairment represents an important vulnerability factor in depression. Little research, however, has examined mechanisms underlying this association. The current study investigates the associations between EF impairment, emotion regulation (ER) strategies, and depressive symptoms in a sample of 579 adolescents (320 females, mean age = 12.06 years). Parents reported on adolescents' EF and general psychopathology, and adolescents self-reported ER strategies and depressive symptoms. The results indicate that greater EF impairment is associated with more depressive symptoms. Youth with greater EF impairment reported more maladaptive ER and less adaptive ER, and maladaptive and adaptive ER strategies jointly mediated the association between EF impairment and depressive symptoms. The results highlight an important role of both maladaptive and adaptive ER in explaining the relationship between EF and depressive symptoms and suggest that clinical interventions targeting ER skills may provide one strategy for the prevention and treatment of depression. Further longitudinal research is needed to replicate these results and evaluate the causality of the relations.

  7. Moderators of the Effects of Indicated Group and Bibliotherapy Cognitive Behavioral Depression Prevention Programs on Adolescents’ Depressive Symptoms and Depressive Disorder Onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Sina; Rohde, Paul; Gau, Jeff M.; Stice, Eric

    2015-01-01

    We investigated factors hypothesized to moderate the effects of cognitive behavioral group-based (CB group) and bibliotherapy depression prevention programs. Using data from two trials (N = 631) wherein adolescents (M age = 15.5, 62% female, 61% Caucasian) with depressive symptoms were randomized into CB group, CB bibliotherapy, or an educational brochure control condition, we evaluated the moderating effects of individual, demographic, and environmental factors on depressive symptom reductions and major depressive disorder (MDD) onset over 2-year follow-up. CB group and bibliotherapy participants had lower depressive symptoms than controls at posttest but these effects did not persist. No MDD prevention effects were present in the merged data. Relative to controls, elevated depressive symptoms and motivation to reduce depression amplified posttest depressive symptom reduction for CB group, and elevated baseline symptoms amplified posttest symptom reduction effects of CB bibliotherapy. Conversely, elevated substance use mitigated the effectiveness of CB group relative to controls on MDD onset over follow-up. Findings suggest that both CB prevention programs are more beneficial for youth with at least moderate depressive symptoms, and that CB group is more effective for youth motivated to reduce their symptoms. Results also imply that substance use reduces the effectiveness of CB group-based depression prevention. PMID:26480199

  8. Moderators of the effects of indicated group and bibliotherapy cognitive behavioral depression prevention programs on adolescents' depressive symptoms and depressive disorder onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Sina; Rohde, Paul; Gau, Jeff M; Stice, Eric

    2015-12-01

    We investigated factors hypothesized to moderate the effects of cognitive behavioral group-based (CB group) and bibliotherapy depression prevention programs. Using data from two trials (N = 631) wherein adolescents (M age = 15.5, 62% female, 61% Caucasian) with depressive symptoms were randomized into CB group, CB bibliotherapy, or an educational brochure control condition, we evaluated the moderating effects of individual, demographic, and environmental factors on depressive symptom reductions and major depressive disorder (MDD) onset over 2-year follow-up. CB group and bibliotherapy participants had lower depressive symptoms than controls at posttest but these effects did not persist. No MDD prevention effects were present in the merged data. Relative to controls, elevated depressive symptoms and motivation to reduce depression amplified posttest depressive symptom reduction for CB group, and elevated baseline symptoms amplified posttest symptom reduction effects of CB bibliotherapy. Conversely, elevated substance use mitigated the effectiveness of CB group relative to controls on MDD onset over follow-up. Findings suggest that both CB prevention programs are more beneficial for youth with at least moderate depressive symptoms, and that CB group is more effective for youth motivated to reduce their symptoms. Results also imply that substance use reduces the effectiveness of CB group-based depression prevention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Rumination and Loneliness Independently Predict Six-Month Later Depression Symptoms among Chinese Elderly in Nursing Homes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Gan

    Full Text Available Previous studies conducted in Western countries independently demonstrated that loneliness and rumination are remarkable risk factors of depression among the elderly in both community and nursing homes. However, knowledge on the relationship between these three constructs among the elderly in Eastern countries is scarce. The current study aims to determine the relationship between loneliness, rumination, and depression among Chinese elderly in nursing homes.A total of 71 elderly participants with an average age of 82.49 years completed this six-month longitudinal study. Physical reports indicated that none of the participants were clinically depressed before the study. At Time 1, their loneliness and rumination were measured using UCLA-8 Loneliness Scale and Ruminative Responses Scale. Six months later, the participants completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale to assess depressive symptoms (Time 2.Multiple regression analysis revealed that both loneliness and rumination at Time 1 were the predictors of depression symptoms at Time 2 among the Chinese elderly in nursing homes. However, in the mediation analysis using PROCESS, the indirect effect between loneliness at Time 1 and depression symptoms at Time 2 was insignificant.Results suggest that previous loneliness and rumination thinking are predictors of future depression symptoms among the Chinese elderly in nursing homes. However, the insignificant mediation further suggests that the differences between loneliness and rumination should be explored in future studies. Findings have important implications for mental health professionals in nursing homes in China.

  10. Seasonality in depressive and anxiety symptoms among primary care patients and in patients with depressive and anxiety disorders; results from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winthorst Wim H

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about seasonality of specific depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms in different patient populations. This study aims to assess seasonal variation of depressive and anxiety symptoms in a primary care population and across participants who were classified in diagnostic groups 1 healthy controls 2 patients with a major depressive disorder, 3 patients with any anxiety disorder and 4 patients with a major depression and any anxiety disorder. Methods Data were used from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA. First, in 5549 patients from the NESDA primary care recruitment population the Kessler-10 screening questionnaire was used and data were analyzed across season in a multilevel linear model. Second, in 1090 subjects classified into four groups according to psychiatric status according to the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, overall depressive symptoms and atypical versus melancholic features were assessed with the Inventory of Depressive Symptoms. Anxiety and fear were assessed with the Beck Anxiety Inventory and the Fear questionnaire. Symptom levels across season were analyzed in a linear regression model. Results In the primary care population the severity of depressive and anxiety symptoms did not show a seasonal pattern. In the diagnostic groups healthy controls and patients with any anxiety disorder, but not patients with a major depressive disorder, showed a small rise in depressive symptoms in winter. Atypical and melancholic symptoms were both elevated in winter. No seasonal pattern for anxiety symptoms was found. There was a small gender related seasonal effect for fear symptoms. Conclusions Seasonal differences in severity or type of depressive and anxiety symptoms, as measured with a general screening instrument and symptom questionnaires, were absent or small in effect size in a primary care population and in patient populations with a major depressive disorder and

  11. Seasonality in depressive and anxiety symptoms among primary care patients and in patients with depressive and anxiety disorders; results from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winthorst, Wim H; Post, Wendy J; Meesters, Ybe; Penninx, Brenda W H J; Nolen, Willem A

    2011-12-19

    Little is known about seasonality of specific depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms in different patient populations. This study aims to assess seasonal variation of depressive and anxiety symptoms in a primary care population and across participants who were classified in diagnostic groups 1) healthy controls 2) patients with a major depressive disorder, 3) patients with any anxiety disorder and 4) patients with a major depression and any anxiety disorder. Data were used from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). First, in 5549 patients from the NESDA primary care recruitment population the Kessler-10 screening questionnaire was used and data were analyzed across season in a multilevel linear model. Second, in 1090 subjects classified into four groups according to psychiatric status according to the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, overall depressive symptoms and atypical versus melancholic features were assessed with the Inventory of Depressive Symptoms. Anxiety and fear were assessed with the Beck Anxiety Inventory and the Fear questionnaire. Symptom levels across season were analyzed in a linear regression model. In the primary care population the severity of depressive and anxiety symptoms did not show a seasonal pattern. In the diagnostic groups healthy controls and patients with any anxiety disorder, but not patients with a major depressive disorder, showed a small rise in depressive symptoms in winter. Atypical and melancholic symptoms were both elevated in winter. No seasonal pattern for anxiety symptoms was found. There was a small gender related seasonal effect for fear symptoms. Seasonal differences in severity or type of depressive and anxiety symptoms, as measured with a general screening instrument and symptom questionnaires, were absent or small in effect size in a primary care population and in patient populations with a major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders.

  12. Differential associations of depressive symptom dimensions with cardio-vascular disease in the community: results from the Gutenberg health study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Michal

    Full Text Available A current model suggested that the somatic symptom dimension accounts for the adverse effect of depression in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD. In order to test this model we sought to determine in a large population-based sample how symptom dimensions of depression are associated with CHD, biomarkers and traditional risk factors. The associations of cognitive and somatic symptom dimensions of depression with CHD, risk factors, endothelial function, and biomarkers of inflammation and myocardial stress were analyzed cross-sectionally in a sample of n = 5000 Mid-Europeans aged 35-74 years from the Gutenberg Health Study (GHS. Only the somatic symptom dimension of depression was associated with CHD, biomarkers (inflammation, vascular function and cardio-vascular risk factors. When multivariable adjustment was applied by demographic and cardiovascular risk factors, the weak associations of the somatic symptom dimension with the biomarkers disappeared. However, the associations of the somatic symptom dimension with CHD, myocardial infarction, obesity, dyslipidemia and family history of myocardial infarction remained. Both dimensions of depression were independently associated with a previous diagnosis of depression and distressed personality (type D. Thus, our results partly confirm current models: Somatic, but not cognitive-affective symptom dimensions are responsible for the association between depression and CHD, inflammation, vascular function and cardiovascular risk factors in the general population. However, our findings challenge the assumptions that somatic depression might be due to inflammation or vascular dysfunction as consequence of progressed atherosclerotic disease. They rather emphasize a close interplay with life-style factors and with a family history of MI.

  13. Paediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Depressive Symptoms: Clinical Correlates and CBT Treatment Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, H M; Lester, K J; Jassi, A; Heyman, I; Krebs, G

    2015-07-01

    Depression frequently co-occurs with paediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), yet the clinical correlates and impact of depression on CBT outcomes remain unclear. The prevalence and clinical correlates of depression were examined in a paediatric specialist OCD-clinic sample (N = 295; Mean = 15 [7 - 18] years, 42 % female), using both dimensional (Beck Depression Inventory-youth; n = 261) and diagnostic (Development and Wellbeing Assessment; n = 127) measures of depression. The impact of depressive symptoms and suspected disorders on post-treatment OCD severity was examined in a sub-sample who received CBT, with or without SSRI medication (N = 100). Fifty-one per-cent of patients reported moderately or extremely elevated depressive symptoms and 26 % (95 % CI: 18 - 34) met criteria for a suspected depressive disorder. Depressive symptoms and depressive disorders were associated with worse OCD symptom severity and global functioning prior to CBT. Individuals with depression were more likely to be female, have had a psychiatric inpatient admission and less likely to be attending school (ps CBT. Depressive symptoms and depressive disorders predicted worse post-treatment OCD severity (βs = 0.19 and 0.26, ps CBT for OCD and is not independently associated with worse outcomes, supporting the recommendation for treatment as usual in the presence of depressive symptoms.

  14. Depressive symptoms and major depressive disorder in patients affected by subclinical hypothyroidism: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demartini, Benedetta; Ranieri, Rebecca; Masu, Annamaria; Selle, Valerio; Scarone, Silvio; Gambini, Orsola

    2014-08-01

    The relationship between subclinical hypothyroidism and depression is still controversial. Our objective was to compare the prevalence of depressive symptoms and major depressive disorder in a population of patients affected by subclinical hypothyroidism and a control group without thyroid disease. The authors enrolled 123 consecutive outpatients affected by subclinical hypothyroidism undergoing follow-up at the endocrinology department of San Paolo Hospital in Milan and 123 controls without thyroid disease under the charge of general physicians.All patients and controls underwent an evaluation by means of a psychiatric interview; Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D); Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS); and serum thyroid stimulating hormone, free T4, and free T3 levels. Patients were also screened for thyroid peroxidase antibodies and thyroglobulin antibodies. Patients affected by subclinical hypothyroidism had a prevalence of depressive symptoms of 63.4% at HAM-D and 64.2% at MADRS; 22 patients (17.9%) had a diagnosis of depressive episode (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision criteria). The control group had a prevalence of depressive symptoms of 27.6% at HAM-D and 29.3% at MADRS, and only seven controls had a diagnosis of depressive episode. The prevalence of depressive symptoms between these two groups was statistically different. This study underlines a strong association between subclinical hypothyroidism and depressive symptoms, which could have some important diagnostic and therapeutic implications in the clinical practice.

  15. Severity of depressive symptoms and accuracy of dietary reporting among obese women with major depressive disorder seeking weight loss treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whited, Matthew C; Schneider, Kristin L; Appelhans, Bradley M; Ma, Yunsheng; Waring, Molly E; DeBiasse, Michele A; Busch, Andrew M; Oleski, Jessica L; Merriam, Philip A; Olendzki, Barbara C; Crawford, Sybil L; Ockene, Ira S; Lemon, Stephenie C; Pagoto, Sherry L

    2014-01-01

    An elevation in symptoms of depression has previously been associated with greater accuracy of reported dietary intake, however this association has not been investigated among individuals with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder. The purpose of this study was to investigate reporting accuracy of dietary intake among a group of women with major depressive disorder in order to determine if reporting accuracy is similarly associated with depressive symptoms among depressed women. Reporting accuracy of dietary intake was calculated based on three 24-hour phone-delivered dietary recalls from the baseline phase of a randomized trial of weight loss treatment for 161 obese women with major depressive disorder. Regression models indicated that higher severity of depressive symptoms was associated with greater reporting accuracy, even when controlling for other factors traditionally associated with reporting accuracy (coefficient  =  0.01 95% CI = 0.01 - 0.02). Seventeen percent of the sample was classified as low energy reporters. Reporting accuracy of dietary intake increases along with depressive symptoms, even among individuals with major depressive disorder. These results suggest that any study investigating associations between diet quality and depression should also include an index of reporting accuracy of dietary intake as accuracy varies with the severity of depressive symptoms.

  16. The interaction of family background and personal education on depressive symptoms in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaan, Barbara

    2014-02-01

    This study assesses the interaction between personal education and family background during childhood on depressive symptoms in later life by applying Ross & Mirowsky's resource substitution and structural amplification theory of health and education. OLS regression models are estimated using data from the "Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe" (SHARE), which covers information on current social and health status as well as retrospective life histories from 20,716 respondents aged 50 or older from thirteen European countries. Higher education helps to overcome the negative consequences of a poor family background. Since people from poor families are less likely to attain higher educational levels, they lack exactly the resource they need in order to overcome the negative consequences their non-prosperous background has on depressive symptoms. Thus, low family background and low personal education amplify each other. Examining the processes described by theory of resource substitution and structural amplification over different age groups from midlife to old-age suggests that the moderating effect of education remains constant over age among people coming from a poor family background. However, there is some evidence for a decrease with age in the buffering effect of a well-off family background on depressive symptoms among the low educated group. Furthermore, the educational gap in depression diverges with age among individuals originating from a well-off family background. Taken together the results cautiously allude to the conclusion that three processes - cumulative (dis-)advantage, age-as-leveler, and persistent inequalities - might take place.

  17. Comparing Cognitive and Somatic Symptoms of Depression in Myocardial Infarction Patients and Depressed Patients in Primary and Mental Health Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewold, Nynke A.; Doornbos, Bennard; Zuidersma, Marij; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Aleman, Andre; de Jonge, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Depression in myocardial infarction patients is often a first episode with a late age of onset. Two studies that compared depressed myocardial infarction patients to psychiatric patients found similar levels of somatic symptoms, and one study reported lower levels of cognitive/affective symptoms in

  18. Acculturative and enculturative stress, depressive symptoms, and maternal warmth: examining within-person relations among Mexican-origin adolescent mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiders, Katharine H; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Jahromi, Laudan B

    2015-02-01

    Mexican-origin adolescent mothers face numerous social challenges during dual-cultural adaptation that are theorized to contribute to greater depressive symptoms. Alongside challenges, there are familial resources that may offer protection. As such, the current study examined the trajectories of depressive symptoms among 204 Mexican-origin adolescent mothers (M age = 16.80, SD = 1.00) across a 4-year period (third trimester of pregnancy, and 10, 24, and 36 months postpartum). Further, we examined the within-person relations of two unique sources of stress experienced during dual-cultural adaptation, acculturative and enculturative stress, and youths' depressive symptoms; we also tested whether adolescent mothers' perceptions of warmth from their own mothers emerged as protective. Adolescent mothers reported a decline in depressive symptoms after the transition to parenthood. Acculturative and enculturative stress emerged as significant positive within-person predictors of depressive symptoms. Maternal warmth emerged as a protective factor in the relation between enculturative stressors and depressive symptoms; however, for acculturative stressors, the protective effect of maternal warmth only emerged for US-born youth. Findings illustrate the multidimensionality of stress experienced during the cultural adaptation process and a potential mechanism for resilience among Mexican-origin adolescent mothers.

  19. Temperament, Character, and Adolescents' Depressive Symptoms: Focusing on Affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Garcia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Positive (PA and negative affect (NA are two separate systems markers of subjective well-being and measures of the state depression (low PA combined with high NA. The present study investigated differences in temperament, character, locus of control, and depressive symptoms (sleep quality, stress, and lack of energy between affective profiles in an adolescent sample. Participants (=304 were categorized into four affective profiles: “self-fulfilling” (high PA, low NA, “high affective” (high PA, high NA, “low affective” (low PA, low NA, and “self-destructive” (low PA, high NA. Personality was measured by the Temperament and Character Inventory and affective profiles by the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule. The “self-fulfilling” profile was characterized by, compared to the other affective profiles, higher levels of sleep quality, less stress and more energy and also higher levels of persistence and a mature character (i.e., high scores in self-directedness and cooperativeness. “Self-destructive” adolescents reported higher levels of external locus of control, high scores in harm avoidance and reward dependence combined with less mature character. The results identify the importance of character maturity in well-being and suggest that depressive state can be positively influenced by promoting positive emotions which appears to be achieved by character development.

  20. Ethnic discrimination and Latino depression: The mediating role of traumatic stress symptoms and alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Lucas; Vallejo, Leticia G

    2015-10-01

    Previous research has established a link between ethnic discrimination and poor mental health, yet the process by which this relationship occurs remains unclear. It has been hypothesized that the potential mechanisms accounting for the negative consequences of ethnic discrimination may be through stress responses and health behaviors (Pascoe & Smart Richman, 2009). The present study sought to examine the role of traumatic stress symptoms and alcohol use in mediating the relationship between ethnic discrimination and depressive symptoms. Two aspects of ethnic discrimination were assessed, namely source of discrimination and reaction to discrimination. The sample for the current study included 244 adult Latinos averaging approximately 40 years of age (SD = 15.29; range 18-85). Participants, which were comprised of mainly women (66%, n = 156), completed a series of paper-and-pencil questionnaires. Multiple mediator analyses revealed that, among U.S.-born but not foreign-born Latinos, both source of discrimination and reaction to discrimination were related to increased traumatic stress symptoms, which, in turn, was associated with depressive symptomatology. The traumatic stress symptoms pathway showed a robust indirect effect while alcohol use was not a statistically significant mediator. These major findings suggest that, while ethnic discrimination has a direct effect on depression, increased traumatic stress can account for this relationship particularly for U.S.-born Latinos. The findings are discussed within a stress and coping framework. (PsycINFO Database Record

  1. Eletroconvulsoterapia na depressão maior: aspectos atuais Electroconvulsive therapy in major depression: current aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Barros Antunes

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A eficácia da eletroconvulsoterapia em tratar sintomas depressivos está estabelecida por meio de inúmeros estudos desenvolvidos durante as últimas décadas. A eletroconvulsoterapia é o tratamento biológico mais efetivo para depressão atualmente disponível. O objetivo deste estudo foi demonstrar o papel da eletroconvulsoterapia no tratamento da depressão e destacar aspectos atuais relativos à sua prática. MÉTODO: Foram revisados na literatura estudos de eficácia, remissão de sintomas, fatores preditores de resposta, assim como aspectos atuais acerca da qualidade de vida, percepção dos pacientes, mecanismo de ação, técnica e prejuízo cognitivos. RESULTADOS: Os principais achados desta revisão foram: 1 a eletroconvulsoterapia é mais efetiva do que qualquer medicação antidepressiva; 2 a remissão da depressão com a eletroconvulsoterapia varia, em geral, de 50 a 80%; 3 Ainda é controverso o efeito da eletroconvulsoterapia nos níveis de fator neurotrófico derivado do cérebro (acho que aqui pode colocar entre parenteses o "BNDF"; 4 a eletroconvulsoterapia tem efeito positivo na melhora da qualidade de vida; 5 os pacientes submetidos à eletroconvulsoterapia, em geral, têm uma percepção positiva do tratamento. CONCLUSÃO: A eletroconvulsoterapia permanece sendo um tratamento altamente eficaz em pacientes com depressão resistente. Com o avanço da sua técnica, a eletroconvulsoterapia tornou-se um procedimento ainda mais seguro e útil tanto para a fase aguda, quanto para a prevenção de novos episódios depressivos.OBJECTIVE: The efficacy of electroconvulsive therapy in treating depressive symptoms has been established by means of innumerable studies developed along the last decades. Electroconvulsive therapy is the most effective biological treatment for depression currently available. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the role of electroconvulsive therapy in the treatment of depression and

  2. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Structure in Injured Children: Functional Impairment and Depression Symptoms in a Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassam-Adams, Nancy; Marsac, Meghan L.; Cirilli, Carla

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine the factor structure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in children and adolescents who have experienced an acute single-incident trauma, associations between PTSD symptom clusters and functional impairment, and the specificity of PTSD symptoms in relation to depression and general distress. Method: Examined…

  3. Subclinical depressive symptoms and continued cannabis use: predictors of negative outcomes in first episode psychosis.

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    Itxaso González-Ortega

    Full Text Available Although depressive symptoms in first episode psychosis have been associated with cannabis abuse, their influence on the long-term functional course of FEP patients who abuse cannabis is unknown. The aims of the study were to examine the influence of subclinical depressive symptoms on the long-term outcome in first episode-psychosis patients who were cannabis users and to assess the influence of these subclinical depressive symptoms on the ability to quit cannabis use.64 FEP patients who were cannabis users at baseline were followed-up for 5 years. Two groups were defined: (a patients with subclinical depressive symptoms at least once during follow-up (DPG, and (b patients without subclinical depressive symptoms during follow-up (NDPG. Psychotic symptoms were measured using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS, depressive symptoms using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17, and psychosocial functioning was assessed using the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF. A linear mixed-effects model was used to analyze the combined influence of cannabis use and subclinical depressive symptomatology on the clinical outcome.Subclinical depressive symptoms were associated with continued abuse of cannabis during follow-up (β= 4.45; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.78 to 11.17; P = .001 and with worse functioning (β = -5.50; 95% CI: -9.02 to -0.33; P = .009.Subclinical depressive symptoms and continued cannabis abuse during follow-up could be predictors of negative outcomes in FEP patients.

  4. The Interplay of Genetics, Behavior, and Pain with Depressive Symptoms in the Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinedinst, N. Jennifer; Resnick, Barbara; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M.; Dorsey, Susan G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of Study: About 25% of older adults suffer from depressive symptoms. Commonly studied candidate genes associated with depression include those that influence serotonin (SLC6A4), dopamine (COMT), or neuroplasticity (BDNF, NTRK3). However, the majority of candidate gene studies do not consider the interplay of genetics, demographic, clinical, and behavioral factors and how they jointly contribute to depressive symptoms among older adults. The purpose of this study was to gain a more comprehensive understanding of depressive symptoms among older adults. Design and methods: In this descriptive study, demographic, behavioral, and clinical characteristics (age, gender, comorbidities, volunteering, physical activity, pain, and fear of falling) were obtained via interview of 114 residents in a continuing care retirement community. Peripheral whole blood was collected for DNA extraction. We examined common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the aforementioned genes using path analyses. Results: SNPs in the NTRK3 gene, pain, physical activity, and fear of falling were directly associated with depressive symptoms in older adults. Those who had polymorphisms in the NTRK3 gene, pain, fear of falling, and were less physically active were more likely to exhibit depressive symptoms. None of the SNPs in SLC6A4, COMT, or BDNF genes were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. Implications: Our use of a path analysis to examine a biopsychosocial model of depressive symptoms provided the opportunity to describe a comprehensive clinical picture of older adults at risk for depressive symptoms. Thus, interventions could be implemented to identify older adults at risk for depressive symptoms. PMID:26055783

  5. Subclinical depressive symptoms and continued cannabis use: predictors of negative outcomes in first episode psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Ortega, Itxaso; Alberich, Susana; Echeburúa, Enrique; Aizpuru, Felipe; Millán, Eduardo; Vieta, Eduard; Matute, Carlos; González-Pinto, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Although depressive symptoms in first episode psychosis have been associated with cannabis abuse, their influence on the long-term functional course of FEP patients who abuse cannabis is unknown. The aims of the study were to examine the influence of subclinical depressive symptoms on the long-term outcome in first episode-psychosis patients who were cannabis users and to assess the influence of these subclinical depressive symptoms on the ability to quit cannabis use. 64 FEP patients who were cannabis users at baseline were followed-up for 5 years. Two groups were defined: (a) patients with subclinical depressive symptoms at least once during follow-up (DPG), and (b) patients without subclinical depressive symptoms during follow-up (NDPG). Psychotic symptoms were measured using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), depressive symptoms using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS)-17, and psychosocial functioning was assessed using the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF). A linear mixed-effects model was used to analyze the combined influence of cannabis use and subclinical depressive symptomatology on the clinical outcome. Subclinical depressive symptoms were associated with continued abuse of cannabis during follow-up (β= 4.45; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.78 to 11.17; P = .001) and with worse functioning (β = -5.50; 95% CI: -9.02 to -0.33; P = .009). Subclinical depressive symptoms and continued cannabis abuse during follow-up could be predictors of negative outcomes in FEP patients.

  6. Change in self-esteem predicts depressive symptoms at follow-up after intensive multimodal psychotherapy for major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinger, Ulrike; Ehrenthal, Johannes C; Nikendei, Christoph; Schauenburg, Henning

    2017-01-08

    Reduced self-esteem is a core symptom of depression, but few studies have investigated within-treatment change of self-esteem as a predictor of long-term outcome in depression. This study investigated change in self-esteem during 8 weeks of multimodal, psychodynamically oriented psychotherapy for 40 depressed patients and tested whether it would predict outcome 6 months after termination. Data was drawn from a randomized clinical pilot trial on day-clinic versus inpatient psychotherapy for depression. Findings supported the association between change in self-esteem and follow-up depression severity, even when controlling for within-treatment symptom change. Change in self-esteem was not related to overall symptoms and interpersonal problems at follow-up. Thus, change in self-esteem may be an important variable in preventing relapse for depression. Self-esteem is related to depressive symptoms and interpersonal problems. Improvement of self-esteem during psychotherapy correlates with improvements of symptoms and interpersonal problems. Change of self-esteem during psychotherapy predicts depressive symptoms 6 months after termination of therapy. When treating depressed patients, psychotherapists should work towards an improvement of self-esteem in order to prevent relapse. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Family criticism and depressive symptoms in older adult primary care patients: optimism and pessimism as moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Jameson K; Walker, Kristin L; Wilkinson, Ross B; Lyness, Jeffrey M

    2014-06-01

    Depression is a significant global public health burden, and older adults may be particularly vulnerable to its effects. Among other risk factors, interpersonal conflicts, such as perceived criticism from family members, can increase risk for depressive symptoms in this population. We examined family criticism as a predictor of depressive symptoms and the potential moderating effect of optimism and pessimism. One hundred five older adult, primary care patients completed self-report measures of family criticism, optimism and pessimism, and symptoms of depression. We hypothesized that optimism and pessimism would moderate the relationship between family criticism and depressive symptoms. In support of our hypothesis, those with greater optimism and less pessimism reported fewer depressive symptoms associated with family criticism. Therapeutic enhancement of optimism and amelioration of pessimism may buffer against depression in patients experiencing familial criticism. Copyright © 2014 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Comorbid depression in dementia on psychogeriatric nursing home wards: which symptoms are prominent?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkaik, R.; Francke, A.L.; Meijel, B. van; Ribbe, M.W.; Bensing, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide insight into the prevalence and clinically relevant symptoms of comorbid depression among dementia patients in psychogeriatric nursing home wards, to enhance depression recognition. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analyses of multicenter diagnostic data. SETTING: Psychogeriatric wards

  9. Longitudinal Relationship of Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms With Dyslipidemia and Abdominal Obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dortland, Arianne K. B. van Reedt; Giltay, Erik J.; van Veen, Tineke; Zitman, Frans G.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Previous research indicates that patients with severe symptoms of depression or anxiety are prone toward the development of dyslipidemia and abdominal obesity. We sought to study these associations longitudinally. Methods: Among 2126 Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety participant

  10. Externalizing symptoms moderate associations among interpersonal skills, parenting, and depressive symptoms in adolescents seeking mental health treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Erin M; Donenberg, Geri R; Emerson, Erin; Wilson, Helen W; Javdani, Shabnam

    2015-04-01

    Adolescents' interpersonal skills are associated with fewer teen depressive symptoms and more positive parenting, but little is known about how teens' externalizing problems moderate these relationships. This study examines links among teens' interpersonal skills, parenting, and withdrawn-depressed symptoms in adolescents seeking outpatient psychiatric treatment with elevated or non-elevated externalizing problems. Adolescents (N = 346; 42 % female; 61 % African-American) ages 12-19 years old (M = 14.9; SD = 1.8) and parents completed assessments at baseline and 6 months. At baseline parents and teens reported on teen withdrawn-depressed and externalizing symptoms, and were observed interacting to assess teen interpersonal skills. At 6 months adolescents reported on parenting, and parents and teens reported on teen withdrawn-depressed symptoms. Structural equation modeling tested two models (one with teen reported symptoms and one with parent reported symptoms). Model fit was better for youth with elevated externalizing problems regardless of reporter. For youth with elevated externalizing problems, baseline teen positive interpersonal skills were not directly associated with 6-month withdrawn-depressed symptoms, but more positive parenting was associated with fewer withdrawn-depressed symptoms. In the teen report model, more positive teen interpersonal skills were associated with more positive parenting, and there was a trend for parenting to indirectly account for the relationship between interpersonal skills and withdrawn-depressed symptoms. The findings extend research on the role of externalizing problems in teens' depression risk. Interventions for depression that target interpersonal skills may be particularly effective in youth with elevated externalizing problems.

  11. Amygdala Activity During Autobiographical Memory Recall in Depressed and Vulnerable Individuals: Association With Symptom Severity and Autobiographical Overgenerality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kymberly D; Siegle, Greg J; Bodurka, Jerzy; Drevets, Wayne C

    2016-01-01

    In healthy individuals, autobiographical memory recall is biased toward positive and away from negative events, while the opposite is found in depressed individuals. This study examined amygdala activity during autobiographical memory recall as a putative mechanism underlying biased memory recall and depressive symptoms in currently depressed adults and two vulnerable populations: individuals remitted from depression and otherwise healthy individuals at high familial risk of developing depression. Identification of such vulnerability factors could enable interception strategies that prevent depression onset. Sixty healthy control subjects, 45 unmedicated currently depressed individuals, 25 unmedicated remitted depressed individuals, and 30 individuals at high familial risk of developing depression underwent functional MRI while recalling autobiographical memories in response to emotionally valenced cue words. Amygdala reactivity and connectivity with anatomically defined amygdala regions were examined. During positive recall, depressed participants exhibited significantly decreased left amygdala activity and decreased connectivity with regions of the salience network compared with the other groups. During negative recall, control subjects had significantly decreased left amygdala activity compared with the other groups, while depressed participants exhibited increased amygdala connectivity with the salience network. In depressed participants, left amygdala activity during positive recall correlated significantly with depression severity (r values >-0.38) and percent of positive specific memories recalled (r values >0.59). The results suggest that left amygdala hyperactivity during negative autobiographical recall is a trait-like marker of depression, as both vulnerable groups showed activity similar to the depressed group, while amygdala hypoactivity during positive autobiographical recall is a state marker of depression manifesting in active disease. Treatments

  12. Marital and Cohabitation Dissolution and Parental Depressive Symptoms in Fragile Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamp Dush, Claire M

    2013-02-01

    The consequences of divorce are pronounced for parents of young children, and cohabitation dissolution is increasing in this population and has important implications. The mental health consequences of union dissolution were examined, by union type and parental gender, using the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (n = 1,998 for mothers and 1,764 for fathers). Overall, cohabitation and marital dissolution were both associated with increased maternal and paternal depressive symptoms, though for married mothers, depressive symptoms returned to predissolution levels with time. Difference-in-difference estimates indicated no differences in the magnitude of the increase in depressive symptoms by type of dissolution, though pooled difference models suggested that married fathers increased in depressive symptoms more than cohabiting fathers. Potential time-variant mediators did not account for these associations, though greater family chaos was associated with increased maternal depressive symptoms, and decreased social support and father - child contact were associated with increased paternal depressive symptoms.

  13. Chinese high school students' academic stress and depressive symptoms: gender and school climate as moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yangyang; Lu, Zuhong

    2012-10-01

    In a sample of 368 Chinese high school students, the present study examined the different effects of Chinese high school students' academic stress on their depressive symptoms and the moderating effects of gender and students' perceptions of school climate on the relationships between their academic stress and depressive symptoms. Regression mixture model identified two different kinds of subgroups in the effects of students' academic stress on their depressive symptoms. One subgroup contained 90% of the students. In this subgroup, the students' perceptions of academic stress from lack of achievement positively predicted their depressive symptoms. For the other 10% of the students, academic stress did not significantly predict their depressive symptoms. Next, multinomial regression analysis revealed that girls or students who had high levels of achievement orientation were more likely to be in the first subgroup. The findings suggested that gender and students' perceptions of school climate could moderate the relationships between Chinese high school students' academic stress and their depressive symptoms.

  14. Gender-specific pathways between maternal depressive symptoms, family discord, and adolescent adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, P T; Windle, M

    1997-07-01

    Relations among maternal depressive symptoms, family discord, and adolescent psychological adjustment were examined in a sample of 443 middle adolescents and their mothers. Histories of maternal depressive symptoms, gathered at 3 occasions with 6-month intervals, were related to subsequent adolescent reports of depressive symptoms, conduct problems, and academic difficulties for girls but not for boys. Mediational tests indicated that girls' greater vulnerability to family discord (e.g., marital discord, low family intimacy, parenting impairments) accounted for the impact of maternal depressive symptoms on their social and emotional adjustment. Analyses suggest that family discord is a strong mediator in the development of girls' conduct disturbances and a modest mediator of girls' depressive symptoms. Results are discussed within a framework that integrates interpersonal models of parental depressive symptoms with the gender intensification hypothesis.

  15. The association of depressive symptoms with inflammatory factors and adipokines in middle-aged and older Chinese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Pan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies in Western populations find that depression is associated with inflammation and obesity. The present study aimed to evaluate the relation of depressive symptoms with inflammatory factors and adipose-derived adipokines in middle-aged and older Chinese. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Data were from 3289 community residents aged 50-70 from Beijing and Shanghai who participated in the Nutrition and Health of Aging Population in China project. Depressive symptoms were defined as a Center for Epidemiological Studies of Depression Scale (CES-D score of 16 or higher. Plasma concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP, interleukin-6 (IL-6, adiponectin, resistin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 and retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4 were measured. Of the 3289 participants, 312 (9.5% suffered from current depressive symptoms. IL-6 level was higher in participants with depressive symptoms compared to their counterparts in the crude analyses (1.17 vs. 1.05 pg/mL, p = 0.023 and this association lost statistical significance after multiple adjustments (1.13 vs. 1.10 pg/mL, p = 0.520. Depressive symptoms were not associated with increased mean levels of any other inflammatory factors or adipokines in the unadjusted or adjusted analyses. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We found no evidence that depressive symptoms were associated with inflammatory factors and adipokines in the middle-aged and older Chinese populations. Prospective studies and studies in clinically diagnosed patients are needed to confirm our results and clarify the relation of depression with inflammatory factors and adipokines.

  16. Intake of dairy products and calcium and prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy in Japan: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Y; Tanaka, K; Okubo, H; Sasaki, S; Arakawa, M

    2015-02-01

    To examine the relationship between the intake of dairy products and calcium and the prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Cross-sectional study. Kyushu Okinawa Maternal and Child Health Study (KOMCHS). A cohort of 1745 pregnant Japanese women. Dietary intake during the preceding month was assessed using a self-administered diet history questionnaire. Scores of 16 or higher on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale denoted depressive symptoms. Adjustment was made for age, gestation, region of residence, number of children, family structure, history of depression, family history of depression, smoking, secondhand smoke exposure at home and at work, job type, household income, education, and body mass index. In our analyses regarding dairy products in general, adjustment was also made for fish intake; in our analysis regarding calcium, adjustment was also made for the intake of saturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid plus docosahexaenoic acid, and vitamin D. Depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Higher intake levels of yogurt and calcium were independently related to a lower prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy: the adjusted odds ratios between extreme quartiles were 0.69 (95% CI 0.48-0.99, P for trend = 0.03) and 0.59 (95% CI 0.40-0.88, P for trend = 0.006), respectively. No relationships were observed between the intake of all dairy products, milk, or cheese and depressive symptoms during pregnancy. The current results suggest that a higher intake of yogurt and calcium may be associated with a lower prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  17. Intimate partner violence against adult women and its association with major depressive disorder, depressive symptoms and postpartum depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beydoun, Hind A; Beydoun, May A; Kaufman, Jay S; Lo, Bruce; Zonderman, Alan B

    2012-09-01

    To date, few systematic reviews of observational studies have been conducted to comprehensively evaluate the co-morbidity of intimate partner violence (IPV) and specific depression outcomes in women. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we summarize the extant literature and estimate the magnitude of the association between IPV and key depressive outcomes (elevated depressive symptoms, diagnosed major depressive disorder and postpartum depression). PubMed (January 1, 1980-December 31, 2010) searches of English-language observational studies were conducted. Most of the selected 37 studies had cross-sectional population-based designs, focused on elevated depressive symptoms and were conducted in the United States. Most studies suggested moderate or strong positive associations between IPV and depression. Our meta-analysis suggested two to three-fold increased risk of major depressive disorder and 1.5-2-fold increased risk of elevated depressive symptoms and postpartum depression among women exposed to intimate partner violence relative to non-exposed women. A sizable proportion (9%-28%) of major depressive disorder, elevated depressive symptoms, and postpartum depression can be attributed to lifetime exposure to IPV. In an effort to reduce the burden of depression, continued research is recommended for evaluating IPV preventive strategies.

  18. Depression in Parkinson Disease: Current Understanding and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Hao Chen

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Depression has a negative impact on activities of daily living, cognitive performance, and quality of life. Despite the high prevalence of depressive symptoms in Parkinson disease (PD, this important clinical feature is under-recognized by physicians. Effective diagnosis, assessment and treatment of depression are, therefore, important aspects of PD management. In this article, we review the literature concerning depression associated with PD, paying specific attention to clinical presentation, diagnosis, etiology, and the principles of management and treatment. The efficacy and safety of antidepressants must rely on empiric assessments of known risks and putative benefits to guide treatment decisions.

  19. Depressive symptoms, self-esteem, HIV symptom management self-efficacy and self-compassion in people living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eller, L S; Rivero-Mendez, M; Voss, J; Chen, W-T; Chaiphibalsarisdi, P; Iipinge, S; Johnson, M O; Portillo, C J; Corless, I B; Sullivan, K; Tyer-Viola, L; Kemppainen, J; Rose, C Dawson; Sefcik, E; Nokes, K; Phillips, J C; Kirksey, K; Nicholas, P K; Wantland, D; Holzemer, W L; Webel, A R; Brion, J M

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to examine differences in self-schemas between persons living with HIV/AIDS with and without depressive symptoms, and the degree to which these self-schemas predict depressive symptoms in this population. Self-schemas are beliefs about oneself and include self-esteem, HIV symptom management self-efficacy, and self-compassion. Beck's cognitive theory of depression guided the analysis of data from a sample of 1766 PLHIV from the USA and Puerto Rico. Sixty-five percent of the sample reported depressive symptoms. These symptoms were significantly (p ≤ 0.05), negatively correlated with age (r = -0.154), education (r = -0.106), work status (r = -0.132), income adequacy (r = -0.204, self-esteem (r = -0.617), HIV symptom self-efficacy (r = - 0.408), and self-kindness (r = - 0.284); they were significantly, positively correlated with gender (female/transgender) (r = 0.061), white or Hispanic race/ethnicity (r = 0.047) and self-judgment (r = 0.600). Fifty-one percent of the variance (F = 177.530 (df = 1524); p self-esteem, HIV symptom self-efficacy, and self-judgment. The strongest predictor of depressive symptoms was self-judgment. Results lend support to Beck's theory that those with negative self-schemas are more vulnerable to depression and suggest that clinicians should evaluate PLHIV for negative self-schemas. Tailored interventions for the treatment of depressive symptoms in PLHIV should be tested and future studies should evaluate whether alterations in negative self-schemas are the mechanism of action of these interventions and establish causality in the treatment of depressive symptoms in PLHIV.

  20. The Temporal Sequence of Social Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms following Interpersonal Stressors during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jessica L.; Potter, Carrie M.; Olino, Thomas M.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Heimberg, Richard G.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2015-01-01

    Social anxiety and depressive symptoms dramatically increase and frequently co-occur during adolescence. Although research indicates that general interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and familial emotional maltreatment predict symptoms of social anxiety and depression, it remains unclear how these stressors contribute to the sequential development of these internalizing symptoms. Thus, the present study examined the sequential development of social anxiety and depressive symptoms following the occurrence of interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and familial emotional maltreatment. Participants included 410 early adolescents (53% female; 51% African American; Mean age =12.84 years) who completed measures of social anxiety and depressive symptoms at three time points (Times 1–3), as well as measures of general interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and emotional maltreatment at Time 2. Path analyses revealed that interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and emotional maltreatment predicted both depressive and social anxiety symptoms concurrently. However, depressive symptoms significantly mediated the pathway from interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and familial emotional maltreatment to subsequent levels of social anxiety symptoms. In contrast, social anxiety did not mediate the relationship between these stressors and subsequent depressive symptoms. There was no evidence of sex or racial differences in these mediational pathways. Findings suggest that interpersonal stressors, including the particularly detrimental stressors of peer victimization and familial emotional maltreatment, may predict both depressive and social anxiety symptoms; however, adolescents who have more immediate depressogenic reactions may be at greater risk for later development of symptoms of social anxiety. PMID:26142495

  1. The Temporal Sequence of Social Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms Following Interpersonal Stressors During Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jessica L; Potter, Carrie M; Olino, Thomas M; Abramson, Lyn Y; Heimberg, Richard G; Alloy, Lauren B

    2016-04-01

    Social anxiety and depressive symptoms dramatically increase and frequently co-occur during adolescence. Although research indicates that general interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and familial emotional maltreatment predict symptoms of social anxiety and depression, it remains unclear how these stressors contribute to the sequential development of these internalizing symptoms. Thus, the present study examined the sequential development of social anxiety and depressive symptoms following the occurrence of interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and familial emotional maltreatment. Participants included 410 early adolescents (53% female; 51% African American; Mean age =12.84 years) who completed measures of social anxiety and depressive symptoms at three time points (Times 1-3), as well as measures of general interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and emotional maltreatment at Time 2. Path analyses revealed that interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and emotional maltreatment predicted both depressive and social anxiety symptoms concurrently. However, depressive symptoms significantly mediated the pathway from interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and familial emotional maltreatment to subsequent levels of social anxiety symptoms. In contrast, social anxiety did not mediate the relationship between these stressors and subsequent depressive symptoms. There was no evidence of sex or racial differences in these mediational pathways. Findings suggest that interpersonal stressors, including the particularly detrimental stressors of peer victimization and familial emotional maltreatment, may predict both depressive and social anxiety symptoms; however, adolescents who have more immediate depressogenic reactions may be at greater risk for later development of symptoms of social anxiety.

  2. Comparing cognitive and somatic symptoms of depression in myocardial infarction patients and depressed patients in primary and mental health care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nynke A Groenewold

    Full Text Available Depression in myocardial infarction patients is often a first episode with a late age of onset. Two studies that compared depressed myocardial infarction patients to psychiatric patients found similar levels of somatic symptoms, and one study reported lower levels of cognitive/affective symptoms in myocardial infarction patients. We hypothesized that myocardial infarction patients with first depression onset at a late age would experience fewer cognitive/affective symptoms than depressed patients without cardiovascular disease. Combined data from two large multicenter depression studies resulted in a sample of 734 depressed individuals (194 myocardial infarction, 214 primary care, and 326 mental health care patients. A structured clinical interview provided information about depression diagnosis. Summed cognitive/affective and somatic symptom levels were compared between groups using analysis of covariance, with and without adjusting for the effects of recurrence and age of onset. Depressed myocardial infarction and primary care patients reported significantly lower cognitive/affective symptom levels than mental health care patients (F (2,682 = 6.043, p = 0.003. Additional analyses showed that the difference between myocardial infarction and mental health care patients disappeared after adjusting for age of onset but not recurrence of depression. These group differences were also supported by data-driven latent class analyses. There were no significant group differences in somatic symptom levels. Depression after myocardial infarction appears to have a different phenomenology than depression observed in mental health care. Future studies should investigate the etiological factors predictive of symptom dimensions in myocardial infarction and late-onset depression patients.

  3. Current depression as a potential barrier to health care utilization in adult cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheruvu, Vinay K; Oancea, S Cristina

    2016-10-01

    Depression in cancer survivors is a major concern and is associated with poor health related quality of life (HRQOL). Delaying or forgoing care due to depression may further augment poor HRQOL. Although several studies have documented depression as a barrier to health care utilization in non-cancer populations, the impact of current depression on health care utilization among adult cancer survivors (ACS) has not been fully elucidated. The objective of this study was to examine the association between current depression and health care utlization among ACS. Data from the 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System involving ACS were used in this study. The Patient Health Questionnaire 8 (PHQ-8) item scale was used to measure current depression. Two indicators of health care utilization were examined as outcomes of interest: cost as a barrier to medical care and not having a routine care. Logistic regression models were used to examine the association between current depression and health care utilization. Overall, 13.0% of ACS reported symptoms of current depression. Despite no differences in having access to care, current depression in ACS was a significant barrier to health care utilization: cost as a barrier to medical care (AOR: 5.3 [95% CI: 3.1-9.1]), and not having a routine care (AOR: 2.0 [95% CI: 1.2-3.3]). Our findings have implications for future studies to further understand the association between depression and health care utlization among ACS, its impact on their overall wellbeing, and efforts to detect and treat depression in ACS. Routine assessment of depression in ACS and effective treatment interventions may aid in seeking timely and appropriate medical care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Depressive Symptoms, Anatomical Region, and Clinical Outcomes for Patients Seeking Outpatient Physical Therapy for Musculoskeletal Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado, Rogelio A.; Beneciuk, Jason M.; Valencia, Carolina; Werneke, Mark W.; Hart, Dennis L.

    2011-01-01

    Background Clinical guidelines advocate the routine identification of depressive symptoms for patients with pain in the lumbar or cervical spine, but not for other anatomical regions. Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and impact of depressive