WorldWideScience

Sample records for current deferred nonoperating

  1. 47 CFR 32.2006 - Nonoperating plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nonoperating plant. 32.2006 Section 32.2006... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2006 Nonoperating plant... in the plant accounts as operating telecommunications plant. It shall include the...

  2. Deferred Warping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuth, Martin; Bender, Jan; Goesele, Michael; Kuijper, Arjan

    2016-03-18

    We introduce deferred warping, a novel approach for real-time deformation of 3D objects attached to an animated or manipulated surface. Our target application is virtual prototyping of garments where 2D pattern modeling is combined with 3D garment simulation which allows an immediate validation of the design. The technique works in two steps: First, the surface deformation of the target object is determined and the resulting transformation field is stored as a matrix texture. Then the matrix texture is used as look-up table to transform a given geometry onto a deformed surface. Splitting the process in two steps yields a large flexibility since different attachment types can be realized by simply defining specific mapping functions. Our technique can directly handle complex topology changes within the surface. We demonstrate a fast implementation in the vertex shading stage allowing the use of highly decorated surfaces with millions of triangles in real-time.

  3. Nonoperating Failure Rates for Avionics Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-01

    ENVIRONMENTAL MITDK-1B RA7324 LC.76.1 OPERATING NONOPERATING DUIAION DUTY CYCLE METHOD METHOD FAILURES SAILURES ANALYSIS IMO)I OP NERO NOP NOP AOP AAOP A...Reliability and Maintainability Sym- posium, Wash., DC, January 1975. 21. Balaban, H.S. , Guidelines for Application of Warranties to Air Force

  4. 47 CFR 32.3300 - Accumulated depreciation-nonoperating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accumulated depreciation-nonoperating. 32.3300....3300 Accumulated depreciation—nonoperating. (a) This account shall include the accumulated amortization and depreciation associated with the investment contained in Account 2006, Nonoperating Plant....

  5. Problems with Cash and Other Non-Operating Assets Value in the Process of Valuing Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Szczepankowski

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In economic practice the process of valuing enterprises is based on potential earnings from companies operating assets ñ operating fixed assets and operating working capital. Cash and other non-operating assets (mainly financial are treated as unproductive, non-income assets. Eventually, in process of pricing their current, accounting value is added to income value of enterprise or cash is treated as source for quick covering the debts of firm, what of course indirectly improve for better value of equity (the lower financial risk. Not taking into account the profitable influence of cash value and other non-operating assets can negatively affect on result of final value of enterprise, reducing it. In the article two alternative approaches (separate and inclusive of cash value is presented. Also main determinants of estimating value of cash are described as well as potential threats of its valuation.

  6. Deferred Compensation Becomes More Common

    Science.gov (United States)

    June, Audrey Williams

    2006-01-01

    A key part of the compensation package for some college and university presidents is money that they do not receive in their paychecks. Formally known as deferred compensation, such payments can take many forms, including supplemental retirement pay, severance pay, or even bonuses. With large institutions leading the way, deferred compensation has…

  7. Angiosarcoma arising in the non-operated, sclerosing breast after primary irradiation, surviving 6 years post-resection: A case report and review of the Japanese literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaaki Ito

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Angiosarcoma may occur in the non-operated breast, post irradiation. The potential difficulties of diagnosing angiosarcoma against background fibrosis should be kept in mind. Initial radical surgery currently represents the only effective treatment for improving survival in these patients.

  8. 78 FR 13370 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Consideration of Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... children and meet the following guidelines to be considered for deferred action for childhood arrivals: 1... of Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals, Form I-821D; Revision of a Currently Approved Collection... information technology, e.g., permitting electronic submission of responses. Overview of This...

  9. 26 CFR 1.404(d)-1T - Questions and answers relating to deductibility of deferred compensation and deferred benefits...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of deferred compensation and deferred benefits for independent contractors. (Temporary) 1.404(d)-1T... Questions and answers relating to deductibility of deferred compensation and deferred benefits for..., deferring the receipt of compensation or providing for deferred benefits for service providers with respect...

  10. Risk model for estimating the 1-year risk of deferred lesion intervention following deferred revascularization after fractional flow reserve assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depta, Jeremiah P; Patel, Jayendrakumar S; Novak, Eric; Gage, Brian F; Masrani, Shriti K; Raymer, David; Facey, Gabrielle; Patel, Yogesh; Zajarias, Alan; Lasala, John M; Amin, Amit P; Kurz, Howard I; Singh, Jasvindar; Bach, Richard G

    2015-02-21

    Although lesions deferred revascularization following fractional flow reserve (FFR) assessment have a low risk of adverse cardiac events, variability in risk for deferred lesion intervention (DLI) has not been previously evaluated. The aim of this study was to develop a prediction model to estimate 1-year risk of DLI for coronary lesions where revascularization was not performed following FFR assessment. A prediction model for DLI was developed from a cohort of 721 patients with 882 coronary lesions where revascularization was deferred based on FFR between 10/2002 and 7/2010. Deferred lesion intervention was defined as any revascularization of a lesion previously deferred following FFR. The final DLI model was developed using stepwise Cox regression and validated using bootstrapping techniques. An algorithm was constructed to predict the 1-year risk of DLI. During a mean (±SD) follow-up period of 4.0 ± 2.3 years, 18% of lesions deferred after FFR underwent DLI; the 1-year incidence of DLI was 5.3%, while the predicted risk of DLI varied from 1 to 40%. The final Cox model included the FFR value, age, current or former smoking, history of coronary artery disease (CAD) or prior percutaneous coronary intervention, multi-vessel CAD, and serum creatinine. The c statistic for the DLI prediction model was 0.66 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.61-0.70). Patients deferred revascularization based on FFR have variation in their risk for DLI. A clinical prediction model consisting of five clinical variables and the FFR value can help predict the risk of DLI in the first year following FFR assessment. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. A New Deferred Sentencing Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. K. Chakravarti

    1968-10-01

    Full Text Available A new deferred sentencing scheme resembling double sampling scheme has been suggested from viewpoint of operational and administrative. It is recommended particularly when the inspection is destructive. The O.C. curves of the scheme for two sample sizes of 5 and 10 have been given.

  12. Present Action Spurs Deferred Giving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarc, Jerry A.

    1985-01-01

    Examines ways parishes or schools can promote deferred gifts, payable on death to the parish or institution. Suggests that financial planning seminars and will clinics, planned-giving promotion committees, and dissemination of free pamphlets on estate planning are good ways to promote these bequests. (DMM)

  13. [Deferred breast reconstruction - soul surgery?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kydlíček, Tomáš; Třešková, Inka; Třeška, Vladislav; Holubec, Luboš

    2013-01-01

    The loss or mutilation of a breast as a result of surgical treatment of neoplastic disease always represents a negative impact on a woman's psyche and negatively influences the quality of the woman's remaining life. The goal of our work was to implement deferred breast reconstruction into routine practice and the objectification of the influence of reconstruction on bodily integrity, quality of life, and the feeling of satisfaction in women. Women in remission from neoplastic disease after a radical mastectomy were indicated for breast reconstruction. Between January 2002 and December 2011 deferred breast reconstruction was carried out 174 × on 163 women, with an average age of 49.2 and an age range of 29-67 years. The most frequently used reconstruction method was a simple gel augmentation of the breast or a Becker expander/implant - 51 (29.3%) and 37 (21.3%), or in combination with a lateral thoracodorsal flap (31; 17.8% and 47; 27%); reconstruction using a free DIEP flap was carried out 7 × (4%). Complications occurred in 19 operations (10.9%) with a dominance of inflammation and pericapsular fibrosis, in a subjective analysis, satisfaction with the results prevailed, along with an increased quality of life after reconstruction. A growing number of deferred breast reconstructions, women's satisfaction with the results, the positive influence of renewed bodily integrity on the feeling of life satisfaction and the quality of life have elevated breast reconstructions to a qualitatively higher level.

  14. How to avoid deferred-compensation troubles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Todd I

    2005-06-01

    Executive compensation packages have long included stock options and deferred compensation plans in order to compete for talent. Last year, Congress passed a law in response to the Enron debacle, in which executives were perceived to be protecting their deferred compensation at the expense of employees, creditors, and investors. The new law is designed to protect companies and their shareholders from being raided by the very executives that guided the company to financial ruin. Physicians who are part owners of medical practices need to know about the changes in the law regarding deferred compensation and how to avoid costly tax penalties. This article discusses how the changes affect medical practices as well as steps physician-owned clinics can take to avoid the risk of penalty, such as freezing deferred compensation and creating a new deferred compensation plan.

  15. 17 CFR 256.253 - Other deferred credits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other deferred credits. 256... HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 8. Deferred Credits § 256.253 Other deferred credits. This account shall include advance billings and receipts and other deferred credit items, not provided for elsewhere...

  16. Assessment of the nonoperated root after apical surgery of the other root in mandibular molars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Riccardo D; von Arx, Thomas; Gfeller, David

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: If a surgical approach is chosen to treat a multirooted tooth affected by persistent periapical pathosis, usually only the affected roots are operated on. The present study assessed the periapical status of the nonoperated root 5 years after apical surgery of the other root...... and radiographs 5 years after surgery were examined. The following data were collected: tooth, operated root, type and quality of the coronal restoration, marginal bone level, length and homogeneity of the root canal filling, presence of a post/screw, periapical index (PAI) of each root, and radiographic healing...... of the operated root. The presence of apical pathosis of the nonoperated root was analyzed statistically in relation to the recorded variables. RESULTS: Thirty-seven patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Signs of periapical pathosis in the nonoperated root 5 years after surgery (PAI ≥ 3) could be observed...

  17. Pulsed feedback defers cellular differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe H Levine

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental signals induce diverse cellular differentiation programs. In certain systems, cells defer differentiation for extended time periods after the signal appears, proliferating through multiple rounds of cell division before committing to a new fate. How can cells set a deferral time much longer than the cell cycle? Here we study Bacillus subtilis cells that respond to sudden nutrient limitation with multiple rounds of growth and division before differentiating into spores. A well-characterized genetic circuit controls the concentration and phosphorylation of the master regulator Spo0A, which rises to a critical concentration to initiate sporulation. However, it remains unclear how this circuit enables cells to defer sporulation for multiple cell cycles. Using quantitative time-lapse fluorescence microscopy of Spo0A dynamics in individual cells, we observed pulses of Spo0A phosphorylation at a characteristic cell cycle phase. Pulse amplitudes grew systematically and cell-autonomously over multiple cell cycles leading up to sporulation. This pulse growth required a key positive feedback loop involving the sporulation kinases, without which the deferral of sporulation became ultrasensitive to kinase expression. Thus, deferral is controlled by a pulsed positive feedback loop in which kinase expression is activated by pulses of Spo0A phosphorylation. This pulsed positive feedback architecture provides a more robust mechanism for setting deferral times than constitutive kinase expression. Finally, using mathematical modeling, we show how pulsing and time delays together enable "polyphasic" positive feedback, in which different parts of a feedback loop are active at different times. Polyphasic feedback can enable more accurate tuning of long deferral times. Together, these results suggest that Bacillus subtilis uses a pulsed positive feedback loop to implement a "timer" that operates over timescales much longer than a cell cycle.

  18. 26 CFR 1.404(a)-1T - Questions and answers relating to deductibility of deferred compensation and deferred benefits...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of deferred compensation and deferred benefits for employees. (Temporary) 1.404(a)-1T Section 1.404(a... relating to deductibility of deferred compensation and deferred benefits for employees. (Temporary) Q-1... contributions or compensation under section 404(a)? A-1: As amended by the Tax Reform Act of 1984, section 404(b...

  19. A Novel Technique for Improving Bodily Experience in a Non-operable Super–Super Obesity Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serino, Silvia; Scarpina, Federica; Keizer, Anouk; Pedroli, Elisa; Dakanalis, Antonios; Castelnuovo, Gianluca; Chirico, Alice; Novelli, Margherita; Gaudio, Santino; Riva, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The available clinical guidelines for super-super obese patients (i.e., with body mass index (BMI) > 60 kg/m2) that are not suitable for bariatric surgery mandate a palliative multidisciplinary treatment (i.e., production and maintenance of weight loss) provided in a center of excellence. However, the modality and the impact of this approach are still controversial. Moreover, it is not able to address the high level of body dissatisfaction and body distortions that are common among these patients. Clinical Presentation: We report the case of a non-operable super–super obesity – a 37 year old woman with a BMI of 62 kg/m2 – receiving a specialized treatment for her obstructive sleep apnea. She entered a multidisciplinary program that promoted healthy behaviors, including physical activities and psychological intervention. To improve body dissatisfaction, which was linked to a significant multisensory impairment of body perception, she also entered a virtual reality (VR) body-swapping illusion protocol. At the end of the current investigation, the patient continued her multidisciplinary program, reporting an increase in the motivation for undertaking healthy behavior and a decrease in the anxiety feelings associated with her clinical condition. Conclusion: This case provides preliminary evidence that both body dissatisfaction and body-size distortions of non-operable super-super obesity patients could be addressed by a VR body-swapping protocol, which is important because the palliative multidisciplinary treatment recommended for these patients is not able to address them. Interestingly, the use of a VR body-swapping illusion protocol seems to be able to improve not only the experience of the body in these patients but their motivation for change, too. PMID:27378965

  20. 12 CFR 615.5209 - Deferred-tax assets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Capital Adequacy § 615.5209 Deferred-tax assets. For purposes of calculating capital ratios under this part, deferred-tax assets are subject to the conditions... deferred-tax assets, net of any valuation allowance, from its assets and its total capital that is equal...

  1. 18 CFR 367.2530 - Account, 253, Other deferred credits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Deferred Credits § 367.2530 Account, 253, Other deferred... deferred credits. 367.2530 Section 367.2530 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF...

  2. Risk of pseudophakic retinal detachment in 202 226 patients using the fellow nonoperated eye as reference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Søren S; Mikkelsen, Kim Lyngby; La Cour, Morten

    2013-01-01

    To study the risk of pseudophakic retinal detachment (PRD) after first-eye phacoemulsification cataract surgery in Denmark relative to the risk of retinal detachment (RD) in the patients' fellow nonoperated eyes.......To study the risk of pseudophakic retinal detachment (PRD) after first-eye phacoemulsification cataract surgery in Denmark relative to the risk of retinal detachment (RD) in the patients' fellow nonoperated eyes....

  3. 26 CFR 31.3306(r)(2)-1 - Treatment of amounts deferred under certain nonqualified deferred compensation plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... nonqualified deferred compensation plans. 31.3306(r)(2)-1 Section 31.3306(r)(2)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL..., Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.3306(r)(2)-1 Treatment of amounts deferred under certain nonqualified deferred compensation plans. (a) In general. Section 3306(r)(2) provides a special timing rule for the...

  4. The role of non-operating income in community benefit provision by not-for-profit hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Paula H; McCullough, Jeffrey S; Reiter, Kristin L

    2013-01-01

    Not-for-profit hospitals are under increased public scrutiny for providing what some view as insufficient levels of community benefit compared to their tax-exempt benefits. One potential driver of community benefit is financial surplus, which arises from both patient care (operating) activities and non-patient care (non-operating) activities. This study addresses the effect of hospitals' non-operating income on not-for-profit hospitals' provision of community benefit. The study sample includes 217 unique not-for-profit, non-governmental, general, acute care hospitals in California between 1997 and 2010 that filed annual reports with the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development (OSHPD). We model the effect of hospitals' operating and non-operating incomes on hospitals' community benefit, controlling for observable hospital characteristics such as scale and system membership, local competition, time trends, and hospital fixed effects. Our results indicate that non-operating income has no effect on levels of community benefit provided by not-for-profit hospitals. This finding suggests that not-for-profit hospitals budget for uncompensated care at levels that are prioritized over other potential investments if non-operating income falls, but remain fixed if non-operating income rises.

  5. The Costs and Benefits of Deferred Giving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Norman S.; Metzler, Howard C.

    It is argued in this book that while there can be a significant payoff for deferred giving programs, it is important to determine their cost effectiveness. Modern business methods of cost accounting, benefits analysis, and actuarial and econometric forecasting are applied to the Pomona College plan, whose study was supported by Lilly Endowment,…

  6. Deferred Tax Assests and Bank Regulatory Capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallemore, J.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: In this study, I examine three issues: (1) whether the probability of bank failure is increasing in the proportion of regulatory capital composed of deferred tax assets (DTA), (2) whether market participants incorporate the increased failure risk associated with the DTA component of capita

  7. The Costs and Benefits of Deferred Giving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Norman S.; Metzler, Howard C.

    It is argued in this book that while there can be a significant payoff for deferred giving programs, it is important to determine their cost effectiveness. Modern business methods of cost accounting, benefits analysis, and actuarial and econometric forecasting are applied to the Pomona College plan, whose study was supported by Lilly Endowment,…

  8. 42 CFR 60.12 - Deferment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... approve the deferment. The lender or holder may rely in good faith upon statements of the borrower and the... to the lender or holder. When those verification statements or other information conflict with... established by the Public Health Service for the payment of uniform levels of financial support for...

  9. 78 FR 76636 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Consideration of Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-18

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Consideration of Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals, Form I-821D; Revision of a Currently Approved Collection... Immigration Services (USCIS) invites the general public and other Federal agencies to comment upon...

  10. Outcomes of coronary stenoses deferred revascularization for borderline versus nonborderline fractional flow reserve values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depta, Jeremiah P; Patel, Jayendrakumar S; Novak, Eric; Masrani, Shriti K; Raymer, David; Facey, Gabrielle; Patel, Yogesh; Zajarias, Alan; Lasala, John M; Singh, Jasvindar; Bach, Richard G; Kurz, Howard I

    2014-06-01

    Current evidence supports deferral of revascularization for lesions with fractional flow reserve (FFR) values >0.80. The natural history after deferral of revascularization of lesions with borderline FFR values is unknown. This study evaluated the outcomes of patients after deferred revascularization of coronary stenoses based on a borderline FFR value. We retrospectively studied 720 patients with 881 intermediate-severity coronary stenoses who underwent FFR assessment from October 2002 to July 2010 and were deferred revascularization. Patients were divided into gray zone (0.75 to 0.80), borderline (0.81 to 0.85), and nonborderline (>0.85) FFR groups. Any subsequent percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass grafting of a deferred stenosis during follow-up was classified as a deferred lesion intervention (DLI). Patient and/or lesion characteristics and clinical outcomes were compared between the FFR groups using univariate and propensity score-adjusted inverse probability of weighting Cox proportional hazards analyses. During a mean follow-up of 4.5 ± 2.1 years, 157 deferred lesions (18%) underwent DLI by percutaneous coronary intervention (n = 117) or coronary artery bypass grafting (n = 40). No statistically significant differences were observed in clinical outcomes between the gray zone and borderline FFR groups. Lesions with a borderline FFR were associated with a significantly higher risk of DLI compared with lesions with nonborderline FFR values (hazard ratio 1.63, 95% confidence interval 1.14 to 2.33, p = 0.007). Lesions deferred revascularization because of a borderline FFR (0.81 to 0.85) were associated with a higher risk of DLI compared with lesions with a nonborderline FFR (>0.85). Further study is needed to determine the optimal management of coronary stenoses with a borderline FFR value. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Deferred Executive Compensation Policies in Chinese State-owned Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Ju

    2007-01-01

    Since the commencement of industrial reform in China, most Chinese state-owned enterprises have adopted a deferred executive compensation policy to provide incentives for their management teams. However, the effectiveness of such a policy needs to be evaluated In this paper, we specify a model of deferred executive compensation policy, in which the compensation for executives is contingent on firms 'future revenue. The model suggests that under deferred executive compensation policies, managers exhibit an increasing level of effort in every period. Furthermore, the deferred compensation policy encourages managers to make long-term investments, which might generate revenue even after the termination of managerial contracts.

  12. DEFERRED TAXES: FEATURES OF ACCOUNTING AND ANALYSIS IN AGRICULTURAL ORGANIZATIONS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krugljak Z. I

    2016-01-01

    The article highlights the results of the analysis of deferred taxes as indicators of the accounting financial statements, reflecting payments to the budget for income tax agricultural organizations...

  13. Deferred tax analysis and impact on firm's economic efficiency ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Bohušová

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Category of deferred income tax is a complex topic including the whole accounting system and the income tax. Calculation method can be time-consuming and demanding a high quality system of analytical evidence and a system of valuation and demanding the high level of accountants' knowledge. The aim in the theoretical level was to analyze process of calculation and recording of deferred tax. Importance of recording of deferred tax and the impact on financial analysis ratios was analyzed. Fourteen business entities were examined. Deferred tax recording is a legal way to reduce retained earnings a to protect of its careless alocation.

  14. Seduction trauma: representation, deferred action, and pathogenic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, H P

    1996-01-01

    Seduction trauma refers to a range of phenomena currently described under the rubric of child abuse. Freud elucidated the fantasy distortion and elaboration of traumatic experience and retained the importance of actual trauma. Psychic trauma is associated with the alteration of self and object representations and ensuing new identifications, e.g., with victim and aggressor. The "deferred action" of psychic trauma is an antiquated concept and psychic trauma has immediate effects as well as far reaching developmental consequences. Prior trauma predisposes to later traumatic vulnerability and to trauma linked to phase specific unconscious conflict. The pathogenesis of child sex abuse and the enactment of oedipal incest extends before and after the oedipal phase, is often associated with other forms of abuse, and has a history of pathogenic parent-child relationship.

  15. Mixed-Precision Spectral Deferred Correction: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grout, Ray W. S.

    2015-09-02

    Convergence of spectral deferred correction (SDC), where low-order time integration methods are used to construct higher-order methods through iterative refinement, can be accelerated in terms of computational effort by using mixed-precision methods. Using ideas from multi-level SDC (in turn based on FAS multigrid ideas), some of the SDC correction sweeps can use function values computed in reduced precision without adversely impacting the accuracy of the final solution. This is particularly beneficial for the performance of combustion solvers such as S3D [6] which require double precision accuracy but are performance limited by the cost of data motion.

  16. Cold Model-Based Investigations to Study the Effects of Operational and Nonoperational Parameters on the Ruhrstahl-Heraeus Degassing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Deepjyoti; Shukla, Ajay Kumar; Senk, Dieter G.

    2017-04-01

    The circulation rate of steel is known to play a vital role in the superlative performance of the Ruhrstahl-Heraeus (RH) degasser. Numerous experiments were conducted on a physical model for the RH degassing process, which was established at IEHK, RWTH-Aachen University. The model was developed with a scale ratio of 1:3 to study the RH process. This study is conducted to show the effects of operational and nonoperational parameters on the circulation rate of liquid water in the model. The effects of lift gas flow rate, submerged depth of snorkels, water level in vessel, etc. on the circulation rate are studied. The mixing characteristics are studied with the help of current conductivity experiments for different lift gas flow rates and water levels in the vacuum vessel. Finally, the relationship between dimensionless numbers is derived with the help of the experimental data obtained from the cold model.

  17. DEFERRED TAXES: FEATURES OF ACCOUNTING AND ANALYSIS IN AGRICULTURAL ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krugljak Z. I.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the results of the analysis of deferred taxes as indicators of the accounting financial statements, reflecting payments to the budget for income tax agricultural organizations. The importance of deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities as a key marker of efficiency of the tax policy of the agricultural organizations is emphasized. Its inefficiency can be judge by excess of deferred tax assets over deferred tax liabilities, which is seen as a temporary diversion of funds from the market, which has zero profitability. The conclusion was made about the improvement of financial stability and liquidity of the organization under the influence of deferred tax liabilities and the deteriorating financial situation, financial stability and liquidity under the influence of deferred tax assets. The effective income tax rate of the agricultural organizations of Krasnodar territory is determined; it does not exceed 3% and differs from general because of tax benefits, deductions and tax policy. The basic causes of appearance of temporary differences are identified by types in the account of the agricultural organizations. Typical errors in accounting for deferred taxes are described. A refined form of the report on financial results containing transcript of profit before tax from non-agricultural activities, with the aim of monitoring the relationship of accounting and taxable profit in the agricultural organizations

  18. Reporting Deferred Gifts: CASE-NACUBO Guidelines Ensure Consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridenour, James F.; Munger, Peter L.

    1983-01-01

    Three methods for reporting the value of a deferred gift are described: the tax method, net realizable value, and fair market value. Three major categories of deferred gifts are identified: pooled income funds, charitable remainder trusts, and charitable gift annuities. (MLW)

  19. Myocardial Damage in Patients With Deferred Stenting After STEMI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønborg, Jacob; Engstrøm, Thomas; Ahtarovski, Kiril Aleksov

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although some studies found improved coronary flow and myocardial salvage when stent implantation was deferred, the DANAMI-3-DEFER (Third DANish Study of Optimal Acute Treatment of Patients With ST-elevation Myocardial Infarction) did not show any improvement in clinical outcome...... in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and deferred stenting. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to evaluate the effect of deferred stent implantation on infarct size, myocardial salvage, and microvascular obstruction (MVO......) in patients with STEMI. METHODS: In the present DANAMI-3 substudy, a total of 510 patients with STEMI were randomized to PCI with deferred versus immediate stent implantation. The patients underwent a cardiac magnetic resonance examination before discharge after the index procedure and again 3 months later...

  20. 26 CFR 31.3121(v)(2)-1 - Treatment of amounts deferred under certain nonqualified deferred compensation plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... nonqualified deferred compensation plans. 31.3121(v)(2)-1 Section 31.3121(v)(2)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL... (Chapter 21, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) General Provisions § 31.3121(v)(2)-1 Treatment of amounts... under a nonqualified deferred compensation plan within the meaning of section 3121(v)(2) and this...

  1. The Response of Deferred Executive Compensation to Changes in Tax Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Aspen Gorry; Kevin A. Hassett; R. Glenn Hubbard; Aparna Mathur

    2015-01-01

    Given the increasing use of stock options in executive compensation, we examine how taxes influence the choice of compensation and document that income deferral is an important margin of adjustment in response to tax rate changes. To account for this option in the empirical analysis, we explore deferral by estimating how executives’ choice of compensation between current and deferred income depends on changes in tax policy. Our empirical results suggest a significant impact of taxes on the co...

  2. Help Is Available on Tax-Deferred Annuity Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Administrator, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Briefly reviews different types of tax-deferred annuities (TDA's) and describes the National Education Association's TDA Studies--comparative analyses of specific fixed, variable, and qualified mutual fund annuity packages. (PGD)

  3. Analysis of Deferred Taxes in the Business Environment in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savka VUČKOVIĆ-MILUTINOVIĆ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Flow-through model of income tax reporting in general purpose financial statements had a long history of use in Serbia. It was only in 2004 (and 2003 for banks, when the implementation of deferred taxes model started. It was inevitable, because IAS/IFRS became mandatory basis for preparing financial statements. In this paper we examine quality of deferred taxes disclosures in the financial statements of companies in Serbia. We also documented the most common temporary differences that arise in measuring accounting and taxable income and in that way we identified the major sources of deferred tax. We analyzed the materiality of deferred taxes and their effect on company´s performance in Serbia.

  4. 7 CFR 930.63 - Deferment of restricted obligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF MICHIGAN, NEW YORK, PENNSYLVANIA, OREGON, UTAH, WASHINGTON, AND WISCONSIN... regulations issued thereunder, secure bonds on restricted percentage cherries to temporarily defer the...

  5. 18 CFR 367.1860 - Account 186, Miscellaneous deferred debits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... NATURAL GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Deferred Debits § 367.1860 Account 186, Miscellaneous... ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING...

  6. 7 CFR 1721.106 - Repayment of deferred payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... energy project(s), distributed generation project(s), and the contribution(s)-in-aid of construction. An... period starting with the next payment (November if paying on a monthly basis). When a Borrower defers...

  7. 26 CFR 1.404(b)-1T - Method or arrangement of contributions, etc., deferring the receipt of compensation or providing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...., deferring the receipt of compensation or providing for deferred benefits. (Temporary) 1.404(b)-1T Section 1... of contributions, etc., deferring the receipt of compensation or providing for deferred benefits..., deferring the receipt of compensation or providing for deferred benefits (other than compensation) is to be...

  8. 47 CFR 32.4361 - Deferred tax regulatory adjustments-net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Deferred tax regulatory adjustments-net. 32... Accounts § 32.4361 Deferred tax regulatory adjustments—net. (a) This account shall include amounts of... Account 4341, Net deferred tax liability adjustments. (b) This account shall also be adjusted for...

  9. 7 CFR 1703.309 - Terms of repayment of deferred loan payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... deferment payment required. (e) The balance in a borrower's cushion of credit account shall not be reduced by the borrower below the level of the unpaid balance of the payment deferred. ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terms of repayment of deferred loan payments. 1703...

  10. Deferred Imitation and Social Communication in Speaking and Nonspeaking Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strid, Karin; Heimann, Mikael; Gillberg, Christopher; Smith, Lars; Tjus, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    Deferred imitation and early social communication skills were compared among speaking and nonspeaking children with autism and children developing typically. Overall, the children with autism showed a lower frequency on measures of deferred imitation and social communication compared with typically developing children. Deferred imitation was…

  11. On distributed parameter control systems in the abnormal case and in the case of nonoperator equality constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Ledzewicz

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a general distributed parameter control problem in Banach spaces with integral cost functional and with given initial and terminal data is considered. An extension of the Dubovitskii-Milyutin method to the case of nonregular operator equality constraints, based on Avakov's generalization of the Lusternik theorem, is presented. This result is applied to obtain an extension of the Extremum Principle for the case of abnormal optimal control problems. Then a version of this problem with nonoperator equality constraints is discussed and the Extremum Principle for this problem is presented.

  12. A Deferred Cost of Education Plan for Podiatric Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of Colleges of Podiatric Medicine, Washington, DC.

    A study carried out by the American Association of Colleges of Podiatric Medicine and the Academy for Educational Development: (1) examines and documents the financial needs and prospects of colleges of podiatric medicine; (2) analyzes the case for and against a deferred cost of education plan for the colleges of podiatric medicine; and (3)…

  13. Dynamic Matching Markets and the Deferred Acceptance Mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kennes, John; Monte, Daniel; Tumennasan, Norovsambuu

    In many dynamic matching markets, priorities depend on previous allocations. In such environments, agents on the proposing side can manipulate the period-by-period deferred acceptance (DA) mechanism. We show that the fraction of agents with incentives to manipulate the DA mechanism approaches zero...... together justify the implementation of the period-by-period DA mechanism in dynamic markets....

  14. 7 CFR 930.163 - Deferment of restricted obligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF MICHIGAN, NEW YORK, PENNSYLVANIA, OREGON, UTAH, WASHINGTON, AND WISCONSIN... bond on restricted percentage cherries to be posted to temporarily defer the date that...

  15. 5 CFR 847.906 - How is the present value of a deferred annuity without credit for NAFI service computed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How is the present value of a deferred... § 847.906 How is the present value of a deferred annuity without credit for NAFI service computed? (a) The present value of a deferred annuity equals the present value of the deferred annuity...

  16. RISK FOR MALARIA IN UNITED STATES DONORS DEFERRED FOR TRAVEL TO MALARIA-ENDEMIC AREAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Bryan; Steele, Whitney; Custer, Brian; Kleinman, Steven; Cable, Ritchard; Wilkinson, Susan; Wright, David

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Deferral for travel to malaria-endemic areas excludes many blood donors in the United States. Most transfusion-transmitted malaria is associated with lengthy residence in malaria-endemic areas rather than routine travel. This study compares the impact of existing deferral requirements to the risk that a presenting donor with malaria travel history harbors malaria parasites under current and hypothetical alternate regulations. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Deferred donors from six blood centers were sampled to estimate a national cohort of donors deferred annually for malaria travel to different geographic regions. Risk for malaria infection following travel to each region, and distribution of incubation periods for each malaria species were estimated for U.S. travelers. Region-specific travel risks were used to estimate the risk that a presenting blood donor with malaria travel might asymptomatically harbor malaria parasites at different intervals following return to the United States. RESULTS Travel to Africa presents risk for malaria infection >1000 times that of travel to malaria-endemic parts of Mexico, yet Mexico accounts for >10 times as many deferred donors. Shortening the deferral period from 12 to 3 months for travelers to Mexico increases the risk of collecting a contaminated unit by only 1 unit per 57 years (sensitivity analysis, 1 every 29 - 114 years), at annual gain of >56,000 donations. CONCLUSION This study provides the first systematic appraisal of the U.S. requirements for donor qualification regarding travel to malarial areas. Consideration should be given to relaxing the guidelines for travel to very low-risk areas such as Mexico. PMID:19903290

  17. Pulmonary effects of immediate versus deferred antiretroviral therapy in HIV-positive individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunisaki, Ken M; Niewoehner, Dennis E; Collins, Gary

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Observational data have been conflicted regarding the potential role of HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) as a causative factor for, or protective factor against, COPD. We therefore aimed to investigate the effect of immediate versus deferred ART on decline in lung function in HIV...... were not masked to the treatment group assignment; however, the assessors who reviewed the outcomes were masked to the treatment group. The primary outcome was the annual rate of decline in lung function, expressed as the FEV1 slope in mL/year; spirometry was done annually during follow-up for up to 5...... and 28% were current smokers. Median follow-up time was 2·0 years (IQR 1·9-3·0). We noted no differences in FEV1 slopes between the immediate and deferred ART groups either in smokers (difference of -3·3 mL/year, 95% CI -38·8 to 32·2; p=0·86) or in non-smokers (difference of -5·6 mL/year, -29·4 to 18...

  18. Deferred Item and Vehicle Routing within Integrated Networks

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    This paper studies the possible integration of long-haul operations by transportation mode and service level (defined by guaranteed delivery time) for package delivery carriers. Specifically, we consider the allocation of deferred items to excess capacity on alternative modes in ways that allow all transportation modes to be utilized better. Model formulation and solution techniques are discussed. The solution techniques presented produce efficient solutions for large-scale problem instances....

  19. Revisionist integral deferred correction with adaptive step-size control

    KAUST Repository

    Christlieb, Andrew

    2015-03-27

    © 2015 Mathematical Sciences Publishers. Adaptive step-size control is a critical feature for the robust and efficient numerical solution of initial-value problems in ordinary differential equations. In this paper, we show that adaptive step-size control can be incorporated within a family of parallel time integrators known as revisionist integral deferred correction (RIDC) methods. The RIDC framework allows for various strategies to implement stepsize control, and we report results from exploring a few of them.

  20. Clinical Outcomes of the Marginal Ulcer Bleeding after Gastrectomy: As Compared to the Peptic Ulcer Bleeding with Nonoperated Stomach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo Chul Chung

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Marginal ulcer is a well-known complication after gastrectomy. Its bleeding can be severe, but the severity has rarely been reported. We aim to evaluate the clinical outcomes of marginal ulcer bleeding (MUB as compared to peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB with nonoperated stomach. Methods. A consecutive series of patients who had nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding and admitted to the hospital between 2005 and 2011 were retrospectively analyzed. A total of 530 patients were enrolled in this study, and we compared the clinical characteristics between 70 patients with MUB and 460 patients with PUB. Results. Patients with MUB were older (mean age: 62.86±10.59 years versus 53.33±16.68 years, P=0.01. The initial hemoglobin was lower (8.16±3.05 g/dL versus 9.38±2.49 g/dL, P=0.01, and the duration of admission was longer in MUB (7.14±4.10 days versus 5.90±2.97 days, P=0.03. After initial hemostasis, the rebleeding rate during admission was higher (16.2% versus 6.5%, P=0.01 in MUB. However, the mortality rate did not differ statistically between MUB and PUB groups. Helicobacter pylori-positive rate with MUB was lower than that of PUB (19.4% versus 54.4%, P=0.01. Conclusions. Clinically, MUB after gastrectomy is more severe than PUB with nonoperated stomach. Infection with H. pylori might not appear to play an important role in MUB after gastrectomy.

  1. Immediate versus deferred delivery of the preterm baby with suspected fetal compromise for improving outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Sarah J; Bricker, Leanne; Norman, Jane E; West, Helen M

    2016-07-12

    several factors: blinding was not possible due to the nature of the intervention, data for childhood follow-up were incomplete due to attrition, and no adjustment was made in the analysis for the non-independence of babies from multiple pregnancies (39 out of 548 pregnancies). This study only included cases of suspected fetal compromise where there was uncertainty whether immediate delivery was indicated, thus results must be interpreted with caution. Currently there is insufficient evidence on the benefits and harms of immediate delivery compared with deferred delivery in cases of suspected fetal compromise at preterm gestations to make firm recommendations. There is a lack of trials addressing this question, and limitations of the one included trial means that caution must be used in interpreting and generalising the findings. More research is needed to guide clinical practice.Although the included trial is relatively large, it has insufficient power to detect differences in neonatal mortality. It did not report any maternal outcomes other than mode of delivery, or evaluate maternal satisfaction or economic outcomes. The applicability of the findings is limited by several factors: Women with a wide range of obstetric complications and gestational ages were included, and subgroup analysis is currently limited. Advances in Doppler assessment techniques may diagnose severe compromise more accurately and help make decisions about the timing of delivery. The potential benefits of deferring delivery for longer or shorter periods cannot be presumed.Where there is uncertainty whether or not to deliver a preterm fetus with suspected fetal compromise, there seems to be no benefit to immediate delivery. Deferring delivery until test results worsen or increasing gestation favours delivery may improve the outcomes for mother and baby.There is a need for high-quality randomised controlled trials comparing immediate and deferred delivery where there is suspected fetal compromise at

  2. Tax-deferred annuity plans: meeting the IRS audit challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schussler, M

    1997-01-01

    A growing number of nonprofit organizations are being fined for violations of IRS regulations following IRS audits of their tax-deferred annuity (TDA) plans. To ensure that their organizations can withstand the scrutiny of an IRS audit, TDA plan administrators must ensure that plans meet IRS regulations and be prepared for IRS audits. Documentation--particularly of the TDA plan itself, and procedures related to salary reduction programs, compensation limits, excess deferrals and other excess contributions, loans, and distributions--must be comprehensive and in compliance with IRS regulations.

  3. 77 FR 74488 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Consideration of Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ..., USCIS, Office of Policy and Strategy, Chief, Regulatory Coordination Division, 20 Massachusetts Avenue... making their request for consideration of deferred action with USCIS; 5. Entered without inspection... into removal proceedings as part of the deferred action for childhood arrivals process. Those who...

  4. The per-protocol effect of immediate vs. deferred ART initiation in the START randomized trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lodi, Sara; Sharma, Shweta; Lundgren, Jens D;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The START trial found a lower risk of a composite clinical outcome in HIV-positive individuals assigned to immediate initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) compared with those assigned to deferred initiation. However, 30% of those assigned to deferred initiation started ART earlier...

  5. 76 FR 45199 - Interim Final Determination To Defer Sanctions, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Interim Final Determination To Defer Sanctions, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District, CA AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Interim final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is making an interim final determination to defer imposition of sanctions based on a...

  6. 76 FR 28661 - Interim Final Determination To Defer Sanctions, Sacramento Metro 1-Hour Ozone Nonattainment Area...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Interim Final Determination To Defer Sanctions, Sacramento Metro 1-Hour Ozone Nonattainment Area, California AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Interim final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is making an interim final determination to defer imposition of sanctions based on a...

  7. 78 FR 53038 - Interim Final Determination to Stay and Defer Sanctions; California; San Joaquin Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Interim Final Determination to Stay and Defer Sanctions; California; San Joaquin Valley AGENCY: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Interim final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is making an interim final determination to stay the imposition of offset sanctions and to defer...

  8. 76 FR 76046 - Interim Final Determination To Defer Sanctions, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Interim Final Determination To Defer Sanctions, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Interim final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is making an interim final determination to defer imposition of sanctions based on a...

  9. Survival after primary and deferred cystectomy for stage T1 transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedeir Ali-El-Dein

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: Cancer-specific survival is statistically comparable for primary and deferred cystectomy in T1 bladder cancer, although there is a non-significant difference in favor of primary cystectomy. In the deferred cystectomy group, the number of TURBTs beyond three is associated with lower survival. Conservative treatment should be adopted for most cases in this category.

  10. 20 CFR 422.122 - Information on deferred vested pension benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Information on deferred vested pension... PROCEDURES General Procedures § 422.122 Information on deferred vested pension benefits. (a) Claimants for... electronic pension benefit record. This record contains information received from IRS on individuals for whom...

  11. Concurrent non-deferred reference counting on the Microgrid: first experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herhut, S.; Joslin, C.; Scholz, S.-B.; Poss, R.; Grelck, C.

    2011-01-01

    We present a first evaluation of our novel approach for non- deferred reference counting on the Microgrid many-core architecture. Non-deferred reference counting is a fundamental building block of im- plicit heap management of functional array languages in general and Sin- gle Assignment C in partic

  12. Use of deferred consent for severely ill children in a multi-centre phase III trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boga Mwamvua

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Voluntary participation of a subject in research respects a subject's rights, strengthens its ethical conduct, and is formalized by the informed consent process. Clinical trials of life-saving interventions for medical emergencies often necessitate enrolment of patients where prior written individual informed consent is impossible. Although there are regulations and guidelines on protecting subjects in emergency research, these have been criticised for being limited and unnecessarily restrictive. Across Europe and the United States stringent regulations have resulted in a substantial decline of clinical trials involving emergency interventions. Methods We are conducting a trial of fluid resuscitation in children with hypovolaemic shock in six hospitals across three malaria-endemic African countries. The design is pragmatic as children are enrolled on clinical criteria alone and is being conducted in hospitals with facilities typical of many district hospitals across Africa. The trial aims to inform strategy for managing children with febrile illness and features of shock. In order to develop appropriate consent processes for the trial, we conducted a narrative review of current international recommendations for emergency consent. Results Practical or specific guidance was generally sparse or confusing with few examples in the literature to direct our informed consent process. For a sub-group of children who were critically sick or where parents themselves were otherwise too distressed to consider prior written consent, we opted for a modified form of deferred consent. This included verbal assent from guardians at the point of enrolment, with full written consent obtained after stabilising the child. For children who died prior to full written consent, ethical permission was received to waiver full consent. Conclusions In light of the controversy around guidance and regulations in this area we report how and why we have used a

  13. [Factors influencing long-term survival in patients with nonoperable lung cancer: an analysis by Cox model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, W; Zhao, W; Sun, L

    1996-09-01

    This paper reports a prospective survey of 173 patients with nonoperable lung cancer between January. 1, 1983 to March. 1, 1985. The follow-up rate was 97.7% over five years. Fourteen factors including sex, age, course of disease before treatment, clinical stage, performance status, size of mass, metastatic status, hemoglobin before treatment, short-term response to treatment and so on which might influence long term survival were studied by univariate analysis (Kruskal-Wallis test for Kaplan-Meier survival curve) and by multivariate analysis (Cox's proportional hazad model and audio-visual chart test for goodness of fit). Multivariate analysis using Cox's model revealed 6 significant prognostic factors: performance status, short-term response to treatment, clinical stage, hemoglobin before treatment, smoking index and method of treatment. The survival prediction equation was chi 2 = 72.14, nu = 6, P < 0.0001. The results indicate that the performance status and the CR rate of the initial treatment, among other things, is the major factors affecting prognosis.

  14. 26 CFR 35.3405-1 - Questions and answers relating to withholding on pensions, annuities, and certain other deferred...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... on pensions, annuities, and certain other deferred income. 35.3405-1 Section 35.3405-1 Internal... withholding on pensions, annuities, and certain other deferred income. The following questions and answers relate to withholding on pensions, annuities, and other deferred income under section 3405 of the...

  15. Performance of Lempel-Ziv compressors with deferred innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Martin

    1989-01-01

    The noiseless data-compression algorithms introduced by Lempel and Ziv (LZ) parse an input data string into successive substrings each consisting of two parts: The citation, which is the longest prefix that has appeared earlier in the input, and the innovation, which is the symbol immediately following the citation. In extremal versions of the LZ algorithm the citation may have begun anywhere in the input; in incremental versions it must have begun at a previous parse position. Originally the citation and the innovation were encoded, either individually or jointly, into an output word to be transmitted or stored. Subsequently, it was speculated that the cost of this encoding may be excessively high because the innovation contributes roughly 1g(A) bits, where A is the size of the input alphabet, regardless of the compressibility of the source. To remedy this excess, it was suggested to store the parsed substring as usual, but encoding for output only the citation, leaving the innovation to be encoded as the first symbol of the next substring. Being thus included in the next substring, the innovation can participate in whatever compression that substring enjoys. This strategy is called deferred innovation. It is exemplified in the algorithm described by Welch and implemented in the C program compress that has widely displaced adaptive Huffman coding (compact) as a UNIX system utility. The excessive expansion is explained, an implicit warning is given against using the deferred innovation compressors on nearly incompressible data.

  16. Donating blood for research: a potential method for enhancing customer satisfaction of permanently deferred blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Daniel; Thijsen, Amanda; Garradd, Allira; Hayman, Jane; Smith, Geoff

    2015-11-30

    Each year, a large number of individuals in Australia are deferred from donating blood. A deferral may have a negative impact on donor satisfaction and subsequent word-of-mouth communication. The Australian Red Cross Blood Service (the Blood Service) is, therefore, investigating options for managing service interactions with deferred donors to maintain positive relationships. While public research institutes in Australia have established independent research donor registries, other countries provide programmes allowing deferred donors to donate blood for research via blood collection agencies. This study examined attitudes towards donating blood for research use in a sample of permanently deferred Australian donors. Donors permanently deferred because of a risk of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (n=449) completed a postal survey that examined attitudes towards research donation. The majority of participants were interested in donating blood for research (96%), and joining a registry of research donors (93%). Participants preferred to donate for transfusion or clinical research, and were willing to travel large distances. Results indicated that positive attitudes towards the Blood Service would be extended if the opportunity to donate blood was provided. These findings indicate a desire for continued engagement with the Blood Service despite deferral. Donating blood for research is a potential way of maintaining positive relationships with permanently deferred donors which also benefits the health research community. Through maintaining positive relationships with deferred donors, positive word-of-mouth activity can be stimulated. Further work is needed to determine the feasibility of implementing research donation through the Blood Service in Australia.

  17. A System-Wide Approach to Physician Efficiency and Utilization Rates for Non-Operating Room Anesthesia Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Mitchell H; Huynh, Tinh T; Breidenstein, Max W; O'Donnell, Stephen E; Ehrenfeld, Jesse M; Urman, Richard D

    2017-07-01

    There has been little in the development or application of operating room (OR) management metrics to non-operating room anesthesia (NORA) sites. This is in contrast to the well-developed management framework for the OR management. We hypothesized that by adopting the concept of physician efficiency, we could determine the applicability of this clinical productivity benchmark for physicians providing services for NORA cases at a tertiary care center. We conducted a retrospective data analysis of NORA sites at an academic, rural hospital, including both adult and pediatric patients. Using the time stamps from WiseOR® (Palo Alto, CA), we calculated site utilization and physician efficiency for each day. We defined scheduling efficiency (SE) as the number of staffed anesthesiologists divided by the number of staffed sites and stratified the data into three categories (SE 1). The mean physician efficiency was 0.293 (95% CI, [0.281, 0.305]), and the mean site utilization was 0.328 (95% CI, [0.314, 0.343]). When days were stratified by scheduling efficiency (SE 1), we found differences between physician efficiency and site utilization. On days where scheduling efficiency was less than 1, that is, there are more sites than physicians, mean physician efficiency (95% CI, [0.326, 0.402]) was higher than mean site utilization (95% CI, [0.250, 0.296]). We demonstrate that scheduling efficiency vis-à-vis physician efficiency as an OR management metric diverge when anesthesiologists travel between NORA sites. When the opportunity to scale operational efficiencies is limited, increasing scheduling efficiency by incorporating different NORA sites into a "block" allocation on any given day may be the only suitable tactical alternative.

  18. Development and testing of a photometric method to identify non-operating solar hot water systems in field settings.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Hongbo (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Vorobieff, Peter V. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Menicucci, David (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Mammoli, Andrea A. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Carlson, Jeffrey J.

    2012-06-01

    This report presents the results of experimental tests of a concept for using infrared (IR) photos to identify non-operational systems based on their glazing temperatures; operating systems have lower glazing temperatures than those in stagnation. In recent years thousands of new solar hot water (SHW) systems have been installed in some utility districts. As these numbers increase, concern is growing about the systems dependability because installation rebates are often based on the assumption that all of the SHW systems will perform flawlessly for a 20-year period. If SHW systems routinely fail prematurely, then the utilities will have overpaid for grid-energy reduction performance that is unrealized. Moreover, utilities are responsible for replacing energy for loads that failed SHW system were supplying. Thus, utilities are seeking data to quantify the reliability of SHW systems. The work described herein is intended to help meet this need. The details of the experiment are presented, including a description of the SHW collectors that were examined, the testbed that was used to control the system and record data, the IR camera that was employed, and the conditions in which testing was completed. The details of the associated analysis are presented, including direct examination of the video records of operational and stagnant collectors, as well as the development of a model to predict glazing temperatures and an analysis of temporal intermittency of the images, both of which are critical to properly adjusting the IR camera for optimal performance. Many IR images and a video are presented to show the contrast between operating and stagnant collectors. The major conclusion is that the technique has potential to be applied by using an aircraft fitted with an IR camera that can fly over an area with installed SHW systems, thus recording the images. Subsequent analysis of the images can determine the operational condition of the fielded collectors. Specific

  19. Deferred versus conventional stent implantation in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (DANAMI 3-DEFER)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelbæk, Henning; Høfsten, Dan Eik; Køber, Lars

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite successful treatment of the culprit artery lesion by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with stent implantation, thrombotic embolisation occurs in some cases, which impairs the prognosis of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). We aimed...... to assess the clinical outcomes of deferred stent implantation versus standard PCI in patients with STEMI. METHODS: We did this open-label, randomised controlled trial at four primary PCI centres in Denmark. Eligible patients (aged >18 years) had acute onset symptoms lasting 12 h or less, and ST...... revascularisation of the target vessel within 2 years' follow-up. Patients, investigators, and treating clinicians were not masked to treatment allocation. We did analysis by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01435408. FINDINGS: Between March 1, 2011, and Feb 28, 2014...

  20. Deferred Compensation for Personnel of Tax-Exempt Universities: Effective Use of Section 403(b) Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, John L.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Under the Tax Reform Act of 1986 many university employees are no longer able to make tax deductible contributions to an IRA. Several alternative plans of action are discussed including tax-deferred annuities. Tax planning strategies are offered. (MLW)

  1. Deferred endoscopic urethral realignment: Role in management of traumatic posterior urethral disruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Elgammal

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: When early realignment is postponed for any reason, deferred endoscopic realignment is considered an adequate substitute because urethral continuity can be achieved in a group of patients without increase incidence of impotence and incontinence.

  2. 18 CFR 367.2550 - Account 255, Accumulated deferred investment tax credits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., FEDERAL POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Deferred Credits § 367.2550 Account... Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC...

  3. 18 CFR 367.2820 - Account 282, Accumulated deferred income taxes-Other property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., FEDERAL POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Deferred Credits § 367.2820 Account... Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC...

  4. 18 CFR 367.1900 - Account 190, Accumulated deferred income taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... NATURAL GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Deferred Debits § 367.1900 Account 190, Accumulated... ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING...

  5. 18 CFR 367.2830 - Account 283, Accumulated deferred income taxes-Other.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Deferred Credits § 367.2830 Account 283... FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY...

  6. Research on Allocation of Non-operating State-owned Assets in Health Industry%卫生领域非经营性国有资产配置研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张媚

    2013-01-01

    卫生领域非经营性国有资产是社会主义上层建筑的物质基础,是实现人人享有基本医疗卫生服务健康权益的物质条件;同时,也是卫生领域社会资源配置的重要经济工具.文章比较了国内外卫生领域国有资产配置状况,剖析了我国卫生领域非经营性国有资产配置机制存在的主要问题,探讨完善非经营性国有资产配置机制的基本思路.%Non-operating state-owned assets in health industry are the material base which the socialistic superstructure rely on,and guarantee for "health for all" with material supports; meanwhile,as the important economic tool playing the function of resource allocation.The paper compared the allocation situation of state-owned asset in health field at home and abroad,analyzed the current main problems in domestic health industry,and discussed the basic train of thought to improve allocation mechanism of non-operating state-owned assets.

  7. Is selective attention the basis for selective imitation in infants? An eye-tracking study of deferred imitation with 12-month-olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolling, Thorsten; Oturai, Gabriella; Knopf, Monika

    2014-08-01

    Infants and children do not blindly copy every action they observe during imitation tasks. Research demonstrated that infants are efficient selective imitators. The impact of selective perceptual processes (selective attention) for selective deferred imitation, however, is still poorly described. The current study, therefore, analyzed 12-month-old infants' looking behavior during demonstration of two types of target actions: arbitrary versus functional actions. A fully automated remote eye tracker was used to assess infants' looking behavior during action demonstration. After a 30-min delay, infants' deferred imitation performance was assessed. Next to replicating a memory effect, results demonstrate that infants do imitate significantly more functional actions than arbitrary actions (functionality effect). Eye-tracking data show that whereas infants do not fixate significantly longer on functional actions than on arbitrary actions, amount of fixations and amount of saccades differ between functional and arbitrary actions, indicating different encoding mechanisms. In addition, item-level findings differ from overall findings, indicating that perceptual and conceptual item features influence looking behavior. Looking behavior on both the overall and item levels, however, does not relate to deferred imitation performance. Taken together, the findings demonstrate that, on the one hand, selective imitation is not explainable merely by selective attention processes. On the other hand, notwithstanding this reasoning, attention processes on the item level are important for encoding processes during target action demonstration. Limitations and future studies are discussed.

  8. Early versus deferred treatment for smoldering multiple myeloma: a meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minjie Gao

    Full Text Available Whether patients with smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM needed to receive early interventional treatment remains controversial. Herein, we conducted a meta-analysis comparing the efficacy and safety of early treatment over deferred treatment for patients with SMM.MEDLINE and Cochrane Library were searched to May 2014 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs that assessed the effect of early treatment over deferred treatment. Primary outcome measure was mortality, and secondary outcome measures were progression, response rate, and adverse events.Overall, 5 trials including 449 patients were identified. There was a markedly reduced risk of disease progression with early treatment (Odds Ratio [OR] = 0.13, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.07 to 0.24. There were no significant differences in mortality and response rate (OR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.45 to 1.60, and OR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.32 to 1.23, respectively. More patients in the early treatment arm experienced gastrointestinal toxicities (OR = 10.02, 95%CI = 4.32 to 23.23, constipation (OR = 8.58, 95%CI = 3.20 to 23.00 and fatigue or asthenia (OR = 2.72, 95%CI = 1.30 to 5.67. No significant differences were seen with the development of acute leukemia (OR = 2.80, 95%CI = 0.42 to 18.81, hematologic cancer (OR = 2.07, 95%CI = 0.43 to 10.01, second primary tumors (OR = 3.45, 95%CI = 0.81 to 14.68, nor vertebral compression (OR = 0.18, 95%CI = 0.02 to 1.59.Early treatment delayed disease progression but increased the risk of gastrointestinal toxicities, constipation and fatigue or asthenia. The differences on vertebral compression, acute leukemia, hematological cancer and second primary tumors were not statistically significant. Based on the current evidence, early treatment didn't significantly affect mortality and response rate. However, further much larger trials were needed to provide more evidence.

  9. Donating blood for research: a potential method for enhancing customer satisfaction of permanently deferred blood donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Daniel; Thijsen, Amanda; Garradd, Allira; Hayman, Jane; Smith, Geoff

    2017-01-01

    Background Each year, a large number of individuals in Australia are deferred from donating blood. A deferral may have a negative impact on donor satisfaction and subsequent word-of-mouth communication. The Australian Red Cross Blood Service (the Blood Service) is, therefore, investigating options for managing service interactions with deferred donors to maintain positive relationships. While public research institutes in Australia have established independent research donor registries, other countries provide programmes allowing deferred donors to donate blood for research via blood collection agencies. This study examined attitudes towards donating blood for research use in a sample of permanently deferred Australian donors. Materials and methods Donors permanently deferred because of a risk of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (n=449) completed a postal survey that examined attitudes towards research donation. Results The majority of participants were interested in donating blood for research (96%), and joining a registry of research donors (93%). Participants preferred to donate for transfusion or clinical research, and were willing to travel large distances. Results indicated that positive attitudes towards the Blood Service would be extended if the opportunity to donate blood was provided. These findings indicate a desire for continued engagement with the Blood Service despite deferral. Discussion Donating blood for research is a potential way of maintaining positive relationships with permanently deferred donors which also benefits the health research community. Through maintaining positive relationships with deferred donors, positive word-of-mouth activity can be stimulated. Further work is needed to determine the feasibility of implementing research donation through the Blood Service in Australia. PMID:26674813

  10. Ground-based multispectral measurements for airborne data verification in non-operating open pit mine "Kremikovtsi"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisova, Denitsa; Nikolov, Hristo; Petkov, Doyno

    2013-10-01

    The impact of mining industry and metal production on the environment is presented all over the world. In our research we set focus on the impact of already non-operating ferrous "Kremikovtsi"open pit mine and related waste dumps and tailings which we consider to be the major factor responsible for pollution of one densely populated region in Bulgaria. The approach adopted is based on correct estimation of the distribution of the iron oxides inside open pit mines and the neighboring regions those considered in this case to be the key issue for the ecological state assessment of soils, vegetation and water. For this study the foremost source of data are those of airborne origin and those combined with ground-based in-situ and laboratory acquired data were used for verification of the environmental variables and thus in process of assessment of the present environmental status influenced by previous mining activities. The percentage of iron content was selected as main indicator for presence of metal pollution since it could be reliably identified by multispectral data used in this study and also because the iron compounds are widely spread in the most of the minerals, rocks and soils. In our research the number of samples from every source (air, field, lab) was taken in the way to be statistically sound and confident. In order to establish relationship between the degree of pollution of the soil and mulspectral data 40 soil samples were collected during a field campaign in the study area together with GPS measurements for two types of laboratory measurements: the first one, chemical and mineralogical analysis and the second one, non-destructive spectroscopy. In this work for environmental variables verification over large areas mulspectral satellite data from Landsat instruments TM/ETM+ and from ALI/OLI (Operational Land Imager) were used. Ground-based (laboratory and in-situ) spectrometric measurements were performed using the designed and constructed in Remote

  11. 34 CFR 611.44 - Under what circumstances may the Secretary defer a scholarship recipient's service obligation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... scholarship recipient's service obligation? 611.44 Section 611.44 Education Regulations of the Offices of the... QUALITY ENHANCEMENT GRANTS PROGRAM Scholarships § 611.44 Under what circumstances may the Secretary defer a scholarship recipient's service obligation? (a) Upon written request, the Secretary may defer...

  12. Successful Combination of Nucleic Acid Amplification Test Diagnostics and Targeted Deferred Neisseria gonorrhoeae Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind, Carolien M; de Vries, Henry J C; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F; Unemo, Magnus; van Dam, Alje P

    2015-06-01

    Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) are recommended for the diagnosis of N. gonorrhoeae infections because of their superior sensitivity. Increasing NAAT use causes a decline in crucial antimicrobial resistance (AMR) surveillance data, which rely on culture. We analyzed the suitability of the ESwab system for NAAT diagnostics and deferred targeted N. gonorrhoeae culture to allow selective and efficient culture based on NAAT results. We included patients visiting the STI Clinic Amsterdam, The Netherlands, in 2013. Patient characteristics and urogenital and rectal samples for direct N. gonorrhoeae culture, standard NAAT, and ESwab were collected. Standard NAAT and NAAT on ESwab samples were performed using the Aptima Combo 2 assay for N. gonorrhoeae and C. trachomatis. Two deferred N. gonorrhoeae cultures were performed on NAAT-positive ESwab samples after storage at 4°C for 1 to 3 days. We included 2,452 samples from 1,893 patients. In the standard NAAT, 107 samples were N. gonorrhoeae positive and 284 were C. trachomatis positive. The sensitivities of NAAT on ESwab samples were 83% (95% confidence interval [CI], 75 to 90%) and 87% (95% CI, 82 to 90%), respectively. ESwab samples were available for 98 of the gonorrhea-positive samples. Of these, 82% were positive in direct culture and 69% and 56% were positive in the 1st and 2nd deferred cultures, respectively (median storage times, 27 and 48 h, respectively). Deferred culture was more often successful in urogenital samples or when the patient had symptoms at the sampling site. Deferred N. gonorrhoeae culture of stored ESwab samples is feasible and enables AMR surveillance. To limit the loss in NAAT sensitivity, we recommend obtaining separate samples for NAAT and deferred culture.

  13. High prevalence of severe coronary artery disease in elderly patients with non-operable chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension referred for balloon pulmonary angioplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Roik

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Balloon pulmonary angioplasty (BPA is a new emerging catheter-based alternative treatment option for patients with inoperable chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH. Aim : To show that all elderly CTEPH patients referred for BPA are at higher risk of obstructive coronary artery disease and that, in daily practice, they should undergo invasive coronary angiography. Material and methods : Eleven patients at the age of at least 65 years (6 males, 5 females, 77.2 ±5.9 years with confirmed non-operable type II or type III CTEPH, considered for BPA, underwent elective coronary angiography. Severe obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD was diagnosed when stenosis of left main coronary artery ≥ 50% or stenosis of ≥ 70% of epicardial arteries was angiographically confirmed. We also screened for CAD consecutive age- and sex-matched 114 PE survivors (52 males, 62 females, 74.8 ±7.2 years with excluded CTEPH. Results : Severe CAD was more frequent in elderly patients with non-operable type II or type III CTEPH candidates for BPA than in elderly acute PE survivors with excluded CTEPH (54.5% vs. 16.7%, p < 0.01, and therefore elderly CTEPH patients referred for BPA were at higher risk of CAD (OR = 5.9, 95% CI: 1.64–21.46, p = 0.007 when compared to elderly survivors after acute PE with excluded CTEPH. Conclusions : All elderly CTEPH patients referred for BPA are at higher risk of severe CAD and should routinely undergo invasive coronary angiography before BPA.

  14. Immediate Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV Infection Accelerates Bone Loss Relative to Deferring Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoy, Jennifer F; Grund, Birgit; Roediger, Mollie P

    2017-01-01

    Both HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) are associated with lower bone mineral density (BMD) and increased fracture risk. Because the relative contributions of ART and untreated HIV to BMD loss are unclear, it is important to quantify the effect of ART on bone. We compared the effect...... of early ART initiation (CD4 >500 cells/μL) with deferred ART on change in BMD in the START Bone Mineral Density substudy, a randomized trial evaluating the effect of immediate ART initiation versus deferring ART (to CD4

  15. Different supplents for finishing of Nellore cattle on deferred Brachiaria decumbens pasture during the dry season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Tadeu de Andrade

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of four types of supplement on the finishing of Nellore cattle on deferred Brachiaria decumbens pasture during the dry season. Sixty-four castrated Nellore males with an age of approximately 34 months and initial body weight (BW ranging from 360 to 380 kg were divided into 16 animals per treatment in a completely randomized design. The treatments consisted of four types of pasture supplement: deferred Brachiaria decumbens pasture + energy protein mineral salt (SuEPM used as control; deferred Brachiaria decumbens pasture + urea + cottonseed meal (28% CP + ground corn grain (SuCo; deferred Brachiaria decumbens pasture + urea + cottonseed meal (28% CP + citrus pulp (SuCPu; deferred Brachiaria decumbens pasture + urea + cottonseed meal (28% CP + soy hull (SuSH. The pasture was deferred for 170 days and provided 3,482 kg DM/ha of forage, permitting a stocking rate of 1.56 AU/ha (DM intake of 2.25% BW and 50% pasture efficiency. The animals received the supplement ad libitum in the SuEPM treatment and as % BW in the other treatments from July to October. The animals were slaughtered at a minimum BW of 457 kg. The following variables were evaluated: final weight, weight gain during the period (WG, average daily gain (ADG, hot carcass weight (HCW, and hot carcass yield (HCY. With respect to final weight, the supplement in the SuCo, SuCPu and SuSH treatments permitted a greater supply of nutrients and the animals therefore exhibited better performance (P<0.05 compared to the SuEPM treatment (mean of 478.68 vs 412.62 kg. The same effect was observed for the other parameters studied. Analysis of WG and ADG showed that SuSH was superior to the SuCo and SuCPu treatments (P<0.05 due to the increased offer of concentrate and SuEPM was inferior to the other treatments. Higher HCW (260.05 kg and HCY (53.92% were obtained with treatment SuSH as a result of greater performance. Supplementation of cattle during the dry period on

  16. Taxable and Tax-deferred Investing with the Limited Use of Losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Marcel; Gallmeyer, Michael

    2017-01-01

    We study the impact of the different tax treatment of capital gains and losses on the optimal location of assets in taxable and tax-deferred accounts. The classical result of Black (1980) and Tepper (1981) suggests that investors should follow a strict pecking order asset location rule and hold...... those assets that are subject to the highest tax rate preferentially in tax-deferred accounts. We show that with the different tax treatment of realized gains and losses, only tax-efficient equity mutual funds are optimally held in taxable accounts, whereas mutual funds with average tax...

  17. 5 CFR 847.907 - How is the monthly annuity rate used to compute the present value of the deferred annuity without...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... compute the present value of the deferred annuity without credit for NAFI service determined? 847.907... the present value of the deferred annuity without credit for NAFI service determined? (a) The monthly annuity rate used to compute the present value of the deferred annuity under § 847.906 of this subpart...

  18. 27 CFR 26.95 - Deferred payment of tax-release of wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-release of wine. 26.95 Section 26.95 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... ISLANDS Taxpayment of Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Wine § 26.95 Deferred payment of tax—release of wine. (a) Action by proprietor. Where the proprietor has furnished bond, on Form 2897, and payment of...

  19. Approximation of functions in Besov space by deferred Cesàro mean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mradul Veer Singh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper we study the degree of approximation of functions (signals in a Besov space by trigonometric polynomials using deferred Cesàro mean. We also deduce a few corollaries of our main result and compare them with the existing results.

  20. 75 FR 22813 - Guidance for Industry: Requalification Method for Reentry of Blood Donors Deferred Because of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a document entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Requalification Method for Reentry of Blood Donors Deferred Because of Reactive Test Results for Antibody to Hepatitis B Core Antigen (Anti- HBc),'' dated May 2010. The guidance document provides recommendations to establishments that collect Whole Blood or blood components......

  1. 78 FR 10554 - Interim Final Determination To Stay and Defer Sanctions, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Interim Final Determination To Stay and Defer Sanctions, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Interim final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is making an interim final determination to stay the imposition of offset...

  2. Deferred Primary Anastomosis Versus Diversion in Patients with Severe Secondary Peritonitis Managed with Staged Laparotomies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ordonez, Carlos A.; Sanchez, Alvaro I.; Pineda, Jaime A.; Badiel, Marisol; Mesa, Rafael; Cardona, Uriel; Arias, Rafael; Rosso, Fernando; Granados, Marcela; Gutierrez-Martinez, Maria I.; Ochoa, Juan B.; Peitzman, Andrew; Puyana, Juan-Carlos

    2010-01-01

    There is inconclusive data on whether critically ill individuals with severe secondary peritonitis requiring multiple staged laparotomies may became eligible candidates for deferred primary anastomoses (DPA). We sought to compare a protocol for DPA against a protocol for diversion in severely ill cr

  3. 78 FR 37719 - Interim Final Determination To Defer Sanctions; California; South Coast Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... approval of revisions to the South Coast Air Quality Management District's (SCAQMD) portion of the... Quality Management District Proposed Contingency Measures for the 2007 PM 2.5 SIP'' (dated October 2011... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Interim Final Determination To Defer Sanctions; California; South Coast Air...

  4. Life Cycle Asset Allocation in the Presence of Housing and Tax-Deferred Investing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marekwica, Marcel; Schaefer, Alexander; Sebastian, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    , investors can deduct mortgage interest payments from taxable income, while simultaneously earning interest in tax-deferred accounts tax-free. Matching empirical evidence, our model predicts that investors with higher retirement savings choose higher loan-to-value ratios to exploit this tax arbitrage...

  5. To Defer or To Stand Up? How Offender Formidability Affects Third Party Moral Outrage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Holm; Petersen, Michael Bang

    2011-01-01

    According to models of animal behavior, the relative formidability of conspecifics determines the utility of deferring versus aggressing in situations of conflict. Here we apply and extend these models by investigating how the formidability of exploiters shapes third party moral outrage in humans...

  6. 34 CFR 535.55 - What is the length of the deferment of repayment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the length of the deferment of repayment? 535.55 Section 535.55 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF BILINGUAL EDUCATION AND MINORITY LANGUAGES AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION BILINGUAL...

  7. 34 CFR 535.54 - Under what circumstances is repayment deferred?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Under what circumstances is repayment deferred? 535.54 Section 535.54 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF BILINGUAL EDUCATION AND MINORITY LANGUAGES AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION BILINGUAL EDUCATION:...

  8. 26 CFR 301.6058-1 - Information required in connection with certain plans of deferred compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... purposes of this section, the term “funded plan of deferred compensation” means each pension, annuity... 405(a); individual retirement accounts and annuities described in sections 408(a) and 408(b); and... Retirement Income Security Act of 1974; (88 Stat. 840)). The term does not include annuity...

  9. Deference, Denial, and Beyond: A Repertoire Approach to Mass Media and Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rymes, Betsy

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author outlines two general research approaches, within the education world, to these mass-mediated formations: "Deference" and "Denial." Researchers who recognize the social practices that give local meaning to mass media formations and ways of speaking do not attempt to recontextualize youth media in their own social…

  10. 40 CFR 280.11 - Interim prohibition for deferred UST systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; (2) Is cathodically protected against corrosion, constructed of noncorrodible material, steel clad... substance. (b) Notwithstanding paragraph (a) of this section, an UST system without corrosion protection may... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interim prohibition for deferred...

  11. The impact of excess choice on deferment of decisions to volunteer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren S. Carroll

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Excess choice has previously been shown to have detrimental effects on decisions about consumer products. As the number of options increases, people are more likely to put off making an active choice (i.e., defer and show less satisfaction with any purchase actually made. We extend this line of enquiry to choosing a charitable organisation to volunteer for. The issue is important because the number of voluntary organisations is enormous and the impact of such a decision may be greater than for consumer decisions in terms of time commitment and benefits to the volunteer and society. Study 1 asked students to examine a real volunteering website and record how many organisations they considered, decision difficulty and whether or not they would like to sign up for a chosen organisation or prefer to defer a decision. Study 2 presented either a relatively small (10 or large (30 choice set of hypothetical organisations and measured deferment likelihood and decision difficulty. In both studies the more options considered, the greater the likelihood to defer. This effect was mediated by decision difficulty. This research is the first to find that detrimental effects of excess choice extend to volunteering. Implications for volunteer recruitment are discussed.

  12. 78 FR 77696 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Consideration of Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Consideration of Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals, Form I-821D, OMB Control No. 1615-0124; Correction ACTION... Homeland Security, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) published a 60-day Notice...

  13. 77 FR 49451 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Consideration of Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-16

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Consideration of Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals, Form I-821D, New Information Collection; Emergency... Collection Under Review. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS), U.S. Citizenship and Immigration...

  14. 27 CFR 26.104 - Deferred payment of tax-release of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-release of beer. 26.104 Section 26.104 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... ISLANDS Taxpayment of Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Beer § 26.104 Deferred payment of tax—release of beer. (a) Action by brewer. Where the brewer has furnished bond on Form 2898, and payment of the tax...

  15. A feasibility study of immediate versus deferred antiretroviral therapy in children with HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubolyam Sasiwimol

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To evaluate the feasibility of a large immediate versus deferred antiretroviral therapy (ART study in children. Methods We conducted an open-label pilot randomized clinical trial study in 43 Thai children with CD4 15 to 24% of starting generic AZT/3TC/NVP immediately (Arm 1 or deferring until CD4 Results Recruitment took 15 months. Twenty-six of 69 (37.7% were not eligible due mainly to low CD4%. Twenty four and 19 were randomized to arms 1 and 2 respectively. All accepted the randomized arm; however, 3 in arm 1 stopped ART and 1 in arm 2 refused to start ART. Ten/19 (53% in arm 2 started ART. At baseline, median age was 4.8 yrs, CDC A:B were 36:7, median CD4 was 19% and viral load was 4.8 log. All in arm 1 and 17/19 in arm 2 completed the study (median of 134 weeks. No one had AIDS or death. Four in immediate arm had tuberculosis. Once started on ART, deferred arm children achieved similar CD4 and viral load response as the immediate arm. Adverse events were similar between arms. The deferred arm had a 26% ART saving. Conclusion Almost 40% of children were not eligible due mainly to low CD4% but adherence to randomized treatment and retention in trial were excellent. A larger study to evaluate when to start ART is feasible.

  16. Immediate versus deferred coronary angioplasty in non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riezebos, R.K.; Ronner, E.; ter Bals, E.; Slagboom, T.; Smits, P.C.; ten Berg, J.M.; Kiemeneij, F.; Amoroso, G.; Patterson, M.S.; Suttorp, M.J.; Tijssen, J.G.P.; Laarman, G.J.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The field of acute coronary syndromes is characterised by an increasing tendency towards early invasive catheter-based diagnostics and therapeutics-a practice based on observational and retrospective data. OBJECTIVE: To compare immediate versus deferred angioplasty in patients with non-S

  17. Semi-implicit spectral deferred correction methods for ordinary differential equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minion, Michael L.

    2002-10-06

    A semi-implicit formulation of the method of spectral deferred corrections (SISDC) for ordinary differential equations with both stiff and non-stiff terms is presented. Several modifications and variations to the original spectral deferred corrections method by Dutt, Greengard, and Rokhlin concerning the choice of integration points and the form of the correction iteration are presented. The stability and accuracy of the resulting ODE methods are explored analytically and numerically. The SISDC methods are intended to be combined with the method of lines approach to yield a flexible framework for creating higher-order semi-implicit methods for partial differential equations. A discussion and numerical examples of the SISDC method applied to advection-diffusion type equations are included. The results suggest that higher-order SISDC methods are more efficient than semi-implicit Runge-Kutta methods for moderately stiff problems in terms of accuracy per function evaluation.

  18. Can Authorization Reduce Poverty among Undocumented Immigrants? Evidence from the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals Program

    OpenAIRE

    Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina; Antman, Francisca M.

    2016-01-01

    We explore the impact of authorization on the poverty exposure of households headed by undocumented immigrants. The identification strategy makes use of the 2012 Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program, which provided a temporary work authorization and reprieve from deportation to eligible immigrants. Using a difference-in-differences approach, we compare DACA-eligible to DACA-ineligible likely unauthorized immigrants, before and after the program implementation. We find that DA...

  19. Fourth-Order Deferred Correction Scheme for Solving Heat Conduction Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Yambangwai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A deferred correction method is utilized to increase the order of spatial accuracy of the Crank-Nicolson scheme for the numerical solution of the one-dimensional heat equation. The fourth-order methods proposed are the easier development and can be solved by using Thomas algorithms. The stability analysis and numerical experiments have been limited to one-dimensional heat-conducting problems with Dirichlet boundary conditions and initial data.

  20. Long-term disease control of a non-operable neuroendocrine tumor of the lung with lanreotide: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Fraeyenhove, F; De Droogh, E; Meireson, N; Galdermans, D; Goor, C; Van Acker, F; Mattelaer, C; De Ruyter, V; Schrijvers, D

    2012-09-01

    Bronchopulmonary neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are malignant tumors that represent approximately 20% of all lung cancers. The therapeutic option for advanced or metastatic bronchopulmonary NETs is mainly palliation of symptoms; options need to be individualized and, therefore, rely on the knowledge of multidisciplinary teams. Somatostatin analogs have been widely used in NETs for control of hormonal syndromes and are currently under evaluation for their antiproliferative activity. Here, we present a case of NET of the lung, for which we achieved long-term disease control with a treatment comprising the somatostatin analog lanreotide Autogel(®) in a patient with limited therapeutic options due to considerable comorbidity, while preserving his quality of life.

  1. Deferring Elimination of Design Alternatives in Object Oriented Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aksit, Mehmet; Marcelloni, Francesco

    2001-01-01

    While developing systems, software engineers generally have to deal with a large number of design alternatives. Current object-oriented methods aim to eliminate design alternatives whenever they are generated. Alternatives, however, should be eliminated only when sufficient information to take such

  2. Long-Term Disease Control of a Non-Operable Neuroendocrine Tumor of the Lung with Lanreotide: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Van Fraeyenhove

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Bronchopulmonary neuroendocrine tumors (NETs are malignant tumors that represent approximately 20% of all lung cancers. The therapeutic option for advanced or metastatic bronchopulmonary NETs is mainly palliation of symptoms; options need to be individualized and, therefore, rely on the knowledge of multidisciplinary teams. Somatostatin analogs have been widely used in NETs for control of hormonal syndromes and are currently under evaluation for their antiproliferative activity. Here, we present a case of NET of the lung, for which we achieved long-term disease control with a treatment comprising the somatostatin analog lanreotide Autogel® in a patient with limited therapeutic options due to considerable comorbidity, while preserving his quality of life.

  3. A burn center paradigm to fulfill deferred consent public disclosure and community consultation requirements for emergency care research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackford, Martha G; Falletta, Lynn; Andrews, David A; Reed, Michael D

    2012-09-01

    To fulfill Food and Drug Administration and Department of Health and Human Services emergency care research informed consent requirements, our burn center planned and executed a deferred consent strategy gaining Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval to proceed with the clinical study. These federal regulations dictate public disclosure and community consultation unique to acute care research. Our regional burn center developed and implemented a deferred consent public notification and community consultation paradigm appropriate for a burn study. Published accounts of deferred consent strategies focus on acute care resuscitation practices. We adapted those strategies to design and conduct a comprehensive public notification/community consultation plan to satisfy deferred consent requirements for burn center research. To implement a robust media campaign we engaged the hospital's public relations department, distributed media materials, recruited hospital staff for speaking engagements, enlisted community volunteers, and developed initiatives to inform "hard-to-reach" populations. The hospital's IRB determined we fulfilled our obligation to notify the defined community. Our communication strategy should provide a paradigm other burn centers may appropriate and adapt when planning and executing a deferred consent initiative. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  4. Economic viability of production of Nellore heifers on Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu pastures deferred and fertilized with nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poliana Batista de Aguilar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different levels of nitrogen on deferred pastures of Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu, and the implications on the economic viability of production of Nellore heifers. This was a completely randomized design with four treatments (T1 = deferred pasture without nitrogen fertilization; T2 = deferred pasture fertilized with 50 kg N ha-1, T3 = deferred pasture with 100 kg N ha-1, T4 = deferred pasture with 150 kg N ha-1 and four replications (16 fertilized paddocks. First, there were used 48 Nellore heifers, average eight months of age and initial body weight of 178.69 ± 26.67 kg, with three heifers in each paddock, in all treatments, in a continuous grazing system, with variable stocking rate. Only the treatment the without nitrogen fertilization showed negative monetary values of R$ -181.96, R$ ha-1 -72.79 and R$ @-1 -32.11. The treatment with 50 kg N ha-1 achieved the highest positive monetary values of R$ 756.02, R$ ha-1 302.40 and R$ @-1 50.52. Economic viability data in beef heifer production demonstrate that the treatment with 50 kg N ha-1 is the most financially viable under the conditions of this study.

  5. Great apes can defer exchange: a replication with different results suggesting future oriented behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osvath, Mathias; Persson, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    The topic of cognitive foresight in non-human animals has received considerable attention in the last decade. The main questions concern whether the animals can prepare for upcoming situations which are, to various degrees, contextually or sensorially detached from the situation in which the preparations are made. Studies on great apes have focused on tool-related tasks, e.g., the ability to select a tool which is functional only in the future. Dufour and Sterck (2008), however, investigated whether chimpanzees were also able to prepare for a future exchange with a human: an object exchanged for a food item. The study included extensive training on the exchangeable item, which is traditionally not compatible with methods for studying planning abilities, as associative learning cannot be precluded. Nevertheless, despite this training, the chimpanzees could not solve the deferred exchange task. Given that great apes can plan for tool use, these results are puzzling. In addition, claims that great ape foresight is highly limited has been based on this study (Suddendorf and Corballis, 2010). Here we partly replicated Dufour and Sterck's study to discern whether temporally deferred and spatially displaced exchange tasks are beyond the capabilities of great apes. In addition to chimpanzees we tested orangutans. One condition followed the one used by Dufour and Sterck, in which the exchange items, functional only in the future, are placed at a location that freely allows for selections by the subjects. In order to test the possibility that the choice set-up could explain the negative results in Dufour and Sterck's study, our second condition followed a method used in the planning study by Osvath and Osvath (2008), where the subjects make a forced one-item-choice from a tray. We found that it is within the capabilities of chimpanzees and orangutans to perform deferred exchange in both conditions.

  6. Great apes can defer exchange: a replication with different results suggesting future oriented behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias eOsvath

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The topic of cognitive foresight in non-human animals has received considerable attention in the last decade. The main questions concern whether the animals can prepare for upcoming situations which are, to various degrees, contextually or sensorially detached from the situation in which the preparations are made. Studies on great apes have focused on tool-related tasks, e.g. the ability to select a tool which is functional only in the future. Dufour and Sterck (2008, however, investigated whether chimpanzees were also able to prepare for a future exchange with a human: an object exchanged for a food item. The study included extensive training on the exchangeable item, which is traditionally not compatible with methods for studying planning abilities, as associative learning cannot be precluded. Nevertheless, despite this training, the chimpanzees could not solve the deferred exchange task. Given that great apes can plan for tool use, these results are puzzling. In addition, claims that great ape foresight is highly limited has been based on this study (Suddendorf and Corballis, 2010. Here we partly replicated Dufour and Sterck’s study to discern whether temporally deferred and spatially displaced exchange tasks are beyond the capabilities of great apes. In addition to chimpanzees we tested orangutans. One condition followed the one used by Dufour and Sterck, in which the exchange items, functional only in the future, are placed at a location that freely allows for selections by the subjects. In order to test the possibility that the choice set-up could explain the negative results in Dufour and Sterck’s study, our second condition followed a method used in the planning study by Osvath and Osvath (2008, where the subjects make a forced one-item-choice from a tray. We found that it is within the capabilities of chimpanzees and orangutans to perform deferred exchange in both conditions.

  7. Huanghua Port Nickel-Iron Project Deferred to the End of 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>The Huanghua Port nickel-iron project in Cangzhou of Hebei Province,with a joint in- vestment of 1.8 billion Yuan by Sinosteel and Baosteel,will be deferred to the end of 2009 and even won’t be put into production until 2010,due to the sliding nickel price and low demand in the stainless steel market.PhaseⅠof the project has a productivity of 16,000 tons of nickel.In addition,Qingshan Group’s nickel-

  8. Pretend play, deferred imitation and parent-child interaction in speaking and non-speaking children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strid, Karin; Heimann, Mikael; Tjus, Tomas

    2013-02-01

    This study investigates spontaneous pretend play during a parent-child free play observation, and deferred imitation observed in an experimental setting in speaking and non-speaking children with autism in comparison to children with typical development. Both groups of children with autism showed a reduced level of deferred imitation compared to the typically developing group, but only the non-speaking children with autism spent significantly less time in pretend play compared to children with typical development. Deferred imitation was related to parents' verbal interaction in both groups. An analysis of the parent-child interaction revealed that parents of children with autism used less synchronized comments compared to parents of typically developing children. Parents of the speaking group with autism used more synchronized than unsynchronized comments, while parents of the non-speaking group used the same amount of synchronized and unsynchronized comments. These findings are discussed in terms of how the developmental level affects behavior and interaction in autism.

  9. Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Deferred Coronary Lesions according to Disease Severity Assessed by Fractional Flow Reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Ki Bum; Nam, Chang Wook; Cho, Yun Kyeong; Yoon, Hyuck Jun; Park, Hyoung Seob; Kim, Hyungseop; Han, Seongwook; Hur, Seung Ho; Kim, Yoon Nyun; Park, Sang Hyun; Han, Jung Kyu; Koo, Bon Kwon; Kim, Hyo Soo; Doh, Joon Hyung; Lee, Sung Yun; Yang, Hyoung Mo; Lim, Hong Seok; Yoon, Myeong Ho; Tahk, Seung Jea; Kim, Kwon Bae

    2016-12-01

    Data on the clinical outcomes in deferred coronary lesions according to functional severity have been limited. This study evaluated the clinical outcomes of deferred lesions according to fractional flow reserve (FFR) grade using Korean FFR registry data. Among 1,294 patients and 1,628 lesions in Korean FFR registry, 665 patients with 781 deferred lesions were included in this study. All participants were consecutively categorized into 4 groups according to FFR; group 1: ≥ 0.96 (n = 56), group 2: 0.86-0.95 (n = 330), group 3: 0.81-0.85 (n = 170), and group 4: ≤ 0.80 (n = 99). Primary endpoint was major adverse cardiac events (MACE), a composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, and target vessel revascularization. The median follow-up period was 2.1 years. During follow-up, the incidence of MACE in groups 1-4 was 1.8%, 7.6%, 8.8%, and 13.1%, respectively. Compared to group 1, the cumulative rate by Kaplan-Meier analysis of MACE was not different for groups 2 and 3. However, group 4 had higher cumulative rate of MACE compared to group 1 (log-rank P = 0.013). In the multivariate Cox hazard models, only FFR (hazard ratio [HR], 0.95; P = 0.005) was independently associated with MACE among all participants. In contrast, previous history of percutaneous coronary intervention (HR, 2.37; P = 0.023) and diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) (HR, 2.35; P = 0.015), but not FFR, were independent predictors for MACE in subjects with non-ischemic (FFR ≥ 0.81) deferred coronary lesions. Compared to subjects with ischemic deferred lesions, clinical outcomes in subjects with non-ischemic deferred lesions according to functional severity are favorable. However, longer-term follow-up may be necessary.

  10. Affiliation of the beneficiaries of a deferred pension to the CERN Health Insurance Scheme

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Subsequent to the modifications to the Rules and Regulations of the Pension Fund allowing members of the personnel having five years of affiliation to the Fund to opt for a deferred retirement pension, the Organization wishes to recall the rules relating to the affiliation of those beneficiaries to the CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS). In accordance with Articles III 2.02 and VIII 4.02 of the CHIS Rules, beneficiaries of a deferred retirement pension can only be Members of the CHIS as CERN pensioners if they applied to remain Members of the Scheme upon termination of their compulsory membership as a member of the personnel and if their membership has been uninterrupted up to the moment they become CERN pensioners. The applicable contribution for this intermediate period is indicated in Articles III 5.03 and X 1.02 of the CHIS Rules. The amount is revised annually, and is set at 936 CHF/ month for 2003. Human Resources Division Tel. 73635

  11. Undocumented students pursuing medical education: The implications of deferred action for childhood arrivals (DACA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balderas-Medina Anaya, Yohualli; del Rosario, Mithi; Doyle, Lawrence Hy; Hayes-Bautista, David E

    2014-12-01

    There are about 1.8 million young immigrants in the United States who came or were brought to the country without documentation before the age of 16. These youth have been raised and educated in the United States and have aspirations and educational achievements similar to those of their native-born peers. However, their undocumented status has hindered their pursuit of higher education, especially in medical and other graduate health sciences. Under a new discretionary policy, Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA), many of these young immigrants are eligible to receive permission to reside and work in the United States. DACA defers deportation of eligible, undocumented youth and grants lawful presence in the United States, work permits, Social Security numbers, and, in most states, driver's licenses. These privileges have diminished the barriers undocumented students traditionally have faced in obtaining higher education, specifically in pursuing medicine. With the advent of DACA, students are slowly matriculating into U.S. medical schools and residencies. However, this applicant pool remains largely untapped. In the face of a physician shortage and the implementation of the Affordable Care Act, an increase in matriculation of qualified undocumented students would be greatly beneficial. This Perspective is intended to begin discussion within the academic medicine community of the implications of DACA in reducing barriers for the selection and matriculation of undocumented medical students and residents. Moreover, this Perspective is a call to peers in the medical community to support undocumented students seeking access to medical school, residency, and other health professions.

  12. Why birds with deferred sexual maturity are sedentary on islands: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ferrer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Island faunas have played central roles in the development of evolutionary biology and ecology. Birds are among the most studied organisms on islands, in part because of their dispersal powers linked to migration. Even so, we lack of information about differences in the movement ecology of island versus mainland populations of birds. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we present a new general pattern indicating that large birds with deferred sexual maturity are sedentary on islands, and that they become so even when they are migratory on the mainland. Density-dependent variation in the age at first breeding affects the survivorship of insular populations and this, in turn, affects the movement ecology of large birds. Because density-dependent variation in the age of first breeding is critical to the long-term survival of small isolated populations of long-lived species, migratory forms can successfully colonize islands only if they become sedentary once there. Analyses of the movement ecology of continental and insular populations of 314 species of raptors, 113 species of Ciconiiformes and 136 species of passerines, along with individual-based population simulations confirm this prediction. CONCLUSIONS: This finding has several consequences for speciation, colonization and survival of small isolated population of species with deferred sexual maturity.

  13. Deference and Diffèrance: Judicial Review and the Perfect Gift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J De Ville

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The highest courts in both Canada and South Africa have expressed themselves in favour of an approach of deference as respect in the review of administrative action. The notion of deference as respect derives from the thinking of David Dyzenhaus, who has developed a theory of democracy in support of this approach to judicial review. Dyzenhaus’ model of review attempts to steer clear from the problems he associates particularly with positivism and liberalism. Dyzenhaus’ model of review furthermore attempts to allow space for the administration to play a significant role in giving effect to democratic values, on the understanding that all such decisions need to be reasonably justifiable. In this article the views of Dyzenhaus are contrasted with those of Jacques Derrida, especially insofar as the latter has reflected on the relation between law and justice, as well as concepts such as the gift and democracy. The argument developed in this article is that Dyzenhaus’ model of review, despite its many positive features, needs to be rethought with reference to the perfect gift, unconditional justice and democracy to come. Such a rethinking is required because of the limited conception of justice – as simply ‘our’ justice – in Dyzenhaus’ model.

  14. ACCOUNTING – TAXATION REPORT IN TERMS OF DEFERRED TAXES ON ASSETS REVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PALIU – POPA LUCIA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There has always been and will be a relationship between accounting and taxation, and the ongoing discussions are related to intensity, interrelation and generation of reciprocal effects. Profit is the "wealth" achieved by the economic entity, the share of shareholders after paying the income tax, where applicable, which makes the profit have a major influence on the method of determination and thus of the accounting treatment incurred by the income tax depending on the accounting cultures in dispute for supremacy, namely the European accounting culture and the Anglo-Saxon accounting culture. As the users of information in the financial statements seek to assess the performance and profitability of the company in general and, academically, the income tax is the only element raising debates on the relationship between accounting and taxation, we deemed it useful to conduct a study on the accounting – taxation report in terms of deferred taxes related to assets revaluation. The record of deferred tax amount for each type of temporary difference results in elimination of tax effects from accounting, with the aim of revealing the real earnings of the economic entity and not its fiscal side, all of which is a step in disconnecting the taxation accounting

  15. Immune control of HIV-1 infection after therapy interruption: immediate versus deferred antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernaschi Massimo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The optimal stage for initiating antiretroviral therapies in HIV-1 bearing patients is still a matter of debate. Methods We present computer simulations of HIV-1 infection aimed at identifying the pro et contra of immediate as compared to deferred Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART. Results Our simulations highlight that a prompt specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes response is detected when therapy is delayed. Compared to very early initiation of HAART, in deferred treated patients CD8+ T cells manage to mediate the decline of viremia in a shorter time and, at interruption of therapy, the virus experiences a stronger immune pressure. We also observe, however, that the immunological effects of the therapy fade with time in both therapeutic regimens. Thus, within one year from discontinuation, viral burden recovers to the value at which it would level off in the absence of therapy. In summary, simulations show that immediate therapy does not prolong the disease-free period and does not confer a survival benefit when compared to treatment started during the chronic infection phase. Conclusion Our conclusion is that, since there is no therapy to date that guarantees life-long protection, deferral of therapy should be preferred in order to minimize the risk of adverse effects, the occurrence of drug resistances and the costs of treatment.

  16. 42 CFR 62.9 - Under what circumstances can the period of obligated service be deferred to complete approved...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... from a school of medicine, osteopathy, or dentistry, veterinary medicine, optometry, podiatry or pharmacy, the Secretary will defer the beginning date of the obligated service to allow the participant to... for any participant receiving a degree from a school of medicine, osteopathy or dentistry, or (2) one...

  17. DACA at the Two-Year Mark: A National and State Profile of Youth Eligible and Applying for Deferred Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalova, Jeanne; Hooker, Sarah; Capps, Randy

    2014-01-01

    Since the Obama administration launched the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program in 2012, which offers temporary relief from deportation and the right to apply for work authorization for certain unauthorized immigrants who came to the United States as children, 55 percent of the 1.2 million youth who immediately met the program's…

  18. 26 CFR 1.101-7 - Mortality table used to determine exclusion for deferred payments of life insurance proceeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... deferred payments of life insurance proceeds. 1.101-7 Section 1.101-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... payments of life insurance proceeds. (a) Mortality table. Notwithstanding any provision of § 1.101-4 that... principles of this section may be illustrated by the following examples: Example 1. A life insurance...

  19. A Two-week Field Course with Deferred Papers: A Possible Solution to the Problem of Undergraduate Field Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, William A.; Wiedel, Joseph W.

    1971-01-01

    Field work is an important but often neglected facet of undergraduate geography training. Kinds of field work and field training are analyzed including selection of study areas and camp site selection. A two week field camp with deferred papers is a workable solution for undergraduate programs. (NH)

  20. 76 FR 56114 - Interim Final Determination to Stay and Defer Sanctions, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Interim Final Determination to Stay and Defer Sanctions, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Interim final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is making an interim final determination to stay the imposition of offset...

  1. 76 FR 56116 - Interim Final Determination To Stay and Defer Sanctions, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Interim Final Determination To Stay and Defer Sanctions, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Interim final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is making an interim final determination to stay the imposition of offset...

  2. 77 FR 24857 - Interim Final Determination To Stay and Defer Sanctions, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Interim Final Determination To Stay and Defer Sanctions, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Interim final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is making an interim final determination to stay the imposition of offset...

  3. Assessment of splanchnic hemodynamics in patients with cirrhosis after splenectomy in comparison with non-operated patients at the decompensated stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Алий Саитович Тугушев

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Splenectomy in patients with cirrhosis presupposes an increase of blood inflow into portal system to decrease the portal pressure. At the same time there are different opinions about splenectomy. So it is actual to study the character of changes of blood flow in vessels of abdominal cavity in pre- and postsurgical periods and assessment of an influence of these changes on the clinical course of cirrhosis.Aim of research: To assess an influence of splenectomy on the character of changes of splanchnic hemodynamics in patients with cirrhosis comparing to non-operated patients with compensated and decompensated clinical course.Materials and methods: There were examined 190 patients with cirrhosis: gastrointestinal bleeding from oesophagus varicose veins took place in 133 patients, diuretic resistant ascites – in 57 ones. 19 patients underwent splenectomy: 7 – in association with sewing of the left gastric vein and artery, 6 – with “skeletonization” of the lesser curvature of stomach with Nessen’s operation, 2 – with Patsiora’s operation, 2 – with application of selective porto-caval shunt between the low mesenteric vein and the left vein of an ovary. 84 patients died during observation. The duration of observation was from 0.5 to 3.5 years. All patients underwent fibrogastroscopy every 3–4 month. Hemodynamics was assessed on the base of repeated ultrasound of abdominal cavity. There were assessed diameter of hepatic and splenic vessels; qualitative and quantitative characteristics of blood flow in hepatic and splenic arteries, portal and splenic veins.Results of research: Changes of hemodynamics in patients after splenectomy as opposed to non-operative patients are characterized with the decrease of diameter of portal vein at almost stable speed of the linear blood flow in it. The result is some decrease of the volume of portal blood and index of portal blood congestion that indirectly indicates the decrease of portal pressure

  4. Deferred Action: Theoretical model of process architecture design for emergent business processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel, N.V.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available E-Business modelling and ebusiness systems development assumes fixed company resources, structures, and business processes. Empirical and theoretical evidence suggests that company resources and structures are emergent rather than fixed. Planning business activity in emergent contexts requires flexible ebusiness models based on better management theories and models . This paper builds and proposes a theoretical model of ebusiness systems capable of catering for emergent factors that affect business processes. Drawing on development of theories of the ‘action and design’class the Theory of Deferred Action is invoked as the base theory for the theoretical model. A theoretical model of flexible process architecture is presented by identifying its core components and their relationships, and then illustrated with exemplar flexible process architectures capable of responding to emergent factors. Managerial implications of the model are considered and the model’s generic applicability is discussed.

  5. Evaluation of wet tantalum capacitors after exposure to extended periods of ripple current, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, C. M.

    1975-01-01

    The application of tantalum capacitors in the Viking Lander includes dc voltage and ripple current electrical stress, high temperature during nonoperating times (sterilization), and high vibration and shock loads. The capacitors must survive these severe environments without any degradation if reliable performance is to be achieved. A test program was established to evaluate both wet-slug tantalum and wet-foil capacitors under conditions accurately duplicating actual Viking applications. Test results of the electrical performance characteristics during extended periods of ripple current, the characteristics of the internal silver migration as a function of extended periods of ripple current, and the existence of any memory characteristics are presented.

  6. Evaluation of wet tantalum capacitors after exposure to extended periods of ripple current, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, G. W.; Lasharr, J. C.; Shumaker, M. J.

    1974-01-01

    The application of tantalum capacitors in the Viking Lander includes both dc voltage and ripple current electrical stress, high temperature during nonoperating times (sterilization), and high vibration and shock loads. The capacitors must survive these severe environments without any degradation if reliable performance is to be achieved. A test program was established to evaluate both wet-slug tantalum and wet-foil capacitors under conditions accurately duplicating actual Viking applications. Test results of the electrical performance characteristics during extended periods of ripple current, the characteristics of the internal silver migration as a function for extended periods of ripple current, and the existence of any memory characteristics are presented.

  7. Action plan to regain unnecessary deferred blood donors due to malaria risk in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Değirmenci, Aysu; Döşkaya, Mert; Caner, Ayşe; Nergis, Sebnem; Gül, Kadri; Aydınok, Yeşim; Ertop, Tufan; Aksoy, Nurten; Korkmaz, Metin; Alkan, Mehmet Ziya; Üner, Ahmet; Gürüz, Yüksel

    2012-06-01

    Malaria was expected to be a major problem during blood donation in Turkey due to existence of malaria cases in southeastern region of Turkey. The present study aimed for the first time, to investigate malaria in "donors deferred for malaria risk" and to determine the regional rates of malaria deferral in Turkey. Blood samples were collected from several Blood Banks of southeastern provinces where local malaria cases still exist and from Blood Bank of Ege University Medical School (EUMS) located in western Turkey where malaria is eradicated decades ago. Plasmodium spp. and specific antibodies were investigated by stained smears, antigen detection, PCR and ELISA. Among the donors deferred for malaria risk, Plasmodium spp. were not detected by microscopy, PCR or antigen detection. Seroprevalances were 2% and 3.92% in western and southeastern regions, respectively. Rate of donor deferral for malaria risk was 0.9% in EUMS and deferrals were exclusively because of travel to southeastern Turkey. In southeastern provinces, deferrals were mainly due to malaria like fever history. The present study first time assessed regional rates of donor deferral due to malaria risk in Turkey. Previously, malaria was expected to be a major problem during blood donation in Turkey due to existence of malaria cases in southeastern region of Turkey. The results of the study showed that 97% of the deferrals were unnecessary. In conclusion, to reduce unnecessary donor deferrals in Turkey, in addition to comprehensive questioning for malaria history, the usage of a malaria antibody screening method should be initiated prior to deferral decision.

  8. Deconstructing the Risk for Malaria in United States Donors Deferred for Travel to Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Bryan; Kleinman, Steven; Custer, Brian; Cable, Ritchard; Wilkinson, Susan L; Steele, Whitney; High, Patrick M; Wright, David

    2013-01-01

    Background More than 66,000 blood donors are deferred annually in the U.S. due to travel to malaria-endemic areas of Mexico. Mexico accounts for the largest share of malaria travel deferrals, yet it has extremely low risk for malaria transmission throughout most of its national territory, suggesting a suboptimal balance between blood safety and availability. This study sought to determine whether donor deferral requirements might be relaxed for parts of Mexico without compromising blood safety. Study Design and Methods Travel destination was recorded from a representative sample of presenting blood donors deferred for malaria travel from six blood centers during 2006. We imputed to these donors reporting Mexican travel a risk for acquiring malaria equivalent to Mexican residents in the destination location, adjusted for length of stay. We extrapolated these results to the overall U.S. blood donor population. Results Risk for malaria in Mexico varies significantly across endemic areas and is greatest in areas infrequently visited by study donors. Over 70% of blood donor deferrals were triggered by travel to the state of Quintana Roo on the Yucatán Peninsula, an area of very low malaria transmission. Eliminating the travel deferral requirement for all areas except the state of Oaxaca might result in the recovery of almost 65,000 blood donors annually at risk of approximately one contaminated unit collected every 20 years. Conclusion Deferral requirements should be relaxed for presenting donors who travelled to areas within Mexico that confer exceptionally small risks for malaria, such as Quintana Roo. PMID:21564102

  9. Nitrogen fertilization strategies, morphogenetic and structural features in Brachiaria decumbens deferred for 95 days

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Andrade Teixeira

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim this work was to evaluate the morphogenic and structural characteristics of Brachiaria decumbens pastures to determine the most suitable nitrogen fertilization strategies, for pastures deferred for a period of 95 days. Four strategies of fertilization at the beginning and end of the summer (0-0, 100- 0, 50-50, 0-100 kg ha-1 N were studied, respectively, with four replications. The strategy of 100 kg ha-1 N applied at the end of the summer (0-100, followed the parceling strategy at the beginning and end of the summer (50-50 favored higher rates of leaf appearance and lower values of phyllochron. Greater rate of leaf elongation was observed for 0-100 strategy, resulting in 40% increase compared to pastures that were not fertilized. However, there was no effect of fertilization strategies on stem elongation rate, registering an average of 0.28 cm.dia-1. There was a higher blade:stem ratio for the stratum A (40 cm above the soil in all treatments, observing higher blade:stem ratio for strategies 0-100 and 50-50, at this stratum. There was no effect for the total number of leaves and final leaf length. However, greater stem lengths were observed in pastures with 0-100 fertilizer strategy, followed by the 50-50 strategy. The strategy of applying 100 kg ha-1 at the end of summer, followed by the strategy of 50 kg ha-1 nitrogen divided at the beginning and end of summer, promote greater influence on the morphogenic and structural traits, in pastures deferred for 95 days.

  10. One Step In and One Step Out : The Lived Experience of the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals Program

    OpenAIRE

    Kosnac, Hillary Sue

    2014-01-01

    After over a decade of congressional stalemate on the Development, Relief and Education for Alien Minors (DREAM) Act, the Obama administration announced the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program in the summer of 2012. A form of prosecutorial discretion, DACA offers certain undocumented youth a two-year reprieve from deportation, employment authorization and, in some states like California, a driver's license. Nevertheless, because DACA does not provide a pathway to citizenship...

  11. Means And Ends In City Of Arlington v. FCC: Ignoring The Lawyer's Craft to Reshape the Scope of Chevron Deference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P. Healy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In last year’s term, the United States Supreme Court considered the question of the scope of Chevron deference in City of Arlington v. FCC. This article discusses how the decision is an example of the work of an activist Court. The case should have been resolved by a straight forward determination under the analysis of United States v. Mead that Chevron deference simply did not apply to the Federal Communications Commission’s (“FCC” legal determination. The Court ignored this restrained approach to the case and instead addressed the question the Justices desired to decide: the reach of Chevron deference. The article discusses and criticizes the approach of Justice Scalia writing for the majority and of Chief Justice Roberts writing for three dissenting Justices.Practitioners and scholars of administrative law can only be confused by the Court’s willingness to apply Chevron in City of Arlington, given the informal administrative action being reviewed and the fact that neither reviewing court actually applied each of the two parts of the Mead test. The Court’s flawed administrative law analysis results from the activist concerns of Justice Scalia and Chief Justice Roberts. Justice Scalia uses the case as a vehicle to undermine Mead, a decision that Justice Scalia loathes. Chief Justice Roberts uses the case as a vehicle to advocate for less judicial deference and less law defining power for increasingly powerful agencies. Neither member of the Court allowed the applicable rules of contemporary administrative law to hinder his efforts to achieve his broader goals. Administrative law would have been better served if a properly restrained Court had considered and applied the previously determined rules for judicial review of administrative agencies. 

  12. Theoretical analysis for scaling law of thermal blooming based on optical phase deference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yunqiang; Huang, Zhilong; Ren, Zebin; Chen, Zhiqiang; Guo, Longde; Xi, Fengjie

    2016-10-01

    parameters and the geometric scaling parameters can really describe the gas thermal blooming effect in the axial pipe flow. These conclusions can give a good reference for the construction of the thermal blooming test system of laser system. Contrasted with the thermal blooming scaling parameters of the Bradley-Hermann distortion number ND and Fresnel number NF, which were derived based on the change of far field beam intensity distortion, the scaling parameters of pipe flow thermal blooming deduced from the optical path deference variation are very suitable for the optical system with short laser propagation distance, large Fresnel number and obviously changed optical path deference.

  13. Efficacy comparison between direct stent implantation surgery and deferred stent implantation surgery for patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction after PCT thrombus aspiration surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Xia Han; Xiu-Hong Liu; Ping Zhou; Guo-Mei Dan

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To compare the efficacy of direct stent implantation surgery and deferred stent implantation surgery for patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction after PCT thrombus aspiration surgery. Method:A total of 74 cases with STEMI were selected, who had been given PCT thrombus aspiration surgery treatment, and were randomly divided into direct group and deferred group (n=37). Patients in direct group were given direct stent implantation surgery after PCT thrombus aspiration surgery treatment. Patients in deferred group were given deferred stent implantation surgery 14 d later after anticoagulant and anti-platelet treatment. Heart structure and function, stent release characteristics and adverse reactions) were compared 6 months after the surgery. Results:Two hours after surgery, ST segment drop amplitude in deferred group was significantly higher than that in direct group (P<0.05);TIMI frame number was obvious and no reflow/slow blood flow occurrence ratio was significantly lower than that in direct group (P<0.05);implantation stent number and stent length in deferred group were significantly less than that in direct group (P<0.05);the release characteristic indexes of implantation stent in deferred group:stent diameter and stent expansion pressure were significantly higher than that in direct group (P<0.05);6 months after surgery, LVEF improvement in deferred group was significantly higher than that in direct group (P<0.05), while LVEDD、LVEDV ventricular remodeling was significantly lower than that in direct group (P<0.05);The total adverse event occurrence rate in deferred group was 5.4%, which was significantly lower than that in direct group (18.9%) (P<0.05). Conclusions:The deferred stent implantation surgery after PCI thrombus aspiration surgery could obviously reduce the occurrence rate of no reflow/slow blood flow, obviously improve the heart function and myocardial perfusion, reduce the usage amount of stent, reduce the occurrence of

  14. Epilepsy Surgery: Factors That Affect Patient Decision-Making in Choosing or Deferring a Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Todd Anderson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Surgical resection for well-selected patients with refractory epilepsy provides seizure freedom approximately two-thirds of the time. Despite this, many good candidates for surgery, after a presurgical workup, ultimately do not consent to a procedure. The reasons why patients decline potentially effective surgery are not completely understood. We explored the socio cultural, medical, personal, and psychological differences between candidates who chose (n = 23 and those who declined surgical intervention (n = 9. We created a novel questionnaire addressing a range of possible factors important in patient decision making. We found that patients who declined surgery were less bothered by their epilepsy (despite comparable severity, more anxious about surgery, and less likely to listen to their doctors (and others and had more comorbid psychiatric disease. Patients who chose surgery were more embarrassed by their seizures, more interested in being “seizure-free”, and less anxious about specific aspects of surgery. Patient attitudes, beliefs, and anxiety serve as barriers to ideal care. These results can provide opportunities for education, treatment, and intervention. Additionally, patients who fit a profile of someone who is likely to defer surgery may not be appropriate for risky and expensive presurgical testing.

  15. Fractional Flow Reserve-Guided Deferred Versus Complete Revascularization in Patients With Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Mark W; Hermanides, Rik S; Kaplan, Emel; Hemradj, Veemal; Fabris, Enrico; Koopmans, Petra C; Dambrink, Jan-Henk E; Gosselink, A T Marcel; Van't Hof, Arnoud W J; Ottervanger, Jan Paul; Roolvink, Vincent; Remkes, Wouter S; van der Sluis, Aize; Suryapranata, Harry; Kedhi, Elvin

    2016-11-01

    To assess the safety and efficacy of deferred versus complete revascularization using a fractional flow reserve (FFR)-guided strategy in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), we analyzed all DM patients who underwent FFR-guided revascularization from January 1, 2010, to December 12, 2013. Patients were divided into 2 groups: those with ≥1 remaining FFR-negative (>0.80) medically treated lesions [FFR(-)MT] and those with only FFR-positive lesions (≤0.80) who underwent complete revascularization [FFR(+)CR] and were followed until July 1, 2015. The primary end point was the incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), a composite of death, myocardial infarction (MI), target lesion (FFR assessed) revascularization, and rehospitalization for acute coronary syndrome. A total of 294 patients, 205 (69.7%) versus 89 (30.3%) in FFR(-)MT and FFR(+)CR, respectively, were analyzed. At a mean follow-up of 32.6 ± 18.1 months, FFR(-)MT was associated with higher MACE rate 44.0% versus 26.6% (log-rank p = 0.02, Cox regression-adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 2.01, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.21 to 3.33, p required to guide our treatment strategy in these patients with high-risk, fast-progressing atherosclerosis.

  16. A delay discounting task produces a greater likelihood of waiting than a deferred gratification task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Michael E; McCoy, Anthony W

    2015-01-01

    A first-person-shooter video game was adapted for the study of choice between smaller sooner and larger later outcomes to compare the behavioral patterns produced by deferred gratification (DG) and delay discounting (DD) tasks. Participants played a game in which they could either fire their weapon sooner and do a small amount of damage or wait a few seconds to fire their weapon and do a larger amount of damage. For the DD task, a failure to fire within one second committed the player to waiting for the larger later outcome thus removing the opportunity to defect during the delay that is present in the DG task. The incentive structure changed multiple times during game play so that at times the optimal decision was to choose the smaller sooner outcome whereas at other times the optimal decision was to wait for the larger later outcome. Players assigned to the DD task showed a greater tendency to wait and lower sensitivity to the changing incentives.

  17. Epilepsy surgery: factors that affect patient decision-making in choosing or deferring a procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Christopher Todd; Noble, Eva; Mani, Ram; Lawler, Kathy; Pollard, John R

    2013-01-01

    Surgical resection for well-selected patients with refractory epilepsy provides seizure freedom approximately two-thirds of the time. Despite this, many good candidates for surgery, after a presurgical workup, ultimately do not consent to a procedure. The reasons why patients decline potentially effective surgery are not completely understood. We explored the socio cultural, medical, personal, and psychological differences between candidates who chose (n = 23) and those who declined surgical intervention (n = 9). We created a novel questionnaire addressing a range of possible factors important in patient decision making. We found that patients who declined surgery were less bothered by their epilepsy (despite comparable severity), more anxious about surgery, and less likely to listen to their doctors (and others) and had more comorbid psychiatric disease. Patients who chose surgery were more embarrassed by their seizures, more interested in being "seizure-free", and less anxious about specific aspects of surgery. Patient attitudes, beliefs, and anxiety serve as barriers to ideal care. These results can provide opportunities for education, treatment, and intervention. Additionally, patients who fit a profile of someone who is likely to defer surgery may not be appropriate for risky and expensive presurgical testing.

  18. Epilepsy Surgery: Factors That Affect Patient Decision-Making in Choosing or Deferring a Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Christopher Todd; Mani, Ram; Lawler, Kathy; Pollard, John R.

    2013-01-01

    Surgical resection for well-selected patients with refractory epilepsy provides seizure freedom approximately two-thirds of the time. Despite this, many good candidates for surgery, after a presurgical workup, ultimately do not consent to a procedure. The reasons why patients decline potentially effective surgery are not completely understood. We explored the socio cultural, medical, personal, and psychological differences between candidates who chose (n = 23) and those who declined surgical intervention (n = 9). We created a novel questionnaire addressing a range of possible factors important in patient decision making. We found that patients who declined surgery were less bothered by their epilepsy (despite comparable severity), more anxious about surgery, and less likely to listen to their doctors (and others) and had more comorbid psychiatric disease. Patients who chose surgery were more embarrassed by their seizures, more interested in being “seizure-free”, and less anxious about specific aspects of surgery. Patient attitudes, beliefs, and anxiety serve as barriers to ideal care. These results can provide opportunities for education, treatment, and intervention. Additionally, patients who fit a profile of someone who is likely to defer surgery may not be appropriate for risky and expensive presurgical testing. PMID:24159385

  19. ‘Humblewise’: Deference and Complaint in the Court of Requests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liam J. Meyer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available When servants, laborers, and apprentices sued their masters for back wages or mistreatment in the Court of Requests they took advantage of the court’s doctrine of equity. Since these plaintiffs often lacked the strict written proofs required by common law, or were bound by unfair written contracts, they badly needed an equitable jurisdiction where fairness, extenuating circumstances, and broad social mores could overrule the letter of the law. The formal tropes of their Complaints negotiate the tension between these two conceptions of justice and reveal how that tension relates to early seventeenth century economic culture, where customary ideas about patronage and hierarchical obligations coexisted with emerging notions of self-interest and contractual equality. In appealing to the court with older but still vibrant discourses of social justice and mutual obligation, plaintiffs modulated their Complaints with expressions of deference and helplessness. Their pleadings therefore take the sophisticated rhetorical form of self-assertion articulated as abject submission. The documents are highly mediated by lawyers and institutional constraints, but nevertheless reveal subordinates tactically using expressions of weakness to elicit pathos and use the ideology of paternalism against their masters.

  20. Estrutura do capim-braquiária durante o diferimento da pastagem = Signalgrass structure during pasture deferment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Eduardo Rozalino Santos

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado para avaliar o número de perfilhos, a massa de forragem e de seus componentes morfológicos em pastos de Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk durante o diferimento da pastagem. Os tratamentos foram quatro períodos de diferimento (18, 46, 74 e 121dias, a partir de 8/3/2004. O delineamento foi em blocos casualizados com duas repetições. Foram determinados os números de perfilhos vegetativos (PV, reprodutivos (PR e mortos (PM, bem como as massas de lâmina foliar verde (MLV, colmo verde (MCV e forragemmorta (MFM. Durante o período de diferimento houve redução no número de PV (de 1.491 para 944 perfilhos m-2. Os números de PR e PM não foram influenciados pelo período de diferimento e suas médias foram 211 e 456 perfilhos m-2, respectivamente. O período de diferimento causou incremento nas MCV (de 2.965 para 4.877 kg ha-1 de massa seca e MFM (2.324 para 4.823 kg ha-1 de massa seca, porém não influenciou a MLV (em média, 2.047 kg ha-1 de massa seca. Em Viçosa, Estado de Minas Gerais, o pasto de B. decumbens, adubado com nitrogênio e diferido no início de março, pode permanecer diferido por cerca de 70 dias para conciliar produção de forragem em quantidade com boa composição morfológica. This experiment was performed aiming to evaluate tiller population density, forage mass and its morphological components on pastures of Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk. during deferment. The treatments encompassed four deferred grazing periods (18, 46, 74 and 121 days. Arandomized block design with two replications was used. The numbers of vegetative tillers (VT, reproductive tillers (RT and dead tillers (DT in the pasture were determined. The masses of green leaf blade (GLBM, dead stem (DSM and dead forage (DFM were alsodetermined. There was a reduction in the number of VT (from 1,491 to 944 tiller m-2 during the deferment period. RT and DT numbers were not influenced by the deferment periods. Their averages were

  1. Non-social adaptation defers a tragedy of the commons in Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfahl, Kyle L; Walsh, Jessica; Gilbert, Kerrigan; Schuster, Martin

    2015-08-01

    In a process termed quorum sensing (QS), the opportunistic bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa uses diffusible signaling molecules to regulate the expression of numerous secreted factors or public goods that are shared within the population. But not all cells respond to QS signals. These social cheaters typically harbor a mutation in the QS receptor gene lasR and exploit the public goods produced by cooperators. Here we show that non-social adaptation under growth conditions that require QS-dependent public goods increases tolerance to cheating and defers a tragedy of the commons. The underlying mutation is in the transcriptional repressor gene psdR. This mutation has no effect on public goods expression but instead increases individual fitness by derepressing growth-limiting intracellular metabolism. Even though psdR mutant populations remain susceptible to invasion by isogenic psdR lasR cheaters, they bear a lower cheater load than do wild-type populations, and they are completely resistant to invasion by lasR cheaters with functional psdR. Mutations in psdR also sustain growth near wild-type levels when paired with certain partial loss-of-function lasR mutations. Targeted sequencing of multiple evolved isolates revealed that mutations in psdR arise before mutations in lasR, and rapidly sweep through the population. Our results indicate that a QS-favoring environment can lead to adaptations in non-social, intracellular traits that increase the fitness of cooperating individuals and thereby contribute to population-wide maintenance of QS and associated cooperative behaviors.

  2. Repeat Courses of Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS), Deferring Whole-Brain Irradiation, for New Brain Metastases After Initial SRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shultz, David B.; Modlin, Leslie A.; Jayachandran, Priya; Von Eyben, Rie; Gibbs, Iris C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Choi, Clara Y.H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Santa Clara Valley Medical Center, San Jose, California (United States); Chang, Steven D.; Harsh, Griffith R.; Li, Gordon; Adler, John R. [Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Hancock, Steven L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Soltys, Scott G., E-mail: sgsoltys@stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Purpose: To report the outcomes of repeat stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), deferring whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT), for distant intracranial recurrences and identify factors associated with prolonged overall survival (OS). Patients and Methods: We retrospectively identified 652 metastases in 95 patients treated with 2 or more courses of SRS for brain metastases, deferring WBRT. Cox regression analyzed factors predictive for OS. Results: Patients had a median of 2 metastases (range, 1-14) treated per course, with a median of 2 courses (range, 2-14) of SRS per patient. With a median follow-up after first SRS of 15 months (range, 3-98 months), the median OS from the time of the first and second course of SRS was 18 (95% confidence interval [CI] 15-24) and 11 months (95% CI 6-17), respectively. On multivariate analysis, histology, graded prognostic assessment score, aggregate tumor volume (but not number of metastases), and performance status correlated with OS. The 1-year cumulative incidence, with death as a competing risk, of local failure was 5% (95% CI 4-8%). Eighteen (24%) of 75 deaths were from neurologic causes. Nineteen patients (20%) eventually received WBRT. Adverse radiation events developed in 2% of SRS sites. Conclusion: Multiple courses of SRS, deferring WBRT, for distant brain metastases after initial SRS, seem to be a safe and effective approach. The graded prognostic assessment score, updated at each course, and aggregate tumor volume may help select patients in whom the deferral of WBRT might be most beneficial.

  3. Cost-effectiveness analysis of ranibizumab plus prompt or deferred laser or triamcinolone plus prompt laser for diabetic macular edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewan, Vinay; Lambert, Dennis; Edler, Joshua; Kymes, Steven; Apte, Rajendra S

    2012-08-01

    Perform a cost-effectiveness analysis of the treatment of diabetic macular edema (DME) with ranibizumab plus prompt or deferred laser versus triamcinolone plus prompt laser. Data for the analysis were drawn from reports of the Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network (DRCRnet) Protocol I. Computer simulation based on Protocol I data. Analyses were conducted from the payor perspective. Simulated participants assigned characteristics reflecting those seen in Protocol I. Markov models were constructed to replicate Protocol I's 104-week outcomes using a microsimulation approach to estimation. Baseline characteristics, visual acuity (VA), treatments, and complications were based on Protocol I data. Costs were identified by literature search. One-way sensitivity analysis was performed, and the results were validated against Protocol I data. Direct cost of care for 2 years, change in VA from baseline, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) measured as cost per additional letter gained from baseline (Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study). For sham plus laser (S+L), ranibizumab plus prompt laser (R+pL), ranibizumab plus deferred laser (R+dL), and triamcinolone plus laser (T+L), effectiveness through 104 weeks was predicted to be 3.46, 7.07, 8.63, and 2.40 letters correct, respectively. The ICER values in terms of dollars per VA letter were $393 (S+L vs. T+L), $5943 (R+pL vs. S+L), and $20 (R+dL vs. R+pL). For pseudophakics, the ICER value for comparison triamcinolone with laser versus ranibizumab with deferred laser was $14 690 per letter gained. No clinically relevant changes in model variables altered outcomes. Internal validation demonstrated good similarity to Protocol I treatment patterns. In treatment of phakic patients with DME, ranibizumab with deferred laser provided an additional 6 letters correct compared with triamcinolone with laser at an additional cost of $19 216 over 2 years. That would indicate that if the gain in VA seen at 2 years

  4. Changes in inflammatory and coagulation biomarkers: a randomized comparison of immediate versus deferred antiretroviral therapy in patients with HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Jason V; Neuhaus, Jacqueline; Duprez, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Among a subgroup of participants in the Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy (SMART) Trial that were naïve to antiretroviral therapy (ART) or off ART (6 months or longer) at study entry, risk of AIDS and serious non-AIDS events were increased for participants who deferred ART...... compared with those randomized to (re)initiate ART immediately. Our objective was to determine whether ART initiation in this group reduced markers of inflammation and coagulation that have been associated with increased mortality risk in SMART. Changes in these biomarkers have been described after...... stopping ART, but not after starting ART in SMART....

  5. Cognitive function and neurodevelopmental outcomes in HIV-infected Children older than 1 year of age randomized to early versus deferred antiretroviral therapy: the PREDICT neurodevelopmental study.

    OpenAIRE

    Puthanakit, T.; Ananworanich, J.; Vonthanak, S.; Kosalaraksa, P; Hansudewechakul, R; Lugt, J. van der; Kerr, SJ; Kanjanavanit, S.; Ngampiyaskul, C.; Wongsawat, J; Luesomboon, W.; Vibol, U.; Pruksakaew, K; Suwarnlerk, T; Apornpong, T

    2013-01-01

    We previously reported similar AIDS-free survival at 3 years in children who were >1 year old initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) and randomized to early versus deferred ART in the Pediatric Randomized to Early versus Deferred Initiation in Cambodia and Thailand (PREDICT) study. We now report neurodevelopmental outcomes.Two hundred eighty-four HIV-infected Thai and Cambodian children aged 1-12 years with CD4 counts between 15% and 24% and no AIDS-defining illness were randomized to initia...

  6. A comparison of high-order explicit Runge–Kutta, extrapolation, and deferred correction methods in serial and parallel

    KAUST Repository

    Ketcheson, David I.

    2014-06-13

    We compare the three main types of high-order one-step initial value solvers: extrapolation, spectral deferred correction, and embedded Runge–Kutta pairs. We consider orders four through twelve, including both serial and parallel implementations. We cast extrapolation and deferred correction methods as fixed-order Runge–Kutta methods, providing a natural framework for the comparison. The stability and accuracy properties of the methods are analyzed by theoretical measures, and these are compared with the results of numerical tests. In serial, the eighth-order pair of Prince and Dormand (DOP8) is most efficient. But other high-order methods can be more efficient than DOP8 when implemented in parallel. This is demonstrated by comparing a parallelized version of the wellknown ODEX code with the (serial) DOP853 code. For an N-body problem with N = 400, the experimental extrapolation code is as fast as the tuned Runge–Kutta pair at loose tolerances, and is up to two times as fast at tight tolerances.

  7. The evolution of prestige: freely conferred deference as a mechanism for enhancing the benefits of cultural transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrich, J; Gil-White, F J.

    2001-05-01

    This paper advances an "information goods" theory that explains prestige processes as an emergent product of psychological adaptations that evolved to improve the quality of information acquired via cultural transmission. Natural selection favored social learners who could evaluate potential models and copy the most successful among them. In order to improve the fidelity and comprehensiveness of such ranked-biased copying, social learners further evolved dispositions to sycophantically ingratiate themselves with their chosen models, so as to gain close proximity to, and prolonged interaction with, these models. Once common, these dispositions created, at the group level, distributions of deference that new entrants may adaptively exploit to decide who to begin copying. This generated a preference for models who seem generally "popular." Building on social exchange theories, we argue that a wider range of phenomena associated with prestige processes can more plausibly be explained by this simple theory than by others, and we test its predictions with data from throughout the social sciences. In addition, we distinguish carefully between dominance (force or force threat) and prestige (freely conferred deference).

  8. Accounting choices in Brazil: identifying the characteristics of publicly traded companies that opted to maintain versus derecognise deferred assets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Drago Lorencini

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The issuance of Brazilian Law 11.638/2007 is a critical step in the convergence of the Brazilian Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAPs towards International Financial Reporting Standards. After the law was implemented and later modified by Provisional Executive Order 449/2008 (converted into Law 11.941/2009, certain accounting choices were allowed during the transition period. The Brazilian GAAPs allowed for restructuring costs and costs related to opening a new facility to be recognised as assets. As a transitional provision, companies were allowed to choose between maintaining or eliminating these values. In this paper, we attempted to identify which company characteristics were associated with this accounting choice. The final sample consisted of Brazilian companies listed on the BM & FBOVESPA, and a logistic regression identified two characteristics. Participation in one of the three different corporate governance levels of the BM & FBOVESPA was associated with the choice to derecognise the deferred assets, while companies decided to maintain the deferred asset if it was relatively large. The empirical evidence reported here contributes to the literature by explaining the manner in which a set of firm characteristics is related to a firm's accounting choices.

  9. 急性颅脑损伤术后非术区迟发出血的临床分析及防治%Analysisand Treatment of the cause of hemorrhage in non-operation area after acute head injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜春富; 曹毅; 高晋健

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze the cause of delayed hemorrhage in non-operation area after acute head injury and the treatment. Methods The clinical data of 30 cases of acute head injury from January 2006 to December 2011 were reviewed. The cause of delayed hemorrhage and the treatment results were analyzed. Results According to GOS, 12 cases acquired complete rehabilitation, 13 cases survived only as light handicap,3 cases mild handicap,1 case severe handicap and 1 case died. Conclusion It's the key point to improve the prognosis greatly by early diagnosis and management,especially before the brain herniation.%目的 探讨急性颅脑损伤术后非术区迟发出血的原因及防治.方法 回顾我院2006年1月~2011年12月收治的30例颅脑损伤患者,为术中发现颅压下降后再次升高,而术区无出血,或术后1d内患者意识加深,复查CT时非术区迟发出血,并具备手术指征而再次手术.结果 根据GOS评分,治愈12例,轻残13例,中残3例,重残1例,死亡1例.结论 早期诊断和及时治疗,尤其是在非手术区迟发出血引起的脑疝之前,并提高手术操作水平,这是提高治愈率、降低病死率的关键.

  10. PREDICTIVE VALUE OF THE DEFERRED TAXES GENERATED BY THE SUBVENTIONS FOR INVESTMENTS – ESSENTIAL ELEMENT FOR PRESENTING THE INFORMATION IN THE FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PALIU – POPA LUCIA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Most information underlying the decision to invest at the level of a company, are provided by the accountancy, this becoming today a common language with respect to the businesses on the international markets, and the accountancy normalization was extrapolated from the national level to the international level, due to the needs concerning the comparability and the transparency of the entities financial statements, without considering the geopolitical area where they were built. These issues justify the approaches for improving both accounting treatments and the procedures for elaborating and presenting data within the financial statements such that the users to benefit from credible and transparent information. One of the major issues arising with respect to the performance of an entity aims to prepare a unique situation on the company performance, namely:“the statement of the comprehensive income”, having as primordial objective the facility of forecasting the performance, within which the deferred taxes generated by the subventions for investments are an essential element with an important predictive value. In this context, starting from the main differences between the provisions of the national, Anglo-Saxon accounting regulations and those of the international reference system with respect to the predictive value of the deferred taxes and continuing with the occurrence and evolution of the deferred taxes generated by the subventions for investments, the study proposes to highlight the predictive value of the deferred taxes generated by the subventions for investments, provided o the users by the information of annual financial statements.

  11. Deferred imitation in 18-month-olds from two cultural contexts: the case of Cameroonian Nso farmer and German-middle class infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchert, Sonja; Lamm, Bettina; Graf, Frauke; Knopf, Monika

    2013-12-01

    Imitative learning has been described in naturalistic studies for different cultures, but lab-based research studying imitative learning across different cultural contexts is almost missing. Therefore, imitative learning was assessed with 18-month-old German middle-class and Cameroonian Nso farmer infants - representing two highly different eco-cultural contexts associated with different cultural models, the psychological autonomy and the hierarchical relatedness - by using the deferred imitation paradigm. Study 1 revealed that the infants from both cultural contexts performed a higher number of target actions in the deferred imitation than in the baseline phase. Moreover, it was found that German middle-class infants showed a higher mean imitation rate as they performed more target actions in the deferred imitation phase compared with Cameroonian Nso farmer infants. It was speculated that the opportunity to manipulate the test objects directly after the demonstration of the target actions could enhance the mean deferred imitation rate of the Cameroonian Nso farmer infants which was confirmed in Study 2. Possible explanations for the differences in the amount of imitated target actions of German middle-class and Cameroonian Nso farmer infants are discussed considering the object-related, dyadic setting of the imitation paradigm with respect to the different learning contexts underlying the different cultural models of learning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. 32 CFR 1630.13 - Class 1-D-D: Deferment for certain members of a reserve component or student taking military...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reserve component or student taking military training. 1630.13 Section 1630.13 National Defense Other...: Deferment for certain members of a reserve component or student taking military training. In Class 1-D-D... (entire college level) Army Reserve Officer's Training Corps, or the Air Force Reserve Officer's...

  13. Randomized trial evaluating ranibizumab plus prompt or deferred laser or triamcinolone plus prompt laser for diabetic macular edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elman, Michael J; Aiello, Lloyd Paul; Beck, Roy W; Bressler, Neil M; Bressler, Susan B; Edwards, Allison R; Ferris, Frederick L; Friedman, Scott M; Glassman, Adam R; Miller, Kellee M; Scott, Ingrid U; Stockdale, Cynthia R; Sun, Jennifer K

    2010-06-01

    Evaluate intravitreal 0.5 mg ranibizumab or 4 mg triamcinolone combined with focal/grid laser compared with focal/grid laser alone for treatment of diabetic macular edema (DME). Multicenter, randomized clinical trial. A total of 854 study eyes of 691 participants with visual acuity (approximate Snellen equivalent) of 20/32 to 20/320 and DME involving the fovea. Eyes were randomized to sham injection + prompt laser (n=293), 0.5 mg ranibizumab + prompt laser (n=187), 0.5 mg ranibizumab + deferred (> or =24 weeks) laser (n=188), or 4 mg triamcinolone + prompt laser (n=186). Retreatment followed an algorithm facilitated by a web-based, real-time data-entry system. Best-corrected visual acuity and safety at 1 year. The 1-year mean change (+/-standard deviation) in the visual acuity letter score from baseline was significantly greater in the ranibizumab + prompt laser group (+9+/-11, Peyes at baseline (n=273), visual acuity improvement in the triamcinolone + prompt laser group appeared comparable to that in the ranibizumab groups. No systemic events attributable to study treatment were apparent. Three eyes (0.8%) had injection-related endophthalmitis in the ranibizumab groups, whereas elevated intraocular pressure and cataract surgery were more frequent in the triamcinolone + prompt laser group. Two-year visual acuity outcomes were similar to 1-year outcomes. Intravitreal ranibizumab with prompt or deferred laser is more effective through at least 1 year compared with prompt laser alone for the treatment of DME involving the central macula. Ranibizumab as applied in this study, although uncommonly associated with endophthalmitis, should be considered for patients with DME and characteristics similar to those in this clinical trial. In pseudophakic eyes, intravitreal triamcinolone + prompt laser seems more effective than laser alone but frequently increases the risk of intraocular pressure elevation. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier

  14. The Impact of Deferred Tax Assets, Discretionary Accrual, Leverage, Company Size and Tax Planning Onearnings Management Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobus Widiatmoko

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze and provide empirical evidence of the influence of deferred tax asset, discretionary accrual, leverage, company size, and tax planning on earnings management. Financial performance is an indicator that is required by company management to measure the effectiveness of company performance. This research used secondary data that was got from annual report published in www.idx.co.id and data from Indonesian Capital Market Directory (ICMD. Populations of the research are manufacturing companies listed on Indonesia Stock Exchange from 2011-2013. Samples were selected by using purposive sampling method. There are 208 observations that will examined by logistic regression analysis. The result shows that deferred tax asset has negative and not significant effect to the earnings management, discretionary accrual has negative and not significant effect to the earnings management, leverage has negative and significant effect to the earnings management, company size has positive and significant effect to the earnings management, tax planning has positive and not significant effect to the earnings management.Tujuan penelitian ini menganalisis bukti empiris mengenai pengaruh asset pajak tangguhan, discretionary accrual, leverage, ukuran perusahaan, dan perencanaan pajak terhadap manajemen laba. Kinerja keuangan adalah indikator untuk mengukur efektivitas perusahaan. Penelitian ini menggunakan data sekunder yang diperoleh dari www.idx.co.id serta data dari Indonesian Capital Market Directory (ICMD. Populasi penelitian ini adalah perusahaan manufaktur yang terdaftar di BEI tahun 2011-2013. Sampel dipilih dengan purposive sampling. Terdapat 208 observasi yang akan diuji dengan model analisis regresi logistik. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa asset pajak tangguhan memiliki pengaruh negatif dan tidak signifikan terhadap praktik manajemen laba, discretionary accrual memiliki pengaruh negatif dan tidak signifikan terhadap

  15. Produção de bovinos em pastagens de capim-braquiária diferidas Bovine production on deferred signalgrass pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Eduardo Rozalino Santos

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Durante os meses de janeiro a setembro de 2004 (ano 1 e de 2005 (ano 2, foram avaliados os efeitos dos períodos de diferimento (ano 1: 103, 121, 146 e 163 dias; ano 2: 73, 103, 131 e 163 dias e de pastejo (1, 29, 57 e 85 dias na produção de forragem e no desempenho de bovinos de corte em pastagens diferidas de capim-braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk. Adotou-se o delineamento em blocos casualizados, segundo o esquema de parcelas subdivididas, com duas repetições. Houve variação na produção de forragem entre os anos. Pastagens diferidas por maior período possuíram maiores massas de forragem total e forragem morta. Com o aumento do período de pastejo, diminuiram as massas de forragem total e forragem verde e aumentou a massa de forragem morta. A composição química da forragem da amostra de simulação de pastejo foi modificada pelos períodos de diferimento e de pastejo. Não houve efeito dos períodos de diferimento e de pastejo sobre o consumo do suplemento, expresso em porcentagem do peso corporal. O desempenho dos bovinos diminuiu durante o período de pastejo no ano 1 (de 0,739 para 0,467 kg/animal.dia e no ano 2 (de 0,885 para 0,189 kg/animal.dia e foi maior em pastagens diferidas por menor período no ano 2 (0,692 kg/animal.dia. O ganho de peso por área foi maior em pastagens diferidas por menor período no ano 2 (4,87 kg/ha.dia. Na região de Viçosa, a produção de bovinos em recria em pastagens diferidas melhora quando o pasto adubado e suplementado de Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk é diferido por cerca de 70 dias e utilizado a partir do início do mês de julho.Throughout January to September 2004 (first year and 2005 (second year, the effects of 103, 121, 146 and 163-day (first year, and 73, 103, 131 and 163-day (second year deferring periods, as well as 1, 29, 57 and 85-day grazing on forage production and beef cattle performance in Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk were evaluated. Randomized block

  16. Producción y calidad del forraje diferido de Panicum coloratum L. en dos periodos de diferimiento y tres momentos de defoliación Production and quality of Panicum coloratum L. deferred forage with two deferred period and three times of defolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Steinberg

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Los sistemas pecuarios de las áreas subtropicales de la Argentina utilizan en invierno forrajes diferidos, provenientes del crecimiento acumulado en verano de gramíneas megatérmicas o pasturas naturales. El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar la producción de materia seca, porcentajes de hojas, tallos, proteína bruta, fibra detergente neutra, fibra detergente ácida, cenizas y digestibilidad del diferido de Panicum coloratum cv Verde. Se evaluaron dos periodos de diferimiento: diferido total (DT, forraje acumulado desde el rebrote en primavera y diferido parcial (DP, forraje acumulado desde un corte a fines de diciembre y ambos con tres oportunidades de defoliación: temprano (mayo; intermedio (julio y tardío (agosto. DT produjo más materia seca, pero con alta proporción de tallos, mayor cantidad de fibra y menor porcentaje de proteínas y cenizas; mientras que DP presentó menos tallos y más hojas y como consecuencia mayor porcentaje de proteínas y cenizas. Se concluye que P. coloratum es un recurso adecuado para diferir, sólo si se lo utiliza con un período corto de diferido y momentos tempranos de uso, ya que presenta un nivel mínimo de proteína suficiente para satisfacer los requerimientos de los animales sin la necesidad de realizar suplementación nitrogenada y valores superiores al 55% de digestibilidad.During winter the livestock production systems in subtropical areas of Argentina use deferred forage of native pasture or warm season grasses from the cumulative growth of the summer. The aim of this study was to determine dry matter production and percentage of leaves, stems, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, ash and digestibility of deferred forage of Panicum coloratum cv Verde. Two deferred periods were evaluated: total deferred (TD, forage accumulated since the spring regrowth and partial deferred (PD, forage accumulated from a cut in late December, and both with three cut dates: early (May

  17. From Undocumented to DACAmented: Benefits and Limitations of the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) Program, Three Years Following its Announcement

    OpenAIRE

    Patler, Caitlin; Cabrera, Jorge; Dream Team Los Angeles

    2015-01-01

    Announced by President Obama in June 2012, the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program offers eligible undocumented youth and young adults a reprieve from deportation and temporary work authorization. This study assesses DACA’s impacts on the educational and socioeconomic trajectories and health and wellbeing of young adults in Southern California, comparing DACA recipients with undocumented youth who do not have DACA status. The study took place 2.5 years after DACA’s initiatio...

  18. Early versus deferred antiretroviral therapy for children older than 1 year infected with HIV (PREDICT): a multicentre, randomised, open-label trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthanakit, Thanyawee; Vonthanak, Saphonn; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Kosalaraksa, Pope; Hansudewechakul, Rawiwan; Vibol, Ung; Kerr, Stephen J.; Kanjanavanit, Suparat; Ngampiyaskul, Chaiwat; Wongsawat, Jurai; Luesomboon, Wicharn; Ngo-Giang-Huong, Nicole; Chettra, Kea; Cheunyam, Theshinee; Suwarnlerk, Tulathip; Ubolyam, Sasiwimol; Shearer, William T.; Paul, Robert; Mofenson, Lynne M.; Fox, Lawrence; Law, Matthew G.; Cooper, David A.; Phanuphak, Praphan; Vun, Mean Chhi; Ruxrungtham, Kiat

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background The optimum time to start antiretroviral therapy for children diagnosed with HIV infection after 1 year of age is unknown. We assessed whether antiretroviral therapy could be deferred until CD4 percentages declined to less than 15% without affecting AIDS-free survival. Methods In our multicentre, randomised, open-label trial at nine research sites in Thailand and Cambodia, we enrolled children aged 1–12 years who were infected with HIV and had CD4 percentages of 15–24%. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) by a minimisation scheme to start antiretroviral therapy at study entry (early treatment group) or antiretroviral therapy to start when CD4 percentages declined to less than 15% (deferred treatment group). The primary endpoint was AIDS-free survival (based on US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention category C events) at week 144, assessed with the Kaplan-Meier analysis and the log-rank approach. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00234091. Findings Between March 28, 2006, and Sept 10, 2008, we enrolled 300 Thai and Cambodian children infected with HIV, with a median age of 6·4 years (IQR 3·9–8·4). 150 children were randomly allocated early antiretroviral therapy (one participant was excluded from analyses after withdrawing before week 0) and 150 children were randomly allocated deferred antiretroviral therapy. Median baseline CD4 percentage was 19% (16–22%). 69 children (46%) in the deferred treatment group started antiretroviral therapy during the study. AIDS-free survival at week 144 in the deferred treatment group was 98·7% (95% CI 94·7–99·7; 148 of 150 patients) compared with 97·9% (93·7–99·3; 146 of 149 patients) in the early treatment group (p=0·6). Interpretation AIDS-free survival in both treatment groups was high. This low event rate meant that our study was underpowered to detect differences between treatment start times and thus additional follow-up of study participants or

  19. Children with Autism Respond Differently to Spontaneous, Elicited and Deferred Imitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimann, M.; Nordqvist, E.; Strid, K.; Connant Almrot, J.; Tjus, T.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Imitation, a key vehicle for both cognitive and social development, is often regarded as more difficult for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) than for children with Down syndrome (DS) or typically developing (TD) children. The current study investigates similarities and differences in observed elicited, spontaneous and…

  20. Empirical Test on Financial Objective of Non-operating State-owned Assets Value-running in Health Field%卫生领域国有资产价值运行的财务目标检验思路

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张媚

    2014-01-01

    本文将卫生领域国有资产价值运行的财务目标定义为非营利性;并设计了财务目标检验思路:建立非营利性目标函数和营利性目标函数,比较固定资产和人员费用在不同目标函数中对财务目标的影响。%The financial objective of the health non-operating state-owned assets(NSA) value-running is defined as non-profit, an empirical test is designed; the non-profit objective function and for-profit objective function is established and the impact of fix asset and staff cost on financial objective in multiple regression functions are compared.

  1. Exploration on Network Organizational Life of Deferred Employment College Graduates Party Members%暂缓就业学生党员网络组织生活的探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何淑霞; 梁碧云

    2013-01-01

    In the face of increasingly severe employment situation, constantly expanding deferred employment college graduates party member's team, how to effectively carry out organizational life become a new problem of college students' party construction. Network is with the characteristics of wide coverage and strong interactivity, is a big advantage resources and communication platform for deferred employment college graduates party member to carry out organizational life. This paper analyzes the main problems in organizational life of deferred employment college graduates party members,and to explore innovation organizational life model of deferred employment college graduates party members.%面对日益严峻的就业形势,暂缓就业学生党员的队伍不断扩大,如何有效的开展组织生活成为高校学生党建工作的新问题。网络具有覆盖面广和交互性强的特点,是高校暂缓就业学生党员组织生活可利用的一大优势资源和交流平台。本文分析了目前暂缓就业学生党员组织生活存在的主要问题,并对暂缓就业学生党员网络组织生活的创新模式进行探索。

  2. Cord pilot trial - immediate versus deferred cord clamping for very preterm birth (before 32 weeks gestation): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushpa-Rajah, Angela; Bradshaw, Lucy; Dorling, Jon; Gyte, Gill; Mitchell, Eleanor J; Thornton, Jim; Duley, Lelia

    2014-06-30

    Preterm birth is the most important single determinant of adverse outcome in the United Kingdom; one in every 70 babies (1.4%) is born before 32 weeks (very preterm), yet these births account for over half of infant deaths.Deferring cord clamping allows blood flow between baby and placenta to continue for a short time. This often leads to increased neonatal blood volume at birth and may allow longer for transition to the neonatal circulation. Optimal timing for clamping the cord remains uncertain, however. The Cochrane Review suggests that deferring umbilical cord clamping for preterm births may improve outcome, but larger studies reporting substantive outcomes and with long-term follow-up are needed. Studies of the physiology of placental transfusion suggest that flow in the umbilical cord at very preterm birth may continue for several minutes. This pilot trial aims to assess the feasibility of conducting a large randomised trial comparing immediate and deferred cord clamping in the UK. Women are eligible for the trial if they are expected to have a live birth before 32 weeks gestation. Exclusion criteria are known monochorionic twins or clinical evidence of twin-twin transfusion syndrome, triplet or higher order multiple pregnancy, and known major congenital malformation. The interventions will be cord clamping within 20 seconds compared with cord clamping after at least two minutes. For births with cord clamping after at least two minutes, initial neonatal care is at the bedside. For the pilot trial, outcomes include measures of recruitment, compliance with the intervention, retention of participants and data quality for the clinical outcomes.Information about the trial is available to women during their antenatal care. Women considered likely to have a very preterm birth are approached for informed consent. Randomisation is close to the time of birth. Follow-up for the women is for one year, and for the children to two years of age (corrected for gestation

  3. 可抵扣亏损的递延所得税资产确认问题探析--以獐子岛递延所得税资产的确认为例%The Analysis of Deficit Deductible Deferred Income TaxAassets Confirmation---to confirm Zhangzi Island of deferred income tax assets as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓民; 白猛猛

    2015-01-01

    In the financial statements of the third‐quarter of 2014 ,Zhangzidao Group Co .Ltd , due to deficit ,confirmed the deferred income tax assets of 26 .4 million RMB ,which was later ,how‐ever ,called into question .This paper ,through the analysis of its main business products market prospect and financial situation ,comes to the conclusion that in the near future Zhangzidao Group Co . Ltd is not likely to obtain enough taxable income ,and therefore ,the confirmation of its deferred in‐come tax assets is unreasonable .In the end ,the author puts forward some advice about how to en‐hance the confirmation and management of deferred income tax assets of China’s listed companies in terms of Accounting Standards for Business Enterprises ( ASBE ) formulation , controlling shareholders and management responsibility ,and external audit supervision .%獐子岛集团在2014年三季度财务报表中,由于亏损而对2.64亿元递延所得税资产进行确认受到质疑。对獐子岛集团主营业务产品市场前景以及财务状况进行分析发现:獐子岛集团未来期间无法获得充足应纳税所得额,其递延所得税资产的确认是不合理的。从企业会计准则制定、控股股东以及管理层责任、外部审计监督三个方面提出加强我国上市公司递延所得税资产的确认与管理的建议。

  4. Coming of Age on the Margins: Mental Health and Wellbeing Among Latino Immigrant Young Adults Eligible for Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemons, Rachel; Raymond-Flesh, Marissa; Auerswald, Colette L; Brindis, Claire D

    2017-06-01

    Undocumented immigrant young adults growing up in the United States face significant challenges. For those qualified, the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program's protections may alleviate stressors, with implications for their mental health and wellbeing (MHWB). We conducted nine focus groups with 61 DACA-eligible Latinos (ages 18-31) in California to investigate their health needs. Participants reported MHWB as their greatest health concern and viewed DACA as beneficial through increasing access to opportunities and promoting belonging and peer support. Participants found that DACA also introduced unanticipated challenges, including greater adult responsibilities and a new precarious identity. Thus, immigration policies such as DACA may influence undocumented young adults' MHWB in expected and unexpected ways. Research into the impacts of policy changes on young immigrants' MHWB can guide stakeholders to better address this population's health needs. MHWB implications include the need to reduce fear of deportation and increase access to services.

  5. The destiny of an unacknowledged trauma: the deferred retroactive effect of après-coup in the hidden Jewish children of wartime Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fohn, Adeline; Heenen-Wolff, Susann

    2011-02-01

    For almost 45 years, the experience of Jewish children who were hidden during World War II was considered to be of little importance, particularly with respect to what had taken place in the concentration camps. Their very history was ignored in the many accounts of the Holocaust. It was only at the end of the 1980s that their experience began to be thought of as potentially traumatic. In this paper, the authors report on their psychoanalytical research project concerning the psychological outcomes of those experiences that had remained concealed for such an extraordinarily long latency period. The results are based on the analysis of 60 accounts and on psychoanalytically-oriented group work. The authors show that the trauma experienced by those hidden children was triggered by the retroactive effect of a deferred action [après-coup]. Copyright © 2010 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  6. Deferred Shading Framework for Simulation Drilling System%面向模拟演练系统的延迟渲染框架

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐宇; 于放; 孙咏; 王丹妮

    2016-01-01

    The Simulation drilling system provides a good service for the enterprises and the emergency departments at present. However, it still has quite a few drawbacks. Such as the lack of modern graphic pipeline support, the excessive computation of scene rendering on the condition of multiple lights, the poor rendering effects caused by that it cannot make full use of hardware etc. In order to solve those problems, this paper is designed and implemented with a deferred shading pipeline for simulation drilling system. This pipeline is based on the Blinn-Phong lighting model, which builds a compressed G-buffer layout and uses Light volume to model the light source. The final experiment indicates that under the multiple lights circumstances, the deferred shading expressed in this paper will be more efficient than the conventional forward shading.%模拟演练系统为企业和应急部门提供了强大的服务,然而目前的模拟演练系统中存在缺乏现代图形流水线,多光源情况下存在场景渲染计算量过多,不能充分利用硬件而导致的渲染效果差等问题。为了解决这些问题,本文针对模拟演练系统,设计和实现了延迟渲染流水线,它依据Blinn-Phong光照模型,构建了一种压缩的G-Buffer布局,并使用Light Volume来对光源进行建模。最后实验表明,在多光源情况下,此文中提出的延迟渲染比传统的正向渲染有更高的效率。

  7. Caracterização dos perfilhos em pastos de capim-braquiária diferidos e adubados com nitrogênio Tiller characteristics in nitrogen fertilized and deferred signalgrass pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Eduardo Rozalino Santos

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o perfilhamento e as características estruturais de perfilhos em pastos de Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk sob três períodos de diferimento da pastagem (73, 95 e 116 dias e quatro doses de nitrogênio (N (0, 40, 80 e 120 kg/ha. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com três repetições, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas. O número de perfilhos vegetativos (PV reduziu com o aumento do período de diferimento. Houve interação entre período de diferimento e dose de N para a densidade populacional de PV. O maior período de diferimento elevou o número de perfilhos reprodutivos (PR nos pastos de capim-braquiária, mas não houve efeito da dose de N sobre o número de perfilhos reprodutivos. O número de perfilhos mortos não foi influenciado pelos fatores estudados. Tanto o período de diferimento quanto a adubação nitrogenada aumentaram o peso de todas as categorias de perfilhos de capim-braquiária. As características estruturais dos perfilhos presentes nos pastos diferidos foram alteradas pelo período de diferimento e pela dose de nitrogênio. A redução do período de diferimento e a adubação nitrogenada são estratégias de manejo adequadas para aumentar o número de perfilhos vegetativos em pastos de Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk.This work aimed to evaluate the tilling and tiller structural characteristics on Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk pasture fertilized with nitrogen (N under different deferring periods. The treatments had 73, 95 and 116-day deferring periods, and 0, 40, 80 and 120 kg/ha N doses. A randomized block design with three replicates and subdivided plots was used. The number of vegetative tillers (VT reduced as the deferring period increased. Interaction between the deferring period and N doses on the VT population density was verified. The longest deferring period increased the number of reproductive tillers (RT on the B. decumbens

  8. Capim-braquiária diferido e adubado com nitrogênio: produção e características da forragem Deferred and fertilized signalgrass: forage production and characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Eduardo Rozalino Santos

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a massa de forragem e de seus componentes morfológicos, a altura e o índice de tombamento do pasto, a densidade volumétrica e o valor nutritivo da forragem em pastos de Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk diferidos e adubados com nitrogênio (N. Avaliaram-se três períodos de diferimento (73, 95 e 116 dias e quatro doses de nitrogênio (0, 40, 80 e 120 kg/ha em um delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, com três repetições, segundo o esquema de parcelas subdivididas. As massas de forragem total, forragem verde e de colmo verde, bem como a altura do pasto e a densidade volumétrica da forragem aumentaram com o período de diferimento e a dose de nitrogênio. Pastos diferidos por maior período apresentaram maior massa de forragem morta e índice de tombamento. O percentual de fibra em detergente neutro elevou e o teor proteína bruta (PB diminuiu com o aumento do período de diferimento. O teor de PB aumentou com a elevação da dose de nitrogênio. O período de diferimento e a adubação nitrogenada afetam a produção e as características da forragem diferida de forma semelhante, entretanto o período de diferimento da pastagem possui efeito de maior magnitude. A realização da adubação nitrogenada permite diminuir o período de diferimento do pasto, sem reduzir a produção de forragem.This research was carried out aiming to assess the forage mass and its morphological components, pasture height and falling index, bulk density and the forage nutritional value on nitrogen (N fertilized and deferred Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk pastures. The treatments had 73, 95 and 116-day deferring periods, and 0, 40, 80 and 120 kg/ha N doses. A randomized block design with three replicates and subdivided plots was used. Total forage, green forage and green stem mass, as well as pasture height and forage bulk density increased along with the deferring periods and N doses. The

  9. Research on the Effect of Deferred-tax Policy Based on the Consumption-saving Models%基于消费-储蓄模型的税收递延政策影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐景峰; 李玉龙

    2016-01-01

    The policy of deferred-tax on commercial endowment insurance is of great importance to the establishment and im⁃provement of pension system. In this paper, two different individual consumption-saving models, which are named as non-tax deferred model and tax deferred model, are built separately to study the effect of deferred-tax policy on optimal individual choices. Through modeling process, we come to the following conclusions:If the deferred tax rate equals the working period tax rate, individual demand for annuity insurance will increase, and yet the other demand and his/her expected utility will keep sta⁃ble. In this situation, the deferred tax policy is an Pareto improvement;If it is less than the working period tax rate, individual working period consumption, demand for annuity insurance and his expected utility will increase while individual bank saving will decrease;If it is greater than the working period tax rate, individual working period consumption, demand for annuity in⁃surance and his/her expected utility will decrease but individual bank savings will increase.%商业养老保险税收递延政策对完善养老保障体系具有重要意义。文章分别在无税收递延政策和有税收递延政策情形下建立了个体消费—储蓄模型,通过对比两种情形下的个体最优行为,分析了税收递延政策对个体行为的影响。研究表明:当递延税收税率与工作期税率相等时,个体年金保险需求增加、其他行为及效用不变,此时税收递延政策是一种帕累托改进;当递延税收税率小于工作期税率时,个体当期消费、年金保险需求及效用增加,银行存款减少;当递延税收税率大于工作期税率时,个体当期消费、年金保险需求及效用减少,银行存款增加。

  10. Spin current

    CERN Document Server

    Valenzuela, Sergio O; Saitoh, Eiji; Kimura, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    In a new branch of physics and technology called spin-electronics or spintronics, the flow of electrical charge (usual current) as well as the flow of electron spin, the so-called 'spin current', are manipulated and controlled together. This book provides an introduction and guide to the new physics and application of spin current.

  11. Immediate versus deferred chemotherapy after radical cystectomy in patients with pT3-pT4 or N+ M0 urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (EORTC 30994): an intergroup, open-label, randomised phase 3 trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sternberg, Cora N; Skoneczna, Iwona; Kerst, J Martijn

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma of the bladder have poor survival after cystectomy. The EORTC 30994 trial aimed to compare immediate versus deferred cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy after radical cystectomy in patients with pT3-pT4 or N+ M0 urothelial carcin...... patient data meta-analysis and biomarker research are needed to further elucidate the potential for survival benefit in subgroups of patients. FUNDING: Lilly, Canadian Cancer Society Research.......BACKGROUND: Patients with muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma of the bladder have poor survival after cystectomy. The EORTC 30994 trial aimed to compare immediate versus deferred cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy after radical cystectomy in patients with pT3-pT4 or N+ M0 urothelial......, doxorubicin, and cisplatin [high-dose MVAC], or MVAC) or six cycles of deferred chemotherapy at relapse, with stratification for institution, pT category, and lymph node status according to the number of nodes dissected. Neither patients nor investigators were masked. Overall survival was the primary endpoint...

  12. Development of underground-mine cost-estimating equations. [Dependence of initial capital cost, deferred capital cost and annual operating cost on region, annual mine output and seam depth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-06

    Table 3.3 summarizes the initial capital, deferred capital, and operating costs (in millions of 1980 dollars) for the four regionally-based underground model mines. The initial capital is divided into two components, fixed and variable. The fixed component is just the investment cost for surface facilities, which is assumed to be independent of mine size. The rest of the initial capital cost is associated with production (primarily face-related) and is assumed to vary linearly with mine size (i.e., annual output). There exists a concern that deferred capital costs will change due to entry mode. However, the installations concerned primarily with this point are depreciated off over the mine life and are not targeted for replacement. Therefore, deferred capital costs will not change significantly with entry mode changes or seam depth. In conclusion, it is our feeling that, within the resources of this project, development of cost adjustment factors relating productivity to various supply regions and seam heights is not practical. Assuming that productivity and, therefore, cost is independent of seam height will introduce errors into the system; however, their extent should be minimized by the incorporation of multiple model mines into the RAMC. Lastly, the relationship presented in this memorandum for depth of cover should be used in the RAMC.

  13. The Recognition and Accounting of Revenues from Selling Goods by Means of Deferred Payment%递延收款方式下销售商品收入的确认与会计核算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田彪

    2012-01-01

    新《企业会计准则》对递延方式分期收款销售商品业务的处理与原办法相比已产生了实质性的变化,由此对企业利润、现金流产生一定的影响。为了规范企业递延方式分期收款销售商品收入的会计核算,真实完整地提供会计信息,防范经营风险,本文结合新准则分析了递延方式分期收款销售商品收入的确认条件及会计处理要点。%After the release of the new Enterprise Accounting Standards,the author notices that there are substantial changes on the deferred payment,which has some impacts on the corporation profits and cash flows.In order to regulate the accounting of deferred payment,completely provide the accounting information and guard against operational risks,the paper analyses the recognition conditions and accounting treatment points of the deferred payment in terms of the new Enterprise Accounting Standards.

  14. Current limiters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loescher, D.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Systems Surety Assessment Dept.; Noren, K. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1996-09-01

    The current that flows between the electrical test equipment and the nuclear explosive must be limited to safe levels during electrical tests conducted on nuclear explosives at the DOE Pantex facility. The safest way to limit the current is to use batteries that can provide only acceptably low current into a short circuit; unfortunately this is not always possible. When it is not possible, current limiters, along with other design features, are used to limit the current. Three types of current limiters, the fuse blower, the resistor limiter, and the MOSFET-pass-transistor limiters, are used extensively in Pantex test equipment. Detailed failure mode and effects analyses were conducted on these limiters. Two other types of limiters were also analyzed. It was found that there is no best type of limiter that should be used in all applications. The fuse blower has advantages when many circuits must be monitored, a low insertion voltage drop is important, and size and weight must be kept low. However, this limiter has many failure modes that can lead to the loss of over current protection. The resistor limiter is simple and inexpensive, but is normally usable only on circuits for which the nominal current is less than a few tens of milliamperes. The MOSFET limiter can be used on high current circuits, but it has a number of single point failure modes that can lead to a loss of protective action. Because bad component placement or poor wire routing can defeat any limiter, placement and routing must be designed carefully and documented thoroughly.

  15. Current Titles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Various

    2006-06-01

    This booklet is published for those interested in current research being conducted at the National Center for Electron Microscopy. The NCEM is a DOE-designated national user facility and is available at no charge to qualified researchers. Access is controlled by an external steering committee. Interested researchers may contact Jane Cavlina, Administrator, at 510/486-6036.

  16. Colgajo libre osteocutáneo escapular en el tratamiento diferido de herida por arma de fuego Scapular osteocutaneous free flap in the deferred treatment of firearm wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Durán Moreno

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Las heridas por arma de fuego de velocidad alta o intermedia, provocan importantes pérdidas de tejido óseo y blando. El tratamiento diferido de estos casos (tratamiento reconstructivo requiere el aporte de tejido sano de regiones distantes mediante técnicas microquirúrgicas en la mayoría de las ocasiones. Exponemos la utilidad del colgajo osteocutáneo escapular (COE para la reconstrucción de defectos óseos mandibulares laterales con amplio defecto cutáneomucoso. Citamos detalles técnicos de la realización del colgajo ilustrados con la presentación de un caso clínico de un varón de 19 años con herida por arma de fuego en tercio inferior de la región lateral izquierda. Pérdida ósea del cuerpo mandibular y cutánea de la mejilla y región yugal ipsilateral. El tratamiento inicial consistió en traqueotomía, desbridamiento de tejidos desvitalizados, ferulización dentaria, bloqueo intermaxilar, colocación de placa de reconstrucción mandibular y colgajo de avance cervico-facial para cierre del defecto cutáneo. La necrosis del colgajo de avance cervicofacial produjo comunicación orofacial. La retracción cicatricial limitó la apertura oral a 0,8 cm. De forma diferida se procedió a colgajo osteomiocutáneo escapular-paraescapular del brazo izquierdo para reconstrución mandibular y de partes blandas intra y extraorales. Resultados satisfactorios estética y funcionalmente. Complicaciones producidas: fístula salival, desinserción del brazo largo del tríceps, y dehiscencia de herida de zona donante escapular que necesitó intervención para cierre mediante colgajo local.Firearm wounds caused by high-velocity projectiles cause enormous losses of bone and soft tissue. The deferred treatment of these cases (delayed reconstruction in most cases requires the transfer of free tissue from other areas of the body. The use of scapular and parascapular free flaps with scapular bone for the reconstruction of large lateral mandibular

  17. Deferred pre-emptive switch from calcineurin inhibitor to sirolimus leads to improvement in GFR and expansion of T regulatory cell population: a randomized, controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Bansal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Measures to prevent chronic calcineurin inhibitor (CNI toxicity have included limiting exposure by switching to sirolimus (SIR. SIR may favorably influence T regulator cell (T(reg population. This randomized controlled trial compares the effect of switching from CNI to SIR on glomerular filtration rate (GFR and T(reg frequency. METHODS: In this prospective open label randomized trial, primary living donor kidney transplant recipients on CNI-based immunosuppression were randomized to continue CNI or switched to sirolimus 2 months after surgery; 29 were randomized to receive CNI and 31 to SIR. All patients received mycophenolate mofetil and steroids. The main outcome parameter was estimated GFR (eGFR at 180 days. T(reg population was estimated by flowcytometry. RESULTS: Baseline characteristics in the two groups were similar. Forty-eight patients completed the trial. At six months, patients in the SIR group had significantly higher eGFR as compared to those in the CNI group (88.94 ± 11.78 vs 80.59 ± 16.51 mL/min, p = 0.038. Patients on SIR had a 12 mL/min gain of eGFR of at the end of six months. Patients in the SIR group showed significant increase in T(reg population at 30 days, which persisted till day 180. There was no difference in the adverse events in terms of number of acute rejection episodes, death, infections, proteinuria, lipid profile, blood pressure control and hematological parameters between the two groups. Four patients taking SIR developed enthesitis. No patient left the study or switched treatment because of adverse event. CONCLUSIONS: A deferred pre-emptive switch over from CNI to SIR safely improves renal function and T(reg population at 6 months in living donor kidney transplant recipients. Registered in Clinical Trials Registry of India (CTRI/2011/091/000034.

  18. CpG signalling, H2A.Z/H3 acetylation and microRNA-mediated deferred self-attenuation orchestrate foetal NOS3 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postberg, Jan; Kanders, Miriam; Forcob, Sakeh; Willems, Rhea; Orth, Valerie; Hensel, Kai Oliver; Weil, Patrick Philipp; Wirth, Stefan; Jenke, Andreas Christoph

    2015-01-01

    An adverse intrauterine environment leads to permanent physiological changes including vascular tone regulation, potentially influencing the risk for adult vascular diseases. We therefore aimed to monitor responsive NOS3 expression in human umbilical artery endothelial cells (HUAEC) and to study the underlying epigenetic signatures involved in its regulation. NOS3 and STAT3 mRNA levels were elevated in HUAEC of patients who suffered from placental insufficiency. 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, H3K9ac and Histone 2A (H2A).Zac at the NOS3 transcription start site directly correlated with NOS3 mRNA levels. Concomitantly, we observed entangled histone acetylation patterns and NOS3 response upon hypoxic conditions in vitro. Knock-down of either NOS3 or STAT3 by RNAi provided evidence for a functional NOS3/STAT3 relationship. Moreover, we recognized massive turnover of Stat3 at a discrete binding site in the NOS3 promoter. Interestingly, induced hyperacetylation resulted in short-termed increase of NOS3 mRNA followed by deferred decrease indicating that NOS3 expression could become self-attenuated by co-expressed intronic 27 nt-ncRNA. Reporter assay results and phylogenetic analyses enabled us to propose a novel model for STAT3-3'-UTR targeting by this 27-nt-ncRNA. An adverse intrauterine environment leads to adaptive changes of NOS3 expression. Apparently, a rapid NOS3 self-limiting response upon ectopic triggers co-exists with longer termed expression changes in response to placental insufficiency involving differential epigenetic signatures. Their persistence might contribute to impaired vascular endothelial response and consequently increase the risk of cardiovascular disease later in life.

  19. 47 CFR 32.7300 - Nonoperating income and expense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... requirements; (7) Amortization of goodwill; (8) Company's share of the earnings or losses of affiliated... UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions For Other Income Accounts § 32..., events and circumstances affecting the company during a period and which are not operational in nature...

  20. Nonoperating room anesthesia for the gastrointestinal endoscopy suite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetzlaff, John E; Vargo, John J; Maurer, Walter

    2014-06-01

    Anesthesia services are increasingly being requested for gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy procedures. The preparation of the patients is different from the traditional operating room practice. The responsibility to optimize comorbid conditions is also unclear. The anesthetic techniques are unique to the procedures, as are the likely events that require intervention by the anesthesia team. The postprocedure care is also unique. The future needs for anesthesia services in GI endoscopy suite are likely to expand with further developments of the technology.

  1. Current titles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This booklet is published for those interested in current research being conducted at the National Center for Electron Microscopy. The NCEM is a DOE-designated national user facility and is available at no charge to qualified researchers. Access is controlled by an external steering committee. Interested researchers may contact Gretchen Hermes at (510) 486-5006 or address below for a User`s Guide. Copies of available papers can be ordered from: Theda Crawford National Center for Electron Microscopy, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, One Cyclotron Rd., MS72, Berkeley, California, USA 94720.

  2. Current ornithology

    CERN Document Server

    1983-01-01

    The appearance of the first volume of a projected series is the occasion for comment on scope, aims, and genesis of the work. The scope of Current Ornithology is all of the biology of birds. Ornithology, as a whole-organism science, is concerned with birds at every level of bi­ ological organization, from the molecular to the community, at least from the Jurassic to the present time, and over every scholarly discipline in which bird biology is done; to say this is merely to expand a dic­ tionary definition of "ornithology. " The aim of the work, to be realized over several volumes, is to present reviews or position statements con­ cerning the active fields of ornithological research. The reviews will be relatively short, and often will be done from the viewpoint of a readily­ identified group or school. Such a work could have come into being at any time within the past fifty years, but that Current Ornithology appears now is a result of events that are only seven to eight years old. One important event wa...

  3. Corticosterone mediated costs of reproduction link current to future breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossin, Glenn T; Phillips, Richard A; Lattin, Christine R; Romero, L Michael; Williams, Tony D

    2013-11-01

    Life-history theory predicts that costs are associated with reproduction. One possible mediator of costs involves the secretion of glucocorticoid hormones, which in birds can be measured in feathers grown during the breeding period. Glucocorticoids mediate physiological responses to unpredictable environmental or other stressors, but they can also function as metabolic regulators during more predictable events such as reproduction. Here we show that corticosterone ("Cort") in feathers grown during the breeding season reflects reproductive effort in two Antarctic seabird species (giant petrels, Macronectes spp.). In females of both species, but not males, feather Cort ("fCort") was nearly 1.5-fold higher in successful than failed breeders (those that lost their eggs/chicks), suggesting a cost of successful reproduction, i.e., high fCort levels in females reflect the elevated plasma Cort levels required to support high metabolic demands of chick-rearing. Successful breeding also led to delayed moult prior to winter migration. The fCort levels and pre-migration moult score that we measured at the end of current breeding were predictive of subsequent reproductive effort in the following year. Birds with high fCort and a delayed initiation of moult were much more likely to defer breeding in the following year. Cort levels and the timing of moult thus provide a potential mechanism for the tradeoff between current and future reproduction.

  4. Analysis of The Corporate Effective Tax Rate in Brazil: A study focusing on ETR and Current ETR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Otávio Monteiro Guimarães

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the effective tax rate of public companies operating in stock market in Brazil over a period between 2003 and 2013, both to the total effective tax rate (ETRt as the curren (ETRc, seeking to verify evidence of the presence of tax management. This analysis consists of (i to assess whether average tax burden is upper, equal or less than the statutory rate of 34%; (ii verify that the ETR suffered influence of RTT adjustments arising from the introduction of IFRS; (iii identify proxies (size; profitability; inventory; properties, plants and equipment; debt; and deferred tax expenses which may explain the variation in ETR. The results showed that: (i companies have a significantly lower ETR than the statutory tax rate; (ii companies reported a lower ETR on the full adoption of IFRS period; (iii the ETR has relation to size (negative, debt (positive and components of assets (positive; and (iv there are deferral strategies considering the negative sign of deferred taxes in relation to the current ETR. The results confirm the practice of tax management and also demonstrate that the resulting RTT adjustments resulted in a lower tax burden, confirming previous studies that estimated less conservative earnings after the beginning of the convergence process. Finally, we observed that larger companies have a lower tax burden and that in general companies adopt choices that allow the deferral of taxes on income.

  5. Dreams Deferred and Dreams Denied

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Strong, Daysi; Gomez, Christina; Luna-Duarte, Maria E.; Meiners, Erica R.

    2010-01-01

    As faculty and administrators at federally designated "Hispanic serving institutions" (defined as colleges and universities having a minimum Latino student population of 25 percent), the authors came together in part because of the lack of research on the experiences of undocumented students, particularly in the Midwest; their own…

  6. Reflections on a Dream Deferred

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, John

    2008-01-01

    Americans have come a great distance since the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. The African-American middle class has grown. African Americans, women, and other minorities are in positions of leadership today that they could never have aspired to 40 years ago. In the 2008 election season, an African-American man is a serious contender…

  7. Community Colleges: A Vision Deferred.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, Anthony P.; DesRochers, Donna M.; Rose, Stephen J.

    1998-01-01

    Embraces a pragmatic view of education as first articulated by John Dewey and Jane Addams. Argues that community colleges should steer away from excessive specialization and provide a more general skills education directed toward preparing students to compete in the global economy. Contains two figures, two data tables and 13 references. (JDI)

  8. Terrorist Threats and Judicial Deference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Jens Elo

    2014-01-01

    The article analyses the extent to which judicial restraint in cases concerning national security is justified. It is argued that the extent of restraint must depend on the normative issue/aspect which is subject to judicial review....

  9. Community Colleges: A Vision Deferred.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, Anthony P.; DesRochers, Donna M.; Rose, Stephen J.

    1998-01-01

    Embraces a pragmatic view of education as first articulated by John Dewey and Jane Addams. Argues that community colleges should steer away from excessive specialization and provide a more general skills education directed toward preparing students to compete in the global economy. Contains two figures, two data tables and 13 references. (JDI)

  10. FCL: A solution to fault current problems in DC networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cointe, Y.; Tixador, P.; Villard, C.

    2008-02-01

    Within the context of the electric power market liberalization, DC networks have many interests compared to AC ones. New energy landscapes open the way of a diversified production. Innovative interconnection diagrams, in particular using DC buses, are under development. In this case it is not possible to defer the fault current interruption in the AC side. DC fault current cutting remains a difficult problem. FCLs (Fault Current Limiters) enable to limit the current to a preset value, lower than the theoretical short-circuit current. For this application Coated Conductors (CC) offer an excellent opportunity. Due to these promising characteristics we build a test bench and work on the implementation of these materials. The test bench is composed by 10 power amplifiers, to reach 4 kVA in many configurations of current and voltage. We carried out limiting experiments on DyBaCuO CC from EHTS, samples are about five centimeters long and many potential measuring points are pasted on the shunt to estimate the quench homogeneity. Thermal phenomena in FCLs are essential, numerical models are important to calculate the maximum temperatures. To validate these models we measure the CC temperature by depositing thermal sensors (Cu resistance) above the shunt layer and the substrate. An electrical insulation with a low thermal resistivity between the CC and the sensors is necessary. We use a thin layer of Parylene because of its good mechanical and electrical insulation properties at low temperature. The better quench behaviour of CC for temperatures close to the critical temperature has been confirmed. The measurements are in good agreement with simulations, this validates the thermal models.

  11. Características estruturais e índice de tombamento de Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk em pastagens diferidas Structural characteristics and falling index of Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk on deferred pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Eduardo Rozalino Santos

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito dos períodos de diferimento e de pastejo sobre a densidade populacional de perfilhos, a massa dos componentes morfológicos da forragem e o índice de tombamento em pastagens de Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk. Dois ensaios foram conduzidos: o primeiro denominado ano 1 e, o segundo, ano 2. Adotou-se o esquema de parcelas subdivididas, segundo o delineamento em blocos casualizados, com duas repetições para cada combinação dos períodos de diferimento da pastagem com os períodos de pastejo. No ano 1, os períodos de diferimento foram 103, 121, 146 e 163 dias; e no ano 2, foram 73, 103, 131 e 163 dias. Os períodos de pastejo foram 1, 29, 57 e 85 dias. O aumento do período de diferimento elevou a densidade populacional de perfilhos reprodutivos (ano 2: de 37 para 304 perfilhos/m² e reduziu a de perfilhos vegetativos (ano 1: de 1.253 para 889 perfilhos/m²; ano 2: de 1.235 para 627 perfilhos/m². Durante o período de pastejo, ocorreu diminuição no número de perfilhos vegetativo (ano 1: de 988 para 868 perfilhos/m² e reprodutivo (ano 1: de 216 para 0 perfilhos/m²; ano 2: de 203 para 0 perfilhos/m² e aumento no número de perfilhos mortos (ano 1: 463 para 1.088 perfilhos/m²; ano 2: de 341 para 1.010 perfilhos/m². Pastagens sob maiores períodos de diferimento e de pastejo apresentaram maior massa de colmo morto (6.093 e 3.819 kg/ha de MS nos anos 1 e 2, respectivamente e menor massa de lâmina foliar verde (341 e 177 kg/ha de MS nos anos 1 e 2, respectivamente. Pastos de Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk, submetidos a longos períodos de diferimento e de pastejo possuem características estruturais desfavoráveis à produção animal.This worked aimed to evaluate the effects of deferring and grazing periods on the tiller population density, morphological component mass of forage and falling index on Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk pastures. Two assays were carried out: first year and second year

  12. Usefulness of fractional flow reserve measurements to defer revascularization in patients with stable or unstable angina pectoris, non-ST-elevation and ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction, or atypical chest pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, Jean-Michel; Rodés-Cabau, Josep; Bertrand, Olivier F; Gleeton, Onil; Nguyen, Can Nanh; Barbeau, Gerald; Proulx, Guy; De Larochellière, Robert; Déry, Jean-Pierre; Batalla, Nuria; Dana, Ali; Facta, Alvaro; Roy, Louis

    2006-08-01

    This study determined the safety of deferring coronary revascularization based on a fractional flow reserve (FFR) value > or = 0.75 in a series of consecutive unselected coronary patients with moderate coronary lesions, including patients with unstable angina, myocardial infarction (MI), and/or positive noninvasive test findings. The study included 201 consecutive coronary patients (mean age 62 +/- 10 years; 65% men) with 231 lesions evaluated by FFR measurement for which revascularization was deferred based on a FFR value > or = 0.75. Lesions associated with a positive noninvasive test result were those located in an artery supplying a myocardial territory in which myocardial ischemia was demonstrated by a noninvasive test. Cardiac events (cardiac death, MI, revascularization) and Canadian Cardiovascular Society angina class were evaluated at follow-up. Indications for coronary angiography included unstable angina or MI (62%), stable angina (30%), or atypical chest pain (8%). Forty-four patients (22%) had > or = 1 coronary lesion associated with a positive noninvasive test result in which FFR was evaluated. Mean FFR value was 0.87 +/- 0.06 and mean lesion percent diameter stenosis was 41 +/- 8%. At 11 +/- 6 months of follow-up, cardiac events occurred in 20 patients (10%), and no significant differences were observed between patients with unstable angina or MI and those with stable angina (9% vs 13%, p = 0.44) or between patients with and without lesions associated with positive noninvasive test results (9% vs 10%, p = 1.00). At the end of follow-up, 88% of patients were asymptomatic in angina class 0 or I, with no differences across various groups. In conclusion, these results suggest that patients with moderate coronary lesions can be safely managed without revascularization on the basis of FFR measurements, irrespective of clinical presentation and/or presence of positive noninvasive test results.

  13. Survival outcomes and effect of early vs. deferred cART among HIV-infected patients diagnosed at the time of an AIDS-defining event: a cohort analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miro, Jose M; Manzardo, Christian; Mussini, Cristina; Johnson, Margaret; d'Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Antinori, Andrea; Gill, M John; Sighinolfi, Laura; Uberti-Foppa, Caterina; Borghi, Vanni; Sabin, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    We analyzed clinical progression among persons diagnosed with HIV at the time of an AIDS-defining event, and assessed the impact on outcome of timing of combined antiretroviral treatment (cART). Retrospective, European and Canadian multicohort study.. Patients were diagnosed with HIV from 1997-2004 and had clinical AIDS from 30 days before to 14 days after diagnosis. Clinical progression (new AIDS event, death) was described using Kaplan-Meier analysis stratifying by type of AIDS event. Factors associated with progression were identified with multivariable Cox regression. Progression rates were compared between those starting early (AIDS event) or deferred (30-270 days after AIDS event) cART. The median (interquartile range) CD4 count and viral load (VL) at diagnosis of the 584 patients were 42 (16, 119) cells/µL and 5.2 (4.5, 5.7) log(10) copies/mL. Clinical progression was observed in 165 (28.3%) patients. Older age, a higher VL at diagnosis, and a diagnosis of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) (vs. other AIDS events) were independently associated with disease progression. Of 366 patients with an opportunistic infection, 178 (48.6%) received early cART. There was no significant difference in clinical progression between those initiating cART early and those deferring treatment (adjusted hazard ratio 1.32 [95% confidence interval 0.87, 2.00], p = 0.20). Older patients and patients with high VL or NHL at diagnosis had a worse outcome. Our data suggest that earlier initiation of cART may be beneficial among HIV-infected patients diagnosed with clinical AIDS in our setting.

  14. Survival outcomes and effect of early vs. deferred cART among HIV-infected patients diagnosed at the time of an AIDS-defining event: a cohort analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M Miro

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We analyzed clinical progression among persons diagnosed with HIV at the time of an AIDS-defining event, and assessed the impact on outcome of timing of combined antiretroviral treatment (cART. METHODS: Retrospective, European and Canadian multicohort study.. Patients were diagnosed with HIV from 1997-2004 and had clinical AIDS from 30 days before to 14 days after diagnosis. Clinical progression (new AIDS event, death was described using Kaplan-Meier analysis stratifying by type of AIDS event. Factors associated with progression were identified with multivariable Cox regression. Progression rates were compared between those starting early (<30 days after AIDS event or deferred (30-270 days after AIDS event cART. RESULTS: The median (interquartile range CD4 count and viral load (VL at diagnosis of the 584 patients were 42 (16, 119 cells/µL and 5.2 (4.5, 5.7 log(10 copies/mL. Clinical progression was observed in 165 (28.3% patients. Older age, a higher VL at diagnosis, and a diagnosis of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL (vs. other AIDS events were independently associated with disease progression. Of 366 patients with an opportunistic infection, 178 (48.6% received early cART. There was no significant difference in clinical progression between those initiating cART early and those deferring treatment (adjusted hazard ratio 1.32 [95% confidence interval 0.87, 2.00], p = 0.20. CONCLUSIONS: Older patients and patients with high VL or NHL at diagnosis had a worse outcome. Our data suggest that earlier initiation of cART may be beneficial among HIV-infected patients diagnosed with clinical AIDS in our setting.

  15. Non-operation related risk factors for femoral neck narrowing after resurfacing arthroplasty of the hip%全髋表面置换术后发生股骨颈狭窄非手术相关危险因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋志勇; 茹江英; 胡玉华; 仓海斌; 胡传亮

    2013-01-01

    [目的]探讨全髋表面置换术(resurfacing arthroplasty of the hip,RSAH)术后发生股骨颈狭窄的非手术相关危险因素.[方法]回顾性分析行全髋表面置换术的患者53例(61髋),男31例,女22例;年龄26 ~ 54岁,平均45.3岁;体重指数(RMI)为20.4~37.8,平均为27.4.按病因学分类:股骨头坏死22例(26髋),先天性髋关节发育不良13例(15髋),骨性关节炎10例(12髋)和创伤性关节炎8例(8髋).观察术后股骨颈狭窄发生情况并分组,股骨颈狭窄率≥5%纳入研究组,<5%列入对照组.对可能导致股骨颈狭窄的17个变量进行单因素分析,对差异有统计学意义的变量进行多因素非条件logistic回归分析.[结果]将37例(43髋)狭窄率>0%且<5%和未狭窄的病例纳入对照组;将16例(18髋)狭窄率≥5%的病例,纳入研究组.在研究组中,2例在术后1年于股骨头杯柄周围1、3区出现透光线;1例于术后2年出现假体松动、移位.单因素分析显示,体重指数、患髋疾病、颈干角、头颈比、股骨头囊肿大小及股骨假体柄固定方式6个变量差异有统计学意义(P值均<0.05);多因素分析显示,患髋疾病、颈干角、头颈比为独立危险因素(P值均<0.05).[结论]髋关节原发病的诊断、头颈比、颈干角是全髋表面置换术术后股骨颈狭窄发生的非手术独立危险因素.%[Objective] To analyze the non-operation related risk factors for femoral neck narrowing after resurfacing arthroplasty of the hip (RSAH).[Methods] Fifty-three cases (61 hips) treated with RSAH were retrospectively analyzed.The study included 31 men and 22 women with a mean age of 45.3 years (range,26 ~ 54 years) and body mass index of 27.4 kg/m2 (range,20.4 ~ 37.8 kg/m2).Twenty-two cases (26 hips) were diagnosed as osteonecrosis of the femoral head,13 (15 hips) as developmental dysplasia of the hip,10 (12 hips) as osteoarthritis,and 8 (8 hips) as traumatic arthritis.Post-operative femoral

  16. 320-row CT coronary angiography predicts freedom from revascularisation and acts as a gatekeeper to defer invasive angiography in stable coronary artery disease: a fractional flow reserve-correlated study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Brian S.; Wong, Dennis T.L.; Cameron, James D.; Leung, Michael; Meredith, Ian T.; Nerlekar, Nitesh; Antonis, Paul; Harper, Richard; Malaiapan, Yuvaraj; Seneviratne, Sujith K. [Southern Health and Monash University, Monash Cardiovascular Research Centre, MonashHEART, Department of Medicine Monash Medical Centre (MMC), Melbourne (Australia); Leong, Darryl P. [University of Adelaide, Discipline of Medicine, Adelaide (Australia); Flinders University, Adelaide (Australia); Crossett, Marcus; Troupis, John [Southern Health and Monash University, Monash Cardiovascular Research Centre, MonashHEART, Department of Medicine Monash Medical Centre (MMC), Melbourne (Australia); Southern Health and Monash University, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, MMC, Melbourne (Australia)

    2014-03-15

    To determine the accuracy of 320-row multidetector coronary computed tomography angiography (M320-CCTA) to detect functional stenoses using fractional flow reserve (FFR) as the reference standard and to predict revascularisation in stable coronary artery disease. One hundred and fifteen patients (230 vessels) underwent M320-CCTA and FFR assessment and were followed for 18 months. Diameter stenosis on invasive angiography (ICA) and M320-CCTA were assessed by consensus by two observers and significant stenosis was defined as ≥50 %. FFR ≤0.8 indicated functionally significant stenoses. M320-CCTA had 94 % sensitivity and 94 % negative predictive value (NPV) for FFR ≤0.8. Overall accuracy was 70 %, specificity 54 % and positive predictive value 65 %. On receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, the area under the curve (AUC) for CCTA to predict FFR ≤0.8 was 0.74 which was comparable with ICA. The absence of a significant stenosis on M320-CCTA was associated with a 6 % revascularisation rate. M320-CCTA predicted revascularisation with an AUC of 0.71 which was comparable with ICA. M320-CCTA has excellent sensitivity and NPV for functional stenoses and therefore may act as an effective gatekeeper to defer ICA and revascularisation. Like ICA, M320-CCTA lacks specificity for functional stenoses and only has moderate accuracy to predict the need for revascularisation. (orig.)

  17. Current measurement apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umans, Stephen D.

    2008-11-11

    Apparatus and methods are provided for a system for measurement of a current in a conductor such that the conductor current may be momentarily directed to a current measurement element in order to maintain proper current without significantly increasing an amount of power dissipation attributable to the current measurement element or adding resistance to assist in current measurement. The apparatus and methods described herein are useful in superconducting circuits where it is necessary to monitor current carried by the superconducting elements while minimizing the effects of power dissipation attributable to the current measurement element.

  18. Estrutura do capim-braquiária durante o diferimento da pastagem - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v32i2.7922 Signalgrass structure during pasture deferment - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v32i2.7922

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Azevedo Magalhães

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado para avaliar o número de perfilhos, a massa de forragem e de seus componentes morfológicos em pastos de Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk durante o diferimento da pastagem. Os tratamentos foram quatro períodos de diferimento (18, 46, 74 e 121 dias, a partir de 8/3/2004. O delineamento foi em blocos casualizados com duas repetições. Foram determinados os números de perfilhos vegetativos (PV, reprodutivos (PR e mortos (PM, bem como as massas de lâmina foliar verde (MLV, colmo verde (MCV e forragem morta (MFM. Durante o período de diferimento houve redução no número de PV (de 1.491 para 944 perfilhos m-2. Os números de PR e PM não foram influenciados pelo período de diferimento e suas médias foram 211 e 456 perfilhos m-2, respectivamente. O período de diferimento causou incremento nas MCV (de 2.965 para 4.877 kg ha-1 de massa seca e MFM (2.324 para 4.823 kg ha-1 de massa seca, porém não influenciou a MLV (em média, 2.047 kg ha-1 de massa seca. Em Viçosa, Estado de Minas Gerais, o pasto de B. decumbens, adubado com nitrogênio e diferido no início de março, pode permanecer diferido por cerca de 70 dias para conciliar produção de forragem em quantidade com boa composição morfológica.This experiment was performed aiming to evaluate tiller population density, forage mass and its morphological components on pastures of Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk. during deferment. The treatments encompassed four deferred grazing periods (18, 46, 74 and 121 days. A randomized block design with two replications was used. The numbers of vegetative tillers (VT, reproductive tillers (RT and dead tillers (DT in the pasture were determined. The masses of green leaf blade (GLBM, dead stem (DSM and dead forage (DFM were also determined. There was a reduction in the number of VT (from 1,491 to 944 tiller m-2 during the deferment period. RT and DT numbers were not influenced by the deferment periods. Their averages were

  19. Cryogenic current leads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zizek, F.

    1982-01-01

    Theoretical, technical and design questions are examined of cryogenic current leads for SP of magnetic systems. Simplified mathematical models are presented for the current leads. To illustrate modeling, the calculation is made of the real current leads for 500 A and three variants of current leads for 1500 A for the enterprise ''Shkoda.''

  20. Current interruption transients calculation

    CERN Document Server

    Peelo, David F

    2014-01-01

    Provides an original, detailed and practical description of current interruption transients, origins, and the circuits involved, and how they can be calculated Current Interruption Transients Calculationis a comprehensive resource for the understanding, calculation and analysis of the transient recovery voltages (TRVs) and related re-ignition or re-striking transients associated with fault current interruption and the switching of inductive and capacitive load currents in circuits. This book provides an original, detailed and practical description of current interruption transients, origins,

  1. 推迟退休年龄和延迟领取基本养老金年龄可行吗——来自广东省在职职工预期退休年龄的经验证据%Is it Feasible to Defer Retirement Age and Postpone the Earliest Age for Pension Benefit? -Empirical Evidences from Expected Retirement Age of On-Job Workers in GuangDong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阳义南; 才国伟

    2012-01-01

    推迟退休年龄、延迟领取养老金年龄的主要影响群体是在职职工,本文使用广东省21个地市对在职职工的问卷调查数据,探索该政策能否可行的经验证据。结果显示,男职工选择在55岁之前退休的占55%,女职工选择在50岁之前退休的占41.2%,表明在职职工存在明显的提前退休倾向,推迟退休并不符合在职职工预期。0rdinal Logistic回归表明参加养老金制度年数对男女职工预期退休年龄的影响均显著为负,表明参加养老金制度越久,预期退休年龄越早;Binary Logistic回归也证实参加养老金制度年数越久,提前退休可能性越大。实证结果说明基本养老保险制度不能激励职工推迟退休、延迟领取养老金。为此,本文提出了对应的四点改革建议。%Since the mainly affected group of deferring retirement age and postponing the earliest age for pension benefit is the on-job workers, this article uses survey data from 21 cities in GuangDong province to investigate the planned retirement age of workers. The results show that 55% of male workers will choose to retire before 55, 41.2% of female workers will choose to retire before 50, which demonstrate an early retirement tendency. After controlling the effect of other factors, the results of Ordinal Logistic model demonstrate that participation years of pension program have a significantly negative effect on planned retirement age of the workers. The results of binary logistic model also confirm that participation years have a significantly negative effect on the dummy variable of early retirement. These empirical evidences indicate that deferring retirement age doesn't match the expectation of on-job workers and current old-age insurance system also can't encourage workers to postpone the earliest age of pension benefit. At last, this article puts forward a series of policy suggestions.

  2. Currents for Arbitrary Helicity

    CERN Document Server

    Dragon, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Using Mackey's classification of unitary representations of the Poincar\\'e group on massles states of arbitrary helicity we disprove the claim that states with helicity |h|>=1 cannot couple to a conserved current by constructing such a current.

  3. Magnetic current sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Jr., William C. (Inventor); Hermann, Theodore M. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A current determiner having an output at which representations of input currents are provided having an input conductor for the input current and a current sensor supported on a substrate electrically isolated from one another but with the sensor positioned in the magnetic fields arising about the input conductor due to any input currents. The sensor extends along the substrate in a direction primarily perpendicular to the extent of the input conductor and is formed of at least a pair of thin-film ferromagnetic layers separated by a non-magnetic conductive layer. The sensor can be electrically connected to a electronic circuitry formed in the substrate including a nonlinearity adaptation circuit to provide representations of the input currents of increased accuracy despite nonlinearities in the current sensor, and can include further current sensors in bridge circuits.

  4. 克拉霉素治疗FESS后鼻窦黏膜迁延性炎症的临床研究%Clinical Effect of Clairschach on RhinosinuS Mucouse Membrane Deferment Inflammation after FESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉晓; 何晓光; 陈冬; 刘凡理; 陈琳

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investgate the clinical effect of long-term (> 12 weeks) low dose administration of clarithromycin (250 mg, per day orally,) on rhinosinus mucouse membrane deferment inflammation after functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) . Methods Nine patients underwent functional endoscopic sinus surgery in the Department of Head and Neck Surgery between 2009 and 2010, the period ofthe rhinosinu mucous membrane deferment inflammation in these patients lasted more than one year, postoperatively. Clinical efficacy of postoperative treatment including intranasal steroid, endonasal irrigation, Chinese medicine and mucolytics was bad after FESS. At the same time, clarithromycin (250 mg, per day) was used for these patients orally for more than 12 weeks. The efficacy was evaluated using methods of Visual analogue scale (VAS) and Lund-kennedy. Results All nine patients met the requirement of drug withdrawal. The period of treatment with clarithromycin was 16 weeks for 5 patients, 20 weeks for 2 patients and 30 weeks for 2 patients, respectively. Curative effect of clarithromycin was excellent for five patients, good for three pationts and bad for one pationt, the total effective rate was 88.9% (8/9) .There was significant difference in the evaluation of VAS and lund- kennedy between before and after treatment (P12周)小剂量的克拉霉素(250 mg/d)对功能性内窥镜鼻窦术后迁延不愈的鼻窦黏膜炎症的临床疗效.方法 2009年9月至2010年4月在头颈外科经鼻窦内窥镜手术治疗后1a以上长期迁延性鼻窦黏膜炎症、疗效评估未愈者9人.在原有的药物治疗(局部糖皮质类固醇激素,黏膜除排剂,中成药)基础上,口服克拉霉素,每天250 mg,连续口服超过12周.采用慢性鼻-鼻窦炎视觉模拟量表(VAS)及鼻内镜检查量化评估(Lund-Kennedy评分法),对治疗前后的疗效采用相关样本作参数检验.Wilcmon Ranks Test Signed统计学分析.结果 治疗前后的VAS和Lund-Kennedy

  5. Current and Current Fluctuations in Quantum Shuttles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jauho, Antti-Pekka; Flindt, Christian; Novotny, Tomas

    2005-01-01

    theoretical tools needed for the analysis, e.g., generalized master equations and Wigner functions, and we outline the methods how the resulting large numerical problems can be handled. Illustrative results are given for current, noise, and full counting statistics for a number of model systems. Throughout...

  6. Controlled current inductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, S.

    1970-01-01

    Magnetic permeability and shape of special core inserts are varied to produce desired changes in saturation characteristics of current dependent inductor, thus improving its inductance-to-current properties. Materials and saturation levels of the core pieces are selected to permit a wide variety of relationships between inductance and current.

  7. Decomposition of residue currents

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Mats; Wulcan, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Given a submodule $J\\subset \\mathcal O_0^{\\oplus r}$ and a free resolution of $J$ one can define a certain vector valued residue current whose annihilator is $J$. We make a decomposition of the current with respect to Ass$(J)$ that correspond to a primary decomposition of $J$. As a tool we introduce a class of currents that includes usual residue and principal value currents; in particular these currents admit a certain type of restriction to analytic varieties and more generally to construct...

  8. Inrush Current Control Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Steven W. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    An inrush current control circuit having an input terminal connected to a DC power supply and an output terminal connected to a load capacitor limits the inrush current that charges up the load capacitor during power up of a system. When the DC power supply applies a DC voltage to the input terminal, the inrush current control circuit produces a voltage ramp at the load capacitor instead of an abrupt DC voltage. The voltage ramp results in a constant low level current to charge up the load capacitor, greatly reducing the current drain on the DC power supply.

  9. Valor nutritivo de perfilhos e componentes morfológicos em pastos de capim-braquiária diferidos e adubados com nitrogênio Nutritive value of tillers and morphological components on deferred and nitrogen fertilized pastures of Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Eduardo Rozalino Santos

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o valor nutritivo de perfilhos e componentes morfológicos em pastos diferidos e adubados com nitrogênio de Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk. Dois experimentos foram realizados em delineamento de blocos casualizados com três repetições e esquema de parcela subdivida. No primeiro experimento, foram realizadas combinações entre doses de nitrogênio (0, 40, 80 e 120 kg/ha com os componentes morfológicos (folha verde, colmo verde, folha morta e colmo morto ou com as categorias de perfilhos (vegetativo e reprodutivo do pasto. No segundo experimento, estudaram-se as combinações entre períodos de diferimento (73, 95 e 116 dias com categorias de perfilhos (vegetativo e reprodutivo. A adubação nitrogenada aumentou o percentual de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN nos colmos verdes e o teor de proteína bruta (PB nas folhas verdes e mortas e no colmo verde. Elevou também os percentuais de PB nos perfilhos vegetativos e reprodutivos, assim como o teor de FDN do perfilhos vegetativos. Maior período de diferimento causou acréscimo no percentual de FDN e redução no percentual de proteína bruta nos perfilhos vegetativos e reprodutivos. A dose de nitrogênio e o período de diferimento alteram o valor nutritivo dos componentes morfológicos e dos perfilhos dos pastos de B. decumbens cv. Basilisk. No diferimento da pastagem, ações de manejo que resultem em maiores percentuais de lâmina foliar verde e perfilho vegetativo no pasto contribuem para melhorar o valor nutritivo da forragem diferida.This work was carried out aiming to evaluate the nutritional value of tillers and the morphological components on deferred and nitrogen-fertilized pastures of Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk. Two experiments were performed in randomized block designs with three repetitions and subdivided plot scheme. In the first experiment, combinations among nitrogen doses (0, 40, 80 and 120 kg/ha were performed

  10. Electric current locator

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Paul E [Corvallis, OR; Woodside, Charles Rigel [Corvallis, OR

    2012-02-07

    The disclosure herein provides an apparatus for location of a quantity of current vectors in an electrical device, where the current vector has a known direction and a known relative magnitude to an input current supplied to the electrical device. Mathematical constants used in Biot-Savart superposition equations are determined for the electrical device, the orientation of the apparatus, and relative magnitude of the current vector and the input current, and the apparatus utilizes magnetic field sensors oriented to a sensing plane to provide current vector location based on the solution of the Biot-Savart superposition equations. Description of required orientations between the apparatus and the electrical device are disclosed and various methods of determining the mathematical constants are presented.

  11. Current limiter circuit system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witcher, Joseph Brandon; Bredemann, Michael V.

    2017-09-05

    An apparatus comprising a steady state sensing circuit, a switching circuit, and a detection circuit. The steady state sensing circuit is connected to a first, a second and a third node. The first node is connected to a first device, the second node is connected to a second device, and the steady state sensing circuit causes a scaled current to flow at the third node. The scaled current is proportional to a voltage difference between the first and second node. The switching circuit limits an amount of current that flows between the first and second device. The detection circuit is connected to the third node and the switching circuit. The detection circuit monitors the scaled current at the third node and controls the switching circuit to limit the amount of the current that flows between the first and second device when the scaled current is greater than a desired level.

  12. Quantization of interface currents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotani, Motoko [AIMR, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Schulz-Baldes, Hermann [Department Mathematik, Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen (Germany); Villegas-Blas, Carlos [Instituto de Matematicas, Cuernavaca, UNAM, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    2014-12-15

    At the interface of two two-dimensional quantum systems, there may exist interface currents similar to edge currents in quantum Hall systems. It is proved that these interface currents are macroscopically quantized by an integer that is given by the difference of the Chern numbers of the two systems. It is also argued that at the interface between two time-reversal invariant systems with half-integer spin, one of which is trivial and the other non-trivial, there are dissipationless spin-polarized interface currents.

  13. Low current beam techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint, A.; Laird, J.S.; Bardos, R.A.; Legge, G.J.F. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics; Nishijima, T.; Sekiguchi, H. [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan).

    1993-12-31

    Since the development of Scanning Transmission Microscopy (STIM) imaging in 1983 many low current beam techniques have been developed for the scanning (ion) microprobe. These include STIM tomography, Ion Beam Induced Current, Ion Beam Micromachining and Microlithography and Ionoluminense. Most of these techniques utilise beam currents of 10{sup -15} A down to single ions controlled by beam switching techniques This paper will discuss some of the low beam current techniques mentioned above, and indicate, some of their recent applications at MARC. A new STIM technique will be introduced that can be used to obtain Z-contrast with STIM resolution. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Merging of plasma currents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmans, J.; Schep, T. J.

    2001-01-01

    The merging process of current filaments in a strongly magnetized plasma is described. The evolution is calculated using a contour dynamics method, which accurately tracks piecewise constant distributions of the conserved quantities. In the interaction of two screened currents, both develop dipolar

  15. The Bransfield Gravity Current

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sangrà, P.; Stegner, A.; Hernández-Arencibia, Mónica; Márrero-Díaz, A.; Salinas, C.; Aguiar-González, B.; Henríquez-Pastene, C.H.; Mouriño-Carballido, B.

    2017-01-01

    Using in situ data and laboratory experiments, we show that the circulation of the Bransfield Current (BC) around the South Shetland Islands (SSI) may be characterized in terms of a propagating buoyant gravity current. First, we describe the SSI hydrography and some drifter trajectories, paying spec

  16. Discrete Noether Currents

    CERN Document Server

    Seidl, Gerhart

    2014-01-01

    We present a simple generalization of Noether's theorem for discrete symmetries in relativistic continuum field theories. We calculate explicitly the conserved current for several discrete spacetime and internal symmetries. In addition, we formulate an analogue of the Ward-Takahashi identity for the Noether current associated with a discrete symmetry.

  17. Direct current transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, S. M.; Urban, E. W. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A direct current transformer in which the primary consists of an elongated strip of superconductive material, across the ends of which is direct current potential is described. Parallel and closely spaced to the primary is positioned a transformer secondary consisting of a thin strip of magnetoresistive material.

  18. Electric Current Solves Mazes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayrinhac, Simon

    2014-01-01

    We present in this work a demonstration of the maze-solving problem with electricity. Electric current flowing in a maze as a printed circuit produces Joule heating and the right way is instantaneously revealed with infrared thermal imaging. The basic properties of electric current can be discussed in this context, with this challenging question:…

  19. The Bransfield Gravity Current

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sangrà, P.; Stegner, A.; Hernández-Arencibia, Mónica; Márrero-Díaz, A.; Salinas, C.; Aguiar-González, B.; Henríquez-Pastene, C.H.; Mouriño-Carballido, B.

    2017-01-01

    Using in situ data and laboratory experiments, we show that the circulation of the Bransfield Current (BC) around the South Shetland Islands (SSI) may be characterized in terms of a propagating buoyant gravity current. First, we describe the SSI hydrography and some drifter trajectories, paying

  20. The Bransfield Gravity Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangrà, Pablo; Stegner, Alexander; Hernández-Arencibia, Mónica; Marrero-Díaz, Ángeles; Salinas, Carolina; Aguiar-González, Borja; Henríquez-Pastene, Cristian; Mouriño-Carballido, Beatriz

    2017-01-01

    Using in situ data and laboratory experiments, we show that the circulation of the Bransfield Current (BC) around the South Shetland Islands (SSI) may be characterized in terms of a propagating buoyant gravity current. First, we describe the SSI hydrography and some drifter trajectories, paying special attention to the recirculation of the BC at the northeastern tip and northern slopes of the SSI. We observed that when the northeastward-flowing BC reaches the northeastern tip of the SSI, it recirculates around an anticyclonic mesoscale eddy that has not previously been reported in this region. Part of this recirculating water then proceeds southwest along the northern SSI shelf break as a narrow baroclinic jet and another part join the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Consequently, the cross-slope gradients of properties strengthen, and the southern boundary of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current becomes a nearly submesoscale ( 10 km) front. Second, we compare the observations with buoyant gravity current laboratory experiments in an open basin setup where the SSI topographic barrier is represented by a central wall. The resulting circulation of the buoyant gravity current around the wall mirrors our in situ observations. First, a narrow buoyant gravity current flows northeastward along the southern boundary of the wall. Once the head of the buoyant gravity current reaches the tip of the wall, a recirculating anticyclonic vortex is generated, and the buoyant gravity current then proceeds westward along the north side of the wall. This circulation of the BC around the SSI as a buoyant gravity current may contribute to the fertilization of the waters around the SSI, as suggested by previously reported distributions of nutrients and phytoplankton.

  1. Significance of ALT screening in the safety of blood donation by the ALT deferred donors%ALT单项不合格献血者再次献血血液筛查结果追踪调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎世杰; 汪传喜; 梁华钦; 廖峭; 戎霞; 陈锦艳; 林昌周; 梁浩坚

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨和评价ALT血液筛查项目在临床用血血液安全中的意义.方法 采用回顾性调查法对2010年10月至2012年12月期间,ALT单项阳性并再次献血的献血者血液筛查结果进行追踪调查和分析.结果 3 910例再次献血者中,HBsAg、抗-HCV、抗-HIV、抗-TP以及ALT血液筛查结果均合格3 053例,占再次献血的78.1%,ALT单项仍为阳性845例,占不合格的98.6% (845/857),ALT阴性而ELISA筛查项目阳性9例,核酸筛查阳性3例,其中ALT合并NAT阳性1例.结论 ALT血液筛查在肝炎病毒感染“窗口期”或隐匿性感染中有提示的作用,在一定程度上能减少漏检的发生,在保障血液安全中具有一定的意义.%Objective To investigate and evaluate the significance of ALT screening in the safety of blood donation.Methods The blood screening results of ALT deferred donors (October 2010 to December 2012) from the Guangzhou Blood Center were investigated and analyzed by retrospective survey method.Results Among the 3 910 2nd time blood donors with previous unqualified ALT,3 053 (78.1%) donors were found to have qualified results in the testing of HBsAg,anti-HCV,anti-HIV,anti-TP and ALT screening.845 (98.6%) were found to have unqualified result with ALT screening only.Other 11 were found to have unqualified results in either ELISA or NAT,while their ALT screening result was qualified.One donor was found to have unqualified result with both ALT and NAT.Conclusion ALT screening can play a role in the monitoring of hepatitis virus infection and in reducing the risk of transmission due to the window-period and other occult infections.

  2. Study on Supply Chain Coordination Based on Deferred Payment under Buy-and-sell Mode%Buy-and-Sell模式下基于延期支付的供应链协调研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张科静; 李娜

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we studied the three-echelon supply chain composed by a raw material supplier, an OEM and a manufacturer, where when the OEM was faced with funds constraint, the manufacturer would adopt the buy-and-sell mode to purchase raw materials from the supplier and was rewarded with a price discount due to the large volume of the purchase. It would then sell the materials purchased to the OEM and the accounts payable of both the OEM and the manufacturer were paid in deferral. Then we built the buy-and-sell based model and solved it to obtain the optimal ordering quantity of the manufacturer under this mode;next, by comparing the models with and without funds constraint when not adopting the buy-and-sell mode, we determined the extent of the deferred payment so that the profit of the manufacturer and the OEM was not less than that when there was funds constraint or not. The numerical analysis demonstrated that under the buy-and-sell mode, the profit of the supply chain system was larger than the expected profit in the classic newsboy model and that the mode could coordinate the supply chain.%考虑在由原料供应商、OEM及制造商构成的三级供应链中,OEM面临资金约束时,制造商采用Buy-and-Sell模式从原料供应商处采购原料,通过数量优势获得价格折扣,再转卖给OEM,OEM和制造商的应付款都延期支付。建立基于Buy-and-Sell模式的模型,求解该模式下制造商的最优订购量;并通过与不采用Buy-and-Sell模式时,无资金约束和资金约束下的模型进行对比,求解使制造商和OEM的利润均不低于资金约束情况下和无资金约束情况下利润的延期支付取值范围。数值分析表明:Buy-and-Sell模式下,供应链系统的利润大于在经典报童模型下的期望利润,该模式可以实现供应链协调。

  3. 桑蚕两广二号蚕种延期冷藏实用化探讨%Discussion on the practical hatchability of“LiangGuang Ⅱ”deferred refrigeration silkworm eggs in Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国栋

    2013-01-01

      探索延期冷藏两广二号桑蚕种的有效时间和最适贮藏方法,可以提高生产中大量延期冷藏种的利用率。对已经冷藏160d~320d 两广二号蚕种进行延期冷藏调查研究,试验中对蚕种设计了单式冷藏浸酸、单式冷藏不浸酸、复式冷藏浸酸、复式冷藏不浸酸区等处理方式。主要调查了实用孵化率、绝食80h蚁蚕生命率。结果表明延期冷藏蚕种孵化率随着冷藏时间增加而呈下降趋势,不浸酸区孵化率稍高于浸酸区,复式冷藏孵化率稍高于单式冷藏。%Practical time and optimal storage method of the“LiangGuang Ⅱ”deferred refrigeration silkworm eggs were explored to improve their utilization rate in production. “LiangGuang Ⅱ”silkworm eggs frozen for 160 to 320 days were investigated. Four processing modes of the silkworm eggs were single refrigeration and pickling, single refrigeration and no pickling, double refrigeration and pickling, double refrigeration and no pickling. Practical hatchability and newly-hatched silkworm life rate for fast 80 hours were the main focus in the survey. The results showed that the silkworm egg hatchability exhibited a downward trend with the increasing cold stor-age time. The hatchability of the no pickling processing mode was slightly higher than that of the pickling ones, and double refrigeration processing mode had higher hatchability than single refrigeration ones.

  4. On current trace problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The pricing of electricity trasmission requires determining how much use each generator is making of a transmission line and what is each generator's contribution to the system losses. Such problems cannot be solved by only using Kirchoff's laws. This paper proposes two current decomposition axioms based on which the theories and models are established for the current trace problem. To create an efficient algorithm the graph theory is employed. It is proved that there is no directed circuit in a directed current distribution graph. According to this theorem a very simple and efficient algorithm based on recursive elimination process is suggested. A simple example is used to explain the algorithm.

  5. Turbulent current drive mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDevitt, Christopher J.; Tang, Xian-Zhu; Guo, Zehua

    2017-08-01

    Mechanisms through which plasma microturbulence can drive a mean electron plasma current are derived. The efficiency through which these turbulent contributions can drive deviations from neoclassical predictions of the electron current profile is computed by employing a linearized Coulomb collision operator. It is found that a non-diffusive contribution to the electron momentum flux as well as an anomalous electron-ion momentum exchange term provide the most efficient means through which turbulence can modify the mean electron current for the cases considered. Such turbulent contributions appear as an effective EMF within Ohm's law and hence provide an ideal means for driving deviations from neoclassical predictions.

  6. Water Current Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Tidal, river and ocean current observations collected by the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. Period of record is late 1800s to mid-1980s.

  7. Prognosis - Cancer Currents Blog

    Science.gov (United States)

    A catalog of posts from NCI’s Cancer Currents blog on research related to cancer prognosis. Includes posts on factors that influence prognosis, prognostic biomarkers, and doctor-patient communications about prognosis.

  8. NOAA NDBC SOS - currents

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA NDBC SOS server is part of the IOOS DIF SOS Project. The stations in this dataset have currents data. Because of the nature of SOS requests, requests for...

  9. AUTO FIB Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, I.; Sharples, R. M.

    The current status of the automated fibre positioner, Autofib, is reviewed including the positioning performance and the set-up speed. Future plans to build another Autofib for the 4.2 m William Herschel Telescope are also briefly discussed.

  10. Electrifying Current Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Philip

    1980-01-01

    The author describes how he has adapted the television quiz show format of "College Bowl" to current events study for junior high school students. An insert explains use of the same technique with fourth graders. (SJL)

  11. Geothermal Energy: Current abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringe, A.C. (ed.)

    1988-02-01

    This bulletin announces the current worldwide information available on the technologies required for economic recovery of geothermal energy and its use as direct heat or for electric power production. (ACR)

  12. Current Icing Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Current Icing Product (CIP) is an automatically-generated index suitable for depicting areas of potentially hazardous airframe icing. The CIP algorithm combines...

  13. Current Resource Imagery Projects

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — Map showing coverage of current Resource imagery projects. High resolution/large scale Resource imagery is typically acquired for the U.S. Forest Service and other...

  14. Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Characteristics and Perceptions of the Medicare Population Data from the 2010 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey is a series of source books based on the...

  15. Eddy current testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Sung Jin; Lee, Hyang Beom; Kim, Young Hwan [Soongsil Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Young Kil [Kunsan Univ., Gunsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-02-15

    Eddy current testing has been widely used for non destructive testing of steam generator tubes. In order to retain reliability in ECT, the following subjects were carried out in this study: numerical modeling and analysis of defects by using BC and RPC probes in SG tube, preparation of absolute coil impedance plane diagram by FEM. Signal interpretation of the eddy current signals obtained from nuclear power plants.

  16. The Chukchi slope current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corlett, W. Bryce; Pickart, Robert S.

    2017-04-01

    Using a collection of 46 shipboard hydrographic/velocity transects occupied across the shelfbreak and slope of the Chukchi Sea between 2002 and 2014, we have quantified the existence of a current transporting Pacific-origin water westward over the upper continental slope. It has been named the Chukchi slope current, which is believed to emanate from Barrow Canyon. The current is surface-intensified, order 50 km wide, and advects both summer and winter waters. It is not trapped to a particular isobath, but instead is reminiscent of a free jet. There is no significant variation in Pacific water transport with distance from Barrow Canyon. A potential vorticity analysis suggests that the flow is baroclinically unstable, consistent with the notion that it meanders. The current is present during all synoptic wind conditions, but increases in strength from summer to fall presumably due to the seasonal enhancement of the easterly winds in the region. Its transport increased over the 12-year period of data coverage, also likely in response to wind forcing. In the mean, the slope current transports 0.50 ± 0.07 Sv of Pacific water. This estimate allows us to construct a balanced mass budget of the Chukchi shelf inflows and outflows. Our study also confirms the existence of an eastward-flowing Chukchi shelfbreak jet transporting 0.10 ± 0.03 Sv of Pacific water towards Barrow Canyon.

  17. On current trace problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王锡凡; 王秀丽

    2000-01-01

    The pricing of electricity trasmission requires determining how much use each generator is making of a transmission line and what is each generator’s contribution to the system losses. Such problems cannot be solved by only using Kirchoff’s laws. This paper proposes two current decomposition axioms based on which the theories and models are established for the current trace problem. To create an efficient algorithm the graph theory is employed. It is proved that there is no directed circuit in a directed current distribution graph. According to this theorem a very simple and efficient algorithm based on recursive elimination process is suggested. A simple example is used to explain the algorithm .

  18. Decomposing the Current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tim

    The field of molecular electronics have been shown to span a huge range of properties. In an effort to extract the parameters of the system that governs these properties, a number of methods that decomposes the current have been developed. These methods function not just as tools for data...... extraction, but also serves as the foundation upon which to gain insights into the physics that governs the molecular properties. As such, the understanding of the applicability and the development of new methods to decompose the current may be a goal in it self. In this thesis we will explore some...... of these methods, and use the insights from this study to develop new methods. First, we will compare two methods that decompose the current into the transmission from a single conducting level of the molecular device, by extracting level position and broadening. In general we see that the method that relies on I...

  19. Models of current sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angst, Sebastian; Engelke, Lukas; Winterer, Markus; Wolf, Dietrich E.

    2017-06-01

    Densification of (semi-)conducting particle agglomerates with the help of an electrical current is much faster and more energy efficient than traditional thermal sintering or powder compression. Therefore, this method becomes more and more common among experimentalists, engineers, and in industry. The mechanisms at work at the particle scale are highly complex because of the mutual feedback between current and pore structure. This paper extends previous modelling approaches in order to study mixtures of particles of two different materials. In addition to the delivery of Joule heat throughout the sample, especially in current bottlenecks, thermoelectric effects must be taken into account. They lead to segregation or spatial correlations in the particle arrangement. Various model extensions are possible and will be discussed.

  20. Decomposing the Current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tim

    The field of molecular electronics have been shown to span a huge range of properties. In an effort to extract the parameters of the system that governs these properties, a number of methods that decomposes the current have been developed. These methods function not just as tools for data...... extraction, but also serves as the foundation upon which to gain insights into the physics that governs the molecular properties. As such, the understanding of the applicability and the development of new methods to decompose the current may be a goal in it self. In this thesis we will explore some...... of these methods, and use the insights from this study to develop new methods. First, we will compare two methods that decompose the current into the transmission from a single conducting level of the molecular device, by extracting level position and broadening. In general we see that the method that relies on I...

  1. Building Bridges: Deference and National Interests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roslyng-Jensen, Palle

    2016-01-01

    Dansk, norsk og svensk tv-udsendelser om Sovjetblokken og sovjetisk politik. Der var i udsendelser fra alle tre stationer hensyntagen til sovjetiske interesser og synspunkter, men i højere grad i svenske udsendelser end i danske og norske.......Dansk, norsk og svensk tv-udsendelser om Sovjetblokken og sovjetisk politik. Der var i udsendelser fra alle tre stationer hensyntagen til sovjetiske interesser og synspunkter, men i højere grad i svenske udsendelser end i danske og norske....

  2. 34 CFR 682.210 - Deferment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... them in eliminating poverty and poverty-related human, social, and environmental conditions; (iii) Does... section— (i) The definition of the term school in § 682.200(b) does not apply; (ii) Elementary school... 6 of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938; or (B) An amount equal to 150 percent of the poverty...

  3. Oblivion Deferred: Altichiero in the Fifteenth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richards, John

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Altichiero was the dominant north Italian painter of the later Trecento. In Padua, in the 1370s and early 1380s, he worked for patrons close to Petrarch and his circle and perhaps in direct contact with the poet himself. By the time of the second edition of Vasari's Vite (1568 the memory of Altichiero's work had suffered significant occlusion, and Vasari's account of him is little more than an appendix to his life of Carpaccio. Only since the later nineteenth century, and particularly in the last fifty or so years, has Altichiero's reputation been restored. It is the purpose of this paper to examine aspects of that reputation throughout the century or so after the painter's death (by April 1393.

  4. ERISA 4044 (Immediate and Deferred) Annuities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation — The select and ultimate interest rates are issued for the specific purpose of determining the present value of annuities in involuntary and distress terminations of...

  5. 34 CFR 685.204 - Deferment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Is carrying at least one-half the normal full-time work load for the course of study that the... course of study pursuant to a graduate fellowship program approved by the Secretary; or (C) Is pursuing a... Direct Loan, a borrower has an outstanding balance of principal or interest owing on any FFEL...

  6. Judicial Deference Allows European Consensus to Emerge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dothan, Shai

    2017-01-01

    conceived as competing doctrines: the more there is of one, the less there is of another. This paper suggests a novel rationale for the emerging consensus doctrine: the doctrine can allow the ECHR to make good policies by drawing on the independent decision-making of many similar countries. In light of that...

  7. Earth observations from space: A dream deferred?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, John H.

    Earth observations from space are one of the great successes of the space age. However, because the promise of this technology is a long way from being realized, the joy of success is tinged with disappointment for both researchers and operational users of the data. U.S. Earth observation programs have been in turmoil since their inception, with confusion coming to a crescendo over the past 6 years. Neither the executive or legislative branches of the government have shown that they can successfully manage this technological capability created by the space program.

  8. Current concepts in osteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollivere, B; Wimhurst, J A; Clark, I M; Donell, S T

    2012-01-01

    The most frequent cause of failure after total hip replacement in all reported arthroplasty registries is peri-prosthetic osteolysis. Osteolysis is an active biological process initiated in response to wear debris. The eventual response to this process is the activation of macrophages and loss of bone. Activation of macrophages initiates a complex biological cascade resulting in the final common pathway of an increase in osteolytic activity. The biological initiators, mechanisms for and regulation of this process are beginning to be understood. This article explores current concepts in the causes of, and underlying biological mechanism resulting in peri-prosthetic osteolysis, reviewing the current basic science and clinical literature surrounding the topic.

  9. Current power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickell, J.H.

    1979-03-06

    A current power plant is described that includes a shaft mounted turbine wheel for employment in water current, a housing adjacent the impeller and to which the shaft extends, a ramp positioned on the upstream side of the impellar, and a frame on which the turbine wheel is mounted. The frame is mounted by rollers on a tract such that the impeller and frame may be rolled on the tracks inside the housing, whereafter doors are closed, and water around the turbine wheel may be pumped out to facilitate turbine repair.

  10. Induction motor starting current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arneaud, J.M.; Langman, R.A. [Tasmania Univ., Hobart, TAS (Australia)

    1995-12-31

    Large errors may occur if leakage path saturation is neglected when reduced-voltage test results are used to predict the direct-on-line starting current of induction motors. The results of applying three existing and two new methods for starting current prediction are compared with test data from 52 motors. A quantitative assessment is made of the probable reduction in error that would be achieved by increasing the number of available sets of reduced-voltage, locked rotor test results or by including slot design data. Guidelines are given for selecting an appropriate predictive method. (author). 4 tabs., 1 fig., 6 refs.

  11. [Acromegaly: current view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kršek, Michal

    2015-10-01

    Acromegaly is a rare disorder caused by autonomous oversecretion of growth hormone mostly by pituitary adenoma. Untreated acromegaly leads to significantly increased morbidity and mortality and impaired quality of life. Early diagnosis and treatment is therefore essential for improvement of patients prognosis and management of acromegaly should be concentrated in specialized centres. Present article summarizes current view on diagnosis and treatment of acromegaly.

  12. Marijuana: Current concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald eGreydanus

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Marijuana (cannabis remains a controversial drug in the 21st century. This paper considers current research on use of Cannabis sativa and its constituents such as the cannabinoids. Topics reviewed include prevalence of cannabis use, other drugs consumed with pot, the endocannabinoid system, use of medicinal marijuana, medical adverse effects of cannabis, and psychiatric adverse effects of cannabis use. Treatment of cannabis withdrawal and dependence is difficult and remains mainly based on psychological therapy; current research on pharmacologic management of problems related to cannabis consumption is also considered. The potential role of specific cannabinoids for medical benefit will be revealed as the 21st century matures. However, potential dangerous adverse effects from smoking marijuana are well known and should be clearly taught to a public often confused by a media-driven, though false message and promise of benign pot consumption.

  13. Marijuana: Current Concepts†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greydanus, Donald E.; Hawver, Elizabeth K.; Greydanus, Megan M.; Merrick, Joav

    2013-01-01

    Marijuana (cannabis) remains a controversial drug in the twenty-first century. This paper considers current research on use of Cannabis sativa and its constituents such as the cannabinoids. Topics reviewed include prevalence of cannabis (pot) use, other drugs consumed with pot, the endocannabinoid system, use of medicinal marijuana, medical adverse effects of cannabis, and psychiatric adverse effects of cannabis use. Treatment of cannabis withdrawal and dependence is difficult and remains mainly based on psychological therapy; current research on pharmacologic management of problems related to cannabis consumption is also considered. The potential role of specific cannabinoids for medical benefit will be revealed as the twenty-first century matures. However, potential dangerous adverse effects from smoking marijuana are well known and should be clearly taught to a public that is often confused by a media-driven, though false message and promise of benign pot consumption. PMID:24350211

  14. Current management of presbyopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandelis A Papadopoulos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Presbyopia is a physiologic inevitability that causes gradual loss of accommodation during the fifth decade of life. The correction of presbyopia and the restoration of accommodation are considered the final frontier of refractive surgery. Different approaches on the cornea, the crystalline lens and the sclera are being pursued to achieve surgical correction of this disability. There are however, a number of limitations and considerations that have prevented widespread acceptance of surgical correction for presbyopia. The quality of vision, optical and visual distortions, regression of effect, complications such as corneal ectasia and haze, anisometropia after monovision correction, impaired distance vision and the invasive nature of the currently techniques have limited the utilization of presbyopia surgery. The purpose of this paper is to provide an update of current procedures available for presbyopia correction and their limitations.

  15. Efeitos da queima seguida de pastejo ou diferimento sobre o resíduo, temperatura do solo e mesofauna de uma pastagem natural Effects of burning followed by grazing or deferring on residual dry matter, soil temperature and mesofauna of a natural pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Rogério Viegas Damé

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um experimento no Departamento de Zootecnia da UFSM, Santa Maria, RS, Brasil, com o objetivo de estimar os efeitos do fogo associado ao pastejo, com ou sem período de diferimento após a queima, sobre o resíduo e mesofauna edáfica de uma pastagem natural. Foi observada, também, o efeito do fogo sobre a variação da temperatura do solo. O experimento foi instalado no inverno de 1992 e os dados foram coletados no período de maio de 1993 a junho de 1994. Os tratamentos foram: queimado em 17/09/92 e Rastejado; queimado em 17/09/92, diferido, requeimado em 05/09/93 e pastejado; não queimado e pastejado em 1992, queimado em 22/06/93 e diferido. Foi constatado que o fogo diminui o resíduo da pastagem e essa redução é maior ainda quando há pastejo. Não foram observadas alterações significativas na temperatura do solo, devido à intensidade do fogo ter sido baixa. A queima e o pastejo não apresentaram efeitos significativos sobre a população de colêmbolos e ácaros do solo.This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of burning associated with grazing and burning with deferring periods, on residual dry matter, soil temperature and mesofauna composition of a natural pasture. The experiment was conducted at the Animal Science Departament, UFSM, Santa Maria, RS, Brasil. The trial was initiated in the Winter of 1992 and data were collected from May, 1993 to June, 1994. Treatments consisted of: burned in 9/17/92 and grazed: burned in 9/17/92 and deferred, reburned in 9/5/93 and grazed; not burned in 1992 and grazed, burned in 6/22/93 and deferred. Burning reduced dry matter residue and the reduction was more pronounced when burning was followed by grazing. Soil temperature was not affected by burning mainly because its intensity was low. Soil mesofauna was not significantiy affected by the diffèrent treatments tested.

  16. Current and future photovoltaics

    OpenAIRE

    Boreland, M.B.; Bagnall, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    Photovoltaics, now a billion-dollar industry, is experiencing staggering growth as increased concerns over fuel supply and carbon emissions have encouraged governments and environmentalists to become increasingly prepared to offset the extra cost of solar energy. Three 'generations' of photovoltaics have been envisaged that will take solar power into the mainstream. Photovoltaic production is currently 90% 'first-generation' or '1G' solar cells that rely on expensive bulk multi-crystalline or...

  17. Current Research Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-02-01

    Biological oceanography, marine food chain dynamics, carbon cycling in the ocean. Martin, Seelye,Ph.D., Johns Hopkins. Geophysical fluid dynamics...currently under investigation, (Ahmed, Packard) 8. Amylase studies An assay for amylase activity has been adapted to measure zooplankton grazing. This...as a function of available food and of the biomass of copepods, was prescribed by sixteen equations: five, corresponding to copepodite stages (I to V

  18. Lubricated viscous gravity currents

    OpenAIRE

    Kowal, Katarzyna N.; Worster, M. Grae

    2015-01-01

    This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available via CUP at http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=9553100&fileId=S0022112015000300. We present a theoretical and experimental study of viscous gravity currents lubricated by another viscous fluid from below. We use lubrication theory to model both layers as Newtonian fluids spreading under their own weight in two-dimensional and axisymmetric settings over a smooth rigid horizontal surfa...

  19. Clopidogrel Resistance: Current Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NS Neki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Antiplatelet agents are mainly used in the prevention and management of atherothrombotic complications. Dual antiplatelet therapy, combining aspirin and clopidogrel, is the standard care for patients having acute coronary syndromes or undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention according to the current ACC/AHA and ESC guidelines. But in spite of administration of dual antiplatelet therapy, some patients develop recurrent cardiovascular ischemic events especially stent thrombosis which is a serious clinical problem. Antiplatelet response to clopidogrel varies widely among patients based on ex vivo platelet function measurements. Clopidogrel is an effective inhibitor of platelet activation and aggregation due to its selective and irreversible blockade of the P2Y12 receptor. Patients who display little attenuation of platelet reactivity with clopidogrel therapy are labeled as low or nonresponders or clopidogrel resistant. The mechanism of clopidogrel resistance remains incompletely defined but there are certain clinical, cellular and genetic factors including polymorphisms responsible for therapeutic failure. Currently there is no standardized or widely accepted definition of clopidogrel resistance. The future may soon be realised in the routine measurement of platelet activity in the same way that blood pressure, cholesterol and blood sugar are followed to help guide the therapy, thus improving the care for millions of people. This review focuses on the methods used to identify patients with clopidogrel resistance, the underlying mechanisms, metabolism, clinical significance and current therapeutic strategies to overcome clopidogrel resistance. J Enam Med Col 2016; 6(1: 38-46

  20. Turbulent current drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbet, X.; Esteve, D.; Sarazin, Y.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Ghendrih, P.; Grandgirard, V.; Latu, G.; Smolyakov, A.

    2014-11-01

    The Ohm's law is modified when turbulent processes are accounted for. Besides an hyper-resistivity, already well known, pinch terms appear in the electron momentum flux. Moreover it appears that turbulence is responsible for a source term in the Ohm's law, called here turbulent current drive. Two terms contribute to this source. The first term is a residual stress in the momentum flux, while the second contribution is an electro-motive force. A non zero average parallel wave number is needed to get a finite source term. Hence a symmetry breaking mechanism must be invoked, as for ion momentum transport. E × B shear flows and turbulence intensity gradients are shown to provide similar contributions. Moreover this source term has to compete with the collision friction term (resistivity). The effect is found to be significant for a large scale turbulence in spite of an unfavorable scaling with the ratio of the electron to ion mass. Turbulent current drive appears to be a weak effect in the plasma core, but could be substantial in the plasma edge where it may produce up to 10 % of the local current density.

  1. Turbidity Current Head Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, David; Sanchez, Miguel Angel; Medina, Pablo

    2010-05-01

    A laboratory experimental set - up for studying the behaviour of sediment in presence of a turbulent field with zero mean flow is compared with the behaviour of turbidity currents [1] . Particular interest is shown on the initiation of sediment motion and in the sediment lift - off. The behaviour of the turbidity current in a flat ground is compared with the zero mean flow oscilating grid generated turbulence as when wave flow lifts off suspended sediments [2,3]. Some examples of the results obtained with this set-up relating the height of the head of the turbidity current to the equilibrium level of stirred lutoclines are shown. A turbulent velocity u' lower than that estimated by the Shield diagram is required to start sediment motion. The minimum u' required to start sediment lift - off, is a function of sediment size, cohesivity and resting time. The lutocline height depends on u', and the vorticity at the lutocline seems constant for a fixed sediment size [1,3]. Combining grid stirring and turbidty current head shapes analyzed by means of advanced image analysis, sediment vertical fluxes and settling speeds can be measured [4,5]. [1] D. Hernandez Turbulent structure of turbidity currents and sediment transport Ms Thesis ETSECCPB, UPC. Barcelona 2009. [2] A. Sánchez-Arcilla; A. Rodríguez; J.C. Santás; J.M. Redondo; V. Gracia; R. K'Osyan; S. Kuznetsov; C. Mösso. Delta'96 Surf-zone and nearshore measurements at the Ebro Delta. A: International Conference on Coastal Research through large Scale Experiments (Coastal Dynamics '97). University of Plymouth, 1997, p. 186-187. [3] P. Medina, M. A. Sánchez and J. M. Redondo. Grid stirred turbulence: applications to the initiation of sediment motion and lift-off studies Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Part B: Hydrology, Oceans and Atmosphere. 26, Issue 4, 2001, Pages 299-304 [4] M.O. Bezerra, M. Diez, C. Medeiros, A. Rodriguez, E. Bahia., A. Sanchez-Arcilla and J.M. Redondo. Study on the influence of waves on

  2. Deferred Taxes on Operations With the Capital: Acceptance and Accounting Отсроченные налоги по операциям с капиталом: признание, учет и отражение в отчетности

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geyer Eleonora S.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses requirements of the national standards of accounting and international standards of fiscal accounting in application of the mechanism of deferred taxes that ensures reflection of the current and future tax consequences of economic operations of a company and envisages provision of information about deferred taxes in financial reports. It justifies that accounting of tax consequences of operations and other events should be carried out in the same manner as the accounting of the operations and events is carried out. It identifies possible methods of reflection of deferred taxes: in profits (losses, in other aggregate profit, in own capital items and in goodwill. It considers approaches to acceptance of deferred taxes by operations, which are reflected by items of the capital on the example of re-evaluation of fixed assets. It formulates directions of improvement of the legislation and provides recommendations on accounting of deferred taxes in the moment of re-evaluation of the objects of fixed assets and also gradual transferral of the sum of increase in the value of fixed assets to the undistributed profit and writing-off the deferred tax liability, realisation of which would allow increase the quality of fiscal accounting.В статье проанализированы требования национальных положений (стандартов бухгалтерского учета и международных стандартов финансовой отчетности по применению механизма отсроченных налогов, обеспечивающего отражение текущих и будущих налоговых последствий хозяйственных операций предприятия, предусматривающего представление в финансовой отчетности информации об отсроченных

  3. Stochastic longshore current dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Juan M.; Venkataramani, Shankar

    2016-12-01

    We develop a stochastic parametrization, based on a 'simple' deterministic model for the dynamics of steady longshore currents, that produces ensembles that are statistically consistent with field observations of these currents. Unlike deterministic models, stochastic parameterization incorporates randomness and hence can only match the observations in a statistical sense. Unlike statistical emulators, in which the model is tuned to the statistical structure of the observation, stochastic parametrization are not directly tuned to match the statistics of the observations. Rather, stochastic parameterization combines deterministic, i.e physics based models with stochastic models for the "missing physics" to create hybrid models, that are stochastic, but yet can be used for making predictions, especially in the context of data assimilation. We introduce a novel measure of the utility of stochastic models of complex processes, that we call consistency of sensitivity. A model with poor consistency of sensitivity requires a great deal of tuning of parameters and has a very narrow range of realistic parameters leading to outcomes consistent with a reasonable spectrum of physical outcomes. We apply this metric to our stochastic parametrization and show that, the loss of certainty inherent in model due to its stochastic nature is offset by the model's resulting consistency of sensitivity. In particular, the stochastic model still retains the forward sensitivity of the deterministic model and hence respects important structural/physical constraints, yet has a broader range of parameters capable of producing outcomes consistent with the field data used in evaluating the model. This leads to an expanded range of model applicability. We show, in the context of data assimilation, the stochastic parametrization of longshore currents achieves good results in capturing the statistics of observation that were not used in tuning the model.

  4. The Weak Neutral Current

    CERN Document Server

    Erler, Jens

    2013-01-01

    This is a review of electroweak precision physics with particular emphasis on low-energy precision measurements in the neutral current sector of the electroweak theory and includes future experimental prospects and the theoretical challenges one faces to interpret these observables. Within the minimal Standard Model they serve as determinations of the weak mixing angle which are competitive with and complementary to those obtained near the Z-resonance. In the context of new physics beyond the Standard Model these measurements are crucial to discriminate between models and to reduce the allowed parameter space within a given model. We illustrate this for the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model with or without R-parity.

  5. ONLINE PUBLISHING CURRENT SCENARIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasubramanian Thiagarajan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to unravel the current scenario in online publishing. Advent of internet has brought with it tremendous changes in the publishing industry. What was hither to an industry dominated by publisher has been thrown open to one and sundry. Online publishing has brought with it a reach which was hitherto never been imagined. In the normal course it would take at least a year to publish a manuscript. Online publishing has managed to bring this time down to a few weeks / at most a month. This article attempts to discusses the positives and perils of online publishing scenario.

  6. SBC Dark Current Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogaz, Sara

    2013-10-01

    This takes a series of SBC dark measurements over a continuous period of about 6 hours {4 orbits}. The aim is to collect dark images during an extended SBC on-time. Earlier measurements indicate that the dark current increases with SBC on-time and may also be increasing with overall SBC use. The 6-hour time matches the longest time used by any observer. As with all SBC observations this needs continuous SAA free time.This program is executed once per cycle. The last exposures were taken in Mar 2013 under Program 13161.

  7. Current Conveyor Equivalent Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejmal S. Rathore

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An equivalence between a class of (current conveyor CC II+ and CC II- circuits is established. CC IIequivalent circuit uses one extra element. However, under certain condition, the extra element can be eliminated. As an illustration of the application of this equivalence, minimal first and second order all-pass filters are derived. Incertain cases, it is possible to compensate the effect of the input resistor of CC at port X. At the end, an open problem of realizing an Nth order (N > 2 minimal all-pass filter is stated.

  8. Light Cone Current Algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Fritzsch, Harald

    2003-01-01

    This talk follows by a few months a talk by the same authors on nearly the same subject at the Coral Gables Conference. The ideas presented here are basically the same, but with some amplification, some change of viewpoint, and a number of new questions for the future. For our own convenience, we have transcribed the Coral Gables paper, but with an added ninth section, entitled "Problems of light cone current algebra", dealing with our present views and emphasizing research topics that require study.

  9. Generalized Quantum Current Algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Liu

    2001-01-01

    Two general families of new quantum-deformed current algebras are proposed and identified both as infinite Hopf family of algebras, a structure which enables one to define "tensor products" of these algebras. The standard quantum affine algebras turn out to be a very special case of the two algebra families, in which case the infinite Hopf family structure degenerates into a standard Hopf algebra. The relationship between the two algebraic families as well as thefr various special examples are discussed, and the free boson representation is also considered.

  10. Saturn's Other Ring Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crary, F. J.

    2014-04-01

    Saturn's main rings orbit the planet within an atmosphere and ionosphere of water, oxygen and hydrogen, produced by meteoritic impacts on and ultraviolet photodesorbtion of the ring particles [Johnson et al., 2006; Luhmann et al., 2006; Tseng et al., 2010]. The neutral atmosphere itself has only been tentatively detected through ultraviolet fluorescents of OH [Hall et al., 1996] while the ionosphere was observed in situ by the Cassini spacecraft shortly after orbital insertion [Coates et al.,2005; Tokar et al. 2005, Waite et al. 2005]. Although the plasma flow velocity of this ionosphere is not well-constrained, but the close association with the rings suggests that its speed would be couppled to the keplarian velocity of the rings themselves. As a result, the motion of the plasma through Saturn's magnetic field would produce an induced voltage, oriented away from the planet outside synchronous orbit and towards the planet inside synchronous orbit. Such a potential could result in currents flowing across the ring plane and closeing along magnetic field lines and through Saturn's ionosphere at latitudes between 36o and 48o. Cassini observations of whistler-mode plasma wave emissions [Xin et al.,2006] centered on synchronous orbit (1.76 Rs, mapping to 41o latitude) have been interpreted as a product of field-aligned electron beams associated with such a current. This presentation will investigate the magnitude of these currents and the resulting Joule heating of the ionosphere. An important constraint is that no auroral ultraviolet emissions have been observed at the relevant latitudes. In contrast, Joule heating could affect infrared emissions from H3+. Variations in H3+ emission associated with Saturn's rings have been reported by O'Donoghue et al., 2013, and interpreted as a result of ring "rain", i.e. precipitating water group species from the rings which alter ionosphereic chemistry and H3+ densities. As noted by O'Donoghue et al., this interpretation may be

  11. BLOCKING ALGORITHM FOR CURRENT PROTECTION DURING INRUSH MAGNETIZATION CURRENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Romaniuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents blocking algorithm for current protection during inrush process. The algorithm is based on the evaluation of the ratio of the positive sequence second harmonic current to the negative sequence first harmonic current.

  12. Influence of Current Transformer Saturation on Operation of Current Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Romaniouk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the influence of instrument current transformer errors on operation of current protection of power supply diagram elements has been carried out in the paper. The paper shows the influence of an aperiodic component of transient current and secondary load on current  transformer errors.Peculiar operational features of measuring elements of electromechanical and microprocessor current protection with their joint operation with electromagnetic current transformers have been analyzed in the paper.

  13. Swine brucellosis: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olsen SC

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available SC Olsen, FM Tatum Infectious Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Ames, IA, USA Abstract: Brucella suis is a significant zoonotic species that is present in domestic livestock and wildlife in many countries worldwide. Transmission from animal reservoirs is the source of human infection as human-to-human transmission is very rare. Although swine brucellosis causes economic losses in domestic livestock, preventing human infection is the primary reason for its emphasis in disease control programs. Although disease prevalence varies worldwide, in areas outside of Europe, swine brucellosis is predominantly caused by B. suis biovars 1 and 3. In Europe, swine are predominantly infected with biovar 2 which is much less pathogenic in humans. In many areas worldwide, feral or wild populations of swine are important reservoir hosts. Like other Brucella spp. in their natural host, B. suis has developed mechanisms to survive in an intracellular environment and evade immune detection. Limitations in sensitivity and specificity of current diagnostics require use at a herd level, rather for individual animals. There is currently no commercial vaccine approved for preventing brucellosis in swine. Although not feasible in all situations, whole-herd depopulation is the most effective regulatory mechanism to control swine brucellosis. Keywords: livestock, transmission, pathogenicity, vaccine, host, infection

  14. Current Ebola vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenen, Thomas; Groseth, Allison; Feldmann, Heinz

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Ebolaviruses cause severe viral hemorrhagic fever in humans and non-human primates, with case fatality rates of up to 90%. Currently, neither a specific treatment nor a vaccine licensed for use in humans is available. However, a number of vaccine candidates have been developed in the last decade that are highly protective in non-human primates, the gold standard animal model for Ebola hemorrhagic fever. Areas covered This review analyzes a number of scenarios for the use of ebolavirus vaccines, discusses the requirements for ebolavirus vaccines in these scenarios, and describes current ebolavirus vaccines. Among these vaccines are recombinant Adenoviruses, recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis viruses, recombinant Human Parainfluenza viruses and virus-like particles. Interestingly, one of these vaccine platforms, based on recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis viruses, has also demonstrated post-exposure protection in non-human primates. Expert opinion The most pressing remaining challenge is now to move these vaccine candidates forward into human trials and towards licensure. In order to achieve this, it will be necessary to establish the mechanisms and correlates of protection for these vaccines, and to continue to demonstrate their safety, particularly in potentially immunocompromised populations. However, already now there is sufficient evidence that, from a scientific perspective, a vaccine protective against ebolaviruses is possible. PMID:22559078

  15. Non-inductive current drive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, E.

    2012-01-01

    This lecture addresses the various ways of non-inductive current generation. In particular, the topics covered include the bootstrap current, RF current drive, neutral beam current drive, alternative methods, and possible synergies between different ways of non-inductive current generation.

  16. NON-INDUCTIVE CURRENT DRIVE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, E.

    2010-01-01

    This lecture addresses the various ways of non-inductive current generation. In particular, the topics covered include the bootstrap current, RF current drive, neutral beam current drive, alternative methods, and possible synergies between different ways of non-inductive current generation.

  17. Budgeting as a method of management of nonoperational income and expenditures of the enterprises Бюджетирование как метод управления неоперационными доходами и расходами предприятий

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trided Aleksandr N.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article offers a technique of management of income and expenditures that are not connected with the main activity of the enterprises on the basis of budgeting. Expediency of applying functional and cost analysis for assessment of the impact of conjuncture factors on the change of financial state of the enterprise under the influence of nonoperational income and expenditures is justified.В статье предложена методика управления доходами и расходами, не связанными с основной деятельностью предприятий, на основе бюджетирования. обоснована целесообразность применения функционально-стоимостного анализа для оценки влияния конъюнктурных факторов на изменение финансового состояния под воздействием неоперационных доходов и расходов.

  18. Current Opinions on Tendinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaux, Jean-François; Forthomme, Bénédicte; Goff, Caroline Le; Crielaard, Jean-Michel; Croisier, Jean-Louis

    2011-01-01

    Tendinopathy is characterized by pain in the tendon and impaired performance sometimes associated with swelling of the tendon. Its diagnosis is usually clinical but ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging can refine the diagnosis. Tendinopathy is highly prevalent and is one of the most frequently self reported musculoskeletal diseases in physical workers and sports people. Nevertheless, it is very difficult to carry out general epidemiologic studies on tendinopathy because of the varying sports cultures and sports habits in different countries. The aetiology of tendinopathy seems to be multi-factorial, involving intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The role of inflammation is still debated but the absence of inflammatory cells does not mean that inflammatory mediators are not implicated. Different theories have been advanced to explain pain and chronicity mechanisms, but these mechanisms remain largely unknown. “Conventional ”treatments are generally employed empirically to fight pain and inflammation but they do not modify the histological structure of the tendon. However, these treatments are not completely satisfactory and the recurrence of symptoms is common. Currently, eccentric training remains the treatment of choice for tendinopathy, even though some studies are contradictory. Moreover, many interesting new treatments are now being developed to treat tendinopathy, but there is little evidence to support their use in clinical practice. Key points The word “tendinopathy ”is the correct term for the clinical diagnosis of pain accompanied by impaired performance, and sometimes swelling in the tendon. The aetiology of tendinopathy seems to be a multi-factorial process, involving promoting factors that are intrinsic or extrinsic, working either alone or in combination. US (with color Doppler) and MRI are usually prescribed when tendinopathy is unresponsive to treatment and entails lingering symptoms. Eccentric training is currently considered to be the

  19. Treatment of a giant congenital melanocytic nevus in the adult: review of the current management of giant congenital melanocytic nevus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jeannie J; Chang, Daniel K; Mailey, Brian; Gosman, Amanda

    2015-05-01

    Giant congenital melanocytic nevi (GCMNs) create cosmetic disfigurements and pose risk for malignant transformation. Adult GCMN cases are uncommon because most families opt for surgical treatment during childhood. We review the current literature on GCMN and present an interesting case of an adult with a GCMN encompassing the entire back with painful nodules exhibiting gross involvement of his back musculature, without pathologic evidence of malignancy. Surgical management was deferred in childhood because of parental desires to allow the patient to make his own decision, and treatment in adulthood was pursued on the basis of the significant impairment of the patient's quality of life and self-esteem due to the massive size and deforming nature of the nevus. The treatment strategy used for this young adult male patient involved a massive en bloc excision of the GCMN with partial resection of the latissimus dorsi, followed by a 5-week staged reconstructive process using dermal regenerative matrices and split-thickness skin grafting. Because of the shift in GCMN management from early surgical management to more conservative management, we may see an increase in adult cases of GCMN. Thus, it is critical to better understand the controversy surrounding early versus delayed management of GCMN.

  20. Brain abscess: Current management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvis Miranda, Hernando; Castellar-Leones, Sandra Milena; Elzain, Mohammed Awad; Moscote-Salazar, Luis Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Brain abscess (BA) is defined as a focal infection within the brain parenchyma, which starts as a localized area of cerebritis, which is subsequently converted into a collection of pus within a well-vascularized capsule. BA must be differentiated from parameningeal infections, including epidural abscess and subdural empyema. The BA is a challenge for the neurosurgeon because it is needed good clinical, pharmacological, and surgical skills for providing good clinical outcomes and prognosis to BA patients. Considered an infrequent brain infection, BA could be a devastator entity that easily left the patient into dead. The aim of this work is to review the current concepts regarding epidemiology, pathophysiology, etiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of BA. PMID:24174804

  1. Current Automotive Holometry Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchi, Mitchell M.; Snyder, D. S.

    1990-04-01

    Holometry studies of automotive body and powertrain components have become a very useful high resolution test methodology to knowledgeable Ford engineering personnel. Current examples of studies that represent the static or dynamic operational conditions of the automotive test component are presented. Continuous wave laser holometry, computer aided holometry (CAH) and pulsed laser holometry were the holometric techniques used to study the following subjects: (1) body in prime (BIP) vibration modes, (2) transmission flexplate stud-torque converter deformation due to engine torque pulses, (3) engine cylinder head and camshaft support structure deformation due to cylinder pressure and (4) engine connecting rod/cap lift-off. Static and dynamic component loading and laboratory techniques required to produce usable and valid test results are discussed along with possible conclusions for the engineering concerns.

  2. Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma: Current therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei; Zhang; Lu-Nan; Yan

    2014-01-01

    Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma, which is a rare primary malignancy, originates from the epithelial cells of the bile duct. Usually invading the periductal tissues and the lymph nodes, perihilar cholangiocarcinoma is commonly diagnosed in the advanced stage of the disease and has a dismal prognosis. Currently, complete hepatectomy is the primary therapy for curing this disease. Perioperative assessment and available surgical procedures can be considered for achieving a negative margin resection, which is associated with long-term survival and better quality of life. For patients with unresectable cholangiocarcinoma, several palliative treatments have been demonstrated to produce a better outcome; and liver transplantation for selected patients with perihilar cholangiocarcinoma is promising and desirable. However, the role of palliative treatments and liver transplantation was controversial and requires more evidence and substantial validity from multiple institutions. In this article, we summarize the data from multiple institutions and discuss the resectability, mortality, morbidity and outcome with different approaches.

  3. Brain abscess: Current management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernando Alvis-Miranda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain abscess (BA is defined as a focal infection within the brain parenchyma, which starts as a localized area of cerebritis, which is subsequently converted into a collection of pus within a well-vascularized capsule. BA must be differentiated from parameningeal infections, including epidural abscess and subdural empyema. The BA is a challenge for the neurosurgeon because it is needed good clinical, pharmacological, and surgical skills for providing good clinical outcomes and prognosis to BA patients. Considered an infrequent brain infection, BA could be a devastator entity that easily left the patient into dead. The aim of this work is to review the current concepts regarding epidemiology, pathophysiology, etiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of BA.

  4. Misophonia: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavanna AE

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Andrea E Cavanna,1–3 Stefano Seri3,4 1Department of Neuropsychiatry, Birmingham and Solihull Mental Health NHS Foundation Trust and University of Birmingham, Birmingham, 2Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders, Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, 3School of Life and Health Sciences, Aston Brain Centre, Wellcome Trust Laboratory for MEG Studies, Aston University, 4Children’s Epilepsy Surgery Programme, The Birmingham Children’s Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, UK Abstract: Misophonia is characterized by a negative reaction to a sound with a specific pattern and meaning to a given individual. In this paper, we review the clinical features of this relatively common yet underinvestigated condition, with focus on co-occurring neurodevelopmental disorders. Currently available data on the putative pathophysiology of the condition can inform our understanding and guide the diagnostic process and treatment approach. Tinnitus retraining therapy and cognitive behavior therapy have been proposed as the most effective treatment strategies for reducing symptoms; however, current treatment algorithms should be validated in large population studies. At the present stage, competing paradigms see misophonia as a physiological state potentially inducible in any subject, an idiopathic condition (which can present with comorbid psychiatric disorders, or a symptomatic manifestation of an underlying psychiatric disorder. Agreement on the use of standardized diagnostic criteria would be an important step forward in terms of both clinical practice and scientific inquiry. Areas for future research include phenomenology, epidemiology, modulating factors, neurophysiological underpinnings, and treatment trials. Keywords: misophonia, selective sound sensitivity syndrome, hyperacusis, neurodevelopmental disorders, Tourette syndrome, obsessive-compulsive spectrum

  5. Extreme geomagnetically induced currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Ryuho; Ngwira, Chigomezyo

    2016-12-01

    We propose an emergency alert framework for geomagnetically induced currents (GICs), based on the empirically extreme values and theoretical upper limits of the solar wind parameters and of d B/d t, the time derivative of magnetic field variations at ground. We expect this framework to be useful for preparing against extreme events. Our analysis is based on a review of various papers, including those presented during Extreme Space Weather Workshops held in Japan in 2011, 2012, 2013, and 2014. Large-amplitude d B/d t values are the major cause of hazards associated with three different types of GICs: (1) slow d B/d t with ring current evolution (RC-type), (2) fast d B/d t associated with auroral electrojet activity (AE-type), and (3) transient d B/d t of sudden commencements (SC-type). We set "caution," "warning," and "emergency" alert levels during the main phase of superstorms with the peak Dst index of less than -300 nT (once per 10 years), -600 nT (once per 60 years), or -900 nT (once per 100 years), respectively. The extreme d B/d t values of the AE-type GICs are 2000, 4000, and 6000 nT/min at caution, warning, and emergency levels, respectively. For the SC-type GICs, a "transient alert" is also proposed for d B/d t values of 40 nT/s at low latitudes and 110 nT/s at high latitudes, especially when the solar energetic particle flux is unusually high.

  6. Ocular tuberculosis: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakarchi FI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Faiz I Shakarchi1,21Ibn Al-Haetham Teaching Eye Hospital, 2Department of Opthalmology, Medical College, Al-Mustansiriya University, Baghdad, IraqAbstract: The World Health Organization currently estimates that nearly two billion people, or one-third of the world’s population, are infected by tuberculosis, and that roughly 10% of the infected people are symptomatic. Tuberculosis affects the lungs in 80% of patients, while in the remaining 20% the disease may affect other organs, including the eye. Uveitis can be seen concurrently with tuberculosis, but a direct association is difficult to prove. Ocular tuberculosis is usually not associated with clinical evidence of pulmonary tuberculosis, as up to 60% of extrapulmonary tuberculosis patients may not have pulmonary disease. The diagnosis of tuberculous uveitis is often problematic and in nearly all reported cases, the diagnosis was only presumptive. Tuberculous uveitis is a great mimicker of various uveitis entities and it can be considered in the differential diagnosis of any type of intraocular inflammation. It is still unknown if ocular manifestations result from a direct mycobacterium infection or hypersensitivity reaction and this is reflected on the management of tuberculous uveitis. Prevalence of tuberculosis as an etiology of uveitis may reach up to 10% in endemic areas. Tuberculous uveitis is a vision-threatening disease that inevitably leads to blindness if not properly diagnosed and treated. The aim of this review is to illustrate the various clinical features and management of presumed tuberculous uveitis. The current review focuses on the diagnostic criteria, significance of tuberculin skin test, and use of systemic corticosteroids in the management of tuberculous uveitis as recommended in recent publications.Keywords: tuberculosis, uveitis, choroiditis, tuberculin skin test

  7. 14 CFR Section 14 - Objective Classification-Nonoperating Income and Expense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... 81Interest on Long-term Debt and Capital Leases. (a) Record here interest expense applicable to long-term... expense—capital leases. Record here for all capitalized leases, that portion of each lease payment which... property. Record here gains or losses on retirements of operating property and equipment, flight equipment...

  8. Fusion of Landsat TM and ground spectrometry data in monitoring of non-operating mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisova, Denitsa; Nikolov, Hristo N.

    2009-09-01

    Surface mining activities in Europe are estimated to cover an area of 5-10 000 km2. In this paper we suggest that the availability of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) for Earth observation allows the collection of environmental and minerelated data for use in the planning and undertaking of mine restoration work on cost-effective basis. The advantage is that these data are acquired digitally and can be easily processed and utilized in various information formats. Important step in the data processing is the verification of airborne data. For this purpose ground spectrometry measurements of samples taken from test sites have been performed. In the last decade several mining areas and corresponding dumps are subject to reclamation process in Bulgaria. We focused our research on one of the most important in the copper production for 20 year period for our country - Asarel-Medet deposit. This mining complex consists of an open mine, the dumps and a processing plant. After ceasing the exploitation of Medet deposit in 1994 a rehabilitation program for soil cover and hydrographic network was established and launched. A continuous task is the monitoring of these activities from the beginning for at least 15 years period, which is to end this year. To process the data, which characterize the progress of the land cover restoration, several techniques, both standard, such as basic and advanced statistics, image enhancement and data fusion, and novel methods for supervised classification were used. The results obtained show that used data and the implemented approach are useful in environmental monitoring and are economically attractive for the company responsible for the ecological state of the region.

  9. Is the DHEAS/cortisol ratio a potential filter for non-operable constipated cases?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AM; El-Tawil

    2010-01-01

    Constipation is a significant manifestation of a number of psychological disorders.Published papers recommend using self-assessment questionnaires for discriminating psychological from non-psychological constipated patients before operating on them but reports from major surveys revealed that general practitioners failed to diagnose 70%of depressed patients using self-assessment questionnaires.Lower circulating concentrations of progesterone,17-hydroxyprogesterone,cortisol,testosterone,androstenedione,and d...

  10. An assessment of the overlap between morale and work engagement in a nonoperational military sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, Gary W; Blanc, J-R Sébastien; Mantler, Janet

    2015-07-01

    The degree of overlap between two positive motivational constructs-morale and work engagement-was assessed in a random sample of Canadian Armed Forces personnel stationed across Canada (N = 1,224). Based on self-determination theory and past research, job-specific self-efficacy, trust in teammates, and job significance were expected to be associated with morale and work engagement. Structural equation modeling analyses revealed that morale and work engagement were highly positively correlated, but had different patterns of association with predictor and outcome variables. Although trust in teammates and job significance predicted both morale and work engagement, job-specific self-efficacy predicted morale but not work engagement. Willingness to deploy on operations, turnover intentions, and psychological distress were predicted by both morale and work engagement, but morale was a better predictor of psychological distress and work engagement was a stronger predictor of turnover intentions. Together, the results suggest that, despite their overlap, morale and work engagement, as defined and measured herein, are not interchangeable.

  11. Osteomyelitis: a current challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Souza Jorge

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 30 years, the pathogenesis of osteomyelitis has almost been totally elucidated, and many factors responsible for the persistence of this infection have been identified. Numerous antimicrobial agents with distinct spectrums of action, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics have been used in its treatment. Surgical techniques, including muscle grafts, the Ilizarov technique, and antibiotic bone cements, have been applied. However, bone infections are still a challenge. Despite the importance of isolation and identification of microorganisms to determine the antimicrobial treatment of bone infections, there are few systematic national studies about the etiological profile of these diseases. This article describes the current knowledge of osteomyelitis and summarizes published national data based on the experience of different Orthopedic and Traumatology Services. In general, S. aureus was described as an important etiological agent; however, the difference in design of national studies makes a comparison between the prevalence of bone infection, the associated risk factors, and the different therapeutic approaches difficult. In conclusion, effort is necessary in order to stimulate systematic national studies in different Orthopedics and Traumatology Services to obtain a better consensus on preventive measures and therapies of bone infections.

  12. Chronic prostatitis: Current concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Vaidyanathan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Chronic prostatitis (CP is a common condition. It causes significant suffering to the patients and constitutes a sizeable workload for the urologists. The purpose of this review is to describe the currently accepted concepts regarding the aspects of CP. Materials and Methods: Relevant papers on the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis, evaluation and management of CP were identified through a search of MEDLINE using text terms "prostatitis", "chronic prostatitis" and "chronic pelvic pain syndrome". The list of articles thus obtained was supplemented by manual search of bibliographies of the identified articles and also by exploring the MEDLINE option "Related Articles". Results: The salient points of the relevant articles on each aspect of CP have been summarized in the form of a non-systematic narrative review. Conclusion: Chronic prostatitis is caused by a variety of infective and non-infective factors and is characterized by a rather long remitting and relapsing clinical course. The diagnosis is based on symptoms comprising pain and nonspecific urinary and/or ejaculatory disturbances and microbiological tests to localize bacteria and/or leucocytes in segmented urinary tract specimens. The contemporary classification was proposed by the National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Diabetes Digestive Kidney Diseases (NIH/NIDDK. National Institutes of Health - Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI is the patient evaluation tool used extensively in clinical practice and research. Management should be individualized, multimodal and of an appropriate duration.

  13. Sustainable winegrowing: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariani A

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Angela Mariani,1 Antonella Vastola2 1Department of Economic and Legal Studies, University Parthenope, Naples, 2School of Agricultural, Forestry, Food and Environmental Sciences, University of Basilicata, Potenza, Italy Abstract: The winegrowing sector worldwide is strongly committed to improving environmental and social sustainability. The aim of this work, based on a literature review, is to highlight current sustainability perspectives and the related main issues. There is a broad consensus that the challenge to achieve a greater spread of sustainable practices is to enhance environmental and social sustainability while maintaining economic viability. From the producers' point of view, the priority is to bridge the still substantial knowledge gaps in terms of perceived environmental benefits, economic benefits, and costs. Thus, an increased research effort focusing on the costs and benefits of different winegrowing practices and technical assistance with implementation might support their diffusion. Moreover, targeted marketing strategies are needed to: enhance consumers' involvement and their attitude toward sustainable wine; improve understanding and use of sustainable labels and claims; and raise awareness of some environmental credentials of wine packaging, mainly with reference to lightweight glass bottles. Keywords: winegrower, sustainability, wine, consumer, marketing strategies

  14. Bioartificial liver: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pless, G; Sauer, I M

    2005-11-01

    Liver failure remains a life-threatening syndrome. With the growing disparity between the number of suitable donor organs and the number of patients awaiting transplantation, efforts have been made to optimize the allocation of organs, to find alternatives to cadaveric liver transplantation, and to develop extracorporeal methods to support or replace the function of the failing organ. An extracorporeal liver support system has to provide the main functions of the liver: detoxification, synthesis, and regulation. The understanding that the critical issue of the clinical syndrome in liver failure is the accumulation of toxins not cleared by the failing liver led to the development of artificial filtration and adsorption devices (artificial liver support). Based on this hypothesis, the removal of lipophilic, albumin-bound substances, such as bilirubin, bile acids, metabolites of aromatic amino acids, medium-chain fatty acids, and cytokines, should be beneficial to the clinical course of a patient in liver failure. Artificial detoxification devices currently under clinical evaluation include the Molecular Adsorbent Recirculating System (MARS), Single-Pass Albumin Dialysis (SPAD), and the Prometheus system. The complex tasks of regulation and synthesis remain to be addressed by the use of liver cells (bioartificial liver support). The Extracorporeal Liver Assist Device (ELAD), HepatAssist, Modular Extracorporeal Liver Support system (MELS), and the Amsterdam Medical Center Bioartificial Liver (AMC-BAL) are bioartificial systems. This article gives a brief overview on these artificial and bioartificial devices and discusses remaining obstacles.

  15. Renal autotransplantation: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, B H; Banowsky, L H; Hewitt, C B; Straffon, R A

    1976-01-01

    Autotransplantation, with or without an extracorporeal renal operation, has been done 39 times in 37 patients. Indications for the procedure included severe ureteral injury in 4 patients, failed supravesical diversion in 2, renal carcinoma in a solitary kidney in 1, renovascular hypertension in 1 and donor arterial reconstruction before renal transplantation in 29. Success was obtained in all but 2 procedures, both of which involved previously operated kidneys with severe inflammation and adhesions involving the renal pelvis and pedicle. Based on our experience and a review of currently available literature we believe that renal autotransplantation and extracorporeal reconstruction can provide the best solution for patients with severe renovascular and ureteral disease not correctable by conventional operative techniques. The technique can be of particular value in removing centrally located tumors in solitary kidneys and in preparing donor kidneys with abnormal arteries for renal transplantation. The role of autotransplantation in the management of advanced renal trauma and calculus disease is less clear. A long-term comparison of patients treated by extracorporeal nephrolithotomy versus conventional lithotomy techniques will be necessary before a conclusion is reached in these disease categories.

  16. Umbilical metastases: current viewpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egidi Federico

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Umbilical metastases from a malignant neoplasm, also termed Sister Mary Joseph's nodule, are not commonly reported in the English literature, and they have usually been considered as a sign of a poor prognosis for the patient. The present article reports on the current view point on umbilical metastasis besides discussing the epidemiology, clinical presentation, pathophysiology and treatment. Method A search of Pubmed was carried out using the term 'umblic*' and 'metastases' or metastasis' revealed no references. Another search was made using the term "Sister Joseph's nodule" or sister Joseph nodule" that revealed 99 references. Of these there were 14 review articles, however when the search was limited to English language it yielded only 20 articles. Articles selected from these form the basis of this report along with cross references. Results The primary lesions usually arise from gastrointestinal or genitourinary tract malignancies and may be the presenting symptom or sign of a primary tumour in an unknown site. Conclusion A careful evaluation of all umbilical lesions, including an early biopsy if appropriate, is recommended. Recent studies suggest an aggressive surgical approach combined with chemotherapy for such patients may improve survival.

  17. [Current contact allergens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geier, J; Uter, W; Lessmann, H; Schnuch, A

    2011-10-01

    Ever-changing exposure to contact allergens, partly due to statutory directives (e.g. nickel, chromate, methyldibromo glutaronitrile) or recommendations from industrial associations (e.g. hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde), requires on-going epidemiologic surveillance of contact allergy. In this paper, the current state with special focus in fragrances and preservatives is described on the basis of data of the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK) of the year 2010. In 2010, 12,574 patients were patch tested in the dermatology departments belonging to the IVDK. Nickel is still the most frequent contact allergen. However the continuously improved EU nickel directive already has some beneficial effect; sensitization frequency in young women is dropping. In Germany, chromate-reduced cement has been in use now for several years, leading to a decline in chromate sensitization in brick-layers. Two fragrance mixes are part of the German baseline series; they are still relevant. The most important fragrances in these mixes still are oak moss absolute and hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde. However, in relation to these leading allergens, sensitization frequency to other fragrances contained in the mixes seems to be increasing. Among the preservatives, MCI/MI has not lost its importance as contact allergen, in contrast to MDBGN. Sources of MCI/MI sensitization obviously are increasingly found in occupational context. Methylisothiazolinone is a significant allergen in occupational settings, and less frequently in body care products.

  18. [Current management of epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizobuchi, Masahiro

    2013-09-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders. Global neurological knowledge is essential for differential diagnosis of epileptic syndromes due to the diversity of ictal semiology, causes and syndromes. Neurologists play an important role in planning the medical care for patients with epilepsy, as medication is the most fundamental therapeutic strategy. Some patients with early-onset epilepsy require joint care by pediatric neurologists, those with intractable epilepsy by neurosurgeons, and those with psychological comorbidity by psychiatrists, and neurologists should play a coordinating role. While there is a great need for neurologists to participate in epilepsy care, neurologists in Japan currently do not participate substantially in the epilepsy management system. It is necessary to train more neurologists who can provide epilepsy care and conduct basic and clinical research on epilepsy by providing continuous education on epilepsy for general neurologists as well as pre- and post-graduate medical students. Most of the patients who require long-term treatment experience many medical problems and social handicaps, such as adverse effects of medication, social stigma, educational disadvantages and difficulties in obtaining driver's license. To improve the quality of life of patients with epilepsy, it is desirable to build broad medical-social networks participated by patients, doctors, neurological nurses, psychologists, social workers, school teachers, managers of employment support facilities and care givers.

  19. Current trends in minilaparoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small Layne, Alyssa; Pinkard, Lauren; Shepherd, Jessica

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this review is to understand the current use of minilaparoscopy in the field and how minilaparoscopy compares with traditional laparoscopy in terms of operative times, complications, pain, and cosmesis. Although there are few randomized controlled trials comparing minilaparoscopy with traditional laparoscopy in gynecologic procedures, the results suggest that minilaparoscopy can be performed safely with improved cosmetic outcomes and similar complication rates and operating times. Postoperative pain may be decreased with minimizing incisions sizes. Recently, case reports and case series have been published demonstrating the use of minilaparoscopy across many subtypes of gynecologic surgery. Traditional laparoscopic surgery has become common practice in gynecology as it has been found to be a well tolerated procedure with improved outcomes and decreased morbidity when compared with laparotomy. Although minilaparoscopy has been used for over 2 decades, its role in gynecology is continuing to evolve. Minilaparoscopy is a growing surgical option in gynecology as we try to minimize the impact of surgery. Results of minilaparoscopy in gynecology mirror those found in urology and general surgery. Although research is limited, minilaparoscopy has proven to be a well tolerated alternative for gynecology.

  20. Geomagnetically Induced Currents: Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Denny M.; Ngwira, Chigomezyo M.

    2017-10-01

    The geospace, or the space environment near Earth, is constantly subjected to changes in the solar wind flow generated at the Sun. The study of this environment variability is called Space Weather. Examples of effects resulting from this variability are the occurrence of powerful solar disturbances, such as coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The impact of CMEs on the Earth's magnetosphere very often greatly perturbs the geomagnetic field causing the occurrence of geomagnetic storms. Such extremely variable geomagnetic fields trigger geomagnetic effects measurable not only in the geospace but also in the ionosphere, upper atmosphere, and on and in the ground. For example, during extreme cases, rapidly changing geomagnetic fields generate intense geomagnetically induced currents (GICs). Intense GICs can cause dramatic effects on man-made technological systems, such as damage to high-voltage power transmission transformers leading to interruption of power supply, and/or corrosion of oil and gas pipelines. These space weather effects can in turn lead to severe economic losses. In this paper, we supply the reader with theoretical concepts related to GICs as well as their general consequences. As an example, we discuss the GIC effects on a North American power grid located in mid-latitude regions during the 13-14 March 1989 extreme geomagnetic storm. That was the most extreme storm that occurred in the space era age.

  1. Psychosomatics: a current overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischbein, José Eduardo

    2011-02-01

    The term 'psychosomatic' has typically defined a series of illnesses in which somatic injury breaks out from psychic conflict not recognized as such. Currently, health is considered the only psychosomatic state of integration of mind and soma: an ideal state of integration. Somatic pathology is an effect of mind/body splitting. In the heterogeneous 'field of psychosomatics' interaction between psyche and soma ranges from classical psychosomatic illness to sporadic episodes in which the body has responded to an inability to process mental conflict. The author briefly reviews the development of psychoanalytic thought on psychosomatics in Argentina. He suggests the need to find appropriate conceptual tools to approach the mental structure underlying this pathology. He presents his ideas about the mental functioning of patients with somatization disorders. He introduces the concept of somatic event as a restitution phenomenon through which the subject attempts to re-establish self-integration and links with reality. He also offers some reflections on temporality and on changes in psychoanalytic technique with these patients. A clinical case illustrates his ideas.

  2. ALMA Pipeline: Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinnaga, H.; Humphreys, E.; Indebetouw, R.; Villard, E.; Kern, J.; Davis, L.; Miura, R. E.; Nakazato, T.; Sugimoto, K.; Kosugi, G.; Akiyama, E.; Muders, D.; Wyrowski, F.; Williams, S.; Lightfoot, J.; Kent, B.; Momjian, E.; Hunter, T.; ALMA Pipeline Team

    2015-12-01

    The ALMA Pipeline is the automated data reduction tool that runs on ALMA data. Current version of the ALMA pipeline produces science quality data products for standard interferometric observing modes up to calibration process. The ALMA Pipeline is comprised of (1) heuristics in the form of Python scripts that select the best processing parameters, and (2) contexts that are given for book-keeping purpose of data processes. The ALMA Pipeline produces a "weblog" that showcases detailed plots for users to judge how each step of calibration processes are treated. The ALMA Interferometric Pipeline was conditionally accepted in March 2014 by processing Cycle 0 and Cycle 1 data sets. From Cycle 2, ALMA Pipeline is used for ALMA data reduction and quality assurance for the projects whose observing modes are supported by the ALMA Pipeline. Pipeline tasks are available based on CASA version 4.2.2, and the first public pipeline release called CASA 4.2.2-pipe has been available since October 2014. One can reduce ALMA data both by CASA tasks as well as by pipeline tasks by using CASA version 4.2.2-pipe.

  3. Review of the current management of lower urinary tract injuries by the EAU Trauma Guidelines Panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumen, Nicolaas; Kuehhas, Franklin E; Djakovic, Nenad; Kitrey, Noam D; Serafetinidis, Efraim; Sharma, Davendra M; Summerton, Duncan J

    2015-05-01

    The most recent European Association of Urology (EAU) guidelines on urologic trauma were published in 2014. To present a summary of the 2014 version of the EAU guidelines on urologic trauma of the lower urinary tract with an emphasis on diagnosis and treatment. The EAU Trauma Panel reviewed the English-language literature via a Medline search for lower urinary tract injury (LUTI) up to November 2013. The focus was on newer publications and reviews, although older key references could be included. A full version of the guidelines is available in print (EAU Guidelines 2014 edition, ISBN/EAN 978-90-79754-65-6) and online (www.uroweb.org). Blunt trauma is the main cause of LUTI. The preferred diagnostic modality for bladder and urethral injury is cystography and urethrography, respectively. In the treatment of bladder injuries, it is important to distinguish between extra- and intraperitoneal ruptures. Treatment of male anterior urethral injuries depends on the cause (blunt vs penetrating vs penile-fracture-related injury). Blunt posterior urethral injuries can be corrected by immediate/early endoscopic realignment. If this is not possible, such injuries are managed by suprapubic urinary diversion and deferred (>3 mo) urethroplasty. Treatment of female urethral injuries depends on the location of the injury and is usually surgical. Correct treatment of LUTIs is important to minimise long-term urinary symptoms and sexual dysfunction. This review performed by the EAU trauma panel summarises the current management of LUTIs. Patients with trauma to the lower urinary tract benefit from accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment according to the nature and severity of their injury. Copyright © 2014 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. THE POTENTIAL FOR NEUTRINO PHYSICS AT MUON COLLIDERS AND DEDICATED HIGH CURRENT MUON STORAGE RINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BIGI,I.; BOLTON,T.; FORMAGGIO,J.; HARRIS,D.; MORFIN,J.; SPENTZOURIS,P.; YU,J.; KAYSER,B.; KING,B.J.; MCFARLAND,K.; PETROV,A.; SCHELLMAN,H.; VELASCO,M.; SHROCK,R.

    2000-05-11

    Conceptual design studies are underway for both muon colliders and high-current non-colliding muon storage rings that have the potential to become the first true neutrino factories. Muon decays in long straight sections of the storage rings would produce uniquely intense and precisely characterized two-component neutrino beams--muon neutrinos plus electron antineutrinos from negative muon decays and electron neutrinos plus muon antineutrinos from positive muons. This article presents a long-term overview of the prospects for these facilities to greatly extend the capabilities for accelerator-based neutrino physics studies for both high rate and long baseline neutrino experiments. As the first major physics topic, recent experimental results involving neutrino oscillations have motivated a vigorous design effort towards dedicated neutrino factories that would store muon beams of energies 50 GeV or below. These facilities hold the promise of neutrino oscillation experiments with baselines up to intercontinental distances and utilizing well understood beams that contain, for the first time, a substantial component of multi-GeV electron-flavored neutrinos. In deference to the active and fast-moving nature of neutrino oscillation studies, the discussion of long baseline physics at neutrino factories has been limited to a concise general overview of the relevant theory, detector technologies, beam properties, experimental goals and potential physics capabilities. The remainder of the article is devoted to the complementary high rate neutrino experiments that would study neutrino-nucleon and neutrino-electron scattering and would be performed at high performance detectors placed as close as is practical to the neutrino production straight section of muon storage rings in order to exploit beams with transverse dimensions as small as a few tens of centimeters.

  5. Theme: Staying Current--Horticulture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shry, Carroll L., Jr.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This theme issue on staying current in horticulture includes articles on sex equity in horticulture, Future Farmers of America, career opportunities in horticulture, staying current with your school district's needs, staying current in horticulture instruction, staying current with landscape trade associations, emphasizing the basics in vocational…

  6. Non-inductive current probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Christen Kjeldahl

    1977-01-01

    The current probe described is a low-cost, shunt resistor for monitoring current pulses in e.g., pulsed lasers. Rise time is......The current probe described is a low-cost, shunt resistor for monitoring current pulses in e.g., pulsed lasers. Rise time is...

  7. Fahr's disease: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai XY

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Xin You Tai, Amit BatlaUCL Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London, UKAbstract: Based on original descriptions of brain calcification by Theodor Fahr, brain calcification, and more specifically basal ganglia calcification, is referred to as Fahr's syndrome. Recent identification of genetic mutations has concerted the description of this erstwhile heterogeneous condition which we refer to here as Fahr's disease. Fahr's disease refers to idiopathic calcification of the basal ganglia without a secondary (non-genetic cause. Idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC is another term, which offers a more accurate description of this condition. Within the last 2 years, genetic mutations for IBGC have been described in SLC20A2, PDGFB, and PDGFRB. These findings broaden our understanding of the pathophysiology and encourage a search for specific treatment options in this rare but disabling condition. Clinically, parkinsonism, dystonia, and other movement disorders are the most common clinical features, but psychiatric features can predominate. Cases with confirmed genetic mutations reveal new clinical features linked with Fahr's disease, such as headaches. Computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging is usually the trigger for suspecting Fahr's disease and important for identifying the calcification pattern. Symmetric calcification of the globus pallidus, thalamus, and dentate nucleus is the most common pattern in IBGC, but other parts of the brain such as the cerebellum are involved. Treatment of Fahr's disease is currently limited and is largely symptomatic. A better understanding of this condition in light of genetic findings is important to improve the clinical diagnosis and develop specific treatment options.Keywords: Fahr's disease, basal ganglia calcification, parkinsonism, calcium

  8. Lead toxicity: Current concerns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyer, R.A. (Univ. of Western Ontario, London (Canada))

    1993-04-01

    Over the 20-year period since the first issue of Environmental Health Perspectives was published, there has been considerable progress in the understanding of the potential toxicity of exposure to lead. Many of these advances have been reviewed in published symposia, conferences, and review papers in EHP. This brief review identifies major advances as well as a number of current concerns that present opportunities for prevention and intervention strategies. The major scientific advance has been the demonstration that blood lead (PbB) levels of 10-15 micrograms/dL in newborn and very young infants result in cognitive and behavioral deficits. Further support for this observation is being obtained by prospective or longitudinal studies presently in progress. The mechanism(s) for the central nervous system effects of lead is unclear but involve lead interactions within calcium-mediated intracellular messenger systems and neurotransmission. Effects of low-level lead exposure on blood pressure, particularly in adult men, may be related to the effect of lead on calcium-mediated control of vascular smooth muscle contraction and on the renin-angiotensin system. Reproductive effects of lead have long been suspected, but low-level effects have not been well studied. Whether lead is a carcinogen or its association with renal adenocarcinoma is a consequence of cystic nephropathy is uncertain. Major risk factors for lead toxicity in children in the United States include nutrition, particularly deficiencies of essential metals, calcium, iron, and zinc, and housing and socioeconomic status. A goal for the year 2000 is to reduce prevalence of blood lead levels exceeding 15 micrograms/dL. 97 refs.

  9. Magnesium Diboride Current Leads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panek, John

    2010-01-01

    A recently discovered superconductor, magnesium diboride (MgB2), can be used to fabricate conducting leads used in cryogenic applications. Dis covered to be superconducting in 2001, MgB2 has the advantage of remaining superconducting at higher temperatures than the previously used material, NbTi. The purpose of these leads is to provide 2 A of electricity to motors located in a 1.3 K environment. The providing environment is a relatively warm 17 K. Requirements for these leads are to survive temperature fluctuations in the 5 K and 11 K heat sinks, and not conduct excessive heat into the 1.3 K environment. Test data showed that each lead in the assembly could conduct 5 A at 4 K, which, when scaled to 17 K, still provided more than the required 2 A. The lead assembly consists of 12 steelclad MgB2 wires, a tensioned Kevlar support, a thermal heat sink interface at 4 K, and base plates. The wires are soldered to heavy copper leads at the 17 K end, and to thin copper-clad NbTi leads at the 1.3 K end. The leads were designed, fabricated, and tested at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe - Institut foer Technische Physik before inclusion in Goddard's XRS (X-Ray Spectrometer) instrument onboard the Astro-E2 spacecraft. A key factor is that MgB2 remains superconducting up to 30 K, which means that it does not introduce joule heating as a resistive wire would. Because the required temperature ranges are 1.3-17 K, this provides a large margin of safety. Previous designs lost superconductivity at around 8 K. The disadvantage to MgB2 is that it is a brittle ceramic, and making thin wires from it is challenging. The solution was to encase the leads in thin steel tubes for strength. Previous designs were so brittle as to risk instrument survival. MgB2 leads can be used in any cryogenic application where small currents need to be conducted at below 30 K. Because previous designs would superconduct only at up to 8 K, this new design would be ideal for the 8-30 K range.

  10. Current Issues in Cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbour, J B [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester (United States)

    2007-02-07

    These colloquium proceedings will be valuable, the blurb says, for graduate students and researchers in cosmology and theoretical astrophysics. Specifically, the book 'looks at both the strengths and weaknesses of the current big bang model in explaining certain puzzling data' and gives a 'comprehensive coverage of the expanding field of cosmology'. The reality is rather different. Conference proceedings rarely compare in value with a solid monograph or good review articles, and Current Issues in Cosmology is no exception. The colloquium was convened by the two editors, who have both long harboured doubts about the big bang, and was held in Paris in June 2004. The proceedings contain 19 presented papers and relatively brief summary comments by four panel speakers. The questions and answers at the end of each talk and a general discussion at the end were recorded and transcribed but contain little of interest. The nature of the colloquium is indicated by panellist Francesco Bertola's comment: 'While in the 1950s it was possible to speak of rival theories in cosmology, now the big-bang picture has no strong rivals. This is confirmed by the fact that out of 1500 members of the IAU Division VIII (Galaxies and the Universe) only a dozen, although bright people, devote their time to the heterodox views.' This was largely a platform for them to give their views. At least half of the dozen, all the 'usual suspects', were present: Geoffery and Margaret Burbidge, Jayant Narlikar, Halton Arp, Chandra Wickramasinghe and, in spirit only but playing a role somewhat like the ghost of Hamlet's father, the late Fred Hoyle. Doubters presented 12 of the 19 papers. Orthodoxy should certainly be challenged and the sociology of science questioned, but I found two main problems with this book. The papers putting the orthodox view are too short, even perfunctory. The most that a serious graduate student would get out of them is a reference

  11. 78 FR 39984 - Guidance Regarding Deferred Discharge of Indebtedness Income of Corporations and Deferred...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... year of the discharge, enhancing its dividend paying capacity, and has recognized an economic cost in the year the OID accrues, decreasing its dividend paying capacity. Therefore, earnings and profits are... contribution of the debt instrument to capital, the complete forgiveness of the indebtedness by the holder of...

  12. Steering Multiple Reverse Current into Unidirectional Current in Deterministic Ratchets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦笃取; 罗晓曙; 覃英华

    2011-01-01

    Recent investigations have shown that with varying the amplitude of the external force, the deterministic ratchets exhibit multiple current reversals, which are undesirable in certain circumstances. To control the multiple reverse current to unidirectional current, an adaptive control law is presented inspired from the relation between multiple reversaJs current and the chaos-periodic/quasiperiodic transition of the transport velocity. The designed controller can stabilize the transport velocity of ratchets to steady state and suppress any chaos-periodic/quasiperiodic transition, namely, the stable transport in ratchets is achieved, which makes the current sign unchanged.

  13. Ozone - Current Air Quality Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    GO! Local Air Quality Conditions Zip Code: State : My Current Location Current AQI Forecast AQI Loop More Maps AQI: Good (0 - 50) ... credits available from CDC. Learn more more announcements Air Quality Basics Air Quality Index | Ozone | Particle Pollution | Smoke ...

  14. Drug Establishments Current Registration Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Establishments Current Registration Site (DECRS) is a database of current information submitted by drug firms to register establishments (facilities) which...

  15. Using Geometry To Sense Current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaughan, Adam N; Abebe, Nathnael S; Zhao, Qing-Yuan; Berggren, Karl K

    2016-12-14

    We describe a superconducting three-terminal device that uses a simple geometric effect known as current crowding to sense the flow of current and actuate a readout signal. The device consists of a "Y"-shaped current combiner, with two currents (sense and bias) entering separately through the top arms of the "Y", intersecting, and then exiting together through the bottom leg of the "Y". When current is added to or removed from one of the arms (e.g., the sense arm), the superconducting critical current in the other arm (i.e., the bias arm) is modulated. The current in the sense arm can thus be determined by measuring the critical current of the bias arm, or inversely, the sense current can be used to modulate the state of the bias arm. The dependence of the bias critical current on the sense current occurs due to the geometric current crowding effect, which causes the sense current to interact locally with the bias arm. Measurement of the critical current in the bias arm does not break the superconducting state of the sense arm or of the bottom leg, and thus, quantized currents trapped in a superconducting loop were able to be repeatedly measured without changing the state of the loop. Current crowding is a universal effect in nanoscale superconductors, and so this device has potential for applicability across a broad range of superconducting technologies and materials. More generally, any technology in which geometrically induced flow crowding exists in the presence of a strong nonlinearity might make use of this type of device.

  16. Active inrush-current limiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kichak, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    By stretching turn-on time from approximately 1 to 200 ms, effects of inrush current (and of associated large current spikes) and current rate of rise (dl/dt) are made potentially less severe. Limiter arrangement consists of time-variable impedance connected in series between input dc power source return and power circuit of converter.

  17. Flow tracing based on current

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡兴国; 曹海龙

    2001-01-01

    Analyses the flow tracing based on power flow, points out that the detachment of reactive power and active power is unrealiable and concludes that the current is the real basic of flow tracing,and proposes the new flow tracing model based on current, which devides the current into active current and reactive current, analyses the theory about the matrix to deal with the precision and realization of the flow tracing, and then proposes a new pricing model by fixed rate and marginal rate, which keeps not only economy information such as congestion cost in marginal cost based pricing, but also benefits to make both ends meet.

  18. HLS bunch current measurement system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Bunch current is an important parameter for studying the injection fill-pattern in the storage ring and the instability threshold of the bunch, and the bunch current monitor also is an indispensable tool for the top-up injection. A bunch current measurement (BCM) system has been developed to meet the needs of the upgrade project of Hefei Light Source (HLS). This paper presents the layout of the BCM system. The system based on a high-speed digital oscilloscope can be used to measure the bunch current and synchronous phase shift. To obtain the absolute value of bunch-by-bunch current, the calibration coefficient is measured and analyzed. Error analysis shows that the RMS of bunch current is less than 0.01 mA when bunch current is about 5 mA, which can meet project requirement.

  19. Stability analysis of direct current control in current source rectifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Dapeng; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    Current source rectifier with high switching frequency has a great potential for improving the power efficiency and power density in ac-dc power conversion. This paper analyzes the stability of direct current control based on the time delay effect. Small signal model including dynamic behaviors...... of dc link is developed to identify the control plants of grid ac current control and dc current control. Analysis on the poles and zeros under dq frame is carried out. Base on this model, it turns out that the phase lag caused by the time delay can stabilized the grid ac current control while reduces...... the stable region for dc current control. Simulation and experimental results are presented to validate the theoretical analysis....

  20. Produção anual e qualidade de pastagem de Brachiaria decumbens diferida e estratégias de adubação nitrogenada - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v33i3.10194 Annual production and quality of Brachiaria decumbens pastures deferred and strategies nitrogen fertilization - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v33i3.10194

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Deitos Fries

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produção de Brachiaria decumbens diferidos por períodos de 95 e 140 dias. Foram realizados dois ensaios experimentais (95 e 140 dias e em cada ensaio foram estudadas quatro estratégias de adubação no início e no final do verão (0-0, 100-0, 50-50, 0-100 kg há-1 de N, respectivamente, com quatro repetições. A maior (p -1 de N aplicados no início do verão (100-0, nos pastos diferidos com 95 dias. Entretanto, no outono, inverno e primavera, a estratégia de aplicação de 100 kg ha-1 de N no final do verão (0-100, proporcionou maiores (p -1 no final do verão é uma estratégia adequada para aumentar a produção de matéria seca para os pastos avaliados nos dois períodos de diferimento estudados, reduzindo a curva de sazonalidade da produção anual de forragem.The aim of this work was to evaluate the production of Brachiaria decumbens deferred for periods of 95 and 140 days. Two experimental trials (95 and 140 days were carried out and, in each one, four fertilization strategies were studied at the beginning and end of summer (0-0, 100-0, 50-50, 0-100 kg ha-1 of N, respectively, with four replications. The highest (p -1 of N applied in early summer (100-0, in pastures deferred for 95 days. However, in autumn, winter and spring, the application strategy of 100 kg ha-1 of N at end of summer (0-100 had greater (p -1 in late summer is an appropriate strategy to increase dry matter production for grasses in the two studied deferral periods, reducing the curve of seasonal annual forage production.

  1. Características estruturais de pastos de Brachiaria decumbens diferidos por 140 dias e estratégias de adubação nitrogenada=Structural characteristics of Brachiaria decumbens pastures deferred for 140 days and nitrogen fertilization strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisângela Oliveira Cardoso

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as características estruturais de pastos de Brachiaria decumbens diferidos por 140 dias, visando determinar a estratégia mais adequada de adubação nitrogenada. Foram estudadas quatro estratégias de adubação no início e no final do verão (0-0, 100-0, 50-50, 0-100 kg ha-1 de N, respectivamente, com quatro repetições. Para avaliação das densidades volumétricas, a forragem foi colhida em três estratos: estrato A- acima de 40 cm; B- 20-40 cm; e C- 0-20 cm do solo. O índice de tombamento foi menor (p The objective of this study was to evaluate the structural characteristics of Brachiaria decumbens pastures deferred for 140 days, in order to determine the most appropriate nitrogenous fertilization. Four fertilization strategies were studied at the beginning and end of summer (0-0, 100-0, 50-50, 0-100 kg ha-1 N, respectively, with four replications. For volumetric density evaluation, forage was harvested in three strata: stratum A- over 40 cm above the soil; B- 20-40 cm; and C- 0-20 cm above the soil. The falling index was lower (p < 0.05 for the fertilization strategy using 100 kg ha-1 N applied at the end of summer. In stratum B (between 20 and 40 cm above the soil, greater (p < 0.05 densities were observed for total forage, leaf blade and green stem using the fertilization strategy of 100 kg ha-1 N applied in early summer (100-0. Greater stem lengths (p < 0.05 were observed in pastures with fertilization strategy 0-100, followed by the 50-50 strategy. The strategies of applying 100 kg ha-1 at the end of summer, followed by the strategy of 50 kg ha-1 nitrogen partitioned in the beginning and end of summer, have a positive influence on the structural characteristics in pastures deferred for 140 days.

  2. Excessive Deference to Statutory Provisions and Professional Practice in Chinese Law-- The Case of "Liability for Medical Damage".%论我国立法和司法对法定外在标准的过度依赖——以我国医疗损害责任鉴定与诉讼实践为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵西巨

    2012-01-01

    There is a tendency in Chinese law to excessively defer to statutory provisions, professional practice and clinical guidelines when examining key tort issues. External standards are used as substitutes for legal standards. For example, in establishing medical negligence, courts usually pay excessive deference to professional guidelines and fail to cite and apply the legal standards, such as the theory of breach of the duty of care and the "reasonable doctor" standard. Chinese law needs to pay more attention to construction, improvement and application of legal principles and rules, and provide judges with more detailed guidance. Statutory provisions, professional practice and clinical guidelines are very importam evidence in tort law, but they are not conclusive in establishing negligence.%我国法中存在着在侵权法问题的判定上过度依赖“法律法规”、“行业标准”和“诊疗规范”的倾向。这些“外在”标准替代了法官对法律“内在”规则的审视和适用。行业标准替代了法律标准。比如.在医疗过失判定标准上,法官过度依赖“诊疗规范”,忽视了基本法律标准——注意义务违反说和“合理医生”标准——的探寻和适用。我国法应纠正此种现象,注意对法律规则.比如医疗过失和因果关系判定规则的细心构建,以给法官具体指导。“法律法规”、“行业标准”和“诊疗规范”在侵权法中是判定过失的重要标准.但不是终局性和根本性标准。

  3. 从学术纠纷案看司法的“学术尊重”--基于话语分析的方法%A Study of Judicial Academic Deference from the Perspective of an Academic Dispute Case:A Discourse Analysis Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高益民; 张奂奂; 刘志朋

    2016-01-01

    美国司法界在处理“法庭上的高校”争议的历史中,发展出了“学术尊重”原则,据此对高校的学术自由提供保障。而在实际的司法审查中,“学术尊重”原则却不断遭受质疑,司法机关常常陷入两难困境:如何平衡学术自由权利在高校作为高等教育组织机构和教师个体之间的关系。本文从话语分析的角度对近年来引起美国社会关注的一例学术纠纷案进行深入的文本分析,从而帮助辨识法院在处理上述关系时的态度立场和价值取向,准确把握学术尊重、学术自由和大学自治三者的关系和意涵。%American courts established the doctrine of academic deference in dealing with disputes related to universities to guarantee the academic autonomy of universities .However ,in practical judicial reviews ,this doctrine has been questioned constantly and left judicial authority to fall into a dilemma :How academic freedom as a connection relating educational institutions and individual teachers could be balanced at universities .This paper ,based on the approach of discourse analysis ,elaborates a recent case of an academic dispute w hich drew with drawing the American society ’s attention .Readers will be benefitted to distinguish the attitude and value of the courts w hen handling above issues and to understand the substantive meaning of academic deference ,uni‐versity autonomy and academic freedom in a more precise way .

  4. Características estruturais de pastos de Brachiaria decumbens diferidos por 140 dias e estratégias de adubação nitrogenada - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v33i4.10212 Structural characteristics of Brachiaria decumbens pastures deferred for 140 days and nitrogen fertilization strategies - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v33i4.10212

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle Caroline Fernandes Martins

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as características estruturais de pastos de Brachiaria decumbens diferidos por 140 dias, visando determinar a estratégia mais adequada de adubação nitrogenada. Foram estudadas quatro estratégias de adubação no início e no final do verão (0-0, 100-0, 50-50, 0-100 kg ha-1 de N, respectivamente, com quatro repetições. Para avaliação das densidades volumétricas, a forragem foi colhida em três estratos: estrato A- acima de 40 cm; B- 20-40 cm; e C- 0-20 cm do solo. O índice de tombamento foi menor (p -1 de N aplicados no final do verão. No estrato B foram observadas maiores (p -1 de N aplicados no início do verão (100-0. Maiores comprimentos de colmos (p -1 no final do verão, seguida da estratégia de 50 kg ha-1 de nitrogênio parcelado no início e final do verão, promoveram influência positiva sobre as características estruturais em pastos diferidos por 140 dias.The objective of this study was to evaluate the structural characteristics of Brachiaria decumbens pastures deferred for 140 days, in order to determine the most appropriate nitrogenous fertilization. Four fertilization strategies were studied at the beginning and end of summer (0-0, 100-0, 50-50, 0-100 kg ha-1 N, respectively, with four replications. For volumetric density evaluation, forage was harvested in three strata: stratum A- over 40 cm above the soil; B- 20-40 cm; and C- 0-20 cm above the soil. The falling index was lower (p -1 N applied at the end of summer. In stratum B (between 20 and 40 cm above the soil, greater (p -1 N applied in early summer (100-0. Greater stem lengths (p -1 at the end of summer, followed by the strategy of 50 kg ha-1 nitrogen partitioned in the beginning and end of summer, have a positive influence on the structural characteristics in pastures deferred for 140 days.

  5. TOKAMAK EQUILIBRIA WITH CENTRAL CURRENT HOLES AND NEGATIVE CURRENT DRIVE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CHU, M.S.; PARKS, P.B.

    2002-06-01

    OAK B202 TOKAMAK EQUILIBRIA WITH CENTRAL CURRENT HOLES AND NEGATIVE CURRENT DRIVE. Several tokamak experiments have reported the development of a central region with vanishing currents (the current hole). Straightforward application of results from the work of Greene, Johnson and Weimer [Phys. Fluids, 3, 67 (1971)] on tokamak equilibrium to these plasmas leads to apparent singularities in several physical quantities including the Shafranov shift and casts doubts on the existence of this type of equilibria. In this paper, the above quoted equilibrium theory is re-examined and extended to include equilibria with a current hole. It is shown that singularities can be circumvented and that equilibria with a central current hole do satisfy the magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium condition with regular behavior for all the physical quantities and do not lead to infinitely large Shafranov shifts. Isolated equilibria with negative current in the central region could exist. But equilibria with negative currents in general do not have neighboring equilibria and thus cannot have experimental realization, i.e. no negative currents can be driven in the central region.

  6. Ring current and radiation belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D. J.

    1987-01-01

    Studies performed during 1983-1986 on the ring current, the injection boundary model, and the radiation belts are discussed. The results of these studies yielded the first observations on the composition and charge state of the ring current throughout the ring-current energy range, and strong observational support for an injection-boundary model accounting for the origins of radiation-belt particles, the ring current, and substorm particles observed at R less than about 7 earth radii. In addition, the results have demonstrated that the detection of energetic neutral atoms generated by charge-exchange interactions between the ring current and the hydrogen geocorona can provide global images of the earth's ring current and its spatial and temporal evolution.

  7. Current barriers to confine high frequency common mode currents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moonen, Dominicus Johannes Guilielmus; Buesink, Frederik Johannes Karel; Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2016-01-01

    A commercially produced three phase power line filter is submitted to a Current Barrier (CB) Electro-Magnetic Compatibility (EMC) zoning strategy as an attempt to confine high frequency common mode currents. The intent of the paper is not to show how to build a ’perfect’ filter, since this is known.

  8. Programmable Current-Mode Universal Active Filters Employing Current Conveyors

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Taher Abuelma'atti

    1998-01-01

    Novel current-mode active filter circuits using current-conveyors are presented. The proposed circuits can realize all standard second-order filter functions. The circuits enjoy high output impedances and can, therefore, be easily cascaded to produce higher order filters. Moreover, the realized filter function can be easily programmed using at most a 13-bit digital number without changing the circuit topology.

  9. Strange neutral currents in nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Ressell, M T; Aufderheide, M B; Bloom, S D; Resler, D A

    1995-01-01

    We examine the effects on the nuclear neutral current Gamow-Teller (GT) strength of a finite contribution from a polarized strange quark sea. We perform nuclear shell model calculations of the neutral current GT strength for a number of nuclei likely to be present during stellar core collapse. We compare the GT strength when a finite strange quark contribution is included to the strength without such a contribution. As an example, the process of neutral current nuclear de-excitation via \

  10. Fault current limiters using superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, W. T.; Power, A.

    Fault current limiters on power systems are to reduce damage by heating and electromechanical forces, to alleviate duty on switchgear used to clear the fault, and to mitigate disturbance to unfaulted parts of the system. A basic scheme involves a super-resistor which is a superconductor being driven to high resistance when fault current flows either when current is high during a cycle of a.c. or, if the temperature of the superconductive material rises, for the full cycle. Current may be commuted from superconductor to an impedance in parallel, thus reducing the energy dispersed at low temperature and saving refrigeration. In a super-shorted transformer the ambient temperature primary carries the power system current; the superconductive secondary goes to a resistive condition when excessive currents flow in the primary. A super-transformer has the advantage of not needing current leads from high temperature to low temperature; it behaves as a parallel super-resistor and inductor. The supertransductor with a superconductive d.c. bias winding is large and has small effect on the rate of fall of current at current zero; it does little to alleviate duty on switchgear but does reduce heating and electromechanical forces. It is fully active after a fault has been cleared. Other schemes depend on rapid recooling of the superconductor to achieve this.

  11. DC-Compensated Current Transformer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripka, Pavel; Draxler, Karel; Styblíková, Renata

    2016-01-20

    Instrument current transformers (CTs) measure AC currents. The DC component in the measured current can saturate the transformer and cause gross error. We use fluxgate detection and digital feedback compensation of the DC flux to suppress the overall error to 0.15%. This concept can be used not only for high-end CTs with a nanocrystalline core, but it also works for low-cost CTs with FeSi cores. The method described here allows simultaneous measurements of the DC current component.

  12. Response Current from Spin-Vortex-Induced Loop Current System to Feeding Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisaki, Tsubasa; Wakaura, Hikaru; Abou Ghantous, Michel; Koizumi, Hiroyasu

    2017-07-01

    The spin-vortex-induced loop current (SVILC) is a loop current generated around a spin-vortex formed by itinerant electrons. It is generated by a U(1) instanton created by the single-valued requirement of wave functions with respect to the coordinate, and protected by the topological number, "winding number". In a system with SVILCs, a macroscopic persistent current is generated as a collection of SVILCs. In the present work, we consider the situation where external currents are fed in the SVILC system and response currents are measured as spontaneous currents that flow through leads attached to the SVILC system. The response currents from SVILC systems are markedly different from the feeding currents in their directions and magnitude, and depend on the original current pattern of the SVILC system; thus, they may be used in the readout process in the recently proposed SVILC quantum computer, a quantum computer that utilizes SVILCs as qubits. We also consider the use of the response current to detect SVILCs.

  13. Coastal tomographic mapping of nonlinear tidal currents and residual currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ze-Nan; Zhu, Xiao-Hua; Guo, Xinyu

    2017-07-01

    Depth-averaged current data, which were obtained by coastal acoustic tomography (CAT) July 12-13, 2009 in Zhitouyang Bay on the western side of the East China Sea, are used to estimate the semidiurnal tidal current (M2) as well as its first two overtide currents (M4 and M6). Spatial mean amplitude ratios M2:M4:M6 in the bay are 1.00:0.15:0.11. The shallow-water equations are used to analyze the generation mechanisms of M4 and M6. In the deep area, where water depths are larger than 60 m, M4 velocity amplitudes measured by CAT agree well with those predicted by the advection terms in the shallow water equations, indicating that M4 in the deep area is predominantly generated by the advection terms. M6 measured by CAT and M6 predicted by the nonlinear quadratic bottom friction terms agree well in the area where water depths are less than 20 m, indicating that friction mechanisms are predominant for generating M6 in the shallow area. In addition, dynamic analysis of the residual currents using the tidally averaged momentum equation shows that spatial mean values of the horizontal pressure gradient due to residual sea level and of the advection of residual currents together contribute about 75% of the spatial mean values of the advection by the tidal currents, indicating that residual currents in this bay are induced mainly by the nonlinear effects of tidal currents. This is the first ever nonlinear tidal current study by CAT.

  14. Electronic measurements of ionization currents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutyra, F.; Knapp, K.; Gregor, J. (Tesla, Premysleni (Czechoslovakia). Vyzkumny Ustav Pristroju Jaderne Techniky)

    1982-02-01

    Measurements are discussed of very low currents from ionization chambers. The currents range between 10/sup -15/ and 10/sup -9/ A. Two methods are discussed. A description is given of a dynamic and a semiconductor electrometers. Both meters are parts of dosimetric instruments for monitoring the dose rate (NB 9201) and the neutron-gamma mixed radiation dose rate (NDK 601).

  15. The Current Status of CLASS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helbig, P

    2000-01-01

    Abstract: I give a brief overview of the current status of some aspects of the Cosmic Lens All-Sky Survey (CLASS): description of the survey, current list of lens systems, cosmological parameters from lensing statistics, H_0 from time delays, dark lenses, wide-separation lenses.

  16. Equatorial potassium currents in lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind, B E; Walsh, S; Patterson, J W

    1988-02-01

    Earlier work with the vibrating probe demonstrated the existence of outward potassium currents at the equator and inward sodium currents at the optical poles of the lens. By adding microelectrodes to the system, it is possible to relate steady currents (J) to the potential difference (PD) measured with a microelectrode. By injecting an outward current (I), it is possible to determine resistances and also the PD at which the steady outward potassium current becomes zero (PDJ = 0). At this PD the concentration gradient for potassium efflux and the electrical gradient for potassium influx are balanced so that there is no net flow of potassium across the membranes associated with the production of J. The PDJ = 0 for 18 rat lenses was 86 mV and that for 12 frogs lenses was -95 mV. This agrees with the potassium equilibrium potential and provides strong evidence to support the view that the outward equatorial current, J, is a potassium current. With the injection of outward current, I, the PD becomes more negative, the outward equatorial current, J, decreases, and the inward current at the optical poles increases. This suggests that there are separate electrical loops for K+ and Na+ that are partially linked by the Na, K-pump. Using Ohm's law, it is possible to calculate the input resistance (R = delta PD/I), the resistance related to the production of J (RJ = delta PD/delta J), and the effect of the combined resistances (delta J/I). The driving force for J can be estimated (PDJ = 0-PD). The relationships among currents, voltages and resistance can be used to determine the characteristics of the membranes that are associated with the outward potassium current observed at the equator. The effects of graded deformation of the lens were determined. The effects were reversible. The sites of inward and outward currents were not altered. Following deformation, the equatorial current, J, increased, and the PD became less negative. The PDJ = 0 remains the same so the ratio of K

  17. Multispacecraft current estimates at swarm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunlop, M. W.; Yang, Y.-Y.; Yang, J.-Y.

    2015-01-01

    During the first several months of the three-spacecraft Swarm mission all three spacecraft camerepeatedly into close alignment, providing an ideal opportunity for validating the proposed dual-spacecraftmethod for estimating current density from the Swarm magnetic field data. Two of the Swarm...... orbit the use oftime-shifted positions allow stable estimates of current density to be made and can verify temporal effects aswell as validating the interpretation of the current components as arising predominantly from field-alignedcurrents. In the case of four-spacecraft configurations we can resolve...... the full vector current and therefore cancheck the perpendicular as well as parallel current density components directly, together with the qualityfactor for the estimates directly (for the first time in situ at low Earth orbit)....

  18. Study of longshore current equations for currents in Visakhapatnam beach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; Rao, T.V.N.

    Longshore currents were measured along the Visakhapatnam Beach, Andhra Pradesh, India at weekly intervals from March 1978 to March 1979. Visual observations on breaker characteristics were also made during this period. Using modified Longuet...

  19. The influence of convective current generator on the global current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Morozov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical generalization of classical model of the global circuit with taking into account the convective current generator, working in the planetary boundary layer was considered. Convective current generator may be interpreted as generator, in which the electromotive force is generated by processes, of the turbulent transport of electrical charge. It is shown that the average potential of ionosphere is defined not only by the thunderstorm current generators, working at the present moment, but by the convective current generator also. The influence of the convective processes in the boundary layer on the electrical parameters of the atmosphere is not only local, but has global character as well. The numerical estimations, made for the case of the convective-unstable boundary layer demonstrate that the increase of the average potential of ionosphere may be of the order of 10% to 40%.

  20. Current noise in tunnel junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frey, Moritz; Grabert, Hermann [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Strasse 3, 79104, Freiburg (Germany)

    2017-06-15

    We study current fluctuations in tunnel junctions driven by a voltage source. The voltage is applied to the tunneling element via an impedance providing an electromagnetic environment of the junction. We use circuit theory to relate the fluctuations of the current flowing in the leads of the junction with the voltage fluctuations generated by the environmental impedance and the fluctuations of the tunneling current. The spectrum of current fluctuations is found to consist of three parts: a term arising from the environmental Johnson-Nyquist noise, a term due to the shot noise of the tunneling current and a third term describing the cross-correlation between these two noise sources. Our phenomenological theory reproduces previous results based on the Hamiltonian model for the dynamical Coulomb blockade and provides a simple understanding of the current fluctuation spectrum in terms of circuit theory and properties of the average current. Specific results are given for a tunnel junction driven through a resonator. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Investigation of Current Driven Loudspeakers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Henrik; Agerkvist, Finn T.; Knott, Arnold

    2015-01-01

    Current driven loudspeakers have previously been investigated but the literature is limited and the advantages and disadvantages are yet to be fully identified. This paper makes use of a non-linear loudspeaker model to analyse loudspeakers with distinct non-linear characteristics under voltage...... and current drive. A multi tone test signal is used in the evaluation of the driving schemes since it resembles audio signals to a higher degree than the signals used in total harmonic distortion and intermodulation distortion test methods. It is found that current drive is superior over voltage drive in a 5...

  2. Global Health - Cancer Currents Blog

    Science.gov (United States)

    A catalog of posts from NCI’s Cancer Currents blog on research related to cancer’s impact around the world. Includes posts on factors that influence global cancer incidence and mortality and new research initiatives.

  3. FDA Approvals - Cancer Currents Blog

    Science.gov (United States)

    A catalog of posts from NCI’s Cancer Currents blog on new Food and Drug Administration approvals of cancer drugs. All posts include summaries of the evidence to support the new approvals and what they mean for patients.

  4. Acoustoelectric current for composite fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergli, J.; Galperin, Y. M.

    2001-07-01

    The acoustoelectric current for composite fermions in a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) close to the half-filled Landau level is calculated in the random phase approximation. The Boltzmann equation is used to find the nonequilibrium distribution of composite fermions to second order in the acoustic field. It is shown that the oscillating Chern-Simons field created by the induced density fluctuations in the 2DEG is important for the acoustoelectric current. This leads to a violation of the Weinreich relation between the acoustoelectric current and acoustic intensity. The deviations from the Weinreich relation can be detected by measuring the angle between the longitudinal and the Hall components of the acoustoelectric current. This departure from the Weinreich relation gives additional information on the properties of the composite fermion fluid.

  5. Squid based beam current meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuchnir, M.

    1983-11-25

    A SQUID based beam current meter has the capability of measuring the current of a beam with as little as 30 x 155 antiprotons (with a signal to noise ratio of 2). If low noise dc current is used to cancel most of the beam or an up-down counter is used to count auto-resets this sensitivity will be available at any time in the acumulation process. This current meter will therefore be a unique diagnostic tool for optimizing the performance of several Tev I components. Besides requiring liquid helium it seems that its only drawback is not to follow with the above sensitivity a sudden beam change larger than 16 ..mu..A, something that could be done using a second one in a less sensitive configuration.

  6. Cancer Disparities - Cancer Currents Blog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blog posts on cancer health disparities research—including factors that influence disparities, disparities-related research efforts, and diversity in the cancer research workforce—from NCI Cancer Currents.

  7. Cancer Technology - Cancer Currents Blog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blog posts on technologies that affect cancer research and care—including new technologies for detecting cancer, testing treatments, storing/analyzing data, and improving patient care—from NCI Cancer Currents.

  8. EOP Current Magnitude and Direction

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data contain shipboard current magnitudes and directions collected in the Pacific, both pelagic and near shore environments. Data is collected using an RD...

  9. Five currents of organizational psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt

    2017-01-01

    Organizational psychology may be seen as consisting of a number of mutually conflictual currents developed over several decades. This article discusses five currents in organizational psychology that have both been dominant in Scandinavia and have had particular significance in relation...... to the field of organizational development: The social psychological, the socio-technical, the humanistic, the work psychological and the social constructionist currents. Central arguments and works from leading scholars are discussed. It is argued that although treated differently the notions of the small...... group, group dynamics, resistance to change and process consultation constitute pivotal and through going tenets in all the currents. These notions, it is argued, link the discipline of organizational psychology together into a mutually discordant, but anyway relatively consistent research area...

  10. Current status of pulmonary metastasectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornbech, Kåre; Ravn, Jesper; Steinbrüchel, Daniel Andreas

    2011-01-01

    for unresected patients. In this article, we discuss the current status on pulmonary metastasectomy. Preoperative assessment and selection of surgical candidates is covered. The different surgical strategies including surgical approach, unilateral versus bilateral exploration, lymph node dissection, and repeat...

  11. NOAA NOS SOS, EXPERIMENTAL - Currents

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA NOS SOS server is part of the IOOS DIF SOS Project. The stations in this dataset have currents data. *These services are for testing and evaluation use...

  12. FEMA Current Disaster Declarations -shp

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This dataset lists the current Disaster Declarations in Shapefile. This data was compiled and distributed by FEMA Mapping and Analysis Center (MAC). Metadata file...

  13. Current concepts in rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleshman, James W; Smallwood, Nathan

    2015-03-01

    The history of rectal cancer management informs current therapy and points us in the direction of future improvements. Multidisciplinary team management of rectal cancer will move us to personalized treatment for individuals with rectal cancer in all stages.

  14. Optimal Current Transfer in Dendrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Alex D.

    2016-01-01

    Integration of synaptic currents across an extensive dendritic tree is a prerequisite for computation in the brain. Dendritic tapering away from the soma has been suggested to both equalise contributions from synapses at different locations and maximise the current transfer to the soma. To find out how this is achieved precisely, an analytical solution for the current transfer in dendrites with arbitrary taper is required. We derive here an asymptotic approximation that accurately matches results from numerical simulations. From this we then determine the diameter profile that maximises the current transfer to the soma. We find a simple quadratic form that matches diameters obtained experimentally, indicating a fundamental architectural principle of the brain that links dendritic diameters to signal transmission. PMID:27145441

  15. Cancer Treatment - Cancer Currents Blog

    Science.gov (United States)

    A catalog of posts from NCI’s Cancer Currents blog on cancer treatment research. Includes posts on new treatments for cancer and their effects, clinical trial results, and overcoming treatment resistance.

  16. Cancer Prevention - Cancer Currents Blog

    Science.gov (United States)

    A catalog of posts from NCI’s Cancer Currents blog on research related to cancer prevention. Includes posts on behavioral interventions and other ways to prevent cancer and prevention-related research programs.

  17. Current status of natural fibres

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anandjiwala, RD

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available , automotive, aerospace, marine, electronic, leisure and household uses. This paper will provide an overview of the current status of research and development. It will also deal with future drivers for the growth and competitiveness of natural fibres...

  18. Minimax Current Density Coil Design

    CERN Document Server

    Poole, Michael; Lopez, Hector Sanchez; Ng, Michael; Crozier, Stuart; 10.1088/0022-3727/43/9/095001

    2010-01-01

    'Coil design' is an inverse problem in which arrangements of wire are designed to generate a prescribed magnetic field when energized with electric current. The design of gradient and shim coils for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are important examples of coil design. The magnetic fields that these coils generate are usually required to be both strong and accurate. Other electromagnetic properties of the coils, such as inductance, may be considered in the design process, which becomes an optimization problem. The maximum current density is additionally optimized in this work and the resultant coils are investigated for performance and practicality. Coils with minimax current density were found to exhibit maximally spread wires and may help disperse localized regions of Joule heating. They also produce the highest possible magnetic field strength per unit current for any given surface and wire size. Three different flavours of boundary element method that employ different basis functions (triangular elements...

  19. National Fire News- Current Wildfires

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1 to 5) Current hours for the National Fire Information Center are (MST) 8:00 am - 4: ... the daily report. October 6, 2017 Minimal large fire activity was reported yesterday. Four large fires have ...

  20. Current-Induced Membrane Discharge

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, MB; Soestbergen, van, M Michiel; A Mani; Bruus, H.; Biesheuvel, PM; Bazant, MZ

    2012-01-01

    Possible mechanisms for overlimiting current (OLC) through aqueous ion-exchange membranes (exceeding diffusion limitation) have been debated for half a century. Flows consistent with electro-osmotic instability have recently been observed in microfluidic experiments, but the existing theory neglects chemical effects and remains to be quantitatively tested. Here, we show that charge regulation and water self-ionization can lead to OLC by “current-induced membrane discharge” (CIMD), even in the...

  1. Spin currents in metallic nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czeschka, Franz Dominik

    2011-09-05

    A pure spin current, i.e., a flow of angular momentum without accompanying net charge current, is a key ingredient in the field of spintronics. In this thesis, we experimentally investigated two different concepts for pure spin current sources suggested by theory. The first is based on a time-dependent magnetization precession which ''pumps'' a pure spin current into an adjacent non-magnetic conductor. Our experiments quantitatively corroborated important predictions expected theoretically for this approach, including the dependence of the spin current on the sample geometry and the microwave power. Even more important, we could show for the first time that the spin pumping concept is viable in a large variety of ferromagnetic materials and that it only depends on the magnetization damping. Therefore, our experiments established spin pumping as generic phenomenon and demonstrated that it is a powerful way to generate pure spin currents. The second theoretical concept is based on the conversion of charge currents into spin currents in non-magnetic nanostructures via the spin Hall effect. We experimentally investigated this approach in H-shaped, metallic nanodevices, and found that the predictions are linked to requirements not realizable with the present experimental techniques, neither in sample fabrication nor in measurement technique. Indeed, our experimental data could be consistently understood by a spin-independent transport model describing the transition from diffusive to ballistic transport. In addition, the implementation of advanced fabrication and measurement techniques allowed to discover a new non-local phenomenon, the non-local anisotropic magnetoresistance. Finally, we also studied spin-polarized supercurrents carried by spin-triplet Cooper pairs. We found that low resistance interfaces are a key requirement for further experiments in this direction. (orig.)

  2. DNA Generated Electric Current Biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lanshuang; Hu, Shengqiang; Guo, Linyan; Shen, Congcong; Yang, Minghui; Rasooly, Avraham

    2017-02-21

    In addition to its primary function as a genetic material, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is also a potential biologic energy source for molecular electronics. For the first time, we demonstrate that DNA can generate a redox electric current. As an example of this new functionality, DNA generated redox current was used for electrochemical detection of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), a clinically important breast cancer biomarker. To induce redox current, the phosphate of the single stranded DNA aptamer backbone was reacted with molybdate to form redox molybdophosphate precipitate and generate an electrochemical current of ∼16.8 μA/μM cm(2). This detection of HER2 was performed using a sandwich detection assay. A HER2 specific peptide was immobilized onto a gold electrode surface for capturing HER2 in buffer and serum. The HER2 specific aptamer was used as both ligand to bind the captured HER2 and to generate a redox current signal. When tested for HER2 detection, the electrochemical current generated by the aptasensor was proportional to HER2 concentration in the range of 0.01 to 5 ng/mL, with a current generated in the range of ∼6.37 to 31.8 μA/cm(2) in both buffer and serum. This detection level is within the clinically relevant range of HER2 concentrations. This method of electrochemical signal amplification greatly simplifies the signal transduction of aptasensors, broadening their use for HER2 analysis. This novel approach of using the same aptamer as biosensor ligand and as transducer can be universally extended to other aptasensors for a wide array of biodetection applications. Moreover, electric currents generated by DNA or other nucleic acids can be used in molecular electronics or implanted devices for both power generation and measurement of output.

  3. Imposed currents in galvanic cells

    OpenAIRE

    Biesheuvel, P.M.; Soestbergen, M.; Bazant, M. Z.

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the steady-state behavior of a general mathematical model for reversible galvanic cells, such as redox flow cells, reversible solid oxide fuel cells, and rechargeable batteries. We consider not only operation in the galvanic discharging mode, spontaneously generating a positive current against an external load, but also operation in two modes which require a net input of electrical energy: (i) the electrolytic charging mode, where a negative current is imposed to generate a voltage...

  4. The Savonius Water Current Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    1960-11-03

    the author visited the David Taylor Model Basin for the purpose of calibrating five (5) Savonius water current ,meter rotors in the range of .1 to 1...Iastitution of Oceanography. Figure 1 is a block diagram of the water current meter and its associated equipment. The details of the Savonius rotor are...an amplifier. The Savonius rotor functions as a salt water switch which varies the r-. coupling of the transformer thus it awplitude modulates the 100

  5. Spheromak Impedance and Current Amplification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, T K; Hua, D D; Stallard, B W

    2002-01-31

    It is shown that high current amplification can be achieved only by injecting helicity on the timescale for reconnection, {tau}{sub REC}, which determines the effective impedance of the spheromak. An approximate equation for current amplification is: dI{sub TOR}{sup 2}/dt {approx} I{sup 2}/{tau}{sub REC} - I{sub TOR}{sup 2}/{tau}{sub closed} where I is the gun current, I{sub TOR} is the spheromak toroidal current and {tau}{sub CLOSED} is the ohmic decay time of the spheromak. Achieving high current amplification, I{sub TOR} >> I, requires {tau}{sub REC} <<{tau}{sub CLOSED}. For resistive reconnection, this requires reconnection in a cold zone feeding helicity into a hot zone. Here we propose an impedance model based on these ideas in a form that can be implemented in the Corsica-based helicity transport code. The most important feature of the model is the possibility that {tau}{sub REC} actually increases as the spheromak temperature increases, perhaps accounting for the ''voltage sag'' observed in some experiments, and a tendency toward a constant ratio of field to current, B {proportional_to} I, or I{sub TOR} {approx} I. Program implications are discussed.

  6. BOOK REVIEW: The Current Comparator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersons, Oskars

    1989-01-01

    This 120-page book is a concise, yet comprehensive, clearly-written and well-illustrated monograph that covers the subject matter from basic principles through design, construction and calibration details to the principal applications. The book will be useful, as a primer, to the uninitiated and, as a reference book to the practitioner involved with transformer-type ratio devices. The length of the book and the style of presentation will not overburden any informed reader. The described techniques and the cited references are primarily from the work at the National Research Council, Canada (NRC). Any omissions, however, are not serious with respect to coverage of the subject matter, since most of the development work has been done at NRC. The role of transformers and transformer-like devices for establishing accurate voltage and current ratios has been recognized for over half a century. Transformer techniques were much explored and developed in the fifties and sixties for accuracy levels suitable for standards laboratories. Three-winding voltage transformers were developed for scaling of impedances in connection with the calculable Thompson Lampard capacitor; three-winding current transformers or current comparators were initially explored for the calibration of current transformers and later for specialized impedance measurements. Extensive development of the current comparator and its applications has been and is still being conducted at the NRC by a team that was started and, until his retirement, led by N L Kusters. The team is now led by W J M Moore. He and P N Miljanic, the authors of this book, have had the principal roles in the development of the current comparator. It is fortunate for the field of metrology that considerabe resources and a talented group of researchers were available to do this development along with mechanisms that were available to transfer this technology to a private sector instrument manufacturer and, thus, disseminate it world wide

  7. Dipolarization front and current disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, A. T. Y.

    2016-10-01

    The modification of current density on the dawn-dusk cross section of the magnetotail with the earthward approach of a dipolarization front (DF) is examined through the recently published results of a three-dimensional (3-D) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation. It is found that the current density intensifies by 37% abruptly within 1.5 ion gyrotime as the DF approaches and shows localized regions with north-south extrusions. After reaching its peak value, it undergoes a drastic current reduction (DCR) by 65% within 2 ion gyrotime. Breakdown of the frozen-in condition occurs in the neutral sheet region in association with DCR, demonstrating the non-MHD behavior of the phenomenon. The evolution of current density from this 3-D PIC simulation bears several similarities to those observed for the current disruption (CD) phenomenon, such as explosive growth and disruption of the current density leading to a breakdown of the frozen-in condition. The evolution is also similar to those from a previous two-dimensional (2-D) PIC simulation specially designed to investigate the nonlinear evolution of the cross-field current instability for CD. One interpretation of these findings is that CD and substorm triggering can be associated with earthward intrusion of a DF into the near-Earth plasma sheet as indicated by previous Cluster and Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms observations. An alternative interpretation is that both DF and CD are consequences of a global evolution from an ion-tearing-like instability of the magnetotail.

  8. Application of fault current limiters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, A.

    2007-11-30

    This report presents the results of a study commissioned by the Department for Business, Enterprise and Industry (BERR; formerly the Department of Trade and Industry) into the application of fault current limiters in the UK. The study reviewed the current state of fault current limiter (FCL) technology and regulatory position in relation to all types of current limiters. It identified significant research and development work with respect to medium voltage FCLs and a move to high voltage. Appropriate FCL technologies being developed include: solid state breakers; superconducting FCLs (including superconducting transformers); magnetic FCLs; and active network controllers. Commercialisation of these products depends on successful field tests and experience, plus material development in the case of high temperature superconducting FCL technologies. The report describes FCL techniques, the current state of FCL technologies, practical applications and future outlook for FCL technologies, distribution fault level analysis and an outline methodology for assessing the materiality of the fault level problem. A roadmap is presented that provides an 'action agenda' to advance the fault level issues associated with low carbon networks.

  9. Efficient and lightweight current leads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromberg, L.; Dietz, A. J.; Michael, P. C.; Gold, C.; Cheadle, M.

    2014-01-01

    Current leads generate substantial cryogenic heat loads in short length High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) distribution systems. Thermal conduction, as well as Joule losses (I2R) along the current leads, comprises the largest cryogenic loads for short distribution systems. Current leads with two temperature stages have been designed, constructed and tested, with the goal of minimizing the electrical power consumption, and to provide thermal margin for the cable. We present the design of a two-stage current lead system, operating at 140 K and 55 K. This design is very attractive when implemented with a turbo-Brayton cycle refrigerator (two-stage), with substantial power and weight reduction. A heat exchanger is used at each temperature station, with conduction-cooled stages in-between. Compact, efficient heat exchangers are challenging, because of the gaseous coolant. Design, optimization and performance of the heat exchangers used for the current leads will be presented. We have made extensive use of CFD models for optimizing hydraulic and thermal performance of the heat exchangers. The methodology and the results of the optimization process will be discussed. The use of demountable connections between the cable and the terminations allows for ease of assembly, but require means of aggressively cooling the region of the joint. We will also discuss the cooling of the joint. We have fabricated a 7 m, 5 kA cable with second generation HTS tapes. The performance of the system will be described.

  10. Displacement currents in geoelectromagnetic problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogilatov, Vladimir; Goldman, Mark; Persova, Marina; Soloveichik, Yury

    2014-06-01

    The influence of displacement currents in conventional geoelectromagnetic (GEM) methods using unimodal transversal electric (TE) or multimodal TE and TM (transversal magnetic) fields is only significant at very high frequencies in the frequency domain or at extremely early times in the time domain. The transient process in the latter includes three stages: the propagation through air, the propagation through earth and the diffusion within the earth. The influence of displacement currents is significant mainly during the former two stages, normally up to several tens to a few hundreds of nanoseconds. The behavior is essentially different in novel GEM methods using a vertical electric dipole (VED) or circular electric dipole (CED) sources of unimodal TM-fields. Under certain geoelectric conditions, the influence of displacement currents in these methods might be crucial at late times as well. This happens, if the model consists of insulating layers. In the absence of displacement currents, such layers would totally mask underlying structures. However, TM-fields including displacement currents depend on geoelectric parameters below insulating layers at late times.

  11. Digitally compensated beam current transformer

    CERN Document Server

    Kesselman, Martin

    2005-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is being built by a collaboration of six laboratories. Beam current monitors (BCMs) will be used to record the current of H-minus and H-plus beams ranging from 15 mA (tune-up in the Front End and Linac) to over 60A fully accumulated in the Ring and dumped to the load as a single pulse in the Ring to Beam Target (RTBT). The time structure of these beams ranges from 645ns "mini" bunches at the 1.05 MHz ring revolution rate, to an overall 1 ms long macro-pulse. The requirements for the BCMs will depend upon their location within the system. The need to measure individual mini-pulses, examine the characteristics of the chopper edge, as well as the longer average current pulse of the macropulse, or long duration pulses during Linac tuning place wide requirements upon the response of current transformers. To obtain the desired accuracy and resolution, current transformers must have less than 1 ns rise time and droops of 0.1 %/ms. This places a significant design burden on the cur...

  12. GlobCurrent- Multisensor Synergy for Surface Current Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannessen, J. A.; Chapron, B.; Collard, F.; Rio, M.-H.; Piolle, J.-F.; Gaultier, L.; Quartly, G.; Shutler, J.; Escola, R.; Raj, R. P.; Donlon, C.; Danielson, R.; Korosov, A.; Nencioli, F.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Roca, M.; Tournadre, J.; Larnicol, G.; Guitton, G.; Miller, P.; Warren, M.; Hansen, M.

    2016-08-01

    The GlobCurrent project (http://www.globcurrent.org) aims to: (i) advance the quantitative estimation of ocean surface currents from satellite sensor synergy; and (ii) demonstrate impact in user-led scientific, operational and commercial applications that, in turn, will improve and strengthen the uptake of satellite measurements. It is often demonstrated that sharp gradients in the sea surface temperature (SST) and current fields and the ocean surface chlorophyll-a distribution are spatially correlated with the sea surface roughness anomaly fields at small spatial scales, in the sub-mesocale (1-10 km) to the mesoscale (30-80 km). At the larger mesoscale range (>50 km), information derived from radar altimeters often depict the presence of coherent structures and eddies. The variability often appears largest in regions where the intense surface current regimes (>100 - 200 km) are found. These 2- dimensional structures manifested in the satellite observations represent evidence of the upper ocean ( 100-200 m) dynamics. Whereas the quasi geostrophic assumption is valid for the upper ocean dynamics at the larger scale (>100 km), possible triggering mechanisms for the expressions at the mesoscale-to-submesoscale may include spiraling tracers of inertial motion and the interaction of the wind-driven Ekman layer with the quasi-geostrophic current field. This latter, in turn, produces bands of downwelling (convergence) and upwelling (divergence) near fronts. A regular utilization of the sensor synergy approach with the combination of Sentinel-3, Sentinel-2 and Sentinel-1 together with other satellite missions will provide a highly valuable data set for further research and development to better relate the 2-dimensional surface expressions and the upper ocean dynamics.

  13. Current pulse shaping of the load current on PTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghe Xia

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The typical rise time of PTS machine is ∼110 ns with about 10 MA peak current under short pulse mode when all 24 modules discharge simultaneously. By distributing the trigger times of 12 laser beams logically and adjusting the statues of the pulse output switches, longer rise-time pulse can be obtained on the PTS facility. Based on the required pulse shape, whole circuit simulations will be used to calculate the trigger times of each laser triggering gas switch and the status of the pulse output switches. The rise time of the current is determined by the time difference between the first and last trigged laser triggering gas switches. In order to trigger the laser triggering gas switch, sufficient laser power is needed to be sent into the gap of the gas switches. The gas pressure and voltage difference on the two electrodes of the gas switches also affect the triggering of the gas switches, and the voltage added on the gas switch is determined by its transition time. Traditionally the trigger time difference should be less than the transition time of the two neighboring modules. A new simulation model of PTS shows one can break this transition time limits. Series of current pulse shaping experiments have been investigated on the PTS (Primary Test Stand. As results, more than 5 MA peak current were successfully achieved on the load with a rise time of 600 ns. This study and experiments of the pulse shaping on PTS demonstrate the adaptable ability of the PTS for offering different waveform of mega ampere current pulse for different research purpose.

  14. Magnetoelectric control of spin currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, J. E.; Vargas, J. M.; Avilés-Félix, L.; Butera, A.

    2016-06-01

    The ability to control the spin current injection has been explored on a hybrid magnetoelectric system consisting of a (011)-cut ferroelectric lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMNT) single crystal, a ferromagnetic FePt alloy, and a metallic Pt. With this PMNT/FePt/Pt structure we have been able to control the magnetic field position or the microwave excitation frequency at which the spin pumping phenomenon between FePt and Pt occurs. We demonstrate that the magnetoelectric heterostructure operating in the L-T (longitudinal magnetized-transverse polarized) mode couples the PMNT crystal to the magnetostrictive FePt/Pt bilayer, displaying a strong magnetoelectric coefficient of ˜140 Oe cm kV-1. Our results show that this mechanism can be effectively exploited as a tunable spin current intensity emitter and open the possibility to create an oscillating or a bistable switch to effectively manipulate spin currents.

  15. Current-induced membrane discharge

    CERN Document Server

    Andersen, M B; Mani, A; Bruus, H; Biesheuvel, P M; Bazant, M Z

    2012-01-01

    Possible mechanisms for over-limiting current (OLC) through aqueous ion-exchange membranes (exceeding diffusion limitation) have been debated for half a century. Flows consistent with electro-osmotic instability (EOI) have recently been observed in microfluidic experiments, but the existing theory neglects chemical effects and remains to be quantitatively tested. Here, we show that charge regulation and water self-ionization can lead to OLC by "current-induced membrane discharge" (CIMD), even in the absence of fluid flow. Salt depletion leads to a large electric field which expels water co-ions, causing the membrane to discharge and lose its selectivity. Since salt co-ions and water ions contribute to OLC, CIMD interferes with electrodialysis (salt counter-ion removal) but could be exploited for current-assisted ion exchange and pH control. CIMD also suppresses the extended space charge that leads to EOI, so it should be reconsidered in both models and experiments on OLC.

  16. Turbulent lock release gravity current

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The time evolution of a turbulent lock release gravity current, formed by a finite volume ofhomogeneous fluid released instantaneously into another fluid of slightly lower density, was studied byexperimental measurements of the density structure via elaborate digital image processing and by a nu-merical simulation of the flow and mixing using a two-equation turbulence model. The essential fact thatthe gravity current passes through an initial slumping phase in which the current head advances steadilyand a second self-similar phase in which the front velocity decreases like the negative third power of thetime after release is satisfactorily presented by the laboratory observation. An overall entrainment ratioproportional to the distance from the release point is found by the numerical simulation. The renormal-ization group (RNG) k- ε model for Reynolds-stress closure is validated to characterize the gravitycurrent with transitional and localized turbulence.

  17. Remote field eddy current testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, Y. M.; Jung, H. K.; Huh, H.; Lee, Y. S.; Shim, C. M

    2001-03-01

    The state-of-art technology of the remote field eddy current, which is actively developed as an electromagnetic non-destructive testing tool for ferromagnetic tubes, is described. The historical background and recent R and D activities of remote-field eddy current technology are explained including the theoretical development of remote field eddy current, such as analytical and numerical approach, and the results of finite element analysis. The influencing factors for actual applications, such as the effect of frequency, magnetic permeability, receiving sensitivity, and difficulties of detection and classification of defects are also described. Finally, two examples of actual application, 1) the gap measurement between pressure tubes and calandria tube in CANDU reactor and, 2) the detection of defects in the ferromagnetic heat exchanger tubes, are described. The future research efforts are also included.

  18. Transungual drug delivery: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkeeb, Rania; AliKhan, Ali; Elkeeb, Laila; Hui, Xiaoying; Maibach, Howard I

    2010-01-15

    Topical therapy is highly desirable in treating nail disorders due to its localized effects, which results in minimal adverse systemic events and possibly improved adherence. However, the effectiveness of topical therapies is limited by minimal drug permeability through the nail plate. Current research on nail permeation that focuses on altering the nail plate barrier by means of chemical treatments, penetration enhancers as well as physical and mechanical methods is reviewed. A new method of nail sampling is examined. Finally limitations of current ungual drug permeability studies are briefly discussed.

  19. Current leads and magnetic bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, J. R.

    1993-10-01

    Since the discovery of high temperature superconductors (HTS's), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has been active in a broad spectrum of activities in developing these materials for applications. Work at every stage of development has involved industrial collaboration in order to accelerate commercialization. While most of the development work has been devoted to improving the properties of current-carrying wires, some effort has been devoted to applications that can utilize HTS's with properties available now or in the near future. In this paper, advances made in the area of current leads and magnetic bearings are discussed.

  20. Dental ceramics: a current review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Nathaniel C; Burgess, John O

    2014-03-01

    Ceramics are used for many dental applications and are characterized in various ways, including by their hardness, brittleness, thermal and electrical insulation, and biocompatibility. The ceramics most commonly used in dentistry are oxides, particularly silicon dioxide (SiO2), or silica; aluminum oxide (Al2O3), or alumina; and zirconium dioxide (ZrO2), or zirconia. This article reviews the microstructure of current dental ceramic materials and how it relates to their mechanical properties, clinical techniques, and optical properties. Typical ceramics currently in use are described, and their clinically relevant properties such as strength, fracture, polishability, and wear are compared. Cementation methods are also discussed.

  1. Current issues with research support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, W.T.

    1996-03-01

    It would be difficult to condense current issues in nuclear reactor regulation to just a few minutes. So, let me start off by saying that I have not tried to give a comprehensive listing of issues that are currently facing the reactor program, but rather to select those that I thought were relevant as they relate to research activities. Use of probabilistic risk assessment in regulatory decisions; materials aging issues concerning steam generators and reactor vessels; high burnup fuels; accident management; and digital instrumentation and control, are just a sampling of the important issues that I want to talk about.

  2. Modulation of Current Source Inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golam Reza Arab Markadeh

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Direct torque control with Current Source Inverter (CSI instead of voltage source inverter is so appropriate because of determining the torque of induction motor with machine current and air gap flux. In addition, Space-Vector Modulation (SVM is a more proper method for CSI because of low order harmonics reduction, lower switching frequency and easier implementation. This paper introduces the SVM method for CSI and uses the proposed inverter for vector control of an induction motor. The simulation results illustrate fast dynamic response and desirable torque and speed output. Fast and accurate response to changes of speed and load torque reference completely proves the prominence of this method.

  3. Current Trends in Sinonasal Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Benjamin Y; Senior, Brent A; Castillo, Mauricio

    2015-11-01

    As endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) has evolved since its introduction to the United States, so has technology for imaging the sinonasal cavities. Although imaging is most frequently performed for evaluating chronic sinusitis refractory to medical therapy, its uses have expanded beyond inflammatory sinus disease. Multidetector Computed Tomography is the current workhorse for both diagnosis and preoperative planning in prospective ESS patients, while MR imaging remains a complementary tool for evaluating suspected tumors or intracranial and orbital complications of rhinosinusitis. In this article, the authors review current trends and potential future directions in the use of these modalities for sinus imaging.

  4. Axial Current and Noether Charge

    CERN Document Server

    Mahato, Prasanta

    2012-01-01

    A decade ago, a Lagrangian density has been proposed by the author where only the local symmetries of the Lorentz subgroup of (A)ds group is retained. This formalism has been found to produce some results encompassing that of standard Einstein-Hilbert formalism. In the present article, the conserved axial vector matter currents, constructed in some earlier paper, have been found to be a result of Noether's theorem. PACS: 04.20.Fy, 04.20.Cv, 11.40.-q Keywords: Torsion, Axial Current, Noether's Theorem

  5. Current therapies for premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, Serap; Kadowitz, Philip J; Sikka, Suresh C

    2016-07-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) subjectively affects 20-30% of men globally. Until recently, understanding of PE was hampered by the absence of a widely accepted definition, paucity of evidence-based clinical studies, and the absence of an appropriate animal model. Here, we elaborate on the current definition of PE, its pathogenesis, currently available therapies, and future treatment prospects. Most treatments for PE are 'off-label' and include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), topical anesthetics, tramadol, and phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors. Such knowledge of the benefit and limitations of each treatment will help to direct future drug design and formulations.

  6. Current Flows in Pulsar Magnetospheres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The global structure of .current flows in pulsar magnetosphere is investigated, with rough calculations of the circuit elements. It is emphasized that the potential of the critical field lines (the field lines that intersect the null surface at the light cylinder radius) should be the same as that of interstellar medium, and that pulsars whose rotation axes and magnetic dipole axes are parallel should be positively charged, in order to close the pulsar's current flows. The statistical relation between the radio luminosity and pulsar's electric charge (or the spindown power) may hint that the millisecond pulsars could be low-mass bare strange stars.

  7. Current evidence for osteoarthritis treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandacoomarasamy, Ananthila; March, Lyn

    2010-02-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis and the leading cause of chronic disability among older people. The burden of the disease is expected to rise with an aging population and the increasing prevalence of obesity. Despite this, there is as yet no cure for OA. However, in recent years, a number of potential therapeutic advances have been made, in part due to improved understanding of the underlying pathophysiology. This review provides the current evidence for symptomatic management of OA including nonpharmacological, pharmacological and surgical approaches. The current state of evidence for disease-modifying therapy in OA is also reviewed.

  8. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyanji F

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Firoz MiyanjiBritish Columbia Children's Hospital, Vancouver, BC, CanadaAbstract: Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS remains a common and potentially severe musculoskeletal disorder. Although its etiology is largely unknown, ongoing research endeavors continue to improve our understanding of its potential origin and its natural history. Advances in understanding its true three-dimensional nature have sought to improve classification and management strategies. This review will attempt to highlight and give an overview of the current concepts in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.Keywords: AIS, current, natural history, management strategies

  9. Five currents of organizational psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt

    2017-01-01

    group, group dynamics, resistance to change and process consultation constitute pivotal and through going tenets in all the currents. These notions, it is argued, link the discipline of organizational psychology together into a mutually discordant, but anyway relatively consistent research area...... of continual organizational change. It is argued that this latest budding in organizational psychology has negative implications both for the fineness of the scientific discipline and for the credibility in practice. A firmer ethics is demanded. Keywords: Organizational psychology, group dynamics, resistance...... to change, basic assumptions, relations, currents...

  10. Current management of oral cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert Ord

    2008-01-01

    @@ This presentation will summarize some of the current areas of interest in the management of oral cancer. The presentation will be divided into a brief review of epidemiology and diagnosis, with a more extensive discussion regarding the controversial areas in surgery and a review of the adjuvant roles of radiation and chemotherapy.

  11. Mechanical generation of spin current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamoru eMatsuo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We focus the recent results on spin-current generation from mechanical motion such as rigid rotation and elastic deformations. Spin transport theory in accelerating frames is constructed by using the low energy expansion of the generally covariant Dirac equation. Related issues on spin-manipulation by mechanical rotation are also discussed.

  12. Current studies on megapode phylogeny

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brom, T.G.; Dekker, R.W.R.J.

    1992-01-01

    Hypotheses regarding the phylogenetic relationships between megapodes and other birds are reviewed, and it is concluded that the available evidence supports a sistergroup relationship between megapodes and all other galliforms. Current studies in this direction are discussed. The resolvement of intr

  13. Eddy current thickness measurement apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, Gary J.; Sinclair, Frank; Soskov, Alexander; Buff, James S.

    2015-06-16

    A sheet of a material is disposed in a melt of the material. The sheet is formed using a cooling plate in one instance. An exciting coil and sensing coil are positioned downstream of the cooling plate. The exciting coil and sensing coil use eddy currents to determine a thickness of the solid sheet on top of the melt.

  14. Current trends and future directions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harboe, Peter G.; Madsen, Sabine; Svejvig, Per

    2012-01-01

    This book is an attempt to gather current state-of-the-art research on project management from multiple universities and university colleges in Denmark. This chapter first discuss a literature review of Danish and Scandinavian research on project management thereby complementing the short review...

  15. Reconciling current approaches to blindsight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Morten; Mogensen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    After decades of research, blindsight is still a mysterious and controversial topic in consciousness research. Currently, many researchers tend to think of it as an ideal phenomenon to investigate neural correlates of consciousness, whereas others believe that blindsight is in fact a kind...

  16. Current Issues in Maritime Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagtmann, Maria Anne

    2008-01-01

     In the early part of 2008, Maria Anne Wagtmann had the opportunity to interview the former president of the International Maritime Health Association, Dr. Tim Carter, in London about a number of current maritime health issues. In this interview, Dr. Tim Carter, who is cur­rently employed...

  17. Urethral instability: current pathophysiological concept.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenendijk, P.M.; Heesakkers, J.P.F.A.; Ouwerkerk, T.J.; Lycklama à Nijeholt, A.A.B.

    2009-01-01

    The role of urethral pressure variations during filling cystometry is seldom assessed as a potential cause of voiding dysfunction and/or storage disorders. In this article, we review current research in the field of urethral pressure variations and discuss the way of determining urethral pressure va

  18. DC superconducting fault current limiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tixador, P.; Villard, C.; Cointe, Y.

    2006-03-01

    There is a lack of satisfying solutions for fault currents using conventional technologies, especially in DC networks, where a superconducting fault current limiter could play a very important part. DC networks bring a lot of advantages when compared to traditional AC ones, in particular within the context of the liberalization of the electric market. Under normal operation in a DC network, the losses in the superconducting element are nearly zero and only a small, i.e. a low cost, refrigeration system is then required. The absence of zero crossing of a DC fault current favourably accelerates the normal zone propagation. The very high current slope at the time of the short circuit in a DC grid is another favourable parameter. The material used for the experiments is YBCO deposited on Al2O3 as well as YBCO coated conductors. The DC limitation experiments are compared to AC ones at different frequencies (50-2000 Hz). Careful attention is paid to the quench homogenization, which is one of the key issues for an SC FCL. The University of Geneva has proposed constrictions. We have investigated an operating temperature higher than 77 K. As for YBCO bulk, an operation closer to the critical temperature brings a highly improved homogeneity in the electric field development. The material can then absorb large energies without degradation. We present tests at various temperatures. These promising results are to be confirmed over long lengths.

  19. Teen Addiction. Current Controversies Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Paul A., Ed.

    The Current Controversies series explores social, political, and economic controversies that dominate the national and international scenes today from a variety of perspectives. Recent surveys have shown that, after years of decline, drug use among teenagers has increased during the 1990s, and that alcohol and tobacco use have remained…

  20. Urethral instability: current pathophysiological concept.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenendijk, P.M.; Heesakkers, J.P.F.A.; Ouwerkerk, T.J.; Lycklama à Nijeholt, A.A.B.

    2009-01-01

    The role of urethral pressure variations during filling cystometry is seldom assessed as a potential cause of voiding dysfunction and/or storage disorders. In this article, we review current research in the field of urethral pressure variations and discuss the way of determining urethral pressure va

  1. Imposed currents in galvanic cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesheuvel, P.M.; Soestbergen, M.; Bazant, M.Z.

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the steady-state behavior of a general mathematical model for reversible galvanic cells, such as redox flow cells, reversible solid oxide fuel cells, and rechargeable batteries. We consider not only operation in the galvanic discharging mode, spontaneously generating a positive current

  2. Current Leads, Links and Buses

    CERN Document Server

    Ballarino, A

    2014-01-01

    Electrical transfer from a room temperature power source to a superconducting system is done via conventional or superconducting current leads and superconducting buses or links. The principles of optimization of these devices are presented, with emphasis on the cryogenic, electrical, and superconductor related aspects that drive choices for a system.

  3. Imposed currents in galvanic cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesheuvel, P.M.; Soestbergen, M.; Bazant, M.Z.

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the steady-state behavior of a general mathematical model for reversible galvanic cells, such as redox flow cells, reversible solid oxide fuel cells, and rechargeable batteries. We consider not only operation in the galvanic discharging mode, spontaneously generating a positive current ag

  4. Reconciling current approaches to blindsight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Morten; Mogensen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    After decades of research, blindsight is still a mysterious and controversial topic in consciousness research. Currently, many researchers tend to think of it as an ideal phenomenon to investigate neural correlates of consciousness, whereas others believe that blindsight is in fact a kind...

  5. Current trends and future directions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harboe, Peter G.; Madsen, Sabine; Svejvig, Per

    2012-01-01

    This book is an attempt to gather current state-of-the-art research on project management from multiple universities and university colleges in Denmark. This chapter first discuss a literature review of Danish and Scandinavian research on project management thereby complementing the short review...

  6. The Current Conjuncture in Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprinker, Michael

    1989-01-01

    Describes the current debate in literary study between the humanist/historicist and the anti-humanist/anti-historicist perspectives. Examines the political dimensions of this debate, including its relationship to Marxist theory and deconstruction. Asserts that literary texts are productions of ideology and that literary study should inquire into…

  7. Stemless shoulder arthroplasty: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, R Sean

    2014-09-01

    Since the original Neer humeral replacement in the 1950s, the standard primary anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty design has slowly evolved. Most recently, the humeral stem has become progressively shorter to help combat stem-related complications. Currently, there are several companies who have developed and marketed a stemless humeral arthroplasty component. Manufacturers' data for 5 stemless shoulder arthroplasty components currently on the market were analyzed and reviewed. A literature review of short-term results for stemless shoulder arthroplasty was completed. Of the stemless shoulder arthroplasty systems available on the market, 3 are currently undergoing clinical trials in the United States. The Tornier Simpliciti (Tornier, Edina, MN, USA) clinical trial began in 2011. The study with 2-year minimum follow-up results is scheduled for completion in November 2014. The Arthrex Eclipse (Arthrex, Naples, FL, USA) clinical trial was started in January 2013. The tentative study completion date is 2017. The Biomet Nano (Biomet, Warsaw, IN, USA) clinical trial began in October 2013 and also has a tentative completion date of 2017. No other clinical trial is currently under way in the United States. Early results for stemless shoulder arthroplasty indicate clinical results similar to standard stemmed shoulder arthroplasty. Radiographic analysis indicates implant stability without migration or subsidence at 2- to 3-year minimum follow-up.. Several stemless shoulder arthroplasty implants are available outside the United States. Early clinical and radiographic results are promising, but well-designed clinical studies and midterm results are lacking. Three clinical trials are currently under way in the United States with initial availability for use anticipated in 2015. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Pediatric thoracic trauma: Current trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Erik G; Fitzgerald, Caitlin A; Santore, Matthew T

    2017-02-01

    Pediatric thoracic trauma is relatively uncommon but results in disproportionately high levels of morbidity and mortality when compared with other traumatic injuries. These injuries are often more devastating due to differences in children׳s anatomy and physiology relative to adult patients. A high index of suspicion is of utmost importance at the time of presentation because many significant thoracic injuries will have no external signs of injury. With proper recognition and management of these injuries, there is an associated improved long-term outcome. This article reviews the current literature and discusses the initial evaluation, current management practices, and future directions in pediatric thoracic trauma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Current status of rotavirus vaccines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ching-Min Wang; Shou-Chien Chen; Kow-Tong Chen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Rotaviruses remain the major cause of childhood diarrheal disease worldwide and of diarrheal deaths of infants and children in developing countries. The huge burden of childhood rotavirus-related diarrhea in the world continues to drive the remarkable pace of vaccine development. Data sources: Research articles were searched using terms "rotavirus" and "rotavirus vaccine" in MEDLINE and PubMed. Articles not published in the English language, articles without abstracts, and opinion articles were excluded from the review. After preliminary screening, all articles were reviewed and synthesized to provide an overview of current vaccines and vaccination programs. Results: In this review of the global rotavirus vaccines and vaccination programs, the principles of rotavirus vaccine development and the efficacy of the currently licensed vaccines from both developed and developing countries were summarized. Conclusions: Rotavirus is a common cause of diarrhea in children in both developed and developing countries. Rotavirus vaccination is a cost-effective measure to prevent rotavirus diarrhea.

  10. Current status of transarterial radioembolization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andreas H Mahnken

    2016-01-01

    Unresectable primary and secondary liver malignancies present a major problem in the treatment of solid tumors. Transarterial radioembolization(TARE) is an increasingly used technique for treating various types of malignant liver tumors. This approach is appealing, as the mechanism of action is independent from other loco-regional treatments and potentially complementary to systemic therapies. There are two commercially available products in use for TARE: 90Y-resin and 90Y-glass microspheres. Currently available data indicates TARE so be safe and effective in hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC) and metastatic liver disease. In HCC the results compare well with chemoembolization, while the role of TARE in combination with kinase inhibitors has yet to be established. Current data on TARE in metastatic liver disease is promising, but there is a strong need for prospective randomized trials comparing TARE and modern chemotherapeutic regimen to support the growing role of TARE in metastatic liver disease.

  11. Marijuana: current concepts(†).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greydanus, Donald E; Hawver, Elizabeth K; Greydanus, Megan M; Merrick, Joav

    2013-10-10

    Marijuana (cannabis) remains a controversial drug in the twenty-first century. This paper considers current research on use of Cannabis sativa and its constituents such as the cannabinoids. Topics reviewed include prevalence of cannabis (pot) use, other drugs consumed with pot, the endocannabinoid system, use of medicinal marijuana, medical adverse effects of cannabis, and psychiatric adverse effects of cannabis use. Treatment of cannabis withdrawal and dependence is difficult and remains mainly based on psychological therapy; current research on pharmacologic management of problems related to cannabis consumption is also considered. The potential role of specific cannabinoids for medical benefit will be revealed as the twenty-first century matures. However, potential dangerous adverse effects from smoking marijuana are well known and should be clearly taught to a public that is often confused by a media-driven, though false message and promise of benign pot consumption.

  12. Submesoscale currents in the ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This article is a perspective on the recently discovered realm of submesoscale currents in the ocean. They are intermediate-scale flow structures in the form of density fronts and filaments, topographic wakes and persistent coherent vortices at the surface and throughout the interior. They are created from mesoscale eddies and strong currents, and they provide a dynamical conduit for energy transfer towards microscale dissipation and diapycnal mixing. Consideration is given to their generation mechanisms, instabilities, life cycles, disruption of approximately diagnostic force balance (e.g. geostrophy), turbulent cascades, internal-wave interactions, and transport and dispersion of materials. At a fundamental level, more questions remain than answers, implicating a programme for further research. PMID:27279778

  13. Persistent currents in ferromagnetic condensates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamacraft, Austen

    2017-06-01

    Persistent currents in Bose condensates with a scalar order parameter are stabilized by the topology of the order parameter manifold. In condensates with multicomponent order parameters it is topologically possible for supercurrents to "unwind" without leaving the manifold. We study the energetics of this process in the case of ferromagnetic condensates using a long wavelength energy functional that includes both the superfluid and spin stiffnesses. Exploiting analogies to an elastic rod and rigid body motion, we show that the current carrying state in a 1D ring geometry transitions between a spin helix in the energy minima and a solitonlike configuration at the maxima. The relevance to recent experiments in ultracold atoms is briefly discussed.

  14. Bootstrap Current in Spherical Tokamaks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王中天; 王龙

    2003-01-01

    Variational principle for the neoclassical theory has been developed by including amomentum restoring term in the electron-electron collisional operator, which gives an additionalfree parameter maximizing the heat production rate. All transport coefficients are obtained in-cluding the bootstrap current. The essential feature of the study is that the aspect ratio affects thefunction of the electron-electron collision operator through a geometrical factor. When the aspectratio approaches to unity, the fraction of circulating particles goes to zero and the contribution toparticle flux from the electron-electron collision vanishes. The resulting diffusion coefficient is inrough agreement with Hazeltine. When the aspect ratio approaches to infinity, the results are inagreement with Rosenbluth. The formalism gives the two extreme cases a connection. The theoryis particularly important for the calculation of bootstrap current in spherical tokamaks and thepresent tokamaks, in which the square root of the inverse aspect ratio, in general, is not small.

  15. Current Cervical Carcinoma Screening Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan J. Schlichte

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A formidable threat to the health of women, cervical carcinoma can be prevented in many cases with adequate screening. The current guidelines for cervical carcinoma screening were created as joint recommendations of the American Cancer Society (ACS, the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology (ASCCP and the American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP in 2012, and later accepted and promoted by the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG. The 2012 recommendations underscore the utility of molecular testing as an adjunct to cytology screening for certain women and provide guidance to clinicians based on different risk-benefit considerations for different ages. This manuscript will review screening techniques and current recommendations for cervical cancer screening and human papilloma virus (HPV testing, as well as possible future screening strategies.

  16. Current-Induced Membrane Discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mathias Bækbo; van Soestbergen, M.; Mani, A.;

    2012-01-01

    Possible mechanisms for overlimiting current (OLC) through aqueous ion-exchange membranes (exceeding diffusion limitation) have been debated for half a century. Flows consistent with electro-osmotic instability have recently been observed in microfluidic experiments, but the existing theory...... neglects chemical effects and remains to be quantitatively tested. Here, we show that charge regulation and water self-ionization can lead to OLC by "current-induced membrane discharge'' (CIMD), even in the absence of fluid flow, in ion-exchange membranes much thicker than the local Debye screening length....... Salt depletion leads to a large electric field resulting in a local pH shift within the membrane with the effect that the membrane discharges and loses its ion selectivity. Since salt co-ions, H+ ions, and OH- ions contribute to OLC, CIMD interferes with electrodialysis (salt counterion removal...

  17. Nanorobotics current approaches and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, Antoine

    2013-01-01

    Nanorobot devices now perform a wide variety of tasks at the nanoscale in a wide variety of fields including but not limited to fields such as manufacturing, medicine, supply chain, biology, and outer space. Nanorobotics: Current Approaches and Techniques is a comprehensive overview of this interdisciplinary field with a wide ranging discussion that includes nano-manipulation and industrial nanorobotics, nanorobotics in biology and medicine, nanorobotic sensing, navigation and swarm behavior, and protein and DNA-based nanorobotics. Also included is the latest on topics such as bio-nano-actuators and propulsion and navigation of nanorobotic systems using magnetic fields. Nanorobotics: Current Approaches and Techniques is an ideal book for scientists, researchers, and engineers actively involved in applied and robotic research and development.

  18. Currents in supersymmetric field theories

    CERN Document Server

    Derendinger, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    A general formalism to construct and improve supercurrents and source or anomaly superfields in two-derivative N=1 supersymmetric theories is presented. It includes arbitrary gauge and chiral superfields and a linear superfield coupled to gauge fields. These families of supercurrent structures are characterized by their energy-momentum tensors and R currents and they display a specific relation to the dilatation current of the theory. The linear superfield is introduced in order to describe the gauge coupling as a background (or propagating) field. Supersymmetry does not constrain the dependence on this gauge coupling field of gauge kinetic terms and holomorphicity restrictions are absent. Applying these results to an effective (Wilson) description of super-Yang-Mills theory, matching or cancellation of anomalies leads to an algebraic derivation of the all-order NSVZ beta function.

  19. Current possibilities for hip arthroplasty,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Cavalli Polesello

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Hip arthroscopy has been popularized over the last decade and, with technical advances regarding imaging diagnostics, understanding of the physiopathology or surgical techniques, several applications have been described. Both arthroscopy for intra-articular conditions and endoscopy for extra-articular procedures can be used in diagnosing or treating different conditions. This updated article has the objective of presenting the various current possibilities for hip arthroscopy.

  20. Analysis of current gender stereotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Rosario Castillo-Mayén; Beatriz Montes-Berges

    2014-01-01

    Gender stereotypes are beliefs about attributes associated to women and men that reveal gender discrimination. In order to identify changes of gender discrimination, the study of the stereotypes that prevail nowadays is essential. With this in mind, a scale consisting of 258 stereotypic characteristics was elaborated. This scale comprised two versions, one for female and one for male, which permits the understanding of how each gender is perceived currently. Both versions were filled out by 1...

  1. Current concepts in maxillofacial imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeddinghaus, Rudolf [Perth Radiological Clinic, 127 Hamersley Road, Subiaco, Western Australia 6008 (Australia)], E-mail: rboeddinghaus@perthradclinic.com.au; Whyte, Andy [Perth Radiological Clinic, 127 Hamersley Road, Subiaco, Western Australia 6008 (Australia)], E-mail: awhyte@perthradclinic.com.au

    2008-06-15

    A review of state-of-the-art maxillofacial imaging is presented. Current imaging techniques include intra-oral radiographs, dental panoramic tomography, multidetector helical computed tomography, cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The commonest conditions encountered in clinical radiological practice are reviewed, including maxillofacial deformities, complicated dental impactions, maxillofacial trauma, jaw lesions (cysts, neoplasms, fibro-osseous lesions (FOLs) and infections), and temporomandibular joint pathology. Pre-operative assessment for dental implant placement is also briefly reviewed.

  2. High PRF high current switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Stuart L.; Hutcherson, R. Kenneth

    1990-03-27

    A triggerable, high voltage, high current, spark gap switch for use in pu power systems. The device comprises a pair of electrodes in a high pressure hydrogen environment that is triggered by introducing an arc between one electrode and a trigger pin. Unusually high repetition rates may be obtained by undervolting the switch, i.e., operating the trigger at voltages much below the self-breakdown voltage of the device.

  3. Current Epidemiology of Genitourinary Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGeady, James B.; Breyer, Benjamin N.

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis This article reviews recent publications evaluating the current epidemiology of urologic trauma. It begins by providing a brief explanation of databases that have been recently used to study this patient population, then proceeds to discuss each genitourinary organ individually, discussing the most relevant and up to date information published for each one. The conclusion of the article briefly discusses possible future research and development areas pertaining to the topic. PMID:23905930

  4. Analysis of current gender stereotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Rosario Castillo-Mayén; Beatriz Montes-Berges

    2014-01-01

    Gender stereotypes are beliefs about attributes associated to women and men that reveal gender discrimination. In order to identify changes of gender discrimination, the study of the stereotypes that prevail nowadays is essential. With this in mind, a scale consisting of 258 stereotypic characteristics was elaborated. This scale comprised two versions, one for female and one for male, which permits the understanding of how each gender is perceived currently. Both versions were filled out by 1...

  5. For current viewing resistor loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, Gregory R [Tijeras, NM; Hass, Jay B [Lee' s Summit, MO

    2011-04-19

    The invention comprises a terminal unit for a flat cable comprising a BNC-PCB connector having a pin for electrically contacting one or more conducting elements of a flat cable, and a current viewing resistor having an opening through which the pin extends and having a resistor face that abuts a connector face of the BNC-PCB connector, wherein the device is a terminal unit for the flat cable.

  6. Classification of simple current invariants

    CERN Document Server

    Gato-Rivera, Beatriz

    1992-01-01

    We summarize recent work on the classification of modular invariant partition functions that can be obtained with simple currents in theories with a center (Z_p)^k with p prime. New empirical results for other centers are also presented. Our observation that the total number of invariants is monodromy-independent for (Z_p)^k appears to be true in general as well. (Talk presented in the parallel session on string theory of the Lepton-Photon/EPS Conference, Geneva, 1991.)

  7. [Current therapy of multiple sclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio García Merino, J

    2014-12-01

    Since the introduction of interferon beta 1 b for the treatment of multiple sclerosis, there has been a progressive increase in the number of drugs available for this disease. Currently, 11 drugs have been approved in Spain, and their indications depend on specific clinical characteristics. The present article reviews these indications and also discusses other medications without official approval that have also been used in multiple sclerosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Social networks user: current research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agadullina E.R.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to review current research studies focusing on the users of Facebook and their behaviors in social networks. This review is organized into two sections: 1 social-demographic characteristics (Age, Gender, Nationality; 2 personality characteristics (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness-to-Experience, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Narcissism, Self-esteem. The results showed that the information in the personal profile and online behavior are strongly connected with socio-demographic and personality characteristics

  9. Current forms and gauge invariance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, M Castrillon [Departemento de GeometrIa y TopologIa, Facultad de Matematicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040-Madrid (Spain); Masque, J Munoz [Instituto de FIsica Aplicada, CSIC, C/Serrano 144, 28006-Madrid (Spain)

    2004-05-14

    Let C be the bundle of connections of a principal G-bundle {pi}:P {yields} M, and let V be the vector bundle associated with P by a linear representation G {yields} GL(V) on a finite-dimensional vector space V. The Lagrangians on J{sup 1}(C x {sub M}V) whose current form is gauge invariant, are described and the gauge-invariant Lagrangians on J{sup 1}(V) are classified.

  10. Kernel current source density method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potworowski, Jan; Jakuczun, Wit; Lȩski, Szymon; Wójcik, Daniel

    2012-02-01

    Local field potentials (LFP), the low-frequency part of extracellular electrical recordings, are a measure of the neural activity reflecting dendritic processing of synaptic inputs to neuronal populations. To localize synaptic dynamics, it is convenient, whenever possible, to estimate the density of transmembrane current sources (CSD) generating the LFP. In this work, we propose a new framework, the kernel current source density method (kCSD), for nonparametric estimation of CSD from LFP recorded from arbitrarily distributed electrodes using kernel methods. We test specific implementations of this framework on model data measured with one-, two-, and three-dimensional multielectrode setups. We compare these methods with the traditional approach through numerical approximation of the Laplacian and with the recently developed inverse current source density methods (iCSD). We show that iCSD is a special case of kCSD. The proposed method opens up new experimental possibilities for CSD analysis from existing or new recordings on arbitrarily distributed electrodes (not necessarily on a grid), which can be obtained in extracellular recordings of single unit activity with multiple electrodes.

  11. Female pattern alopecia: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levy LL

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Lauren L Levy, Jason J Emer Department of Dermatology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA Abstract: Hair loss is a commonly encountered problem in clinical practice, with men presenting with a distinctive pattern involving hairline recession and vertex balding (Norwood-Hamilton classification and women exhibiting diffuse hair thinning over the crown (increased part width and sparing of the frontal hairline (Ludwig classification. Female pattern hair loss has a strikingly overwhelming psychological effect; thus, successful treatments are necessary. Difficulty lies in successful treatment interventions, as only two medications – minoxidil and finasteride – are approved for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia, and these medications offer mediocre results, lack of a permanent cure, and potential complications. Hair transplantation is the only current successful permanent option, and it requires surgical procedures. Several other medical options, such as antiandrogens (eg, spironolactone, oral contraceptives, cyproterone, flutamide, dutasteride, prostaglandin analogs (eg, bimatoprost, latanoprost, and ketoconazole are reported to be beneficial. Laser and light therapies have also become popular despite the lack of a profound benefit. Management of expectations is crucial, and the aim of therapy, given the current therapeutic options, is to slow or stop disease progression with contentment despite patient expectations of permanent hair regrowth. This article reviews current perspectives on therapeutic options for female pattern hair loss. Keywords: androgenetic alopecia, female pattern hair loss, minoxidil, finasteride, antiandrogens, spironolactone

  12. Reconnection in thin current sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenerani, Anna; Velli, Marco; Pucci, Fulvia; Rappazzo, A. F.

    2016-05-01

    It has been widely believed that reconnection is the underlying mechanism of many explosive processes observed both in nature and laboratory, but the question of reconnection speed and initial trigger have remained mysterious. How is fast magnetic energy release triggered in high Lundquist (S) and Reynolds (R) number plasmas?It has been shown that a tearing mode instability can grow on an ideal timescale, i.e., independent from the the Lundquist number, once the current sheet thickness becomes thin enough, or rather the inverse aspect ratio a/L reaches a scale a/L~S-1/3. As such, the latter provides a natural, critical threshold for current sheets that can be formed in nature before they disrupt in a few Alfvén time units. Here we discuss the transition to fast reconnection extended to simple viscous and kinetic models and we propose a possible scenario for the transition to explosive reconnection in high-Lundquist number plasmas, that we support with fully nonlinear numerical MHD simulations of a collapsing current sheet.

  13. Current practice for pulmonary hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Toru Satoh

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the current practice of pulmonary hypertension including current epidemiology,diagnosis and treatment.Data sources The review was based on data obtained from the published articles and guidelines.Study selection Articles with high level of evidence or current best evidence in each issue were selected to be reviewed.Results Overall prevalence of pulmonary hypertension was 0.3% to 6% with left heart disease occupying the most proportion,followed by pulmonary disease,pulmonary arterial hypertension and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.In diagnosis,a flow diagram of diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension,differential diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension and how to determine the severity of pulmonary hypertension are explained including recent development of magnetic resonance imaging and gene abnormality study on bone morphogenetic protein receptor Ⅱ.In treatment,newlydeveloped pulmonary vasodilators and the way to use them are shown to treat pulmonary hypertension.Conclusion Safer and more effective treatment algorithm and basic researches and clinical trials are warranted to be explored.

  14. Internet gaming addiction: current perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuss, Daria J

    2013-01-01

    In the 2000s, online games became popular, while studies of Internet gaming addiction emerged, outlining the negative consequences of excessive gaming, its prevalence, and associated risk factors. The establishment of specialized treatment centers in South-East Asia, the US, and Europe reflects the growing need for professional help. It is argued that only by understanding the appeal of Internet gaming, its context, and neurobiologic correlates can the phenomenon of Internet gaming addiction be understood comprehensively. The aim of this review is to provide an insight into current perspectives on Internet gaming addiction using a holistic approach, taking into consideration the mass appeal of online games, the context of Internet gaming addiction, and associated neuroimaging findings, as well as the current diagnostic framework adopted by the American Psychiatric Association. The cited research indicates that the individual’s context is a significant factor that marks the dividing line between excessive gaming and gaming addiction, and the game context can gain particular importance for players, depending on their life situation and gaming preferences. Moreover, the cultural context is significant because it embeds the gamer in a community with shared beliefs and practices, endowing their gaming with particular meaning. The cited neuroimaging studies indicate that Internet gaming addiction shares similarities with other addictions, including substance dependence, at the molecular, neurocircuitry, and behavioral levels. The findings provide support for the current perspective of understanding Internet gaming addiction from a disease framework. The benefits of an Internet gaming addiction diagnosis include reliability across research, destigmatization of individuals, development of efficacious treatments, and the creation of an incentive for public health care and insurance providers. The holistic approach adopted here not only highlights empirical research that

  15. Internet gaming addiction: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuss, Daria J

    2013-01-01

    In the 2000s, online games became popular, while studies of Internet gaming addiction emerged, outlining the negative consequences of excessive gaming, its prevalence, and associated risk factors. The establishment of specialized treatment centers in South-East Asia, the US, and Europe reflects the growing need for professional help. It is argued that only by understanding the appeal of Internet gaming, its context, and neurobiologic correlates can the phenomenon of Internet gaming addiction be understood comprehensively. The aim of this review is to provide an insight into current perspectives on Internet gaming addiction using a holistic approach, taking into consideration the mass appeal of online games, the context of Internet gaming addiction, and associated neuroimaging findings, as well as the current diagnostic framework adopted by the American Psychiatric Association. The cited research indicates that the individual's context is a significant factor that marks the dividing line between excessive gaming and gaming addiction, and the game context can gain particular importance for players, depending on their life situation and gaming preferences. Moreover, the cultural context is significant because it embeds the gamer in a community with shared beliefs and practices, endowing their gaming with particular meaning. The cited neuroimaging studies indicate that Internet gaming addiction shares similarities with other addictions, including substance dependence, at the molecular, neurocircuitry, and behavioral levels. The findings provide support for the current perspective of understanding Internet gaming addiction from a disease framework. The benefits of an Internet gaming addiction diagnosis include reliability across research, destigmatization of individuals, development of efficacious treatments, and the creation of an incentive for public health care and insurance providers. The holistic approach adopted here not only highlights empirical research that

  16. [Current studies in myotonic dystrophy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yimeng; Ishiura, Shoichi

    2014-03-01

    Myotonic dystrophy (DM) is a genetic, progressive, multisystemic disease with muscular disorder as its primary symptom. There are two types of DM (DM1 and DM2) caused by mutations in different genes, and in Japan, DM occurs with an incidence of approximately 1 in 20,000. The pathogenic mechanism underlying the disease is RNA toxicity caused by transcripts of aberrantly elongated CTG or CCTG repeats located in the 3' untranslated region or in the intron. The current treatments for DM is limited to symptomatic care. In this review, we will discuss several new therapeutic strategies based on recent studies of RNA toxicity.

  17. Topics in current aerosol research

    CERN Document Server

    Hidy, G M

    1971-01-01

    Topics in Current Aerosol Research deals with the fundamental aspects of aerosol science, with emphasis on experiment and theory describing highly dispersed aerosols (HDAs) as well as the dynamics of charged suspensions. Topics covered range from the basic properties of HDAs to their formation and methods of generation; sources of electric charges; interactions between fluid and aerosol particles; and one-dimensional motion of charged cloud of particles. This volume is comprised of 13 chapters and begins with an introduction to the basic properties of HDAs, followed by a discussion on the form

  18. Transient eddy current flow metering

    CERN Document Server

    Forbriger, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Measuring local velocities or entire flow rates in liquid metals or semiconductor melts is a notorious problem in many industrial applications, including metal casting and silicon crystal growth. We present a new variant of an old technique which relies on the continuous tracking of a flow-advected transient eddy current that is induced by a pulsed external magnetic field. This calibration-free method is validated by applying it to the velocity of a spinning disk made of aluminum. First tests at a rig with a flow of liquid GaInSn are also presented.

  19. Internet Addiction: A Current Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Bozkurt

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Internet addiction, which has become a global social issue, can be broadly conceptualized as an inability to control ones use of the Internet which leads to negative consequences in daily life. Only Internet Gaming Disorder has been included in the appendix of the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders fifth edition (DSM-5, but it has already been argued that Internet addiction could also comprise problematic use of other Internet applications developing an addictive behavior. This paper aims to give a current review of the gradually evolving body of literature on Internet addiction. [J Contemp Med 2016; 6(3.000: 235-247

  20. Current considerations on teenage pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Cristina Manfré

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Teenage pregnancy has acquired significant proportions. It is estimated that 20 to 25% of all pregnant women in Brazil are teenagers. The present study, through an analysis of the current literature, examines the main aspects involving pregnancy during adolescence, along with its consequences on the life of young mothers, their children and social environment. We conclude that the efforts of health care professionals, parents and educators are crucial to increase awareness of adolescent sexuality. The application of this knowledge is a way to prevent teen pregnancy, thus avoiding the harmful effects on young mothers and their children.

  1. Peripartum Cardiomyopathy: A Current Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie M. Twomley

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM is a rare but potentially lethal complication of pregnancy occurring in approximately 1 : 3,000 live births in the United States although some series report a much higher incidence. African-American women are particularly at risk. Diagnosis requires symptoms of heart failure in the last month of pregnancy or within five months of delivery in the absence of recognized cardiac disease prior to pregnancy as well as objective evidence of left ventricular systolic dysfunction. This paper provides an updated, comprehensive review of PPCM, including emerging insights into the etiology of this disorder as well as current treatment options.

  2. Lagrangian Observations of Rip Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    me with her faith that I could do it and her positive attitude despite the challenges she has faced as a new sixth-grade teacher. xiv THIS PAGE...turned off for the day. Throughout the deployment period drifters were deployed in similar-sized groups composed of new drifters and/or those that... Techonology , 20, 1069-1075, 2003. Schmidt, W.E., R.T. Guza, and D.N. Slinn, Surf zone currents over irregular bathymetry: Drifter observations and numerical

  3. Solid tumor cytogenetics: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanjangud, Gouri; Amarillo, Ina; Rao, P Nagesh

    2011-12-01

    Conventional cytogenetics in conjunction with Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization (FISH) continues to remain an important and integral component in the diagnosis and management of solid tumors. The ability to effectively detect the vast majority of clinically relevant chromosomal aberrations with a rapid-to-acceptable turnaround time makes them the most cost-effective screening/detection tool currently available in modern pathology. In this review, we describe a representative set of solid tumors in which chromosomal analysis and/or FISH plays a significant role in the routine clinical management of solid tumors.

  4. Power quality issues current harmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Mikkili, Suresh

    2015-01-01

    Power Quality Issues: Current Harmonics provides solutions for the mitigation of power quality problems related to harmonics. Focusing on active power filters (APFs) due to their excellent harmonic and reactive power compensation in two-wire (single phase), three-wire (three-phase without neutral), and four-wire (three-phase with neutral) AC power networks with nonlinear loads, the text:Introduces the APF technology, describing various APF configurations and offering guidelines for the selection of APFs for specific application considerationsCompares shunt active filter (SHAF) control strategi

  5. Electric Current Circuits in Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Kuijpers, Jan; Fletcher, Lyndsay

    2014-01-01

    Cosmic magnetic structures have in common that they are anchored in a dynamo, that an external driver converts kinetic energy into internal magnetic energy, that this magnetic energy is transported as Poynting flux across the magnetically dominated structure, and that the magnetic energy is released in the form of particle acceleration, heating, bulk motion, MHD waves, and radiation. The investigation of the electric current system is particularly illuminating as to the course of events and the physics involved. We demonstrate this for the radio pulsar wind, the solar flare, and terrestrial magnetic storms.

  6. Transient eddy current flow metering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbriger, J.; Stefani, F.

    2015-10-01

    Measuring local velocities or entire flow rates in liquid metals or semiconductor melts is a notorious problem in many industrial applications, including metal casting and silicon crystal growth. We present a new variant of an old technique which relies on the continuous tracking of a flow-advected transient eddy current that is induced by a pulsed external magnetic field. This calibration-free method is validated by applying it to the velocity of a spinning disk made of aluminum. First tests at a rig with a flow of liquid GaInSn are also presented.

  7. Dark Current Measurements in GIF++

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Qahtani, Abdulaziz

    2017-01-01

    This project revolved around creating a code that treats experiment files in order to fetch dark current measurements done for the Cathode Strip Chambers (CSC) exposed to long-term irradiation at Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF++) and plot the results as functions of the accumulated charge. This paper will discuss the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment, the CSCs that we have looked at (specifically the muon detectors located at the CMS endcaps), longevity test at GIF++, and finally discuss the code and results obtained.

  8. Overlimiting current in a microchannel

    CERN Document Server

    Dydek, E Victoria; Rubinstein, Isaak; Deng, D S; Mani, Ali; Bazant, Martin Z

    2011-01-01

    We revisit the classical problem of diffusion-limited ion transport to a membrane (or electrode) by considering the effects of charged side walls. Using simple mathematical models and numerical simulations, we identify three basic mechanisms for over-limiting current in a microchannel: (i) {\\it surface conduction} carried by excess counterions, which dominates for very thin channels, (ii) convection by {\\it electro-osmotic flow} on the side walls, which dominates for thicker channels and transitions to (iii) {\\it electro-osmotic instability} on the membrane end in very thick channels. These intriguing electrokinetic phenomena may find applications in biological separations, water desalination, and electrochemical energy storage.

  9. [Current Concepts of Human Microsporidiosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeev, S A

    2015-01-01

    Microsporidiosis is an ubiquitous opportunistic disease that usually appears in immunocompromised patients: AIDS patients or organ-transplant recipients. The infectious agents of disease are fungi-related obligate intracellular parasites - microsporidia. Alongside with Cryptosporidium and Cytomegalovirus, these parasites are the most common causative agents of diarrhea in HIV-infected patients. Intestinalform of microsporidiosis has been mostfrequently observed, but microsporidia can affect almost any organs of the human body, eyes, lungs, muscles, organs of the nervous system. The present paper overviews the current data on the etiology, pathogenesis, epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment methods of microsporidiosis.

  10. Xerostomia: current streams of investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quock, Ryan L

    2016-07-01

    Xerostomia is the subjective feeling of dry mouth, and it is often related to salivary hypofunction. Besides medication-related salivary hypofunction, Sjögren syndrome and head-and-neck radiation are two common etiologies that have garnered considerable attention. Approaches to treating and/or preventing salivary hypofunction in patients with these conditions will likely incorporate gene therapy, stem cell therapy, and tissue engineering. Advances in these disciplines are central to current research in the cure for xerostomia and will be key to eventual treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Psychiatry beyond the current paradigm.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bracken, Pat

    2012-12-01

    A series of editorials in this Journal have argued that psychiatry is in the midst of a crisis. The various solutions proposed would all involve a strengthening of psychiatry\\'s identity as essentially \\'applied neuroscience\\'. Although not discounting the importance of the brain sciences and psychopharmacology, we argue that psychiatry needs to move beyond the dominance of the current, technological paradigm. This would be more in keeping with the evidence about how positive outcomes are achieved and could also serve to foster more meaningful collaboration with the growing service user movement.

  12. Current algebra; Algebre des courants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    The first three chapters of these lecture notes are devoted to generalities concerning current algebra. The weak currents are defined, and their main properties given (V-A hypothesis, conserved vector current, selection rules, partially conserved axial current,...). The SU (3) x SU (3) algebra of Gell-Mann is introduced, and the general properties of the non-leptonic weak Hamiltonian are discussed. Chapters 4 to 9 are devoted to some important applications of the algebra. First one proves the Adler- Weisberger formula, in two different ways, by either the infinite momentum frame, or the near-by singularities method. In the others chapters, the latter method is the only one used. The following topics are successively dealt with: semi leptonic decays of K mesons and hyperons, Kroll- Ruderman theorem, non leptonic decays of K mesons and hyperons ( {delta}I = 1/2 rule), low energy theorems concerning processes with emission (or absorption) of a pion or a photon, super-convergence sum rules, and finally, neutrino reactions. (author) [French] La premiere partie de ce cours (trois premiers chapitres), traite des generalites concernant l'algebre de courants. Apres une definition rapide des courants faibles et un rappel de leurs proprietes (hypothese V-A, conservation du courant vecteur, regles de selection, courant axial partiellement conserve,...), l'on introduit l'algebre de Gell-Mann SU (3) x SU (3), et discute les proprietes generales de l'Hamiltonien faible non leptonique. Les chapitres IV a IX sont consacres a des applications importantes de l'algebre des courants. En premier lieu l'on demontre la formule de Adler et Weisberger, par deux methodes differentes, celle dite du repere de moment infini et celle des singularites proches. Cette derniere est seule utilisee dans la suite. Puis, l'on traite successivement les problemes suivants: desintegrations semi-leptoniques des mesons K et des hyperons, theoreme de Kroll

  13. Symbols: historic and current uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Emilee

    2008-01-01

    From hieroglyphs to barcodes, symbols have been used throughout history. Symbols can be observed on traffic signs, warning signs that are affixed to building fronts, doors of public restrooms to show gender-specific usage, and caution signs on caustic or poisonous chemicals; even Braille, a system of writing and printing for the blind, is a symbol form. This article includes a brief discussion on the psychology of symbols, history of symbols, symbols used by alchemists and pharmacists, and the current use of symbols.

  14. Internet gaming addiction: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuss DJ

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Daria J KussPsychology Research and Behavior Management, Birmingham City University, Birmingham, UKAbstract: In the 2000s, online games became popular, while studies of Internet gaming addiction emerged, outlining the negative consequences of excessive gaming, its prevalence, and associated risk factors. The establishment of specialized treatment centers in South-East Asia, the US, and Europe reflects the growing need for professional help. It is argued that only by understanding the appeal of Internet gaming, its context, and neurobiologic correlates can the phenomenon of Internet gaming addiction be understood comprehensively. The aim of this review is to provide an insight into current perspectives on Internet gaming addiction using a holistic approach, taking into consideration the mass appeal of online games, the context of Internet gaming addiction, and associated neuroimaging findings, as well as the current diagnostic framework adopted by the American Psychiatric Association. The cited research indicates that the individual's context is a significant factor that marks the dividing line between excessive gaming and gaming addiction, and the game context can gain particular importance for players, depending on their life situation and gaming preferences. Moreover, the cultural context is significant because it embeds the gamer in a community with shared beliefs and practices, endowing their gaming with particular meaning. The cited neuroimaging studies indicate that Internet gaming addiction shares similarities with other addictions, including substance dependence, at the molecular, neurocircuitry, and behavioral levels. The findings provide support for the current perspective of understanding Internet gaming addiction from a disease framework. The benefits of an Internet gaming addiction diagnosis include reliability across research, destigmatization of individuals, development of efficacious treatments, and the creation of an incentive

  15. Gravity current jump conditions, revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungarish, Marius; Hogg, Andrew J.

    2016-11-01

    Consider the flow of a high-Reynolds-number gravity current of density ρc in an ambient fluid of density ρa in a horizontal channel z ∈ [ 0 , H ] , with gravity in - z direction. The motion is often modeled by a two-layer formulation which displays jumps (shocks) in the height of the interface, in particular at the leading front of the dense layer. Various theoretical models have been advanced to predict the dimensionless speed of the jump, Fr = U /√{g' h } ; g' , h are reduced gravity and jump height. We revisit this problem and using the Navier-Stokes equations, integrated over a control volume embedding the jump, derive balances of mass and momentum fluxes. We focus on understanding the closures needed to complete this model and we show the vital need to understand the pressure head losses over the jump, which we show can be related to the vorticity fluxes at the boundaries of the control volume. Our formulation leads to two governing equations for three dimensionless quantities. Closure requires one further assumption, depending on which we demonstrate that previous models for gravity current fronts and internal bores can be recovered. This analysis yield new insights into existing results, and also provides constraints for potential new formulae.

  16. Radar-eddy current GPR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Abramovych

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. At present there are many electrical schematic metal detectors (the most common kind of ground penetrating radar, which are differ in purpose. Each scheme has its own advantages and disadvantages compared to other schemes. Designing metal detector problem of optimal selection of functional units most schemes can only work with a narrow range of special purpose units. Functional units used in circuits can be replaced by better ones, but specialization schemes do not provide such a possibility. Description of problem. Author has created a "complex for research of functional units of metal detectors" that is the universal system that meets the task. With this set of studies conducted on the practical implementation of radar-eddy current method of distinguishing non-ferrous metals (gold, copper, etc. is based. Description of method. Mathematical tools using have to be treated as a signal metal detector to distinguish metals: gold, copper and others. Conclusions. Processing of partial pulses may have information about beforehand signal loss during propagation in heterogeneous media with lossy nonuniform distribution parameters. Using eddy currents To calculate the value of the input voltage depending on the conductivity of the metal in the receiving antenna.Combining two different methods for processing the received signal theoretically it could be proved that with high probability can distinguish non-ferrous metals - gold, copper etc.

  17. Botrytized wines – current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magyar I

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ildikó Magyar, János Soós Department of Oenology, Institute of Viticulture and Oenology, Szent István University, Budapest, Hungary Abstract: Botrytized wines are wine specialties made of overripe grapes infected by Botrytis cinerea with the form “noble rot”. Due to the particular characteristics of the noble rotted grape, these wines (eg, Tokaji Aszú, Sauternes, Trockenbeerenauslese types, etc have many characteristic features, including higher or lower residual sugar content and unique aroma composition. The technology, biochemistry, and special characteristics of botrytized wines have been researched for a long time. This review outlines the main directions of the current studies, giving a brief overview on the recent findings. Beside the traditional wine types, noble rot is increasingly utilized in making newer sweet wine styles and straw (passito wines, which generates a series of new interesting experimental results. The fungus–grape interactions during the noble rot, the induced botrytization, the microbial communities of botrytized wines, and the volatile compounds having key roles in the distinct aroma of these wine styles are being focused on in the current studies in this field. Keywords: Botrytis, noble rot, sweet wines, passito wine, aroma

  18. Analysis of current gender stereotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Castillo-Mayén

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Gender stereotypes are beliefs about attributes associated to women and men that reveal gender discrimination. In order to identify changes of gender discrimination, the study of the stereotypes that prevail nowadays is essential. With this in mind, a scale consisting of 258 stereotypic characteristics was elaborated. This scale comprised two versions, one for female and one for male, which permits the understanding of how each gender is perceived currently. Both versions were filled out by 164 undergraduates (50% women. Taking into account those stereotypes that are still differentially assigned to each gender, this study identifies current gender stereotypes that are independent of sociodemographic characteristics, such as age or sex. In addition, new gender stereotypes emerged recently were gathered, and important changes of stereotypes were emphasized, especially those of feminine stereotypes. According to social role theory, these changes are the consequence of social roles changes. Conclusions highlight that, although part of the results involve progress on the achievement of equality, traditional stereotypic characteristics are still referred to each gender, which perpetuate discrimination.

  19. Current status of Japanese detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Tatsumi, Daisuke; Arai, Koji; Nakagawa, Noriyasu; Agatsuma, Kazuhiro; Yamazaki, Toshitaka; Fukushima, Mitsuhiro; Fujimoto, Masa-Katsu; Takamori, Akiteru; Bertolini, Alessandro; Sannibale, Virginio; DeSalvo, Riccardo; Marka, Szabolcs; Ando, Masaki; Tsubono, Kimio; Akutsu, Tomomi; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Ishitsuka, Hideki; Uchiyama, Takashi; Miyoki, Shinji; Ohashi, Masatake; Kuroda, Kazuaki; Awaya, Norichika; Kanda, Nobuyuki; Araya, Akito; Telada, Souichi; Tomaru, Takayuki; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Yamamoto, Akira; Sato, Nobuaki; Suzuki, Toshitaka; Shintomi, Takakazu

    2007-01-01

    Current status of TAMA and CLIO detectors in Japan is reported in this article. These two interferometric gravitational-wave detectors are being developed for the large cryogenic gravitational wave telescope (LCGT) which is a future plan for detecting gravitational wave signals at least once per year. TAMA300 is being upgraded to improve the sensitivity in low frequency region after the last observation experiment in 2004. To reduce the seismic noises, we are installing new seismic isolation system, which is called TAMA Seismic Attenuation System, for the four test masses. We confirmed stable mass locks of a cavity and improvements of length and angular fluctuations by using two SASs. We are currently optimizing the performance of the third and fourth SASs. We continue TAMA300 operation and R&D studies for LCGT. Next data taking in the summer of 2007 is planned. CLIO is a 100-m baseline length prototype detector for LCGT to investigate interferometer performance in cryogenic condition. The key features of...

  20. Gravity currents at Ormen Lange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vikeboe, Frode; Berntsen, Jarle; Furnes, Gunnar

    2001-12-01

    Time series of temperature and velocities at Ormen Lange, located in the Storegga region off mid-Norway, indicate that close to the seabed, at depths ranging from 500-1000 m, large temperature fluctuations are accompanied by short peak values in speed. The extreme events are driven by strong pressure gradients, due to strong atmospheric low pressures and/or internal pressure fronts between warmer Atlantic Water (AW) and colder Norwegian Sea Water (NSW). Along the shelf slope at OL we may get steepening of the iso surfaces of density, separating AW and NSW, due to strong Ekman veering during storms or approaching internal density fronts. During such events the density surfaces tend to undershoot their equilibrium level, and as the forcing weakens, the suppressed water may run up along the shelf slope. In this run up phase, peak values in the velocities are often found. As a result of the run up phase, heavy water may be elevated onto the shelf. Subsequently dense fluid will spread under the influence of forces produced by its own buoyancy and motions of this form are often referred to as gravity currents. They are characterised by the distinctive nature of the front, which consists of a raised head leading a shallower flow behind. The shape of the head and body of the gravity current, along with velocity, depend on a range of parameters. This report investigates the velocities that may occur with parameters of relevance for Ormen Lange. (author)

  1. Current issues in peripheral neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannagan, Thomas H

    2012-05-01

    Twenty million people in the United States are estimated to have peripheral neuropathy. However, many patients are not aware of their diagnosis, are not given the diagnosis or being treated, or the diagnosis is delayed. Currently, the only treatments available for neuropathy are aimed at treating the underlying medical conditions that cause the neuropathy or treating symptoms such as pain. Neither treats the actual nerve fiber dysfunction or fiber loss, or helps nerve fibers regenerate. Idiopathic neuropathy, that is neuropathy for which a cause is not identified, is common, accounting in referral series for 25% in all neuropathy patients and 50% or more of patients with small fiber neuropathy. Currently, there is only one FDA-approved medication for a specific neuropathy (chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy) while there are two FDA approved medications for diabetic neuropathy pain and four that are approved for post-herpetic neuralgia pain. For many patients with painful neuropathy, these medications are ineffective or not tolerated. Continued research into the underlying mechanisms of neuropathy and an increased understanding of nerve regeneration and neuropathic pain are needed to address this unmet medical need among patients with neuropathy.

  2. Catalytic polarographic currents of oxidizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zajtsev, P.M.; Zhdanov, S.I.; Nikolaeva, T.D. (Vsesoyuznyj Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Khimicheskikh Reaktivov i Osobo Chistykh Veshchestv, Moscow (USSR))

    1982-06-01

    The state of theory and practice of an important direction in polarography, i.e. catalytic currents of oxidizers-substrates that have found a wide application in the development of highly sensitive methods of determination of a large number of substrates, catalysts and polarographically nonactive ligands, is considered. Transition and some non-transition elements serve as catalysts of reactions that cause catalytic polarographic currents of substrates. Catalytic activity of an inorganic catalyst increases with the increase in the number of its d-orbit. Complex formation in most cases leads to the increase of catalyst activity, however, sometimes a reverse phenomenon takes place. For many catalysts the maximum activity is observed at pH values close to pK value of their hydrolysis. The properties of oxidizers-substrates is revealed by H/sub 2/O/sub 2/, ClO/sub 3//sup -/, BrO/sub 3//sup -/, IO/sub 3//sup -/, ClO/sub 4//sup -/, IO/sub 4//sup -/, NO/sub 2//sup -/, NO/sub 3//sup -/, NH/sub 2/OH, V(5), V(4), S/sub 2/O/sub 8//sup 2 -/, H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, H/sub 2/C/sub 2/O/sub 4/, COHCOOH, alkenes compounds, organic halogen , sulfur- and amine-containing compounds.

  3. Sinoprobe Datacenter Development: Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Y.; Dong, S.; Chen, Z.; Chen, G.; Cheng, M.

    2011-12-01

    The project of the Sinoprobe datacenter development is to build new IT infrastructures needed to store, visualize and manage all the data acquired by SinoProbe program.The SinoProbe data center is designed using service-oriented architecture (SOA) principles. More specifically, service component architecture (SCA) is used to implement sinoprobe data services. It also uses various advanced technologies such as Java/JEE for the platform, PostgresSQL/PostGIS for the data storage, ApacheDS for LDAP, CoachDB for the medadata storage, GeoServer for the GIS services, ExtJs and OpenLayer for the Ajax framework, and Apache Shiro for the security framework. Through the integration and development of various technologies used, the major services of the datacenter system are implemented including the security infrastructure services (user authentication and authorization), metadata services, data warehouse stores, data services, GIS services, and web portal. There are also visualization components including the development of a virtual globe to replace the currently used Google Earth. This poster presents the current status of the SinoProbe data center development, and the detailed discussion of the system.

  4. [Current Approaches in Cancer Immunotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otáhal, P; Trněný, M

    2015-01-01

    Methods of cancer immunotherapy have finally entered clinical medicine after years of preclinical research. Currently, there are several methods, which have proven to be very effective even in cases of incurable cancer. Antitumor monoclonal antibodies are among major therapeutic anti-cancer drugs and have been successfully used for many ears. Novel group of antibodies are immunomodulatory antibodies which can break tumor -specific immune tolerance and induce regression of tumors by nonspecific activation of immune system. Bispecific antibodies represent a novel class of anticancer agents which can induce expansion of T cells in vivo, blinatumomab is an example of such agents and is currently available for the treatment of acute B -cell leukemia. Cellular immunotherapy is also very effective, especially the use of Chimeric receptor modified T-cells for the therapy of B- cell lymphoproliferative diseases. Although it is a very complicated and expensive method, it is highly effective approach which can induce remission even in previously hopeless conditions. The goal of this article is to explain the basic principles of cancer immunotherapy and summarize the newest findings in this field.

  5. Current knowledge on esophageal atresia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paulo Fernando Martins Pinheiro; Ana Cristina Sim(o)es e Silva; Regina Maria Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Esophageal atresia (EA) with or without tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) is the most common congenital anomaly of the esophagus.The improvement of survival observed over the previous two decades is multifactorial and largely attributable to advances in neonatal intensive care,neonatal anesthesia,ventilatory and nutritional support,antibiotics,early surgical intervention,surgical materials and techniques.Indeed,mortality is currently limited to those cases with coexisting severe life-threatening anomalies.The diagnosis of EA is most commonly made during the first 24 h of life but may occur either antenatally or may be delayed.The primary surgical correction for EA and TEF is the best option in the absence of severe malformations.There is no ideal replacement for the esophagus and the optimal surgical treatment for patients with long-gap EA is still controversial.The primary complications during the postoperative period are leak and stenosis of the anastomosis,gastro-esophageal reflux,esophageal dysmotility,fistula recurrence,respiratory disorders and deformities of the thoracic wall.Data regarding long-term outcomes and follow-ups are limited for patients following EA/TEF repair.The determination of the risk factors for the complicated evolution following EA/TEF repair may positively impact long-term prognoses.Much remains to be studied regarding this condition.This manuscript provides a literature review of the current knowledge regarding EA.

  6. Past and Current Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercedes Rodríguez Ruibal, Ma

    2014-05-01

    In 1837 the Swiss geologist and palaeontologist Louis Agassiz was the first scientist to propose the existence of an ice age in the Earth's past. Nearly two centuries after discussing global glacial periods... while the average global temperature is rising very quickly because of our economic and industrial model. In tribute to these pioneers, we have selected a major climate change of the past as the Snowball Earth and, through various activities in the classroom, compared to the current anthropogenic climate change. First, we include multiple geological processes that led to a global glaciation 750 million years ago as the decrease in the atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases such as CO2 and CH4, the effect of climate variations in solar radiation due to emissions of volcanic dust and orbital changes (Milankovitch cycles), being an essential part of this model the feedback mechanism of the albedo of the ice on a geological scale. Moreover, from simple experiments and studies in the classroom this time we can compare the past with the current anthropogenic global warming we are experiencing and some of its consequences, highlighting that affect sea level rise, increased extreme and effects on health and the biosphere weather.

  7. Current conveyors variants, applications and hardware implementations

    CERN Document Server

    Senani, Raj; Singh, A K

    2015-01-01

    This book serves as a single-source reference to Current Conveyors and their use in modern Analog Circuit Design. The authors describe the various types of current conveyors discovered over the past 45 years, details of all currently available, off-the-shelf integrated circuit current conveyors, and implementations of current conveyors using other, off-the-shelf IC building blocks. Coverage includes prominent bipolar/CMOS/Bi-CMOS architectures of current conveyors, as well as all varieties of starting from third generation current conveyors to universal current conveyors, their implementations and applications. •Describes all commercially available off-the-shelf IC current conveyors, as well as hardware implementations of current conveyors using other off-the-shelf ICs; • Describes numerous variants of current conveyors evolved over the past forty five years; • Describes a number of Bipolar/CMOS/Bi-CMOS architectures of current conveyors, along with their characteristic features; • Includes a comprehe...

  8. Bruxism and Current Treatment Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selin Eren

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the mastication system disorders bruxism is a parafunctional behavior that comes from psychophysiological origin. Epidemiologic studies have reported great variability of bruxism prevalence. The factors that could cause bruxism is highly controversial. There are different opinions on this issue. The etiologic factors of bruxism include stress, malnutrition, allergic and endocrinologic diseases, central nervous system disorders, genetic factors, medicines, malocclusion, and wrong dental treatment. The aim of treatment of bruxism is to prevent damage that may occur on teeth and in the temporomandibular joint and to eliminate pain. Dental treatment, physical therapy, pharmacological treatment and behavioral and cognitive therapy can be considered for this purpose of treatment. This review summarizes the etiologic factors, epidemiology, diagnosis, and current treatment approaches of patient with bruxism. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2016; 25(2.000: 241-258

  9. Current Developments in Cognitive Linguistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dirk Geeraerts

    2008-01-01

    After 30 years of theoretical development, we need to address the question whether the internal evolution of Cognitive Linguistics can be synthesized: what are the fundamental underlying trends in Cognitive Linguistics, and how do they shape the current developments within Cognitive Linguistics? This paper argues that Cognitive Linguistics is essentially characterized by a gradual recontextualization of the grammar. First, the development of 20th century grammar is characterized by a succession of a decontextualizing and a recontextualizing movement. Second, the various stages in the development of Cognitive Linguistics involve the gradual recovery of the various types of context that were discarded by generative grammar. These involve the experiential and embodied context of meaning in natural Language, the pragmatic context of actual language usage, and the social and cultural context of language as a shared code.

  10. Current perspectives on reflux laryngitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaoka, Daisuke; Nagahara, Akihito; Matsumoto, Kenshi; Hojo, Mariko; Watanabe, Sumio

    2014-12-01

    Laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) is an extraesophageal manifestation of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). With the increase of GERD patients, the importance of LPR is acknowledged widely. However, the pathophysiology of LPR is not understood completely and the diagnostic criteria for LPR remain controversial. Unfortunately, a gold standard diagnostic test for reflux laryngitis is not available. Recently, an experimental animal model for reflux laryngitis was developed to investigate the pathophysiology of reflux laryngitis. An empirical trial of lifestyle modification and proton pump inhibitor therapy is a reasonable approach for LPR symptoms. Alternatives after failure with aggressive medical treatment are limited and multichannel intraluminal impedance and pH monitoring is currently the best alternative to detect nonacid reflux. Additional prospective and evidence-based research is anticipated.

  11. The current evaluation of Vud

    CERN Document Server

    Hardy, J C

    2015-01-01

    The Vud element of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix can be determined from several different experimental approaches: either 0+-to-0+ superallowed nuclear beta decays, neutron decay, nuclear mirror decays, or pion beta decay. Currently all give consistent results but, because the nuclear superallowed value has an uncertainty at least a factor of seven less than all other results, it dominates the result. A new survey of world superallowed-decay data establishes the Ft values of 14 separate superallowed transitions to a precision of order 0.1% or better; and all 14 are statistically consistent with one another. This very robust data set yields the result Vud = 0.97417(21), the value we recommend.

  12. Familial Mediterranean fever: current perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sönmez, Hafize Emine; Batu, Ezgi Deniz; Özen, Seza

    2016-01-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is the most frequent monogenic autoinflammatory disease, and it is characterized by recurrent attacks of fever and polyserositis. The disease is associated with mutations in the MEFV gene encoding pyrin, which causes exaggerated inflammatory response through uncontrolled production of interleukin 1. The major long-term complication of FMF is amyloidosis. Colchicine remains the principle therapy, and the aim of treatment is to prevent acute attacks and the consequences of chronic inflammation. With the evolution in the concepts about the etiopathogenesis and genetics of the disease, we have understood that FMF is more complicated than an ordinary autosomal recessive monogenic disorder. Recently, recommendation sets have been generated for interpretation of genetic testing and genetic diagnosis of FMF. Here, we have reviewed the current perspectives in FMF in light of recent recommendations. PMID:27051312

  13. Current state of food radiopreservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauch, P.; Kyzlink, V. (Vysoka Skola Chemicko-Technologicka, Prague (Czechoslovakia)); Rusz, J. (Vyzkumny Ustav Masneho Prumyslu, Brno (Czechoslovakia))

    1983-11-01

    Irradiation of foodstuffs causes undesirable changes in oxylabile vitamins and lipids, the release of smelly products or the softening of fibres even at very low doses. A combination of irradiation with heating or freezing is used in the attempt to mitigate these unfavourable effects. Gamma and x rays are used for irradiation, beta rays are being tried which inactivate microorganisms on the surface of the foodstuff and interfere only very little with the internal structure of the foodstuff. In case dose rates over 1 kGy are used it will be necessary to test the toxicity and mutagenicity of the irradiated foodstuff on laboratory animals. Next to undesirable changes in the sensory properties and nutritional value of the foodstuffs there are also the high costs of irradiation which amount to 5 to 10% of the price of the foodstuff. Currently, irradiation is permitted for the preservation of foodstuffs in 21 countries of the world.

  14. Electroconvulsive Therapy: A Current Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokben Hizli Sayar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Most of the electroconvulsive therapy guidelines state that severe major depression with psychotic features, manic delirium, or catatonia are conditions where there is a clear consensus favoring early electroconvulsive therapy. The decision to administer electroconvulsive therapy is based on an evaluation of the risks and benefits for the individual patient and involves a combination of factors, including psychiatric diagnosis, type and severity of symptoms, prior treatment history and response, identification of possible alternative treatment options, and consumer preference. In this review history, mechanisms of action, side effects that have been referenced in the literature and clinical experience are discussed. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(2.000: 107-125

  15. CURRENT CONCEPTS IN ACL RECONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddie H. Fu

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Current Concepts in ACL Reconstruction is a complete reference text composed of the most thorough collection of topics on the ACL and its surgical reconstruction compiled, with contributions from some of the world's experts and most experienced ACL surgeons. Various procedures mentioned throughout the text are also demonstrated in an accompanying video CD-ROM. PURPOSE Composing a single, comprehensive and complete information source on ACL including basic sciences, clinical issues, latest concepts and surgical techniques, from evaluation to outcome, from history to future, editors and contributors have targeted to keep the audience pace with the latest concepts and techniques for the evaluation and the treatment of ACL injuries. FEATURES The text is composed of 27 chapters in 6 sections. The first section is mostly about basic sciences, also history of the ACL, imaging, clinical approach to adolescent and pediatric patients are subjected. In the second section, Graft Choices and Arthroscopy Portals for ACL Reconstruction are mentioned. The third section is about the technique and the outcome of the single-bundle ACL reconstruction. The fourth chapter includes the techniques and outcome of the double-bundle ACL reconstruction. In the fifth chapter revision, navigation technology, rehabilitation and the evaluation of the outcome of ACL reconstruction is subjected. The sixth/the last chapter is about the future advances to reach: What We Have Learned and the Future of ACL Reconstruction. AUDIENCE Orthopedic residents, sports traumatology and knee surgery fellows, orthopedic surgeons, also scientists in basic sciences or clinicians who are studying or planning a research on ACL forms the audience group of this book. ASSESSMENT This is the latest, the most complete and comprehensive textbook of ACL reconstruction produced by the editorial work up of two pioneer and masters "Freddie H. Fu MD and Steven B. Cohen MD" with the contribution of world

  16. Collagen cross linking: Current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas K Rao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Keratoconus is a common ectatic disorder occurring in more than 1 in 1,000 individuals. The condition typically starts in adolescence and early adulthood. It is a disease with an uncertain cause and its progression is unpredictable, but in extreme cases, vision deteriorates and can require corneal transplant surgery. Corneal collagen cross-linking (CCL with riboflavin (C3R is a recent treatment option that can enhance the rigidity of the cornea and prevent disease progression. Since its inception, the procedure has evolved with newer instrumentation, surgical techniques, and is also now performed for expanded indications other than keratoconus. With increasing experience, newer guidelines regarding optimization of patient selection, the spectrum of complications and their management, and combination procedures are being described. This article in conjunction with the others in this issue, will try and explore the uses of collagen cross-linking (CXL in its current form.

  17. Current and Nascent SETI Instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Siemion, Andrew P V; Chen, Henry; Cordes, Jim; Filiba, Terry; Foster, Griffin; Fries, Adam; Howard, Andrew; von Korff, Josh; Korpela, Eric; Lebofsky, Matt; McMahon, Peter L; Parsons, Aaron; Spitler, Laura; Wagner, Mark; Werthimer, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Here we describe our ongoing efforts to develop high-performance and sensitive instrumentation for use in the search for extra-terrestrial intelligence (SETI). These efforts include our recently deployed Search for Extraterrestrial Emissions from Nearby Developed Intelligent Populations Spectrometer (SERENDIP V.v) and two instruments currently under development; the Heterogeneous Radio SETI Spectrometer (HRSS) for SETI observations in the radio spectrum and the Optical SETI Fast Photometer (OSFP) for SETI observations in the optical band. We will discuss the basic SERENDIP V.v instrument design and initial analysis methodology, along with instrument architectures and observation strategies for OSFP and HRSS. In addition, we will demonstrate how these instruments may be built using low-cost, modular components and programmed and operated by students using common languages, e.g. ANSI C.

  18. Biofield Science: Current Physics Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafatos, Menas C; Chevalier, Gaétan; Chopra, Deepak; Hubacher, John; Kak, Subhash; Theise, Neil D

    2015-11-01

    This article briefly reviews the biofield hypothesis and its scientific literature. Evidence for the existence of the biofield now exists, and current theoretical foundations are now being developed. A review of the biofield and related topics from the perspective of physical science is needed to identify a common body of knowledge and evaluate possible underlying principles of origin of the biofield. The properties of such a field could be based on electromagnetic fields, coherent states, biophotons, quantum and quantum-like processes, and ultimately the quantum vacuum. Given this evidence, we intend to inquire and discuss how the existence of the biofield challenges reductionist approaches and presents its own challenges regarding the origin and source of the biofield, the specific evidence for its existence, its relation to biology, and last but not least, how it may inform an integrated understanding of consciousness and the living universe.

  19. Current status of cancer immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kono K

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available To prove clinical benefits of cancer vaccine is currently difficult, except for one phase III trial has documented improved overall survival with the vaccine, Sipuleucel‑T, although induction of anti-tumor immune responses through cancer vaccine is theoretically promising and would be straightforward. In contrast, immune checkpoint blockade with anti-CTLA4 mAb and anti-PD‑1 mAb has demonstrated clear evidence of objective responses including improved overall survival and tumor shrinkage, driving renewed enthusiasm for cancer immunotherapy in multi­ple cancer types. In addition, there is a promising novel cancer immunotherapy, CAR therapy—a personalized treatment that involves genetically modifying a patient’s T- cells to make them target tumor cells. We are now facing new era of cancer immunotherapy.

  20. Conformable eddy current array delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summan, Rahul; Pierce, Gareth; Macleod, Charles; Mineo, Carmelo; Riise, Jonathan; Morozov, Maxim; Dobie, Gordon; Bolton, Gary; Raude, Angélique; Dalpé, Colombe; Braumann, Johannes

    2016-02-01

    The external surface of stainless steel containers used for the interim storage of nuclear material may be subject to Atmospherically Induced Stress Corrosion Cracking (AISCC). The inspection of such containers poses a significant challenge due to the large quantities involved; therefore, automating the inspection process is of considerable interest. This paper reports upon a proof-of-concept project concerning the automated NDT of a set of test containers containing artificially generated AISCCs. An Eddy current array probe with a conformable padded surface from Eddyfi was used as the NDT sensor and end effector on a KUKA KR5 arc HW robot. A kinematically valid cylindrical raster scan path was designed using the KUKA|PRC path planning software. Custom software was then written to interface measurement acquisition from the Eddyfi hardware with the motion control of the robot. Preliminary results and analysis are presented from scanning two canisters.