WorldWideScience

Sample records for current deferred operating

  1. Deferred Warping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuth, Martin; Bender, Jan; Goesele, Michael; Kuijper, Arjan

    2016-03-18

    We introduce deferred warping, a novel approach for real-time deformation of 3D objects attached to an animated or manipulated surface. Our target application is virtual prototyping of garments where 2D pattern modeling is combined with 3D garment simulation which allows an immediate validation of the design. The technique works in two steps: First, the surface deformation of the target object is determined and the resulting transformation field is stored as a matrix texture. Then the matrix texture is used as look-up table to transform a given geometry onto a deformed surface. Splitting the process in two steps yields a large flexibility since different attachment types can be realized by simply defining specific mapping functions. Our technique can directly handle complex topology changes within the surface. We demonstrate a fast implementation in the vertex shading stage allowing the use of highly decorated surfaces with millions of triangles in real-time.

  2. 12 CFR 615.5209 - Deferred-tax assets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Capital Adequacy § 615.5209 Deferred-tax assets. For purposes of calculating capital ratios under this part, deferred-tax assets are subject to the conditions... deferred-tax assets, net of any valuation allowance, from its assets and its total capital that is equal...

  3. A New Deferred Sentencing Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. K. Chakravarti

    1968-10-01

    Full Text Available A new deferred sentencing scheme resembling double sampling scheme has been suggested from viewpoint of operational and administrative. It is recommended particularly when the inspection is destructive. The O.C. curves of the scheme for two sample sizes of 5 and 10 have been given.

  4. Influence of Current Transformer Saturation on Operation of Current Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Romaniouk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the influence of instrument current transformer errors on operation of current protection of power supply diagram elements has been carried out in the paper. The paper shows the influence of an aperiodic component of transient current and secondary load on current  transformer errors.Peculiar operational features of measuring elements of electromechanical and microprocessor current protection with their joint operation with electromagnetic current transformers have been analyzed in the paper.

  5. [Deferred breast reconstruction - soul surgery?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kydlíček, Tomáš; Třešková, Inka; Třeška, Vladislav; Holubec, Luboš

    2013-01-01

    The loss or mutilation of a breast as a result of surgical treatment of neoplastic disease always represents a negative impact on a woman's psyche and negatively influences the quality of the woman's remaining life. The goal of our work was to implement deferred breast reconstruction into routine practice and the objectification of the influence of reconstruction on bodily integrity, quality of life, and the feeling of satisfaction in women. Women in remission from neoplastic disease after a radical mastectomy were indicated for breast reconstruction. Between January 2002 and December 2011 deferred breast reconstruction was carried out 174 × on 163 women, with an average age of 49.2 and an age range of 29-67 years. The most frequently used reconstruction method was a simple gel augmentation of the breast or a Becker expander/implant - 51 (29.3%) and 37 (21.3%), or in combination with a lateral thoracodorsal flap (31; 17.8% and 47; 27%); reconstruction using a free DIEP flap was carried out 7 × (4%). Complications occurred in 19 operations (10.9%) with a dominance of inflammation and pericapsular fibrosis, in a subjective analysis, satisfaction with the results prevailed, along with an increased quality of life after reconstruction. A growing number of deferred breast reconstructions, women's satisfaction with the results, the positive influence of renewed bodily integrity on the feeling of life satisfaction and the quality of life have elevated breast reconstructions to a qualitatively higher level.

  6. Development of underground-mine cost-estimating equations. [Dependence of initial capital cost, deferred capital cost and annual operating cost on region, annual mine output and seam depth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-06

    Table 3.3 summarizes the initial capital, deferred capital, and operating costs (in millions of 1980 dollars) for the four regionally-based underground model mines. The initial capital is divided into two components, fixed and variable. The fixed component is just the investment cost for surface facilities, which is assumed to be independent of mine size. The rest of the initial capital cost is associated with production (primarily face-related) and is assumed to vary linearly with mine size (i.e., annual output). There exists a concern that deferred capital costs will change due to entry mode. However, the installations concerned primarily with this point are depreciated off over the mine life and are not targeted for replacement. Therefore, deferred capital costs will not change significantly with entry mode changes or seam depth. In conclusion, it is our feeling that, within the resources of this project, development of cost adjustment factors relating productivity to various supply regions and seam heights is not practical. Assuming that productivity and, therefore, cost is independent of seam height will introduce errors into the system; however, their extent should be minimized by the incorporation of multiple model mines into the RAMC. Lastly, the relationship presented in this memorandum for depth of cover should be used in the RAMC.

  7. Current and Future Flight Operating Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cudmore, Alan

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the current real time operating system (RTOS) type in use with current flight systems. A new RTOS model is described, i.e. the process model. Included is a review of the challenges of migrating from the classic RTOS to the Process Model type.

  8. Deferred Compensation Becomes More Common

    Science.gov (United States)

    June, Audrey Williams

    2006-01-01

    A key part of the compensation package for some college and university presidents is money that they do not receive in their paychecks. Formally known as deferred compensation, such payments can take many forms, including supplemental retirement pay, severance pay, or even bonuses. With large institutions leading the way, deferred compensation has…

  9. Pulsed feedback defers cellular differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe H Levine

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental signals induce diverse cellular differentiation programs. In certain systems, cells defer differentiation for extended time periods after the signal appears, proliferating through multiple rounds of cell division before committing to a new fate. How can cells set a deferral time much longer than the cell cycle? Here we study Bacillus subtilis cells that respond to sudden nutrient limitation with multiple rounds of growth and division before differentiating into spores. A well-characterized genetic circuit controls the concentration and phosphorylation of the master regulator Spo0A, which rises to a critical concentration to initiate sporulation. However, it remains unclear how this circuit enables cells to defer sporulation for multiple cell cycles. Using quantitative time-lapse fluorescence microscopy of Spo0A dynamics in individual cells, we observed pulses of Spo0A phosphorylation at a characteristic cell cycle phase. Pulse amplitudes grew systematically and cell-autonomously over multiple cell cycles leading up to sporulation. This pulse growth required a key positive feedback loop involving the sporulation kinases, without which the deferral of sporulation became ultrasensitive to kinase expression. Thus, deferral is controlled by a pulsed positive feedback loop in which kinase expression is activated by pulses of Spo0A phosphorylation. This pulsed positive feedback architecture provides a more robust mechanism for setting deferral times than constitutive kinase expression. Finally, using mathematical modeling, we show how pulsing and time delays together enable "polyphasic" positive feedback, in which different parts of a feedback loop are active at different times. Polyphasic feedback can enable more accurate tuning of long deferral times. Together, these results suggest that Bacillus subtilis uses a pulsed positive feedback loop to implement a "timer" that operates over timescales much longer than a cell cycle.

  10. A CMOS current-mode operational amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaulberg, Thomas

    1993-01-01

    A fully differential-input, differential-output, current-mode operational amplifier (COA) is described. The amplifier utilizes three second-generation current conveyors (CCIIs) as the basic building blocks. It can be configured to provide either a constant gain-bandwidth product in a fully balanced...... current-mode feedback amplifier or a constant bandwidth in a transimpedance feedback amplifier. The amplifier is found to have a gain-bandwidth product of 3 MHz, an offset current of 0.8 μA (signal range ±700 μA), and a (theoretically) unlimited slew rate. The amplifier is realized in a standard CMOS 2...

  11. CMOS Current-mode Operational Amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaulberg, Thomas

    1992-01-01

    A fully differential-input differential-output current-mode operational amplifier (COA) is described. The amplifier utilizes three second generation current-conveyors (CCII) as the basic building blocks. It can be configured to provide either a constant gain-bandwidth product in a fully balanced...... current-mode feedback amplifier or a constant bandwidth in a transimpedance feedback amplifier. The amplifier is found to have a gain bandwidth product of 8 MHz, an offset current of 0.8 ¿A (signal-range ±700¿A) and a (theoretically) unlimited slew-rate. The amplifier is realized in a standard CMOS 2...

  12. Lepton Collider Operation With Constant Currents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wienands, U.; /SLAC

    2006-02-22

    Electron-positron colliders have been operating in a top-up-and-coast fashion with a cycle time depending on the beam life time, typically one or more hours. Each top-up involves ramping detector systems in addition to the actual filling time. The loss in accumulated luminosity may be 20-50%. During the last year, both B-Factories have commissioned a continuous-injection mode of operation in which beam is injected without ramping the detector, thus raising luminosity integration by always operating at peak luminosity. Constant beam currents also reduce thermal drift and trips caused by change in beam loading. To achieve this level of operation, special efforts were made to reduce the injection losses and also to implement gating procedures in the detectors, minimizing dead time. Beam collimation can reduce injection noise but also cause an increase in background rates. A challenge can be determining beam lifetime, important to maintain tuning of the beams.

  13. ISAC target operation with high proton currents

    CERN Document Server

    Dombsky, M; Schmor, P; Lane, M

    2003-01-01

    The TRIUMF-ISAC facility target stations were designed for ISOL target irradiations with up to 100 mu A proton beam currents. Since beginning operation in 1998, ISAC irradiation currents have progressively increased from initial values of approx 1 mu A to present levels of up to 40 mu A on refractory metal foil targets. In addition, refractory carbide targets have operated at currents of up to 15 mu A for extended periods. The 1-40 mu A operational regime is achieved by tailoring each target to the thermal requirements dictated by material properties such as beam power deposition, thermal conductivity and maximum operating temperature of the target material. The number of heat shields on each target can be varied in order to match the effective emissivity of the target surface for the required radiative power dissipation. Targets of different thickness, surface area and volume have been investigated to study the effect of diffusion and effusion delays on the yield of radioisotopes. For yields of short-lived p...

  14. Lepton Collider Operation with Constant Currents

    CERN Document Server

    Wienands, Ulrich

    2005-01-01

    Traditionally, electron-positron colliders have been operating in a top-off-and-coast fashion with a cycle time depending on the beam life time, typically on the order of an hour. Each top-off involves ramping detector systems in addition to the actual filling time. The loss in accumulated luminosity is typically 20-50%. During the last year, both B-Factories have commissioned a continuous-injection mode of operation in which beam is injected without ramping the detector, thus raising luminosity integration by constant operation at peak luminosity. Constant beam currents reduce thermal drift and trips caused by change in beam loading. To achieve this level of operation, special efforts were made to reduce the injection losses and also to implement special gating procedures in the detectors, minimizing dead time. Bunch-injection control decides which bunch to inject into next while maintaining small charge variation between bunches. Beam collimation can reduce injection noise but also cause an increase in back...

  15. Quantum current operators; 3, Commutative quantum current operators semi-infinite construction and functional models

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, J; Ding, Jintai; Feigin, Boris

    1996-01-01

    We construct a commutative current operator $\\bar x^+(z)$ inside $U_q(\\hat{\\frak sl}(2))$. With this operator and the condition of quantum integrability on the quantum current of $U_q(\\hat{\\frak sl}(2))$, we derive the quantization of the semi-infinite construction of integrable modules of The quantization of the functional models for $\\hat{\\frak sl}(2)$ are also given.

  16. 78 FR 13370 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Consideration of Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... children and meet the following guidelines to be considered for deferred action for childhood arrivals: 1... of Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals, Form I-821D; Revision of a Currently Approved Collection... information technology, e.g., permitting electronic submission of responses. Overview of This...

  17. Current feedback operational amplifiers and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Senani, Raj; Singh, A K; Singh, V K

    2013-01-01

    This book describes a variety of current feedback operational amplifier (CFOA) architectures and their applications in analog signal processing/generation. Coverage includes a comprehensive survey of commercially available, off-the-shelf integrated circuit CFOAs, as well as recent advances made on the design of CFOAs, including design innovations for bipolar and CMOS CFOAs.  This book serves as a single-source reference to the topic, as well as a catalog of over 200 application circuits which would be useful not only for students, educators and researchers in apprising them about the recent developments in the area but would also serve as a comprehensive repertoire of useful circuits for practicing engineers who might be interested in choosing an appropriate CFOA-based topology for use in a given application.

  18. 26 CFR 1.404(d)-1T - Questions and answers relating to deductibility of deferred compensation and deferred benefits...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of deferred compensation and deferred benefits for independent contractors. (Temporary) 1.404(d)-1T... Questions and answers relating to deductibility of deferred compensation and deferred benefits for..., deferring the receipt of compensation or providing for deferred benefits for service providers with respect...

  19. Risk model for estimating the 1-year risk of deferred lesion intervention following deferred revascularization after fractional flow reserve assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depta, Jeremiah P; Patel, Jayendrakumar S; Novak, Eric; Gage, Brian F; Masrani, Shriti K; Raymer, David; Facey, Gabrielle; Patel, Yogesh; Zajarias, Alan; Lasala, John M; Amin, Amit P; Kurz, Howard I; Singh, Jasvindar; Bach, Richard G

    2015-02-21

    Although lesions deferred revascularization following fractional flow reserve (FFR) assessment have a low risk of adverse cardiac events, variability in risk for deferred lesion intervention (DLI) has not been previously evaluated. The aim of this study was to develop a prediction model to estimate 1-year risk of DLI for coronary lesions where revascularization was not performed following FFR assessment. A prediction model for DLI was developed from a cohort of 721 patients with 882 coronary lesions where revascularization was deferred based on FFR between 10/2002 and 7/2010. Deferred lesion intervention was defined as any revascularization of a lesion previously deferred following FFR. The final DLI model was developed using stepwise Cox regression and validated using bootstrapping techniques. An algorithm was constructed to predict the 1-year risk of DLI. During a mean (±SD) follow-up period of 4.0 ± 2.3 years, 18% of lesions deferred after FFR underwent DLI; the 1-year incidence of DLI was 5.3%, while the predicted risk of DLI varied from 1 to 40%. The final Cox model included the FFR value, age, current or former smoking, history of coronary artery disease (CAD) or prior percutaneous coronary intervention, multi-vessel CAD, and serum creatinine. The c statistic for the DLI prediction model was 0.66 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.61-0.70). Patients deferred revascularization based on FFR have variation in their risk for DLI. A clinical prediction model consisting of five clinical variables and the FFR value can help predict the risk of DLI in the first year following FFR assessment. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Present Action Spurs Deferred Giving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarc, Jerry A.

    1985-01-01

    Examines ways parishes or schools can promote deferred gifts, payable on death to the parish or institution. Suggests that financial planning seminars and will clinics, planned-giving promotion committees, and dissemination of free pamphlets on estate planning are good ways to promote these bequests. (DMM)

  1. UAVSAR Instrument: Current Operations and Planned Upgrades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yunling; Hensley, Scott; Chao, Roger; Chapin, Elaine; Heavy, Brandon; Jones, Cathleen; Miller, Timothy; Naftel, Chris; Fratello, David

    2011-01-01

    The Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) instrument is a pod-based Lband polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR), specifically designed to acquire airborne repeat track SAR data for differential interferometric measurements. This instrument is currently installed on the NASA Gulfstream- III (G-III) aircraft with precision real-time Global Positioning System (GPS) and a sensor-controlled flight management system for precision repeat-pass data acquisitions. UAVSAR has conducted engineering and preliminary science data flights since October 2007 on the G-III. We are porting the radar to the Global Hawk Unmanned Airborne Vehicle (UAV) to enable long duration/long range data campaigns. We plan to install two radar pods (each with its own active array antenna) under the wings of the Global Hawk to enable the generation of precision topographic maps and single pass polarimetric-interferometry (SPI) providing vertical structure of ice and vegetation. Global Hawk's range of 8000 nm will enable regional surveys with far fewer sorties as well as measurements of remote locations without the need for long and complicated deployments. We are also developing P-band polarimetry and Ka-band single-pass interferometry capabilities on UAVSAR by replacing the radar antenna and front-end electronics to operate at these

  2. How to avoid deferred-compensation troubles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Todd I

    2005-06-01

    Executive compensation packages have long included stock options and deferred compensation plans in order to compete for talent. Last year, Congress passed a law in response to the Enron debacle, in which executives were perceived to be protecting their deferred compensation at the expense of employees, creditors, and investors. The new law is designed to protect companies and their shareholders from being raided by the very executives that guided the company to financial ruin. Physicians who are part owners of medical practices need to know about the changes in the law regarding deferred compensation and how to avoid costly tax penalties. This article discusses how the changes affect medical practices as well as steps physician-owned clinics can take to avoid the risk of penalty, such as freezing deferred compensation and creating a new deferred compensation plan.

  3. Deferred Item and Vehicle Routing within Integrated Networks

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    This paper studies the possible integration of long-haul operations by transportation mode and service level (defined by guaranteed delivery time) for package delivery carriers. Specifically, we consider the allocation of deferred items to excess capacity on alternative modes in ways that allow all transportation modes to be utilized better. Model formulation and solution techniques are discussed. The solution techniques presented produce efficient solutions for large-scale problem instances....

  4. 17 CFR 256.253 - Other deferred credits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other deferred credits. 256... HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 8. Deferred Credits § 256.253 Other deferred credits. This account shall include advance billings and receipts and other deferred credit items, not provided for elsewhere...

  5. Heating a chemical current source which operates at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsumata, T.; Khosikhara, N.

    1983-02-14

    A chamber for catalytic ignition of hydrogen or gasoline is installed in a chemical current source. The isolated heat heats the chemical current source with a low temperature of the environment providing its optimal operational conditions. The fuel is fed into the chamber from a tank or chamber located in the body of the chemical current source.

  6. 26 CFR 1.404(a)-1T - Questions and answers relating to deductibility of deferred compensation and deferred benefits...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of deferred compensation and deferred benefits for employees. (Temporary) 1.404(a)-1T Section 1.404(a... relating to deductibility of deferred compensation and deferred benefits for employees. (Temporary) Q-1... contributions or compensation under section 404(a)? A-1: As amended by the Tax Reform Act of 1984, section 404(b...

  7. Difference equations of quantum current operators and quantum parafermion construction

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, J; Ding, Jintai; Feigin, Boris

    1996-01-01

    For the current realization of the affine quantum groups, a simple comultiplication for the quantum current operators was given by Drinfeld. With this comultiplication, we prove that, for the integrable modules of $U_q(\\hat x^\\pm(zq^{\\pm 2k})$ are vertex operators satisfying certain q-difference equations, and we derive the quantum parafermions of $U_q(\\hat {\\frak sl}(2))$.

  8. Current operators in relativistic few-body systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coester, F.; Klink, W.H.; Polyzou, W.N.

    1995-08-01

    The interpretation of experiments that explore hadron structure with electromagnetic probes requires both a nonperturbative representation of the hadron states and a compatible representation of the current-density operator. Intuitive interpretations depend strongly on the {open_quotes}impulse approximation{close_quotes}, that is, the use of one-body currents. One-body currents, however, cannot satisfy essentially the constraints imposed by the dynamics. In nonrelativistic quantum mechanics the problem of constructing dynamically required interaction currents is well understood and has been solved. Since Galilei transformations are kinematic, only time-translation covariance and current conservation impose dynamical constraints on current operators. These constraints can be satisfied by the well-known construction of so-called {open_quotes}minimal{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}model-independent{close_quotes} currents. Descriptions of hadron structure and of nuclear effects probed at high energies require a relativistic description. In relativistic few-body dynamics, one-body currents are covariant only under the kinematic subgroup of the Poincare group. Full Poincare covariance and current conservation implies dynamically determined interaction currents. The separation of the current operator into impulse current and interaction current depends on the {open_quotes}form of dynamics{close_quotes}, that is on the choice of the kinematic subgroup. The choice of the light-front kinematics has unique advantages not available with other forms of dynamics: (1) a relevant subgroup of the translations is kinematic, (2) initial and final states are related by kinematic Lorentz transformations, (3) the contributions of the individual constituents are related kinematically to the total current. These features were exploited successfully in calculations of deuteron form factors and quark-model form factors of hadrons.

  9. Quantization of edge currents for continuous magnetic operators

    CERN Document Server

    Kellendonk, J

    2003-01-01

    For a magnetic Hamiltonian on a half-plane given as the sum of the Landau operator with Dirichlet boundary conditions and a random potential, a quantization theorem for the edge currents is proven. This shows that the concept of edge channels also makes sense in presence of disorder. Moreover, gaussian bounds on the heat kernel and its covariant derivatives are obtained.

  10. Towards fully non-inductive current drive operation in JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litaudon, X. [Association Euratom-CEA Cadarache, Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Crisanti, F. [Association Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, Centro Ricerche Frascati (Italy); Alper, B. [Euratom-UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon (United Kingdom)] [and others

    2002-01-01

    Quasi steady operation has been achieved at JET in the high confinement regime with Internal Transport Barriers, ITBs. The ITBs' performances are maintained up to 11 s. This duration, much larger than the energy confinement time, is already approaching a current resistive time. The high performance phase is limited only by plant constraints. The radial profiles of the thermal electron and ion pressures have steep gradients typically at mid-plasma radius. A large fraction of non-inductive current (above 80%) is sustained throughout the high performance phase with a poloidal beta exceeding unity. The safety factor profile plays an important role in sustaining the ITB characteristics. In this regime where the self-generated bootstrap current (up to LOMA) represents 50% of the total current, the resistive evolution of the non-monotonic q-profile is slowed down by using off-axis lower hybrid current drive. (authors)

  11. Operator algebra of free conformal currents via twistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelfond, O.A. [Institute of System Research of Russian Academy of Sciences, Nakhimovsky prospect 36-1, 117218 Moscow (Russian Federation); Vasiliev, M.A., E-mail: vasiliev@lpi.ru [I.E. Tamm Department of Theoretical Physics, Lebedev Physical Institute, Leninsky prospect 53, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-11-21

    Operator algebra of (not necessarily free) higher-spin conformal conserved currents in generalized matrix spaces, that include 3d Minkowski space–time as a particular case, is shown to be determined by an associative algebra M of functions on the twistor space. For free conserved currents, M is the universal enveloping algebra of the higher-spin algebra. Proposed construction greatly simplifies computation and analysis of correlators of conserved currents. Generating function for n-point functions of 3d (super)currents of all spins, built from N free constituent massless scalars and spinors, is obtained in a concise form of certain determinant. Our results agree with and extend earlier bulk computations in the HS AdS{sub 4}/CFT{sub 3} framework. Generating function for n-point functions of 4d conformal currents is also presented.

  12. A Comprehensive Comparison of Current Operating Reserve Methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krad, Ibrahim; Ibanez, Eduardo; Gao, Wenzhong

    2016-05-05

    Electric power systems are currently experiencing a paradigm shift from a traditionally static system to a system that is becoming increasingly more dynamic and variable. Emerging technologies are forcing power system operators to adapt to their performance characteristics. These technologies, such as distributed generation and energy storage systems, have changed the traditional idea of a distribution system with power flowing in one direction into a distribution system with bidirectional flows. Variable generation, in the form of wind and solar generation, also increases the variability and uncertainty in the system. As such, power system operators are revisiting the ways in which they treat this evolving power system, namely by modifying their operating reserve methodologies. This paper intends to show an in-depth analysis on different operating reserve methodologies and investigate their impacts on power system reliability and economic efficiency.

  13. 18 CFR 367.2530 - Account, 253, Other deferred credits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Deferred Credits § 367.2530 Account, 253, Other deferred... deferred credits. 367.2530 Section 367.2530 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF...

  14. Design Considerations for CMOS Current Mode Operational Amplifiers and Current Conveyors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Erik

    This dissertation is about CMOS current conveyors and current mode operational amplifiers (opamps). They are generic devices for continuous time signal processing in circuits and systems where signals are represented by currents.Substantial advancements are reported in the dissertation, both...... related to circuit implementations and system configurations and to an analysis of the fundamental limitations of the current mode technique.In the field of system configurations and circuit implementations different configurations of high gain current opamps are introduced and some of the first...... implementations of current mode opamps in CMOS technology are described. Also, current conveyor configurations with multiple outputs and flexible feedback connections from outputs to inputs are introduced. The dissertation includes several examples of circuit configurations ranging from simple class A and class...

  15. 26 CFR 31.3306(r)(2)-1 - Treatment of amounts deferred under certain nonqualified deferred compensation plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... nonqualified deferred compensation plans. 31.3306(r)(2)-1 Section 31.3306(r)(2)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL..., Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.3306(r)(2)-1 Treatment of amounts deferred under certain nonqualified deferred compensation plans. (a) In general. Section 3306(r)(2) provides a special timing rule for the...

  16. Nuclear electromagnetic charge and current operators in Chiral EFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girlanda, Luca [Università del Salento; Marcucci, Laura Elisa [Univ. Pisa; Pastore, Saori [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC; Piarulli, Maria [Department of Physics, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA; Schiavilla, Rocco [Old Dominion U., JLAB; Viviani, Michele

    2013-08-01

    We describe our method for deriving the nuclear electromagnetic charge and current operators in chiral perturbation theory, based on time-ordered perturbation theory. We then discuss possible strategies for fixing the relevant low-energy constants, from the magnetic moments of the deuteron and of the trinucleons, and from the radiative np capture cross sections, and identify a scheme which, partly relying on {Delta} resonance saturation, leads to a reasonable pattern of convergence of the chiral expansion.

  17. The Costs and Benefits of Deferred Giving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Norman S.; Metzler, Howard C.

    It is argued in this book that while there can be a significant payoff for deferred giving programs, it is important to determine their cost effectiveness. Modern business methods of cost accounting, benefits analysis, and actuarial and econometric forecasting are applied to the Pomona College plan, whose study was supported by Lilly Endowment,…

  18. Deferred Tax Assests and Bank Regulatory Capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallemore, J.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: In this study, I examine three issues: (1) whether the probability of bank failure is increasing in the proportion of regulatory capital composed of deferred tax assets (DTA), (2) whether market participants incorporate the increased failure risk associated with the DTA component of capita

  19. The Costs and Benefits of Deferred Giving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Norman S.; Metzler, Howard C.

    It is argued in this book that while there can be a significant payoff for deferred giving programs, it is important to determine their cost effectiveness. Modern business methods of cost accounting, benefits analysis, and actuarial and econometric forecasting are applied to the Pomona College plan, whose study was supported by Lilly Endowment,…

  20. 42 CFR 60.12 - Deferment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... approve the deferment. The lender or holder may rely in good faith upon statements of the borrower and the... to the lender or holder. When those verification statements or other information conflict with... established by the Public Health Service for the payment of uniform levels of financial support for...

  1. Design Considerations for CMOS Current Mode Operational Amplifiers and Current Conveyors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Erik

    This dissertation is about CMOS current conveyors and current mode operational amplifiers (opamps). They are generic devices for continuous time signal processing in circuits and systems where signals are represented by currents.Substantial advancements are reported in the dissertation, both...... implementations of current mode opamps in CMOS technology are described. Also, current conveyor configurations with multiple outputs and flexible feedback connections from outputs to inputs are introduced. The dissertation includes several examples of circuit configurations ranging from simple class A and class...... AB conveyor implementations to implementations based on purely digital circuit structures and on more complex analog subsystems such as a voltage mode opamp with feedback to provide a voltage follower action. An important by-product of the investigation of current mode structures is the definition...

  2. Two-loop current-current operator contribution to the non-leptonic QCD penguin amplitude

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Guido; Huber, Tobias; Li, Xin-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    The computation of direct CP asymmetries in charmless B decays at next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) in QCD is of interest to ascertain the short-distance contribution. Here we compute the two-loop penguin contractions of the current-current operators Q_{1,2} and provide a first estimate of NNLO CP asymmetries in penguin-dominated b -> s transitions.

  3. Use of deferred consent for severely ill children in a multi-centre phase III trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boga Mwamvua

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Voluntary participation of a subject in research respects a subject's rights, strengthens its ethical conduct, and is formalized by the informed consent process. Clinical trials of life-saving interventions for medical emergencies often necessitate enrolment of patients where prior written individual informed consent is impossible. Although there are regulations and guidelines on protecting subjects in emergency research, these have been criticised for being limited and unnecessarily restrictive. Across Europe and the United States stringent regulations have resulted in a substantial decline of clinical trials involving emergency interventions. Methods We are conducting a trial of fluid resuscitation in children with hypovolaemic shock in six hospitals across three malaria-endemic African countries. The design is pragmatic as children are enrolled on clinical criteria alone and is being conducted in hospitals with facilities typical of many district hospitals across Africa. The trial aims to inform strategy for managing children with febrile illness and features of shock. In order to develop appropriate consent processes for the trial, we conducted a narrative review of current international recommendations for emergency consent. Results Practical or specific guidance was generally sparse or confusing with few examples in the literature to direct our informed consent process. For a sub-group of children who were critically sick or where parents themselves were otherwise too distressed to consider prior written consent, we opted for a modified form of deferred consent. This included verbal assent from guardians at the point of enrolment, with full written consent obtained after stabilising the child. For children who died prior to full written consent, ethical permission was received to waiver full consent. Conclusions In light of the controversy around guidance and regulations in this area we report how and why we have used a

  4. 78 FR 76636 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Consideration of Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-18

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Consideration of Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals, Form I-821D; Revision of a Currently Approved Collection... Immigration Services (USCIS) invites the general public and other Federal agencies to comment upon...

  5. Higher-spin current multiplets in operator-product expansions

    CERN Document Server

    Anselmi, D

    2000-01-01

    Various formulas for currents with arbitrary spin are worked out in general space-time dimension, in the free field limit and, at the bare level, in presence of interactions. As the n-dimensional generalization of the (conformal) vector field, the (n/2-1)-form is used. The two-point functions and the higher-spin central charges are evaluated at one loop. As an application, the higher-spin hierarchies generated by the stress-tensor operator-product expansion are computed in supersymmetric theories. The results exhibit an interesting universality.

  6. Design of current mirror integration ROIC for snapshot mode operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanker Gupta, Hari; Kiran Kumar, A. S.; Shojaei Baghini, M.; Chakrabarti, Subhananda; Mehta, Sanjeev; Chowdhury, Arup Roy; Sharma, Dinesh K.

    2016-10-01

    Current mirror integration (CMI) read out integrated circuit (ROIC) topology provides a low input impedance to photo-detectors and provides large injection efficiency, large charge handling capacity and snapshot mode operation without in-pixel opamps. The ROIC described in this paper has been implemented with a modified current mirror circuit, with matched PMOS pairs for detector input stage and its biasing. The readout circuit has been designed for 30 × 30 μm2 pixel size, 4 × 4 array size, variable frame rate, 5 Mega pixel per second (Mpps). Experimental performance of the test chip has achieved 15 Me charge handling capacity, a high dynamic range of 83 dB, 99.8% linearity and 99.96% injection efficiency. The ROIC design has been fabricated in 3.3 V 1P6M UMC 180 nm CMOS process and tested up to 5 MHz pixel rate at room and at cryogenic temperature.

  7. Outcomes of coronary stenoses deferred revascularization for borderline versus nonborderline fractional flow reserve values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depta, Jeremiah P; Patel, Jayendrakumar S; Novak, Eric; Masrani, Shriti K; Raymer, David; Facey, Gabrielle; Patel, Yogesh; Zajarias, Alan; Lasala, John M; Singh, Jasvindar; Bach, Richard G; Kurz, Howard I

    2014-06-01

    Current evidence supports deferral of revascularization for lesions with fractional flow reserve (FFR) values >0.80. The natural history after deferral of revascularization of lesions with borderline FFR values is unknown. This study evaluated the outcomes of patients after deferred revascularization of coronary stenoses based on a borderline FFR value. We retrospectively studied 720 patients with 881 intermediate-severity coronary stenoses who underwent FFR assessment from October 2002 to July 2010 and were deferred revascularization. Patients were divided into gray zone (0.75 to 0.80), borderline (0.81 to 0.85), and nonborderline (>0.85) FFR groups. Any subsequent percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass grafting of a deferred stenosis during follow-up was classified as a deferred lesion intervention (DLI). Patient and/or lesion characteristics and clinical outcomes were compared between the FFR groups using univariate and propensity score-adjusted inverse probability of weighting Cox proportional hazards analyses. During a mean follow-up of 4.5 ± 2.1 years, 157 deferred lesions (18%) underwent DLI by percutaneous coronary intervention (n = 117) or coronary artery bypass grafting (n = 40). No statistically significant differences were observed in clinical outcomes between the gray zone and borderline FFR groups. Lesions with a borderline FFR were associated with a significantly higher risk of DLI compared with lesions with nonborderline FFR values (hazard ratio 1.63, 95% confidence interval 1.14 to 2.33, p = 0.007). Lesions deferred revascularization because of a borderline FFR (0.81 to 0.85) were associated with a higher risk of DLI compared with lesions with a nonborderline FFR (>0.85). Further study is needed to determine the optimal management of coronary stenoses with a borderline FFR value. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Current operative techniques and strategies in endocrine surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürtler, Thomas; Weber, Markus

    2011-06-01

    Technical advances and focusing on subsets modified endocrine surgery in the last ten years tremendously. There is on one side a clear trend towards minimal invasive approaches, first of all in the surgery of the adrenal glands, where the transperitoneal or retroperitoneal laparoscopic adrenalectomy has become the gold standard for tumors up to a size of 10 cm in diameter. But also in pancreatic endocrine surgery for small tumors localized in the pancreas tail and up to a certain extend in thyroid and parathyroid surgery, laparoscopic or video assisted techniques are used. On the other side more precise techniques allow a more complete and radical removal of endocrine tissue, especially in thyroid surgery. This article presents a summary of current operative techniques and strategies in endocrine surgery.

  9. Deferred Executive Compensation Policies in Chinese State-owned Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Ju

    2007-01-01

    Since the commencement of industrial reform in China, most Chinese state-owned enterprises have adopted a deferred executive compensation policy to provide incentives for their management teams. However, the effectiveness of such a policy needs to be evaluated In this paper, we specify a model of deferred executive compensation policy, in which the compensation for executives is contingent on firms 'future revenue. The model suggests that under deferred executive compensation policies, managers exhibit an increasing level of effort in every period. Furthermore, the deferred compensation policy encourages managers to make long-term investments, which might generate revenue even after the termination of managerial contracts.

  10. DEFERRED TAXES: FEATURES OF ACCOUNTING AND ANALYSIS IN AGRICULTURAL ORGANIZATIONS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krugljak Z. I

    2016-01-01

    The article highlights the results of the analysis of deferred taxes as indicators of the accounting financial statements, reflecting payments to the budget for income tax agricultural organizations...

  11. Deferred tax analysis and impact on firm's economic efficiency ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Bohušová

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Category of deferred income tax is a complex topic including the whole accounting system and the income tax. Calculation method can be time-consuming and demanding a high quality system of analytical evidence and a system of valuation and demanding the high level of accountants' knowledge. The aim in the theoretical level was to analyze process of calculation and recording of deferred tax. Importance of recording of deferred tax and the impact on financial analysis ratios was analyzed. Fourteen business entities were examined. Deferred tax recording is a legal way to reduce retained earnings a to protect of its careless alocation.

  12. Seduction trauma: representation, deferred action, and pathogenic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, H P

    1996-01-01

    Seduction trauma refers to a range of phenomena currently described under the rubric of child abuse. Freud elucidated the fantasy distortion and elaboration of traumatic experience and retained the importance of actual trauma. Psychic trauma is associated with the alteration of self and object representations and ensuing new identifications, e.g., with victim and aggressor. The "deferred action" of psychic trauma is an antiquated concept and psychic trauma has immediate effects as well as far reaching developmental consequences. Prior trauma predisposes to later traumatic vulnerability and to trauma linked to phase specific unconscious conflict. The pathogenesis of child sex abuse and the enactment of oedipal incest extends before and after the oedipal phase, is often associated with other forms of abuse, and has a history of pathogenic parent-child relationship.

  13. Mixed-Precision Spectral Deferred Correction: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grout, Ray W. S.

    2015-09-02

    Convergence of spectral deferred correction (SDC), where low-order time integration methods are used to construct higher-order methods through iterative refinement, can be accelerated in terms of computational effort by using mixed-precision methods. Using ideas from multi-level SDC (in turn based on FAS multigrid ideas), some of the SDC correction sweeps can use function values computed in reduced precision without adversely impacting the accuracy of the final solution. This is particularly beneficial for the performance of combustion solvers such as S3D [6] which require double precision accuracy but are performance limited by the cost of data motion.

  14. DEFERRED TAXES: FEATURES OF ACCOUNTING AND ANALYSIS IN AGRICULTURAL ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krugljak Z. I.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the results of the analysis of deferred taxes as indicators of the accounting financial statements, reflecting payments to the budget for income tax agricultural organizations. The importance of deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities as a key marker of efficiency of the tax policy of the agricultural organizations is emphasized. Its inefficiency can be judge by excess of deferred tax assets over deferred tax liabilities, which is seen as a temporary diversion of funds from the market, which has zero profitability. The conclusion was made about the improvement of financial stability and liquidity of the organization under the influence of deferred tax liabilities and the deteriorating financial situation, financial stability and liquidity under the influence of deferred tax assets. The effective income tax rate of the agricultural organizations of Krasnodar territory is determined; it does not exceed 3% and differs from general because of tax benefits, deductions and tax policy. The basic causes of appearance of temporary differences are identified by types in the account of the agricultural organizations. Typical errors in accounting for deferred taxes are described. A refined form of the report on financial results containing transcript of profit before tax from non-agricultural activities, with the aim of monitoring the relationship of accounting and taxable profit in the agricultural organizations

  15. Reporting Deferred Gifts: CASE-NACUBO Guidelines Ensure Consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridenour, James F.; Munger, Peter L.

    1983-01-01

    Three methods for reporting the value of a deferred gift are described: the tax method, net realizable value, and fair market value. Three major categories of deferred gifts are identified: pooled income funds, charitable remainder trusts, and charitable gift annuities. (MLW)

  16. Myocardial Damage in Patients With Deferred Stenting After STEMI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønborg, Jacob; Engstrøm, Thomas; Ahtarovski, Kiril Aleksov

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although some studies found improved coronary flow and myocardial salvage when stent implantation was deferred, the DANAMI-3-DEFER (Third DANish Study of Optimal Acute Treatment of Patients With ST-elevation Myocardial Infarction) did not show any improvement in clinical outcome...... in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and deferred stenting. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to evaluate the effect of deferred stent implantation on infarct size, myocardial salvage, and microvascular obstruction (MVO......) in patients with STEMI. METHODS: In the present DANAMI-3 substudy, a total of 510 patients with STEMI were randomized to PCI with deferred versus immediate stent implantation. The patients underwent a cardiac magnetic resonance examination before discharge after the index procedure and again 3 months later...

  17. Public transportation 1995: Current research in operations. Transportation research record

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    ;Contents: Metromover Extensions and Downtown Bus Service in Miami; Electric Bus Operation and Evaluation in California; Assessment of Alternative Structures for Privately Operated Bus Systems; Bus Priority at Traffic Signals in Portland: The Powell Boulevard Pilot Project; Transit Vehicle-Type Scheduling Problem; Optimal Mixed Bus Fleet for Urban Operations; Operational Characteristics of Paratransit in Developing Countries of Asia; Economics of Electric Trolley Coach Operation; Evaluation of Visual Impacts of Trolleybus Overhead Caternary System Intersections; Electric and Magnetic Fields and Electric Transit Systems; Diverting Automobile Users to Transit: Early Lessons from the Chicago Transit Authority`s Orange Line; Street-Running Rail Transit: A Historical Perspective; Diesel or Electric Power for Commuter Rail; It Depends; Generic Objectives for Evaluation of Intermodal Passenger Transfer Facilities; Airport Ground Access: Rail Transit Alternatives; Retrofit Techniques for Floating Slab Track; Calgary Light Rail Transit Surface Operations and Grade-Level Crossings; and Cost of Light Rail Collision Accidents.

  18. 26 CFR 31.3121(v)(2)-1 - Treatment of amounts deferred under certain nonqualified deferred compensation plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... nonqualified deferred compensation plans. 31.3121(v)(2)-1 Section 31.3121(v)(2)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL... (Chapter 21, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) General Provisions § 31.3121(v)(2)-1 Treatment of amounts... under a nonqualified deferred compensation plan within the meaning of section 3121(v)(2) and this...

  19. Current Electric Distribution Network Operation and Grid Tariffs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qiuwei

    2012-01-01

    The aim of EcoGridEU task 1.4 is to extend the real‐time price approach with an integrated optimization of the distribution system operation. This will be achieved by extending the basic real‐time market concept with local location‐dependant prices that reflect the grid operation, especially...

  20. Electrochemical Characterization of PEMECs Operating at Various Current Densities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsøe, Katrine; G.-Madsen, Laila; Scherer, Guenther G.;

    2016-01-01

    This conference contribution touches upon electrochemical characterization of operating polymer electrolyte membrane electrolysis cells (PEMECs) by the application of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Analysis of differences in impedance spectra (ADIS) (Jensen et al., 2007) can...

  1. The Response of Deferred Executive Compensation to Changes in Tax Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Aspen Gorry; Kevin A. Hassett; R. Glenn Hubbard; Aparna Mathur

    2015-01-01

    Given the increasing use of stock options in executive compensation, we examine how taxes influence the choice of compensation and document that income deferral is an important margin of adjustment in response to tax rate changes. To account for this option in the empirical analysis, we explore deferral by estimating how executives’ choice of compensation between current and deferred income depends on changes in tax policy. Our empirical results suggest a significant impact of taxes on the co...

  2. An Analysis of Current Operational Contract Support Planning Doctrine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    analysis of doctrine and planning assets . The activities include interviews with various contracting and logistics professionals. F. RESEARCH...doctrine typically neglects the tangible and intangible capabilities that using OCS in missions brings to the operational and combatant commander. While... measuring the maturity of a process in practice within an organization through the issuing of surveys and measuring the responses. The model used

  3. Effect of operating current dependent series resistance on the fill factor of a solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadu, Meena; Kapoor, A.; Tripathi, K.N. [Department of Electronic Science, University of Delhi, South Campus, Benito Juarez road, -110 021 New Delhi (India)

    2002-02-01

    The fill factor of a solar cell depends upon the series resistance, reverse saturation current, diode quality factor, operating current and voltage. Since the series resistance itself depends upon the operating current (or voltage), it makes the evaluation of fill factor very complicated. In this paper, we have evaluated the fill factor of a solar cell, taking into account operating current dependence of the series resistance.

  4. Help Is Available on Tax-Deferred Annuity Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Administrator, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Briefly reviews different types of tax-deferred annuities (TDA's) and describes the National Education Association's TDA Studies--comparative analyses of specific fixed, variable, and qualified mutual fund annuity packages. (PGD)

  5. Analysis of Deferred Taxes in the Business Environment in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savka VUČKOVIĆ-MILUTINOVIĆ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Flow-through model of income tax reporting in general purpose financial statements had a long history of use in Serbia. It was only in 2004 (and 2003 for banks, when the implementation of deferred taxes model started. It was inevitable, because IAS/IFRS became mandatory basis for preparing financial statements. In this paper we examine quality of deferred taxes disclosures in the financial statements of companies in Serbia. We also documented the most common temporary differences that arise in measuring accounting and taxable income and in that way we identified the major sources of deferred tax. We analyzed the materiality of deferred taxes and their effect on company´s performance in Serbia.

  6. 7 CFR 930.63 - Deferment of restricted obligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF MICHIGAN, NEW YORK, PENNSYLVANIA, OREGON, UTAH, WASHINGTON, AND WISCONSIN... regulations issued thereunder, secure bonds on restricted percentage cherries to temporarily defer the...

  7. 18 CFR 367.1860 - Account 186, Miscellaneous deferred debits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... NATURAL GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Deferred Debits § 367.1860 Account 186, Miscellaneous... ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING...

  8. 7 CFR 1721.106 - Repayment of deferred payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... energy project(s), distributed generation project(s), and the contribution(s)-in-aid of construction. An... period starting with the next payment (November if paying on a monthly basis). When a Borrower defers...

  9. Tumescent mastectomy: the current indications and operative tips and tricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khater A

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ashraf Khater,1 Alaa Mazy,2 Mona Gad,2 Ola Taha Abd Eldayem,2 Mohamed Hegazy1 1Department of Surgical Oncology, Mansoura Oncology Center (OCMU, 2Anesthesia and Surgical Intensive Care Department, Mansoura University Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt Background: Tumescent mastectomy refers to usage of a mixture of lidocaine and epinephrine in a diluting saline solution that makes flaps firm and tense, thus minimizing systemic drugs toxicity and making surgery possible with minimal bleeding. This technique is very useful in elder women and those with American Society of Anesthesiologists; score III and IV. The objective was to establish an alternative safe technique to general anesthesia in some selected mastectomy patients.Patients and methods: Twenty candidate women for total mastectomy and axillary dissection were enrolled and consented to participate. After preparation, an anatomically directed infiltration was made under sedation, using a cocktail of lidocaine, bupivacaine, and epinephrine, followed after 20 minutes by the surgical incision and completion of mastectomy. All intraoperative and postoperative outcomes were recorded.Results: Although 7 cases required added analgesic medications, no conversion for general anesthesia was recorded. Mean operative time was 81±15.8 minutes. Mean blood loss was 95.8±47.5 mL. There was no recorded intraoperative hemodynamic instability. Postoperative visual analog score was not exceeding 4 till the end of the first 24 hours. Opioids were not required in any case, and the mean dosage of Ketorolac used was 30±8.75 mg. Drains output and the incidence of postoperative complications were acceptable.Conclusion: We can consider tumescent mastectomy in well-selected patients a safe alternative for performing mastectomy when general anesthesia is hazardous, with minimal blood loss and long lasting postoperative analgesia without an additive effect on the operative time

  10. Tumescent mastectomy: the current indications and operative tips and tricks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khater, Ashraf; Mazy, Alaa; Gad, Mona; Taha Abd Eldayem, Ola; Hegazy, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Background Tumescent mastectomy refers to usage of a mixture of lidocaine and epinephrine in a diluting saline solution that makes flaps firm and tense, thus minimizing systemic drugs toxicity and making surgery possible with minimal bleeding. This technique is very useful in elder women and those with American Society of Anesthesiologists; score III and IV. The objective was to establish an alternative safe technique to general anesthesia in some selected mastectomy patients. Patients and methods Twenty candidate women for total mastectomy and axillary dissection were enrolled and consented to participate. After preparation, an anatomically directed infiltration was made under sedation, using a cocktail of lidocaine, bupivacaine, and epinephrine, followed after 20 minutes by the surgical incision and completion of mastectomy. All intraoperative and postoperative outcomes were recorded. Results Although 7 cases required added analgesic medications, no conversion for general anesthesia was recorded. Mean operative time was 81±15.8 minutes. Mean blood loss was 95.8±47.5 mL. There was no recorded intraoperative hemodynamic instability. Postoperative visual analog score was not exceeding 4 till the end of the first 24 hours. Opioids were not required in any case, and the mean dosage of Ketorolac used was 30±8.75 mg. Drains output and the incidence of postoperative complications were acceptable. Conclusion We can consider tumescent mastectomy in well-selected patients a safe alternative for performing mastectomy when general anesthesia is hazardous, with minimal blood loss and long lasting postoperative analgesia without an additive effect on the operative time, hospital stay, and intraoperative and postoperative complications. PMID:28408853

  11. Installation and Operation of the SNO Neutral Current Detector Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    SNO Collaboration; McGee, S.; Rielage, K.

    2005-06-01

    An array of low background detectors designed to capture neutrons liberated by interactions with solar neutrinos was recently installed in the heavy water region of the SNO experiment. The neutral current detector (NCD) array consists of 36 proportional counters filled with 3He-CF4 gas and 4 proportional counters filled with 4He-CF4. Special hardware conforming to the high radiopurity requirements in SNO was used to assemble and deploy these counters. Neutron events detected by the NCD array are distinguished from various types of backgrounds on an event-by-event basis using the NCD data acquisition system (NCDDAQ), which employs a mixture of commercial and custom-built electronics equipment. The NCDDAQ is controlled by a custom-built Object-oriented Realtime Control and Acquisition (ORCA) software program, and is fully integrated into the SNO PMT data acquisition system to provide shared trigger information and a combined data stream.

  12. Installation and Operation of the SNO Neutral Current Detector Array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heise, J. [Physics Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, 87545 (United States); McGee, S. [Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics, and Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, 98195 (United States); Rielage, K. [Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics, and Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, 98195 (United States)

    2005-06-15

    An array of low background detectors designed to capture neutrons liberated by interactions with solar neutrinos was recently installed in the heavy water region of the SNO experiment. The neutral current detector (NCD) array consists of 36 proportional counters filled with {sup 3}He-CF{sub 4} gas and 4 proportional counters filled with {sup 4}He-CF{sub 4}. Special hardware conforming to the high radiopurity requirements in SNO was used to assemble and deploy these counters. Neutron events detected by the NCD array are distinguished from various types of backgrounds on an event-by-event basis using the NCD data acquisition system (NCDDAQ), which employs a mixture of commercial and custom-built electronics equipment. The NCDDAQ is controlled by a custom-built Object-oriented Realtime Control and Acquisition (ORCA) software program, and is fully integrated into the SNO PMT data acquisition system to provide shared trigger information and a combined data stream.

  13. Operational advances in ring current modeling using RAM-SCB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welling, Daniel T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jordanova, Vania K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zaharia, Sorin G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Morley, Steven K [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-03

    The Ring current Atmosphere interaction Model with Self-Consistently calculated 3D Magnetic field (RAM-SCB) combines a kinetic model of the ring current with a force-balanced model of the magnetospheric magnetic field to create an inner magnetospheric model that is magnetically self consistent. RAM-SCB produces a wealth of outputs that are valuable to space weather applications. For example, the anisotropic particle distribution of the KeV-energy population calculated by the code is key for predicting surface charging on spacecraft. Furthermore, radiation belt codes stand to benefit substantially from RAM-SCB calculated magnetic field values and plasma wave growth rates - both important for determining the evolution of relativistic electron populations. RAM-SCB is undergoing development to bring these benefits to the space weather community. Data-model validation efforts are underway to assess the performance of the system. 'Virtual Satellite' capability has been added to yield satellite-specific particle distribution and magnetic field output. The code's outer boundary is being expanded to 10 Earth Radii to encompass previously neglected geosynchronous orbits and allow the code to be driven completely by either empirical or first-principles based inputs. These advances are culminating towards a new, real-time version of the code, rtRAM-SCB, that can monitor the inner magnetosphere conditions on both a global and spacecraft-specific level. This paper summarizes these new features as well as the benefits they provide the space weather community.

  14. [Evoked potentials in intracranial operations: current status and our experiences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nau, H E; Hess, W; Pohlen, G; Marggraf, G; Rimpel, J

    1987-03-01

    Intraoperative neuromonitoring, especially evoked potential monitoring, has gained interest in recent years for both the anesthesiologist evaluating cerebral function and the neurosurgeon wishing to avoid neuronal lesions during intracranial operations. Before evoked potential monitoring can be introduced as a routine method of intraoperative management, experience with this method particularly in intensive care units, is imperative. We recorded evoked potentials with the Compact Four (Nicolet) and Basis 8000 (Schwarzer Picker International) computer systems. Preoperative derivations should be done with the same apparatus used intraoperatively and parameters of peri- and intraoperative derivations should not be changed. The patient's head must be fixed in a Mayfield clamp in order to avoid artefacts during trepanation. The possible artefacts due to apparatus, patient, or anesthesia are summarized in the tables. The derivations of evoked potentials should be supervised by a person who is not involved in the anesthesia or the surgical procedure; this condition may change in the future with full automatization of the recording technique and alarms. Good communication between surgeon, anesthesiologist, and neurophysiological assistant is a prerequisite. The modality is chosen in accordance with the affected neuronal system: visual-evoked potential (VEP) monitoring in the management of processes affecting the visual pathway, brain stem auditory-(BAER) and somatosensory-evoked potential (SSEP) monitoring in lesions affecting these pathways, in particular space-occupying lesions of the posterior fossa. VEP monitoring may be useful, but we observed alterations of the responses without changes in the level of anesthesia or manipulation of the visual pathways. In space-occupying processes of the cerebellopontine angle, BAER could not be developed in nearly all cases because the large underlying tumor had caused the disappearance of waves II-V. In these cases SSEP monitoring

  15. Edge Currents and Vertex Operators for Chern-Simons Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Bimonte, G; Stern, A

    1993-01-01

    We apply elementary canonical methods for the quantization of 2+1 dimensional gravity, where the dynamics is given by E. Witten's $ISO(2,1)$ Chern-Simons action. As in a previous work, our approach does not involve choice of gauge or clever manipulations of functional integrals. Instead, we just require the Gauss law constraint for gravity to be first class and also to be everywhere differentiable. When the spatial slice is a disc, the gravitational fields can either be unconstrained or constrained at the boundary of the disc. The unconstrained fields correspond to edge currents which carry a representation of the $ISO(2,1)$ Kac-Moody algebra. Unitary representations for such an algebra have been found using the method of induced representations. In the case of constrained fields, we can classify all possible boundary conditions. For several different boundary conditions, the field content of the theory reduces precisely to that of 1+1 dimensional gravity theories. We extend the above formalism to include sou...

  16. Zeros and poles of quantum current operators and the condition of quantum integrability

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, J; Ding, Jintai; Miwa, Tetsuji

    1996-01-01

    For the current realization of the affine quantum groups, a simple comultiplication for the quantum current operators was given by Drinfeld. With this comultiplication, we study the zeros and poles of the quantum current operators and present a condition of integrability on the quantum current of $U_q\\left(\\hat{\\frak sl}(2)\\right)$, which is a deformation of the corresponding condition for $\\hat{\\frak sl}(2)$.

  17. Nuclear axial current operators to fourth order in chiral effective field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Krebs, H; Meißner, U -G

    2016-01-01

    We present the complete derivation of the nuclear axial charge and current operators as well as the pseudoscalar operators to fourth order in the chiral expansion relative to the dominant one-body contribution using the method of unitary transformation. We demonstrate that the unitary ambiguity in the resulting operators can be eliminated by the requirement of renormalizability and by matching of the pion-pole contributions to the nuclear forces. We give expressions for the renormalized single-, two- and three-nucleon contributions to the charge and current operators and pseudoscalar operators including the relevant relativistic corrections. We also verify explicitly the validity of the continuity equation.

  18. 26 CFR 1.404(b)-1T - Method or arrangement of contributions, etc., deferring the receipt of compensation or providing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...., deferring the receipt of compensation or providing for deferred benefits. (Temporary) 1.404(b)-1T Section 1... of contributions, etc., deferring the receipt of compensation or providing for deferred benefits..., deferring the receipt of compensation or providing for deferred benefits (other than compensation) is to be...

  19. A grid side converter current controller for accurate current injection under normal and fault ride through operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadjidemetriou, Lenos; Kyriakides, Elias; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    requirements. In addition, the renewable energy systems require fault ride through capability in order to support the power grid under balanced or unbalanced low voltage grid faults. Therefore, the development of advanced current controller techniques is essential for the grid side power electronic converters...... in order to increase the renewable energy systems penetration and satisfy the grid codes. This paper proposes a current controller technique, which enables the appropriate operation of the grid side converter under unbalanced grid faults and harmonic distorted grid conditions. The proposed current......Modern grid codes for interconnection of distributed energy resources have become more restrictive due to the massive integration of renewable energy sources. The interconnected renewable energy sources must operate accurately under normal and abnormal grid conditions in order to meet the grid...

  20. A high-speed CMOS current op amp for very low supply voltage operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Erik

    1994-01-01

    A CMOS implementation of a high-gain current mode operational amplifier (op amp) with a single-ended input and a differential output is described. This configuration is the current mode counterpart of the traditional voltage mode op amp. In order to exploit the inherent potential for high speed......, low voltage operation normally associated with current mode analog signal processing, the op amp has been designed to operate off a supply voltage of 1.5 V, and the signal path has been confined to N-channel transistors. With this design, a gain of 94 dB and a gain-bandwidth product of 65 MHz has been...

  1. 47 CFR 32.4361 - Deferred tax regulatory adjustments-net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Deferred tax regulatory adjustments-net. 32... Accounts § 32.4361 Deferred tax regulatory adjustments—net. (a) This account shall include amounts of... Account 4341, Net deferred tax liability adjustments. (b) This account shall also be adjusted for...

  2. 7 CFR 1703.309 - Terms of repayment of deferred loan payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... deferment payment required. (e) The balance in a borrower's cushion of credit account shall not be reduced by the borrower below the level of the unpaid balance of the payment deferred. ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terms of repayment of deferred loan payments. 1703...

  3. Deferred Imitation and Social Communication in Speaking and Nonspeaking Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strid, Karin; Heimann, Mikael; Gillberg, Christopher; Smith, Lars; Tjus, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    Deferred imitation and early social communication skills were compared among speaking and nonspeaking children with autism and children developing typically. Overall, the children with autism showed a lower frequency on measures of deferred imitation and social communication compared with typically developing children. Deferred imitation was…

  4. Nuclear axial current operators to fourth order in chiral effective field theory

    OpenAIRE

    Krebs, H; Epelbaum, E.; Meißner, U.-G

    2016-01-01

    We present the complete derivation of the nuclear axial charge and current operators as well as the pseudoscalar operators to fourth order in the chiral expansion relative to the dominant one-body contribution using the method of unitary transformation. We demonstrate that the unitary ambiguity in the resulting operators can be eliminated by the requirement of renormalizability and by matching of the pion-pole contributions to the nuclear forces. We give expressions for the renormalized singl...

  5. A Deferred Cost of Education Plan for Podiatric Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of Colleges of Podiatric Medicine, Washington, DC.

    A study carried out by the American Association of Colleges of Podiatric Medicine and the Academy for Educational Development: (1) examines and documents the financial needs and prospects of colleges of podiatric medicine; (2) analyzes the case for and against a deferred cost of education plan for the colleges of podiatric medicine; and (3)…

  6. Dynamic Matching Markets and the Deferred Acceptance Mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kennes, John; Monte, Daniel; Tumennasan, Norovsambuu

    In many dynamic matching markets, priorities depend on previous allocations. In such environments, agents on the proposing side can manipulate the period-by-period deferred acceptance (DA) mechanism. We show that the fraction of agents with incentives to manipulate the DA mechanism approaches zero...... together justify the implementation of the period-by-period DA mechanism in dynamic markets....

  7. 7 CFR 930.163 - Deferment of restricted obligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF MICHIGAN, NEW YORK, PENNSYLVANIA, OREGON, UTAH, WASHINGTON, AND WISCONSIN... bond on restricted percentage cherries to be posted to temporarily defer the date that...

  8. 5 CFR 847.906 - How is the present value of a deferred annuity without credit for NAFI service computed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How is the present value of a deferred... § 847.906 How is the present value of a deferred annuity without credit for NAFI service computed? (a) The present value of a deferred annuity equals the present value of the deferred annuity...

  9. RISK FOR MALARIA IN UNITED STATES DONORS DEFERRED FOR TRAVEL TO MALARIA-ENDEMIC AREAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Bryan; Steele, Whitney; Custer, Brian; Kleinman, Steven; Cable, Ritchard; Wilkinson, Susan; Wright, David

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Deferral for travel to malaria-endemic areas excludes many blood donors in the United States. Most transfusion-transmitted malaria is associated with lengthy residence in malaria-endemic areas rather than routine travel. This study compares the impact of existing deferral requirements to the risk that a presenting donor with malaria travel history harbors malaria parasites under current and hypothetical alternate regulations. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Deferred donors from six blood centers were sampled to estimate a national cohort of donors deferred annually for malaria travel to different geographic regions. Risk for malaria infection following travel to each region, and distribution of incubation periods for each malaria species were estimated for U.S. travelers. Region-specific travel risks were used to estimate the risk that a presenting blood donor with malaria travel might asymptomatically harbor malaria parasites at different intervals following return to the United States. RESULTS Travel to Africa presents risk for malaria infection >1000 times that of travel to malaria-endemic parts of Mexico, yet Mexico accounts for >10 times as many deferred donors. Shortening the deferral period from 12 to 3 months for travelers to Mexico increases the risk of collecting a contaminated unit by only 1 unit per 57 years (sensitivity analysis, 1 every 29 - 114 years), at annual gain of >56,000 donations. CONCLUSION This study provides the first systematic appraisal of the U.S. requirements for donor qualification regarding travel to malarial areas. Consideration should be given to relaxing the guidelines for travel to very low-risk areas such as Mexico. PMID:19903290

  10. Deferred Taxes on Operations With the Capital: Acceptance and Accounting Отсроченные налоги по операциям с капиталом: признание, учет и отражение в отчетности

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geyer Eleonora S.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses requirements of the national standards of accounting and international standards of fiscal accounting in application of the mechanism of deferred taxes that ensures reflection of the current and future tax consequences of economic operations of a company and envisages provision of information about deferred taxes in financial reports. It justifies that accounting of tax consequences of operations and other events should be carried out in the same manner as the accounting of the operations and events is carried out. It identifies possible methods of reflection of deferred taxes: in profits (losses, in other aggregate profit, in own capital items and in goodwill. It considers approaches to acceptance of deferred taxes by operations, which are reflected by items of the capital on the example of re-evaluation of fixed assets. It formulates directions of improvement of the legislation and provides recommendations on accounting of deferred taxes in the moment of re-evaluation of the objects of fixed assets and also gradual transferral of the sum of increase in the value of fixed assets to the undistributed profit and writing-off the deferred tax liability, realisation of which would allow increase the quality of fiscal accounting.В статье проанализированы требования национальных положений (стандартов бухгалтерского учета и международных стандартов финансовой отчетности по применению механизма отсроченных налогов, обеспечивающего отражение текущих и будущих налоговых последствий хозяйственных операций предприятия, предусматривающего представление в финансовой отчетности информации об отсроченных

  11. The development of safe high current operation in JET-ILW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rimini, Fernanda G., E-mail: fernanda.rimini@ccfe.ac.uk [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Alves, Diogo [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, IST, Universidade de Lisboa (Portugal); Arnoux, Gilles [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Baruzzo, Matteo [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Consorzio RFX Padova (Italy); Belonohy, Eva [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, 85748 Garching (Germany); Carvalho, Ivo [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, IST, Universidade de Lisboa (Portugal); Felton, Robert [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Joffrin, Emmanuel [IRFM-CEA, Centre de Cadarache, 13108 Sant-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Lomas, Peter; McCullen, Paul [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Neto, Andre [Fusion for Energy, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Nunes, Isabel [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, IST, Universidade de Lisboa (Portugal); Reux, Cedric [IRFM-CEA, Centre de Cadarache, 13108 Sant-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Stephen, Adam; Valcarcel, Daniel [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Wiesen, Sven [IEK-4, Forschungszentrum Jüulich GmbH, Partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster, Juelich (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • JET is unique in its capability to operate in DT and at high plasma current. • Studies of high current H-mode are integral part of JET ITER-like Wall programme. • Focus is on safety wrt transient & steady-state heat loads on ILW components. • Early real-time detection of off-normal events and disruption effects mitigation. • This work successfully delivered H-mode scenario up to 4 MA. - Abstract: The JET tokamak is unique amongst present fusion devices in its capability to operate at high plasma current, providing the closest plasma parameters to ITER. The physics benefits of high current operation have to be balanced against the risks to the integrity of the machine due to high force disruptions. The installation of the ITER-Like Wall (ILW) has added risks due to the thermal characteristics of the metal Plasma Facing Components. This paper describes the operational aspects of the scientific development of high current H-mode plasmas with the ILW, focusing on disruption prediction, avoidance and amelioration. The development yielded baseline H-mode plasmas up to 4 MA/3.74 T, comparable to the maximum current achieved in JET in Carbon-Wall (CFC) conditions with similar divertor geometry.

  12. The role and importance of UAV within the current theaters of operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niculae MARIN

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Current theaters of operations are not limited to battlefields, but they are much morediversified, including the fight against the international terrorism phenomenon, the social conflicts (ofreligious, political, economic and separatist nature within several countries, thus supplying somepolitical-military conflicts within different states and areas of the world. The armed interference mustbe done based on some highly accurate information that must be gathered without endangering thehuman lives. This is the role currently played by the unmanned air vehicles (UAVs; they can performseveral functions: surveillance, information gathering, data storage and their transmission to theground stations, including the function of interference, when needed. This paper presents, within theabove context, the status of the current theaters of operations and of the UAVs performing differentmissions within these theaters, together with their role and importance in warfare operations.

  13. Results of Current Density Distribution Mapping in PEM Fuel Cells Dependent on Operation Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew A. Styczynski

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents in situ measurements of a newly developed current density measurement system for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC. While the functional principle and technical evaluation of the measurement system were presented in a previous paper, this paper analyzes the influence of various operation parameters, including multiple start-stop operation, at the anode, cathode and cooling locations on the distribution and long-term development of the current density. The system was operated for 500 h over two years with long periods of inactivity between measurements. The measurement results are evaluated and provide additional information on how to optimize the operation modes of fuel cells, including the start and stop of such systems as well as the water balance.

  14. Operational prediction of rip currents using numerical model and nearshore bathymetry from video images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sembiring, L.; Van Ormondt, M.; Van Dongeren, A. R.; Roelvink, J. A.

    2017-07-01

    Rip currents are one of the most dangerous coastal hazards for swimmers. In order to minimize the risk, a coastal operational-process based-model system can be utilized in order to provide forecast of nearshore waves and currents that may endanger beach goers. In this paper, an operational model for rip current prediction by utilizing nearshore bathymetry obtained from video image technique is demonstrated. For the nearshore scale model, XBeach1 is used with which tidal currents, wave induced currents (including the effect of the wave groups) can be simulated simultaneously. Up-to-date bathymetry will be obtained using video images technique, cBathy 2. The system will be tested for the Egmond aan Zee beach, located in the northern part of the Dutch coastline. This paper will test the applicability of bathymetry obtained from video technique to be used as input for the numerical modelling system by comparing simulation results using surveyed bathymetry and model results using video bathymetry. Results show that the video technique is able to produce bathymetry converging towards the ground truth observations. This bathymetry validation will be followed by an example of operational forecasting type of simulation on predicting rip currents. Rip currents flow fields simulated over measured and modeled bathymetries are compared in order to assess the performance of the proposed forecast system.

  15. Implementation of superconducting fault current limiter for flexible operation in the power substation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Chong Suk, E-mail: chong_suk@korea.ac.kr [School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, Anam dong, Seonbukgu, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hansang [School of Railway and Electrical Engineering, Kyungil University, Hayang-eup, Gyeongsan-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do 712-701 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Yoon-sung [Department of Electric and Energy Engineering, Catholic University of Daegu, Hayang-eup, Gyeongsan-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do 712-702 (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Jaewan [School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, Anam dong, Seonbukgu, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Gilsoo, E-mail: gjang@korea.ac.kr [School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, Anam dong, Seonbukgu, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • The power load concentrated in load centers results in high levels of fault current. • This paper introduces a fault current reduction scheme using SFCLs in substations. • The SFCL is connected in parallel to the bus tie between the two busbars. • The fault current mitigation using SFCLs is verified through PSS/e simulations. - Abstract: The concentration of large-scale power loads located in the metropolitan areas have resulted in high fault current levels during a fault thereby requiring the substation to operate in the double busbar configuration mode. However, the double busbar configuration mode results in deterioration of power system reliability and unbalanced power flow in the adjacent transmission lines which may result in issues such as overloading of lines. This paper proposes the implementation of the superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) to be installed between the two substation busbars for a more efficient and flexible operation of the substation enabling both single and double busbar configurations depending on the system conditions for guaranteeing power system reliability as well as fault current limitations. Case studies are being performed for the effectiveness of the SFCL installation and results are compared for the cases where the substation is operating in single and double busbar mode and with and without the installation of the SFCL for fault current mitigation.

  16. Current distribution measurements inside an electromagnetic plasma gun operated in a gas-puff mode

    OpenAIRE

    Poehlmann, Flavio R.; Cappelli, Mark A.; Rieker, Gregory B.

    2010-01-01

    Measurements are presented of the time-dependent current distribution inside a coaxial electromagnetic plasma gun. The measurements are carried out using an array of six axially distributed dual-Rogowski coils in a balanced circuit configuration. The radial current distributions indicate that operation in the gas-puff mode, i.e., the mode in which the electrode voltage is applied before injection of the gas, results in a stationary ionization front consistent with the presence of a plasma def...

  17. Pulmonary effects of immediate versus deferred antiretroviral therapy in HIV-positive individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunisaki, Ken M; Niewoehner, Dennis E; Collins, Gary

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Observational data have been conflicted regarding the potential role of HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) as a causative factor for, or protective factor against, COPD. We therefore aimed to investigate the effect of immediate versus deferred ART on decline in lung function in HIV...... were not masked to the treatment group assignment; however, the assessors who reviewed the outcomes were masked to the treatment group. The primary outcome was the annual rate of decline in lung function, expressed as the FEV1 slope in mL/year; spirometry was done annually during follow-up for up to 5...... and 28% were current smokers. Median follow-up time was 2·0 years (IQR 1·9-3·0). We noted no differences in FEV1 slopes between the immediate and deferred ART groups either in smokers (difference of -3·3 mL/year, 95% CI -38·8 to 32·2; p=0·86) or in non-smokers (difference of -5·6 mL/year, -29·4 to 18...

  18. Revisionist integral deferred correction with adaptive step-size control

    KAUST Repository

    Christlieb, Andrew

    2015-03-27

    © 2015 Mathematical Sciences Publishers. Adaptive step-size control is a critical feature for the robust and efficient numerical solution of initial-value problems in ordinary differential equations. In this paper, we show that adaptive step-size control can be incorporated within a family of parallel time integrators known as revisionist integral deferred correction (RIDC) methods. The RIDC framework allows for various strategies to implement stepsize control, and we report results from exploring a few of them.

  19. Heating, current drive and energetic particle studies on JET in preparation of ITER operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noterdaeme, J. M.; Budny, R.; Cardinali, A.; Castaldo, C.; Cesario, R.; Crisanti, F.; DeGrassie, J.; D' Ippolito, D. A.; Durodie, F.; Ekedahl, A.; Figueiredo, A.; Ingesson, C.; Joffrin, E.; Hartmann, D.; Heikkinen, J.; Hellsten, T.; Jones, T.; Kiptily, V.; Lamalle, P.; Litaudon, X.; Nguyen, F.; Mailloux, J.; Mantsinen, M.; Mayoral, M.; Mazon, D.; Meo, F.; Monakhov, I.; Myra, J. R.; Pamela, J.; Pericoli, V.; Petrov, Y.; Sauter, O.; Sarazin, Y.; Sharapov, S. E.; Tuccillo, A. A.; Van Eester, D.

    2003-01-01

    This paper summarizes the recent work on JET in the three areas of heating, current drive and energetic particles. The achievements have extended the possibilities of JET, have a direct connection to ITER operation and provide new and interesting physics. Toroidal rotation profiles of plasmas heated

  20. Advanced Tokamak current density profiles for non-inductive Tore Supra operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazarian-Vibert, F.; Litaudon, X.; Arslanbekov, R.; Bibet, P.; Froissard, P.; Goniche, M.; Hoang, G.T.; Joffrin, E.; Moreau, D.; Peysson, Y.; Rey, G. [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee

    1995-12-31

    This document deals with the advanced Tokamak concept concerning self consistent hollow current density profiles. Several Lower Hybrid experiments performed on Tore Supra are presented: the feasibility of the constant-flux operation mode is demonstrated and a new improved confinement regime with a reversed shear has been obtained. (TEC). 12 refs., 5 figs.

  1. A current to voltage converter for cryogenics using a CMOS operational amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, K.; Saitoh, K.; Shibayama, Y.; Shirahama, K.

    2009-02-01

    We have constructed a versatile current to voltage (I-V) converter operating at liquid helium temperature, using a commercially available all-CMOS OPamp. It is valuable for cryogenic measurements of electrical current of nano-pico amperes, for example, in scanning probe microscopy. The I-V converter is thermally linked to liquid helium bath and self-heated up to 10.7 K. We have confirmed its capability of a transimpedance gain of 106 V/A and a bandwidth from DC to 200 kHz. In order to test the practical use for a frequency-modulation atomic force microscope, we have measured the resonance frequency shift of a quartz tuning fork at 32 kHz. In the operation of the I-V converter close to the sensor at liquid helium temperature, the signal-to-noise ratio has been improved to a factor of 13.6 compared to the operation at room temperature.

  2. Current density distribution mapping in PEM fuel cells as an instrument for operational measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geske, M.; Heuer, M.; Heideck, G.; Styczynski, Z. A. [Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg, Chair Electric Power Networks and Renewable Energy Sources, Magdeburg (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    A newly developed measurement system for current density distribution mapping has enabled a new approach for operational measurements in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). Taking into account previously constructed measurement systems, a method based on a multi layer printed circuit board was chosen for the development of the new system. This type of system consists of a sensor, a special electronic device and the control and visualization PC. For the acquisition of the current density distribution values, a sensor device was designed and installed within a multilayer printed circuit board with integrated shunt resistors. Varying shunt values can be taken into consideration with a newly developed and evaluated calibration method. The sensor device was integrated in a PEM fuel cell stack to prove the functionality of the whole measurement system. A software application was implemented to visualize and save the measurement values. Its functionality was verified by operational measurements within a PEMFC system. Measurement accuracy and possible negative reactions of the sensor device during PEMFC operation are discussed in detail in this paper. The developed system enables operational measurements for different operating phases of PEM fuel cells. Additionally, this can be seen as a basis for new opportunities of optimization for fuel cell design and operation modes. (author)

  3. Current Density Distribution Mapping in PEM Fuel Cells as An Instrument for Operational Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Geske

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A newly developed measurement system for current density distribution mapping has enabled a new approach for operational measurements in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC. Taking into account previously constructed measurement systems, a method based on a multi layer printed circuit board was chosen for the development of the new system. This type of system consists of a sensor, a special electronic device and the control and visualization PC. For the acquisition of the current density distribution values, a sensor device was designed and installed within a multilayer printed circuit board with integrated shunt resistors. Varying shunt values can be taken into consideration with a newly developed and evaluated calibration method. The sensor device was integrated in a PEM fuel cell stack to prove the functionality of the whole measurement system. A software application was implemented to visualize and save the measurement values. Its functionality was verified by operational measurements within a PEMFC system. Measurement accuracy and possible negative reactions of the sensor device during PEMFC operation are discussed in detail in this paper. The developed system enables operational measurements for different operating phases of PEM fuel cells. Additionally, this can be seen as a basis for new opportunities of optimization for fuel cell design and operation modes.

  4. Limitations Of The Current State Space Modelling Approach In Multistage Machining Processes Due To Operation Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abellán-Nebot, J. V.; Liu, J.; Romero, F.

    2009-11-01

    The State Space modelling approach has been recently proposed as an engineering-driven technique for part quality prediction in Multistage Machining Processes (MMP). Current State Space models incorporate fixture and datum variations in the multi-stage variation propagation, without explicitly considering common operation variations such as machine-tool thermal distortions, cutting-tool wear, cutting-tool deflections, etc. This paper shows the limitations of the current State Space model through an experimental case study where the effect of the spindle thermal expansion, cutting-tool flank wear and locator errors are introduced. The paper also discusses the extension of the current State Space model to include operation variations and its potential benefits.

  5. Microstructure characterisation of solid oxide electrolysis cells operated at high current density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bowen, Jacob R.; Bentzen, Janet Jonna; Chen, Ming;

    High temperature solid oxide cells can be operated either as fuel cells or electrolysis cells for efficient power generation or production of hydrogen from steam or synthesis gas (H2 + CO) from steam and CO2 respectively. When operated under harsh conditions, they often exhibit microstructural......, microstructure evolution of the Ni-yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is followed as a function of galvanostatic steam electrolysis testing at current densities between -0.5 and -1.0 A cm-2 for periods of up to 750 hours at 800 °C. The volume fraction and size of the percolating Ni particles was statistically...... quantified using the mean linear intercept method as a function of current density and correlated to increases in serial resistance. The above structural changes are then compared in terms of electrode degradation observed during the co-electrolysis of steam and CO2 at current densities up to -1.5 A cm-2...

  6. Elimination of zero sequence circulating current between parallel operating three-level inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Kai; Wang, Xiaodong; Dong, Zhenhua

    2016-01-01

    In order to suppress the zero sequence circulating currents (ZSCCs) between parallel operating three level voltage source inverters with common AC and DC buses, a common mode voltage reduction PWM (CMVR-PWM) technique and neural point potentials (NPPs) control based method is proposed in this paper...... strategies, ZSCCs between parallel inverters can be eliminated effectively. This strategy has the advantage of without carrier synchronization and can be utilized to parallel operating inverters with different types of filter. Simulation result validate the proposed ZSCC elimination schemes....

  7. New Voltage-Mode All-pass Filter Topology Employing Single Current Operational Amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Çiçekli

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new voltage-mode all-pass filter topology based on single current operational amplifier (COA and the implementation of COA by using current conveyors are presented. The proposed topology employs three admittances and single active circuit element. COA implementation by using current conveyor blocks as sub-circuit contributes to workability of the COA employing circuits by using commercially available integrated circuits that can be employed as current conveyor. The validity of the proposed filter is verified by PSPICE simulation programme by using the MOSIS 0.35 micron CMOS process parameters. The simulation results agree well with the theoretical analysis and the circuit achieve a good total harmonic distortion (THD performance.

  8. Assessment of Electron-Cyclotron-Current-Drive-Assisted Operation in DEMO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marushchenko N.B.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The achievable efficiency for external current drive through electron-cyclotron (EC waves in a demonstration tokamak reactor is discussed. Two possible reactor designs, one for steady state and one for pulsed operation, are considered. It is found that for midplane injection the achievable current drive efficiency is limited by secondharmonic absorption at levels consistent with previous studies. Propagation through the second-harmonic region can be reduced by moving the launch position to the high-field side (this can be obtained by injecting the beam from an upper port in the vacuum vessel. In this case, beam tracing calculations deliver values for the EC current drive efficiency approaching those usually reported for neutral beam current drive.

  9. Current feedback operational amplifiers as fast charge sensitive preamplifiers for photomultiplier read out

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giachero, A; Gotti, C; Maino, M; Pessina, G, E-mail: claudio.gotti@mib.infn.it [INFN - Sezione di Milano-Bicocca, I-20126, Milano (Italy)

    2011-05-01

    Fast charge sensitive preamplifiers were built using commercial current feedback operational amplifiers for fast read out of charge pulses from a photomultiplier tube. Current feedback opamps prove to be particularly well suited for this application where the charge from the detector is large, of the order of one million electrons, and high timing resolution is required. A proper circuit arrangement allows very fast signals, with rise times down to one nanosecond, while keeping the amplifier stable. After a review of current feedback circuit topology and stability constraints, we provide a 'recipe' to build stable and very fast charge sensitive preamplifiers from any current feedback opamp by adding just a few external components. The noise performance of the circuit topology has been evaluated and is reported in terms of equivalent noise charge.

  10. Current feedback operational amplifiers as fast charge sensitive preamplifiers for photomultiplier read out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giachero, A.; Gotti, C.; Maino, M.; Pessina, G.

    2011-05-01

    Fast charge sensitive preamplifiers were built using commercial current feedback operational amplifiers for fast read out of charge pulses from a photomultiplier tube. Current feedback opamps prove to be particularly well suited for this application where the charge from the detector is large, of the order of one million electrons, and high timing resolution is required. A proper circuit arrangement allows very fast signals, with rise times down to one nanosecond, while keeping the amplifier stable. After a review of current feedback circuit topology and stability constraints, we provide a "recipe" to build stable and very fast charge sensitive preamplifiers from any current feedback opamp by adding just a few external components. The noise performance of the circuit topology has been evaluated and is reported in terms of equivalent noise charge.

  11. Earth observations from space: A dream deferred?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, John H.

    Earth observations from space are one of the great successes of the space age. However, because the promise of this technology is a long way from being realized, the joy of success is tinged with disappointment for both researchers and operational users of the data. U.S. Earth observation programs have been in turmoil since their inception, with confusion coming to a crescendo over the past 6 years. Neither the executive or legislative branches of the government have shown that they can successfully manage this technological capability created by the space program.

  12. Immediate versus deferred delivery of the preterm baby with suspected fetal compromise for improving outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Sarah J; Bricker, Leanne; Norman, Jane E; West, Helen M

    2016-07-12

    several factors: blinding was not possible due to the nature of the intervention, data for childhood follow-up were incomplete due to attrition, and no adjustment was made in the analysis for the non-independence of babies from multiple pregnancies (39 out of 548 pregnancies). This study only included cases of suspected fetal compromise where there was uncertainty whether immediate delivery was indicated, thus results must be interpreted with caution. Currently there is insufficient evidence on the benefits and harms of immediate delivery compared with deferred delivery in cases of suspected fetal compromise at preterm gestations to make firm recommendations. There is a lack of trials addressing this question, and limitations of the one included trial means that caution must be used in interpreting and generalising the findings. More research is needed to guide clinical practice.Although the included trial is relatively large, it has insufficient power to detect differences in neonatal mortality. It did not report any maternal outcomes other than mode of delivery, or evaluate maternal satisfaction or economic outcomes. The applicability of the findings is limited by several factors: Women with a wide range of obstetric complications and gestational ages were included, and subgroup analysis is currently limited. Advances in Doppler assessment techniques may diagnose severe compromise more accurately and help make decisions about the timing of delivery. The potential benefits of deferring delivery for longer or shorter periods cannot be presumed.Where there is uncertainty whether or not to deliver a preterm fetus with suspected fetal compromise, there seems to be no benefit to immediate delivery. Deferring delivery until test results worsen or increasing gestation favours delivery may improve the outcomes for mother and baby.There is a need for high-quality randomised controlled trials comparing immediate and deferred delivery where there is suspected fetal compromise at

  13. Power lateral pnp transistor operating with high current density in irradiated voltage regulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukić Vladimir Đ.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The operation of power lateral pnp transistors in gamma radiation field was examined by detection of the minimum dropout voltage on heavily loaded low-dropout voltage regulators LM2940CT5, clearly demonstrating their low radiation hardness, with unacceptably low values of output voltage and collector-emitter voltage volatility. In conjunction with previous results on base current and forward emitter current gain of serial transistors, it was possible to determine the positive influence of high load current on a slight improvement of voltage regulator LM2940CT5 radiation hardness. The high-current flow through the wide emitter aluminum contact of the serial transistor above the isolation oxide caused intensive annealing of the positive oxide-trapped charge, leading to decrease of the lateral pnp transistor's current gain, but also a more intensive recovery of the small-signal npn transistors in the control circuit. The high current density in the base area of the lateral pnp transistor immediately below the isolation oxide decreased the concentration of negative interface traps. Consequently, the positive influence of the reduced concentration of the oxide-trapped charge on the negative feedback reaction circuit, together with the favourable effect of reduced interface traps concentration, exceeded negative influence of the annealed oxide-trapped charge on the serial pnp transistor's forward emitter current gain.

  14. Concurrent operational modes and enhanced current sensitivity in heterostructure of magnetoelectric ring and piezoelectric transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shengyao; Ming Leung, Chung; Kuang, Wei; Wing Or, Siu; Ho, S. L.

    2013-05-01

    A heterostructure possessing two concurrent operational modes: current sensing (CS) mode and current transduction (CT) mode and an enhanced current sensitivity associated with the CT mode is proposed by combining a magnetoelectric ring (MER) with a piezoelectric transformer (PET). The MER is a ring-shaped magnetoelectric laminate having an axially polarized Pb(Zr, Ti)O3 (PZT) piezoelectric ceramic ring sandwiched between two circumferentially magnetized, inter-magnetically biased Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe1.92 (Terfenol-D) short-fiber/NdFeB magnet/epoxy three-phase magnetostrictive composite rings, while the PET is a Rosen-type PZT piezoelectric ceramic transformer. The current sensitivity (SI) and magnetoelectric voltage coefficient (αV) of the heterostructure in the two operational modes are evaluated theoretically and experimentally. The CS mode provides a large SI of ˜10 mV/A over a flat frequency range of 10 Hz-40 kHz with a high resonance SI of 157 mV/A at 62 kHz. The CT mode gives a 6.4-times enhancement in resonance SI, reaching 1000 mV/A at 62 kHz, as a result of the amplified vortex magnetoelectric effect caused by the vortex magnetoelectric effect in the MER, the matching of the resonance frequencies between the MER and the PET, and the resonance voltage step-up effect in the PET.

  15. Development of a high average current polarized electron source with long cathode operational lifetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. K. Sinclair; P. A. Adderley; B. M. Dunham; J. C. Hansknecht; P. Hartmann; M. Poelker; J. S. Price; P. M. Rutt; W. J. Schneider; M. Steigerwald

    2007-02-01

    Substantially more than half of the electromagnetic nuclear physics experiments conducted at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Laboratory) require highly polarized electron beams, often at high average current. Spin-polarized electrons are produced by photoemission from various GaAs-based semiconductor photocathodes, using circularly polarized laser light with photon energy slightly larger than the semiconductor band gap. The photocathodes are prepared by activation of the clean semiconductor surface to negative electron affinity using cesium and oxidation. Historically, in many laboratories worldwide, these photocathodes have had short operational lifetimes at high average current, and have often deteriorated fairly quickly in ultrahigh vacuum even without electron beam delivery. At Jefferson Lab, we have developed a polarized electron source in which the photocathodes degrade exceptionally slowly without electron emission, and in which ion back bombardment is the predominant mechanism limiting the operational lifetime of the cathodes during electron emission. We have reproducibly obtained cathode 1/e dark lifetimes over two years, and 1/e charge density and charge lifetimes during electron beam delivery of over 2?105???C/cm2 and 200 C, respectively. This source is able to support uninterrupted high average current polarized beam delivery to three experimental halls simultaneously for many months at a time. Many of the techniques we report here are directly applicable to the development of GaAs photoemission electron guns to deliver high average current, high brightness unpolarized beams.

  16. New active-only grounded inductance simulator employing current-mode approach suitable for wide band operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamacli, Serhan; Ozcan, Sadri; Kuntman, Hakan

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, an active-only grounded lossless inductance simulator operating in current-mode is presented. The circuit uses only a current operational amplifier (COA) and an operational transconductance amplifier (OTA). The novelty of the proposed circuit is that it uses a COA instead of a voltage operational amplifier (VOA) to take the wider frequency operation advantage of the current-mode approach. The simulation results obtained through SPICE with 0.5 μm standard CMOS technology verify that the designed circuit can be operated up to 30 MHz, which is much higher than the operation frequency of previously reported inductance simulators utilising VOAs. The inductance value of the presented circuit can be adjusted electronically between 3.9 μH and 37 μH via the biasing current of the OTA. A parallel resonance circuit application is also given validating the operation of the proposed inductance simulator.

  17. Steady-state and non-steady state operation of counter-current chromatography devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostanyan, Artak E; Ignatova, Svetlana N; Sutherland, Ian A; Hewitson, Peter; Zakhodjaeva, Yulya A; Erastov, Andrey A

    2013-11-01

    Different variants of separation processes based on steady-state (continuous sample loading) and non-steady state (batch) operating modes of CCC columns have been analyzed and compared. The analysis is carried out on the basis of the modified equilibrium cell model, which takes into account both mechanisms of band broadening - interphase mass transfer and axial mixing. A full theoretical treatment of the intermittent counter-current chromatography with short sample loading time is performed. Analytical expressions are presented allowing the simulation of the intermittent counter-current chromatography separations for various experimental conditions. Chromatographic and extraction separations have been compared and advantages and disadvantages of the two methods have been evaluated. Further technical development of the CCC machines to implement counter-current extraction separations is considered.

  18. Tax-deferred annuity plans: meeting the IRS audit challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schussler, M

    1997-01-01

    A growing number of nonprofit organizations are being fined for violations of IRS regulations following IRS audits of their tax-deferred annuity (TDA) plans. To ensure that their organizations can withstand the scrutiny of an IRS audit, TDA plan administrators must ensure that plans meet IRS regulations and be prepared for IRS audits. Documentation--particularly of the TDA plan itself, and procedures related to salary reduction programs, compensation limits, excess deferrals and other excess contributions, loans, and distributions--must be comprehensive and in compliance with IRS regulations.

  19. Residual magnetic field profiles and their current density profiles of coated conductors for fast and slow cut-off current operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, J.; Taillouli, M.; Hamabe, M.; Watanabe, H.; Chikumoto, N.; Yamaguchi, S. [Chubu University, Kasugai, Aichi (Japan); Shyshkin, O. [V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2015-03-15

    Coated conductor is an important candidate for power cable applications due to its high current density. Even for DC power cable transmission, we must study the transport properties of HTS tapes after slow and fast discharge. In order to evaluate relation of the magnetic field with applied current we developed a scanning magnetic field measurements system by employing a Hall probe. This work presents the measurements of the magnetic fields above a coated conductor by varying applied current pattern. In the work, a transport current of 100 A, less than the critical current, is applied to YBCO coated conductor. We measured the residual magnetic field distributions after cut off the transport current with slow and fast operations. The results show differences of the magnetic field profiles and the corresponding current profiles by an inverse solution from the magnetic field measurement between these two operations because of the hysteresis of coated conductor excited by the transport current.

  20. A current to voltage converter for cryogenics using a CMOS operational amplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, K; Saitoh, K; Shibayama, Y; Shirahama, K [Department of Physics, Keio University, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan)], E-mail: khayashi@a2.keio.jp

    2009-02-01

    We have constructed a versatile current to voltage (I-V) converter operating at liquid helium temperature, using a commercially available all-CMOS OPamp. It is valuable for cryogenic measurements of electrical current of nano-pico amperes, for example, in scanning probe microscopy. The I-V converter is thermally linked to liquid helium bath and self-heated up to 10.7 K. We have confirmed its capability of a transimpedance gain of 10{sup 6} V/A and a bandwidth from DC to 200 kHz. In order to test the practical use for a frequency-modulation atomic force microscope, we have measured the resonance frequency shift of a quartz tuning fork at 32 kHz. In the operation of the I-V converter close to the sensor at liquid helium temperature, the signal-to-noise ratio has been improved to a factor of 13.6 compared to the operation at room temperature.

  1. Operational Experience and Consolidations for the Current Lead Control Valves of the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Perin, A; Pirotte, O; Krieger, B; Widmer, A

    2012-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider superconducting magnets are powered by more than 1400 gas cooled current leads ranging from 120 A to 13000 A. The gas flow required by the leads is controlled by solenoid proportional valves with dimensions from DN 1.8 mm to DN 10 mm. During the first months of operation, signs of premature wear were found in the active parts of the valves. This created major problems for the functioning of the current leads threatening the availability of the LHC. Following the detection of the problems, a series of measures were implemented to keep the LHC running, to launch a development program to solve the premature wear problem and to prepare for a global consolidation of the gas flow control system. This article describes first the difficulties encountered and the measures taken to ensure a continuous operation of the LHC during the first year of operation. The development of new friction free valves is then presented along with the consolidation program and the test equipment developed to val...

  2. 77 FR 74488 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Consideration of Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ..., USCIS, Office of Policy and Strategy, Chief, Regulatory Coordination Division, 20 Massachusetts Avenue... making their request for consideration of deferred action with USCIS; 5. Entered without inspection... into removal proceedings as part of the deferred action for childhood arrivals process. Those who...

  3. The per-protocol effect of immediate vs. deferred ART initiation in the START randomized trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lodi, Sara; Sharma, Shweta; Lundgren, Jens D;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The START trial found a lower risk of a composite clinical outcome in HIV-positive individuals assigned to immediate initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) compared with those assigned to deferred initiation. However, 30% of those assigned to deferred initiation started ART earlier...

  4. 76 FR 45199 - Interim Final Determination To Defer Sanctions, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Interim Final Determination To Defer Sanctions, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District, CA AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Interim final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is making an interim final determination to defer imposition of sanctions based on a...

  5. 76 FR 28661 - Interim Final Determination To Defer Sanctions, Sacramento Metro 1-Hour Ozone Nonattainment Area...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Interim Final Determination To Defer Sanctions, Sacramento Metro 1-Hour Ozone Nonattainment Area, California AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Interim final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is making an interim final determination to defer imposition of sanctions based on a...

  6. 78 FR 53038 - Interim Final Determination to Stay and Defer Sanctions; California; San Joaquin Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Interim Final Determination to Stay and Defer Sanctions; California; San Joaquin Valley AGENCY: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Interim final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is making an interim final determination to stay the imposition of offset sanctions and to defer...

  7. 76 FR 76046 - Interim Final Determination To Defer Sanctions, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Interim Final Determination To Defer Sanctions, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Interim final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is making an interim final determination to defer imposition of sanctions based on a...

  8. Survival after primary and deferred cystectomy for stage T1 transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedeir Ali-El-Dein

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: Cancer-specific survival is statistically comparable for primary and deferred cystectomy in T1 bladder cancer, although there is a non-significant difference in favor of primary cystectomy. In the deferred cystectomy group, the number of TURBTs beyond three is associated with lower survival. Conservative treatment should be adopted for most cases in this category.

  9. 20 CFR 422.122 - Information on deferred vested pension benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Information on deferred vested pension... PROCEDURES General Procedures § 422.122 Information on deferred vested pension benefits. (a) Claimants for... electronic pension benefit record. This record contains information received from IRS on individuals for whom...

  10. Concurrent non-deferred reference counting on the Microgrid: first experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herhut, S.; Joslin, C.; Scholz, S.-B.; Poss, R.; Grelck, C.

    2011-01-01

    We present a first evaluation of our novel approach for non- deferred reference counting on the Microgrid many-core architecture. Non-deferred reference counting is a fundamental building block of im- plicit heap management of functional array languages in general and Sin- gle Assignment C in partic

  11. Electromagnetic Structure of A=2 and 3 Nuclei and the Nuclear Current Operator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocco Schiavilla

    2005-02-01

    Different models for conserved two- and three-body electromagnetic currents are constructed from two- and three-nucleon interactions, using either meson-exchange mechanisms or minimal substitution in the momentum dependence of these interactions. The connection between these two different schemes is elucidated. A number of low-energy electronuclear observables, including (i) np radiative capture at thermal neutron energies and deuteron photodisintegration at low energies, (ii) nd and pd radiative capture reactions, and (iii) isoscalar and isovector magnetic form factors of {sup 3}H and {sup 3}He, are calculated in order to make a comparative study of these models for the current operator. The realistic Argonne v{sub 18} two-nucleon and Urbana IX or Tucson-Melbourne three-nucleon interactions are taken as a case study. For A=3 processes, the bound and continuum wave functions, both below and above deuteron breakup threshold, are obtained with the correlated hyperspherical-harmonics method. Three-body currents give small but significant contributions to some of the polarization observables in the {sup 2}H(p,{gamma}){sup 3}He process and the {sup 2}H(n,{gamma}){sup 3}H cross section at thermal neutron energies. It is shown that the use of a current which did not exactly satisfy current conservation with the two- and three-nucleon interactions in the Hamiltonian was responsible for some of the discrepancies reported in previous studies between the experimental and theoretical polarization observables in pd radiative capture.

  12. A HIGH PERFORMANCE FULLY DIFFERENTIAL PURE CURRENT MODE OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER AND ITS APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEYED JAVAD AZHARI

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a novel high performance all current-mode fully-differential (FD Current mode Operational Amplifier (COA in BIPOLAR technology is presented. The unique true current mode simple structure grants the proposed COA the largest yet reported unity gain frequency while providing low voltage low power operation. Benefiting from some novel ideas, it also exhibits high gain, high common mode rejection ratio (CMRR, high power supply rejection ratio (PSRR, high output impedance, low input impedance and most importantly high current drive capability. Its most important parameters are derived and its performance is proved by PSPICE simulations using 0.8 μm BICMOS process parameters at supply voltage of ±1.2V indicating the values of 82.4 dB,52.3º, 31.5 Ω, 31.78 MΩ, 179.2 dB, 2 mW and 698 MHz for gain, phase margin, input impedance, output impedance, CMRR, power and unity gain frequency respectively. Its CMRR also shows very high frequency of 2.64 GHz at zero dB. Its very high PSRR+/PSRR- of 182 dB/196 dB makes the proposed COA a highly suitable block in Mixed-Mode (SOC chips. Most favourably it can deliver up to ±1.5 mA yielding a high current drive capability exceeding 25. To demonstrate the performance of the proposed COA, it is used to realize a constant bandwidth voltage amplifier and a high performance Rm amplifier.

  13. Current Conditions Risk Assessment for the 300-FF-5 Groundwater Operable Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miley, Terri B.; Bunn, Amoret L.; Napier, Bruce A.; Peterson, Robert E.; Becker, James M.

    2007-11-01

    This report updates a baseline risk assessment for the 300 Area prepared in 1994. The update includes consideration of changes in contaminants of interest and in the environment that have occurred during the period of interim remedial action, i.e., 1996 to the present, as well as the sub-regions, for which no initial risk assessments have been conducted. In 1996, a record of decision (ROD) stipulated interim remedial action for groundwater affected by releases from 300 Area sources, as follows: (a) continued monitoring of groundwater that is contaminated above health-based levels to ensure that concentrations continue to decrease, and (b) institutional controls to ensure that groundwater use is restricted to prevent unacceptable exposure to groundwater contamination. In 2000, the groundwater beneath the two outlying sub-regions was added to the operable unit. In 2001, the first 5-year review of the ROD found that the interim remedy and remedial action objectives were still appropriate, although the review called for additional characterization activities. This report includes a current conditions baseline ecological and human health risk assessment using maximum concentrations in the environmental media of the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit and downstream conditions at the City of Richland, Washington. The scope for this assessment includes only current measured environmental concentrations and current use scenarios. Future environmental concentrations and future land uses are not considered in this assessment.

  14. Observation of self-magnetic field relaxations in Bi2223 and Y123 HTS tapes after over-current pulse and DC current operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallouli, M.; Sun, J.; Chikumoto, N.; Otabe, E. S.; Shyshkin, O.; Charfi-Kaddour, S.; Yamaguchi, S.

    2016-07-01

    The development of power transmission lines based on long-length HTS tapes requires the production of high quality tapes. Due to fault conditions, technical mistakes and human errors during the operation of a DC power transmission line, an over-current pulse, several times larger than the rated current, could occur. To study the effect of such over-current pulses on the transport current density distribution in the HTS tapes, we simulated two start-up scenarios for one BSCCO and two YBCO tapes. The first start-up scenario is an initial over-current pulse during which the transport current was turned on rapidly, rising to 900 A during the first milliseconds, then reduced to a 100 A DC current. The second start-up scenario is normal operation, and involved increasing the transport current slowly from 0 A to 100 A at a rate of 1 A/s. For both scenarios, we then measured the vertical component of the self-magnetic field by means of a Hall probe above the tape, and afterward, by solving a linear equation of the inverse problem we obtain the current density profiles. We observe a change of the self-magnetic field above the edge of the BSCCO and YBCO tapes during 30 min after the 5 ms of over-current pulse and during the normal operation. The current density profiles are peaked in the centre for over-current pulse, and more peaked around the edge of the HTS tape for normal operation, which means that the limited time over-current pulse changes the current density profiles of the HTS tapes. We observe also a loop of current for YBCO tapes and we show the role of the HTS tape stabilizer.

  15. Biasing, operation and parasitic current limitation in single device equivalent to CMOS, and other semiconductor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, James D.

    2003-09-23

    Disclosed are semiconductor devices including at least one junction which is rectifying whether the semiconductor is caused to be N or P-type, by the presence of applied gate voltage field induced carriers in essentially intrinsic, essentially homogeneously simultaneously containing both N and P-type metallurgical dopants at substantially equal doping levels, essentially homogeneously simultaneously containing both N and P-type metallurgical dopants at different doping levels, and containing a single metallurgical doping type, and functional combinations thereof. In particular, inverting and non-inverting gate voltage channel induced semiconductor single devices with operating characteristics similar to conventional multiple device CMOS systems, which can be operated as modulators, are disclosed as are a non-latching SCR and an approach to blocking parasitic currents utilizing material(s) which form rectifying junctions with both N and P-type semiconductor whether metallurigically or field induced.

  16. 26 CFR 35.3405-1 - Questions and answers relating to withholding on pensions, annuities, and certain other deferred...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... on pensions, annuities, and certain other deferred income. 35.3405-1 Section 35.3405-1 Internal... withholding on pensions, annuities, and certain other deferred income. The following questions and answers relate to withholding on pensions, annuities, and other deferred income under section 3405 of the...

  17. Performance of Lempel-Ziv compressors with deferred innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Martin

    1989-01-01

    The noiseless data-compression algorithms introduced by Lempel and Ziv (LZ) parse an input data string into successive substrings each consisting of two parts: The citation, which is the longest prefix that has appeared earlier in the input, and the innovation, which is the symbol immediately following the citation. In extremal versions of the LZ algorithm the citation may have begun anywhere in the input; in incremental versions it must have begun at a previous parse position. Originally the citation and the innovation were encoded, either individually or jointly, into an output word to be transmitted or stored. Subsequently, it was speculated that the cost of this encoding may be excessively high because the innovation contributes roughly 1g(A) bits, where A is the size of the input alphabet, regardless of the compressibility of the source. To remedy this excess, it was suggested to store the parsed substring as usual, but encoding for output only the citation, leaving the innovation to be encoded as the first symbol of the next substring. Being thus included in the next substring, the innovation can participate in whatever compression that substring enjoys. This strategy is called deferred innovation. It is exemplified in the algorithm described by Welch and implemented in the C program compress that has widely displaced adaptive Huffman coding (compact) as a UNIX system utility. The excessive expansion is explained, an implicit warning is given against using the deferred innovation compressors on nearly incompressible data.

  18. Current distribution measurements inside an electromagnetic plasma gun operated in a gas-puff mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehlmann, Flavio R; Cappelli, Mark A; Rieker, Gregory B

    2010-12-01

    Measurements are presented of the time-dependent current distribution inside a coaxial electromagnetic plasma gun. The measurements are carried out using an array of six axially distributed dual-Rogowski coils in a balanced circuit configuration. The radial current distributions indicate that operation in the gas-puff mode, i.e., the mode in which the electrode voltage is applied before injection of the gas, results in a stationary ionization front consistent with the presence of a plasma deflagration. The effects of varying the bank capacitance, transmission line inductance, and applied electrode voltage were studied over the range from 14 to 112 μF, 50 to 200 nH, and 1 to 3 kV, respectively.

  19. Current distribution measurements inside an electromagnetic plasma gun operated in a gas-puff mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehlmann, Flavio R.; Cappelli, Mark A.; Rieker, Gregory B.

    2010-12-01

    Measurements are presented of the time-dependent current distribution inside a coaxial electromagnetic plasma gun. The measurements are carried out using an array of six axially distributed dual-Rogowski coils in a balanced circuit configuration. The radial current distributions indicate that operation in the gas-puff mode, i.e., the mode in which the electrode voltage is applied before injection of the gas, results in a stationary ionization front consistent with the presence of a plasma deflagration. The effects of varying the bank capacitance, transmission line inductance, and applied electrode voltage were studied over the range from 14 to 112 μF, 50 to 200 nH, and 1 to 3 kV, respectively.

  20. Development of a high average current polarized electron source with long cathode operational lifetime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. K. Sinclair

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Substantially more than half of the electromagnetic nuclear physics experiments conducted at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Laboratory require highly polarized electron beams, often at high average current. Spin-polarized electrons are produced by photoemission from various GaAs-based semiconductor photocathodes, using circularly polarized laser light with photon energy slightly larger than the semiconductor band gap. The photocathodes are prepared by activation of the clean semiconductor surface to negative electron affinity using cesium and oxidation. Historically, in many laboratories worldwide, these photocathodes have had short operational lifetimes at high average current, and have often deteriorated fairly quickly in ultrahigh vacuum even without electron beam delivery. At Jefferson Lab, we have developed a polarized electron source in which the photocathodes degrade exceptionally slowly without electron emission, and in which ion back bombardment is the predominant mechanism limiting the operational lifetime of the cathodes during electron emission. We have reproducibly obtained cathode 1/e dark lifetimes over two years, and 1/e charge density and charge lifetimes during electron beam delivery of over 2×10^{5}   C/cm^{2} and 200 C, respectively. This source is able to support uninterrupted high average current polarized beam delivery to three experimental halls simultaneously for many months at a time. Many of the techniques we report here are directly applicable to the development of GaAs photoemission electron guns to deliver high average current, high brightness unpolarized beams.

  1. Operation Tests for SN Transition Superconducting Fault Current Limiter in the Power System Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameda, Hideyuki; Torii, Shinji; Kumano, Teruhisa; Sakaki, Hisayoshi; Kubota, Hiroshi; Yasuda, Kenji

    One of important problems to be solved in Japanese trunk transmission systems is the reduction of short circuit capacity. As this countermeasure, double buses are split into two buses in some substations. In recent years, dispersed generators are introduced in lower voltage classes due to the introduction of the electricity deregulation. In such a distribution system as many dispersed generators are introduced, it is a possibility that the fault current becomes beyond the breaking capacity at the occurrence of short circuit. Introduction of superconducting fault current limiters into a power system is very effective as one of the means to solve the above-mentioned problem, and we have studied on the effective introduction method of them and setting method of their parameters. This paper describes the results of the operation tests for SN transition type of a superconducting fault current limiter using 3 phases of FCL modules against various kinds of system faults or inrush current in the Power System Simulator installed at CRIEPI.

  2. Operational experience in the use of 18 kA HTS current leads for Edipo

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, S.; Wesche, R.; Bruzzone, P.

    2014-05-01

    In spring 2013, the Edipo facility of CRPP was commissioned. The dipole is powered via two 18 kA HTS current leads, designed and manufactured at CRPP. As part of the Edipo commissioning framework, the operational parameters of the leads were implemented in the control system. The in-situ tests were found to be in good agreement with the tests performed without a background field in 2011. The leads consist of a conduction cooled HTS module, made of AgMgAu/Bi-2223 stacks, and a wire bundle heat exchanger. The heat exchanger is cooled by forced flow helium gas, the inlet temperature of which was measured to vary between 65 K and 85 K. During operation with field, the mass flow rate is a function of current (2.05 g/s per lead at full field, 12.35 T, 17.2 kA). Reduced cooling investigations showed that 0.31 g/s per lead is suitable for overnight standby and 0.2 g/s per lead for longer periods. For detection of and protection against quench in the HTS module, a threshold of 10 mV was found to be appropriate. The heat exchanger has a voltage protection threshold of 120 mV. The temperatures of the heat exchanger, the HTS, and the helium inlet temperature were monitored in order to provide a further layer of protection.

  3. The operator product expansion between the 16 lowest higher spin currents in the N=4 superspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Changhyun; Kim, Man Hea

    2016-07-01

    Some of the operator product expansions (OPEs) between the lowest 16 higher spin currents of spins (1, 3/2, 3/2, 3/2, 3/2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 5/2, 5/2, 5/2, 5/2, 3) in an extension of the large N=4 linear superconformal algebra were constructed in N=4 superconformal coset SU(5)/SU(3) theory previously. In this paper, by rewriting these OPEs in the N=4 superspace developed by Schoutens (and other groups), the remaining undetermined OPEs in which the corresponding singular terms possess the composite fields with spins s =7/2, 4, 9/2, 5 are completely determined. Furthermore, by introducing arbitrary coefficients in front of the composite fields on the right-hand sides of the above complete 136 OPEs, reexpressing them in the N=2 superspace, and using the N=2 OPEs Mathematica package by Krivonos and Thielemans, the complete structures of the above OPEs with fixed coefficient functions are obtained with the help of various Jacobi identities. We then obtain ten N=2 super OPEs between the four N=2 higher spin currents denoted by (1, 3/2, 3/2, 2), (3/2, 2, 2, 5/2), (3/2, 2, 2, 5/2), and (2, 5/2, 5/2, 3) (corresponding 136 OPEs in the component approach) in the N=4 superconformal coset SU(N+2)/SU(N) theory. Finally, we describe them as one single N=4 super OPE between the above 16 higher spin currents in the N=4 superspace. The fusion rule for this OPE contains the next 16 higher spin currents of spins of (2, 5/2, 5/2, 5/2, 5/2, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 7/2, 7/2, 7/2, 7/2, 4) in addition to the quadratic N=4 lowest higher spin multiplet and the large N=4 linear superconformal family of the identity operator. The various structure constants (fixed coefficient functions) appearing on the right-hand side of this OPE depend on N and the level k of the bosonic spin-1 affine Kac-Moody current. For convenience, the above 136 OPEs in the component approach for generic ( N, k) with simplified notation are given.

  4. Prediction of Pollution Flashover Voltage Based on Leakage Current Under AC Operating Voltage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MEI Hongwei; WANG Liming; GUAN Zhicheng; MAO Yingke

    2012-01-01

    This paper presented a model to predict the AC flashover voltage of contaminated suspension insulators.The prediction method is based on the maximum leakage current under AC operating voltage.Three kinds of widely used suspension insulators were tested in various contamination states such as pollution layers with different equivalent salt deposit density(ESDD),different composition of the conductive components,different non-soluble deposit density(NSDD) and different pollution distribution states to simulate the contamination states in nature.The effective ESDD was proposed and calculated.Influences of contamination states to maximum leakage current and flashover voltage were studied.Then,the relationships between flashover voltage and leakage current in these states were presented.Finally,considering the difference of insulator profiles,a new parameter is defined and a model to estimate the flashover voltage based on this parameter is developed.The model could be used in all kinds of suspension insulators in different contamination states and was validated by the test results.

  5. Donating blood for research: a potential method for enhancing customer satisfaction of permanently deferred blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Daniel; Thijsen, Amanda; Garradd, Allira; Hayman, Jane; Smith, Geoff

    2015-11-30

    Each year, a large number of individuals in Australia are deferred from donating blood. A deferral may have a negative impact on donor satisfaction and subsequent word-of-mouth communication. The Australian Red Cross Blood Service (the Blood Service) is, therefore, investigating options for managing service interactions with deferred donors to maintain positive relationships. While public research institutes in Australia have established independent research donor registries, other countries provide programmes allowing deferred donors to donate blood for research via blood collection agencies. This study examined attitudes towards donating blood for research use in a sample of permanently deferred Australian donors. Donors permanently deferred because of a risk of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (n=449) completed a postal survey that examined attitudes towards research donation. The majority of participants were interested in donating blood for research (96%), and joining a registry of research donors (93%). Participants preferred to donate for transfusion or clinical research, and were willing to travel large distances. Results indicated that positive attitudes towards the Blood Service would be extended if the opportunity to donate blood was provided. These findings indicate a desire for continued engagement with the Blood Service despite deferral. Donating blood for research is a potential way of maintaining positive relationships with permanently deferred donors which also benefits the health research community. Through maintaining positive relationships with deferred donors, positive word-of-mouth activity can be stimulated. Further work is needed to determine the feasibility of implementing research donation through the Blood Service in Australia.

  6. Predicting core losses and efficiency of SRM in continuous current mode of operation using improved analytical technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsapour, Amir, E-mail: amirparsapour@gmail.com [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Isfahan, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dehkordi, Behzad Mirzaeian, E-mail: mirzaeian@eng.ui.ac.ir [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Isfahan, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moallem, Mehdi, E-mail: moallem@cc.iut.ac.ir [Department of Electrical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    In applications in which the high torque per ampere at low speed and rated power at high speed are required, the continuous current method is the best solution. However, there is no report on calculating the core loss of SRM in continuous current mode of operation. Efficiency and iron loss calculation which are complex tasks in case of conventional mode of operation is even more involved in continuous current mode of operation. In this paper, the Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM) is modeled using finite element method and core loss and copper loss of SRM in discontinuous and continuous current modes of operation are calculated using improved analytical techniques to include the minor loop losses in continuous current mode of operation. Motor efficiency versus speed in both operation modes is obtained and compared. - Highlights: • Continuous current method for Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM) is explained. • An improved analytical technique is presented for SRM core loss calculation. • SRM losses in discontinuous and continuous current operation modes are presented. • Effect of mutual inductances on SRM performance is investigated.

  7. A Review & Assessment of Current Operating Conditions Allowable Stresses in ASME Section III Subsection NH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. W. Swindeman

    2009-12-14

    The current operating condition allowable stresses provided in ASME Section III, Subsection NH were reviewed for consistency with the criteria used to establish the stress allowables and with the allowable stresses provided in ASME Section II, Part D. It was found that the S{sub o} values in ASME III-NH were consistent with the S values in ASME IID for the five materials of interest. However, it was found that 0.80 S{sub r} was less than S{sub o} for some temperatures for four of the materials. Only values for alloy 800H appeared to be consistent with the criteria on which S{sub o} values are established. With the intent of undertaking a more detailed evaluation of issues related to the allowable stresses in ASME III-NH, the availabilities of databases for the five materials were reviewed and augmented databases were assembled.

  8. Fast pulsed operation of a small non-radioactive electron source with continuous emission current control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochems, P; Kirk, A T; Bunert, E; Runge, M; Goncalves, P; Zimmermann, S

    2015-06-01

    Non-radioactive electron sources are of great interest in any application requiring the emission of electrons at atmospheric pressure, as they offer better control over emission parameters than radioactive electron sources and are not subject to legal restrictions. Recently, we published a simple electron source consisting only of a vacuum housing, a filament, and a single control grid. In this paper, we present improved control electronics that utilize this control grid in order to focus and defocus the electron beam, thus pulsing the electron emission at atmospheric pressure. This allows short emission pulses and excellent stability of the emitted electron current due to continuous control, both during pulsed and continuous operations. As an application example, this electron source is coupled to an ion mobility spectrometer. Here, the pulsed electron source allows experiments on gas phase ion chemistry (e.g., ion generation and recombination kinetics) and can even remove the need for a traditional ion shutter.

  9. Current and Future Impact Risks from Small Debris to Operational Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Jer-Chyi; Kessler, Don

    2011-01-01

    The collision between Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251 in 2009 signaled the potential onset of the collision cascade effect, commonly known as the "Kessler Syndrome", in the low Earth orbit (LEO) region. Recent numerical simulations have shown that the 10 cm and larger debris population in LEO will continue to increase even with a good implementation of the commonly-adopted mitigation measures. This increase is driven by collisions involving large and massive intacts, i.e., rocket bodies and spacecraft. Therefore, active debris removal (ADR) of large and massive intacts with high collision probabilities has been argued as a direct and effective means to remediate the environment in LEO. The major risk for operational satellites in the environment, however, comes from impacts with debris just above the threshold of the protection shields. In general, these are debris in the millimeter to centimeter size regime. Although impacts by these objects are insufficient to lead to catastrophic breakup of the entire vehicle, the damage is certainly severe enough to cause critical failure of the key instruments or the entire payload. The focus of this paper is to estimate the impact risks from 5 mm and 1 cm debris to active payloads in LEO (1) in the current environment and (2) in the future environment based on different projection scenarios, including ADR. The goal of the study is to quantify the benefits of ADR in reducing debris impact risks to operational satellites.

  10. Progress toward steady-state tokamak operation exploiting the high bootstrap current fraction regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Q. L.; Garofalo, A. M.; Gong, X. Z.; Holcomb, C. T.; Lao, L. L.; McKee, G. R.; Meneghini, O.; Staebler, G. M.; Grierson, B. A.; Qian, J. P.; Solomon, W. M.; Turnbull, A. D.; Holland, C.; Guo, W. F.; Ding, S. Y.; Pan, C. K.; Xu, G. S.; Wan, B. N.

    2016-06-01

    Recent DIII-D experiments have increased the normalized fusion performance of the high bootstrap current fraction tokamak regime toward reactor-relevant steady state operation. The experiments, conducted by a joint team of researchers from the DIII-D and EAST tokamaks, developed a fully noninductive scenario that could be extended on EAST to a demonstration of long pulse steady-state tokamak operation. Improved understanding of scenario stability has led to the achievement of very high values of βp and βN , despite strong internal transport barriers. Good confinement has been achieved with reduced toroidal rotation. These high βp plasmas challenge the energy transport understanding, especially in the electron energy channel. A new turbulent transport model, named TGLF-SAT1, has been developed which improves the transport prediction. Experiments extending results to long pulse on EAST, based on the physics basis developed at DIII-D, have been conducted. More investigations will be carried out on EAST with more additional auxiliary power to come online in the near term.

  11. Ion properties in a Hall current thruster operating at high voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrigues, L.

    2016-04-01

    Operation of a 5 kW-class Hall current Thruster for various voltages from 400 V to 800 V and a xenon mass flow rate of 6 mg s-1 have been studied with a quasi-neutral hybrid model. In this model, anomalous electron transport is fitted from ion mean velocity measurements, and energy losses due to electron-wall interactions are used as a tuned parameter to match expected electron temperature strength for same class of thruster. Doubly charged ions production has been taken into account and detailed collisions between heavy species included. As the electron temperature increases, the main channel of Xe2+ ion production becomes stepwise ionization of Xe+ ions. For an applied voltage of 800 V, the mass utilization efficiency is in the range of 0.8-1.1, and the current fraction of doubly charged ions varies between 0.1 and 0.2. Results show that the region of ion production of each species is located at the same place inside the thruster channel. Because collision processes mean free path is larger than the acceleration region, each type of ions experiences same potential drop, and ion energy distributions of singly and doubly charged are very similar.

  12. An operational coupled wave-current forecasting system for the northern Adriatic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, A.; Coluccelli, A.; Deserti, M.; Valentini, A.; Benetazzo, A.; Carniel, S.

    2012-04-01

    Since 2005 an Adriatic implementation of the Regional Ocean Modeling System (AdriaROMS) is being producing operational short-term forecasts (72 hours) of some hydrodynamic properties (currents, sea level, temperature, salinity) of the Adriatic Sea at 2 km horizontal resolution and 20 vertical s-levels, on a daily basis. The main objective of AdriaROMS, which is managed by the Hydro-Meteo-Clima Service (SIMC) of ARPA Emilia Romagna, is to provide useful products for civil protection purposes (sea level forecasts, outputs to run other forecasting models as for saline wedge, oil spills and coastal erosion). In order to improve the forecasts in the coastal area, where most of the attention is focused, a higher resolution model (0.5 km, again with 20 vertical s-levels) has been implemented for the northern Adriatic domain. The new implementation is based on the Coupled-Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport Modeling System (COAWST)and adopts ROMS for the hydrodynamic and Simulating WAve Nearshore (SWAN) for the wave module, respectively. Air-sea fluxes are computed using forecasts produced by the COSMO-I7 operational atmospheric model. At the open boundary of the high resolution model, temperature, salinity and velocity fields are provided by AdriaROMS while the wave characteristics are provided by an operational SWAN implementation (also managed by SIMC). Main tidal components are imposed as well, derived from a tidal model. Work in progress is oriented now on the validation of model results by means of extensive comparisons with acquired hydrographic measurements (such as CTDs or XBTs from sea-truth campaigns), currents and waves acquired at observational sites (including those of SIMC, CNR-ISMAR network and its oceanographic tower, located off the Venice littoral) and satellite-derived wave-heights data. Preliminary results on the forecast waves denote how, especially during intense storms, the effect of coupling can lead to significant variations in the wave

  13. Deferred versus conventional stent implantation in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (DANAMI 3-DEFER)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelbæk, Henning; Høfsten, Dan Eik; Køber, Lars

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite successful treatment of the culprit artery lesion by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with stent implantation, thrombotic embolisation occurs in some cases, which impairs the prognosis of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). We aimed...... to assess the clinical outcomes of deferred stent implantation versus standard PCI in patients with STEMI. METHODS: We did this open-label, randomised controlled trial at four primary PCI centres in Denmark. Eligible patients (aged >18 years) had acute onset symptoms lasting 12 h or less, and ST...... revascularisation of the target vessel within 2 years' follow-up. Patients, investigators, and treating clinicians were not masked to treatment allocation. We did analysis by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01435408. FINDINGS: Between March 1, 2011, and Feb 28, 2014...

  14. Correlational and Differential Influence of Historical Cost and Current Cost Profits on the Operating Capabilities of the Firm

    OpenAIRE

    S. A. Effiong; J. O. Udoayang; A. I. Asuquo

    2011-01-01

    The study investigated the correlation and differential influence of historical cost and current cost profits on the operating capabilities of the firm. The financial statements of thirty-one Nigerian Companies were surveyed and adjusted for effects of price changes using the Consumers¡¯ Price Index (CPI). Correlation influence between the historical cost profits on the operating ability of the firm was measured and established on one hand and that of current cost profit on the other hand. Di...

  15. Deferred Compensation for Personnel of Tax-Exempt Universities: Effective Use of Section 403(b) Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, John L.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Under the Tax Reform Act of 1986 many university employees are no longer able to make tax deductible contributions to an IRA. Several alternative plans of action are discussed including tax-deferred annuities. Tax planning strategies are offered. (MLW)

  16. Deferred endoscopic urethral realignment: Role in management of traumatic posterior urethral disruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Elgammal

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: When early realignment is postponed for any reason, deferred endoscopic realignment is considered an adequate substitute because urethral continuity can be achieved in a group of patients without increase incidence of impotence and incontinence.

  17. 18 CFR 367.2550 - Account 255, Accumulated deferred investment tax credits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., FEDERAL POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Deferred Credits § 367.2550 Account... Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC...

  18. 18 CFR 367.2820 - Account 282, Accumulated deferred income taxes-Other property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., FEDERAL POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Deferred Credits § 367.2820 Account... Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC...

  19. 18 CFR 367.1900 - Account 190, Accumulated deferred income taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... NATURAL GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Deferred Debits § 367.1900 Account 190, Accumulated... ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING...

  20. 18 CFR 367.2830 - Account 283, Accumulated deferred income taxes-Other.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Deferred Credits § 367.2830 Account 283... FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY...

  1. Current status of multimodel superensemble and operational NWP forecast of the Indian summer monsoon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Akhilesh Kumar Mishra; T N Krishnamurti

    2007-10-01

    In the last thirty years great strides have been made by large-scale operational numerical weather prediction models towards improving skills for the medium range time-scale of 7 days.This paper illustrates the use of these current forecasts towards the construction of a consensus multimodel forecast product called the superensemble.This procedure utilizes 120 of the recent-past forecasts from these models to arrive at the training phase statistics. These statistics are described by roughly 107 weights.Use of these weights provides the possibility for real-time medium range forecasts with the superensemble.We show the recent status of this procedure towards real-time forecasts for the Asian summer monsoon.The member models of our suite include ECMWF,NCEP/EMC, JMA,NOGAPS (US Navy),BMRC,RPN (Canada)and an FSU global spectral forecast model. We show in this paper the skill scores for day 1 through day 6 of forecasts from standard variables such as winds,temperature,500 hPa geopotential height,sea level pressure and precipitation.In all cases we noted that the superensemble carries a higher skill compared to each of the member models and their ensemble mean.The skill matrices we use include the RMS errors,the anomaly correlations and equitable threat scores.For many of these forecasts the improvements of skill for the superensemble over the best model was found to be quite substantial.This real-time product is being provided to many interested research groups.The FSU multimodel superensemble,in real- time,stands out for providing the least errors among all of the operational large scale models.

  2. The Observatorio Astrofísico de Javalambre: current status, developments, operations, and strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenarro, A. J.; Moles, M.; Marín-Franch, A.; Cristóbal-Hornillos, D.; Yanes Díaz, A.; Ederoclite, A.; Varela, J.; Vázquez-Ramió, H.; Valdivielso, L.; Benítez, N.; Cepa, J.; Dupke, R.; Fernández-Soto, A.; Mendes de Oliveira, C.; Sodré, L.; Taylor, K.; Rueda-Teruel, S.; Rueda-Teruel, F.; Luis-Simoes, R.; Chueca, S.; Antón, J. L.; Bello, R.; Díaz-Martín, M. C.; Guillén-Civera, L.; Hernández-Fuertes, J.; Iglesias-Marzoa, R.; Jiménez-Mejías, D.; Lasso-Cabrera, N. M.; López-Alegre, G.; López-Sainz, A.; Rodríguez-Hernández, M. A. C.; Suárez, O.; Lamadrid, J. L.; Maícas, N.; Abril-Ibañez, J.; Tilve, V.; Rodríguez-Llano, S.

    2014-08-01

    fully operative. This paper aims to present a brief description and status of the OAJ main installations, telescopes and cameras. The current development and operation plan of the OAJ in terms of staffing organization, resources, observation scheduling, and data archiving, is also described.

  3. Torque harmonics of an asynchronous motor supplied by a voltage- or current-sourced inverter quasi-square operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyyrae, J. [Helsinki University of Technology, Institute of Intelligent Power Electronics, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Voltage- and current-sourced dc-ac converters operating in quasi-square area are compared. Their characteristics are calculated with switching vector, which is space-vector of switching functions. When the load is an asynchronous motor various analytical equations, including torque, are calculated efficiently. Motor current and torque approximations are compared with the simulated ones. (orig.) 6 refs.

  4. The Operator Product Expansion between the 16 Lowest Higher Spin Currents in the N=4 Superspace

    CERN Document Server

    Ahn, Changhyun

    2015-01-01

    Some of the operator product expansions (OPEs) between the lowest 16 higher spin currents of spins (1, 3/2, 3/2, 3/2, 3/2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 5/2, 5/2, 5/2, 5/2, 3) in an extension of the large N=4 linear superconformal algebra were constructed in the N=4 superconformal coset SU(5)/SU(3) theory previously. In this paper, by rewriting the above OPEs in the N=4 superspace developed by Schoutens (and other groups), the remaining undetermined OPEs where the corresponding singular terms possess the composite fields with spins s =7/2, 4, 9/2, 5 are completely determined. Furthermore, by introducing the arbitrary coefficients in front of the composite fields in the right hand sides of the above complete 136 OPEs, reexpressing them in the N=2 superspace and using the N=2 OPEs mathematica package by Krivonos and Thielemans, the complete structures of the above OPEs with fixed coefficient functions are obtained with the help of various Jacobi identities. Then one obtains ten N=2 super OPEs between the four N=2 higher sp...

  5. Current gaps in understanding and predicting space weather: An operations perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtagh, W. J.

    2016-12-01

    The NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC), one of the nine National Weather Service (NWS) National Centers for Environmental Prediction, is the Nation's official source for space weather alerts and warnings. Space weather effects the technology that forms the backbone of global economic vitality and national security, including satellite and airline operations, communications networks, and the electric power grid. Many of SWPC's over 48,000 subscribers rely on space weather forecasts for critical decision making. But extraordinary gaps still exist in our ability to meet customer needs for accurate and timely space weather forecasts and warnings. The 2015 National Space Weather Strategy recognizes that it is imperative that we improve the fundamental understanding of space weather and increase the accuracy, reliability, and timeliness of space-weather observations and forecasts in support of the growing demands. In this talk we provide a broad perspective of the key challenges that currently limit the forecaster's ability to better understand and predict space weather. We also examine the impact of these limitations on the end-user community.

  6. Simplified Modeling, Analysis and Simulation of Permanent Magnet Brushless Direct Current Motors for Sensorless Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kaliappan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In this study, a simplified modeling and experimental analysis of Permanent Magnet Brushless DC (PMBLDC motors for Sensorless operation using MATLAB/SIMULINK. This model provides a mechanism for monitoring and controlling the voltage, current, speed and torque response. Approach: BLDC motor is modeled as sub-blocks. The inverter and switching function are implemented as S-function builder block. The Sensorless scheme employs direct back emf based zero crossing detection technique. Results: The proposed model with Sensorless control technique with back emf zero crossing detection is tested in the BLDC Motor and the performance was evaluated. The simulated and experimental results show that the proposed modeling works quite well during starting and running conditions. Conclusion/Recommendation: The developed model consists of several independent sub-blocks, that can be used in the modeling of Permanent Magnet Sinusoidal Motor and induction motor. Hence the developed simulation model is a design tool to study the dynamic behavior of Sensorless Controlled Brushless DC Motor.

  7. High-Current Bus Splice Resistances and Implications for the Operating Energy of the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Koratzinos, M; Charifoulline, Z; Dahlerup-Petersen, K; Denz, R; Flora, R H; Pfeffer, H; Scheuerlein, C; Schmidt, R; Siemko, A; Strait, J; Verweij, A

    2010-01-01

    At each interconnection between LHC main magnets a low-resistance solder joint must be made between superconducting cables in order to provide a continuous current path through the superconductor and also to the surrounding copper stabilizer in case the cable quenches [1]. About 10,000 such joints exist in the LHC. An extensive campaign has been undertaken to characterize and map the resistances of these joints. All of the superconducting cable splices were measured at 1.9 K and no splices were found with a resistance larger than 3 nW. Non-invasive measurements of the stabilizer joints were made at 300 K in 5 of the 8 sectors, and at 80 K in 3 sectors. More precise local measurements were made on suspect interconnects that were opened up, and poor joints were repaired. However, it is likely that additional imperfect stabilizer joints still exist in the LHC. A statistical analysis is used to place bounds on the remaining worst-case resistances. This sets limits on the maximum operating energy of the LHC, prior...

  8. High-Precision Multi-Wave Rectifier Circuit Operating in Low Voltage + 1.5 Volt Current Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bancha Burapattanasiri

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is present high-precision multi-wave rectifier circuit operating in low voltage +/- 1.5 Volt current modes by CMOS technology 0.5 μm, receive input and give output in current mode, respond at high frequency period. The structure compound with high-speed current comparator circuit, current mirror circuit, and CMOS inverter circuit. PSpice program used for confirmation the performance of testing. The PSpice program shows operating of circuit is able to working at maximum input current 400 μAp-p, maximum frequency responding 200 MHz, high precision and low power losses, and non-precision zero crossing output signal.Keywords-component; rectifier circuit; high-precision; low voltage; current mode;

  9. Adaptive Hybrid Fuzzy-Proportional Plus Crisp-Integral Current Control Algorithm for Shunt Active Power Filter Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Farahaida Abdul Rahman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An adaptive hybrid fuzzy-proportional plus crisp-integral current control algorithm (CCA for regulating supply current and enhancing the operation of a shunt active power filter (SAPF is presented. It introduces a unique integration of fuzzy-proportional (Fuzzy-P and crisp-integral (Crisp-I current controllers. The Fuzzy-P current controller is developed to perform gain tuning procedure and proportional control action. This controller inherits the simplest configuration; it is constructed using a single-input single-output fuzzy rule configuration. Thus, an execution of few fuzzy rules is sufficient for the controller’s operation. Furthermore, the fuzzy rule is developed using the relationship of currents only. Hence, it simplifies the controller development. Meanwhile, the Crisp-I current controller is developed to perform integral control action using a controllable gain value; to improve the steady-state control mechanism. The gain value is modified and controlled using the Fuzzy-P current controller’s output variable. Therefore, the gain value will continuously be adjusted at every sample period (or throughout the SAPF operation. The effectiveness of the proposed CCA in regulating supply current is validated in both simulation and experimental work. All results have proven that the SAPF using the proposed CCA is capable to regulate supply current during steady-state and dynamic-state operations. At the same time, the SAPF is able to enhance its operation in compensating harmonic currents and reactive power. Furthermore, the implementation of the proposed CCA has resulted more stable dc-link voltage waveform.

  10. Current Aeromedical Issues in Rotary Wing Operations. (Problemes actuels de medecine aeronautique poses par les operations utilisant des voilures tournantes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-08-01

    accident, the other had early ankylosing malformation (eg spondylolisthesis) and previous spinal spondylitis . surgery. The current locations of all...Caldwell, K.A. Roberts and H.D. Jones The Effects of Exercise Versus Napping on Alertness and Mood in Sleep-Deprived Aviators 28 by P.A. LeDuc, J.A...for aircrew and passengers involved of Zolpiden and exercise on the performance of in mishaps. It was made by an analysis of sleep deprived pilots

  11. Is selective attention the basis for selective imitation in infants? An eye-tracking study of deferred imitation with 12-month-olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolling, Thorsten; Oturai, Gabriella; Knopf, Monika

    2014-08-01

    Infants and children do not blindly copy every action they observe during imitation tasks. Research demonstrated that infants are efficient selective imitators. The impact of selective perceptual processes (selective attention) for selective deferred imitation, however, is still poorly described. The current study, therefore, analyzed 12-month-old infants' looking behavior during demonstration of two types of target actions: arbitrary versus functional actions. A fully automated remote eye tracker was used to assess infants' looking behavior during action demonstration. After a 30-min delay, infants' deferred imitation performance was assessed. Next to replicating a memory effect, results demonstrate that infants do imitate significantly more functional actions than arbitrary actions (functionality effect). Eye-tracking data show that whereas infants do not fixate significantly longer on functional actions than on arbitrary actions, amount of fixations and amount of saccades differ between functional and arbitrary actions, indicating different encoding mechanisms. In addition, item-level findings differ from overall findings, indicating that perceptual and conceptual item features influence looking behavior. Looking behavior on both the overall and item levels, however, does not relate to deferred imitation performance. Taken together, the findings demonstrate that, on the one hand, selective imitation is not explainable merely by selective attention processes. On the other hand, notwithstanding this reasoning, attention processes on the item level are important for encoding processes during target action demonstration. Limitations and future studies are discussed.

  12. The current status of procedural sedation for pediatric patients in out-of-operating room locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havidich, Jeana E; Cravero, Joseph P

    2012-08-01

    To illustrate the changes that are occurring in the rapidly growing field of pediatric sedation. In the USA and throughout the world, children receive sedation from a multitude of specialists with varying levels of training. The current pediatric sedation literature reflects a growing body of sedation literature by medical specialists other than anesthesiologists. This article will review the controversial use of propofol by nonanesthesiologists and the manner in which this varied group of providers along with government entities, regulatory agencies, and national organizations contribute to the continuing evolution of sedation practices. The number of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures performed on children outside of the operating room continues to increase. The growing body of pediatric sedation literature suggests anesthesiologists are no longer at the forefront of pediatric sedation training, education, and research. Articles published by nonanesthesiologists describe pediatric sedation services, safety, and quality initiatives, drugs, and original sedation research. Medications that were considered under the realm of anesthesiologists are utilized by nonanesthesiologists to provide sedation to children. Regulating and government agencies, including the Joint Commission and the Center for Medicaid and Medicare Services have recently issued statements on the oversight and practice of sedation. The direction of pediatric sedation is no longer solely under the leadership of anesthesiologists. The use of anesthetic agents, including propofol, have been administered by nonanesthesiologists and reported as safe and effective agents. Nonanesthesiologists and governmental and regulatory agencies influence the delivery of sedation services. The future direction of pediatric sedation will ultimately depend upon the ability of anesthesiologists to collaborate with specialists, hospital administrators, credentialing committees, and oversight agencies in order to

  13. INCREASE THE RESOURCE OF CURRENT COLLECTOR ELEMENTS OF THE ELECTRIFIED HIGH-SPEED TRANSPORT IN OPERATING CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. L. Bolshakov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The paper is aimed to determinate the main ways of increasing resource efficiency and exploitation of coal current collector surface inserts of speed electric rolling stock. Methodology. The research is based on the technique relies on the use of theory regulations of technical systems reliability, electromechanical processes, theory of statistics. Findings. The existing approaches to the production of current collector surface inserts in Europe and Ukraine were considered, a number of information sources was analyzed. The most effective ways of increasing current carrying capacity and wear resistance of current collector elements were determined. It has been established that the existing system for determining the quality of manufacturing of current collector elements have a number of drawbacks that make it difficult to control the input and makes diagnosing current collecting elements in operation impossible. On the basis of the facts, for the needs of the locomotive depot, we propose a new booth allowing avoiding the existing difficulties with diagnosing of current collector elements. During the study were established pervasive transgressions of technological standards of service pantographs. Originality. Based on the results of operational research carried out on the basis of the locomotive depot, obtained depending, based on which, it is proposed to introduce an operative diagnosing system of the current collector elements state during operation. In the course of a comparative analysis of existing and perspective development directions of current collector elements with high load current carrying capacity and durability, were definited constructive conditions for the optimal ratio is inserts. It was established that a significant proportion of failures occur due to imperfect maintenance system for which, on the basis of operational data, recommendations were developed. Practical value. Obtained results of the information sources

  14. Prolonged time course of glutamate-operated single channel currents in neuromuscular preparations of small crayfish and a membrane current triggered by glutamate channel gating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, W; Martin, C; Pareto, A

    1988-08-31

    Single channel currents activated by glutamate were recorded by means of the patch-clamp technique in the abdominal superficial extensor muscle and the claw opener muscle of small (1-3 months old) and large (greater than 16 months old) crayfish. It was found that in small crayfish the time course of glutamate-operated single channel currents was prolonged by a factor of about 4 in these two preparations. In the abdominal superficial extensor muscle, single channel currents activated by 5 mmol/l glutamate had a mean burst length of tau = 2-3 ms in large crayfish and a mean burst length of tau = 8-9 ms in small crayfish. In the claw opener, for large crayfish tau congruent to 0.5 ms and for small crayfish tau = 1.5-2.5 ms resulted (500 mumol/l glutamate). Moreover, single channel currents with long time courses often slowly increased their amplitudes during the open time of the channel and current amplitudes did not decline completely to the baseline after channel closing. In addition, single channel currents with relatively constant amplitude were often followed by a small increasing and decreasing membrane current. The latter results suggest that glutamate channel gating might trigger a membrane current.

  15. Early versus deferred treatment for smoldering multiple myeloma: a meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minjie Gao

    Full Text Available Whether patients with smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM needed to receive early interventional treatment remains controversial. Herein, we conducted a meta-analysis comparing the efficacy and safety of early treatment over deferred treatment for patients with SMM.MEDLINE and Cochrane Library were searched to May 2014 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs that assessed the effect of early treatment over deferred treatment. Primary outcome measure was mortality, and secondary outcome measures were progression, response rate, and adverse events.Overall, 5 trials including 449 patients were identified. There was a markedly reduced risk of disease progression with early treatment (Odds Ratio [OR] = 0.13, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.07 to 0.24. There were no significant differences in mortality and response rate (OR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.45 to 1.60, and OR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.32 to 1.23, respectively. More patients in the early treatment arm experienced gastrointestinal toxicities (OR = 10.02, 95%CI = 4.32 to 23.23, constipation (OR = 8.58, 95%CI = 3.20 to 23.00 and fatigue or asthenia (OR = 2.72, 95%CI = 1.30 to 5.67. No significant differences were seen with the development of acute leukemia (OR = 2.80, 95%CI = 0.42 to 18.81, hematologic cancer (OR = 2.07, 95%CI = 0.43 to 10.01, second primary tumors (OR = 3.45, 95%CI = 0.81 to 14.68, nor vertebral compression (OR = 0.18, 95%CI = 0.02 to 1.59.Early treatment delayed disease progression but increased the risk of gastrointestinal toxicities, constipation and fatigue or asthenia. The differences on vertebral compression, acute leukemia, hematological cancer and second primary tumors were not statistically significant. Based on the current evidence, early treatment didn't significantly affect mortality and response rate. However, further much larger trials were needed to provide more evidence.

  16. Current Sharing inside a High Power IGBT Module at the Negative Temperature Coefficient Operating Region

    CERN Document Server

    Asimakopoulos, Panagiotis; Bongiorno, M; Thiringer, T

    2016-01-01

    This work investigates the current sharing effect of a high power Soft Punch Through IGBT module in the Negative Temperature Coefficient region. The unbalanced current sharing between two of the substrates is demonstrated for different current and temperature levels and its impact on the thermal stressing of the device is evaluated. The results indicate that the current asymmetry does not lead to a significant thermal stressing unbalance between the substrates.

  17. Donating blood for research: a potential method for enhancing customer satisfaction of permanently deferred blood donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Daniel; Thijsen, Amanda; Garradd, Allira; Hayman, Jane; Smith, Geoff

    2017-01-01

    Background Each year, a large number of individuals in Australia are deferred from donating blood. A deferral may have a negative impact on donor satisfaction and subsequent word-of-mouth communication. The Australian Red Cross Blood Service (the Blood Service) is, therefore, investigating options for managing service interactions with deferred donors to maintain positive relationships. While public research institutes in Australia have established independent research donor registries, other countries provide programmes allowing deferred donors to donate blood for research via blood collection agencies. This study examined attitudes towards donating blood for research use in a sample of permanently deferred Australian donors. Materials and methods Donors permanently deferred because of a risk of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (n=449) completed a postal survey that examined attitudes towards research donation. Results The majority of participants were interested in donating blood for research (96%), and joining a registry of research donors (93%). Participants preferred to donate for transfusion or clinical research, and were willing to travel large distances. Results indicated that positive attitudes towards the Blood Service would be extended if the opportunity to donate blood was provided. These findings indicate a desire for continued engagement with the Blood Service despite deferral. Discussion Donating blood for research is a potential way of maintaining positive relationships with permanently deferred donors which also benefits the health research community. Through maintaining positive relationships with deferred donors, positive word-of-mouth activity can be stimulated. Further work is needed to determine the feasibility of implementing research donation through the Blood Service in Australia. PMID:26674813

  18. Marines in the Boxer Rebellion as a Model for Current Marine Corps Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    Security Group ....................................................................... 45 Marine Corps Operations during the Cold War ...47 vii Post- Cold War Operations...naval gun crews in most of the major naval battles of the war .17 After the Civil War , the Marine Corps returned to Asia in support of national

  19. Elastic electron-deuteron scattering and two-body current operators in the Light-Front Hamiltonian Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Frederico, Tobias; Pace, Emanuele; Salme`, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    The electromagnetic properties of the deuteron are investigated within a Light-Front Hamiltonian Dynamics framework, with a current operator that contains both one-body and two-body contributions. In this work, we are considering new two-body contributions, with a dynamical nature generated within a Yukawa model and a structure inspired by a recent analysis of the current operator, that acts on the three-dimensional valence component and fulfills the Ward-Takahashi identity. Preliminary results for the magnetic moment are shown.

  20. Dependence of a railgun operation on a current rise time; Railgun dosa no kudo denryu tachiagari izonsei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsuki, S.; Sueda, T.; Akiyama, H. [Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-08-20

    Railguns are facilities to accelerate projectiles up to several km/s by the electromagnetic force due to a driving current. A variety of current waveforms are used for railguns developed in the world. This paper describes the dependence of a railgun operation on a rising rate of the driving current. The use of the exploding wire as an opening switch enables to change the rise time of the driving current. A secondary arc is likely to appear and the erosion on a rail surface is more severe when the current with a short rise time is used. According to the non-dimensional railgun plasma simulation, the current with a short rise time heats up the plasma so fast that plenty of particles ablated from the bore surface, which seem to be the cause of the secondary arc, increase rapidly in the early phase of acceleration. 18 refs., 14 figs.

  1. Additive Manufacturing (AM) in Expeditionary Operations: Current Needs, Technical Challenges, and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    It is also in the digital space that many of the issues and opportunities surrounding AM exist. Cyber security , the digital safeguarding of models and...Any discussion involving the digital space needs to include a discussion of security and operating in a hostile environment like the cyber world is...need to prepare for those operations by building and testing multiple iterations of draft 3D model repositories. Cyber - security will have to be woven

  2. One-loop renormalization of fermionic currents with the overlap-Dirac operator

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandrou, C; Panagopoulos, H; Vicari, E

    2000-01-01

    We compute the one-loop lattice renormalization of the two-quark operators$\\bar{\\psi} \\Gamma \\psi$, where $\\Gamma$ denotes the generic Dirac matrix, forthe lattice formulation of QCD using the overlap-Dirac operator. We also study the renormalization of quark bilinears which are more extendedand have better chiral properties. Finally, we present improved estimates of these renormalization constants,coming from cactus resummation and from mean field perturbation theory.

  3. The Use of Dexamethasone in Support of High-Altitude Ground Operations: Review of the Literature & Current Training of U.S. Special Operations Medical Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    8) 8 mg twice daily starting the day before the ascent to 4,559 m throughout the 2-day study Dexamethasone improved VO2 - max (pɘ.05) and...4,559 m Dexamethasone improved VO2 - max (p=0.025); no significant difference existed in arterial O2 saturation during maximal exercise...AFRL-SA-WP-SR-2013-0006 The Use of Dexamethasone in Support of High-Altitude Ground Operations: Review of the Literature & Current

  4. Direct Experimental Evidence for Current-Transfer Mode Operation of Nested Tungsten Wire Arrays at 16 19 MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuneo, M. E.; Sinars, D. B.; Bliss, D. E.; Waisman, E. M.; Porter, J. L.; Stygar, W. A.; Lebedev, S. V.; Chittenden, J. P.; Sarkisov, G. S.; Afeyan, B. B.

    2005-06-01

    Nested tungsten wire arrays (20-mm on 12-mm diam.) are shown for the first time to operate in a current-transfer mode at 16 19 MA, even for azimuthal interwire gaps of 0.2 mm that are the smallest typically used for any array experiment. After current transfer, the inner wire array shows discrete wire ablation and implosion characteristics identical to that of a single array, such as axially nonuniform ablation, delayed acceleration, and trailing mass and current. The presence of trailing mass from the outer and the inner arrays may play a role in determining nested array performance.

  5. Results of operation and current safety performance of nuclear facilities located in the Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, V. M.; Khvostova, M. S.

    2016-12-01

    After the NPP radiation accidents in Russia and Japan, a safety statu of Russian nuclear power plants causes concern. A repeated life time extension of power unit reactor plants, designed at the dawn of the nuclear power engineering in the Soviet Union, power augmentation of the plants to 104-109%, operation of power units in a daily power mode in the range of 100-70-100%, the use of untypical for NPP remixed nuclear fuel without a careful study of the results of its application (at least after two operating periods of the research nuclear installations), the aging of operating personnel, and many other management actions of the State Corporation "Rosatom", should attract the attention of the Federal Service for Ecological, Technical and Atomic Supervision (RosTekhNadzor), but this doesn't happen. The paper considers safety issues of nuclear power plants operating in the Russian Federation. The authors collected statistical information on violations in NPP operation over the past 25 years, which shows that even after repeated relaxation over this period of time of safety regulation requirements in nuclear industry and highly expensive NPP modernization, the latter have not become more safe, and the statistics confirms this. At a lower utilization factor high-power pressure-tube reactors RBMK-1000, compared to light water reactors VVER-440 and 1000, have a greater number of violations and that after annual overhauls. A number of direct and root causes of NPP mulfunctions is still high and remains stable for decades. The paper reveals bottlenecks in ensuring nuclear and radiation safety of nuclear facilities. Main outstanding issues on the storage of spent nuclear fuel are defined. Information on emissions and discharges of radioactive substances, as well as fullness of storages of solid and liquid radioactive waste, located at the NPP sites are presented. Russian NPPs stress test results are submitted, as well as data on the coming removal from operation of NPP

  6. Review of Current Data Exchange Practices: Providing Descriptive Data to Assist with Building Operations Decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livingood, W.; Stein, J.; Considine, T.; Sloup, C.

    2011-05-01

    Retailers who participate in the U.S. Department of Energy Commercial Building Energy Alliances (CBEA) identified the need to enhance communication standards. The means are available to collect massive numbers of buildings operational data, but CBEA members have difficulty transforming the data into usable information and energy-saving actions. Implementing algorithms for automated fault detection and diagnostics and linking building operational data to computerized maintenance management systems are important steps in the right direction, but have limited scalability for large building portfolios because the algorithms must be configured for each building.

  7. Groundwater science in water-utility operations: global reflections on current status and future needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Stephen; Sage, Rob

    2017-08-01

    The relevance of groundwater science to water-utility operations is analysed from a broad international perspective, identifying key concerns and specific opportunities for the future. The strategic importance worldwide of water utilities assuming the role of lead stakeholders for integrated groundwater resource management, recognizing their often considerable technical know-how and highly significant data holdings, is emphasized. Concurrently, the utilities themselves will need an ever-closer appreciation of groundwater-system behaviour if they are to manage efficiently their water-supply and wastewater operations.

  8. 34 CFR 611.44 - Under what circumstances may the Secretary defer a scholarship recipient's service obligation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... scholarship recipient's service obligation? 611.44 Section 611.44 Education Regulations of the Offices of the... QUALITY ENHANCEMENT GRANTS PROGRAM Scholarships § 611.44 Under what circumstances may the Secretary defer a scholarship recipient's service obligation? (a) Upon written request, the Secretary may defer...

  9. Successful Combination of Nucleic Acid Amplification Test Diagnostics and Targeted Deferred Neisseria gonorrhoeae Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind, Carolien M; de Vries, Henry J C; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F; Unemo, Magnus; van Dam, Alje P

    2015-06-01

    Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) are recommended for the diagnosis of N. gonorrhoeae infections because of their superior sensitivity. Increasing NAAT use causes a decline in crucial antimicrobial resistance (AMR) surveillance data, which rely on culture. We analyzed the suitability of the ESwab system for NAAT diagnostics and deferred targeted N. gonorrhoeae culture to allow selective and efficient culture based on NAAT results. We included patients visiting the STI Clinic Amsterdam, The Netherlands, in 2013. Patient characteristics and urogenital and rectal samples for direct N. gonorrhoeae culture, standard NAAT, and ESwab were collected. Standard NAAT and NAAT on ESwab samples were performed using the Aptima Combo 2 assay for N. gonorrhoeae and C. trachomatis. Two deferred N. gonorrhoeae cultures were performed on NAAT-positive ESwab samples after storage at 4°C for 1 to 3 days. We included 2,452 samples from 1,893 patients. In the standard NAAT, 107 samples were N. gonorrhoeae positive and 284 were C. trachomatis positive. The sensitivities of NAAT on ESwab samples were 83% (95% confidence interval [CI], 75 to 90%) and 87% (95% CI, 82 to 90%), respectively. ESwab samples were available for 98 of the gonorrhea-positive samples. Of these, 82% were positive in direct culture and 69% and 56% were positive in the 1st and 2nd deferred cultures, respectively (median storage times, 27 and 48 h, respectively). Deferred culture was more often successful in urogenital samples or when the patient had symptoms at the sampling site. Deferred N. gonorrhoeae culture of stored ESwab samples is feasible and enables AMR surveillance. To limit the loss in NAAT sensitivity, we recommend obtaining separate samples for NAAT and deferred culture.

  10. Current status and science operations plan of BepiColombo MMO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, G.; Fujimoto, M.

    2016-12-01

    BepiColombo is an ESA-JAXA joint mission to Mercury with the aim to understand the process of planetary formation and evolution as well as to understand similarities and differences between the magnetospheres of Mercury and Earth. The baseline mission consists of two spacecraft, i.e. the Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO) and the Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter (MMO). The two orbiters will be launched in 2018 by an Ariane-5 and arrive at Mercury in 2024. Being a spin-stabilized spacecraft, MMO has much less constraint for plasma observations and is expected to extract essential elements of space plasma physics that become visible in the Hermean environment. JAXA is responsible for the development and operations of MMO, and it's almost ready for launch. Therefore, now we can concentrate on preparing the science operations plans. MMO has large constraints on science operations, such as thermal issue and limited telemetry rate. Due to the thermal issue each science instrument cannot always be turned on. In addition, due to the low telemetry rate in average, only a part ( 20-30%) of science mission data with high resolution can be downlinked. Therefore, in order to maximize the scientific results and outcomes to be achieved by MMO, we must optimize the science observation and downlink plans in detail. In this paper, we introduce the science objectives, operations strategies and plans of MMO.

  11. An Overview of Current Capabilities and Research Activities in the Airspace Operations Laboratory at NASA Ames Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevot, Thomas; Smith, Nancy M.; Palmer, Everett; Callantine, Todd; Lee, Paul; Mercer, Joey; Homola, Jeff; Martin, Lynne; Brasil, Connie; Cabrall, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The Airspace Operations Laboratory at NASA Ames conducts research to provide a better understanding of roles, responsibilities, and requirements for human operators and automation in future air traffic management (ATM) systems. The research encompasses developing, evaluating, and integrating operational concepts and technologies for near-, mid-, and far-term air traffic operations. Current research threads include efficient arrival operations, function allocation in separation assurance and efficient airspace and trajectory management. The AOL has developed powerful air traffic simulation capabilities, most notably the Multi Aircraft Control System (MACS) that is used for many air traffic control simulations at NASA and its partners in government, academia and industry. Several additional NASA technologies have been integrated with the AOL's primary simulation capabilities where appropriate. Using this environment, large and small-scale system-level evaluations can be conducted to help make near-term improvements and transition NASA technologies to the FAA, such as the technologies developed under NASA's Air Traffic Management Demonstration-1 (ATD-1). The AOL's rapid prototyping and flexible simulation capabilities have proven a highly effective environment to progress the initiation of trajectory-based operations and support the mid-term implementation of NextGen. Fundamental questions about accuracy requirements have been investigated as well as realworld problems on how to improve operations in some of the most complex airspaces in the US. This includes using advanced trajectory-based operations and prototype tools for coordinating arrivals to converging runways at Newark airport and coordinating departures and arrivals in the San Francisco and the New York metro areas. Looking beyond NextGen, the AOL has started exploring hybrid human/automation control strategies as well as highly autonomous operations in the air traffic control domain. Initial results

  12. Immediate Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV Infection Accelerates Bone Loss Relative to Deferring Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoy, Jennifer F; Grund, Birgit; Roediger, Mollie P

    2017-01-01

    Both HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) are associated with lower bone mineral density (BMD) and increased fracture risk. Because the relative contributions of ART and untreated HIV to BMD loss are unclear, it is important to quantify the effect of ART on bone. We compared the effect...... of early ART initiation (CD4 >500 cells/μL) with deferred ART on change in BMD in the START Bone Mineral Density substudy, a randomized trial evaluating the effect of immediate ART initiation versus deferring ART (to CD4

  13. Different supplents for finishing of Nellore cattle on deferred Brachiaria decumbens pasture during the dry season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Tadeu de Andrade

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of four types of supplement on the finishing of Nellore cattle on deferred Brachiaria decumbens pasture during the dry season. Sixty-four castrated Nellore males with an age of approximately 34 months and initial body weight (BW ranging from 360 to 380 kg were divided into 16 animals per treatment in a completely randomized design. The treatments consisted of four types of pasture supplement: deferred Brachiaria decumbens pasture + energy protein mineral salt (SuEPM used as control; deferred Brachiaria decumbens pasture + urea + cottonseed meal (28% CP + ground corn grain (SuCo; deferred Brachiaria decumbens pasture + urea + cottonseed meal (28% CP + citrus pulp (SuCPu; deferred Brachiaria decumbens pasture + urea + cottonseed meal (28% CP + soy hull (SuSH. The pasture was deferred for 170 days and provided 3,482 kg DM/ha of forage, permitting a stocking rate of 1.56 AU/ha (DM intake of 2.25% BW and 50% pasture efficiency. The animals received the supplement ad libitum in the SuEPM treatment and as % BW in the other treatments from July to October. The animals were slaughtered at a minimum BW of 457 kg. The following variables were evaluated: final weight, weight gain during the period (WG, average daily gain (ADG, hot carcass weight (HCW, and hot carcass yield (HCY. With respect to final weight, the supplement in the SuCo, SuCPu and SuSH treatments permitted a greater supply of nutrients and the animals therefore exhibited better performance (P<0.05 compared to the SuEPM treatment (mean of 478.68 vs 412.62 kg. The same effect was observed for the other parameters studied. Analysis of WG and ADG showed that SuSH was superior to the SuCo and SuCPu treatments (P<0.05 due to the increased offer of concentrate and SuEPM was inferior to the other treatments. Higher HCW (260.05 kg and HCY (53.92% were obtained with treatment SuSH as a result of greater performance. Supplementation of cattle during the dry period on

  14. Taxable and Tax-deferred Investing with the Limited Use of Losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Marcel; Gallmeyer, Michael

    2017-01-01

    We study the impact of the different tax treatment of capital gains and losses on the optimal location of assets in taxable and tax-deferred accounts. The classical result of Black (1980) and Tepper (1981) suggests that investors should follow a strict pecking order asset location rule and hold...... those assets that are subject to the highest tax rate preferentially in tax-deferred accounts. We show that with the different tax treatment of realized gains and losses, only tax-efficient equity mutual funds are optimally held in taxable accounts, whereas mutual funds with average tax...

  15. List of currently classified documents relative to Hanford Production Facilities Operations originated on the Hanford Site between 1961 and 1972

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) has declared that all Hanford plutonium production- and operations-related information generated between 1944 and 1972 is declassified. Any documents found and deemed useful for meeting Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) objectives may be declassified with or without deletions in accordance with DOE guidance by Authorized Derivative Declassifiers. The September 1992, letter report, Declassifications Requested by the Technical Steering Panel of Hanford Documents Produced 1944--1960, (PNWD-2024 HEDR UC-707), provides an important milestone toward achieving a complete listing of documents that may be useful to the HEDR Project. The attached listing of approximately 7,000 currently classified Hanford-originated documents relative to Hanford Production Facilities Operations between 1961 and 1972 fulfills TSP Directive 89-3. This list does not include such titles as the Irradiation Processing Department, Chemical Processing Department, and Hanford Laboratory Operations monthly reports generated after 1960 which have been previously declassified with minor deletions and made publicly available. Also Kaiser Engineers Hanford (KEH) Document Control determined that no KEH documents generated between January 1, 1961 and December 31, 1972 are currently classified. Titles which address work for others have not been included because Hanford Site contractors currently having custodial responsibility for these documents do not have the authority to determine whether other than their own staff have on file an appropriate need-to-know. Furthermore, these documents do not normally contain information relative to Hanford Site operations.

  16. High or low-side solid state relay with current limiting and operational testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolland, C. R.

    1984-07-01

    The switch comprises a circuit from a first output terminal via parallel MOS devices in series with current-sensing resistance to a second output terminal, with alternative high-side and low-side configurations having a load between the second terminal and ground, or the first terminal and the DC supply voltage. An input terminal for a digital control signal is coupled via an input diode and two Schmitt Trigger CMOS inverters to a control lead for the gates of the switch. A current overload or short circuit protection circuit coupled between the current-sensor and the input diode comprises two transistors coupled by a diode. A built-in test circuit for indicating the switch condition (on, off, shorted or open) comprises MOS transistors having their gates connected to voltage dividers at the two output terminals, and their drains connected to discrete indication terminals.

  17. 5 CFR 847.907 - How is the monthly annuity rate used to compute the present value of the deferred annuity without...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... compute the present value of the deferred annuity without credit for NAFI service determined? 847.907... the present value of the deferred annuity without credit for NAFI service determined? (a) The monthly annuity rate used to compute the present value of the deferred annuity under § 847.906 of this subpart...

  18. Killing of a King: The Increasing Marginalization of the Field Artillery Branch in Current Counterinsurgency Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    Unfortunately, today this is still the case , high operational deployment and training cycles prevent the FA officers and Soldiers from mastering...an axe to grind or a hidden agenda behind this thesis, but that is not the case . Identifying and studying problems is exactly what makes the FA branch...Readiness Training Center, LTC Daniel A. Pinnell and LTC Robert Morschauser some of the same observations that were pointed out in the white paper were

  19. Current and Planned High Proton Flux Operations at the FNAL Booster

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia, F G

    2014-01-01

    The Fermilab Proton Source machines, constituted by Pre-Injector, conventional Linac and Booster synchrotron, at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) had have a long history of successful beam operations. Built in late '60s, the Fermilab Proton Source began operations early in the '70s and since then it has successful provided protons to support the laboratory physics experiments. During the past decade, Booster performance reached unprecedented proton flux delivery of the order of 1.0-1.1E17 protons per hour, corresponding to 40 kW of beam power while maintained an allowed upper limit of 525 W of beam loss in the tunnel. In order to achieve this historical performance, major hardware upgrades were made in the machine combined with improvements in beam orbit control and operational awareness. Once again, the Proton Source has been charged to double their beam throughput, while maintaining the present residual activation levels, to meet the laboratory Intensity Frontier program goals until new mach...

  20. Degradation of Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells Operated at High Current Densities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tao, Youkun; Ebbesen, Sune Dalgaard; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2014-01-01

    In this work the durability of solid oxide cells for co-electrolysis of steam and carbon dioxide (45 % H2O + 45 % CO2 + 10 % H2) at high current densities was investigated. The tested cells are Ni-YSZ electrode supported, with a YSZ electrolyte and either a LSM-YSZ or LSCF-CGO oxygen electrode...

  1. The British Colonial Experience in Waziristan and Its Applicability to Current Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    fall 2004, the Paksitani government used the same carrots and sticks that the British government used in the tribal areas from 1849-1947. The...limited and precise. (3) The U.S. and Pakistani cannot employ a cookie cutter solution to the current situation in Waziristan. Due to the complex and

  2. Operation of the DC current transformer intensity monitors at FNAL during run II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crisp, J.; Fellenz, B.; Heikkinen, D.; Ibrahim, M.A.; Meyer, T.; Vogel, G.; /Fermilab

    2012-01-01

    Circulating beam intensity measurements at FNAL are provided by five DC current transformers (DCCT), one per machine. With the exception of the DCCT in the Recycler, all DCCT systems were designed and built at FNAL. This paper presents an overview of both DCCT systems, including the sensor, the electronics, and the front-end instrumentation software, as well as their performance during Run II.

  3. Plasma Shape and Current Density Profile Control in Advanced Tokamak Operating Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wenyu

    The need for new sources of energy is expected to become a critical problem within the next few decades. Nuclear fusion has sufficient energy density to potentially supply the world population with its increasing energy demands. The tokamak is a magnetic confinement device used to achieve controlled fusion reactions. Experimental fusion technology has now reached a level where tokamaks are able to produce about as much energy as is expended in heating the fusion fuel. The next step towards the realization of a nuclear fusion tokamak power plant is ITER, which will be capable of exploring advanced tokamak (AT) modes, characterized by a high fusion gain and plasma stability. The extreme requirements of the advanced modes motivates researchers to improve the modeling of the plasma response as well as the design of feedback controllers. This dissertation focuses on several magnetic and kinetic control problems, including the plasma current, position and shape control, and data-driven and first-principles-driven modeling and control of plasma current density profile and the normalized plasma pressure ratio betaN. The plasma is confined within the vacuum vessel by an external electromagnetic field, produced primarily by toroidal and poloidal field coils. The outermost closed plasma surface or plasma boundary is referred to as the shape of the plasma. A central characteristic of AT plasma regimes is an extreme elongated shape. The equilibrium among the electromagnetic forces acting on an elongated plasma is unstable. Moreover, the tokamak performance is improved if the plasma is located in close proximity to the torus wall, which guarantees an efficient use of available volume. As a consequence, feedback control of the plasma position and shape is necessary. In this dissertation, an Hinfinity-based, multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) controller for the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is developed, which is used to control the plasma position, shape, and X

  4. An operational amplifier B1404UD1A-1 in the patch-clamp current-to-voltage converter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzun, A M; Rozinov, S V; Abashin, G I

    1997-01-01

    The applicability of the home-made operational amplifier B1404UD1A-1 in a patch-clamp current-to-voltage converter was analyzed. Its parameters (background noise, input bias current, and gain-bandwidth product) were estimated. Schematic solutions and practical recommendations for the use of this amplifier in a current-to-voltage converter were given. Based on the background noise and frequency parameters of the converter, we found that this device can be used for measuring ion channel currents with a high sensitivity and within a broad frequency range (0.055 pA, to 1 kHz; 0.4 pA, to 10 kHz). An example of the converter application in experiments is given.

  5. Renormalization of domain-wall bilinear operators with short-distance current correlators

    CERN Document Server

    Tomii, M; Fahy, B; Fukaya, H; Hashimoto, S; Kaneko, T; Noaki, J

    2016-01-01

    We determine the renormalization constants for flavor non-singlet fermion bilinear operators of M\\"obius domain-wall fermions. The renormalization condition is imposed on the correlation functions in the coordinate space, such that the non-perturbative lattice calculation reproduces the perturbatively calculated counterpart at short distances. The perturbative expansion is precise as the coefficients are available up to $O(\\alpha_s^4)$. We employ $2+1$-flavor lattice ensembles at three lattice spacings in the range 0.044--0.080~fm.

  6. Civil & Military Operations: Evolutionary Prep Steps to Pass Smart Power Current Limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    for learning what you needed to know to evaluate baseball players and baseball games .” (p. 68) – to look for new knowledge on the subject being...of his Ender Series of warfare and future of humanity. “The route of war might succeed for a time – and the operative word in “might,” since...unfair game . W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., New York:NY, 2003. (Mehta, 2011) – Mehta, Seema, Giffords’ surgeon trained on the battlefield. Los Angeles

  7. Dissociation of the store-operated calcium current ICRAC and the Mg-nucleotide-regulated metal ion current MagNuM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermosura, Meredith C; Monteilh-Zoller, Mahealani K; Scharenberg, Andrew M; Penner, Reinhold; Fleig, Andrea

    2002-01-01

    Rat basophilic leukaemia cells (RBL-2H3-M1) were used to study the characteristics of the store-operated Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ current (ICRAC) and the magnesium-nucleotide-regulated metal cation current (MagNuM) (which is conducted by the LTRPC7 channel). Pipette solutions containing 10 mm BAPTA and no added ATP induced both currents in the same cell, but the time to half-maximal activation for MagNuM was about two to three times slower than that of ICRAC. Differential suppression of ICRAC was achieved by buffering free [Ca2+]i to 90 nm and selective inhibition of MagNuM was accomplished by intracellular solutions containing 6 mm Mg.ATP, 1.2 mm free [Mg2+]i or 100 μm GTP-γ-S, allowing investigations on these currents in relative isolation. Removal of extracellular Ca2+ and Mg2+ caused both currents to be carried significantly by monovalent ions. In the absence or presence of free [Mg2+]i, ICRAC carried by monovalent ions inactivated more rapidly and more completely than MagNuM carried by monovalent ions. Since several studies have used divalent-free solutions on either side of the membrane to study selectivity and single-channel behaviour of ICRAC, these experimental conditions would have favoured the contribution of MagNuM to monovalent conductance and call for caution in interpreting results where both ICRAC and MagNuM are activated. PMID:11882677

  8. A power conversion system for PMSG-based WECS operating with fully-controlled current-source converters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-yu BAO; Wei-bing BAO; Yu-ling LI

    2014-01-01

    We propose a new power conversion system for a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) based grid-connected wind energy conversion system (WECS) operating with fully-controlled back-to-back current-source converters. On the generator side, two independent current-source rectifiers (CSRs) with space-vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) are employed to regulate and stabilize DC-link currents. Between DC-link and the electrical grid, a direct-type three-phase five-level current-source inverter (CSI) is inserted as a buffer to regulate real and reactive power fed to the grid and thus adjusts the grid side power-factor. We also present a current-based maximum power point tracking (MPPT) scheme, which helps the generator extract the maximum power through closed-loop regulation of the generator speed. By applying the multilevel modulation and control strategies to the grid-side five-level CSI, a multilevel output current waveform with less distortion is produced, and the bulk requirement of the output capacitor filter to eliminate the harmonic current is reduced. All the proposed concepts are verified by simulation models built in a PSIM environment.

  9. Voltage- and current-activated metal–insulator transition in VO2-based electrical switches: a lifetime operation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelian Crunteanu, Julien Givernaud, Jonathan Leroy, David Mardivirin, Corinne Champeaux, Jean-Christophe Orlianges, Alain Catherinot and Pierre Blondy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Vanadium dioxide is an intensively studied material that undergoes a temperature-induced metal–insulator phase transition accompanied by a large change in electrical resistivity. Electrical switches based on this material show promising properties in terms of speed and broadband operation. The exploration of the failure behavior and reliability of such devices is very important in view of their integration in practical electronic circuits. We performed systematic lifetime investigations of two-terminal switches based on the electrical activation of the metal–insulator transition in VO2 thin films. The devices were integrated in coplanar microwave waveguides (CPWs in series configuration. We detected the evolution of a 10 GHz microwave signal transmitted through the CPW, modulated by the activation of the VO2 switches in both voltage- and current-controlled modes. We demonstrated enhanced lifetime operation of current-controlled VO2-based switching (more than 260 million cycles without failure compared with the voltage-activated mode (breakdown at around 16 million activation cycles. The evolution of the electrical self-oscillations of a VO2-based switch induced in the current-operated mode is a subtle indicator of the material properties modification and can be used to monitor its behavior under various external stresses in sensor applications.

  10. Ionizing radiation exposure in interventional cardiology: current radiation protection practice of invasive cardiology operators in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valuckiene, Zivile; Jurenas, Martynas; Cibulskaite, Inga

    2016-09-01

    Ionizing radiation management is among the most important safety issues in interventional cardiology. Multiple radiation protection measures allow the minimization of x-ray exposure during interventional procedures. Our purpose was to assess the utilization and effectiveness of radiation protection and optimization techniques among interventional cardiologists in Lithuania. Interventional cardiologists of five cardiac centres were interviewed by anonymized questionnaire, addressing personal use of protective garments, shielding, table/detector positioning, frame rate (FR), resolution, field of view adjustment and collimation. Effective patient doses were compared between operators who work with and without x-ray optimization. Thirty one (68.9%) out of 45 Lithuanian interventional cardiologists participated in the survey. Protective aprons were universally used, but not the thyroid collars; 35.5% (n  =  11) operators use protective eyewear and 12.9% (n  =  4) wear radio-protective caps; 83.9% (n  =  26) use overhanging shields, 58.1% (n  =  18)-portable barriers; 12.9% (n  =  4)-abdominal patient's shielding; 35.5% (n  =  11) work at a high table position; 87.1% (n  =  27) keep an image intensifier/receiver close to the patient; 58.1% (n  =  18) reduce the fluoroscopy FR; 6.5% (n  =  2) reduce the fluoro image detail resolution; 83.9% (n  =  26) use a 'store fluoro' option; 41.9% (N  =  13) reduce magnification for catheter transit; 51.6% (n  =  16) limit image magnification; and 35.5% (n  =  11) use image collimation. Median effective patient doses were significantly lower with x-ray optimization techniques in both diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. Many of the ionizing radiation exposure reduction tools and techniques are underused by a considerable proportion of interventional cardiology operators. The application of basic radiation protection tools and

  11. Water Level and Current Simulation for LOTS Operations - Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-07-01

    equations are solved by a finite element approach. However the equations are reformulated mathematically to a form with much improved numerical solution...longer than the tidal cycle, since tidal ebb and flood currents tend to cancel each other. 23Chqpwr 3 Ceibraga wnd Vedication 30 25 (Z 20 M2 "W 15 0 10Q...circulation in the Arabian Gulf," Applied Mathematical Modeling, 14, 410-419. Bogdanov, K. T. (1987). "T’idal wave propagation and tidal level oscillations

  12. Derivation of armature displacement and movement disturbances from current and voltage measurements on solenoid operated valves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louati, Iskander Alexandre [AREVA NP GmbH (Germany). Service Sector Germany

    2009-07-01

    As part of the electric drive mechanisms of the safety system in nuclear power plants safety related solenoid operated valves (SOVs) are subject to design control, commissioning tests and periodical in-service inspections. AREVA has developed and qualified many methods and tools that have been embedded into as software tools called DAM for diagnosis and evaluation of the valve performance according to the KTA requirements. In the special case of COVs tracing the electric measurements with ADAM helps to detect anomalies at the SOVs and esp. those related to disturbances of the armature moved. The disturbances to be tested are divided into electrical and mechanical disturbances: voltage insufficiency, switch chattering; degradation of spring load, friction collaterally to armature displacement, partial or total obstruction of the armature.

  13. False Operation of Static Random Access Memory Cells under Alternating Current Power Supply Voltage Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Takuya; Takata, Hidehiro; Nii, Koji; Nagata, Makoto

    2013-04-01

    Static random access memory (SRAM) cores exhibit susceptibility against power supply voltage variation. False operation is investigated among SRAM cells under sinusoidal voltage variation on power lines introduced by direct RF power injection. A standard SRAM core of 16 kbyte in a 90 nm 1.5 V technology is diagnosed with built-in self test and on-die noise monitor techniques. The sensitivity of bit error rate is shown to be high against the frequency of injected voltage variation, while it is not greatly influenced by the difference in frequency and phase against SRAM clocking. It is also observed that the distribution of false bits is substantially random in a cell array.

  14. 27 CFR 26.95 - Deferred payment of tax-release of wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-release of wine. 26.95 Section 26.95 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... ISLANDS Taxpayment of Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Wine § 26.95 Deferred payment of tax—release of wine. (a) Action by proprietor. Where the proprietor has furnished bond, on Form 2897, and payment of...

  15. Approximation of functions in Besov space by deferred Cesàro mean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mradul Veer Singh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper we study the degree of approximation of functions (signals in a Besov space by trigonometric polynomials using deferred Cesàro mean. We also deduce a few corollaries of our main result and compare them with the existing results.

  16. 75 FR 22813 - Guidance for Industry: Requalification Method for Reentry of Blood Donors Deferred Because of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a document entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Requalification Method for Reentry of Blood Donors Deferred Because of Reactive Test Results for Antibody to Hepatitis B Core Antigen (Anti- HBc),'' dated May 2010. The guidance document provides recommendations to establishments that collect Whole Blood or blood components......

  17. 78 FR 10554 - Interim Final Determination To Stay and Defer Sanctions, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Interim Final Determination To Stay and Defer Sanctions, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Interim final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is making an interim final determination to stay the imposition of offset...

  18. Deferred Primary Anastomosis Versus Diversion in Patients with Severe Secondary Peritonitis Managed with Staged Laparotomies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ordonez, Carlos A.; Sanchez, Alvaro I.; Pineda, Jaime A.; Badiel, Marisol; Mesa, Rafael; Cardona, Uriel; Arias, Rafael; Rosso, Fernando; Granados, Marcela; Gutierrez-Martinez, Maria I.; Ochoa, Juan B.; Peitzman, Andrew; Puyana, Juan-Carlos

    2010-01-01

    There is inconclusive data on whether critically ill individuals with severe secondary peritonitis requiring multiple staged laparotomies may became eligible candidates for deferred primary anastomoses (DPA). We sought to compare a protocol for DPA against a protocol for diversion in severely ill cr

  19. 78 FR 37719 - Interim Final Determination To Defer Sanctions; California; South Coast Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... approval of revisions to the South Coast Air Quality Management District's (SCAQMD) portion of the... Quality Management District Proposed Contingency Measures for the 2007 PM 2.5 SIP'' (dated October 2011... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Interim Final Determination To Defer Sanctions; California; South Coast Air...

  20. Life Cycle Asset Allocation in the Presence of Housing and Tax-Deferred Investing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marekwica, Marcel; Schaefer, Alexander; Sebastian, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    , investors can deduct mortgage interest payments from taxable income, while simultaneously earning interest in tax-deferred accounts tax-free. Matching empirical evidence, our model predicts that investors with higher retirement savings choose higher loan-to-value ratios to exploit this tax arbitrage...

  1. To Defer or To Stand Up? How Offender Formidability Affects Third Party Moral Outrage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Holm; Petersen, Michael Bang

    2011-01-01

    According to models of animal behavior, the relative formidability of conspecifics determines the utility of deferring versus aggressing in situations of conflict. Here we apply and extend these models by investigating how the formidability of exploiters shapes third party moral outrage in humans...

  2. 34 CFR 535.55 - What is the length of the deferment of repayment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the length of the deferment of repayment? 535.55 Section 535.55 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF BILINGUAL EDUCATION AND MINORITY LANGUAGES AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION BILINGUAL...

  3. 34 CFR 535.54 - Under what circumstances is repayment deferred?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Under what circumstances is repayment deferred? 535.54 Section 535.54 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF BILINGUAL EDUCATION AND MINORITY LANGUAGES AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION BILINGUAL EDUCATION:...

  4. 26 CFR 301.6058-1 - Information required in connection with certain plans of deferred compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... purposes of this section, the term “funded plan of deferred compensation” means each pension, annuity... 405(a); individual retirement accounts and annuities described in sections 408(a) and 408(b); and... Retirement Income Security Act of 1974; (88 Stat. 840)). The term does not include annuity...

  5. Deference, Denial, and Beyond: A Repertoire Approach to Mass Media and Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rymes, Betsy

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author outlines two general research approaches, within the education world, to these mass-mediated formations: "Deference" and "Denial." Researchers who recognize the social practices that give local meaning to mass media formations and ways of speaking do not attempt to recontextualize youth media in their own social…

  6. 40 CFR 280.11 - Interim prohibition for deferred UST systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; (2) Is cathodically protected against corrosion, constructed of noncorrodible material, steel clad... substance. (b) Notwithstanding paragraph (a) of this section, an UST system without corrosion protection may... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interim prohibition for deferred...

  7. The impact of excess choice on deferment of decisions to volunteer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren S. Carroll

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Excess choice has previously been shown to have detrimental effects on decisions about consumer products. As the number of options increases, people are more likely to put off making an active choice (i.e., defer and show less satisfaction with any purchase actually made. We extend this line of enquiry to choosing a charitable organisation to volunteer for. The issue is important because the number of voluntary organisations is enormous and the impact of such a decision may be greater than for consumer decisions in terms of time commitment and benefits to the volunteer and society. Study 1 asked students to examine a real volunteering website and record how many organisations they considered, decision difficulty and whether or not they would like to sign up for a chosen organisation or prefer to defer a decision. Study 2 presented either a relatively small (10 or large (30 choice set of hypothetical organisations and measured deferment likelihood and decision difficulty. In both studies the more options considered, the greater the likelihood to defer. This effect was mediated by decision difficulty. This research is the first to find that detrimental effects of excess choice extend to volunteering. Implications for volunteer recruitment are discussed.

  8. 78 FR 77696 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Consideration of Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Consideration of Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals, Form I-821D, OMB Control No. 1615-0124; Correction ACTION... Homeland Security, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) published a 60-day Notice...

  9. 77 FR 49451 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Consideration of Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-16

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Consideration of Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals, Form I-821D, New Information Collection; Emergency... Collection Under Review. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS), U.S. Citizenship and Immigration...

  10. 27 CFR 26.104 - Deferred payment of tax-release of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-release of beer. 26.104 Section 26.104 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... ISLANDS Taxpayment of Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Beer § 26.104 Deferred payment of tax—release of beer. (a) Action by brewer. Where the brewer has furnished bond on Form 2898, and payment of the tax...

  11. A feasibility study of immediate versus deferred antiretroviral therapy in children with HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubolyam Sasiwimol

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To evaluate the feasibility of a large immediate versus deferred antiretroviral therapy (ART study in children. Methods We conducted an open-label pilot randomized clinical trial study in 43 Thai children with CD4 15 to 24% of starting generic AZT/3TC/NVP immediately (Arm 1 or deferring until CD4 Results Recruitment took 15 months. Twenty-six of 69 (37.7% were not eligible due mainly to low CD4%. Twenty four and 19 were randomized to arms 1 and 2 respectively. All accepted the randomized arm; however, 3 in arm 1 stopped ART and 1 in arm 2 refused to start ART. Ten/19 (53% in arm 2 started ART. At baseline, median age was 4.8 yrs, CDC A:B were 36:7, median CD4 was 19% and viral load was 4.8 log. All in arm 1 and 17/19 in arm 2 completed the study (median of 134 weeks. No one had AIDS or death. Four in immediate arm had tuberculosis. Once started on ART, deferred arm children achieved similar CD4 and viral load response as the immediate arm. Adverse events were similar between arms. The deferred arm had a 26% ART saving. Conclusion Almost 40% of children were not eligible due mainly to low CD4% but adherence to randomized treatment and retention in trial were excellent. A larger study to evaluate when to start ART is feasible.

  12. Immediate versus deferred coronary angioplasty in non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riezebos, R.K.; Ronner, E.; ter Bals, E.; Slagboom, T.; Smits, P.C.; ten Berg, J.M.; Kiemeneij, F.; Amoroso, G.; Patterson, M.S.; Suttorp, M.J.; Tijssen, J.G.P.; Laarman, G.J.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The field of acute coronary syndromes is characterised by an increasing tendency towards early invasive catheter-based diagnostics and therapeutics-a practice based on observational and retrospective data. OBJECTIVE: To compare immediate versus deferred angioplasty in patients with non-S

  13. Cathode performance during two beam operation of the high current high polarization electron gun for eRHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, O. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ben-Zvi, I. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Degen, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Gassner, D. M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Lambiase, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Meng, W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Pikin, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Rao, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Sheehy, B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Skaritka, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wang, E. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Pietz, J. [Transfer Engineering and Manufacturing, Inc., Fremont, CA (United States); Ackeret, M. [Transfer Engineering and Manufacturing, Inc., Fremont, CA (United States); Yeckel, C. [Stangenes Industries, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Miller, R. [Stangenes Industries, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Dobrin, E. [Stangenes Industries, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Thompson, K. [Stangenes Industries, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2015-05-03

    Two electron beams from two activated bulk GaAs photocathodes were successfully combined during the recent beam test of the High Current High Polarization Electron gun for eRHIC. The beam test took place in Stangenes Industries in Palo Alto, CA, where the cathodes were placed in diagonally opposite locations inside the high voltage shroud. No significant cross talking between the cathodes was found for the pertinent vacuum and low average current operation, which is very promising towards combining multiple beams for higher average current. This paper describes the cathode preparation, transport and cathode performance in the gun for the combining test, including the QE and lifetimes of the photocathodes at various steps of the experiment.

  14. Key processes shaping the current role and operation of higher education institutions in society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piróg Danuta

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The concurrent processes of globalisation, computerisation, and integration shape and constantly modify developmental factors and generate multidirectional social changes. Among social life fields, one of them has been particularly sensitive to the impact of those processes and has remained in clear feedback relationship with them is education, including university-level education. This article aims to present some reflections on the key processes which influence the environment of higher education institutions’ activity and on what their impact specifically is. The factors taken into account include: the transformation of the political and economic system, integration with the European higher education area, the market shift of education, evolving social demands towards higher education institutions and society’s attitude towards work. As knowledge has become an asset largely affecting the quality of life of people and society, universities have changed their focus from searching for and exploring truth, good and beauty in the world towards becoming innovation centres, transferring knowledge as offering their educational services. In this article, those trends have been exemplified in relation to geography degree programmes, and shown through an evolution of the model of the university. Based on a review of the literature, it seems that the processes discussed also concern geography degree programmes, and the future operation of these programmes closely depends on whether they can maintain their care for high quality education coupled with genuine efforts to ensure the smooth transition of graduates into the labour market.

  15. Evaluation of current operating standards for chlorine dioxide in disinfection of dump tank and flume for fresh tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás-Callejas, Alejandro; López-Velasco, Gabriela; Valadez, Angela M; Sbodio, Adrian; Artés-Hernández, Francisco; Danyluk, Michelle D; Suslow, Trevor V

    2012-02-01

    Standard postharvest unit operations that rely on copious water contact, such as fruit unloading and washing, approach the criteria for a true critical control point in fresh tomato production. Performance data for approved sanitizers that reflect commercial systems are needed to set standards for audit compliance. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)) for water disinfection as an objective assessment of recent industry-adopted standards for dump tank and flume management in fresh tomato packing operations. On-site assessments were conducted during eight temporally distinct shifts in two Florida packinghouses and one California packinghouse. Microbiological analyses of incoming and washed fruit and dump and flume system water were evaluated. Water temperature, pH, turbidity, conductivity, and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) were monitored. Reduction in populations of mesophilic and coliform bacteria on fruit was not significant, and populations were significantly higher (P dump tanks but consistently below the detection limit in flumes. Turbidity and conductivity increased with loads of incoming tomatoes. Water temperature varied during daily operations, but pH and ORP mostly remained constant. The industry standard positive temperature differential of 5.5°C between water and fruit pulp was not maintained in tanks during the full daily operation. ORP values were significantly higher in the flume than in the dump tank. A positive correlation was found between ORP and temperature, and negative correlations were found between ORP and turbidity, total mesophilic bacteria, and coliforms. This study provides in-plant data indicating that ClO(2) can be an effective sanitizer in flume and spray-wash systems, but current operational limitations restrict its performance in dump tanks. Under current conditions, ClO(2) alone is unlikely to allow the fresh tomato industry to meet its microbiological quality goals under typical

  16. Geographic and Operational Site Parameters List (GOSPL) for Hanford Assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Last, George V.; Nichols, William E.; Kincaid, Charles T.

    2006-06-01

    This data package was originally prepared to support a 2004 composite analysis (CA) of low-level waste disposal at the Hanford Site. The Technical Scope and Approach for the 2004 Composite Analysis of Low Level Waste Disposal at the Hanford Site (Kincaid et. al. 2004) identified the requirements for that analysis and served as the basis for initial preparation of this data package. Completion of the 2004 CA was later deferred, with the 2004 Annual Status Report for the Composite Analysis of Low-Level Waste Disposal in the Central Plateau at the Hanford Site (DOE 2005) indicating that a comprehensive update to the CA was in preparation and would be submitted in 2006. However, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has recently decided to further defer the CA update and will use the cumulative assessment currently under preparation for the environmental impact statement (EIS) being prepared for tank closure and other site decisions as the updated CA. Submittal of the draft EIS is currently planned for FY 2008. This data package describes the facility-specific parameters (e.g. location, operational dates, etc.) used to numerically simulate contaminant flow and transport in large-scale Hanford assessments. Kincaid et al. (2004) indicated that the System Assessment Capability (SAC) (Kincaid et al. 2000; Bryce et al. 2002; Eslinger 2002a, 2002b) would be used to analyze over a thousand different waste sites. A master spreadsheet termed the Geographic and Operational Site Parameters List (GOSPL) was assembled to facilitate the generation of keyword input files containing general information on each waste site/facility, its operational/disposal history, and its environmental settings (past, current, and future). This report briefly describes each of the key data fields, including the source(s) of data, and provides the resulting inputs to be used for large-scale Hanford assessments.

  17. Current applications and future directions for the CDISC Operational Data Model standard: A methodological review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hume, Sam; Aerts, Jozef; Sarnikar, Surendra; Huser, Vojtech

    2016-04-01

    In order to further advance research and development on the Clinical Data Interchange Standards Consortium (CDISC) Operational Data Model (ODM) standard, the existing research must be well understood. This paper presents a methodological review of the ODM literature. Specifically, it develops a classification schema to categorize the ODM literature according to how the standard has been applied within the clinical research data lifecycle. This paper suggests areas for future research and development that address ODM's limitations and capitalize on its strengths to support new trends in clinical research informatics. A systematic scan of the following databases was performed: (1) ABI/Inform, (2) ACM Digital, (3) AIS eLibrary, (4) Europe Central PubMed, (5) Google Scholar, (5) IEEE Xplore, (7) PubMed, and (8) ScienceDirect. A Web of Science citation analysis was also performed. The search term used on all databases was "CDISC ODM." The two primary inclusion criteria were: (1) the research must examine the use of ODM as an information system solution component, or (2) the research must critically evaluate ODM against a stated solution usage scenario. Out of 2686 articles identified, 266 were included in a title level review, resulting in 183 articles. An abstract review followed, resulting in 121 remaining articles; and after a full text scan 69 articles met the inclusion criteria. As the demand for interoperability has increased, ODM has shown remarkable flexibility and has been extended to cover a broad range of data and metadata requirements that reach well beyond ODM's original use cases. This flexibility has yielded research literature that covers a diverse array of topic areas. A classification schema reflecting the use of ODM within the clinical research data lifecycle was created to provide a categorized and consolidated view of the ODM literature. The elements of the framework include: (1) EDC (Electronic Data Capture) and EHR (Electronic Health Record

  18. Analysis of operations and cyber security policies for a system of cooperating Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS) devices.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, Laurence R.; Tejani, Bankim; Margulies, Jonathan; Hills, Jason L.; Richardson, Bryan T.; Baca, Micheal J.; Weiland, Laura

    2005-12-01

    Flexible Alternating Current Transmission Systems (FACTS) devices are installed on electric power transmission lines to stabilize and regulate power flow. Power lines protected by FACTS devices can increase power flow and better respond to contingencies. The University of Missouri Rolla (UMR) is currently working on a multi-year project to examine the potential use of multiple FACTS devices distributed over a large power system region in a cooperative arrangement in which the FACTS devices work together to optimize and stabilize the regional power system. The report describes operational and security challenges that need to be addressed to employ FACTS devices in this way and recommends references, processes, technologies, and policies to address these challenges.

  19. Low-Cost Digital Implementation of Proportional-Resonant Current Controllers for PV Inverter Applications Using Delta Operator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Será, Dezsö; Kerekes, Tamas; Lungeanu, Marian

    2005-01-01

    of the P+Resonant controller with selective harmonic compensation on a low-cost fixed-point DSP. The resonant part of the P+R has been implemented as a second order filter based on Delta operator. The current controller, together with harmonic compensation for the 3rd, 5th, and 7th harmonics has been......The performances of the P+Resonant controller in case of current control for a single phase grid connected inverter have been proved to be superior to the PI controller, since it is able to remove the phase error of the control at the fundamental frequency of the grid. It offers also...... the possibility of selective harmonic compensation. However, in case of digital implementation on a low-cost fixedpoint DSP, the limited computational power and the limited numerical representation precision can restrict the utilization of it. The present paper proposes a different way of digital implementation...

  20. Drain Current Model for Double Gate (DG) p-n-i-n TFET: Accumulation to Inversion Region of Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upasana; Narang, Rakhi; Saxena, Manoj; Gupta, Mridula

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, drain current model has been formulated for Double Gate (DG) p-n-i-n Tunnel FET (TFET) using Lambert-W function. The model includes the impact of mobile charges, gate dielectric thickness (tox) and channel thickness (tsi) on quasi fermi level, gate threshold voltage (VTG), onset voltage (VGonset) and Tunneling Barrier Width (TBW) over the entire operating range i.e. accumulation to inversion state. Important electrostatic and electrical parameters such as the effective potential (φeffective) at the center of the channel, 2-D channel potential, electric field, energy band profile and Tunneling Barrier Width (TBW) dependent drain current have been modeled. Moreover, gate and drain bias controllability in different operating regimes has also been investigated by varying oxide thickness (tox), channel thickness (tsi), intrinsic channel length (Lint) and at different temperatures. Important FOMs required for analog circuit performance such as transconductance (gm), drain conductance (gd), output resistance (Rout), early voltage (VEA) have also been evaluated and verified using ATLAS device simulation software.

  1. Mitochondrial uncoupler FCCP activates proton conductance but does not block store-operated Ca(2+) current in liver cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Minh-Son; Aromataris, Edoardo C; Castro, Joel; Roberts, Michael L; Barritt, Greg J; Rychkov, Grigori Y

    2010-03-15

    Uncouplers of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, including carbonilcyanide p-triflouromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP) and carbonilcyanide m-cholorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), are widely used in experimental research to investigate the role of mitochondria in cellular function. Unfortunately, it is very difficult to interpret the results obtained in intact cells using FCCP and CCCP, as these agents not only inhibit mitochondrial potential, but may also affect membrane potential and cell volume. Here we show by whole-cell patch clamping that in primary rat hepatocytes and H4IIE liver cells, FCCP induced large proton currents across the plasma membrane, but did not activate any other observable conductance. In intact hepatocytes FCCP inhibits thapsigargin-activated store-operated Ca(2+) entry, but in patch clamping under the conditions of strong Ca(2+) buffering it has no effect on store-operated Ca(2+) current (I(SOC)). These results indicate that there is no direct connection between mitochondria and activation of I(SOC) in liver cells and support the notion of indirect regulation of I(SOC) by mitochondrial Ca(2+) buffering.

  2. Unreviewed Disposal Question Evaluation: Impact of New Information since 2008 PA on Current Low-Level Solid Waste Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, G.; Smith, F.; Hamm, L.; Butcher, T.

    2014-10-06

    Solid low-level waste disposal operations are controlled in part by an E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility (ELLWF) Performance Assessment (PA) that was completed by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) in 2008 (WSRC 2008). Since this baseline analysis, new information pertinent to disposal operations has been identified as a natural outcome of ongoing PA maintenance activities and continuous improvement in model simulation techniques (Flach 2013). An Unreviewed Disposal Question (UDQ) Screening (Attachment 1) has been initiated regarding the continued ability of the ELLWF to meet Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1 performance objectives in light of new PA items and data identified since completion of the original UDQ Evaluation (UDQE). The present UDQE assesses the ability of Solid Waste (SW) to meet performance objectives by estimating the influence of new information items on a recent sum-of-fractions (SOF) snapshot for each currently active E-Area low-level waste disposal unit. A final SOF, as impacted by this new information, is projected based on the assumptions that the current disposal limits, Waste Information Tracking System (WITS) administrative controls, and waste stream composition remain unchanged through disposal unit operational closure (Year 2025). Revision 1 of this UDQE addresses the following new PA items and data identified since completion of the original UDQE report in 2013: New Kd values for iodine, radium and uranium; Elimination of cellulose degradation product (CDP) factors; Updated radionuclide data; Changes in transport behavior of mobile radionuclides; Potential delay in interim closure beyond 2025; and Component-in-grout (CIG) plume interaction correction. Consideration of new information relative to the 2008 PA baseline generally indicates greater confidence that PA performance objectives will be met than indicated by current SOF metrics. For SLIT9, the previous prohibition of non-crushable containers in revision 0

  3. The Recognition and Accounting of Revenues from Selling Goods by Means of Deferred Payment%递延收款方式下销售商品收入的确认与会计核算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田彪

    2012-01-01

    新《企业会计准则》对递延方式分期收款销售商品业务的处理与原办法相比已产生了实质性的变化,由此对企业利润、现金流产生一定的影响。为了规范企业递延方式分期收款销售商品收入的会计核算,真实完整地提供会计信息,防范经营风险,本文结合新准则分析了递延方式分期收款销售商品收入的确认条件及会计处理要点。%After the release of the new Enterprise Accounting Standards,the author notices that there are substantial changes on the deferred payment,which has some impacts on the corporation profits and cash flows.In order to regulate the accounting of deferred payment,completely provide the accounting information and guard against operational risks,the paper analyses the recognition conditions and accounting treatment points of the deferred payment in terms of the new Enterprise Accounting Standards.

  4. Semi-implicit spectral deferred correction methods for ordinary differential equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minion, Michael L.

    2002-10-06

    A semi-implicit formulation of the method of spectral deferred corrections (SISDC) for ordinary differential equations with both stiff and non-stiff terms is presented. Several modifications and variations to the original spectral deferred corrections method by Dutt, Greengard, and Rokhlin concerning the choice of integration points and the form of the correction iteration are presented. The stability and accuracy of the resulting ODE methods are explored analytically and numerically. The SISDC methods are intended to be combined with the method of lines approach to yield a flexible framework for creating higher-order semi-implicit methods for partial differential equations. A discussion and numerical examples of the SISDC method applied to advection-diffusion type equations are included. The results suggest that higher-order SISDC methods are more efficient than semi-implicit Runge-Kutta methods for moderately stiff problems in terms of accuracy per function evaluation.

  5. Can Authorization Reduce Poverty among Undocumented Immigrants? Evidence from the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals Program

    OpenAIRE

    Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina; Antman, Francisca M.

    2016-01-01

    We explore the impact of authorization on the poverty exposure of households headed by undocumented immigrants. The identification strategy makes use of the 2012 Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program, which provided a temporary work authorization and reprieve from deportation to eligible immigrants. Using a difference-in-differences approach, we compare DACA-eligible to DACA-ineligible likely unauthorized immigrants, before and after the program implementation. We find that DA...

  6. Fourth-Order Deferred Correction Scheme for Solving Heat Conduction Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Yambangwai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A deferred correction method is utilized to increase the order of spatial accuracy of the Crank-Nicolson scheme for the numerical solution of the one-dimensional heat equation. The fourth-order methods proposed are the easier development and can be solved by using Thomas algorithms. The stability analysis and numerical experiments have been limited to one-dimensional heat-conducting problems with Dirichlet boundary conditions and initial data.

  7. 47 CFR 32.1438 - Deferred maintenance and retirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... unprovided-for loss in service value of telecommunications plant for extraordinary nonrecurring retirement not considered in depreciation and the cost of extensive replacements of plant normally chargeable to... replacements, the amount chargeable to operating expenses and the period over which in its judgment the...

  8. Deferring Elimination of Design Alternatives in Object Oriented Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aksit, Mehmet; Marcelloni, Francesco

    2001-01-01

    While developing systems, software engineers generally have to deal with a large number of design alternatives. Current object-oriented methods aim to eliminate design alternatives whenever they are generated. Alternatives, however, should be eliminated only when sufficient information to take such

  9. The Bipolar Field-Effect Transistor:Ⅶ. The Unipolar Current Mode for Analog-RF Operation(Two-MOS-Gates on Pure-Base

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Binbin; Sah Chih-Tang

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the DC steady-state current-voltage and conductance-voltage characteristics of a Bipolar Field-Effect Transistor (BiFET) under the unipolar (electron) current mode of operation, with bipolar (elec-tron and hole) charge distributions considered. The model BiFET example presented has two MOS-gates on the two surfaces of a thin pure silicon base layer with electron and hole contacts on both edges of the thin base. The hole contacts on both edges of the thin pure base layer are grounded to give zero hole current. This 1-transistor analog-RF Basic Building Block nMOS amplifier circuit, operated in the unipolar current mode, complements the 1-transistor digital Basic Build Block CMOS voltage inverter circuit, operated in the bipolar-current mode just presented by us.

  10. The effect of applied control strategy on the current-voltage correlation of a solid oxide fuel cell stack during dynamic operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szmyd Janusz S.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the transient characteristics of the planar type SOFC cell stack, of which the standard output is 300 W. The transient response of the voltage to the manipulation of an electric current was investigated. The effects of the response and of the operating condition determined by the operating temperature of the stack were studied by mapping a current-voltage (I-V correlation. The current-based fuel control (CBFC was adopted for keeping the fuel utilization factor at constant while the value of the electric current was ramped at the constant rate. The present experimental study shows that the transient characteristics of the cell voltage are determined by primarily the operating temperature caused by the manipulation of the current. Particularly, the slope of the I-V curve and the overshoot found on the voltage was remarkably influenced by the operating temperature. The different values of the fuel utilization factor influence the height of the settled voltages. The CBFC has significance in determining the slope of the I-V characteristic, but the different values ofthe fuel utilization factor does not affect the slope as the operating temperature does. The CBFC essentially does not alter the amplitude of the overshoot on the voltage response, since this is dominated by the operating temperature and its change is caused by manipulating the current.

  11. [Current status of operations in community general support centers and the correlation of personal traits, work environment and occupational stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Yoshie

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the current status of operations at community general support centers which provide coordination for elderly care and the correlation of personal traits, work environment and the occupational stress of the staff. Subjects of the study were 251 staff members of community general support centers. The current status of operations at the community general support centers and the personal traits, work environment, effort-remuneration imbalance model (ERI) and general health questionnaire (GHQ) were surveyed. The initial analysis involved a comparison by a chi-square test on: The effort-remuneration ratio (E/R ratio) of personal traits and work environment, risk of over-commitment (OC), and GHQ score. To explore the correlation between the E/R ratio of the three GHQ groups (low, middle and high score groups) and the OC value, one-way analysis of variance was performed. Out of the four basic functions of the community general support centers, 22.0% of the respondents noted that "establishment of a regional, comprehensive/multi-tiered service network" was functioning, and 50.4% of respondents noted that "comprehensive and continuous care management" was functioning. The average effort score was 15.5 +/- 5.3, approximately double the average value of preceding studies. Significant differences found in GHQ scores were related to working hours (pworking hours of 50 h or more" (OR: 10.38, 95% CI: 2.52-42.70), "Unstable employment" (OR: 2.75, 95% CI: 1.22-6.21) and "Anxiety related to task content" (OR: 17.04, 95% CI: 3.57-81.24). Items observed to have significant correlation with OC value risk factors were: "Weekly working hours of 50 h or more" (OR: 8.04, 95% CI: 1.99-32.41) and "Anxiety related to task content" (OR: 4.60, 95% CI: 2.04-10.37). We conclude that the basic functions of the community general support centers are not presently very functional. The stress levels of the community general support center staff are high and

  12. A burn center paradigm to fulfill deferred consent public disclosure and community consultation requirements for emergency care research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackford, Martha G; Falletta, Lynn; Andrews, David A; Reed, Michael D

    2012-09-01

    To fulfill Food and Drug Administration and Department of Health and Human Services emergency care research informed consent requirements, our burn center planned and executed a deferred consent strategy gaining Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval to proceed with the clinical study. These federal regulations dictate public disclosure and community consultation unique to acute care research. Our regional burn center developed and implemented a deferred consent public notification and community consultation paradigm appropriate for a burn study. Published accounts of deferred consent strategies focus on acute care resuscitation practices. We adapted those strategies to design and conduct a comprehensive public notification/community consultation plan to satisfy deferred consent requirements for burn center research. To implement a robust media campaign we engaged the hospital's public relations department, distributed media materials, recruited hospital staff for speaking engagements, enlisted community volunteers, and developed initiatives to inform "hard-to-reach" populations. The hospital's IRB determined we fulfilled our obligation to notify the defined community. Our communication strategy should provide a paradigm other burn centers may appropriate and adapt when planning and executing a deferred consent initiative. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  13. Economic viability of production of Nellore heifers on Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu pastures deferred and fertilized with nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poliana Batista de Aguilar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different levels of nitrogen on deferred pastures of Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu, and the implications on the economic viability of production of Nellore heifers. This was a completely randomized design with four treatments (T1 = deferred pasture without nitrogen fertilization; T2 = deferred pasture fertilized with 50 kg N ha-1, T3 = deferred pasture with 100 kg N ha-1, T4 = deferred pasture with 150 kg N ha-1 and four replications (16 fertilized paddocks. First, there were used 48 Nellore heifers, average eight months of age and initial body weight of 178.69 ± 26.67 kg, with three heifers in each paddock, in all treatments, in a continuous grazing system, with variable stocking rate. Only the treatment the without nitrogen fertilization showed negative monetary values of R$ -181.96, R$ ha-1 -72.79 and R$ @-1 -32.11. The treatment with 50 kg N ha-1 achieved the highest positive monetary values of R$ 756.02, R$ ha-1 302.40 and R$ @-1 50.52. Economic viability data in beef heifer production demonstrate that the treatment with 50 kg N ha-1 is the most financially viable under the conditions of this study.

  14. Current regulators for I/SUP 2/L circuits to be operated from low-voltage power supplies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Erik; Hansen, Ole

    1980-01-01

    A new bandgap current reference is described which can be used to control the injector current of I/SUP 2/L circuits for supply voltages down to about 1 V. For small currents the total injector current is obtained as a mirror of the reference current. For large injector currents the current control...... is performed by a series regulator which compares the injector current of one I/SUP 2/L gate to the reference current. The described reference current can be adjusted to give a variation with temperature of about 60 ppm/°C over the temperature range -10 to +70°C. However, in some applications a nonzero......, but well controlled temperature coefficient is desired. It is shown how a temperature stable ring oscillator with I/SUP 2/L gates can be constructed by tailoring the temperature dependence of the supply current appropriately....

  15. Great apes can defer exchange: a replication with different results suggesting future oriented behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osvath, Mathias; Persson, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    The topic of cognitive foresight in non-human animals has received considerable attention in the last decade. The main questions concern whether the animals can prepare for upcoming situations which are, to various degrees, contextually or sensorially detached from the situation in which the preparations are made. Studies on great apes have focused on tool-related tasks, e.g., the ability to select a tool which is functional only in the future. Dufour and Sterck (2008), however, investigated whether chimpanzees were also able to prepare for a future exchange with a human: an object exchanged for a food item. The study included extensive training on the exchangeable item, which is traditionally not compatible with methods for studying planning abilities, as associative learning cannot be precluded. Nevertheless, despite this training, the chimpanzees could not solve the deferred exchange task. Given that great apes can plan for tool use, these results are puzzling. In addition, claims that great ape foresight is highly limited has been based on this study (Suddendorf and Corballis, 2010). Here we partly replicated Dufour and Sterck's study to discern whether temporally deferred and spatially displaced exchange tasks are beyond the capabilities of great apes. In addition to chimpanzees we tested orangutans. One condition followed the one used by Dufour and Sterck, in which the exchange items, functional only in the future, are placed at a location that freely allows for selections by the subjects. In order to test the possibility that the choice set-up could explain the negative results in Dufour and Sterck's study, our second condition followed a method used in the planning study by Osvath and Osvath (2008), where the subjects make a forced one-item-choice from a tray. We found that it is within the capabilities of chimpanzees and orangutans to perform deferred exchange in both conditions.

  16. Great apes can defer exchange: a replication with different results suggesting future oriented behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias eOsvath

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The topic of cognitive foresight in non-human animals has received considerable attention in the last decade. The main questions concern whether the animals can prepare for upcoming situations which are, to various degrees, contextually or sensorially detached from the situation in which the preparations are made. Studies on great apes have focused on tool-related tasks, e.g. the ability to select a tool which is functional only in the future. Dufour and Sterck (2008, however, investigated whether chimpanzees were also able to prepare for a future exchange with a human: an object exchanged for a food item. The study included extensive training on the exchangeable item, which is traditionally not compatible with methods for studying planning abilities, as associative learning cannot be precluded. Nevertheless, despite this training, the chimpanzees could not solve the deferred exchange task. Given that great apes can plan for tool use, these results are puzzling. In addition, claims that great ape foresight is highly limited has been based on this study (Suddendorf and Corballis, 2010. Here we partly replicated Dufour and Sterck’s study to discern whether temporally deferred and spatially displaced exchange tasks are beyond the capabilities of great apes. In addition to chimpanzees we tested orangutans. One condition followed the one used by Dufour and Sterck, in which the exchange items, functional only in the future, are placed at a location that freely allows for selections by the subjects. In order to test the possibility that the choice set-up could explain the negative results in Dufour and Sterck’s study, our second condition followed a method used in the planning study by Osvath and Osvath (2008, where the subjects make a forced one-item-choice from a tray. We found that it is within the capabilities of chimpanzees and orangutans to perform deferred exchange in both conditions.

  17. New method for estimating current and future transport aircraft operating economics. Contractor report, Jan 1976--Oct 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    A methodology was developed by which the operating cost associated with variations in aircraft design and technology characteristics can be assessed. This methodology addresses aircraft related operating cost elements and is based on an in-depth examination of airline operating experiences and relevant operating data. The assessment method produces a base line estimate of the operating cost elements relating to such design specification features as seat capacity, avionic equipment, design range, and design definition features such as maximum takeoff gross weight, and number of engines. Means for determining the deviations from this base line of the design or technological difference at the specific ATA System level are provided. The methodology was applied to assess the operating cost of one potential future advanced technology transport aircraft. An analysis was included to show the relative sensitivity of the operating cost to design parameters. Areas of potential future research on operating cost related technologies are identified.

  18. Huanghua Port Nickel-Iron Project Deferred to the End of 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>The Huanghua Port nickel-iron project in Cangzhou of Hebei Province,with a joint in- vestment of 1.8 billion Yuan by Sinosteel and Baosteel,will be deferred to the end of 2009 and even won’t be put into production until 2010,due to the sliding nickel price and low demand in the stainless steel market.PhaseⅠof the project has a productivity of 16,000 tons of nickel.In addition,Qingshan Group’s nickel-

  19. Pretend play, deferred imitation and parent-child interaction in speaking and non-speaking children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strid, Karin; Heimann, Mikael; Tjus, Tomas

    2013-02-01

    This study investigates spontaneous pretend play during a parent-child free play observation, and deferred imitation observed in an experimental setting in speaking and non-speaking children with autism in comparison to children with typical development. Both groups of children with autism showed a reduced level of deferred imitation compared to the typically developing group, but only the non-speaking children with autism spent significantly less time in pretend play compared to children with typical development. Deferred imitation was related to parents' verbal interaction in both groups. An analysis of the parent-child interaction revealed that parents of children with autism used less synchronized comments compared to parents of typically developing children. Parents of the speaking group with autism used more synchronized than unsynchronized comments, while parents of the non-speaking group used the same amount of synchronized and unsynchronized comments. These findings are discussed in terms of how the developmental level affects behavior and interaction in autism.

  20. Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Deferred Coronary Lesions according to Disease Severity Assessed by Fractional Flow Reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Ki Bum; Nam, Chang Wook; Cho, Yun Kyeong; Yoon, Hyuck Jun; Park, Hyoung Seob; Kim, Hyungseop; Han, Seongwook; Hur, Seung Ho; Kim, Yoon Nyun; Park, Sang Hyun; Han, Jung Kyu; Koo, Bon Kwon; Kim, Hyo Soo; Doh, Joon Hyung; Lee, Sung Yun; Yang, Hyoung Mo; Lim, Hong Seok; Yoon, Myeong Ho; Tahk, Seung Jea; Kim, Kwon Bae

    2016-12-01

    Data on the clinical outcomes in deferred coronary lesions according to functional severity have been limited. This study evaluated the clinical outcomes of deferred lesions according to fractional flow reserve (FFR) grade using Korean FFR registry data. Among 1,294 patients and 1,628 lesions in Korean FFR registry, 665 patients with 781 deferred lesions were included in this study. All participants were consecutively categorized into 4 groups according to FFR; group 1: ≥ 0.96 (n = 56), group 2: 0.86-0.95 (n = 330), group 3: 0.81-0.85 (n = 170), and group 4: ≤ 0.80 (n = 99). Primary endpoint was major adverse cardiac events (MACE), a composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, and target vessel revascularization. The median follow-up period was 2.1 years. During follow-up, the incidence of MACE in groups 1-4 was 1.8%, 7.6%, 8.8%, and 13.1%, respectively. Compared to group 1, the cumulative rate by Kaplan-Meier analysis of MACE was not different for groups 2 and 3. However, group 4 had higher cumulative rate of MACE compared to group 1 (log-rank P = 0.013). In the multivariate Cox hazard models, only FFR (hazard ratio [HR], 0.95; P = 0.005) was independently associated with MACE among all participants. In contrast, previous history of percutaneous coronary intervention (HR, 2.37; P = 0.023) and diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) (HR, 2.35; P = 0.015), but not FFR, were independent predictors for MACE in subjects with non-ischemic (FFR ≥ 0.81) deferred coronary lesions. Compared to subjects with ischemic deferred lesions, clinical outcomes in subjects with non-ischemic deferred lesions according to functional severity are favorable. However, longer-term follow-up may be necessary.

  1. Analysis of The Corporate Effective Tax Rate in Brazil: A study focusing on ETR and Current ETR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Otávio Monteiro Guimarães

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the effective tax rate of public companies operating in stock market in Brazil over a period between 2003 and 2013, both to the total effective tax rate (ETRt as the curren (ETRc, seeking to verify evidence of the presence of tax management. This analysis consists of (i to assess whether average tax burden is upper, equal or less than the statutory rate of 34%; (ii verify that the ETR suffered influence of RTT adjustments arising from the introduction of IFRS; (iii identify proxies (size; profitability; inventory; properties, plants and equipment; debt; and deferred tax expenses which may explain the variation in ETR. The results showed that: (i companies have a significantly lower ETR than the statutory tax rate; (ii companies reported a lower ETR on the full adoption of IFRS period; (iii the ETR has relation to size (negative, debt (positive and components of assets (positive; and (iv there are deferral strategies considering the negative sign of deferred taxes in relation to the current ETR. The results confirm the practice of tax management and also demonstrate that the resulting RTT adjustments resulted in a lower tax burden, confirming previous studies that estimated less conservative earnings after the beginning of the convergence process. Finally, we observed that larger companies have a lower tax burden and that in general companies adopt choices that allow the deferral of taxes on income.

  2. Affiliation of the beneficiaries of a deferred pension to the CERN Health Insurance Scheme

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Subsequent to the modifications to the Rules and Regulations of the Pension Fund allowing members of the personnel having five years of affiliation to the Fund to opt for a deferred retirement pension, the Organization wishes to recall the rules relating to the affiliation of those beneficiaries to the CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS). In accordance with Articles III 2.02 and VIII 4.02 of the CHIS Rules, beneficiaries of a deferred retirement pension can only be Members of the CHIS as CERN pensioners if they applied to remain Members of the Scheme upon termination of their compulsory membership as a member of the personnel and if their membership has been uninterrupted up to the moment they become CERN pensioners. The applicable contribution for this intermediate period is indicated in Articles III 5.03 and X 1.02 of the CHIS Rules. The amount is revised annually, and is set at 936 CHF/ month for 2003. Human Resources Division Tel. 73635

  3. Undocumented students pursuing medical education: The implications of deferred action for childhood arrivals (DACA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balderas-Medina Anaya, Yohualli; del Rosario, Mithi; Doyle, Lawrence Hy; Hayes-Bautista, David E

    2014-12-01

    There are about 1.8 million young immigrants in the United States who came or were brought to the country without documentation before the age of 16. These youth have been raised and educated in the United States and have aspirations and educational achievements similar to those of their native-born peers. However, their undocumented status has hindered their pursuit of higher education, especially in medical and other graduate health sciences. Under a new discretionary policy, Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA), many of these young immigrants are eligible to receive permission to reside and work in the United States. DACA defers deportation of eligible, undocumented youth and grants lawful presence in the United States, work permits, Social Security numbers, and, in most states, driver's licenses. These privileges have diminished the barriers undocumented students traditionally have faced in obtaining higher education, specifically in pursuing medicine. With the advent of DACA, students are slowly matriculating into U.S. medical schools and residencies. However, this applicant pool remains largely untapped. In the face of a physician shortage and the implementation of the Affordable Care Act, an increase in matriculation of qualified undocumented students would be greatly beneficial. This Perspective is intended to begin discussion within the academic medicine community of the implications of DACA in reducing barriers for the selection and matriculation of undocumented medical students and residents. Moreover, this Perspective is a call to peers in the medical community to support undocumented students seeking access to medical school, residency, and other health professions.

  4. Why birds with deferred sexual maturity are sedentary on islands: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ferrer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Island faunas have played central roles in the development of evolutionary biology and ecology. Birds are among the most studied organisms on islands, in part because of their dispersal powers linked to migration. Even so, we lack of information about differences in the movement ecology of island versus mainland populations of birds. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we present a new general pattern indicating that large birds with deferred sexual maturity are sedentary on islands, and that they become so even when they are migratory on the mainland. Density-dependent variation in the age at first breeding affects the survivorship of insular populations and this, in turn, affects the movement ecology of large birds. Because density-dependent variation in the age of first breeding is critical to the long-term survival of small isolated populations of long-lived species, migratory forms can successfully colonize islands only if they become sedentary once there. Analyses of the movement ecology of continental and insular populations of 314 species of raptors, 113 species of Ciconiiformes and 136 species of passerines, along with individual-based population simulations confirm this prediction. CONCLUSIONS: This finding has several consequences for speciation, colonization and survival of small isolated population of species with deferred sexual maturity.

  5. Deference and Diffèrance: Judicial Review and the Perfect Gift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J De Ville

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The highest courts in both Canada and South Africa have expressed themselves in favour of an approach of deference as respect in the review of administrative action. The notion of deference as respect derives from the thinking of David Dyzenhaus, who has developed a theory of democracy in support of this approach to judicial review. Dyzenhaus’ model of review attempts to steer clear from the problems he associates particularly with positivism and liberalism. Dyzenhaus’ model of review furthermore attempts to allow space for the administration to play a significant role in giving effect to democratic values, on the understanding that all such decisions need to be reasonably justifiable. In this article the views of Dyzenhaus are contrasted with those of Jacques Derrida, especially insofar as the latter has reflected on the relation between law and justice, as well as concepts such as the gift and democracy. The argument developed in this article is that Dyzenhaus’ model of review, despite its many positive features, needs to be rethought with reference to the perfect gift, unconditional justice and democracy to come. Such a rethinking is required because of the limited conception of justice – as simply ‘our’ justice – in Dyzenhaus’ model.

  6. ACCOUNTING – TAXATION REPORT IN TERMS OF DEFERRED TAXES ON ASSETS REVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PALIU – POPA LUCIA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There has always been and will be a relationship between accounting and taxation, and the ongoing discussions are related to intensity, interrelation and generation of reciprocal effects. Profit is the "wealth" achieved by the economic entity, the share of shareholders after paying the income tax, where applicable, which makes the profit have a major influence on the method of determination and thus of the accounting treatment incurred by the income tax depending on the accounting cultures in dispute for supremacy, namely the European accounting culture and the Anglo-Saxon accounting culture. As the users of information in the financial statements seek to assess the performance and profitability of the company in general and, academically, the income tax is the only element raising debates on the relationship between accounting and taxation, we deemed it useful to conduct a study on the accounting – taxation report in terms of deferred taxes related to assets revaluation. The record of deferred tax amount for each type of temporary difference results in elimination of tax effects from accounting, with the aim of revealing the real earnings of the economic entity and not its fiscal side, all of which is a step in disconnecting the taxation accounting

  7. Immune control of HIV-1 infection after therapy interruption: immediate versus deferred antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernaschi Massimo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The optimal stage for initiating antiretroviral therapies in HIV-1 bearing patients is still a matter of debate. Methods We present computer simulations of HIV-1 infection aimed at identifying the pro et contra of immediate as compared to deferred Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART. Results Our simulations highlight that a prompt specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes response is detected when therapy is delayed. Compared to very early initiation of HAART, in deferred treated patients CD8+ T cells manage to mediate the decline of viremia in a shorter time and, at interruption of therapy, the virus experiences a stronger immune pressure. We also observe, however, that the immunological effects of the therapy fade with time in both therapeutic regimens. Thus, within one year from discontinuation, viral burden recovers to the value at which it would level off in the absence of therapy. In summary, simulations show that immediate therapy does not prolong the disease-free period and does not confer a survival benefit when compared to treatment started during the chronic infection phase. Conclusion Our conclusion is that, since there is no therapy to date that guarantees life-long protection, deferral of therapy should be preferred in order to minimize the risk of adverse effects, the occurrence of drug resistances and the costs of treatment.

  8. Analysis on installation and operation of leakage current protector in rural areas%农村漏电保护器安装运行分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程夏蕾; 祝明娟; 郭行干

    2012-01-01

    In the paper, the existing problems are analyzed concerning installation and operation of leakage current protector for rural distribution network in China, inclusive of the influence on graded protections caused by transformer grounding mode, three-phase unbalanced load current and the capacitive current. The measures and suggestions for correct installation and operation of leakage current protector are therefore proposed.%分析了我国农村配电网漏电保护器安装运行中存在的问题,包括农村配电台区接地方式、三相不平衡负荷与容性电流对分级保护的影响等,并提出了正确安装使用漏电保护器的措施和建议。

  9. 42 CFR 62.9 - Under what circumstances can the period of obligated service be deferred to complete approved...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... from a school of medicine, osteopathy, or dentistry, veterinary medicine, optometry, podiatry or pharmacy, the Secretary will defer the beginning date of the obligated service to allow the participant to... for any participant receiving a degree from a school of medicine, osteopathy or dentistry, or (2) one...

  10. DACA at the Two-Year Mark: A National and State Profile of Youth Eligible and Applying for Deferred Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalova, Jeanne; Hooker, Sarah; Capps, Randy

    2014-01-01

    Since the Obama administration launched the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program in 2012, which offers temporary relief from deportation and the right to apply for work authorization for certain unauthorized immigrants who came to the United States as children, 55 percent of the 1.2 million youth who immediately met the program's…

  11. 26 CFR 1.101-7 - Mortality table used to determine exclusion for deferred payments of life insurance proceeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... deferred payments of life insurance proceeds. 1.101-7 Section 1.101-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... payments of life insurance proceeds. (a) Mortality table. Notwithstanding any provision of § 1.101-4 that... principles of this section may be illustrated by the following examples: Example 1. A life insurance...

  12. A Two-week Field Course with Deferred Papers: A Possible Solution to the Problem of Undergraduate Field Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, William A.; Wiedel, Joseph W.

    1971-01-01

    Field work is an important but often neglected facet of undergraduate geography training. Kinds of field work and field training are analyzed including selection of study areas and camp site selection. A two week field camp with deferred papers is a workable solution for undergraduate programs. (NH)

  13. 76 FR 56114 - Interim Final Determination to Stay and Defer Sanctions, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Interim Final Determination to Stay and Defer Sanctions, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Interim final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is making an interim final determination to stay the imposition of offset...

  14. 76 FR 56116 - Interim Final Determination To Stay and Defer Sanctions, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Interim Final Determination To Stay and Defer Sanctions, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Interim final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is making an interim final determination to stay the imposition of offset...

  15. 77 FR 24857 - Interim Final Determination To Stay and Defer Sanctions, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Interim Final Determination To Stay and Defer Sanctions, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Interim final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is making an interim final determination to stay the imposition of offset...

  16. Optimization of operating parameters to maximize the current density without flooding at the cathode membrane interface of a PEM fuel cell using Taguchi method and genetic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S.L. Rao, A. Shaija, S. Jayaraj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model was developed to investigate water accumulation at the cathode membrane interface by varying different operating parameters like fuel cell operating temperature and pressure, cathode and anode humidification temperatures and cathode stoichiometry. Taguchi optimization methodology is then combined with this model to determine the optimal combination of the operating parameters to maximize current density without flooding. Results of analysis of variance (ANOVA show that fuel cell operating temperature and cathode humidification temperature are the two most significant parameters in the ratio of 56.07% and 27.89% respectively and also that higher fuel cell temperature and lower cathode humidification temperature are favourable to get the maximum current draw without flooding at the cathode membrane interface. The global optimum value of the operating parameters to maximize the current density without flooding was obtained by formulating as an optimization problem using genetic algorithm (GA. These results were compared with the results obtained using Taguchi method and it was found to be similar and slightly better.

  17. Resistance switching memory operation using the bistability in current-voltage characteristics of GaN/AlN resonant tunneling diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagase, Masanori; Takahashi, Tokio; Shimizu, Mitsuaki

    2016-10-01

    Resistance switching memory operations using the bistability in the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of GaN/AlN resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs) were investigated to realize an ultrafast nonvolatile memory operating at a picosecond time scale. Resistance switching memory operations based on electron accumulation due to intersubband transitions and electron release due to tunneling current were demonstrated with high reproducibility at room temperature when the leakage of electrons accumulating in the quantum well from the deep level in the AlN barrier was suppressed. A nonvolatile memory for the processor core in a normally off computing system is expected to be realized using the bistability in the I-V characteristics of GaN/AlN RTDs.

  18. Data Collection for Current U.S. Wind Energy Projects: Component Costs, Financing, Operations, and Maintenance; January 2011 - September 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Tretton, M.; Reha, M.; Drunsic, M.; Keim, M.

    2012-01-01

    DNV Renewables (USA) Inc. (DNV) used an Operations and Maintenance (O&M) Cost Model to evaluate ten distinct cost scenarios encountered under variations in wind turbine component failure rates. The analysis considers: (1) a Reference Scenario using the default part failure rates within the O&M Cost Model, (2) High Failure Rate Scenarios that increase the failure rates of three major components (blades, gearboxes, and generators) individually, (3) 100% Replacement Scenarios that model full replacement of these components over a 20 year operating life, and (4) Serial Failure Scenarios that model full replacement of blades, gearboxes, and generators in years 4 to 6 of the wind project. DNV selected these scenarios to represent a broad range of possible operational experiences. Also in this report, DNV summarizes the predominant financing arrangements used to develop wind energy projects over the past several years and provides summary data on various financial metrics describing those arrangements.

  19. GENERAL: Mode shift and stability control of a current mode controlled buck-boost converter operating in discontinuous conduction mode with ramp compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Bo-Cheng; Xu, Jian-Ping; Liu, Zhong

    2009-11-01

    By establishing the discrete iterative mapping model of a current mode controlled buck-boost converter, this paper studies the mechanism of mode shift and stability control of the buck-boost converter operating in discontinuous conduction mode with a ramp compensation current. With the bifurcation diagram, Lyapunov exponent spectrum, time-domain waveform and parameter space map, the performance of the buck-boost converter circuit utilizing a compensating ramp current has been analysed. The obtained results indicate that the system trajectory is weakly chaotic and strongly intermittent under discontinuous conduction mode. By using ramp compensation, the buck-boost converter can shift from discontinuous conduction mode to continuous conduction mode, and effectively operates in the stable period-one region.

  20. Mode shift and stability control of a current mode controlled buck-boost converter operating in discontinuous conduction mode with ramp compensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao Bo-Cheng; Xu Jian-Ping; Liu Zhong

    2009-01-01

    By establishing the discrete iterative mapping model of a current mode controlled buck-boost converter, this paper studies the mechanism of mode shift and stability control of the buck-boost converter operating in discontinuous conduction mode with a ramp compensation current. With the bifurcation diagram, Lyapunov exponent spectrum, timedomain waveform and parameter space map, the performance of the buck-boost converter circuit utilizing a compensating ramp current has been analysed. The obtained results indicate that the system trajectory is weakly chaotic and strongly intermittent under discontinuous conduction mode. By using ramp compensation, the buck-boost converter can shift from discontinuous conduction mode to continuous conduction mode, and effectively operates in the stable period-one region.

  1. Neutral-beam current-driven high-poloidal-beta operation of the DIII-D tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonen, T. C.; Matsuoka, M.; Bhadra, D. K.; Burrell, K. H.; Callis, R. W.; Chance, M. S.; Chu, M. S.; Greene, J. M.; Groebner, R. J.; Harvey, R. W.; Hill, D. N.; Kim, J.; Lao, L.; Petersen, P. I.; Porter, G. D.; St. John, H.; Stallard, B. W.; Stambaugh, R. D.; Strait, E. J.; Taylor, T. S.

    1988-10-01

    Neutral-beam current-drive experiments in the DIII-D tokamak with a single null poloidal divertor are described. A plasma current of 0.34 MA has been sustained by neutral beams alone, and the energy confinement is of H-mode quality. Poloidal β values reach 3.5 without disruption or coherent magnetic activity suggesting that these plasmas may be entering the second stability regime.

  2. Operating characteristics of superconducting fault current limiter using 24kV vacuum interrupter driven by electromagnetic repulsion switch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, M; Hori, T; Koyama, K; Kaiho, K; Yanabu, S [Tokyo Denki University, 2-2 Kandanishiki-chou Chiyoda-ku Tokyo 101-8457 (Japan); Yamaguchi, I; Arai, K [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology(AIST), 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan)], E-mail: yanabu@e.dendai.ac.jp

    2008-02-01

    Using a high temperature superconductor, we constructed and tested a model Superconducting Fault Current Limiter (SFCL). SFCL which has a vacuum interrupter with electromagnetic repulsion mechanism. We set out to construct high voltage class SFCL. We produced the electromagnetic repulsion switch equipped with a 24kV vacuum interrupter(VI). There are problems that opening speed becomes late. Because the larger vacuum interrupter the heavier weight of its contact. For this reason, the current which flows in a superconductor may be unable to be interrupted within a half cycles of current. In order to solve this problem, it is necessary to change the design of the coil connected in parallel and to strengthen the electromagnetic repulsion force at the time of opening the vacuum interrupter. Then, the design of the coil was changed, and in order to examine whether the problem is solvable, the current limiting test was conducted. We examined current limiting test using 4 series and 2 parallel-connected YBCO thin films. We used 12-centimeter-long YBCO thin film. The parallel resistance (0.1{omega}) is connected with each YBCO thin film. As a result, we succeed in interrupting the current of superconductor within a half cycle of it. Furthermore, series and parallel-connected YBCO thin film could limit without failure.

  3. Deferred Action: Theoretical model of process architecture design for emergent business processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel, N.V.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available E-Business modelling and ebusiness systems development assumes fixed company resources, structures, and business processes. Empirical and theoretical evidence suggests that company resources and structures are emergent rather than fixed. Planning business activity in emergent contexts requires flexible ebusiness models based on better management theories and models . This paper builds and proposes a theoretical model of ebusiness systems capable of catering for emergent factors that affect business processes. Drawing on development of theories of the ‘action and design’class the Theory of Deferred Action is invoked as the base theory for the theoretical model. A theoretical model of flexible process architecture is presented by identifying its core components and their relationships, and then illustrated with exemplar flexible process architectures capable of responding to emergent factors. Managerial implications of the model are considered and the model’s generic applicability is discussed.

  4. Action plan to regain unnecessary deferred blood donors due to malaria risk in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Değirmenci, Aysu; Döşkaya, Mert; Caner, Ayşe; Nergis, Sebnem; Gül, Kadri; Aydınok, Yeşim; Ertop, Tufan; Aksoy, Nurten; Korkmaz, Metin; Alkan, Mehmet Ziya; Üner, Ahmet; Gürüz, Yüksel

    2012-06-01

    Malaria was expected to be a major problem during blood donation in Turkey due to existence of malaria cases in southeastern region of Turkey. The present study aimed for the first time, to investigate malaria in "donors deferred for malaria risk" and to determine the regional rates of malaria deferral in Turkey. Blood samples were collected from several Blood Banks of southeastern provinces where local malaria cases still exist and from Blood Bank of Ege University Medical School (EUMS) located in western Turkey where malaria is eradicated decades ago. Plasmodium spp. and specific antibodies were investigated by stained smears, antigen detection, PCR and ELISA. Among the donors deferred for malaria risk, Plasmodium spp. were not detected by microscopy, PCR or antigen detection. Seroprevalances were 2% and 3.92% in western and southeastern regions, respectively. Rate of donor deferral for malaria risk was 0.9% in EUMS and deferrals were exclusively because of travel to southeastern Turkey. In southeastern provinces, deferrals were mainly due to malaria like fever history. The present study first time assessed regional rates of donor deferral due to malaria risk in Turkey. Previously, malaria was expected to be a major problem during blood donation in Turkey due to existence of malaria cases in southeastern region of Turkey. The results of the study showed that 97% of the deferrals were unnecessary. In conclusion, to reduce unnecessary donor deferrals in Turkey, in addition to comprehensive questioning for malaria history, the usage of a malaria antibody screening method should be initiated prior to deferral decision.

  5. Deconstructing the Risk for Malaria in United States Donors Deferred for Travel to Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Bryan; Kleinman, Steven; Custer, Brian; Cable, Ritchard; Wilkinson, Susan L; Steele, Whitney; High, Patrick M; Wright, David

    2013-01-01

    Background More than 66,000 blood donors are deferred annually in the U.S. due to travel to malaria-endemic areas of Mexico. Mexico accounts for the largest share of malaria travel deferrals, yet it has extremely low risk for malaria transmission throughout most of its national territory, suggesting a suboptimal balance between blood safety and availability. This study sought to determine whether donor deferral requirements might be relaxed for parts of Mexico without compromising blood safety. Study Design and Methods Travel destination was recorded from a representative sample of presenting blood donors deferred for malaria travel from six blood centers during 2006. We imputed to these donors reporting Mexican travel a risk for acquiring malaria equivalent to Mexican residents in the destination location, adjusted for length of stay. We extrapolated these results to the overall U.S. blood donor population. Results Risk for malaria in Mexico varies significantly across endemic areas and is greatest in areas infrequently visited by study donors. Over 70% of blood donor deferrals were triggered by travel to the state of Quintana Roo on the Yucatán Peninsula, an area of very low malaria transmission. Eliminating the travel deferral requirement for all areas except the state of Oaxaca might result in the recovery of almost 65,000 blood donors annually at risk of approximately one contaminated unit collected every 20 years. Conclusion Deferral requirements should be relaxed for presenting donors who travelled to areas within Mexico that confer exceptionally small risks for malaria, such as Quintana Roo. PMID:21564102

  6. Nitrogen fertilization strategies, morphogenetic and structural features in Brachiaria decumbens deferred for 95 days

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Andrade Teixeira

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim this work was to evaluate the morphogenic and structural characteristics of Brachiaria decumbens pastures to determine the most suitable nitrogen fertilization strategies, for pastures deferred for a period of 95 days. Four strategies of fertilization at the beginning and end of the summer (0-0, 100- 0, 50-50, 0-100 kg ha-1 N were studied, respectively, with four replications. The strategy of 100 kg ha-1 N applied at the end of the summer (0-100, followed the parceling strategy at the beginning and end of the summer (50-50 favored higher rates of leaf appearance and lower values of phyllochron. Greater rate of leaf elongation was observed for 0-100 strategy, resulting in 40% increase compared to pastures that were not fertilized. However, there was no effect of fertilization strategies on stem elongation rate, registering an average of 0.28 cm.dia-1. There was a higher blade:stem ratio for the stratum A (40 cm above the soil in all treatments, observing higher blade:stem ratio for strategies 0-100 and 50-50, at this stratum. There was no effect for the total number of leaves and final leaf length. However, greater stem lengths were observed in pastures with 0-100 fertilizer strategy, followed by the 50-50 strategy. The strategy of applying 100 kg ha-1 at the end of summer, followed by the strategy of 50 kg ha-1 nitrogen divided at the beginning and end of summer, promote greater influence on the morphogenic and structural traits, in pastures deferred for 95 days.

  7. On the physical processes ruling an atmospheric pressure air glow discharge operating in an intermediate current regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prevosto, L., E-mail: prevosto@waycom.com.ar; Mancinelli, B.; Chamorro, J. C.; Cejas, E. [Grupo de Descargas Eléctricas, Departamento Ing. Electromecánica, Facultad Regional Venado Tuerto (UTN), Laprida 651, Venado Tuerto (2600), Santa Fe (Argentina); Kelly, H. [Grupo de Descargas Eléctricas, Departamento Ing. Electromecánica, Facultad Regional Venado Tuerto (UTN), Laprida 651, Venado Tuerto (2600), Santa Fe (Argentina); Instituto de Física del Plasma (CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales (UBA) Ciudad Universitaria Pab. I, 1428, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2015-02-15

    Low-frequency (100 Hz), intermediate-current (50 to 200 mA) glow discharges were experimentally investigated in atmospheric pressure air between blunt copper electrodes. Voltage–current characteristics and images of the discharge for different inter-electrode distances are reported. A cathode-fall voltage close to 360 V and a current density at the cathode surface of about 11 A/cm{sup 2}, both independent of the discharge current, were found. The visible emissive structure of the discharge resembles to that of a typical low-pressure glow, thus suggesting a glow-like electric field distribution in the discharge. A kinetic model for the discharge ionization processes is also presented with the aim of identifying the main physical processes ruling the discharge behavior. The numerical results indicate the presence of a non-equilibrium plasma with rather high gas temperature (above 4000 K) leading to the production of components such as NO, O, and N which are usually absent in low-current glows. Hence, the ionization by electron-impact is replaced by associative ionization, which is independent of the reduced electric field. This leads to a negative current-voltage characteristic curve, in spite of the glow-like features of the discharge. On the other hand, several estimations show that the discharge seems to be stabilized by heat conduction; being thermally stable due to its reduced size. All the quoted results indicate that although this discharge regime might be considered to be close to an arc, it is still a glow discharge as demonstrated by its overall properties, supported also by the presence of thermal non-equilibrium.

  8. Dark current and light illumination effects on grating formation during periodic long-term operation in photorefractive polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujihara, T. [Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Mamiya, J. [Chemical Resources Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, R1-12, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Kawamoto, M. [Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Nano Medical Engineering Laboratory, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Sassa, T., E-mail: tsassa@riken.jp [Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Advanced Device Laboratory, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2014-01-14

    Photorefractive grating formation dynamics in long-timescale writing and the effects of periodic writing through the control of writing beam irradiation or electric field application were investigated using typical photorefractive polymers. Both dark current and writing beam irradiation affected grating formation dynamics. Dark current in polymers changed the effective trap density over time through deep trap filling and/or detrapping and thus affected grating formation considerably. The writing beam irradiation also affected grating development in the presence of an electric field owing to the accumulation of filled deep traps. However, grating development recovered after the elimination of the electric field freed up the filled deep traps.

  9. Lattice QCD with the Overlap-Dirac Operator Its $\\Lambda$ Parameter, and One-Loop Renormalization of Fermionic Currents

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandrou, C; Panagopoulos, H; Vicari, E

    2000-01-01

    We compute the ratio between the scale $\\Lambda_L$ associated with a lattice formulation of QCD using the overlap-Dirac operator, and $\\Lambda_{MS-bar}$. To this end, the one-loop relation between the lattice coupling $g_0$ and the coupling renormalized in the MS-bar scheme is calculated, using the lattice background field technique. We also compute the one-loop renormalization $Z_\\Gamma$ of the two-quark operators $\\bar{\\psi} \\Gamma \\psi$, where $\\Gamma$ denotes a generic Dirac matrix. Furthermore, we study the renormalization of quark bilinears which are more extended and have better chiral properties. Finally, we present improved estimates of $Z_\\Gamma$, coming from cactus resummation and from mean field perturbation theory.

  10. Patterns in current anaesthesiological peri-operative practice for colonic resections: a survey in five northern-European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannemann, P; Lassen, K; Hausel, J

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For colorectal surgery, evidence suggests that optimal management includes: no pre-operative fasting, a thoracic epidural analgesia continued for 2 days post-operatively, and avoidance of fluid overload. In addition, no long-acting benzodiazepines on the day of surgery and use of short...... clear liquids were permitted until 2-3 h before anaesthesia. Solid food was permitted up to 6-8 h prior to anaesthesia. In all countries more than 85% of the responders indicated that epidural anaesthesia was routinely used. Except for Denmark, long-acting benzodiazepines were still widely used. Short......-acting anaesthetics were used in all countries except Scotland where isoflurane is the anaesthetic of choice. With the exception of Denmark, intravenous fluids were used unrestrictedly. CONCLUSION: In northern Europe, most anaesthesiologists adhere to evidence-based optimal management strategies on pre...

  11. Investigation of the influence of image reconstruction filter and scan parameters on operation of automatic tube current modulation systems for different CT scanners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sookpeng, Supawitoo; Martin, Colin J; Gentle, David J

    2015-03-01

    Variation in the user selected CT scanning parameters under automatic tube current modulation (ATCM) between hospitals has a substantial influence on the radiation doses and image quality for patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of changing image reconstruction filter and scan parameter settings on tube current, dose and image quality for various CT scanners operating under ATCM. The scan parameters varied were pitch factor, rotation time, collimator configuration, kVp, image thickness and image filter convolution (FC) used for reconstruction. The Toshiba scanner varies the tube current to achieve a set target noise. Changes in the FC setting and image thickness for the first reconstruction were the major factors affecting patient dose. A two-step change in FC from smoother to sharper filters doubles the dose, but is counterbalanced by an improvement in spatial resolution. In contrast, Philips and Siemens scanners maintained tube current values similar to those for a reference image and patient, and the tube current only varied slightly for changes in individual CT scan parameters. The selection of a sharp filter increased the image noise, while use of iDose iterative reconstruction reduced the noise. Since the principles used by CT manufacturers for ATCM vary, it is important that parameters which affect patient dose and image quality for each scanner are made clear to operator to aid in optimisation.

  12. Scale-up of counter-current chromatography: demonstration of predictable isocratic and quasi-continuous operating modes from the test tube to pilot/process scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Ian; Hewitson, Peter; Ignatova, Svetlana

    2009-12-11

    Predictable scale-up from test tube derived distribution ratios and analytical-scale sample loading optimisation is demonstrated using a model sample system of benzyl alcohol and p-cresol in a heptane:ethyl acetate:methanol:water phase system with the new 18 L Maxi counter-current chromatography centrifuge. The versatility of having a liquid stationary phase with its high loading capacity and flexible operating modes is demonstrated at two different scales by separating and concentrating target compounds using a mixture of caffeine, vanillin, naringenin and carvone using a quasi-continuous technique called intermittent counter-current extraction.

  13. Stack optimization of oxide-based RRAM for fast write speed (<1 μs) at low operating current (<10 μA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. Y.; Goux, L.; Fantini, A.; Degraeve, R.; Redolfi, A.; Groeseneken, G.; Jurczak, M.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper we engineer a TiN ⧹ Al2O3 ⧹ (Hf,Al)O2 ⧹ Ta2O5 ⧹ Hf Oxide Resistive Random Access Memory (OxRRAM) device for fast switching at low operation current without sacrificing the retention and endurance properties. The integrated 40 nm × 40 nm cell switches at 10 μA using write pulses shorter than 100 ns (resp. 1 μs) for Reset (resp. Set) and with amplitude speed by more than 1 decade compared to state-of-the-art OxRRAM stacks at same current level.

  14. Behavioral Responses Of Fish To A Current-Based Hydrokinetic Turbine Under Mutlipe Operational Conditions: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grippo, Mark A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Shen, Haixue [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Zydlewski, Gayle [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Rao, Shivanesh [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Goodwin, Andy [United States Army Engineer R & D Center, Vicksburg, MI (United States)

    2017-02-01

    There is significant interest in the interaction of aquatic organisms with current-based marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) technologies. Determining the potential impacts of MHK devices on fish behavior is critical to addressing the environmental concerns that could act as barriers to the permitting and deployment of MHK devices. To address these concerns, we use field monitoring and fish behavior models to characterize the behavioral responses of fish to MHK turbines and infer potential stimuli that may have elicited the observed behavioral changes.

  15. Patterns in current anaesthesiological peri-operative practice for colonic resections: a survey in five northern-European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannemann, P; Lassen, K; Hausel, J;

    2006-01-01

    clear liquids were permitted until 2-3 h before anaesthesia. Solid food was permitted up to 6-8 h prior to anaesthesia. In all countries more than 85% of the responders indicated that epidural anaesthesia was routinely used. Except for Denmark, long-acting benzodiazepines were still widely used. Short......-operative fasting, thoracic epidurals and short-acting anaesthetics. However, premedication with longer-acting agents is still common. Avoidance of fluid overload has not yet found its way into daily practice. This may leave patients undergoing elective colonic surgery at risk of oversedation and excessive fluid...

  16. An Investigation on the Current Status of the Operation Recovery Rooms in Yazd Hospitals in 2010-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Khajeh Aminian

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The recovery ward is a vital unit to care patients awaking from anesthesia and is a standard requirement for the operating room. Recovery ward is located adjacent to the operation room and is easily accessible to trained and skilled individuals. The unit must have adequate equipment for surveillance and monitoring of patients and required medication should also be provided. Methods: This study is a cross-sectional conducted in one phase through referring to hospital facilities and equipment. Physical space, personnel and their skill levels and other factors that are involved in the care of patients in the recovery have been investigated. The instruments used in this study were a check list and observe sheet which were completed by the researchers. Data analysis was conducted by SPSS software. Results: The results showed that the standards of buildings and physical space in the researched areas were mostly nonstandard. Equipment standards were to some extent in line with the criteria set by American Association of Anesthesia. Besides, some equipment was blow standard levels. Personnel standards regarding the number of nurses toward the number of recovery beds did not meet the standard criteria in most of the cases. Conclusion: The research shows that building standards in most cases are not in line with mentioned references. Undertaking equipment standards in the hospital recovery wards needs reviewing and providing controlling equipment for preventing the complications of recovery phase of anesthesia in recovery wards.

  17. Conditioning of BPM pickup signals for operations of the Duke storage ring with a wide range of single-bunch current

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Xu; Sen-Lin, Huang; Wu, W Z; Hao, H; Wang, P; Wu, Y K

    2013-01-01

    The Duke storage ring is a dedicated driver for the storage ring based oscillator free-electron lasers (FELs), and the High Intensity Gamma-ray Source (HIGS). It is operated with a beam current ranging from about 1 mA to 100 mA per bunch for various operations and accelerator physics studies. High performance operations of the FEL and gamma-ray source require a stable electron beam orbit, which has been realized by the global orbit feedback system. As a critical part of the orbit feedback system, the electron beam position monitors (BPMs) are required to be able to precisely measure the electron beam orbit in a wide range of the single-bunch current. However, the high peak voltage of the BPM pickups associated with high single-bunch current degrades the performance of the BPM electronics, and can potentially damage the BPM electronics. A signal conditioning method using low pass filters is developed to reduce the peak voltage to protect the BPM electronics, and to make the BPMs capable of working with a wide ...

  18. Mitochondria sustain store-operated currents in colon cancer cells but not in normal colonic cells: reversal by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Morales, Miriam; Sobradillo, Diego; Valero, Ruth A; Muñoz, Eva; Ubierna, Daniel; Moyer, Mary P; Núñez, Lucía; Villalobos, Carlos

    2017-08-15

    Tumor cells undergo a critical remodeling of intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis that contribute to important cancer hallmarks. Store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE), a Ca(2+) entry pathway modulated by mitochondria, is dramatically enhanced in colon cancer cells. In addition, most cancer cells display the Warburg effect, a metabolic switch from mitochondrial metabolism to glycolysis that provides survival advantages. Accordingly, we investigated mitochondria control of store-operated currents (SOCs) in two cell lines previously selected for representing human normal colonic cells and colon cancer cells. We found that, in normal cells, mitochondria are important for SOCs activity but they are unable to prevent current inactivation. In contrast, in colon cancer cells, mitochondria are dispensable for SOCs activation but are able to prevent the slow, Ca(2+)-dependent inactivation of SOCs. This effect is associated to increased ability of tumor cell mitochondria to take up Ca(2+) due to increased mitochondrial potential (ΔΨ) linked to the Warburg effect. Consistently with this view, selected non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) depolarize mitochondria, inhibit mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake and promote SOC inactivation, leading to inhibition of both SOCE and cancer cell proliferation. Thus, mitochondria sustain store-operated currents in colon cancer cells but not in normal colonic cells and this effect is counteracted by selected NSAIDs providing a mechanism for cancer chemoprevention.

  19. Dark current studies on a normal-conducting high-brightness very-high-frequency electron gun operating in continuous wave mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on measurements and analysis of a field-emitted electron current in the very-high-frequency (VHF gun, a room temperature rf gun operating at high field and continuous wave (CW mode at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL. The VHF gun is the core of the Advanced Photo-injector Experiment (APEX at LBNL, geared toward the development of an injector for driving the next generation of high average power x-ray free electron lasers. High accelerating fields at the cathode are necessary for the high-brightness performance of an electron gun. When coupled with CW operation, such fields can generate a significant amount of field-emitted electrons that can be transported downstream the accelerator forming the so-called “dark current.” Elevated levels of a dark current can cause radiation damage, increase the heat load in the downstream cryogenic systems, and ultimately limit the overall performance and reliability of the facility. We performed systematic measurements that allowed us to characterize the field emission from the VHF gun, determine the location of the main emitters, and define an effective strategy to reduce and control the level of dark current at APEX. Furthermore, the energy spectra of isolated sources have been measured. A simple model for energy data analysis was developed that allows one to extract information on the emitter from a single energy distribution measurement.

  20. Charge based, continuous compact model for the channel current in organic thin-film transistors for all regions of operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hain, Franziska; Graef, Michael; Iñíguez, Benjamín; Kloes, Alexander

    2017-07-01

    In general most modeling approaches for organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) are based on the typical MOSFET equations. The threshold voltage is usually a fitting parameter without relation to physical parameters hence the impact of their variability on the threshold voltage is not clear. The presented modeling approach is charge based with a continuous equation for the channel current in organic field-effect transistors from below to above threshold. The model provides a physics based parameter set related to trap states, and a compatible parameter set from a circuit designer's perspective. An expression for the threshold voltage is derived depending on the density of trap states. The model considers a power-law mobility model, parasitic contact resistances and channel length modulation effects and is verified with measurements on OFETs fabricated with small molecules.

  1. Photo-degradation and stabilization effects in operating organic photovoltaic devices by joint photo-current and morphological monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paci, B.; Generosi, A.; Rossi Albertini, V.; Perfetti, P. [ISM-C.N.R., Area di Ricerca di Tor Vergata, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Roma (Italy); de Bettignies, R. [Laboratoire Composants Solaires, CEA INES-RDI, Savoie Technolac, BP 332, 50 avenue du lac Leman, 73377 Le Bourget du Lac (France); Sentein, C. [CEA Saclay, DRT-LITEN-DSEN-GENEC-L2C, F91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2008-07-15

    We report on a joint morphological/photoelectrical study of polymer-based photovoltaic (PV) cells in working conditions. The bulk heterojunction devices investigated are based on an active layer of poly(3-hexyl thiophene) blended with methano-fullerene, combining good PV performances with promising stability. The set-up adopted allowed the electrical properties of the device to be directly correlated to the modification of the electrode morphological parameters (thickness and roughness), which were obtained by in situ energy dispersive X-ray reflectometry (EDXR). The results of this joint time-dependent characterization demonstrated how the observed photo-induced oxidation process, limited to the buried electrode interface, is responsible for a fast decrease in the photo-current. The time-resolved measurements allowed to rule out the dynamics of the morphological changes and showed that the interface morphology may be stabilized by annealing treatments, with a significant improvement of the cell efficiency. (author)

  2. One Step In and One Step Out : The Lived Experience of the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals Program

    OpenAIRE

    Kosnac, Hillary Sue

    2014-01-01

    After over a decade of congressional stalemate on the Development, Relief and Education for Alien Minors (DREAM) Act, the Obama administration announced the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program in the summer of 2012. A form of prosecutorial discretion, DACA offers certain undocumented youth a two-year reprieve from deportation, employment authorization and, in some states like California, a driver's license. Nevertheless, because DACA does not provide a pathway to citizenship...

  3. Means And Ends In City Of Arlington v. FCC: Ignoring The Lawyer's Craft to Reshape the Scope of Chevron Deference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P. Healy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In last year’s term, the United States Supreme Court considered the question of the scope of Chevron deference in City of Arlington v. FCC. This article discusses how the decision is an example of the work of an activist Court. The case should have been resolved by a straight forward determination under the analysis of United States v. Mead that Chevron deference simply did not apply to the Federal Communications Commission’s (“FCC” legal determination. The Court ignored this restrained approach to the case and instead addressed the question the Justices desired to decide: the reach of Chevron deference. The article discusses and criticizes the approach of Justice Scalia writing for the majority and of Chief Justice Roberts writing for three dissenting Justices.Practitioners and scholars of administrative law can only be confused by the Court’s willingness to apply Chevron in City of Arlington, given the informal administrative action being reviewed and the fact that neither reviewing court actually applied each of the two parts of the Mead test. The Court’s flawed administrative law analysis results from the activist concerns of Justice Scalia and Chief Justice Roberts. Justice Scalia uses the case as a vehicle to undermine Mead, a decision that Justice Scalia loathes. Chief Justice Roberts uses the case as a vehicle to advocate for less judicial deference and less law defining power for increasingly powerful agencies. Neither member of the Court allowed the applicable rules of contemporary administrative law to hinder his efforts to achieve his broader goals. Administrative law would have been better served if a properly restrained Court had considered and applied the previously determined rules for judicial review of administrative agencies. 

  4. A new method to characterize power quality disturbances resulting from expulsion and current-limiting fuse operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil A. Ortiz-Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta un nuevo método para la caracterización y el diagnóstico de perturbaciones eléctricas causas por la oper ación de fusibles en los sistemas de distr ibución de energí a eléctrica. Se propone un conjunto de descriptores con el propósito de cuan tificar las características propias de las distorsiones originadas por la o peración de fusibles de expulsión y limitadores de corriente. Para seleccionar los descriptores con los mejore s perfiles clasificatorios se re aliza un análisis estadístico multivariable y a través de algor itmos de aprendizaje automático se seleccionan los umbrales de decisión óptimos para los mismos. A partir de la simulación en ATP-EMTP se obtienen señales de tensión y corriente de la ope ración de fusibles, así como al gunos registros de eventos reale s, para en conjunto ser utiliza dos en la validación del nuevo algoritmo pr opuesto, obteniéndose un ópti mo desempeño y eficacia en los resultados. El algoritmo fue imp lementado en Matlab y los requerimientos computacionales son mínimos.

  5. Initial operation and current status of the Fermilab DZero VMEbus-based hardware control and monitor system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodwin, R.; Florian, R.; Johnson, M.; Jones, A.; Shea, M.

    1989-11-01

    DZero is a large colliding beams detector at Fermilab. The control system for this detector includes twenty-five VMEbus-based 68020 computers interconnected using the IEEE-802.5 Token Ring local area network. In operation, the system will monitor about fifteen thousand analog channels and several thousand digital status bits, interfaced to the 68020 computers by the MIL-1553 multiplexed data bus. In addition, the VMEbus control system uses a memory-mapped multi-VMEbus interconnect to download parameters to more than one hundred VMEbus data crates in the experiment. Remote host computers can then read and set memory in the detector crates over the network by accessing memory in the control crates. This is an extremely useful feature during the construction phase, because low level diagnostics and testing of all the detector electronics can be done over the Token Ring network using either IBM-PC compatible computers or the laboratory-wide VAX system. The VMEbus control system hardware is now being installed in the DZero movable counting house. Installation is expected to be complete later this year. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  6. Theoretical analysis for scaling law of thermal blooming based on optical phase deference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yunqiang; Huang, Zhilong; Ren, Zebin; Chen, Zhiqiang; Guo, Longde; Xi, Fengjie

    2016-10-01

    parameters and the geometric scaling parameters can really describe the gas thermal blooming effect in the axial pipe flow. These conclusions can give a good reference for the construction of the thermal blooming test system of laser system. Contrasted with the thermal blooming scaling parameters of the Bradley-Hermann distortion number ND and Fresnel number NF, which were derived based on the change of far field beam intensity distortion, the scaling parameters of pipe flow thermal blooming deduced from the optical path deference variation are very suitable for the optical system with short laser propagation distance, large Fresnel number and obviously changed optical path deference.

  7. The first Italian Superconducting Fault Current Limiter: Results of the field testing experience after one year operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, L.; Bocchi, M.; Ascade, M.; Valzasina, A.; Rossi, V.; Ravetta, C.; Angeli, G.

    2014-05-01

    Ricerca sul Sistema Energetico S.p.A. (RSE) has been gaining a relevant experience in the simulation, design and installation of resistive-type Superconducting Fault Current Limiter (SFCL) devices for more than five years in the framework of a R&D national project funded by the Ricerca di Sistema (RdS). The most recent outcome of this research activity is the installation of a resistive-type BSCCO-based 9 kV / 3.4 MVA SFCL device in a single feeder branch of the Medium Voltage (MV) distribution network managed by A2A Reti Elettriche S.p.A (A2A) in the Milano area. This installation represents the first SFCL successfully installed in Italy. In this paper, we report on the main outcomes after a more than 1-year long steady-state field testing activity. The design of an upgraded device to be installed in the same substation has already been initiated: the new SFCL will allow to protect four different feeders, therefore implying a device upgrade up to 15.6 MVA.

  8. Use of New Commercial, Off-the-Shelf, High-Definition Structure Scanning Fathometer/Depth Finder For Coastal Current Survey Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roggenstein, E. B.; Gray, G.

    2013-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Ocean Service (NOS) Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (COOPS) manages three national observing system programs. These are the National Water level Observation Network (NWLON) (210 stations), the 23 NOAA/Physical Oceanographic Real-Time Systems (PORTS), and National Currents Observing Program (NCOP) (approximately 70 deployments/year). In support of its mission COOPS operates and maintains a number of small boats. During vessel operations, side-scan sonar data are at times needed to provide information about bottom structure for future work in the area. For example, potential hazards, obstructions, or bottom morphology features that have not been identified on localized charts for a given area could be used to inform decisions on planned installations. Side-scan sonar capability is also important when attempting to reacquire bottom mounts that fail to surface at the conclusion of a current meter survey. Structure mapping and side-scan capabilities have been added to recent consumer-level, commercial, off-the-shelf fathometers, generally intended for recreational, commercial fishing, and diving applications. We are proposing to investigate these systems' viability for meeting survey requirements. We assess their ability to provide a flexible alternative to research/commercial oceanographic level side-scan system at a significant cost savings. Such systems could provide important information to support scientific missions that require qualitative seafloor imagery.

  9. Efficacy comparison between direct stent implantation surgery and deferred stent implantation surgery for patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction after PCT thrombus aspiration surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Xia Han; Xiu-Hong Liu; Ping Zhou; Guo-Mei Dan

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To compare the efficacy of direct stent implantation surgery and deferred stent implantation surgery for patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction after PCT thrombus aspiration surgery. Method:A total of 74 cases with STEMI were selected, who had been given PCT thrombus aspiration surgery treatment, and were randomly divided into direct group and deferred group (n=37). Patients in direct group were given direct stent implantation surgery after PCT thrombus aspiration surgery treatment. Patients in deferred group were given deferred stent implantation surgery 14 d later after anticoagulant and anti-platelet treatment. Heart structure and function, stent release characteristics and adverse reactions) were compared 6 months after the surgery. Results:Two hours after surgery, ST segment drop amplitude in deferred group was significantly higher than that in direct group (P<0.05);TIMI frame number was obvious and no reflow/slow blood flow occurrence ratio was significantly lower than that in direct group (P<0.05);implantation stent number and stent length in deferred group were significantly less than that in direct group (P<0.05);the release characteristic indexes of implantation stent in deferred group:stent diameter and stent expansion pressure were significantly higher than that in direct group (P<0.05);6 months after surgery, LVEF improvement in deferred group was significantly higher than that in direct group (P<0.05), while LVEDD、LVEDV ventricular remodeling was significantly lower than that in direct group (P<0.05);The total adverse event occurrence rate in deferred group was 5.4%, which was significantly lower than that in direct group (18.9%) (P<0.05). Conclusions:The deferred stent implantation surgery after PCI thrombus aspiration surgery could obviously reduce the occurrence rate of no reflow/slow blood flow, obviously improve the heart function and myocardial perfusion, reduce the usage amount of stent, reduce the occurrence of

  10. Using of explosive technologies for development of a compact current-limiting device for operation on 110 kV class systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shurupov, A. V.; Shurupov, M. A.; Kozlov, A. A.; Kotov, A. V.

    2016-11-01

    This paper considers the possibility of creating on new physical principles a highspeed current-limiting device (CLD) for the networks with voltage of 110 kV, namely, on the basis of the explosive switching elements. The device is designed to limit the steady short-circuit current to acceptable values for the time does not exceed 3 ms at electric power facilities. The paper presents an analysis of the electrical circuit of CLD. The main features of the scheme are: a new high-speed switching element with high regenerating voltage; fusible switching element that enables to limit the overvoltage after sudden breakage of network of the explosive switch; non-inductive resistor with a high heat capacity and a special reactor with operating time less than 1 s. We analyzed the work of the CLD with help of special software PSPICE, which is based on the equivalent circuit of single-phase short circuit to ground in 110 kV network. Analysis of the equivalent circuit operation CLD shows its efficiency and determines the CLD as a perspective direction of the current-limiting devices of new generation.

  11. 47 CFR 32.7210 - Operating investment tax credits-net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions For Other Income Accounts § 32... qualified expenditures related to regulated operations which the company defers rather than recognizes... amortization of each year's investment tax credits included in Account 4320 for investment services...

  12. Epilepsy Surgery: Factors That Affect Patient Decision-Making in Choosing or Deferring a Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Todd Anderson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Surgical resection for well-selected patients with refractory epilepsy provides seizure freedom approximately two-thirds of the time. Despite this, many good candidates for surgery, after a presurgical workup, ultimately do not consent to a procedure. The reasons why patients decline potentially effective surgery are not completely understood. We explored the socio cultural, medical, personal, and psychological differences between candidates who chose (n = 23 and those who declined surgical intervention (n = 9. We created a novel questionnaire addressing a range of possible factors important in patient decision making. We found that patients who declined surgery were less bothered by their epilepsy (despite comparable severity, more anxious about surgery, and less likely to listen to their doctors (and others and had more comorbid psychiatric disease. Patients who chose surgery were more embarrassed by their seizures, more interested in being “seizure-free”, and less anxious about specific aspects of surgery. Patient attitudes, beliefs, and anxiety serve as barriers to ideal care. These results can provide opportunities for education, treatment, and intervention. Additionally, patients who fit a profile of someone who is likely to defer surgery may not be appropriate for risky and expensive presurgical testing.

  13. Fractional Flow Reserve-Guided Deferred Versus Complete Revascularization in Patients With Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Mark W; Hermanides, Rik S; Kaplan, Emel; Hemradj, Veemal; Fabris, Enrico; Koopmans, Petra C; Dambrink, Jan-Henk E; Gosselink, A T Marcel; Van't Hof, Arnoud W J; Ottervanger, Jan Paul; Roolvink, Vincent; Remkes, Wouter S; van der Sluis, Aize; Suryapranata, Harry; Kedhi, Elvin

    2016-11-01

    To assess the safety and efficacy of deferred versus complete revascularization using a fractional flow reserve (FFR)-guided strategy in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), we analyzed all DM patients who underwent FFR-guided revascularization from January 1, 2010, to December 12, 2013. Patients were divided into 2 groups: those with ≥1 remaining FFR-negative (>0.80) medically treated lesions [FFR(-)MT] and those with only FFR-positive lesions (≤0.80) who underwent complete revascularization [FFR(+)CR] and were followed until July 1, 2015. The primary end point was the incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), a composite of death, myocardial infarction (MI), target lesion (FFR assessed) revascularization, and rehospitalization for acute coronary syndrome. A total of 294 patients, 205 (69.7%) versus 89 (30.3%) in FFR(-)MT and FFR(+)CR, respectively, were analyzed. At a mean follow-up of 32.6 ± 18.1 months, FFR(-)MT was associated with higher MACE rate 44.0% versus 26.6% (log-rank p = 0.02, Cox regression-adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 2.01, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.21 to 3.33, p required to guide our treatment strategy in these patients with high-risk, fast-progressing atherosclerosis.

  14. A delay discounting task produces a greater likelihood of waiting than a deferred gratification task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Michael E; McCoy, Anthony W

    2015-01-01

    A first-person-shooter video game was adapted for the study of choice between smaller sooner and larger later outcomes to compare the behavioral patterns produced by deferred gratification (DG) and delay discounting (DD) tasks. Participants played a game in which they could either fire their weapon sooner and do a small amount of damage or wait a few seconds to fire their weapon and do a larger amount of damage. For the DD task, a failure to fire within one second committed the player to waiting for the larger later outcome thus removing the opportunity to defect during the delay that is present in the DG task. The incentive structure changed multiple times during game play so that at times the optimal decision was to choose the smaller sooner outcome whereas at other times the optimal decision was to wait for the larger later outcome. Players assigned to the DD task showed a greater tendency to wait and lower sensitivity to the changing incentives.

  15. Epilepsy surgery: factors that affect patient decision-making in choosing or deferring a procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Christopher Todd; Noble, Eva; Mani, Ram; Lawler, Kathy; Pollard, John R

    2013-01-01

    Surgical resection for well-selected patients with refractory epilepsy provides seizure freedom approximately two-thirds of the time. Despite this, many good candidates for surgery, after a presurgical workup, ultimately do not consent to a procedure. The reasons why patients decline potentially effective surgery are not completely understood. We explored the socio cultural, medical, personal, and psychological differences between candidates who chose (n = 23) and those who declined surgical intervention (n = 9). We created a novel questionnaire addressing a range of possible factors important in patient decision making. We found that patients who declined surgery were less bothered by their epilepsy (despite comparable severity), more anxious about surgery, and less likely to listen to their doctors (and others) and had more comorbid psychiatric disease. Patients who chose surgery were more embarrassed by their seizures, more interested in being "seizure-free", and less anxious about specific aspects of surgery. Patient attitudes, beliefs, and anxiety serve as barriers to ideal care. These results can provide opportunities for education, treatment, and intervention. Additionally, patients who fit a profile of someone who is likely to defer surgery may not be appropriate for risky and expensive presurgical testing.

  16. Epilepsy Surgery: Factors That Affect Patient Decision-Making in Choosing or Deferring a Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Christopher Todd; Mani, Ram; Lawler, Kathy; Pollard, John R.

    2013-01-01

    Surgical resection for well-selected patients with refractory epilepsy provides seizure freedom approximately two-thirds of the time. Despite this, many good candidates for surgery, after a presurgical workup, ultimately do not consent to a procedure. The reasons why patients decline potentially effective surgery are not completely understood. We explored the socio cultural, medical, personal, and psychological differences between candidates who chose (n = 23) and those who declined surgical intervention (n = 9). We created a novel questionnaire addressing a range of possible factors important in patient decision making. We found that patients who declined surgery were less bothered by their epilepsy (despite comparable severity), more anxious about surgery, and less likely to listen to their doctors (and others) and had more comorbid psychiatric disease. Patients who chose surgery were more embarrassed by their seizures, more interested in being “seizure-free”, and less anxious about specific aspects of surgery. Patient attitudes, beliefs, and anxiety serve as barriers to ideal care. These results can provide opportunities for education, treatment, and intervention. Additionally, patients who fit a profile of someone who is likely to defer surgery may not be appropriate for risky and expensive presurgical testing. PMID:24159385

  17. ‘Humblewise’: Deference and Complaint in the Court of Requests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liam J. Meyer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available When servants, laborers, and apprentices sued their masters for back wages or mistreatment in the Court of Requests they took advantage of the court’s doctrine of equity. Since these plaintiffs often lacked the strict written proofs required by common law, or were bound by unfair written contracts, they badly needed an equitable jurisdiction where fairness, extenuating circumstances, and broad social mores could overrule the letter of the law. The formal tropes of their Complaints negotiate the tension between these two conceptions of justice and reveal how that tension relates to early seventeenth century economic culture, where customary ideas about patronage and hierarchical obligations coexisted with emerging notions of self-interest and contractual equality. In appealing to the court with older but still vibrant discourses of social justice and mutual obligation, plaintiffs modulated their Complaints with expressions of deference and helplessness. Their pleadings therefore take the sophisticated rhetorical form of self-assertion articulated as abject submission. The documents are highly mediated by lawyers and institutional constraints, but nevertheless reveal subordinates tactically using expressions of weakness to elicit pathos and use the ideology of paternalism against their masters.

  18. Estrutura do capim-braquiária durante o diferimento da pastagem = Signalgrass structure during pasture deferment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Eduardo Rozalino Santos

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado para avaliar o número de perfilhos, a massa de forragem e de seus componentes morfológicos em pastos de Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk durante o diferimento da pastagem. Os tratamentos foram quatro períodos de diferimento (18, 46, 74 e 121dias, a partir de 8/3/2004. O delineamento foi em blocos casualizados com duas repetições. Foram determinados os números de perfilhos vegetativos (PV, reprodutivos (PR e mortos (PM, bem como as massas de lâmina foliar verde (MLV, colmo verde (MCV e forragemmorta (MFM. Durante o período de diferimento houve redução no número de PV (de 1.491 para 944 perfilhos m-2. Os números de PR e PM não foram influenciados pelo período de diferimento e suas médias foram 211 e 456 perfilhos m-2, respectivamente. O período de diferimento causou incremento nas MCV (de 2.965 para 4.877 kg ha-1 de massa seca e MFM (2.324 para 4.823 kg ha-1 de massa seca, porém não influenciou a MLV (em média, 2.047 kg ha-1 de massa seca. Em Viçosa, Estado de Minas Gerais, o pasto de B. decumbens, adubado com nitrogênio e diferido no início de março, pode permanecer diferido por cerca de 70 dias para conciliar produção de forragem em quantidade com boa composição morfológica. This experiment was performed aiming to evaluate tiller population density, forage mass and its morphological components on pastures of Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk. during deferment. The treatments encompassed four deferred grazing periods (18, 46, 74 and 121 days. Arandomized block design with two replications was used. The numbers of vegetative tillers (VT, reproductive tillers (RT and dead tillers (DT in the pasture were determined. The masses of green leaf blade (GLBM, dead stem (DSM and dead forage (DFM were alsodetermined. There was a reduction in the number of VT (from 1,491 to 944 tiller m-2 during the deferment period. RT and DT numbers were not influenced by the deferment periods. Their averages were

  19. Initial measurements of plasma current and electron density profiles using a polarimeter/interferometer (POINT) for long pulse operation in EAST (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H. Q.; Qian, J. P.; Jie, Y. X.; Ding, W. X.; Brower, D. L.; Zou, Z. Y.; Li, W. M.; Lian, H.; Wang, S. X.; Yang, Y.; Zeng, L.; Lan, T.; Yao, Y.; Hu, L. Q.; Zhang, X. D.; Wan, B. N.

    2016-11-01

    A double-pass, radially viewing, far-infrared laser-based POlarimeter-INTerferometer (POINT) system utilizing the three-wave technique has been implemented for diagnosing the plasma current and electron density profiles in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). POINT has been operated routinely during the most recent experimental campaign and provides continuous 11 chord line-integrated Faraday effect and density measurement throughout the entire plasma discharge for all heating schemes and all plasma conditions (including ITER relevant scenario development). Reliability of both the polarimetric and interferometric measurements is demonstrated in 25 s plasmas with H-mode and 102 s long-pulse discharges. Current density, safety factor (q), and electron density profiles are reconstructed using equilibrium fitting code (EFIT) with POINT constraints for the plasma core.

  20. Numerical simulations of the current-matching effect and operation mechanisms on the performance of InGaN/Si tandem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shih-Wei; Lai, Chih-Ming; Tsai, Chin-Yi; Tu, Li-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Numerical simulations are conducted to study the current-matching effect and operation mechanisms in and to design the optimized device structure of InGaN/Si tandem cells. The characteristics of short circuit current density (J sc), open circuit voltage (V oc), fill factor (FF), and conversion efficiency (η) of InGaN/Si tandem cells are determined by the current-matching effect. The similar trend of η to that of J sc shows that J sc is a dominant factor in determining the performance of InGaN/Si tandem cells. In addition, the combined effects of the J sc, V oc, and FF lead to an optimized η in the medium-indium, [Formula: see text], InGaN/Si tandem cell. At [Formula: see text], the J sc of the InGaN subcell is equal to that of the Si subcell such that an InGaN/Si tandem cell reaches the current matching condition to operate at the maximum power point. Similar to the J sc and FF, the η for low- [Formula: see text] and high-In [Formula: see text] InGaN/Si tandem cells are InGaN- and Si subcell-limited, respectively. Furthermore, the p- and n-layer thicknesses, indium content, and position of depletion region of InGaN subcell should be adjusted to reapportion the light between the two subcells and to achieve the maximum conversion efficiency. With appropriate thicknesses of p- and n-InGaN, In0.5-0.6Ga0.5-0.4 N/Si tandem cells can exhibit as high as approximately 34% to 36.5% conversion efficiency, demonstrating that a medium-indium InGaN/Si tandem cell results in a high-efficiency solar cell. Simulation results determine that the current-matching effect and operation mechanisms of InGaN/Si tandem cells can be utilized for efficiency enhancement through the optimized device structures.

  1. Optimum structural properties for an anode current collector used in a polymer electrolyte membrane water electrolyzer operated at the boiling point of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hua; Fujigaya, Tsuyohiko; Nakajima, Hironori; Inada, Akiko; Ito, Kohei

    2016-11-01

    This study attempts to optimize the properties of the anode current collector of a polymer electrolyte membrane water electrolyzer at high temperatures, particularly at the boiling point of water. Different titanium meshes (4 commercial ones and 4 modified ones) with various properties are experimentally examined by operating a cell with each mesh under different conditions. The average pore diameter, thickness, and contact angle of the anode current collector are controlled in the ranges of 10-35 μm, 0.2-0.3 mm, and 0-120°, respectively. These results showed that increasing the temperature from the conventional temperature of 80 °C to the boiling point could reduce both the open circuit voltage and the overvoltages to a large extent without notable dehydration of the membrane. These results also showed that decreasing the contact angle and the thickness suppresses the electrolysis overvoltage largely by decreasing the concentration overvoltage. The effect of the average pore diameter was not evident until the temperature reached the boiling point. Using operating conditions of 100 °C and 2 A/cm2, the electrolysis voltage is minimized to 1.69 V with a hydrophilic titanium mesh with an average pore diameter of 21 μm and a thickness of 0.2 mm.

  2. Non-social adaptation defers a tragedy of the commons in Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfahl, Kyle L; Walsh, Jessica; Gilbert, Kerrigan; Schuster, Martin

    2015-08-01

    In a process termed quorum sensing (QS), the opportunistic bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa uses diffusible signaling molecules to regulate the expression of numerous secreted factors or public goods that are shared within the population. But not all cells respond to QS signals. These social cheaters typically harbor a mutation in the QS receptor gene lasR and exploit the public goods produced by cooperators. Here we show that non-social adaptation under growth conditions that require QS-dependent public goods increases tolerance to cheating and defers a tragedy of the commons. The underlying mutation is in the transcriptional repressor gene psdR. This mutation has no effect on public goods expression but instead increases individual fitness by derepressing growth-limiting intracellular metabolism. Even though psdR mutant populations remain susceptible to invasion by isogenic psdR lasR cheaters, they bear a lower cheater load than do wild-type populations, and they are completely resistant to invasion by lasR cheaters with functional psdR. Mutations in psdR also sustain growth near wild-type levels when paired with certain partial loss-of-function lasR mutations. Targeted sequencing of multiple evolved isolates revealed that mutations in psdR arise before mutations in lasR, and rapidly sweep through the population. Our results indicate that a QS-favoring environment can lead to adaptations in non-social, intracellular traits that increase the fitness of cooperating individuals and thereby contribute to population-wide maintenance of QS and associated cooperative behaviors.

  3. Terry Turbopump Expanded Operating Band Full-Scale Component and Basic Science Detailed Test Plan - Final.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborn, Douglas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Solom, Matthew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This document details the milestone approach to define the true operating limitations (margins) of the Terry turbopump systems used in the nuclear industry for Milestone 3 (full-scale component experiments) and Milestone 4 (Terry turbopump basic science experiments) efforts. The overall multinational-sponsored program creates the technical basis to: (1) reduce and defer additional utility costs, (2) simplify plant operations, and (3) provide a better understanding of the true margin which could reduce overall risk of operations.

  4. Influence of the operating parameters over the current efficiency and corrosion rate in the Hall-Heroult aluminum cell with tin oxide anode substrate material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Virgil Constantin

    2015-01-01

    A systematic laboratory study was conducted on current efficiency and corrosion obtalned in cryolite–alumina melts with SnO2–Sb2O3–CuO ceramic inert anodes. The current efficiency (CE) was determined by measuring the total amount of oxygen evolved at the anode and was found to be~95%. The influence of operating parameters (inter-elec-trode distance, temperature and current density) was evaluated. The quantitative interdependencies as wel as the ranges of CE optimal values were established (2–3 cm, 940–960 °C and 0.7–0.8 A·cm−2). The corrosion process of these anodes was evaluated by the mass loss method. The evaluation also took care of the corrosion data, as the prob-lem of the anode corrosion appeared to be the maln obstacle for the use of those anodes in the commercial cel s. Low-ering of the ACD up to 2 cm did not aggravate anode corrosion.

  5. Repeat Courses of Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS), Deferring Whole-Brain Irradiation, for New Brain Metastases After Initial SRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shultz, David B.; Modlin, Leslie A.; Jayachandran, Priya; Von Eyben, Rie; Gibbs, Iris C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Choi, Clara Y.H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Santa Clara Valley Medical Center, San Jose, California (United States); Chang, Steven D.; Harsh, Griffith R.; Li, Gordon; Adler, John R. [Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Hancock, Steven L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Soltys, Scott G., E-mail: sgsoltys@stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Purpose: To report the outcomes of repeat stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), deferring whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT), for distant intracranial recurrences and identify factors associated with prolonged overall survival (OS). Patients and Methods: We retrospectively identified 652 metastases in 95 patients treated with 2 or more courses of SRS for brain metastases, deferring WBRT. Cox regression analyzed factors predictive for OS. Results: Patients had a median of 2 metastases (range, 1-14) treated per course, with a median of 2 courses (range, 2-14) of SRS per patient. With a median follow-up after first SRS of 15 months (range, 3-98 months), the median OS from the time of the first and second course of SRS was 18 (95% confidence interval [CI] 15-24) and 11 months (95% CI 6-17), respectively. On multivariate analysis, histology, graded prognostic assessment score, aggregate tumor volume (but not number of metastases), and performance status correlated with OS. The 1-year cumulative incidence, with death as a competing risk, of local failure was 5% (95% CI 4-8%). Eighteen (24%) of 75 deaths were from neurologic causes. Nineteen patients (20%) eventually received WBRT. Adverse radiation events developed in 2% of SRS sites. Conclusion: Multiple courses of SRS, deferring WBRT, for distant brain metastases after initial SRS, seem to be a safe and effective approach. The graded prognostic assessment score, updated at each course, and aggregate tumor volume may help select patients in whom the deferral of WBRT might be most beneficial.

  6. Cost-effectiveness analysis of ranibizumab plus prompt or deferred laser or triamcinolone plus prompt laser for diabetic macular edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewan, Vinay; Lambert, Dennis; Edler, Joshua; Kymes, Steven; Apte, Rajendra S

    2012-08-01

    Perform a cost-effectiveness analysis of the treatment of diabetic macular edema (DME) with ranibizumab plus prompt or deferred laser versus triamcinolone plus prompt laser. Data for the analysis were drawn from reports of the Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network (DRCRnet) Protocol I. Computer simulation based on Protocol I data. Analyses were conducted from the payor perspective. Simulated participants assigned characteristics reflecting those seen in Protocol I. Markov models were constructed to replicate Protocol I's 104-week outcomes using a microsimulation approach to estimation. Baseline characteristics, visual acuity (VA), treatments, and complications were based on Protocol I data. Costs were identified by literature search. One-way sensitivity analysis was performed, and the results were validated against Protocol I data. Direct cost of care for 2 years, change in VA from baseline, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) measured as cost per additional letter gained from baseline (Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study). For sham plus laser (S+L), ranibizumab plus prompt laser (R+pL), ranibizumab plus deferred laser (R+dL), and triamcinolone plus laser (T+L), effectiveness through 104 weeks was predicted to be 3.46, 7.07, 8.63, and 2.40 letters correct, respectively. The ICER values in terms of dollars per VA letter were $393 (S+L vs. T+L), $5943 (R+pL vs. S+L), and $20 (R+dL vs. R+pL). For pseudophakics, the ICER value for comparison triamcinolone with laser versus ranibizumab with deferred laser was $14 690 per letter gained. No clinically relevant changes in model variables altered outcomes. Internal validation demonstrated good similarity to Protocol I treatment patterns. In treatment of phakic patients with DME, ranibizumab with deferred laser provided an additional 6 letters correct compared with triamcinolone with laser at an additional cost of $19 216 over 2 years. That would indicate that if the gain in VA seen at 2 years

  7. Changes in inflammatory and coagulation biomarkers: a randomized comparison of immediate versus deferred antiretroviral therapy in patients with HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Jason V; Neuhaus, Jacqueline; Duprez, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Among a subgroup of participants in the Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy (SMART) Trial that were naïve to antiretroviral therapy (ART) or off ART (6 months or longer) at study entry, risk of AIDS and serious non-AIDS events were increased for participants who deferred ART...... compared with those randomized to (re)initiate ART immediately. Our objective was to determine whether ART initiation in this group reduced markers of inflammation and coagulation that have been associated with increased mortality risk in SMART. Changes in these biomarkers have been described after...... stopping ART, but not after starting ART in SMART....

  8. Large A.C. machines theory and investigation methods of currents and losses in stator and rotor meshes including operation with nonlinear loads

    CERN Document Server

    Boguslawsky, Iliya; Hayakawa, Masashi

    2017-01-01

    In this monograph the authors solve the modern scientific problems connected with A.C. motors and generators, based first on the detailed consideration of their physical phenomena. The authors describe the theory and investigative methods they developed and applied in practice, which are considered to be of essential interest for specialists in the field of the electrical engineering industry in European countries, the USA, Argentina, and Brazil, as well as in such countries as India, China, and Iran. This book will be of interest to engineers specialized in the field of the manufacture, operation, and repair of A.C. machines (motors and generators) as well as electric drives; to professors, lecturers, and post-graduate students of technical universities, who are specializing in the field of electric machine engineering and electric drives; and to students who are engaged in the field of high current techniques, electric drives, and electric machine engineering.

  9. Capture of instantaneous temperature in oscillating flows: use of constant-voltage anemometry to correct the thermal lag of cold wires operated by constant-current anemometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berson, Arganthaël; Poignand, Gaëlle; Blanc-Benon, Philippe; Comte-Bellot, Geneviève

    2010-01-01

    A new procedure for the instantaneous correction of the thermal inertia of cold wires operated by a constant-current anemometer is proposed for oscillating flows. The thermal inertia of cold wires depends both on the wire properties and on the instantaneous incident flow velocity. Its correction is challenging in oscillating flows because no relationship between flow velocity and heat transfer around the wire is available near flow reversal. The present correction procedure requires neither calibration data for velocity nor thermophysical or geometrical properties of the wires. The method relies on the splitting of the time lag of cold wires into two factors, which are obtained using a constant-voltage anemometer in the heated mode. The first factor, which is intrinsic to the wire, is deduced from time-constant measurements performed in a low-turbulence flow. The second factor, which depends on the instantaneous flow velocity, is acquired in situ. In oscillating flows, data acquisition can be synchronized with a reference signal so that the same wire is alternatively operated in the cold mode by a constant-current anemometer and in the heated mode by a constant-voltage anemometer. Validation experiments are conducted in an acoustic standing-wave resonator, for which the fluctuating temperature field along the resonator axis is known independently from acoustic pressure measurements, so that comparisons can be made with cold-wire measurements. It is shown that despite the fact that the wire experiences flow reversal, the new procedure recovers accurately the instantaneous temperature of the flow.

  10. Analytical modelling and experimental verification of the three-dimensional current distribution on the top surface of silicon solar cells operating under concentrated sunlight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costagliola, Maurizio; Riccio, Michele; Irace, Andrea; Breglio, Gianluca; Daliento, Santolo [Department of Biomedical, Electronics and Telecommunications Engineering, University of Naples ' ' Federico II' ' , via Claudio 21, 80125 Naples (Italy)

    2011-03-15

    The approximation that the current is constant in any point of the emitter is not true for solar cells operating under concentrated sunlight. The transverse paths followed by photogenerated carriers to reach metal grid electrodes causes voltage drops leading to non-uniform distributed surface potential and a consequent reduction of the conversion efficiency. Moreover, concentrating lens often provide non-uniform light intensity thus worsening non-uniform current distribution. The correct design of surface geometry of the cell (metal grid, emitter depth, sheet resistance) should always take into account the above effects. Unfortunately a lack of reliable models still exists. In this paper we analytically solve the three-dimensional semiconductor equations with proper boundary conditions and taking into account, as source term, a distributed generation contribute. The reliability of the model has been tested by numerical simulations and experimentally verified with a lock-in thermography technique (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. Effects of 2-APB on Store-operated Ca2+ Channel Currents of Hepatocytes after Hepatic Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Changzhou; ZHANG Zongming; QIU Fazu

    2005-01-01

    The effects of hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injuries on hepatocellular viability and store-operated calcium current (Isoc) in isolated rat hepatocytes and the effects of 2-APB on storeoperated calcium current (Isoc) in isolated rat hepatocytes after hepaticischemia/reperfusion injuries were studied. Hepatic ischemia and reperfusion injury model was established and whole cell patch-clamp techniques were used to investigate the effects of 2-APB on Isoc. The results showed that ischemia/reperfusion injuries could significantly reduce hepatocellular viability and further increase Isoc in hepatocytes and 2-APB (20, 40, 60, 80, 100 μmol/L) produced a concentration-dependent decrease of Isoc with IC50 value of 64.63±10.56 μmol/L (n= 8). It was concluded that ischemia/reperfusion injuries could reduce hepatocellular viability, probably through increased Isoc in hepatocytes and 2-APB had a protective effect on ischemia/reperfusion-induced liver injury, probably though inhibiting Isoc.

  12. Cognitive function and neurodevelopmental outcomes in HIV-infected Children older than 1 year of age randomized to early versus deferred antiretroviral therapy: the PREDICT neurodevelopmental study.

    OpenAIRE

    Puthanakit, T.; Ananworanich, J.; Vonthanak, S.; Kosalaraksa, P; Hansudewechakul, R; Lugt, J. van der; Kerr, SJ; Kanjanavanit, S.; Ngampiyaskul, C.; Wongsawat, J; Luesomboon, W.; Vibol, U.; Pruksakaew, K; Suwarnlerk, T; Apornpong, T

    2013-01-01

    We previously reported similar AIDS-free survival at 3 years in children who were >1 year old initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) and randomized to early versus deferred ART in the Pediatric Randomized to Early versus Deferred Initiation in Cambodia and Thailand (PREDICT) study. We now report neurodevelopmental outcomes.Two hundred eighty-four HIV-infected Thai and Cambodian children aged 1-12 years with CD4 counts between 15% and 24% and no AIDS-defining illness were randomized to initia...

  13. On Return from Peacekeeping: A review of current research on psychological well-being in military personnel returning from operational deployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Brounéus

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The number and size of UN and Allied peacekeeping deployments[1] have increased dramatically since the end of the Cold War [1], as have the budgets that support them. The UN budgeted 7.23 billion USD for the 2012-2013 fiscal year for UN Peacekeeping operations.[2] An explanation for this increase is likely to be found in two global trends seen in armed conflict in recent years: first, that nearly all wars in the world today are fought within countries, and second, the unprecedented rise in peace agreements as a means to end conflict [2]. Both of these factors present new challenges for peace-building as former enemies must continue living side by side when the conflict has ended, in a continuous negotiation for peace. Research suggests that international peace support operations indeed have the potential to improve the chances for preventing further conflict. In the first global, quantitative analysis on the effect of peacekeeping operations (PKOs, Doyle and Sambanis found a significant and substantial effect of peacekeepers on peacebuilding two years post conflict [3]. This finding is similar to later studies. For example, Fortna demonstrated that the risk of further conflict drops by 75%–85% with the presence of a PKO [4, 5]. Other research has found that PKOs limit the temporal and spatial contagion of conflict [6], and can also have a preventive effect, reducing the risk of genocidal violence [7]. However, recent research has also found that peacekeeping operations in settings where there is not yet peace or stability, such as Afghanistan, may entail the risk of spurring violence against civilians by rebel groups if the deployment does not have an explicit mandate to protect civilians [8]. Similarly, when looking at other definitions of success aside from the prevention of further conflict, such as meeting the goals of the mandate, or establishing basic democracy and stability – a governance goal for most current deployments – the

  14. A comparison of high-order explicit Runge–Kutta, extrapolation, and deferred correction methods in serial and parallel

    KAUST Repository

    Ketcheson, David I.

    2014-06-13

    We compare the three main types of high-order one-step initial value solvers: extrapolation, spectral deferred correction, and embedded Runge–Kutta pairs. We consider orders four through twelve, including both serial and parallel implementations. We cast extrapolation and deferred correction methods as fixed-order Runge–Kutta methods, providing a natural framework for the comparison. The stability and accuracy properties of the methods are analyzed by theoretical measures, and these are compared with the results of numerical tests. In serial, the eighth-order pair of Prince and Dormand (DOP8) is most efficient. But other high-order methods can be more efficient than DOP8 when implemented in parallel. This is demonstrated by comparing a parallelized version of the wellknown ODEX code with the (serial) DOP853 code. For an N-body problem with N = 400, the experimental extrapolation code is as fast as the tuned Runge–Kutta pair at loose tolerances, and is up to two times as fast at tight tolerances.

  15. The evolution of prestige: freely conferred deference as a mechanism for enhancing the benefits of cultural transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrich, J; Gil-White, F J.

    2001-05-01

    This paper advances an "information goods" theory that explains prestige processes as an emergent product of psychological adaptations that evolved to improve the quality of information acquired via cultural transmission. Natural selection favored social learners who could evaluate potential models and copy the most successful among them. In order to improve the fidelity and comprehensiveness of such ranked-biased copying, social learners further evolved dispositions to sycophantically ingratiate themselves with their chosen models, so as to gain close proximity to, and prolonged interaction with, these models. Once common, these dispositions created, at the group level, distributions of deference that new entrants may adaptively exploit to decide who to begin copying. This generated a preference for models who seem generally "popular." Building on social exchange theories, we argue that a wider range of phenomena associated with prestige processes can more plausibly be explained by this simple theory than by others, and we test its predictions with data from throughout the social sciences. In addition, we distinguish carefully between dominance (force or force threat) and prestige (freely conferred deference).

  16. Accounting choices in Brazil: identifying the characteristics of publicly traded companies that opted to maintain versus derecognise deferred assets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Drago Lorencini

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The issuance of Brazilian Law 11.638/2007 is a critical step in the convergence of the Brazilian Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAPs towards International Financial Reporting Standards. After the law was implemented and later modified by Provisional Executive Order 449/2008 (converted into Law 11.941/2009, certain accounting choices were allowed during the transition period. The Brazilian GAAPs allowed for restructuring costs and costs related to opening a new facility to be recognised as assets. As a transitional provision, companies were allowed to choose between maintaining or eliminating these values. In this paper, we attempted to identify which company characteristics were associated with this accounting choice. The final sample consisted of Brazilian companies listed on the BM & FBOVESPA, and a logistic regression identified two characteristics. Participation in one of the three different corporate governance levels of the BM & FBOVESPA was associated with the choice to derecognise the deferred assets, while companies decided to maintain the deferred asset if it was relatively large. The empirical evidence reported here contributes to the literature by explaining the manner in which a set of firm characteristics is related to a firm's accounting choices.

  17. Environmental Restoration Operations Consolidated Quarterly Report: July-September 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, John R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This Environmental Restoration Operations (ER) Consolidated Quarterly Report (ER Quarterly Report) provides the status of ongoing corrective action activities being implemented at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) during the July, August, and September 2016 quarterly reporting period. The Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) and Areas of Concern (AOCs) identified for corrective action at SNL/NM are listed in Table I-1. Sections I.2.1 and I.2.2 summarize the work completed during this quarter. Section I.2.1 summarizes the quarterly activities at sites undergoing corrective action field activities. Field activities are conducted at the three groundwater AOCs (Burn Site Groundwater [BSG AOC], Technical Area [TA]-V Groundwater [TAVG AOC], and Tijeras Arroyo Groundwater [TAG AOC]). Section I.2.2 summarizes quarterly activities at sites where the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) issued a certificate of completion and the sites are in the corrective action complete (CAC) regulatory process. Currently, SWMUs 8 and 58, 68, 149, 154, and 502 are in the CAC regulatory process. Corrective action activities are deferred at the Long Sled Track (SWMU 83), the Gun Facilities (SWMU 84), and the Short Sled Track (SWMU 240) because these three sites are active mission facilities. These three active sites are located in TA-III.

  18. Current status of cord blood banking during first two years of 'National Government-Assigned Public Cord Blood Banks Operation' in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Eun Youn; Lee, Jung Lim; Yoon, Jong Hyun; Kim, Su Yeon; Lee, Kyung Eun; Song, Do Young; Kim, Tai Gyu; Shin, Sue

    2014-10-01

    Cord blood (CB) has become a viable stem cell source for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), and public cord blood banks (CBBs) have been established to manage donated cord blood units (CBUs) for unrelated HSCT. As the potential uses for CB continue to grow, there is a global tendency to encourage public CBBs. The aim of this study was to investigate the current status of public CBBs that were designated and supported by the Korean national government. We analyzed 6,168 CBUs preserved at the 3 Government-Assigned Public CBBs during their first two years of operation (2012-2013) and the standard operating procedures for CB processing at each CBB. CBU inventories at ALLCORD, Catholic HSC Bank and Fatima Public CBB were 4,022, 1,207 and 939 units, respectively. Total nucleated cell (TNC) counts per unit were 11.0 × 10(8) at ALLCORD, 10.7 × 10(8) at Fatima and 9.8 × 10(8) at Catholic, and all far exceeded the requirement for cryopreservation under the law (7.0 × 10(8)). CD34(+) cell counts and % were as follows: 3.5 × 10(6) (0.31 %) in ALLCORD, 2.2 × 10(6) (0.20 %) in Fatima and 2.2 × 10(6) (0.22 %) in Catholic. All the three banks observed the 'CB Act' in dealing with CBUs, including collection, processing, laboratory tests and cryopreservation. Government supported and strictly law-abiding public CBBs in Korea have considerable CBU inventories of high quality in terms of efficacy and safety. Legislation and accompanying government-support will be helpful for establishing CB standardization, vitalizing CBT and improving clinical outcomes.

  19. PREDICTIVE VALUE OF THE DEFERRED TAXES GENERATED BY THE SUBVENTIONS FOR INVESTMENTS – ESSENTIAL ELEMENT FOR PRESENTING THE INFORMATION IN THE FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PALIU – POPA LUCIA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Most information underlying the decision to invest at the level of a company, are provided by the accountancy, this becoming today a common language with respect to the businesses on the international markets, and the accountancy normalization was extrapolated from the national level to the international level, due to the needs concerning the comparability and the transparency of the entities financial statements, without considering the geopolitical area where they were built. These issues justify the approaches for improving both accounting treatments and the procedures for elaborating and presenting data within the financial statements such that the users to benefit from credible and transparent information. One of the major issues arising with respect to the performance of an entity aims to prepare a unique situation on the company performance, namely:“the statement of the comprehensive income”, having as primordial objective the facility of forecasting the performance, within which the deferred taxes generated by the subventions for investments are an essential element with an important predictive value. In this context, starting from the main differences between the provisions of the national, Anglo-Saxon accounting regulations and those of the international reference system with respect to the predictive value of the deferred taxes and continuing with the occurrence and evolution of the deferred taxes generated by the subventions for investments, the study proposes to highlight the predictive value of the deferred taxes generated by the subventions for investments, provided o the users by the information of annual financial statements.

  20. Deferred imitation in 18-month-olds from two cultural contexts: the case of Cameroonian Nso farmer and German-middle class infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchert, Sonja; Lamm, Bettina; Graf, Frauke; Knopf, Monika

    2013-12-01

    Imitative learning has been described in naturalistic studies for different cultures, but lab-based research studying imitative learning across different cultural contexts is almost missing. Therefore, imitative learning was assessed with 18-month-old German middle-class and Cameroonian Nso farmer infants - representing two highly different eco-cultural contexts associated with different cultural models, the psychological autonomy and the hierarchical relatedness - by using the deferred imitation paradigm. Study 1 revealed that the infants from both cultural contexts performed a higher number of target actions in the deferred imitation than in the baseline phase. Moreover, it was found that German middle-class infants showed a higher mean imitation rate as they performed more target actions in the deferred imitation phase compared with Cameroonian Nso farmer infants. It was speculated that the opportunity to manipulate the test objects directly after the demonstration of the target actions could enhance the mean deferred imitation rate of the Cameroonian Nso farmer infants which was confirmed in Study 2. Possible explanations for the differences in the amount of imitated target actions of German middle-class and Cameroonian Nso farmer infants are discussed considering the object-related, dyadic setting of the imitation paradigm with respect to the different learning contexts underlying the different cultural models of learning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. 32 CFR 1630.13 - Class 1-D-D: Deferment for certain members of a reserve component or student taking military...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reserve component or student taking military training. 1630.13 Section 1630.13 National Defense Other...: Deferment for certain members of a reserve component or student taking military training. In Class 1-D-D... (entire college level) Army Reserve Officer's Training Corps, or the Air Force Reserve Officer's...

  2. Dynamics of receptor-operated Ca(2+) currents through TRPC channels controlled via the PI(4,5)P2-PLC signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Masayuki X; Itsuki, Kyohei; Hase, Hideharu; Sawamura, Seishiro; Kurokawa, Tatsuki; Mori, Yasuo; Inoue, Ryuji

    2015-01-01

    Transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channels are Ca(2+)-permeable, nonselective cation channels that carry receptor-operated Ca(2+) currents (ROCs) triggered by receptor-induced, phospholipase C (PLC)-catalyzed hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2]. Within the vasculature, TRPC channel ROCs contribute to smooth muscle cell depolarization, vasoconstriction, and vascular remodeling. However, TRPC channel ROCs exhibit a variable response to receptor-stimulation, and the regulatory mechanisms governing TRPC channel activity remain obscure. The variability of ROCs may be explained by their complex regulation by PI(4,5)P2 and its metabolites, which differentially affect TRPC channel activity. To resolve the complex regulation of ROCs, the use of voltage-sensing phosphoinositide phosphatases and model simulation have helped to reveal the time-dependent contribution of PI(4,5)P2 and the possible role of PI(4,5)P2 in the regulation of ROCs. These approaches may provide unprecedented insight into the dynamics of PI(4,5)P2 regulation of TRPC channels and the fundamental mechanisms underlying transmembrane ion flow. Within that context, we summarize the regulation of TRPC channels and their coupling to receptor-mediated signaling, as well as the application of voltage-sensing phosphoinositide phosphatases to this research. We also discuss the controversial bidirectional effects of PI(4,5)P2 using a model simulation that could explain the complicated effects of PI(4,5)P2 on different ROCs.

  3. Environmental Restoration Operations: Consolidated Quarterly Report January -March 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, John R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-07-01

    This Environmental Restoration Operations (ER) Consolidated Quarterly Report (ER Quarterly Report) provides the status of ongoing corrective action activities being implemented at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) during the January, February, and March 2017 quarterly reporting period. Table I-1 lists the Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) and Areas of Concern (AOCs) identified for corrective action at SNL/NM. Sections I.2.1 and I.2.2 summarize the work completed during this quarter. Section I.2.1 summarizes the quarterly activities at sites undergoing corrective action field activities. Field activities are conducted at the three groundwater AOCs (Burn Site Groundwater [BSG AOC], Technical Area [TA]-V Groundwater [TAVG AOC], and Tijeras Arroyo Groundwater [TAG AOC]). Section I.2.2 summarizes quarterly activities at sites where the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) Hazardous Waste Bureau (HWB) issued a certificate of completion and the sites are in the corrective action complete (CAC) regulatory process. Currently, SWMUs 8 and 58, 68, 149, 154, and 502 are in the CAC regulatory process. Corrective action activities are deferred at the Long Sled Track (SWMU 83), the Gun Facilities (SWMU 84), and the Short Sled Track (SWMU 240) because these three sites are active mission facilities. These three active mission sites are located in TA-III. This Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico Environmental Restoration Operations (ER) Consolidated Quarterly Report (ER Quarterly Report) fulfills all quarterly reporting requirements set forth in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Facility Operating Permit and the Compliance Order on Consent.

  4. Inhibitory effects of psychotropic drugs on the acetylcholine receptor-operated potassium current (IK.ACh) in guinea-pig atrial myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Muneyoshi; Watanabe, Shinya; Matada, Takashi; Asao, Yoko; Hamatani, Ramu; Yamawaki, Hideyuki; Hara, Yukio

    2013-01-01

    Influences of psychotropic drugs, six antipsychotics and three antidepressants, on acetylcholine receptor-operated potassium current (IK.ACh) were examined by a whole-cell patch clamp method in freshly isolated guinea-pig atrial myocyte. IK.ACh was induced by a superfusion of carbachol (CCh) or by an intracellular application of guanosine 5'-[thio] triphosphate (GTPγS). To elucidate mechanism for anticholinergic action, IC50 ratio, the ratio of IC50 for GTPγS-activated IK.ACh to CCh-induced IK.ACh, was calculated. Antipsychotics and antidepressants inhibited CCh-induced IK.ACh in a concentration-dependent manner. The IC50 values were as follows; chlorpromazine 0.53 μM, clozapine 0.06 μM, fluphenazine 2.69 μM, haloperidol 2.66 μM, sulpiride 42.3 μM, thioridazine 0.07 μM, amitriptyline 0.03 μM, imipramine 0.22 μM and maprotiline 1.81 μM. The drugs, except for sulpiride, inhibited GTPγS-activated IK.ACh with following IC50 values; chlorpromazine 1.71 μM, clozapine 14.9 μM, fluphenazine 3.55 μM, haloperidol 2.73 μM, thioridazine 1.90 μM, amitriptyline 7.55 μM, imipramine 7.09 μM and maprotiline 5.93 μM. The IC50 ratio for fluphenazine and haloperidol was close to unity. The IC50 ratio for chlorpromazine, clozapine, thioridazine, amitriptyline, imipramine and maprotiline was much higher than unity. The present findings suggest that the psychotropics studied suppress IK.ACh. Chlorpromazine, clozapine, thioridazine, amitriptyline, imipramine, maprotiline and sulpiride are preferentially acting on muscarinic receptor. Fluphenazine and haloperidol may act on G protein and/or potassium channel.

  5. A full quantum analysis of the Stern–Gerlach experiment using the evolution operator method: analyzing current issues in teaching quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez Rodríguez, E.; Arévalo Aguilar, L. M.; Piceno Martínez, E.

    2017-03-01

    To the quantum mechanics specialists community it is a well-known fact that the famous original Stern–Gerlach experiment (SGE) produces entanglement between the external degrees of freedom (position) and the internal degree of freedom (spin) of silver atoms. Despite this fact, almost all textbooks on quantum mechanics explain this experiment using a semiclassical approach, where the external degrees of freedom are considered classical variables, the internal degree is treated as a quantum variable, and Newton's second law is used to describe the dynamics. In the literature there are some works that analyze this experiment in its full quantum mechanical form. However, astonishingly, to the best of our knowledge the original experiment, where the initial states of the spin degree of freedom are randomly oriented coming from the oven, has not been analyzed yet in the available textbooks using the Schrödinger equation (to the best of our knowledge there is only one paper that treats this case: Hsu et al (2011 Phys. Rev. A 83 012109)). Therefore, in this contribution we use the time-evolution operator to give a full quantum mechanics analysis of the SGE when the initial state of the internal degree of freedom is completely random, i.e. when it is a statistical mixture. Additionally, as the SGE and the development of quantum mechanics are heavily intermingled, we analyze some features and drawbacks in the current teaching of quantum mechanics. We focus on textbooks that use the SGE as a starting point, based on the fact that most physicist do not use results from physics education research, and comment on traditional pedagogical attitudes in the physics community.

  6. Dynamics of receptor-operated Ca2+ Currents Through TRPC Channels Controlled via the PI(4,5P2-PLC Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki X Mori

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC channels are Ca2+-permeable, nonselective cation channels that carry receptor-operated Ca2+ currents (ROCs triggered by receptor-induced, phospholipase C (PLC-catalyzed hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5P2. Within the vasculature, TRPC channel ROCs contribute to smooth muscle cell depolarization, vasoconstriction and vascular remodeling. However, TRPC channel ROCs exhibit a variable response to receptor-stimulation, and the regulatory mechanisms governing TRPC channel activity remain obscure. The variability of ROCs may be explained by their complex regulation by PI(4,5P2 and its metabolites, which differentially affect TRPC channel activity. To resolve the complex regulation of ROCs, the use of voltage-sensing phosphoinositide phosphatases and model simulation have helped to reveal the time-dependent contribution of PI(4,5P2 and the possible role of PI(4,5P2 in the regulation of ROCs. These approaches may provide unprecedented insight into the dynamics of PI(4,5P2 regulation of TRPC channels and the fundamental mechanisms underlying transmembrane ion flow. Within that context, we summarize the regulation of TRPC channels and their coupling to receptor-mediated signaling, as well as the application of voltage-sensing phosphoinositide phosphatases to this research. We also discuss the controversial bidirectional effects of PI(4,5P2 using a model simulation that could explain the complicated effects of PI(4,5P2 on different ROCs.

  7. Randomized trial evaluating ranibizumab plus prompt or deferred laser or triamcinolone plus prompt laser for diabetic macular edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elman, Michael J; Aiello, Lloyd Paul; Beck, Roy W; Bressler, Neil M; Bressler, Susan B; Edwards, Allison R; Ferris, Frederick L; Friedman, Scott M; Glassman, Adam R; Miller, Kellee M; Scott, Ingrid U; Stockdale, Cynthia R; Sun, Jennifer K

    2010-06-01

    Evaluate intravitreal 0.5 mg ranibizumab or 4 mg triamcinolone combined with focal/grid laser compared with focal/grid laser alone for treatment of diabetic macular edema (DME). Multicenter, randomized clinical trial. A total of 854 study eyes of 691 participants with visual acuity (approximate Snellen equivalent) of 20/32 to 20/320 and DME involving the fovea. Eyes were randomized to sham injection + prompt laser (n=293), 0.5 mg ranibizumab + prompt laser (n=187), 0.5 mg ranibizumab + deferred (> or =24 weeks) laser (n=188), or 4 mg triamcinolone + prompt laser (n=186). Retreatment followed an algorithm facilitated by a web-based, real-time data-entry system. Best-corrected visual acuity and safety at 1 year. The 1-year mean change (+/-standard deviation) in the visual acuity letter score from baseline was significantly greater in the ranibizumab + prompt laser group (+9+/-11, Peyes at baseline (n=273), visual acuity improvement in the triamcinolone + prompt laser group appeared comparable to that in the ranibizumab groups. No systemic events attributable to study treatment were apparent. Three eyes (0.8%) had injection-related endophthalmitis in the ranibizumab groups, whereas elevated intraocular pressure and cataract surgery were more frequent in the triamcinolone + prompt laser group. Two-year visual acuity outcomes were similar to 1-year outcomes. Intravitreal ranibizumab with prompt or deferred laser is more effective through at least 1 year compared with prompt laser alone for the treatment of DME involving the central macula. Ranibizumab as applied in this study, although uncommonly associated with endophthalmitis, should be considered for patients with DME and characteristics similar to those in this clinical trial. In pseudophakic eyes, intravitreal triamcinolone + prompt laser seems more effective than laser alone but frequently increases the risk of intraocular pressure elevation. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier

  8. The Impact of Deferred Tax Assets, Discretionary Accrual, Leverage, Company Size and Tax Planning Onearnings Management Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobus Widiatmoko

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze and provide empirical evidence of the influence of deferred tax asset, discretionary accrual, leverage, company size, and tax planning on earnings management. Financial performance is an indicator that is required by company management to measure the effectiveness of company performance. This research used secondary data that was got from annual report published in www.idx.co.id and data from Indonesian Capital Market Directory (ICMD. Populations of the research are manufacturing companies listed on Indonesia Stock Exchange from 2011-2013. Samples were selected by using purposive sampling method. There are 208 observations that will examined by logistic regression analysis. The result shows that deferred tax asset has negative and not significant effect to the earnings management, discretionary accrual has negative and not significant effect to the earnings management, leverage has negative and significant effect to the earnings management, company size has positive and significant effect to the earnings management, tax planning has positive and not significant effect to the earnings management.Tujuan penelitian ini menganalisis bukti empiris mengenai pengaruh asset pajak tangguhan, discretionary accrual, leverage, ukuran perusahaan, dan perencanaan pajak terhadap manajemen laba. Kinerja keuangan adalah indikator untuk mengukur efektivitas perusahaan. Penelitian ini menggunakan data sekunder yang diperoleh dari www.idx.co.id serta data dari Indonesian Capital Market Directory (ICMD. Populasi penelitian ini adalah perusahaan manufaktur yang terdaftar di BEI tahun 2011-2013. Sampel dipilih dengan purposive sampling. Terdapat 208 observasi yang akan diuji dengan model analisis regresi logistik. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa asset pajak tangguhan memiliki pengaruh negatif dan tidak signifikan terhadap praktik manajemen laba, discretionary accrual memiliki pengaruh negatif dan tidak signifikan terhadap

  9. Response of currents and water quality to changes in dam operations in Hoover Reservoir, Columbus, Ohio, August 24–28, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonins, Branden L.; Jackson, P. Ryan

    2017-05-25

    Hoover Reservoir, an important drinking water supply for the City of Columbus, Ohio, has been the source of a series of taste and odor problems in treated drinking water during the past few years. These taste and odor problems were caused by the compounds geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol, which are thought to have been related to cyanobacteria blooms. In an effort to reduce the phosphorus available for cyanobacteria blooms at fall turnover, the City of Columbus began experimenting with the dam’s selective withdrawal system to remove excess phosphorus in the hypolimnion, which is released from bottom sediments during summer anoxic conditions.The U.S. Geological Survey completed two synoptic survey campaigns to assess distributions of water quality and water velocity in the lower part of Hoover Reservoir to provide information on the changes to reservoir dynamics caused by changing dam operations. One campaign (campaign 1) was done while water was being withdrawn from the reservoir through the dam’s middle gate and the other (campaign 2) while water was being withdrawn through the dam’s lower gate. Velocities were measured using an acoustic Doppler current profiler, and water-quality parameters were measured using an autonomous underwater vehicle equipped with water-quality sensors. Along with the water-quality and water-velocity data, meteorological, inflow and outflow discharges, and independent water-quality data were compiled to monitor changes in other parameters that affect reservoir behavior. Monthly nutrient data, collected by the City of Columbus, were also analyzed for trends in concentration during periods of expected stratification.Based on the results of the two campaigns, when compared to withdrawing water through the middle gate, withdrawing water through the lower gate seemed to increase shear-driven mixing across the thermocline, which resulted in an increase in the depth of the epilimnion throughout the lower part of Hoover Reservoir. The

  10. A 13 kA current lead, measuring 1.5 m in length. The lower part consists of a high-temperature superconductor (Bi-2223), operating at between 50 K and 4.5 K, while the heat-exchanger upper part allows the current to be brought from room temperature to 50 K.

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    A 13 kA current lead, measuring 1.5 m in length. The lower part consists of a high-temperature superconductor (Bi-2223), operating at between 50 K and 4.5 K, while the heat-exchanger upper part allows the current to be brought from room temperature to 50 K.

  11. Active Pixel HgCdTe Detectors With Built-in Dark Current Reduction for Near-Room Temperature Operation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High sensitivity HgCdTe infrared arrays operating at 77K can now be tailored in a wide range of wavelengths from 1 to 14 microns. However, due to the cooling...

  12. Advanced Approaches to Greatly Reduce Hydrogen Gas Crossover Losses in PEM Electrolyzers Operating at High Pressures and Low Current Densities Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ElectroChem proposes technology advances in its unique PEM IFF water electrolyzer design to meet the NASA requirement for an electrolyzer that will operate very...

  13. Active Pixel HgCdTe Detectors With Built-in Dark Current Reduction for Near-Room Temperature Operation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High sensitivity HgCdTe infrared arrays operating at 77K can now be tailored in a wide range of wavelengths from 1 to14 um. However, the cooling requirements make...

  14. Produção de bovinos em pastagens de capim-braquiária diferidas Bovine production on deferred signalgrass pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Eduardo Rozalino Santos

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Durante os meses de janeiro a setembro de 2004 (ano 1 e de 2005 (ano 2, foram avaliados os efeitos dos períodos de diferimento (ano 1: 103, 121, 146 e 163 dias; ano 2: 73, 103, 131 e 163 dias e de pastejo (1, 29, 57 e 85 dias na produção de forragem e no desempenho de bovinos de corte em pastagens diferidas de capim-braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk. Adotou-se o delineamento em blocos casualizados, segundo o esquema de parcelas subdivididas, com duas repetições. Houve variação na produção de forragem entre os anos. Pastagens diferidas por maior período possuíram maiores massas de forragem total e forragem morta. Com o aumento do período de pastejo, diminuiram as massas de forragem total e forragem verde e aumentou a massa de forragem morta. A composição química da forragem da amostra de simulação de pastejo foi modificada pelos períodos de diferimento e de pastejo. Não houve efeito dos períodos de diferimento e de pastejo sobre o consumo do suplemento, expresso em porcentagem do peso corporal. O desempenho dos bovinos diminuiu durante o período de pastejo no ano 1 (de 0,739 para 0,467 kg/animal.dia e no ano 2 (de 0,885 para 0,189 kg/animal.dia e foi maior em pastagens diferidas por menor período no ano 2 (0,692 kg/animal.dia. O ganho de peso por área foi maior em pastagens diferidas por menor período no ano 2 (4,87 kg/ha.dia. Na região de Viçosa, a produção de bovinos em recria em pastagens diferidas melhora quando o pasto adubado e suplementado de Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk é diferido por cerca de 70 dias e utilizado a partir do início do mês de julho.Throughout January to September 2004 (first year and 2005 (second year, the effects of 103, 121, 146 and 163-day (first year, and 73, 103, 131 and 163-day (second year deferring periods, as well as 1, 29, 57 and 85-day grazing on forage production and beef cattle performance in Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk were evaluated. Randomized block

  15. Producción y calidad del forraje diferido de Panicum coloratum L. en dos periodos de diferimiento y tres momentos de defoliación Production and quality of Panicum coloratum L. deferred forage with two deferred period and three times of defolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Steinberg

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Los sistemas pecuarios de las áreas subtropicales de la Argentina utilizan en invierno forrajes diferidos, provenientes del crecimiento acumulado en verano de gramíneas megatérmicas o pasturas naturales. El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar la producción de materia seca, porcentajes de hojas, tallos, proteína bruta, fibra detergente neutra, fibra detergente ácida, cenizas y digestibilidad del diferido de Panicum coloratum cv Verde. Se evaluaron dos periodos de diferimiento: diferido total (DT, forraje acumulado desde el rebrote en primavera y diferido parcial (DP, forraje acumulado desde un corte a fines de diciembre y ambos con tres oportunidades de defoliación: temprano (mayo; intermedio (julio y tardío (agosto. DT produjo más materia seca, pero con alta proporción de tallos, mayor cantidad de fibra y menor porcentaje de proteínas y cenizas; mientras que DP presentó menos tallos y más hojas y como consecuencia mayor porcentaje de proteínas y cenizas. Se concluye que P. coloratum es un recurso adecuado para diferir, sólo si se lo utiliza con un período corto de diferido y momentos tempranos de uso, ya que presenta un nivel mínimo de proteína suficiente para satisfacer los requerimientos de los animales sin la necesidad de realizar suplementación nitrogenada y valores superiores al 55% de digestibilidad.During winter the livestock production systems in subtropical areas of Argentina use deferred forage of native pasture or warm season grasses from the cumulative growth of the summer. The aim of this study was to determine dry matter production and percentage of leaves, stems, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, ash and digestibility of deferred forage of Panicum coloratum cv Verde. Two deferred periods were evaluated: total deferred (TD, forage accumulated since the spring regrowth and partial deferred (PD, forage accumulated from a cut in late December, and both with three cut dates: early (May

  16. From Undocumented to DACAmented: Benefits and Limitations of the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) Program, Three Years Following its Announcement

    OpenAIRE

    Patler, Caitlin; Cabrera, Jorge; Dream Team Los Angeles

    2015-01-01

    Announced by President Obama in June 2012, the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program offers eligible undocumented youth and young adults a reprieve from deportation and temporary work authorization. This study assesses DACA’s impacts on the educational and socioeconomic trajectories and health and wellbeing of young adults in Southern California, comparing DACA recipients with undocumented youth who do not have DACA status. The study took place 2.5 years after DACA’s initiatio...

  17. Eddy-current tests on operational evaluation of steam generator tubes in nuclear power plants; Ensaios de Eddy-current na avaliacao do estado operacional de tubos de geradores de vapor de centrais nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Luiz Antonio Negro Martin [Faculdade de Engenharia Industrial (FEI), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Energetica]. E-mail: luizlope@cci.fei.br; Ting, Daniel Kao Sun [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. Engenharia de Reatores]. E-mail: dksting@net.ipen.br

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents a worldwide research on the technical and economical impacts due to failure in tube bundles of nuclear power plant steam generators. An Eddy current non destructive test using Foucault currents for the inspection and failure detection on the tubes, and also the main type of defects. The paper also presents the signals generated by a Zetec MIZ-40 test equipment. This paper also presents a brief description of an automatic system for data analysis which is under development by using a fuzzy logic and artificial intelligence.

  18. Using Deferred Income Taxes as a Link between Intermediate Accounting and Corporate Income Tax Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derstine, Robert P.; Wagaman, David D.

    2012-01-01

    The accounting curriculum (in fact business colleges in general) often is accused of operating in silos. As a result, it is claimed that students fail to see the connections among the assignments in their separate course work and the necessity to have an integrated understanding to function effectively in the real-world. As a response to the…

  19. Integrating Operational Energy Implications into System-Level Combat Effects Modeling: Assessing the Combat Effectiveness and Fuel Use of ABCT 2020 and Current ABCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Endy M. Daehner, John Matsumura, Thomas J. Herbert , Jeremy R. Kurz, Keith Walters Integrating Operational Energy Implications into System-Level... George Guthridge, and Megan Corso for their clear guid- ance and assistance throughout the study. We also received valuable information and insights from...helped with processing modeling and simulation outputs. Laura Novacic and Donna Mead provided invaluable administrative assistance and help with

  20. Early versus deferred antiretroviral therapy for children older than 1 year infected with HIV (PREDICT): a multicentre, randomised, open-label trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthanakit, Thanyawee; Vonthanak, Saphonn; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Kosalaraksa, Pope; Hansudewechakul, Rawiwan; Vibol, Ung; Kerr, Stephen J.; Kanjanavanit, Suparat; Ngampiyaskul, Chaiwat; Wongsawat, Jurai; Luesomboon, Wicharn; Ngo-Giang-Huong, Nicole; Chettra, Kea; Cheunyam, Theshinee; Suwarnlerk, Tulathip; Ubolyam, Sasiwimol; Shearer, William T.; Paul, Robert; Mofenson, Lynne M.; Fox, Lawrence; Law, Matthew G.; Cooper, David A.; Phanuphak, Praphan; Vun, Mean Chhi; Ruxrungtham, Kiat

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background The optimum time to start antiretroviral therapy for children diagnosed with HIV infection after 1 year of age is unknown. We assessed whether antiretroviral therapy could be deferred until CD4 percentages declined to less than 15% without affecting AIDS-free survival. Methods In our multicentre, randomised, open-label trial at nine research sites in Thailand and Cambodia, we enrolled children aged 1–12 years who were infected with HIV and had CD4 percentages of 15–24%. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) by a minimisation scheme to start antiretroviral therapy at study entry (early treatment group) or antiretroviral therapy to start when CD4 percentages declined to less than 15% (deferred treatment group). The primary endpoint was AIDS-free survival (based on US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention category C events) at week 144, assessed with the Kaplan-Meier analysis and the log-rank approach. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00234091. Findings Between March 28, 2006, and Sept 10, 2008, we enrolled 300 Thai and Cambodian children infected with HIV, with a median age of 6·4 years (IQR 3·9–8·4). 150 children were randomly allocated early antiretroviral therapy (one participant was excluded from analyses after withdrawing before week 0) and 150 children were randomly allocated deferred antiretroviral therapy. Median baseline CD4 percentage was 19% (16–22%). 69 children (46%) in the deferred treatment group started antiretroviral therapy during the study. AIDS-free survival at week 144 in the deferred treatment group was 98·7% (95% CI 94·7–99·7; 148 of 150 patients) compared with 97·9% (93·7–99·3; 146 of 149 patients) in the early treatment group (p=0·6). Interpretation AIDS-free survival in both treatment groups was high. This low event rate meant that our study was underpowered to detect differences between treatment start times and thus additional follow-up of study participants or

  1. 320-row CT coronary angiography predicts freedom from revascularisation and acts as a gatekeeper to defer invasive angiography in stable coronary artery disease: a fractional flow reserve-correlated study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Brian S.; Wong, Dennis T.L.; Cameron, James D.; Leung, Michael; Meredith, Ian T.; Nerlekar, Nitesh; Antonis, Paul; Harper, Richard; Malaiapan, Yuvaraj; Seneviratne, Sujith K. [Southern Health and Monash University, Monash Cardiovascular Research Centre, MonashHEART, Department of Medicine Monash Medical Centre (MMC), Melbourne (Australia); Leong, Darryl P. [University of Adelaide, Discipline of Medicine, Adelaide (Australia); Flinders University, Adelaide (Australia); Crossett, Marcus; Troupis, John [Southern Health and Monash University, Monash Cardiovascular Research Centre, MonashHEART, Department of Medicine Monash Medical Centre (MMC), Melbourne (Australia); Southern Health and Monash University, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, MMC, Melbourne (Australia)

    2014-03-15

    To determine the accuracy of 320-row multidetector coronary computed tomography angiography (M320-CCTA) to detect functional stenoses using fractional flow reserve (FFR) as the reference standard and to predict revascularisation in stable coronary artery disease. One hundred and fifteen patients (230 vessels) underwent M320-CCTA and FFR assessment and were followed for 18 months. Diameter stenosis on invasive angiography (ICA) and M320-CCTA were assessed by consensus by two observers and significant stenosis was defined as ≥50 %. FFR ≤0.8 indicated functionally significant stenoses. M320-CCTA had 94 % sensitivity and 94 % negative predictive value (NPV) for FFR ≤0.8. Overall accuracy was 70 %, specificity 54 % and positive predictive value 65 %. On receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, the area under the curve (AUC) for CCTA to predict FFR ≤0.8 was 0.74 which was comparable with ICA. The absence of a significant stenosis on M320-CCTA was associated with a 6 % revascularisation rate. M320-CCTA predicted revascularisation with an AUC of 0.71 which was comparable with ICA. M320-CCTA has excellent sensitivity and NPV for functional stenoses and therefore may act as an effective gatekeeper to defer ICA and revascularisation. Like ICA, M320-CCTA lacks specificity for functional stenoses and only has moderate accuracy to predict the need for revascularisation. (orig.)

  2. Children with Autism Respond Differently to Spontaneous, Elicited and Deferred Imitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimann, M.; Nordqvist, E.; Strid, K.; Connant Almrot, J.; Tjus, T.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Imitation, a key vehicle for both cognitive and social development, is often regarded as more difficult for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) than for children with Down syndrome (DS) or typically developing (TD) children. The current study investigates similarities and differences in observed elicited, spontaneous and…

  3. Behavioural effects of tourism on oceanic common dolphins, Delphinus sp., in New Zealand: the effects of Markov analysis variations and current tour operator compliance with regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, Anna M; Christiansen, Fredrik; Martinez, Emmanuelle; Pawley, Matthew D M; Orams, Mark B; Stockin, Karen A

    2015-01-01

    Common dolphins, Delphinus sp., are one of the marine mammal species tourism operations in New Zealand focus on. While effects of cetacean-watching activities have previously been examined in coastal regions in New Zealand, this study is the first to investigate effects of commercial tourism and recreational vessels on common dolphins in an open oceanic habitat. Observations from both an independent research vessel and aboard commercial tour vessels operating off the central and east coast Bay of Plenty, North Island, New Zealand were used to assess dolphin behaviour and record the level of compliance by permitted commercial tour operators and private recreational vessels with New Zealand regulations. Dolphin behaviour was assessed using two different approaches to Markov chain analysis in order to examine variation of responses of dolphins to vessels. Results showed that, regardless of the variance in Markov methods, dolphin foraging behaviour was significantly altered by boat interactions. Dolphins spent less time foraging during interactions and took significantly longer to return to foraging once disrupted by vessel presence. This research raises concerns about the potential disruption to feeding, a biologically critical behaviour. This may be particularly important in an open oceanic habitat, where prey resources are typically widely dispersed and unpredictable in abundance. Furthermore, because tourism in this region focuses on common dolphins transiting between adjacent coastal locations, the potential for cumulative effects could exacerbate the local effects demonstrated in this study. While the overall level of compliance by commercial operators was relatively high, non-compliance to the regulations was observed with time restriction, number or speed of vessels interacting with dolphins not being respected. Additionally, prohibited swimming with calves did occur. The effects shown in this study should be carefully considered within conservation management

  4. Behavioural effects of tourism on oceanic common dolphins, Delphinus sp., in New Zealand: the effects of Markov analysis variations and current tour operator compliance with regulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M Meissner

    Full Text Available Common dolphins, Delphinus sp., are one of the marine mammal species tourism operations in New Zealand focus on. While effects of cetacean-watching activities have previously been examined in coastal regions in New Zealand, this study is the first to investigate effects of commercial tourism and recreational vessels on common dolphins in an open oceanic habitat. Observations from both an independent research vessel and aboard commercial tour vessels operating off the central and east coast Bay of Plenty, North Island, New Zealand were used to assess dolphin behaviour and record the level of compliance by permitted commercial tour operators and private recreational vessels with New Zealand regulations. Dolphin behaviour was assessed using two different approaches to Markov chain analysis in order to examine variation of responses of dolphins to vessels. Results showed that, regardless of the variance in Markov methods, dolphin foraging behaviour was significantly altered by boat interactions. Dolphins spent less time foraging during interactions and took significantly longer to return to foraging once disrupted by vessel presence. This research raises concerns about the potential disruption to feeding, a biologically critical behaviour. This may be particularly important in an open oceanic habitat, where prey resources are typically widely dispersed and unpredictable in abundance. Furthermore, because tourism in this region focuses on common dolphins transiting between adjacent coastal locations, the potential for cumulative effects could exacerbate the local effects demonstrated in this study. While the overall level of compliance by commercial operators was relatively high, non-compliance to the regulations was observed with time restriction, number or speed of vessels interacting with dolphins not being respected. Additionally, prohibited swimming with calves did occur. The effects shown in this study should be carefully considered within

  5. Behavioural Effects of Tourism on Oceanic Common Dolphins, Delphinus sp., in New Zealand: The Effects of Markov Analysis Variations and Current Tour Operator Compliance with Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, Anna M.; Christiansen, Fredrik; Martinez, Emmanuelle; Pawley, Matthew D. M.; Orams, Mark B.; Stockin, Karen A.

    2015-01-01

    Common dolphins, Delphinus sp., are one of the marine mammal species tourism operations in New Zealand focus on. While effects of cetacean-watching activities have previously been examined in coastal regions in New Zealand, this study is the first to investigate effects of commercial tourism and recreational vessels on common dolphins in an open oceanic habitat. Observations from both an independent research vessel and aboard commercial tour vessels operating off the central and east coast Bay of Plenty, North Island, New Zealand were used to assess dolphin behaviour and record the level of compliance by permitted commercial tour operators and private recreational vessels with New Zealand regulations. Dolphin behaviour was assessed using two different approaches to Markov chain analysis in order to examine variation of responses of dolphins to vessels. Results showed that, regardless of the variance in Markov methods, dolphin foraging behaviour was significantly altered by boat interactions. Dolphins spent less time foraging during interactions and took significantly longer to return to foraging once disrupted by vessel presence. This research raises concerns about the potential disruption to feeding, a biologically critical behaviour. This may be particularly important in an open oceanic habitat, where prey resources are typically widely dispersed and unpredictable in abundance. Furthermore, because tourism in this region focuses on common dolphins transiting between adjacent coastal locations, the potential for cumulative effects could exacerbate the local effects demonstrated in this study. While the overall level of compliance by commercial operators was relatively high, non-compliance to the regulations was observed with time restriction, number or speed of vessels interacting with dolphins not being respected. Additionally, prohibited swimming with calves did occur. The effects shown in this study should be carefully considered within conservation management

  6. Africa’s Oil Coast: How the Region’s Strategic Importance May Cause Operational Challenges for AFRICOM as Currently Constructed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    Task Force Horn of Africa CMO Civil Military Operations CN-LEA Counter- Narco Terrorism and Law Enforcement Assistance Division DIA Defense...Advancing Stability and Reconciliation in Guinea-Bissau: Lessons from Africa’s First Narco -State,” (June 2013): 1. 25...significant role in the WACSI program. The command has established a Counter Narco -Terrorism and Law Enforcement Assistance Division (CN-LEA) to help reduce

  7. A dual mode operated boost inverter and its control strategy for ripple current reduction in single-phase uninterruptible power supplies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Y.; Yao, W.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    In single-phase uninterruptible power supply (UPS) applications, it is well known that the AC side instantaneous power is not constant by nature. The resulting input current from the DC source side will inevitably contain low frequency ripple components that may largely deteriorate the system...

  8. On the Operation State and Maintenance Management of the Current Overhead Transmission Line%试论目前架空输电线路状态运行与维护管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许金明

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the operation state and maintenance management status of the current overhead transmission line and describes the improvement countermeasures to improve the overall efficiency of the operation state and maintenance management of the overhead transmission line.%文章分析目前架空输电线路状态运行与维护管理基本现状,介绍了架空输电线路状态运行与维护管理完善对策,以期提高该架空输电线路状态运行与维护管理整体效率。

  9. Continuous-wave operation of a $(20\\bar{2}\\bar{1})$ InGaN laser diode with a photoelectrochemically etched current aperture

    KAUST Repository

    Megalini, Ludovico

    2015-03-06

    © 2015 The Japan Society of Applied Physics. We demonstrated selective and controllable undercut etching of the InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) active region of a (2021) laser diode (LD) structure by photoelectrochemical etching. This technique was used to fabricate current aperture edge-emitting blue laser diodes (CALDs), whose performance was compared with that of shallow-etched ridge LDs with a nominally identical epitaxial structure. The threshold current density, threshold voltage, peak output power, and series resistance for the CA-LD (shallow-etched LD) with a 2.5-μm-wide active region were 4.4 (8.1) kA/cm2, 6.1 (7.7) V, 96.5 (63.5)mW, and 4.7 (6.0)Ω under pulsed conditions and before facet coating, respectively.

  10. Measurement of the current distribution in a direct methanol fuel cell-Confirmation of parallel galvanic and electrolytic operation within one cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Dirk Uwe; Sanders, Tilman; Fricke, Birger; Baumhöfer, Thorsten; Wippermann, Klaus; Kulikovsky, Andrei A.; Schmitz, Heinz; Mergel, Jürgen

    Current production in fuel cells is typically unequally distributed along the cell surface due to inhomogeneous concentration of reactants and temperature. The inhomogeneities in fuel cells can result in reduced output power and accelerated ageing. To quantify the inhomogeneities a measurement system has been developed which allows measuring the local distribution of current and temperature in hydrogen and direct methanol fuel cells. With this system we are able to directly observe the coexistence of galvanic and electrolytic domains in a single channel direct methanol fuel cell (the electrolytic domain is the domain where electrolysis occurs in contrast to the galvanic domain where the fuel cell process takes place). The measurement device also allows for the measurement locally resolved impedance spectra.

  11. Operative Time, Airway Management, Need for Blood Transfusions, and In-Hospital Stay for Bimaxillary, Intranasal, and Osseous Genioplasty Surgery: Current Clinical Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posnick, Jeffrey C; Choi, Elbert; Chavda, Anish

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess operative time, perioperative airway management, early postoperative cardiopulmonary health, need for blood transfusion, and in-hospital stay associated with simultaneous bimaxillary, intranasal, and osseous genioplasty surgery. The authors executed a retrospective cohort study derived from patients treated by 1 surgeon at a single institution from 2009 through 2014. The sample consisted of a consecutive series of patients with symptomatic chronic obstructed nasal breathing and a dentofacial deformity (DFD). All underwent at least a Le Fort I osteotomy, sagittal ramus osteotomies, septoplasty, inferior turbinate reduction, and osseous genioplasty. For each patient, the design of the osteotomies and the fixation techniques were consistent. The outcome variables included need for blood transfusion, operating time, success of nasotracheal intubation, time and place of extubation, early postoperative cardiopulmonary health, length of in-hospital stay, and need for readmission after surgery. For the 166 patients studied, the average age was 25 years (range, 13 to 65 yr; 87 female patients [52%]). The primary patterns of presenting DFD included long face (43 of 166, 26%), maxillary deficiency (41 of 166, 25%), asymmetric mandibular excess (37 of 166, 22%), short face (28 of 166, 17%), and mandibular deficiency (15 of 166, 9%). Forty-two patients (25%) were confirmed to have symptomatic obstructive sleep apnea. The open wound operating time averaged 2 hours 59 minutes (standard deviation, 32 minutes). Only 3 of the 166 patients (1.8%) received blood transfusions. All patients underwent successful nasotracheal intubation. Ninety-six percent of patients were extubated in the operating room and the remaining 4% were extubated in the recovery room. No patients required reintubation or tracheostomy. One hundred thirty-seven patients (83%) were discharged after a 1- or 2-night in-hospital stay. Twenty-five (15%) required a 3-night stay

  12. Ground failure in direct current systems of the Itaipu Hydroelectric Power Plant, Parana, Brazil. Impact in the operation; Falla a tierra en sistemas de corriente continua en la Central Hidroelectrica Itaipu, PR, Brasil. Impacto en la operacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto Santacruz, Heriberto [Itaipu Binacional, Foz do Iguacu, PR (Brazil)]. E-mail: soto@itaipu.gov.py

    1998-07-01

    The objective of this work is to share with other companies the operation experience obtained by researching the direct current systems ground failure, in the Itaipu Hydroelectric Power Plant. During the research process electrical and/or electronic components can be damaged, and also human failures can occurred during the circuit connection and disconnection manoeuvres, necessary for the identification of the components causing the failures.

  13. Case Study Regarding the Design of a Direct Current Electromagnet for the MIG Welding of Metallic Materials Part II: Constructive-Electromagnetic Dimension and Verification of the Electromagnet Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudorel Ene

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper refers to the design of a direct current electromagnet, located on the head of a swan neck welding gun of a MIG welding equipment and used for magnetising the rotation space of two additional electric arches, in order to preheat the electrode wire and of the protective gas, partially turned into plasma jet. We present the constructive - electromagnetic dimensioning and the verification of the electromagnet operation.

  14. Analysis of Advantages and Disadvantages of Current Operational Risk Management Models (AS/NZS 4360, AS/NZS ISO 9000, AS/NZS ISO 14000, AS/NZS 4801, AS/NZS 3806, AS/NZS 4444

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferry Jie

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper will describe about the analysis of advantages and disadvantages of current operational risk management models (AS/NZS 4360: Risk Management, AS/NZS 4801: Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems, AS/NZS ISO 9001: Quality Management System, AS/NZS ISO 14001: Environment Management System, AS/NZS 3806: Compliance Management System, AS/NZS 4444: Information Security Management  based on expert experiences and extracting the literature review. The advantages of most current models are widely adopted by industries of various of sizes as the basis for their operational risk management. In addition, they may help the organizations to improve the operations and competitiveness. However, there are some disadvantages of most current models such as the models are very general (guidance only, not specific to cover particular risks of industries.  And they don’t have the specific tools and processes.  In addition, they may not be able to integrate all elements of the management systems such as safety, health, environment, quality, security, and compliance. 

  15. A Vision and Roadmap for Increasing User Autonomy in Flight Operations in the National Airspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, William B.; Hilb, Robert; Koczo, Stefan; Wing, David

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of Air Transportation is to move people and cargo safely, efficiently and swiftly to their destinations. The companies and individuals who use aircraft for this purpose, the airspace users, desire to operate their aircraft according to a dynamically optimized business trajectory for their specific mission and operational business model. In current operations, the dynamic optimization of business trajectories is limited by constraints built into operations in the National Airspace System (NAS) for reasons of safety and operational needs of the air navigation service providers. NASA has been developing and testing means to overcome many of these constraints and permit operations to be conducted closer to the airspace user's changing business trajectory as conditions unfold before and during the flight. A roadmap of logical steps progressing toward increased user autonomy is proposed, beginning with NASA's Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR) concept that enables flight crews to make informed, deconflicted flight-optimization requests to air traffic control. These steps include the use of data communications for route change requests and approvals, integration with time-based arrival flow management processes under development by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), increased user authority for defining and modifying downstream, strategic portions of the trajectory, and ultimately application of self-separation. This progression takes advantage of existing FAA NextGen programs and RTCA standards development, and it is designed to minimize the number of hardware upgrades required of airspace users to take advantage of these advanced capabilities to achieve dynamically optimized business trajectories in NAS operations. The roadmap is designed to provide operational benefits to first adopters so that investment decisions do not depend upon a large segment of the user community becoming equipped before benefits can be realized. The issues of

  16. Tuning of Synchronous-Frame PI Current Controllers in Grid-Connected Converters Operating at a Low Sampling Rate by MIMO Root Locus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez, Francisco Daniel Freijedo; Vidal, Ana; Yepes, Alejandro G.;

    2015-01-01

    affects achievable control time constant. With this perspective, this paper presents a systematic procedure for accurate dynamics assessment and tuning of synchronous-frame PI current controllers, which is based on linear control for multiple input multiple output (MIMO) systems. The dominant eigenvalues...... of the system are calculated with explicit consideration of time-delay and cross-coupling terms, two factors which clearly impair the system dynamics when considering a low sampling frequency. The proposed methodology is summarized as follows. Firstly, the plant and controller matrices are modeled in state...

  17. L'intervention sous-marine : situation actuelle et perspectives d'avenir Underwater Operations and Techniques: Current Situation and Future Outlook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand A. R. V.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available A l'occasion de la Conférence Internationale de Paris sur la Pénétration sous-marine(6-8 décembre 1982, cet article fait le point sur les différents moyens d'intervention sous-marine disponibles à ce jour (plongeurs, engins télécommandés, sous-marins à pression atmosphérique et sur un certain nombre de problèmes technologiques communs (matériaux, télémanipulation, navigation, sources d'énergie. Ce domaine est encore en pleine évolution et fait appel aux récentes innovations technologiques. Bien que les engins télécommandés semblent avoir actuellement la faveur des industriels, les autres moyens restent d'avenir prometteur, la complémentarité devant remplacer dans le futur la concurrence La résurrection de l'Argyronète qui doit devenir en 1985 un banc d'essais des nouvelles techniques est le témoignage de l'activité de ce secteur industriel. This article is based on the International Symposium in Paris on Underwater Operations and Techniques 6-9 December 1982. It reviews the different methods now available for underwater operations (divers, remote-controlled vehicles, atmospheric-pressure submarines and various technological problems common to all of them (materials, remote manipulation, navigating, power sources. This field is evolving rapidly and makes use of the most recent technological innovations. Although remote-controlled vehicles now seem to be favored by industrialists, the other methods still have a promising future, and the complementariness of these methods can be expected to replace rivalry among them. The resurrection of the Argyronète project, which should become a test bench for new techniques in 1985, is a good illustration of the activity going on in this industrial sector.

  18. Current management options for displaced intra-articular calcaneal fractures: Non-operative, ORIF, minimally invasive reduction and fixation or primary ORIF and subtalar arthrodesis. A contemporary review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharr, P J; Mangupli, M M; Winson, I G; Buckley, R E

    2016-03-01

    Management of Displaced Intra-articular Calcaneal Fractures (DIACFs) continues to be technically demanding. The literature has not been definitive in its guidance for surgeons dealing with these injuries. Recent publications have further added to the lack of clarity. This review is intended to summarise the present state of knowledge, and provide some genuine guidance for clinicians. To review previous research, focussing on articles published within the last fifteen years, and summarise the findings to aid surgeons in managing DIACFs with choosing best management for patients. We reviewed the best evidence and literature, focussing on articles published within the last fifteen years, and summarised findings into workable recommendations. Variables of (1) patient, (2) the associated soft tissue injury and (3) the fracture characteristics were used to aid surgeons in choosing the best of the available options for each patient that presents with a DIACF. Management of DIACFs can best be divided into four broad categories: (i) non-operative management, (ii) open reduction and internal fixation, (iii) minimally invasive reduction and fixation, and (iv) primary subtalar arthrodesis. The evolution of the literature would suggest orthopaedic surgeons managing calcaneus fractures should have an expert's knowledge, surgical expertise and the latest techniques to cover these four options, to tailor the treatment of DIACFs to the individual patient. Copyright © 2015 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Current Situation of Prevention of Intrauterine Adhesion After Intrauterine Operation%宫腔手术后预防宫腔粘连的研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琴

    2011-01-01

    Intrauterine adhesion is a common complication after intrauterine operation and is one of the main causes leading to uteral infertility. The most important programme for IUA is prevention,oral contraceptives and the insertion of an intrauterine device are widely used clinically and have contraceptive effect at the same time. The placement of balloon catheter needs hospitalization and broad-spectrum antibiotic administered postoperation to prevent ascending infection from the vagina. In the applying of adhesion prevention products,the patients' economy condition should be taken into consideration. The effective of Amnion graft need further research to confirm. Early second-look with a flexible hystero-scope in the office setting is the tendency.%宫腔粘连(intrauterine adhesion,IUA)是宫腔手术后常见并发症,是导致子宫性不孕的主要原因.对于IUA最重要的是进行预防,术后口服避孕药及宫内节育器的置入在临床上应用广泛,同时具有避孕的作用.使用球囊导尿管需住院治疗,且术后应用广谱抗生素预防上行感染.防粘连产品的应用需考虑患者经济因素.羊膜移植的有效性有待进一步研究证实.早期门诊宫腔镜检查是预防IUA的发展趋势.

  20. Orai1 and Ca2+-independent phospholipase A2 are required for store-operated Icat-SOC current, Ca2+ entry, and proliferation of primary vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Gwozdz, Tomasz; Dutko-Gwozdz, Joanna; Bolotina, Victoria M

    2012-03-01

    Store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) is important for multiple functions of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC), which, depending of their phenotype, can resemble excitable and nonexcitable cells. Similar to nonexcitable cells, Orai1 was found to mediate Ca(2+)-selective (CRAC-like) current and SOCE in dedifferentiated cultured SMC and smooth muscle-derived cell lines. However, the role of Orai1 in cation-selective store-operated channels (cat-SOC), which are responsible for SOCE in primary SMC, remains unclear. Here we focus on primary SMC, and assess the role of Orai1 and Ca(2+)-independent phospholipase A(2) (iPLA(2)β, or PLA2G6) in activation of cat-SOC current (I(cat-SOC)), SOCE, and SMC proliferation. Using molecular, electrophysiological, imaging, and functional approaches, we demonstrate that molecular knockdown of either Orai1 or iPLA(2)β leads to similar inhibition of the whole cell cat-SOC current and SOCE in primary aortic SMC and results in significant reduction in DNA synthesis and impairment of SMC proliferation. This is the first demonstration that Orai1 and iPLA(2)β are equally important for cat-SOC, SOCE, and proliferation of primary aortic SMC.

  1. Study on the current situation about pressure of nursing staff in operation room%手术室护理人员压力现状调查及解压对策分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王辉; 姚芳; 王艳

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the pressure of nursing staff in operation room, to analyze the causes and measures to relief pressure, and then improve the mental health of nursing staff working in a operation room, further improve the quality of nursing. METHODS Randomly selected 20 nursing staff from the operation room in our hospital, carried on the questionnaire survey, analyzed the current status of stress of nursing staff in operation room, and analyzed relationship of work nature, stress, physical and mental health in nursing staff in operation room. RESULTS In our hospital, the working pressure was relatively large in nursing staff in operation room, and the reason was due to heavy workload in operation room. CONCLUSION The nursing staff in operation room have responsibilities and heavy tasks. In order to improve the quality of nursing in operation room, it should often cany out health education for nursing staff, improve the mental health of nurses; reasonable scheduling could reduce the work stress among nursing staff.%目的 研究手术室护理人员的压力,分析其压力产生的原因以及缓解对策,进而提高手术室护理工作人员的心理健康素质,进一步提高手术护理质量.方法 随机选取某院手术室护理人员20名,对其进行问卷调查,分析当前手术室护理工作人员的压力现状,以及分析探讨手术室护理人员工作性质、压力、身心健康之间的关系.结果 就该院手术室护理人员工作实际来看,工作压力相对较大,其原因与手术室手术室护理工作繁重和强度密切相关.结论 手术室护理工作责任大、任务重,为了提高手术室护理质量,应常期对手术室护理工作人员进行心理辅导,提高护理人员心理健康水平;合理排班,减轻护理人员工作压力.

  2. Current Situation and Countermeasures of the Enterprises Operating Mode of the Super League%中超联赛企业化运营模式的现状及对策探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵恒

    2012-01-01

    Analyze and discuss the outstanding problems exiting in the market-oriented management process from the current operational status of the Chinese Super League,and also give an in-depth analysis for the necessity and feasibility of open market economy under the enterprise operation mode which provide recommendations for the Super League's healthy development.%从中国足球超级联赛现阶段的运营状况探讨了市场化管理进程中存在的突出问题,并对中超联赛开启市场经济下的企业化运营模式必要性和可行性进行了深入分析,为中超联赛的健康发展提出了建议。

  3. Operation Poorman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruvost, N.; Tsitouras, J.

    1981-03-18

    The objectives of Operation Poorman were to design and build a portable seismic system and to set up and use this system in a cold-weather environment. The equipment design uses current technology to achieve a low-power, lightweight system that is configured into three modules. The system was deployed in Alaska during wintertime, and the results provide a basis for specifying a mission-ready seismic verification system.

  4. Operation and Maintenance of ± 660 kV Ningxia -Shandong Direct Current Transmission Line%±660kV银东直流输电线路的运行与维护

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张景沛; 白小保; 张志峰

    2012-01-01

    Based on analysis of operation features of direct current line, the authors put forward that faults prevention of ± 660 kV direct current transmission line should be taken suggestions of taking shield failure, strengthening dirty monitoring,improving prevent pollution level, paying attention to infrared & ultra violet monitoring and selecting each monitoring data.%在分析直流线路的运行特性的基础上.提出±660kV直流输电线路的故障防治应以直流线路防雷保护以防绕击为主、加强污秽监测、提高防污水平、注重线路的红外紫外检测与各项监测数据收集等维护的建议、

  5. Exploration on Network Organizational Life of Deferred Employment College Graduates Party Members%暂缓就业学生党员网络组织生活的探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何淑霞; 梁碧云

    2013-01-01

    In the face of increasingly severe employment situation, constantly expanding deferred employment college graduates party member's team, how to effectively carry out organizational life become a new problem of college students' party construction. Network is with the characteristics of wide coverage and strong interactivity, is a big advantage resources and communication platform for deferred employment college graduates party member to carry out organizational life. This paper analyzes the main problems in organizational life of deferred employment college graduates party members,and to explore innovation organizational life model of deferred employment college graduates party members.%面对日益严峻的就业形势,暂缓就业学生党员的队伍不断扩大,如何有效的开展组织生活成为高校学生党建工作的新问题。网络具有覆盖面广和交互性强的特点,是高校暂缓就业学生党员组织生活可利用的一大优势资源和交流平台。本文分析了目前暂缓就业学生党员组织生活存在的主要问题,并对暂缓就业学生党员网络组织生活的创新模式进行探索。

  6. 变压器励磁涌流致保护误动及其策略探讨%Unwanted Operation of Protection Caused by Transformer Excitation Inrush Current and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈奕衡; 罗定镒

    2012-01-01

    For transformer differential protection, one of the important issue is the research on excitation inrush current and fault, as it is significant to transformer differential protection. Combining with project cases, this paper discussed the unwanted operation of protection caused by excitation inrush current Through analyzing harmonic data and wave form, it studied how to get setting valve related to excitation inrush current to serve as a reference for the peer.%对于变压器的差动保护,一个重要的问题就是对其励磁涌流及故障的深入研究,因为其对变压器差动保护效果有着十分重要的影响.本文结合工程实例探讨了励磁涌流导致的变压器误动作现象,通过对有关谐波数据及波形的分析,研究如何获得与励磁涌流相关的整定值,可供同行人员参考.

  7. Cord pilot trial - immediate versus deferred cord clamping for very preterm birth (before 32 weeks gestation): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushpa-Rajah, Angela; Bradshaw, Lucy; Dorling, Jon; Gyte, Gill; Mitchell, Eleanor J; Thornton, Jim; Duley, Lelia

    2014-06-30

    Preterm birth is the most important single determinant of adverse outcome in the United Kingdom; one in every 70 babies (1.4%) is born before 32 weeks (very preterm), yet these births account for over half of infant deaths.Deferring cord clamping allows blood flow between baby and placenta to continue for a short time. This often leads to increased neonatal blood volume at birth and may allow longer for transition to the neonatal circulation. Optimal timing for clamping the cord remains uncertain, however. The Cochrane Review suggests that deferring umbilical cord clamping for preterm births may improve outcome, but larger studies reporting substantive outcomes and with long-term follow-up are needed. Studies of the physiology of placental transfusion suggest that flow in the umbilical cord at very preterm birth may continue for several minutes. This pilot trial aims to assess the feasibility of conducting a large randomised trial comparing immediate and deferred cord clamping in the UK. Women are eligible for the trial if they are expected to have a live birth before 32 weeks gestation. Exclusion criteria are known monochorionic twins or clinical evidence of twin-twin transfusion syndrome, triplet or higher order multiple pregnancy, and known major congenital malformation. The interventions will be cord clamping within 20 seconds compared with cord clamping after at least two minutes. For births with cord clamping after at least two minutes, initial neonatal care is at the bedside. For the pilot trial, outcomes include measures of recruitment, compliance with the intervention, retention of participants and data quality for the clinical outcomes.Information about the trial is available to women during their antenatal care. Women considered likely to have a very preterm birth are approached for informed consent. Randomisation is close to the time of birth. Follow-up for the women is for one year, and for the children to two years of age (corrected for gestation

  8. 可抵扣亏损的递延所得税资产确认问题探析--以獐子岛递延所得税资产的确认为例%The Analysis of Deficit Deductible Deferred Income TaxAassets Confirmation---to confirm Zhangzi Island of deferred income tax assets as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓民; 白猛猛

    2015-01-01

    In the financial statements of the third‐quarter of 2014 ,Zhangzidao Group Co .Ltd , due to deficit ,confirmed the deferred income tax assets of 26 .4 million RMB ,which was later ,how‐ever ,called into question .This paper ,through the analysis of its main business products market prospect and financial situation ,comes to the conclusion that in the near future Zhangzidao Group Co . Ltd is not likely to obtain enough taxable income ,and therefore ,the confirmation of its deferred in‐come tax assets is unreasonable .In the end ,the author puts forward some advice about how to en‐hance the confirmation and management of deferred income tax assets of China’s listed companies in terms of Accounting Standards for Business Enterprises ( ASBE ) formulation , controlling shareholders and management responsibility ,and external audit supervision .%獐子岛集团在2014年三季度财务报表中,由于亏损而对2.64亿元递延所得税资产进行确认受到质疑。对獐子岛集团主营业务产品市场前景以及财务状况进行分析发现:獐子岛集团未来期间无法获得充足应纳税所得额,其递延所得税资产的确认是不合理的。从企业会计准则制定、控股股东以及管理层责任、外部审计监督三个方面提出加强我国上市公司递延所得税资产的确认与管理的建议。

  9. Coming of Age on the Margins: Mental Health and Wellbeing Among Latino Immigrant Young Adults Eligible for Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemons, Rachel; Raymond-Flesh, Marissa; Auerswald, Colette L; Brindis, Claire D

    2017-06-01

    Undocumented immigrant young adults growing up in the United States face significant challenges. For those qualified, the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program's protections may alleviate stressors, with implications for their mental health and wellbeing (MHWB). We conducted nine focus groups with 61 DACA-eligible Latinos (ages 18-31) in California to investigate their health needs. Participants reported MHWB as their greatest health concern and viewed DACA as beneficial through increasing access to opportunities and promoting belonging and peer support. Participants found that DACA also introduced unanticipated challenges, including greater adult responsibilities and a new precarious identity. Thus, immigration policies such as DACA may influence undocumented young adults' MHWB in expected and unexpected ways. Research into the impacts of policy changes on young immigrants' MHWB can guide stakeholders to better address this population's health needs. MHWB implications include the need to reduce fear of deportation and increase access to services.

  10. The destiny of an unacknowledged trauma: the deferred retroactive effect of après-coup in the hidden Jewish children of wartime Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fohn, Adeline; Heenen-Wolff, Susann

    2011-02-01

    For almost 45 years, the experience of Jewish children who were hidden during World War II was considered to be of little importance, particularly with respect to what had taken place in the concentration camps. Their very history was ignored in the many accounts of the Holocaust. It was only at the end of the 1980s that their experience began to be thought of as potentially traumatic. In this paper, the authors report on their psychoanalytical research project concerning the psychological outcomes of those experiences that had remained concealed for such an extraordinarily long latency period. The results are based on the analysis of 60 accounts and on psychoanalytically-oriented group work. The authors show that the trauma experienced by those hidden children was triggered by the retroactive effect of a deferred action [après-coup]. Copyright © 2010 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  11. Deferred Shading Framework for Simulation Drilling System%面向模拟演练系统的延迟渲染框架

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐宇; 于放; 孙咏; 王丹妮

    2016-01-01

    The Simulation drilling system provides a good service for the enterprises and the emergency departments at present. However, it still has quite a few drawbacks. Such as the lack of modern graphic pipeline support, the excessive computation of scene rendering on the condition of multiple lights, the poor rendering effects caused by that it cannot make full use of hardware etc. In order to solve those problems, this paper is designed and implemented with a deferred shading pipeline for simulation drilling system. This pipeline is based on the Blinn-Phong lighting model, which builds a compressed G-buffer layout and uses Light volume to model the light source. The final experiment indicates that under the multiple lights circumstances, the deferred shading expressed in this paper will be more efficient than the conventional forward shading.%模拟演练系统为企业和应急部门提供了强大的服务,然而目前的模拟演练系统中存在缺乏现代图形流水线,多光源情况下存在场景渲染计算量过多,不能充分利用硬件而导致的渲染效果差等问题。为了解决这些问题,本文针对模拟演练系统,设计和实现了延迟渲染流水线,它依据Blinn-Phong光照模型,构建了一种压缩的G-Buffer布局,并使用Light Volume来对光源进行建模。最后实验表明,在多光源情况下,此文中提出的延迟渲染比传统的正向渲染有更高的效率。

  12. Caracterização dos perfilhos em pastos de capim-braquiária diferidos e adubados com nitrogênio Tiller characteristics in nitrogen fertilized and deferred signalgrass pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Eduardo Rozalino Santos

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o perfilhamento e as características estruturais de perfilhos em pastos de Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk sob três períodos de diferimento da pastagem (73, 95 e 116 dias e quatro doses de nitrogênio (N (0, 40, 80 e 120 kg/ha. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com três repetições, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas. O número de perfilhos vegetativos (PV reduziu com o aumento do período de diferimento. Houve interação entre período de diferimento e dose de N para a densidade populacional de PV. O maior período de diferimento elevou o número de perfilhos reprodutivos (PR nos pastos de capim-braquiária, mas não houve efeito da dose de N sobre o número de perfilhos reprodutivos. O número de perfilhos mortos não foi influenciado pelos fatores estudados. Tanto o período de diferimento quanto a adubação nitrogenada aumentaram o peso de todas as categorias de perfilhos de capim-braquiária. As características estruturais dos perfilhos presentes nos pastos diferidos foram alteradas pelo período de diferimento e pela dose de nitrogênio. A redução do período de diferimento e a adubação nitrogenada são estratégias de manejo adequadas para aumentar o número de perfilhos vegetativos em pastos de Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk.This work aimed to evaluate the tilling and tiller structural characteristics on Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk pasture fertilized with nitrogen (N under different deferring periods. The treatments had 73, 95 and 116-day deferring periods, and 0, 40, 80 and 120 kg/ha N doses. A randomized block design with three replicates and subdivided plots was used. The number of vegetative tillers (VT reduced as the deferring period increased. Interaction between the deferring period and N doses on the VT population density was verified. The longest deferring period increased the number of reproductive tillers (RT on the B. decumbens

  13. Capim-braquiária diferido e adubado com nitrogênio: produção e características da forragem Deferred and fertilized signalgrass: forage production and characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Eduardo Rozalino Santos

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a massa de forragem e de seus componentes morfológicos, a altura e o índice de tombamento do pasto, a densidade volumétrica e o valor nutritivo da forragem em pastos de Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk diferidos e adubados com nitrogênio (N. Avaliaram-se três períodos de diferimento (73, 95 e 116 dias e quatro doses de nitrogênio (0, 40, 80 e 120 kg/ha em um delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, com três repetições, segundo o esquema de parcelas subdivididas. As massas de forragem total, forragem verde e de colmo verde, bem como a altura do pasto e a densidade volumétrica da forragem aumentaram com o período de diferimento e a dose de nitrogênio. Pastos diferidos por maior período apresentaram maior massa de forragem morta e índice de tombamento. O percentual de fibra em detergente neutro elevou e o teor proteína bruta (PB diminuiu com o aumento do período de diferimento. O teor de PB aumentou com a elevação da dose de nitrogênio. O período de diferimento e a adubação nitrogenada afetam a produção e as características da forragem diferida de forma semelhante, entretanto o período de diferimento da pastagem possui efeito de maior magnitude. A realização da adubação nitrogenada permite diminuir o período de diferimento do pasto, sem reduzir a produção de forragem.This research was carried out aiming to assess the forage mass and its morphological components, pasture height and falling index, bulk density and the forage nutritional value on nitrogen (N fertilized and deferred Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk pastures. The treatments had 73, 95 and 116-day deferring periods, and 0, 40, 80 and 120 kg/ha N doses. A randomized block design with three replicates and subdivided plots was used. Total forage, green forage and green stem mass, as well as pasture height and forage bulk density increased along with the deferring periods and N doses. The

  14. Research on the Effect of Deferred-tax Policy Based on the Consumption-saving Models%基于消费-储蓄模型的税收递延政策影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐景峰; 李玉龙

    2016-01-01

    The policy of deferred-tax on commercial endowment insurance is of great importance to the establishment and im⁃provement of pension system. In this paper, two different individual consumption-saving models, which are named as non-tax deferred model and tax deferred model, are built separately to study the effect of deferred-tax policy on optimal individual choices. Through modeling process, we come to the following conclusions:If the deferred tax rate equals the working period tax rate, individual demand for annuity insurance will increase, and yet the other demand and his/her expected utility will keep sta⁃ble. In this situation, the deferred tax policy is an Pareto improvement;If it is less than the working period tax rate, individual working period consumption, demand for annuity insurance and his expected utility will increase while individual bank saving will decrease;If it is greater than the working period tax rate, individual working period consumption, demand for annuity in⁃surance and his/her expected utility will decrease but individual bank savings will increase.%商业养老保险税收递延政策对完善养老保障体系具有重要意义。文章分别在无税收递延政策和有税收递延政策情形下建立了个体消费—储蓄模型,通过对比两种情形下的个体最优行为,分析了税收递延政策对个体行为的影响。研究表明:当递延税收税率与工作期税率相等时,个体年金保险需求增加、其他行为及效用不变,此时税收递延政策是一种帕累托改进;当递延税收税率小于工作期税率时,个体当期消费、年金保险需求及效用增加,银行存款减少;当递延税收税率大于工作期税率时,个体当期消费、年金保险需求及效用减少,银行存款增加。

  15. Spin current

    CERN Document Server

    Valenzuela, Sergio O; Saitoh, Eiji; Kimura, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    In a new branch of physics and technology called spin-electronics or spintronics, the flow of electrical charge (usual current) as well as the flow of electron spin, the so-called 'spin current', are manipulated and controlled together. This book provides an introduction and guide to the new physics and application of spin current.

  16. Study of the Current Compensation Control Strategy for EPS in High-speed and Large Steering Angle Operation%高速大转角工况下EPS电流补偿控制策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴星男; 江浩斌; 唐斌; 王志忠

    2013-01-01

    为提高车辆在高速大转角工况下的横向稳定性,以装备管柱式EPS的某微型乘用车为研究对象,建立其非线性3自由度整车模型,对车辆转向特性和转向行驶稳定性进行理论分析;在没有电子稳定程序或车辆动态稳定性控制装置的情况下,引入可控的补偿电流对EPS控制策略进行改进,并在matlab/simulink中进行仿真分析。结果表明,所研究的EPS电流补偿控制策略有效提高了高速大转角时车辆转向系统阻尼,增强了车辆的横向稳定性和驾驶员“路感”,使车辆的横摆运动得到良好控制。%In order to improve the vehicle's lateral stability in high-speed and large steering angle operation, the researchers established a 3-DOF model of the whole vehicle using a mini passenger car equipped with column-type EPS as research object, and analyzed vehicle steering characteristic and steering stability theoretically. A controllable compensation current has been introduced to improve the control strategy for EPS with the absence of electronic stability program (ESP) or vehicle dynamic control (VDC) system. The simulation was made in Matlab/Simulink. The results show that the EPS current compensation control strategy has effectively increased the steering system damping in high-speed and large steering angle operation, it has also enhanced the lateral stability and the road feel. The vehicle's yaw motion is well controlled.

  17. 基于有限理性假设的运营管理研究现状及发展趋势%Current status and development trends in operations management using bounded rationality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牟博佼; 李岩; 朱岩

    2012-01-01

    Bounded rationality has become an important research focus in operations management.This paper summarizes the current results in this field related to the behavioral theories underlying the research and conclusions from behavioral experiments and analytical modeling.Finally,this paper gives some directions for future research,including studies on selling multiple products and vertical/horizontal competition in multiple periods using bounded rationality.%有限理性成为近年来运营管理领域关注的热点,本文归纳分析了该类问题的阶段性研究成果。本文首先提炼出该类研究采用的行为理论基础,然后从行为实验和建模分析2种方法视角介绍了研究焦点以及取得的结论。最后基于研究现状展望了该领域的未来发展,指出未来研究可以针对单周期多产品、多周期纵向/横向竞争等系统展开分析。

  18. Investigation of abrupt degradation of drain current caused by under-gate crack in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors during high temperature operation stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Chang; Liao, XueYang; Li, RuGuan; Wang, YuanSheng; Chen, Yiqiang, E-mail: yiqiang-chen@hotmail.com; Su, Wei; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Li Wei; Lai, Ping; Huang, Yun; En, YunFei [Science and Technology on Reliability Physics and Application of Electronic Component Laboratory, The 5th Electronics Research Institute of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, 510610 Guangzhou (China)

    2015-09-28

    In this paper, we investigate the degradation mode and mechanism of AlGaN/GaN based high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) during high temperature operation (HTO) stress. It demonstrates that there was abrupt degradation mode of drain current during HTO stress. The abrupt degradation is ascribed to the formation of crack under the gate which was the result of the brittle fracture of epilayer based on failure analysis. The origin of the mechanical damage under the gate is further investigated and discussed based on top-down scanning electron microscope, cross section transmission electron microscope and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy analysis, and stress simulation. Based on the coupled analysis of the failure physical feature and stress simulation considering the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) mismatch in different materials in gate metals/semiconductor system, the mechanical damage under the gate is related to mechanical stress induced by CTE mismatch in Au/Ti/Mo/GaN system and stress concentration caused by the localized structural damage at the drain side of the gate edge. These results indicate that mechanical stress induced by CTE mismatch of materials inside the device plays great important role on the reliability of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs during HTO stress.

  19. Immediate versus deferred chemotherapy after radical cystectomy in patients with pT3-pT4 or N+ M0 urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (EORTC 30994): an intergroup, open-label, randomised phase 3 trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sternberg, Cora N; Skoneczna, Iwona; Kerst, J Martijn

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma of the bladder have poor survival after cystectomy. The EORTC 30994 trial aimed to compare immediate versus deferred cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy after radical cystectomy in patients with pT3-pT4 or N+ M0 urothelial carcin...... patient data meta-analysis and biomarker research are needed to further elucidate the potential for survival benefit in subgroups of patients. FUNDING: Lilly, Canadian Cancer Society Research.......BACKGROUND: Patients with muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma of the bladder have poor survival after cystectomy. The EORTC 30994 trial aimed to compare immediate versus deferred cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy after radical cystectomy in patients with pT3-pT4 or N+ M0 urothelial......, doxorubicin, and cisplatin [high-dose MVAC], or MVAC) or six cycles of deferred chemotherapy at relapse, with stratification for institution, pT category, and lymph node status according to the number of nodes dissected. Neither patients nor investigators were masked. Overall survival was the primary endpoint...

  20. Operational waste volume projection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koreski, G.M.

    1996-09-20

    Waste receipts to the double-shell tank system are analyzed and wastes through the year 2015 are projected based on generation trends of the past 12 months. A computer simulation of site operations is performed, which results in projections of tank fill schedules, tank transfers, evaporator operations, tank retrieval, and aging waste tank usage. This projection incorporates current budget planning and the clean-up schedule of the Tri-Party Agreement. Assumptions were current as of June 1996.

  1. Analysis and Realization of the Test Method of Operating Characteristic with Load for Residual-current Circuit Breaker%漏电断路器带载动作特性试验方法分析及实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林承志; 陈金汕; 张业真

    2015-01-01

    文章依据国家标准,介绍了电子式漏电断路器利用漏电开关兼容试验装置进行带负载剩余电流动作特性的试验方法,验证其动作正确性。试验有时会发生试验样品烧毁的问题,分析出现问题的原因并设计出一个智能检测模块,在电子式漏电断路器脱扣后可快速切断检测设备的试验电源,经过了实际调试运行,解决了试验样品烧毁问题,对该项试验的检测工作具有重要的意义。%According to the national standard, this paper takes research on the test method which would cause burning down the test samples sometimes, the method that RCBO is operating characteristic under residual current with load with the leakage switch compatibility test equipment. This paper analyzes the reason of the problem, then designs a intelligent detection module, in order to rapid cutting off the power supply of equipment after the electronic type RCBO tripping. Through the actual debugging, it can solve the problem of the test sample burned. It is very important to the testing work of the project.

  2. Current limiters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loescher, D.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Systems Surety Assessment Dept.; Noren, K. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1996-09-01

    The current that flows between the electrical test equipment and the nuclear explosive must be limited to safe levels during electrical tests conducted on nuclear explosives at the DOE Pantex facility. The safest way to limit the current is to use batteries that can provide only acceptably low current into a short circuit; unfortunately this is not always possible. When it is not possible, current limiters, along with other design features, are used to limit the current. Three types of current limiters, the fuse blower, the resistor limiter, and the MOSFET-pass-transistor limiters, are used extensively in Pantex test equipment. Detailed failure mode and effects analyses were conducted on these limiters. Two other types of limiters were also analyzed. It was found that there is no best type of limiter that should be used in all applications. The fuse blower has advantages when many circuits must be monitored, a low insertion voltage drop is important, and size and weight must be kept low. However, this limiter has many failure modes that can lead to the loss of over current protection. The resistor limiter is simple and inexpensive, but is normally usable only on circuits for which the nominal current is less than a few tens of milliamperes. The MOSFET limiter can be used on high current circuits, but it has a number of single point failure modes that can lead to a loss of protective action. Because bad component placement or poor wire routing can defeat any limiter, placement and routing must be designed carefully and documented thoroughly.

  3. Turbulent current drive mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDevitt, Christopher J.; Tang, Xian-Zhu; Guo, Zehua

    2017-08-01

    Mechanisms through which plasma microturbulence can drive a mean electron plasma current are derived. The efficiency through which these turbulent contributions can drive deviations from neoclassical predictions of the electron current profile is computed by employing a linearized Coulomb collision operator. It is found that a non-diffusive contribution to the electron momentum flux as well as an anomalous electron-ion momentum exchange term provide the most efficient means through which turbulence can modify the mean electron current for the cases considered. Such turbulent contributions appear as an effective EMF within Ohm's law and hence provide an ideal means for driving deviations from neoclassical predictions.

  4. Operational amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Dostal, Jiri

    1993-01-01

    This book provides the reader with the practical knowledge necessary to select and use operational amplifier devices. It presents an extensive treatment of applications and a practically oriented, unified theory of operational circuits.Provides the reader with practical knowledge necessary to select and use operational amplifier devices. Presents an extensive treatment of applications and a practically oriented, unified theory of operational circuits

  5. 基于0.18μm CMOS工艺的电流型模拟运算电路%Current mode analog operational circuit based on 0.18 μm CMOS process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢锦川; 詹小英

    2016-01-01

    A new CMOS current mode multifunction analog operational circuit with low voltage and low power consumption is proposed,which can run multiplier,squarer,divider and different types of controllable gain amplifiers. The design is based on translinear principle,in which MOSFET is adopted and runs in the subthreshold region. The proposed circuit is composed of six inter⁃matching transistors to form two overlapping tranlinear loops. The circuit is based on 0.18 μm CMOS process,and sup⁃plied with ± 0.6 V low voltage DC source. The circuit was verified by simulation of Tanner TSpice software. The simulation re⁃sults show that when the circuit is configured as an amplifier,its frequency is about 1.5 MHz at -3 dB,linear error is 0.63%, total harmonic distortion is 0.08%,and maximum power consumption is 1.16 μW.%提出了一种新的低电压低功耗CMOS电流型模拟多功能运算电路,该电路能够运行乘法器、求平方器、除法器以及不同类型的可控增益放大器。该设计基于跨导线性原则,使用场效晶体管(MOSFET)且运行在亚阈值区,其由6个相匹配的晶体管组成,并形成两个重叠的跨导线性回路,电路设计采用0.18μm CMOS技术,使用±0.6 V低压直流电源供电。通过Tanner TSpice软件进行了仿真验证,仿真结果表明,当将其配置为一个放大器时,-3 dB频率约为1.5 MHz,线性误差为0.63%,总谐波失真为0.08%,最大功耗为1.16μW。

  6. Current Titles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Various

    2006-06-01

    This booklet is published for those interested in current research being conducted at the National Center for Electron Microscopy. The NCEM is a DOE-designated national user facility and is available at no charge to qualified researchers. Access is controlled by an external steering committee. Interested researchers may contact Jane Cavlina, Administrator, at 510/486-6036.

  7. On Bosonic Magnetic Flux Operator and Bosonic Faraday Operator Formula

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Hong-Yi; WANG Tong-Tong; WANG Ji-Suo

    2007-01-01

    In the literature about mesoscopic Josephson devices the magnetic flux is considered as an operator, the fundamental commutative relation between the magnetic flux operator and the Cooper-pair charge operator is usually preengaged. In this paper we show that such a relation can be deduced from the basic Bose operators' commutative relation through the entangled state representation. The Faraday formula in bosonic form is then equivalent to the second Josephson equation. The current operator equation for LC mesoscopic circuit is also derived.

  8. Colgajo libre osteocutáneo escapular en el tratamiento diferido de herida por arma de fuego Scapular osteocutaneous free flap in the deferred treatment of firearm wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Durán Moreno

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Las heridas por arma de fuego de velocidad alta o intermedia, provocan importantes pérdidas de tejido óseo y blando. El tratamiento diferido de estos casos (tratamiento reconstructivo requiere el aporte de tejido sano de regiones distantes mediante técnicas microquirúrgicas en la mayoría de las ocasiones. Exponemos la utilidad del colgajo osteocutáneo escapular (COE para la reconstrucción de defectos óseos mandibulares laterales con amplio defecto cutáneomucoso. Citamos detalles técnicos de la realización del colgajo ilustrados con la presentación de un caso clínico de un varón de 19 años con herida por arma de fuego en tercio inferior de la región lateral izquierda. Pérdida ósea del cuerpo mandibular y cutánea de la mejilla y región yugal ipsilateral. El tratamiento inicial consistió en traqueotomía, desbridamiento de tejidos desvitalizados, ferulización dentaria, bloqueo intermaxilar, colocación de placa de reconstrucción mandibular y colgajo de avance cervico-facial para cierre del defecto cutáneo. La necrosis del colgajo de avance cervicofacial produjo comunicación orofacial. La retracción cicatricial limitó la apertura oral a 0,8 cm. De forma diferida se procedió a colgajo osteomiocutáneo escapular-paraescapular del brazo izquierdo para reconstrución mandibular y de partes blandas intra y extraorales. Resultados satisfactorios estética y funcionalmente. Complicaciones producidas: fístula salival, desinserción del brazo largo del tríceps, y dehiscencia de herida de zona donante escapular que necesitó intervención para cierre mediante colgajo local.Firearm wounds caused by high-velocity projectiles cause enormous losses of bone and soft tissue. The deferred treatment of these cases (delayed reconstruction in most cases requires the transfer of free tissue from other areas of the body. The use of scapular and parascapular free flaps with scapular bone for the reconstruction of large lateral mandibular

  9. Assessments to determine the effect of current and alternate ladder operations on brood stock collection and behavior of hatchery fall Chinook Salmon at Spring Creek National Fish Hatchery during 2003-2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Spring Creek National Fish Hatchery traditionally operates an adult ladder, without closure, from the start of the tule fall Chinook salmon run in late August until...

  10. Deferred pre-emptive switch from calcineurin inhibitor to sirolimus leads to improvement in GFR and expansion of T regulatory cell population: a randomized, controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Bansal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Measures to prevent chronic calcineurin inhibitor (CNI toxicity have included limiting exposure by switching to sirolimus (SIR. SIR may favorably influence T regulator cell (T(reg population. This randomized controlled trial compares the effect of switching from CNI to SIR on glomerular filtration rate (GFR and T(reg frequency. METHODS: In this prospective open label randomized trial, primary living donor kidney transplant recipients on CNI-based immunosuppression were randomized to continue CNI or switched to sirolimus 2 months after surgery; 29 were randomized to receive CNI and 31 to SIR. All patients received mycophenolate mofetil and steroids. The main outcome parameter was estimated GFR (eGFR at 180 days. T(reg population was estimated by flowcytometry. RESULTS: Baseline characteristics in the two groups were similar. Forty-eight patients completed the trial. At six months, patients in the SIR group had significantly higher eGFR as compared to those in the CNI group (88.94 ± 11.78 vs 80.59 ± 16.51 mL/min, p = 0.038. Patients on SIR had a 12 mL/min gain of eGFR of at the end of six months. Patients in the SIR group showed significant increase in T(reg population at 30 days, which persisted till day 180. There was no difference in the adverse events in terms of number of acute rejection episodes, death, infections, proteinuria, lipid profile, blood pressure control and hematological parameters between the two groups. Four patients taking SIR developed enthesitis. No patient left the study or switched treatment because of adverse event. CONCLUSIONS: A deferred pre-emptive switch over from CNI to SIR safely improves renal function and T(reg population at 6 months in living donor kidney transplant recipients. Registered in Clinical Trials Registry of India (CTRI/2011/091/000034.

  11. CpG signalling, H2A.Z/H3 acetylation and microRNA-mediated deferred self-attenuation orchestrate foetal NOS3 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postberg, Jan; Kanders, Miriam; Forcob, Sakeh; Willems, Rhea; Orth, Valerie; Hensel, Kai Oliver; Weil, Patrick Philipp; Wirth, Stefan; Jenke, Andreas Christoph

    2015-01-01

    An adverse intrauterine environment leads to permanent physiological changes including vascular tone regulation, potentially influencing the risk for adult vascular diseases. We therefore aimed to monitor responsive NOS3 expression in human umbilical artery endothelial cells (HUAEC) and to study the underlying epigenetic signatures involved in its regulation. NOS3 and STAT3 mRNA levels were elevated in HUAEC of patients who suffered from placental insufficiency. 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, H3K9ac and Histone 2A (H2A).Zac at the NOS3 transcription start site directly correlated with NOS3 mRNA levels. Concomitantly, we observed entangled histone acetylation patterns and NOS3 response upon hypoxic conditions in vitro. Knock-down of either NOS3 or STAT3 by RNAi provided evidence for a functional NOS3/STAT3 relationship. Moreover, we recognized massive turnover of Stat3 at a discrete binding site in the NOS3 promoter. Interestingly, induced hyperacetylation resulted in short-termed increase of NOS3 mRNA followed by deferred decrease indicating that NOS3 expression could become self-attenuated by co-expressed intronic 27 nt-ncRNA. Reporter assay results and phylogenetic analyses enabled us to propose a novel model for STAT3-3'-UTR targeting by this 27-nt-ncRNA. An adverse intrauterine environment leads to adaptive changes of NOS3 expression. Apparently, a rapid NOS3 self-limiting response upon ectopic triggers co-exists with longer termed expression changes in response to placental insufficiency involving differential epigenetic signatures. Their persistence might contribute to impaired vascular endothelial response and consequently increase the risk of cardiovascular disease later in life.

  12. Operational calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Boehme, Thomas K

    1987-01-01

    Operational Calculus, Volume II is a methodical presentation of operational calculus. An outline of the general theory of linear differential equations with constant coefficients is presented. Integral operational calculus and advanced topics in operational calculus, including locally integrable functions and convergence in the space of operators, are also discussed. Formulas and tables are included.Comprised of four sections, this volume begins with a discussion on the general theory of linear differential equations with constant coefficients, focusing on such topics as homogeneous and non-ho

  13. Operating systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tsichritzis, Dionysios C; Rheinboldt, Werner

    1974-01-01

    Operating Systems deals with the fundamental concepts and principles that govern the behavior of operating systems. Many issues regarding the structure of operating systems, including the problems of managing processes, processors, and memory, are examined. Various aspects of operating systems are also discussed, from input-output and files to security, protection, reliability, design methods, performance evaluation, and implementation methods.Comprised of 10 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of what constitutes an operating system, followed by a discussion on the definition and pr

  14. Schwartz operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyl, M.; Kiukas, J.; Werner, R. F.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we introduce Schwartz operators as a non-commutative analog of Schwartz functions and provide a detailed discussion of their properties. We equip them, in particular, with a number of different (but equivalent) families of seminorms which turns the space of Schwartz operators into a Fréchet space. The study of the topological dual leads to non-commutative tempered distributions which are discussed in detail as well. We show, in particular, that the latter can be identified with a certain class of quadratic forms, therefore making operations like products with bounded (and also some unbounded) operators and quantum harmonic analysis available to objects which are otherwise too singular for being a Hilbert space operator. Finally, we show how the new methods can be applied by studying operator moment problems and convergence properties of fluctuation operators.

  15. Transition Operators

    CERN Document Server

    Alcock-Zeilinger, Judith

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we give a generic algorithm of the transition operators between Hermitian Young projection operators corresponding to equivalent irreducible representations of SU(N), using the compact expressions of Hermitian Young projection operators derived in a companion paper. We show that the Hermitian Young projection operators together with their transition operators constitute a fully orthogonal basis for the algebra of invariants of $V^{\\otimes m}$ that exhibits a systematically simplified multiplication table. We discuss the full algebra of invariants over $V^{\\otimes 3}$ and $V^{\\otimes 4}$ as explicit examples. In our presentation we make use of various standard concepts such as Young projection operators, Clebsch-Gordan operators, and invariants (in birdtrack notation). We tie these perspectives together and use them to shed light on each other.

  16. Current titles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This booklet is published for those interested in current research being conducted at the National Center for Electron Microscopy. The NCEM is a DOE-designated national user facility and is available at no charge to qualified researchers. Access is controlled by an external steering committee. Interested researchers may contact Gretchen Hermes at (510) 486-5006 or address below for a User`s Guide. Copies of available papers can be ordered from: Theda Crawford National Center for Electron Microscopy, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, One Cyclotron Rd., MS72, Berkeley, California, USA 94720.

  17. Imposed currents in galvanic cells

    OpenAIRE

    Biesheuvel, P.M.; Soestbergen, M.; Bazant, M. Z.

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the steady-state behavior of a general mathematical model for reversible galvanic cells, such as redox flow cells, reversible solid oxide fuel cells, and rechargeable batteries. We consider not only operation in the galvanic discharging mode, spontaneously generating a positive current against an external load, but also operation in two modes which require a net input of electrical energy: (i) the electrolytic charging mode, where a negative current is imposed to generate a voltage...

  18. Current ornithology

    CERN Document Server

    1983-01-01

    The appearance of the first volume of a projected series is the occasion for comment on scope, aims, and genesis of the work. The scope of Current Ornithology is all of the biology of birds. Ornithology, as a whole-organism science, is concerned with birds at every level of bi­ ological organization, from the molecular to the community, at least from the Jurassic to the present time, and over every scholarly discipline in which bird biology is done; to say this is merely to expand a dic­ tionary definition of "ornithology. " The aim of the work, to be realized over several volumes, is to present reviews or position statements con­ cerning the active fields of ornithological research. The reviews will be relatively short, and often will be done from the viewpoint of a readily­ identified group or school. Such a work could have come into being at any time within the past fifty years, but that Current Ornithology appears now is a result of events that are only seven to eight years old. One important event wa...

  19. Hermeneutic operative calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Sivakumar; Isawasan, Pradeep; Mohanan, Vasuky

    2014-07-01

    The predicate calculus used currently by mathematical logic in computer science, philosophy and linguistic was found to be too restrictive and inadequate for describing the grammar of natural and artificial language. Therefore many higher order logics have been developed to overcome the limitation of predicate calculus. In this paper a new representation of logic using mathematical principles has been developed for the natural language called Hermeneutic Operative Calculus. This Hermeneutic Operative Calculus is a new language interpretive calculus developed to account for the syntactic, semantic and pragmatic features of natural language and allows removing the restrictions of any particular natural language in the semantic field its map out. The logic of Hermeneutic Operative Calculus capable of represent the syntactic and semantic of factual information of a natural language precisely in any language. The logic of this Hermeneutic Operative Calculus has two different forms of operations called object and meta-operations. The object operation allow for listing the various objects, picturing the various propositions and so forth. The meta-operation would specify what cannot be specified by the object operation like semantical stances of a proposition. The basic operative processes of linguistics and cognitive logic will be mathematically conceptualized and elaborated in this paper.

  20. Spacecraft operations

    CERN Document Server

    Sellmaier, Florian; Schmidhuber, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The book describes the basic concepts of spaceflight operations, for both, human and unmanned missions. The basic subsystems of a space vehicle are explained in dedicated chapters, the relationship of spacecraft design and the very unique space environment are laid out. Flight dynamics are taught as well as ground segment requirements. Mission operations are divided into preparation including management aspects, execution and planning. Deep space missions and space robotic operations are included as special cases. The book is based on a course held at the German Space Operation Center (GSOC).

  1. Modern operating systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tanenbaum, Andrew S

    2015-01-01

    Modern Operating Systems, Fourth Edition, is intended for introductory courses in Operating Systems in Computer Science, Computer Engineering, and Electrical Engineering programs. It also serves as a useful reference for OS professionals ' The widely anticipated revision of this worldwide best-seller incorporates the latest developments in operating systems (OS) technologies. The Fourth Edition includes up-to-date materials on relevant'OS. Tanenbaum also provides information on current research based on his experience as an operating systems researcher. ' Modern Operating Systems, Third Editionwas the recipient of the 2010 McGuffey Longevity Award. The McGuffey Longevity Award recognizes textbooks whose excellence has been demonstrated over time.'http://taaonline.net/index.html " Teaching and Learning Experience This program will provide a better teaching and learning experience-for you and your students. It will help: ' *Provide Practical Detail on the Big Picture Concepts: A clear and entertaining writing s...

  2. Operation REDWING

    Science.gov (United States)

    1956-07-31

    only 16mm cinemascope films would be available after 1 August 1956t Act- tion was taken to modify the screens of the Terrace and Starlite theaters...approximately 900, was in operation throughout the interim and operational period. The Starlite Theater, which seats approximately 600, opened in

  3. OPERATION ASKARI

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    operation using conventional arms against Swapo Plan, while they were still massed in their .... stationed there was no real threat to our planned operation. the idea was to sow confusion in the minds ...... A four by four transport vehi- cle, based ...

  4. Operational Sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Rosendal; Hustvedt, Kjersti

    2016-01-01

    by Bakhtinian theory, Brian Edmiston developed a solution to this in the 1990s: the principle of ‘dialogic sequencing’. Aiming to escape the conflict between relativism and absolutism, we present an alternative to Edmiston’s approach, based on Niklas Luhmann’s theory of ‘operational closure’: operational...

  5. Business & Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agron, Joe

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an interview with John D. Musso, executive director of the Association of School Business Officials (ASBO) International. Musso talks about trends and issues that will most affect school business and operations in 2007 and beyond. Despite the challenges facing school operations, he believes that the key to being successful at…

  6. Operation crosscheck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, F. C.

    1964-11-06

    This report consists of three sections covering the three major areas of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory`s participation in Operation Crosscheck. These areas are: Diagnostic Aircraft; Radiochemical Sampling; and Device Assembly and Handling, Barbers Point. The information contained in these sections has been extracted from Crosscheck post-operation reports.

  7. Operational Amplifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxcroft, G. E.

    1986-01-01

    Addresses the introduction of low cost equipment into high school and college physical science classes. Examines the properties of an "ideal" operational amplifier and discusses how it might be used under saturated and non-saturated conditions. Notes the action of a "real" operational amplifier. (TW)

  8. GIS Operations at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site: A Review of the Current Status and a Proposed Action to Ensure Long-Term Data Sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, Andre M.; Webber, William D.

    2005-07-27

    This paper provides a current state of spatial data collections, use, management, and challenges at the Hanford Site through the use and development of a Spatial Data Infrastructure. Recommendations designed to ensure data quality, usability and sustainability now and into the future are presented.

  9. Reactor operation

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, J

    2013-01-01

    Reactor Operation covers the theoretical aspects and design information of nuclear reactors. This book is composed of nine chapters that also consider their control, calibration, and experimentation.The opening chapters present the general problems of reactor operation and the principles of reactor control and operation. The succeeding chapters deal with the instrumentation, start-up, pre-commissioning, and physical experiments of nuclear reactors. The remaining chapters are devoted to the control rod calibrations and temperature coefficient measurements in the reactor. These chapters also exp

  10. Operator programs and operator processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Walters, P.

    2003-01-01

    We define a notion of program which is not a computer program but an operator program: a detailed description of actions performed and decisions taken by a human operator (computer user) performing a task to achieve a goal in a simple setting consisting of that user, one or more computers and a

  11. Operator programs and operator processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Walters, P.

    2003-01-01

    We define a notion of program which is not a computer program but an operator program: a detailed description of actions performed and decisions taken by a human operator (computer user) performing a task to achieve a goal in a simple setting consisting of that user, one or more computers and a work

  12. Study of the generation of non-inductive current in Tore Supra and application to operational scenarios of a continuous tokamak; Etude de la generation de courant non inductive dans Tore Supra et application aux scenarios operationnels d`un tokamak continu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazarian-Vibert, F.

    1996-07-05

    Lower Hybrid Current Drive in tokamak plasma allows to obtain continuous operations, which constitute a necessary step towards a definition of a thermonuclear fusion reactor. The objectives of this work is to define and study fully non inductive steady-state scenarios on Tore Supra. The current diffusion equation is solved to determined precisely the inductive and non inductive current density profiles and their influence on the time evolution of a discharge. Then, a new operation mode is studied theoretically and experimentally. In this scenario, the transformer primary circuit voltage is controlled in such a way that the flux consumption vanishes. It allows to achieve full steady-state discharges in a fast and reproducible manner. A theoretical flux consumption scaling law during plasma current ramp-up assisted by Lower Hybrid waves is presented and validated by experimental data, in view to minimized this consumption. The influence of a non monotonic current density profile on the confinement and the transport of energy in the plasma is also clearly illustrated by experiments. (author). 155 refs.

  13. Study of the non inductive current generation in Tore Supra and application to the operational scenario of a continuous tokamak; Etude de la generation de courant non inductive dans Tore Supra et application aux scenarios operationnels d`un tokamak continu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazarian-Vibert, F.

    1996-07-05

    Lower Hybrid Current Drive in tokamak plasmas allows to obtain continuous operations, which constitute a necessary step towards a definition of a thermonuclear fusion reactor. The objectives of this work is to define and study fully non inductive steady-state scenarios on Tore Supra. The current diffusion equation is solved to determined precisely the inductive and non inductive current density profiles and their influence on thee time evolution of a discharge. Then, a new operation mode is studied theoretically and experimentally. In this scenario, the transformer primary circuit voltage is controlled in such a way that the flux consumption vanishes. It allows to achieve full steady-state discharges in a fast and reproducible manner. A theoretical flux consumption scaling law during plasma current ramp-up assisted by Lower-Hybrid waves is presented and validated by experimental data, in view to minimized this consumption. The influence of a non monotonic current profile on the confinement and the transport of energy in the plasma is also clearly illustrated by experiments. (author). 138 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Net Operations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋昌俊; 吴哲辉

    1992-01-01

    Two kinds of net operations.addition and Cartesian production of P/T nets,are introduced.They are defined on the set of underlying net of P/T systems.The conditions for preserving structural properties of Petri net after these operations are discussed.It is shown that the set of P/T nets forms and Abelian group for net addition operation and the inverse net of a P/T net in usual meaning of net theory is exactly the inverse of this P/T net as an element of the P/T net group;and that the set of P/T nets forms an Abelian ring for net addition and Caresian product operations.

  15. Operable Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of operable unit data from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different times and...

  16. Operator theory

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    A one-sentence definition of operator theory could be: The study of (linear) continuous operations between topological vector spaces, these being in general (but not exclusively) Fréchet, Banach, or Hilbert spaces (or their duals). Operator theory is thus a very wide field, with numerous facets, both applied and theoretical. There are deep connections with complex analysis, functional analysis, mathematical physics, and electrical engineering, to name a few. Fascinating new applications and directions regularly appear, such as operator spaces, free probability, and applications to Clifford analysis. In our choice of the sections, we tried to reflect this diversity. This is a dynamic ongoing project, and more sections are planned, to complete the picture. We hope you enjoy the reading, and profit from this endeavor.

  17. Corticosterone mediated costs of reproduction link current to future breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossin, Glenn T; Phillips, Richard A; Lattin, Christine R; Romero, L Michael; Williams, Tony D

    2013-11-01

    Life-history theory predicts that costs are associated with reproduction. One possible mediator of costs involves the secretion of glucocorticoid hormones, which in birds can be measured in feathers grown during the breeding period. Glucocorticoids mediate physiological responses to unpredictable environmental or other stressors, but they can also function as metabolic regulators during more predictable events such as reproduction. Here we show that corticosterone ("Cort") in feathers grown during the breeding season reflects reproductive effort in two Antarctic seabird species (giant petrels, Macronectes spp.). In females of both species, but not males, feather Cort ("fCort") was nearly 1.5-fold higher in successful than failed breeders (those that lost their eggs/chicks), suggesting a cost of successful reproduction, i.e., high fCort levels in females reflect the elevated plasma Cort levels required to support high metabolic demands of chick-rearing. Successful breeding also led to delayed moult prior to winter migration. The fCort levels and pre-migration moult score that we measured at the end of current breeding were predictive of subsequent reproductive effort in the following year. Birds with high fCort and a delayed initiation of moult were much more likely to defer breeding in the following year. Cort levels and the timing of moult thus provide a potential mechanism for the tradeoff between current and future reproduction.

  18. Persistent-current switch for pancake coils of rare earth-barium-copper-oxide high-temperature superconductor: Design and test results of a double-pancake coil operated in liquid nitrogen (77-65 K) and in solid nitrogen (60-57 K)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Timing; Michael, Philip C.; Voccio, John; Bascuñán, Juan; Hahn, Seungyong; Iwasa, Yukikazu

    2016-08-01

    We present design and test results of a superconducting persistent current switch (PCS) for pancake coils of rare-earth-barium-copper-oxide, REBCO, high-temperature superconductor (HTS). Here, a REBCO double-pancake (DP) coil, 152-mm ID, 168-mm OD, 12-mm high, was wound with a no-insulation technique. We converted a ˜10-cm long section in the outermost layer of each pancake to a PCS. The DP coil was operated in liquid nitrogen (77-65 K) and in solid nitrogen (60-57 K). Over the operating temperature ranges of this experiment, the normal-state PCS enabled the DP coil to be energized; thereupon, the PCS resumed the superconducting state and the DP coil field decayed with a time constant of 100 h, which would have been nearly infinite, i.e., persistent-mode operation, were the joint across the coil terminals superconducting.

  19. Persistent-current switch for pancake coils of rare earth-barium-copper-oxide high-temperature superconductor: Design and test results of a double-pancake coil operated in liquid nitrogen (77–65 K) and in solid nitrogen (60–57 K)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Timing; Michael, Philip C.; Bascuñán, Juan; Iwasa, Yukikazu, E-mail: iwasa@jokaku.mit.edu [Francis Bitter Magnet Laboratory, Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 170 Albany Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Voccio, John [Wentworth Institute of Technology, 550 Huntington Ave, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Hahn, Seungyong [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, Tallahassee, 2031 Paul Dirac Drive, Florida 32310 (United States)

    2016-08-22

    We present design and test results of a superconducting persistent current switch (PCS) for pancake coils of rare-earth-barium-copper-oxide, REBCO, high-temperature superconductor (HTS). Here, a REBCO double-pancake (DP) coil, 152-mm ID, 168-mm OD, 12-mm high, was wound with a no-insulation technique. We converted a ∼10-cm long section in the outermost layer of each pancake to a PCS. The DP coil was operated in liquid nitrogen (77–65 K) and in solid nitrogen (60–57 K). Over the operating temperature ranges of this experiment, the normal-state PCS enabled the DP coil to be energized; thereupon, the PCS resumed the superconducting state and the DP coil field decayed with a time constant of 100 h, which would have been nearly infinite, i.e., persistent-mode operation, were the joint across the coil terminals superconducting.

  20. Dreams Deferred and Dreams Denied

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Strong, Daysi; Gomez, Christina; Luna-Duarte, Maria E.; Meiners, Erica R.

    2010-01-01

    As faculty and administrators at federally designated "Hispanic serving institutions" (defined as colleges and universities having a minimum Latino student population of 25 percent), the authors came together in part because of the lack of research on the experiences of undocumented students, particularly in the Midwest; their own…

  1. Reflections on a Dream Deferred

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, John

    2008-01-01

    Americans have come a great distance since the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. The African-American middle class has grown. African Americans, women, and other minorities are in positions of leadership today that they could never have aspired to 40 years ago. In the 2008 election season, an African-American man is a serious contender…

  2. Community Colleges: A Vision Deferred.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, Anthony P.; DesRochers, Donna M.; Rose, Stephen J.

    1998-01-01

    Embraces a pragmatic view of education as first articulated by John Dewey and Jane Addams. Argues that community colleges should steer away from excessive specialization and provide a more general skills education directed toward preparing students to compete in the global economy. Contains two figures, two data tables and 13 references. (JDI)

  3. Terrorist Threats and Judicial Deference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Jens Elo

    2014-01-01

    The article analyses the extent to which judicial restraint in cases concerning national security is justified. It is argued that the extent of restraint must depend on the normative issue/aspect which is subject to judicial review....

  4. Community Colleges: A Vision Deferred.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, Anthony P.; DesRochers, Donna M.; Rose, Stephen J.

    1998-01-01

    Embraces a pragmatic view of education as first articulated by John Dewey and Jane Addams. Argues that community colleges should steer away from excessive specialization and provide a more general skills education directed toward preparing students to compete in the global economy. Contains two figures, two data tables and 13 references. (JDI)

  5. FCL: A solution to fault current problems in DC networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cointe, Y.; Tixador, P.; Villard, C.

    2008-02-01

    Within the context of the electric power market liberalization, DC networks have many interests compared to AC ones. New energy landscapes open the way of a diversified production. Innovative interconnection diagrams, in particular using DC buses, are under development. In this case it is not possible to defer the fault current interruption in the AC side. DC fault current cutting remains a difficult problem. FCLs (Fault Current Limiters) enable to limit the current to a preset value, lower than the theoretical short-circuit current. For this application Coated Conductors (CC) offer an excellent opportunity. Due to these promising characteristics we build a test bench and work on the implementation of these materials. The test bench is composed by 10 power amplifiers, to reach 4 kVA in many configurations of current and voltage. We carried out limiting experiments on DyBaCuO CC from EHTS, samples are about five centimeters long and many potential measuring points are pasted on the shunt to estimate the quench homogeneity. Thermal phenomena in FCLs are essential, numerical models are important to calculate the maximum temperatures. To validate these models we measure the CC temperature by depositing thermal sensors (Cu resistance) above the shunt layer and the substrate. An electrical insulation with a low thermal resistivity between the CC and the sensors is necessary. We use a thin layer of Parylene because of its good mechanical and electrical insulation properties at low temperature. The better quench behaviour of CC for temperatures close to the critical temperature has been confirmed. The measurements are in good agreement with simulations, this validates the thermal models.

  6. 《急救基本知识与技术》网络教学运行现状及效果分析%Current operation status and research analysis of the network sharing course

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨艺; 丛小玲; 李璐寰; 沈娟; 邹霞

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate and analyze the operation status of the network sharing courseFirst Aid: Basics and Techniques which has been established at the spring and summer term 2015. To summarize the teaching effects and address existing problems, hence to further improve the course constructions. Methods: We conducted an online survey to total 18049 students who selected this course. The survey included the curriculum satisfaction, curriculum evaluation and face-to-face class operation evaluation. Results: The survey results showed a great satisfaction (>89%) among the students at the course constructions, curriculum evaluation and face-to-face class operation. Conclusions: The network sharing class teaching is suitable for the courseFirst Aid: Basics and Techniques; this teaching method could achieve satisifed teaching effects. A sophisticated teaching management and well-arranged course constructions could further improve the value of the course.% 目的:对网络共享课程《急救基本知识与技术》2015春夏学期的运行情况进行调查分析,总结教学效果和存在问题,以进一步完善课程建设。方法:对全国选修《急救基本知识与技术》共享课程春夏学期的学生18049人进行网上调查,包括课程整体满意度调查、课程运行测评情况和见面课运行测评等。结果:选课学生对课程整体满意度、课程运行测评情况和见面课运行测评的满意度较高(>89%)。结论:网络共享课教学模式适合《急救知识与技术》课程的开展,总体取得了较好的教学效果,同时,需要进一步提高教学管理水平,完善课程建设。

  7. Operations & Maintenance Best Practices - A Guide to Achieving Operational Efficiency (Release 3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Greg; Pugh, Ray; Melendez, Aldo P.; Hunt, W. D.

    2010-08-04

    This guide highlights operations and maintenance programs targeting energy and water efficiency that are estimated to save 5% to 20% on energy bills without a significant capital investment. The purpose of this guide is to provide you, the Operations and Maintenance (O&M)/Energy manager and practitioner, with useful information about O&M management, technologies, energy and water efficiency, and cost-reduction approaches. To make this guide useful and to reflect your needs and concerns, the authors met with O&M and Energy managers via Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) workshops. In addition, the authors conducted extensive literature searches and contacted numerous vendors and industry experts. The information and case studies that appear in this guide resulted from these activities. It needs to be stated at the outset that this guide is designed to provide information on effective O&M as it applies to systems and equipment typically found at Federal facilities. This guide is not designed to provide the reader with step-by-step procedures for performing O&M on any specific piece of equipment. Rather, this guide first directs the user to the manufacturer's specifications and recommendations. In no way should the recommendations in this guide be used in place of manufacturer's recommendations. The recommendations in this guide are designed to supplement those of the manufacturer, or, as is all too often the case, provide guidance for systems and equipment for which all technical documentation has been lost. As a rule, this guide will first defer to the manufacturer's recommendations on equipment operation and maintenance.

  8. Nuclear material operations manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler, R.P.

    1981-02-01

    This manual provides a concise and comprehensive documentation of the operating procedures currently practiced at Sandia National Laboratories with regard to the management, control, and accountability of nuclear materials. The manual is divided into chapters which are devoted to the separate functions performed in nuclear material operations-management, control, accountability, and safeguards, and the final two chapters comprise a document which is also issued separately to provide a summary of the information and operating procedures relevant to custodians and users of radioactive and nuclear materials. The manual also contains samples of the forms utilized in carrying out nuclear material activities. To enhance the clarity of presentation, operating procedures are presented in the form of playscripts in which the responsible organizations and necessary actions are clearly delineated in a chronological fashion from the initiation of a transaction to its completion.

  9. LCOGT Network Observatory Operations

    CERN Document Server

    Pickles, Andrew; Boroson, Todd; Burleson, Ben; Conway, Patrick; de Vera, Jon; Elphick, Mark; Haworth, Brian; Rosing, Wayne; Saunders, Eric; Thomas, Doug; White, Gary; Willis, Mark; Walker, Zach

    2014-01-01

    We describe the operational capabilities of the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network. We summarize our hardware and software for maintaining and monitoring network health. We focus on methodologies to utilize the automated system to monitor availability of sites, instruments and telescopes, to monitor performance, permit automatic recovery, and provide automatic error reporting. The same jTCS control system is used on telescopes of apertures 0.4m, 0.8m, 1m and 2m, and for multiple instruments on each. We describe our network operational model, including workloads, and illustrate our current tools, and operational performance indicators, including telemetry and metrics reporting from on-site reductions. The system was conceived and designed to establish effective, reliable autonomous operations, with automatic monitoring and recovery - minimizing human intervention while maintaining quality. We illustrate how far we have been able to achieve that.

  10. 卫生经济学583例节育手术并发症原因调查分析%Cases of Birth control Operation Templeman D.current Investigation and Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张素萍

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To Quzhou 2000~2002 handan various festival(unique)yukon surgery is the first example was identified as a surgical complications of 99102 example causes were investigated.Methods:We collected various festival (off)the yukon is the surgical complications types,wolume, occurrence,analyze the causes.Results:The discussion reduce birth control operation complications measures stable low birth level,reduce women of child-bearing age of pain and sufferings,improve the quality of family planning technology,ensure the family planning career smoothly.Conclusion:The incidence of complications in the birth control operation directly influence family planning career smoothly.%目的:对邯郸市曲周县2000~2002 年间各种节(绝)育是手术例中鉴定为手术并发症的583 例原因进行调查分析.方法:收集各种节(绝)育是手术并发症的种类、数量、发生率,分析原因.结果:讨论减少节育手术并发症的对策,对稳定低生育水平,减轻育龄妇女的痛苦,提高计划生育技术质量,保障计划生育事业得以顺利进行.结论:节育手术并发症的发生率直接影响计划生育事业的顺利进行.

  11. Applied Operations Research: Operator's Assistant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Stuart K.

    2015-01-01

    NASA operates high value critical equipment (HVCE) that requires trouble shooting, periodic maintenance and continued monitoring by Operations staff. The complexity HVCE and information required to maintain and trouble shoot HVCE to assure continued mission success as paper is voluminous. Training on new HVCE is commensurate with the need for equipment maintenance. LaRC Research Directorate has undertaken a proactive research to support Operations staff by initiation of the development and prototyping an electronic computer based portable maintenance aid (Operator's Assistant). This research established a goal with multiple objectives and a working prototype was developed. The research identified affordable solutions; constraints; demonstrated use of commercial off the shelf software; use of the US Coast Guard maintenance solution; NASA Procedure Representation Language; and the identification of computer system strategies; where these demonstrations and capabilities support the Operator, and maintenance. The results revealed validation against measures of effectiveness and overall proved a substantial training and capability sustainment tool. The research indicated that the OA could be deployed operationally at the LaRC Compressor Station with an expectation of satisfactorily results and to obtain additional lessons learned prior to deployment at other LaRC Research Directorate Facilities. The research revealed projected cost and time savings.

  12. Impact of temperature and programming method on the data retention of Cu/Al2O3-based conductive-bridge RAM operated at low-current (10 μA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmonte, A.; Fantini, A.; Redolfi, A.; Houssa, M.; Jurczak, M.; Goux, L.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper we outline the effects on the memory window of the programming method and pulse width and of the temperature, in Cu/Al2O3-based CBRAM targeting a 10-μA current regime. Despite its large median value, the overall HRS/LRS ratio in these devices can be drastically reduced due to the LRS and HRS dispersion and to the instability of the resistive states over time, especially in a low-current regime. For this reason, in this study we adopt a statistical approach, focusing on the tails of the cumulative distribution Function (CDF). We compare different verify-based algorithms to force an initial tail-to-tail (1st percentile of CDF) resistive window, demonstrating that, in order to reduce the total programming time, a complete Write/Erase cycle must be performed at each verify attempt. We also prove that the stability of the programmed LRS/HRS states is strongly influenced by the external temperature and that it is affected by the programming pulse width (PW) used in the algorithm, likely driving the diffusion processes that originate the state degradation. Selecting the appropriate PW, no overlap of the LRS and HRS distributions is observed after 1 week at room temperature.

  13. Características estruturais e índice de tombamento de Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk em pastagens diferidas Structural characteristics and falling index of Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk on deferred pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Eduardo Rozalino Santos

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito dos períodos de diferimento e de pastejo sobre a densidade populacional de perfilhos, a massa dos componentes morfológicos da forragem e o índice de tombamento em pastagens de Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk. Dois ensaios foram conduzidos: o primeiro denominado ano 1 e, o segundo, ano 2. Adotou-se o esquema de parcelas subdivididas, segundo o delineamento em blocos casualizados, com duas repetições para cada combinação dos períodos de diferimento da pastagem com os períodos de pastejo. No ano 1, os períodos de diferimento foram 103, 121, 146 e 163 dias; e no ano 2, foram 73, 103, 131 e 163 dias. Os períodos de pastejo foram 1, 29, 57 e 85 dias. O aumento do período de diferimento elevou a densidade populacional de perfilhos reprodutivos (ano 2: de 37 para 304 perfilhos/m² e reduziu a de perfilhos vegetativos (ano 1: de 1.253 para 889 perfilhos/m²; ano 2: de 1.235 para 627 perfilhos/m². Durante o período de pastejo, ocorreu diminuição no número de perfilhos vegetativo (ano 1: de 988 para 868 perfilhos/m² e reprodutivo (ano 1: de 216 para 0 perfilhos/m²; ano 2: de 203 para 0 perfilhos/m² e aumento no número de perfilhos mortos (ano 1: 463 para 1.088 perfilhos/m²; ano 2: de 341 para 1.010 perfilhos/m². Pastagens sob maiores períodos de diferimento e de pastejo apresentaram maior massa de colmo morto (6.093 e 3.819 kg/ha de MS nos anos 1 e 2, respectivamente e menor massa de lâmina foliar verde (341 e 177 kg/ha de MS nos anos 1 e 2, respectivamente. Pastos de Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk, submetidos a longos períodos de diferimento e de pastejo possuem características estruturais desfavoráveis à produção animal.This worked aimed to evaluate the effects of deferring and grazing periods on the tiller population density, morphological component mass of forage and falling index on Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk pastures. Two assays were carried out: first year and second year

  14. Mission operations management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocco, David A.

    1994-01-01

    Redefining the approach and philosophy that operations management uses to define, develop, and implement space missions will be a central element in achieving high efficiency mission operations for the future. The goal of a cost effective space operations program cannot be realized if the attitudes and methodologies we currently employ to plan, develop, and manage space missions do not change. A management philosophy that is in synch with the environment in terms of budget, technology, and science objectives must be developed. Changing our basic perception of mission operations will require a shift in the way we view the mission. This requires a transition from current practices of viewing the mission as a unique end product, to a 'mission development concept' built on the visualization of the end-to-end mission. To achieve this change we must define realistic mission success criteria and develop pragmatic approaches to achieve our goals. Custom mission development for all but the largest and most unique programs is not practical in the current budget environment, and we simply do not have the resources to implement all of our planned science programs. We need to shift our management focus to allow us the opportunity make use of methodologies and approaches which are based on common building blocks that can be utilized in the space, ground, and mission unique segments of all missions.

  15. Current status of premature infants′ pain operation experienced during hospitalization%早产儿住院期间经历致痛性操作的现状调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽莲; 熊小云; 余霞娟; 袁瑞琴; 黄颖穗; 曹爱芬

    2015-01-01

    目的:调查早产儿住院期间经历致痛性操作的现状,为早产儿的疼痛管理提供理论依据。方法采用方便抽样的方法,选取2014年8—10月深圳市某三级医院新生儿重症监护室收治的111例早产儿为研究对象,调查早产儿住院期间经历致痛性操作的项目、数量及疼痛水平。疼痛评分采用早产儿疼痛评分量表( PIPP)进行评分。结果111例早产儿住院期间共经8258次致痛性操作,平均每例早产儿经历(74.4±18.22)次,每人每天经历(3.72±1.53)次。出生体质量<1500 g的早产儿平均每人经历153次,出生体质量≥1500 g的早产儿平均每人经历46次;早产儿经历最多的疼痛刺激是揭除3M透明敷贴,疼痛评分排在前3位的为外周动脉穿刺、采足底血、皮下注射。结论早产儿,特别是<1500 g的极/超低出生体质量儿在住院期间常需接受大量侵入性、致痛性操作。有必要加强医护人员疼痛管理能力的培训,从而减少疼痛刺激对早产儿造成的不良影响。%Objective To investigate the premature infants′ pain operation during their hospitalization and thus provide evidence for the necessity of premature infants pain management. Methods Using the method of convenient sampling, we prospectively collected data of all painful procedures performed on 111 premature infants who recruited from admission to discharge in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit in Shenzhen. The pain of premature infant was evaluated by premature infant pain profile ( PIPP ) . Results During hospitalization, 111 premature infants were exposed to 8 258 painful operations, with each preterm having (74. 4 ± 18. 22) times and averagely (3. 72 ± 1. 53) times each day. Below 1 500 g birth weight infants and equal and beyond 1 500 g birth weight infants were exposed to a median of 153 and 46 painful procedures, respectively. Among those painful procedures, 3M Transparent Dressing removal was the most

  16. 龙狮运动市场化运营现状调查研究%Investigation and Study of Current Marketization Operation Situation of Chinese Dragon and Lion Dance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟伟; 李晓呜; 林劲杨

    2012-01-01

    With the methodd of literature, expert interview, survey, mathematical statistics, induction and deduction and other research methods, the paper studies the current conditions and the influencing factor of Chinese dragon and lion dance, the long-term planning and countermeasures of Chinese dragon and lion dance Association's development trend. On the current conditions of Chinese dragon and lion dance, attention of the government, public participation, social support, frequent events and activities organized, all these gradually increase have taken shape, they became drive national dragon lion movement development leader and lever, and play a positive role for the promotion and development of Chinese dragon and lion dance.%文章运用文献资料法、专家访谈法、调查法、数理统计、归纳演绎法等研究方法,对龙狮运动发展的现状和影响因素,以及龙狮运动协会的发展趋势进行长远规划与对策研究;,就龙狮运动目前发展而言,政府的重视、群众的参与、社会的支持、赛事活动的频繁举办并逐渐增加的局面已经形成,成为带动全国龙狮运动发展的龙头和杠杆,为龙狮运动的推广和发展发挥了积极的作用。

  17. Operational Circulars

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Operational Circular N° 4 - April 2003 Conditions for use by members of the CERN personnel of vehicles belonging to or rented by CERN - This circular has been drawn up. Operational Circular N° 5 - October 2000 Use of CERN computing facilities - Further details on the personal use of CERN computing facilities Operational Circular N° 5 and its Subsidiary Rules http://cern.ch/ComputingRules defines the rules for the use of CERN computing facilities. One of the basic principles governing such use is that it must come within the professional duties of the user concerned, as defined by the user's divisional hierarchy. However, personal use of the computing facilities is tolerated or allowed provided : a) It is in compliance with Operational Circular N° 5 and not detrimental to official duties, including those of other users; b) the frequency and duration is limited and there is a negligible use of CERN resources; c) it does not constitute a political, commercial and/or profit-making activity; d) it is not...

  18. Operative links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen

    2010-01-01

    as networks: second, a semantic perspective on discourses and concepts of health, and, third, a health pedagogical perspective on participation, intervention, and roles. This paper argues for the importance of 'operative links' between different levels in health strategies. It is proposed that such links...

  19. Operation Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stüben, Henning; Tietjen, Anne

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: This paper seeks to challenge the notion of context from an operational perspective. Can we grasp the forces that shape the complex conditions for an architectural or urban design within the notion of context? By shifting the gaze towards the agency of architecture, contextual analysis...

  20. Operative management of appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Peter, Shawn D; Snyder, Charles L

    2016-08-01

    Appendectomy has been the standard of care for appendicitis since the late 1800s, and remains one of the most common operations performed in children. The advent of data-driven medicine has led to questions about every aspect of the operation-whether appendectomy is even necessary, when it should be performed (timing), how the procedure is done (laparoscopic variants versus open and irrigation versus no irrigation), length of hospital stay, and antibiotic duration. The goal of this analysis is to review the current status of, and available data regarding, the surgical management of appendicitis in children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Your Lung Operation: After Your Operation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Surgeons Education Patients and Family Skills Programs Your Lung Operation Your Lung Operation DVD After Your Operation Back to Your Lung Operation Your Lung Operation DVD Welcome Your Lung ...

  2. Comparative Study on Current Operation Status of Chinese PCB Companies and World Top Companies%我国本土PCB企业与全球顶尖企业运营现状对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宏强

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the operation status of world top PCB companies (Unimicron, Ibiden, Samsung EM) including company general situation, PCB and other business status, characterization of business growth, capacity, factory location, technology status, equipment and facility, per capita output value, main customers, profit and expansion plan.The paper first presents the gap between Chinese domestic PCB companies and world top PCB companies in an all - sided and systemic way in PCB industry, which includes "hardware" (capacity, fund, equipment and technology) and " software" (business selection, business growth, strategy, financing channels, corporate governance, ideology and consciousness,and corporate responsibility).In addition, the paper provides an important reference to improve compotifiveness to Chinese domestic PCB companies in globalization competition.%通过研究全球顶尖的三家PCB企业(欣兴、揖斐电、三星电机)的运营现状,包括企业概况、总体业务、PCB业务、业务发展特点、产能、工厂布局、技术水准、设备设施、人均产值、主要客户、盈利能力、扩张计划等方面,首次在PCB业界全面、系统地提出我国本土PCB企业与全球顶尖企业在"硬件"(产能、资金、设备、技术)和"软件"(业务选择、业务发展、企业战略、融资渠道、公司治理、思想意识、企业责任意识)方面的差距:对我国本土企业在全球化竞争中提高竞争力具有重要的借鉴意义.

  3. Renal autotransplantation: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, B H; Banowsky, L H; Hewitt, C B; Straffon, R A

    1976-01-01

    Autotransplantation, with or without an extracorporeal renal operation, has been done 39 times in 37 patients. Indications for the procedure included severe ureteral injury in 4 patients, failed supravesical diversion in 2, renal carcinoma in a solitary kidney in 1, renovascular hypertension in 1 and donor arterial reconstruction before renal transplantation in 29. Success was obtained in all but 2 procedures, both of which involved previously operated kidneys with severe inflammation and adhesions involving the renal pelvis and pedicle. Based on our experience and a review of currently available literature we believe that renal autotransplantation and extracorporeal reconstruction can provide the best solution for patients with severe renovascular and ureteral disease not correctable by conventional operative techniques. The technique can be of particular value in removing centrally located tumors in solitary kidneys and in preparing donor kidneys with abnormal arteries for renal transplantation. The role of autotransplantation in the management of advanced renal trauma and calculus disease is less clear. A long-term comparison of patients treated by extracorporeal nephrolithotomy versus conventional lithotomy techniques will be necessary before a conclusion is reached in these disease categories.

  4. Joint Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-17

    Unified Task Force (UNITAF) Somalia was formed with forces from France, Italy, Canada, Belgium, Egypt , Turkey, Saudi Arabia, and the United States...military presence, open-source intelligence ( OSINT ) may be the best immediately available information to prepare US forces to operate in a foreign...country. OSINT from radio broadcasts, newspapers, and periodicals often provide tip-offs for HUMINT and other intelligence and information collection

  5. Current Tax Source Operation Status and Development Countermeasures of the Manufacturing Industry in Jiangsu Province%江苏省制造业税源运行与发展研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Jiangsu has always been a major province of industry nationwide, and manufacturing lnaustry is the mainstay of industrial economy and the main body and also one of the main tax sources. During the 'Eleventh Five-year Plan' Period, the tax source of Jiangsu in manufacturing industry was on a steady growth, and regional difference gradually narrowed. This paper analyzes current situations, causes and development trend of the manufacturing industry in Jiangsu Province and then puts forward some relevant policy suggestions: focusing on the development of green and low-carbon economy, implementing manufacturing transformation and upgrading project, and ensuring the stable and healthy development of tax source in the manufacturing industry.%江苏是工业大省,制造业是其工业经济的支柱和主体,也是主要税源之一。“十一五”期间江苏制造业税源呈现稳步增长态势,地区差异逐渐缩小。本文分析江苏制造业税源的现状、成因及走势,提出促进江苏制造业发展的相关政策建议:重点发展绿色低碳经济,实施制造业转型升级工程,力促制造业税源的稳定健康发展。

  6. Usefulness of fractional flow reserve measurements to defer revascularization in patients with stable or unstable angina pectoris, non-ST-elevation and ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction, or atypical chest pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, Jean-Michel; Rodés-Cabau, Josep; Bertrand, Olivier F; Gleeton, Onil; Nguyen, Can Nanh; Barbeau, Gerald; Proulx, Guy; De Larochellière, Robert; Déry, Jean-Pierre; Batalla, Nuria; Dana, Ali; Facta, Alvaro; Roy, Louis

    2006-08-01

    This study determined the safety of deferring coronary revascularization based on a fractional flow reserve (FFR) value > or = 0.75 in a series of consecutive unselected coronary patients with moderate coronary lesions, including patients with unstable angina, myocardial infarction (MI), and/or positive noninvasive test findings. The study included 201 consecutive coronary patients (mean age 62 +/- 10 years; 65% men) with 231 lesions evaluated by FFR measurement for which revascularization was deferred based on a FFR value > or = 0.75. Lesions associated with a positive noninvasive test result were those located in an artery supplying a myocardial territory in which myocardial ischemia was demonstrated by a noninvasive test. Cardiac events (cardiac death, MI, revascularization) and Canadian Cardiovascular Society angina class were evaluated at follow-up. Indications for coronary angiography included unstable angina or MI (62%), stable angina (30%), or atypical chest pain (8%). Forty-four patients (22%) had > or = 1 coronary lesion associated with a positive noninvasive test result in which FFR was evaluated. Mean FFR value was 0.87 +/- 0.06 and mean lesion percent diameter stenosis was 41 +/- 8%. At 11 +/- 6 months of follow-up, cardiac events occurred in 20 patients (10%), and no significant differences were observed between patients with unstable angina or MI and those with stable angina (9% vs 13%, p = 0.44) or between patients with and without lesions associated with positive noninvasive test results (9% vs 10%, p = 1.00). At the end of follow-up, 88% of patients were asymptomatic in angina class 0 or I, with no differences across various groups. In conclusion, these results suggest that patients with moderate coronary lesions can be safely managed without revascularization on the basis of FFR measurements, irrespective of clinical presentation and/or presence of positive noninvasive test results.

  7. Survival outcomes and effect of early vs. deferred cART among HIV-infected patients diagnosed at the time of an AIDS-defining event: a cohort analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miro, Jose M; Manzardo, Christian; Mussini, Cristina; Johnson, Margaret; d'Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Antinori, Andrea; Gill, M John; Sighinolfi, Laura; Uberti-Foppa, Caterina; Borghi, Vanni; Sabin, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    We analyzed clinical progression among persons diagnosed with HIV at the time of an AIDS-defining event, and assessed the impact on outcome of timing of combined antiretroviral treatment (cART). Retrospective, European and Canadian multicohort study.. Patients were diagnosed with HIV from 1997-2004 and had clinical AIDS from 30 days before to 14 days after diagnosis. Clinical progression (new AIDS event, death) was described using Kaplan-Meier analysis stratifying by type of AIDS event. Factors associated with progression were identified with multivariable Cox regression. Progression rates were compared between those starting early (AIDS event) or deferred (30-270 days after AIDS event) cART. The median (interquartile range) CD4 count and viral load (VL) at diagnosis of the 584 patients were 42 (16, 119) cells/µL and 5.2 (4.5, 5.7) log(10) copies/mL. Clinical progression was observed in 165 (28.3%) patients. Older age, a higher VL at diagnosis, and a diagnosis of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) (vs. other AIDS events) were independently associated with disease progression. Of 366 patients with an opportunistic infection, 178 (48.6%) received early cART. There was no significant difference in clinical progression between those initiating cART early and those deferring treatment (adjusted hazard ratio 1.32 [95% confidence interval 0.87, 2.00], p = 0.20). Older patients and patients with high VL or NHL at diagnosis had a worse outcome. Our data suggest that earlier initiation of cART may be beneficial among HIV-infected patients diagnosed with clinical AIDS in our setting.

  8. Survival outcomes and effect of early vs. deferred cART among HIV-infected patients diagnosed at the time of an AIDS-defining event: a cohort analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M Miro

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We analyzed clinical progression among persons diagnosed with HIV at the time of an AIDS-defining event, and assessed the impact on outcome of timing of combined antiretroviral treatment (cART. METHODS: Retrospective, European and Canadian multicohort study.. Patients were diagnosed with HIV from 1997-2004 and had clinical AIDS from 30 days before to 14 days after diagnosis. Clinical progression (new AIDS event, death was described using Kaplan-Meier analysis stratifying by type of AIDS event. Factors associated with progression were identified with multivariable Cox regression. Progression rates were compared between those starting early (<30 days after AIDS event or deferred (30-270 days after AIDS event cART. RESULTS: The median (interquartile range CD4 count and viral load (VL at diagnosis of the 584 patients were 42 (16, 119 cells/µL and 5.2 (4.5, 5.7 log(10 copies/mL. Clinical progression was observed in 165 (28.3% patients. Older age, a higher VL at diagnosis, and a diagnosis of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL (vs. other AIDS events were independently associated with disease progression. Of 366 patients with an opportunistic infection, 178 (48.6% received early cART. There was no significant difference in clinical progression between those initiating cART early and those deferring treatment (adjusted hazard ratio 1.32 [95% confidence interval 0.87, 2.00], p = 0.20. CONCLUSIONS: Older patients and patients with high VL or NHL at diagnosis had a worse outcome. Our data suggest that earlier initiation of cART may be beneficial among HIV-infected patients diagnosed with clinical AIDS in our setting.

  9. Imposed currents in galvanic cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesheuvel, P.M.; Soestbergen, M.; Bazant, M.Z.

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the steady-state behavior of a general mathematical model for reversible galvanic cells, such as redox flow cells, reversible solid oxide fuel cells, and rechargeable batteries. We consider not only operation in the galvanic discharging mode, spontaneously generating a positive current

  10. Imposed currents in galvanic cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesheuvel, P.M.; Soestbergen, M.; Bazant, M.Z.

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the steady-state behavior of a general mathematical model for reversible galvanic cells, such as redox flow cells, reversible solid oxide fuel cells, and rechargeable batteries. We consider not only operation in the galvanic discharging mode, spontaneously generating a positive current ag

  11. A Multiprocessor Operating System Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Gary M.; Campbell, Roy H.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a multiprocessor operating system simulator that was developed by the authors in the Fall semester of 1987. The simulator was built in response to the need to provide students with an environment in which to build and test operating system concepts as part of the coursework of a third-year undergraduate operating systems course. Written in C++, the simulator uses the co-routine style task package that is distributed with the AT&T C++ Translator to provide a hierarchy of classes that represents a broad range of operating system software and hardware components. The class hierarchy closely follows that of the 'Choices' family of operating systems for loosely- and tightly-coupled multiprocessors. During an operating system course, these classes are refined and specialized by students in homework assignments to facilitate experimentation with different aspects of operating system design and policy decisions. The current implementation runs on the IBM RT PC under 4.3bsd UNIX.

  12. High temperature superconducting fault current limiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, John R. (Hinsdale, IL)

    1997-01-01

    A fault current limiter (10) for an electrical circuit (14). The fault current limiter (10) includes a high temperature superconductor (12) in the electrical circuit (14). The high temperature superconductor (12) is cooled below its critical temperature to maintain the superconducting electrical properties during operation as the fault current limiter (10).

  13. Current Automotive Holometry Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchi, Mitchell M.; Snyder, D. S.

    1990-04-01

    Holometry studies of automotive body and powertrain components have become a very useful high resolution test methodology to knowledgeable Ford engineering personnel. Current examples of studies that represent the static or dynamic operational conditions of the automotive test component are presented. Continuous wave laser holometry, computer aided holometry (CAH) and pulsed laser holometry were the holometric techniques used to study the following subjects: (1) body in prime (BIP) vibration modes, (2) transmission flexplate stud-torque converter deformation due to engine torque pulses, (3) engine cylinder head and camshaft support structure deformation due to cylinder pressure and (4) engine connecting rod/cap lift-off. Static and dynamic component loading and laboratory techniques required to produce usable and valid test results are discussed along with possible conclusions for the engineering concerns.

  14. RPC operation at high temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Aielli, G; Cardarelli, R; Di Ciaccio, A; Di Stante, L; Liberti, B; Paoloni, A; Pastori, E; Santonico, R

    2003-01-01

    The resistive electrodes of RPCs utilised in several current experiments (ATLAS, CMS, ALICE, BABAR and ARGO) are made of phenolic /melaminic polymers, with room temperature resistivities ranging from 10**1**0 Omega cm, for high rate operation in avalanche mode, to 5 multiplied by 10**1**1 Omega cm, for streamer mode operation at low rate. The resistivity has however a strong temperature dependence, decreasing exponentially with increasing temperature. We have tested several RPCs with different electrode resistivities in avalanche as well as in streamer mode operation. The behaviours of the operating current and of the counting rate have been studied at different temperatures. Long-term operation has also been studied at T = 45 degree C and 35 degree C, respectively, for high and low resistivity electrodes RPCs.

  15. Suspended Operations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A ship from China’s State Oceanic Administration (SOA) evaluates ConocoPhillips’s clean-up efforts in the Bohai Bay on September 2.That day, the SOA ordered the U.S. oil giant to cease all operations on the Penglai 19-3 Oilfield after the company failed to plug leaks in the oilfield by the administration’s August 31 deadline.The oil leaking from the oilfield caused by ConocoPhillips at the Penglai 19-3 Oilfield in the Bohai Bay was first spotted in June. The oil has since spread to beaches in China’s Hebei and Liaoning provinces, causing huge losses in the provinces’ tourism and aquatic farming industries.On September 7, ConocoPhillips said it will establish a fund to compensate victims of the oil spill in line with Chinese laws and to benefit the general environment of the Bohai Bay.

  16. Current trends in minilaparoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small Layne, Alyssa; Pinkard, Lauren; Shepherd, Jessica

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this review is to understand the current use of minilaparoscopy in the field and how minilaparoscopy compares with traditional laparoscopy in terms of operative times, complications, pain, and cosmesis. Although there are few randomized controlled trials comparing minilaparoscopy with traditional laparoscopy in gynecologic procedures, the results suggest that minilaparoscopy can be performed safely with improved cosmetic outcomes and similar complication rates and operating times. Postoperative pain may be decreased with minimizing incisions sizes. Recently, case reports and case series have been published demonstrating the use of minilaparoscopy across many subtypes of gynecologic surgery. Traditional laparoscopic surgery has become common practice in gynecology as it has been found to be a well tolerated procedure with improved outcomes and decreased morbidity when compared with laparotomy. Although minilaparoscopy has been used for over 2 decades, its role in gynecology is continuing to evolve. Minilaparoscopy is a growing surgical option in gynecology as we try to minimize the impact of surgery. Results of minilaparoscopy in gynecology mirror those found in urology and general surgery. Although research is limited, minilaparoscopy has proven to be a well tolerated alternative for gynecology.

  17. Operational circular No. 1 (Rev. 1) – Operational circulars

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    Operational Circular No. 1 (Rev. 1) is applicable to members of the personnel and other persons concerned. Operational Circular No. 1 (Rev. 1) entitled "Operational circulars", approved following discussion at the Standing Concertation Committee meeting on 4 May 2011, is available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department: https://hr-docs.web.cern.ch/hr-docs/opcirc/opcirc.asp It cancels and replaces Operational Circular No. 1 entitled "Operational Circulars” of December 1996. This new version clarifies, in particular, that operational circulars do not necessarily arise from the Staff Rules and Regulations, and the functional titles have been updated to bring them into line with the current CERN organigram. Department Head Office  

  18. The Evolution of Current Command Relationships in Amphibious Operations Doctrine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    STUDIES Major Ryan M. Finn, USMC AY 12-13 r. Robert Bruce Approved: ~¥+7""-"--"’.-1--:. Dme =------~~~~~~~------- 2 Executive Summary Title: The...after many years of infighting during the production of Joint Action, the Army abrogated their responsibility to coauthor the document and allowed the

  19. Operational Rations Current and Future of the Department of Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    the rate of 1/72 of a dollar; 1 half pint of rice or one pint of Indian meal, per man per day; 1 quart of spruce beer or cider per man per day, or 9...finished product . New technologies have been brought to bear on foods for military use — for example, freeze-dehydration, reversible compression, and heat...development is a new family of Tray Pack products , heat-processed in rectangular, half-size steam table, multiserving metal cans. They require only heating

  20. Electrochemical Characterization of PEMECs Operating at Various Current Densities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsøe, Katrine; G.-Madsen, Laila; Scherer, Guenther G.

    2016-01-01

    be applied to gain insight into the relative magnitudes of resistance contributions from the two electrodes, the electrolyte and of mass transfer limitations and can help identifying the time scale of the respective processes. The gained knowledge may facilitate further development of the PEMECs....

  1. Energy consumption and constant current operation in membrane capacitive deionization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, R.; Biesheuvel, P.M.; Wal, van der A.F.

    2012-01-01

    Membrane capacitive deionization (MCDI) is a water desalination technology based on applying a cell voltage between two oppositely placed porous electrodes sandwiching a spacer channel that transports the water to be desalinated. In the salt removal step, ions are adsorbed at the carbon–water interf

  2. Current Aspects of Bulgarian Participation in Peace Support Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar Marinov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Today’s world events mandate a need to project all available and legitimate methods to enable our war-fighters and leaders to effectively deal with a host of traditional as well as nontraditional threats and the newest challenges. The success of each Security Forces Assistance mission, during the period of post-conflict restoration, depends on their capabilities, particularly on the Homeland Security Forces, to overtake the challenges to guarantee the security and stability in their own territory.

  3. DC superconducting fault current limiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tixador, P.; Villard, C.; Cointe, Y.

    2006-03-01

    There is a lack of satisfying solutions for fault currents using conventional technologies, especially in DC networks, where a superconducting fault current limiter could play a very important part. DC networks bring a lot of advantages when compared to traditional AC ones, in particular within the context of the liberalization of the electric market. Under normal operation in a DC network, the losses in the superconducting element are nearly zero and only a small, i.e. a low cost, refrigeration system is then required. The absence of zero crossing of a DC fault current favourably accelerates the normal zone propagation. The very high current slope at the time of the short circuit in a DC grid is another favourable parameter. The material used for the experiments is YBCO deposited on Al2O3 as well as YBCO coated conductors. The DC limitation experiments are compared to AC ones at different frequencies (50-2000 Hz). Careful attention is paid to the quench homogenization, which is one of the key issues for an SC FCL. The University of Geneva has proposed constrictions. We have investigated an operating temperature higher than 77 K. As for YBCO bulk, an operation closer to the critical temperature brings a highly improved homogeneity in the electric field development. The material can then absorb large energies without degradation. We present tests at various temperatures. These promising results are to be confirmed over long lengths.

  4. Intelligent Potroom Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jan Berkow; Larry Banta

    2003-07-29

    The Intelligent Potroom Operation project focuses on maximizing the performance of an aluminum smelter by innovating components for an intelligent manufacturing system. The Intelligent Potroom Advisor (IPA) monitors process data to identify reduction cells exhibiting behaviors that require immediate attention. It then advises operational personnel on those heuristic-based actions to bring the cell back to an optimal operating state in order to reduce the duration and frequency of substandard reduction cell performance referred to as ''Off-Peak Modes'' (OPMs). Techniques developed to identify cells exhibiting OPMs include the use of a finite element model-based cell state estimator for defining the cell's current operating state via advanced cell noise analyses. In addition, rule induction was also employed to identify statistically significant complex behaviors that occur prior to OPMs. The intelligent manufacturing system design, concepts and formalisms developed in this project w ere used as a basis for an intelligent manufacturing system design. Future research will incorporate an adaptive component to automate continuous process improvement, a technology platform with the potential to improve process performance in many of the other Industries of the Future applications as well.

  5. Global Operations Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of global operations and operations strategy. This summative volume utilises the rich and diverse empirical foundation generated during the project activities in Denmark, Sweden and Finland. Chapters of the book are based on quantitative data and multiple case studies which the project partners have been......In the current context of global economic liberalisation and technological advancements, industrial companies are less likely to generate value in the traditional vertically integrated chain. Instead, they are doing so by means of elaborate cross-border and cross-organisational networks. As a rule......, these networks are configured on a global basis and consist of diverse and interdependent affiliates (linked both through ownership and non-equity relationships), which are engaged in an exchange of goods, services and information. The Scandinavian context is no exception to this trend. Nevertheless...

  6. Playing in Operations Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Guitart-Tarrés

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The current model of competency-based learning requires new tools that allow students to develop these competencies and become active subjects of their learning (rather than passive receivers of a contents. Gamification or ludification is becoming an innovative trend in many areas, also in higher education. Games can provide a useful environment for students to acquire professional skills, a fact that is much more difficult to acquire through traditional learning methods. In that sense, this paper presents the experience of designing a game for Operations Management students.

  7. Superconducting Current Leads for Cryogenic Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space flight cryocoolers will be able to handle limited heat loads at their expected operating temperatures and the current leads may be the dominant contributor to...

  8. Your Lung Operation: After Your Operation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Safety Resources About the Patient Education Program The Recovery Room Choosing Wisely Educational Programs Educational Programs Educational ... Lung Operation After Your Operation Your Discharge and Recovery Complete Video After Your Operation Guidance for after ...

  9. Your Lung Operation: After Your Operation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Safety Conference MBSAQIP News Contact Us ... College of Surgeons Education Patients and Family Skills Programs Your Lung Operation Your Lung Operation DVD After Your Operation ...

  10. Operator theory, operator algebras and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lebre, Amarino; Samko, Stefan; Spitkovsky, Ilya

    2014-01-01

    This book consists of research papers that cover the scientific areas of the International Workshop on Operator Theory, Operator Algebras and Applications, held in Lisbon in September 2012. The volume particularly focuses on (i) operator theory and harmonic analysis (singular integral operators with shifts; pseudodifferential operators, factorization of almost periodic matrix functions; inequalities; Cauchy type integrals; maximal and singular operators on generalized Orlicz-Morrey spaces; the Riesz potential operator; modification of Hadamard fractional integro-differentiation), (ii) operator algebras (invertibility in groupoid C*-algebras; inner endomorphisms of some semi group, crossed products; C*-algebras generated by mappings which have finite orbits; Folner sequences in operator algebras; arithmetic aspect of C*_r SL(2); C*-algebras of singular integral operators; algebras of operator sequences) and (iii) mathematical physics (operator approach to diffraction from polygonal-conical screens; Poisson geo...

  11. Your Lung Operation: After Your Operation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Participate Resources Webinars for Young Surgeons YFA E-News Resident and Associate Society Resident and Associate ... ACS Leader International Exchange Scholar Program Resources RAS E-News Operation Giving Back Operation Giving Back Operation ...

  12. Intelligence Fusion for Combined Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-03

    doctrine on intelligence in combined operations, the lessons learned from the most recent combined operations, the current state of intelligence fision ...control of nuclear weapons and arms proliferation in the former Soviet Union.’ In Asia, the United States maintains a military presence in support of...emanating from other than nuclear or radioactive sources. Individual Reports Database - The portion of the LOCE database consisting of entity data records

  13. Bootstrap Current in Spherical Tokamaks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王中天; 王龙

    2003-01-01

    Variational principle for the neoclassical theory has been developed by including amomentum restoring term in the electron-electron collisional operator, which gives an additionalfree parameter maximizing the heat production rate. All transport coefficients are obtained in-cluding the bootstrap current. The essential feature of the study is that the aspect ratio affects thefunction of the electron-electron collision operator through a geometrical factor. When the aspectratio approaches to unity, the fraction of circulating particles goes to zero and the contribution toparticle flux from the electron-electron collision vanishes. The resulting diffusion coefficient is inrough agreement with Hazeltine. When the aspect ratio approaches to infinity, the results are inagreement with Rosenbluth. The formalism gives the two extreme cases a connection. The theoryis particularly important for the calculation of bootstrap current in spherical tokamaks and thepresent tokamaks, in which the square root of the inverse aspect ratio, in general, is not small.

  14. 微电网不对称故障模式下IBDG运行特性及无畸变限流保护研究%Research on Operation Characteristics of IBDG under the Asymmetric Fault Mode of Micro-grid and Current Limiting Protection Distortionless

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张蕊; 顾和荣

    2016-01-01

    微电网安全可靠的运行离不开精确地控制和保护。由于微电网中微电源自身的特点,使孤岛微电网中的电气量的变化在故障情况下与传统大电网有很大的差别。因此,研究不同故障情况下 IBDG 的运行特性以及它们对微电网系统故障特性的影响至关重要。本文研究了孤岛微电网不对称故障模式下 IBDG 的运行特性,对电气量的变化做出了定性分析。在不对称故障情况下针对传统的限流造成的电压电流畸变,采用无畸变限流方法,减少系统中的谐波分量。利用Matlab/Simulink 仿真软件搭建了由三台逆变器组成的微电网的仿真模型,设置故障参数并进行仿真研究,验证对微电网故障情况下IBDG的运行特性及无畸变限流理论分析的正确性。%Safe and reliable operation of microgrid cannot do without precise control and protection. Due to the characteristics of the microsources of microgrid, the changes of the electric parameters of isolated microgrid under fault condition have a big difference with the traditional power grid. So it is essential to study the operation characteristics of IBDG under different fault conditions and their influence on the fault characteristics of microgrid system. This paper studied the operation characteristics of IBDG under asymmetrical fault modes of isolated microgrid, and the variation of the electric quantity is analyzed qualitatively. In the case of asymmetric fault, the comparison and analysis are made for the different current limiting methods. The analysis shows that the method of distortion-free current limitation can greatly reduce the harmonic component in the system. On the basis of analyzing the operation characteristics of IBDG under the fault conditions of microgrid, the fault characteristics of microgrid are also analyzed simply. a simulation model of microgrid made up of three inverters is established by using Matlab/Simulink simulation

  15. Current concepts in maxillofacial imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeddinghaus, Rudolf [Perth Radiological Clinic, 127 Hamersley Road, Subiaco, Western Australia 6008 (Australia)], E-mail: rboeddinghaus@perthradclinic.com.au; Whyte, Andy [Perth Radiological Clinic, 127 Hamersley Road, Subiaco, Western Australia 6008 (Australia)], E-mail: awhyte@perthradclinic.com.au

    2008-06-15

    A review of state-of-the-art maxillofacial imaging is presented. Current imaging techniques include intra-oral radiographs, dental panoramic tomography, multidetector helical computed tomography, cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The commonest conditions encountered in clinical radiological practice are reviewed, including maxillofacial deformities, complicated dental impactions, maxillofacial trauma, jaw lesions (cysts, neoplasms, fibro-osseous lesions (FOLs) and infections), and temporomandibular joint pathology. Pre-operative assessment for dental implant placement is also briefly reviewed.

  16. High PRF high current switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Stuart L.; Hutcherson, R. Kenneth

    1990-03-27

    A triggerable, high voltage, high current, spark gap switch for use in pu power systems. The device comprises a pair of electrodes in a high pressure hydrogen environment that is triggered by introducing an arc between one electrode and a trigger pin. Unusually high repetition rates may be obtained by undervolting the switch, i.e., operating the trigger at voltages much below the self-breakdown voltage of the device.

  17. Experimental Study on Current Decay Characteristics of Persistent Current HTS Magnet by Alternating Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young Gun; Lee, Chang Young; Hwang, Young Jin; Lee, Woo Seung; Lee, Jiho; Jo, Hyun Chul; Chung, Yoon Do; Ko, Tae Kuk

    This paper deals with a current decay characteristics of a high temperature superconducting (HTS) magnet operated in persistent current mode (PCM). In superconducting synchronous machine applications such as linear synchronous motor (LSM), the superconducting coil is designed to operate in the PCM to obtain steady magnetic field with DC transport current. This superconducting magnet operates on a direct current, but it can be exposed to alternating magnetic field due to the armature winding. When the magnet is subjected to an external time-varying magnetic field, it is possible to result in a decay of the current in PCM system due to AC loss. In this research, a PCM system with armature coil which generates time-varying magnetic field was fabricated to verify current decay characteristics by external alternating magnetic field. The current decay rate was measured by using a hall sensor as functions of amplitude and frequency of armature coil.

  18. Spectral computations for bounded operators

    CERN Document Server

    Ahues, Mario; Limaye, Balmohan

    2001-01-01

    Exact eigenvalues, eigenvectors, and principal vectors of operators with infinite dimensional ranges can rarely be found. Therefore, one must approximate such operators by finite rank operators, then solve the original eigenvalue problem approximately. Serving as both an outstanding text for graduate students and as a source of current results for research scientists, Spectral Computations for Bounded Operators addresses the issue of solving eigenvalue problems for operators on infinite dimensional spaces. From a review of classical spectral theory through concrete approximation techniques to finite dimensional situations that can be implemented on a computer, this volume illustrates the marriage of pure and applied mathematics. It contains a variety of recent developments, including a new type of approximation that encompasses a variety of approximation methods but is simple to verify in practice. It also suggests a new stopping criterion for the QR Method and outlines advances in both the iterative refineme...

  19. ATLAS solenoid operates underground

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    A new phase for the ATLAS collaboration started with the first operation of a completed sub-system: the Central Solenoid. Teams monitoring the cooling and powering of the ATLAS solenoid in the control room. The solenoid was cooled down to 4.5 K from 17 to 23 May. The first current was established the same evening that the solenoid became cold and superconductive. 'This makes the ATLAS Central Solenoid the very first cold and superconducting magnet to be operated in the LHC underground areas!', said Takahiko Kondo, professor at KEK. Though the current was limited to 1 kA, the cool-down and powering of the solenoid was a major milestone for all of the control, cryogenic, power and vacuum systems-a milestone reached by the hard work and many long evenings invested by various teams from ATLAS, all of CERN's departments and several large and small companies. Since the Central Solenoid and the barrel liquid argon (LAr) calorimeter share the same cryostat vacuum vessel, this achievement was only possible in perfe...

  20. 8. report of the Standing Senate Committee on energy, the environment and natural resources : facts do not justify banning Canada's current offshore drilling operations : a Senate review in the wake of BP's Deepwater Horizon incident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angus, W.D.; Mitchell, G. (comps.)

    2010-08-15

    The blowout of BP's Macondo well in the Gulf of Mexico has prompted many drilling practice reviews worldwide. This review by Canada's Senate Committee on Energy, the Environment and Natural Resources investigated Canadian offshore drilling practices. It showed that the risk of an offshore accident is quite low, partly because of the small amount of drilling currently underway in Canada. As a result, the committee recommended against a moratorium on offshore drilling. The study found that Canada's regulations for safety are more stringent than regulations in the United States. This report has elicited further reviews of liability and responsibility issues regarding offshore drilling. The Canadian legislation specifies that oil and gas companies are responsible for all spill clean-up costs and damage compensation. A $30 million absolute liability fund covers blowout costs for drilling in Canada's east offshore coast. A second civil liability fund requires drilling companies to provide Canadian regulators access to $70 million to cover damages from fault or negligence in offshore drilling. In addition, well operators may be required to provide evidence that they have a minimum of $250 million to fund well control, well safety and spill cleanup expenses. This report recommended a comprehensive review of liability, including whether thresholds should be adjusted to reflect current economic realities. refs., tabs., figs.