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Sample records for current daily smokers

  1. Impulsivity and cigarette craving among adolescent daily and occasional smokers.

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    Mathew, Amanda R; Burris, Jessica L; Froeliger, Brett; Saladin, Michael E; Carpenter, Matthew J

    2015-06-01

    Impulsivity is a multi-dimensional construct that is robustly related to cigarette smoking. While underlying factors that account for this relation are not well understood, craving has been proposed as a central mechanism linking impulsivity to smoking. In order to further refine our understanding of associations between impulsivity and cigarette craving, the current study examined the association between impulsivity and tonic and cue-elicited craving among a sample of adolescent smokers. We expected trait impulsivity would be positively associated with both tonic and cue-elicited craving, and that this relationship would be stronger among daily vs. occasional smokers. 106 smokers (ages 16-20) completed the questionnaires and reported their cigarette craving prior to and immediately following presentation of each of three counterbalanced cue types: (a) in vivo smoking, (b) alcohol, and (c) neutral cue. Impulsivity was positively associated with tonic craving for daily smokers (β=.38; p=.005), but not occasional smokers (β=.01; p=.95), with a significant impulsivity x smoker group interaction (β=1.31; p=.03). Impulsivity was unrelated to craving following smoking or alcohol cue, regardless of smoker group (all p's>.16). Results suggest a moderated effect in which impulsivity is positively associated with tonic craving for daily smokers, but not occasional smokers. Tonic craving may serve as a mechanism linking impulsivity, smoking persistence, and nicotine dependence among daily smokers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Intent to Quit among Daily and Non-Daily College Student Smokers

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    Pinsker, E. A.; Berg, C. J.; Nehl, E. J.; Prokhorov, A. V.; Buchanan, T. S.; Ahluwalia, J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Given the high prevalence of young adult smoking, we examined (i) psychosocial factors and substance use among college students representing five smoking patterns and histories [non-smokers, quitters, native non-daily smokers (i.e. never daily smokers), converted non-daily smokers (i.e. former daily smokers) and daily smokers] and (ii) smoking…

  3. Characterizing and Comparing Young Adult Intermittent and Daily Smokers

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    Lenk, Kathleen M.; Chen, Vincent; Bernat, Debra H.; Forster, Jean L.; Rode, Peter A.

    2009-01-01

    To examine young adult smoking patterns, we interviewed 732 smokers (from five U.S. upper Midwestern states) via telephone in 2006. We first defined two groups of intermittent smokers—low (smoked 1–14 days in past 30) and high (smoked 15–29 days in past 30), and then analyzed differences between these two groups and daily smokers. Low intermittent smokers were much less likely than high intermittent smokers to consider themselves smokers, feel addicted, or smoke with friends. Daily smokers we...

  4. Characterizing and comparing young adult intermittent and daily smokers.

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    Lenk, Kathleen M; Chen, Vincent; Bernat, Debra H; Forster, Jean L; Rode, Peter A

    2009-01-01

    We interviewed 732 smokers (from five US upper Midwestern states) via telephone in 2006 to examine young adult smoking patterns. We first defined two groups of intermittent smokers-low (who smoked for 1-14 days in the past 30 days) and high (who smoked for 15-29 days in the past 30 days), and then analyzed differences between these two groups and daily smokers. Low intermittent smokers were much less likely to consider themselves smokers, feel addicted, or smoke with friends than high intermittent smokers. Daily smokers were more likely to feel addicted and have trouble quitting smoking than high intermittent smokers. Implications, limitations, and ideas for future studies will be discussed.

  5. Smoking patterns and stimulus control in intermittent and daily smokers.

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    Saul Shiffman

    Full Text Available Intermittent smokers (ITS - who smoke less than daily - comprise an increasing proportion of adult smokers. Their smoking patterns challenge theoretical models of smoking motivation, which emphasize regular and frequent smoking to maintain nicotine levels and avoid withdrawal, but yet have gone largely unexamined. We characterized smoking patterns among 212 ITS (smoking 4-27 days per month compared to 194 daily smokers (DS; smoking 5-30 cigarettes daily who monitored situational antecedents of smoking using ecological momentary assessment. Subjects recorded each cigarette on an electronic diary, and situational variables were assessed in a random subset (n=21,539 smoking episodes; parallel assessments were obtained by beeping subjects at random when they were not smoking (n=26,930 non-smoking occasions. Compared to DS, ITS' smoking was more strongly associated with being away from home, being in a bar, drinking alcohol, socializing, being with friends and acquaintances, and when others were smoking. Mood had only modest effects in either group. DS' and ITS' smoking were substantially and equally suppressed by smoking restrictions, although ITS more often cited self-imposed restrictions. ITS' smoking was consistently more associated with environmental cues and contexts, especially those associated with positive or "indulgent" smoking situations. Stimulus control may be an important influence in maintaining smoking and making quitting difficult among ITS.

  6. Correlates of NNAL levels among nondaily and daily smokers in the college student population

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    Berg CJ

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Carla J Berg,1 Gillian L Schauer,1 Jasjit S Ahluwalia,2 Neal L Benowitz31Department of Behavioral Sciences and Health Education, Emory University School of Public Health, Atlanta, GA, 2Department of Medicine and Center for Health Equity, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, 3Departments of Medicine and Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USAIntroduction: Recent simultaneous increases in nondaily smoking and decreases in daily smoking make the identification of nondaily smokers through biomarker measures as well as the relationship of biomarker levels to smoking behaviors important topics. However, little is known about biochemical identification and carcinogen exposure of nondaily smokers. One tobacco-specific nitrosamine, 4-(methylnitrosamino-1-(3-pyridyl-1-butanol (NNAL, has a long half-life, making it a useful marker for long-term and intermittent tobacco exposure. Thus, we examined correlates of urine NNAL levels among nondaily and daily smokers.Methods: In 2011, we obtained urine samples from 64 current cigarette smokers (37 nondaily; 27 daily in the Southeastern US and assessed participants’ sociodemographics, smoking-related information, and other tobacco use. Our sample included 14 participants concurrently using other combustible tobacco products and eight concurrently using smokeless tobacco.Results: Of six participants smoking for only one day in the past 30, four had detectable NNAL levels; thus, two nondaily smokers were excluded from the remainder of the analyses. In multivariate analysis, average cigarettes per day on smoking days (B = 23.00, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 13.81, 32.20, P < 0.001 and number of days of smokeless tobacco use (B = 17.11, CI 13.53, 20.70, P < 0.001 were associated with NNAL levels among nondaily smokers (R2 = 0.234. Multivariate analysis indicated that average cigarettes per day (B = 15.83, CI 2.89, 28.76, P = 0.02 was the only significant

  7. Factors associated with short-term transitions of non-daily smokers: socio-demographic characteristics and other tobacco product use.

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    Wang, Yingning; Sung, Hai-Yen; Yao, Tingting; Lightwood, James; Max, Wendy

    2017-05-01

    To examine the transitions in smoking status among non-daily smokers who transitioned to daily or former smokers or remained as non-daily smokers during a 12-month period. We analyzed factors associated with these transitions, including the use of cigars and smokeless tobacco (SLT). Secondary data analyses using pooled data from the 2003, 2006/07 and 2010/11 Tobacco Use Supplements to the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS). United States. Self-respondents aged 18+ who have smoked for more than 5 years and were non-daily smokers 12 months before the interview (n = 13 673, or 14.5% of current smokers). Multinomial logistic regression model to determine the correlates of non-daily to daily, stable non-daily and non-daily to former smoking transitions among non-daily smokers at baseline. The model controlled for socio-demographic factors and the use of cigars and SLT. Of the adults in our sample, 2.6% were non-daily smokers at baseline. Among these, 69.7% remained non-daily smokers (stable non-daily smokers), 18.4% became daily smokers (non-daily to daily smokers) and 11.9% quit smoking (non-daily to former smokers) after 12 months. The non-daily to daily versus stable non-daily smoking transition was less likely among those who were aged 65+ (P = 0.018), male (P socio-demographic factors and current use of cigars and smokeless tobacco. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  8. Craving in intermittent and daily smokers during ad libitum smoking.

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    Shiffman, Saul; Dunbar, Michael S; Li, Xiaoxue; Scholl, Sarah M; Tindle, Hilary A; Anderson, Stewart J; Ferguson, Stuart G

    2014-08-01

    This study aimed to assess average and peak craving intensity among nondaily intermittent smokers (ITS) in smoking episodes and when not smoking compared to that of daily smokers (DS). Two hundred and twelve ITS and 194 DS monitored their smoking and craving for 3 weeks using Ecological Momentary Assessment methods. Craving was assessed (0-100 scale) when subjects lit a cigarette and at random times when not smoking; 48,469 observations were analyzed using generalized estimating equations. ITS experienced craving, including intense craving; their 95th percentile intensity averaged 77.7 ± 22.5 out of 100 (higher among DS: 89.1 ± 14.5). ITS reported lower craving than DS, both when smoking and when not smoking. In both groups, craving was less intense when not smoking (DS: 71.1 ± 20.7 vs. 59.83 ± 21.97; ITS: 59.91 ± 23.03 vs. 26.63 ± 19.87), but the difference was significantly greater among ITS. Among ITS, the probability of smoking rose continuously as craving increased over the full range of the scale. In contrast, among DS the probability of smoking rose until the midpoint of the scale, after which the relationship flattened. Findings were mostly similar for ITS with and without a history of past daily smoking. ITS do experience craving, including intense craving. The relationship between craving and smoking is stronger among ITS because DS experience moderate craving even between cigarettes. In contrast, ITS appear to experience craving in limited situations associated with smoking, suggesting that their craving and smoking may be driven by transient cues rather than endogenous needs. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Lifestyle, health characteristics and alcohol abuse in young adults who are non-daily smokers

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    Maria Izabel de Ugalde Marques da Rocha

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVES: Despite the decline in the prevalence of tobacco use in many countries, including Brazil, there are growing numbers of smokers who continue to smoke at a low daily rate, or less frequently (non-daily smokers. This group needs to be better characterized in order to direct preventive actions and public health policies. The aim here was to compare lifestyle, health characteristics and alcoholism problems among young adult smokers, non-daily smokers and non-smokers. DESIGN AND SETTING: This was a cross-sectional study in which volunteers from the university community and its surrounds in Santa Maria, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, were included between October 2007 and January 2008. METHODS: Out of 1240 volunteers initially contacted in a university cafeteria, a total of 728 participants of mean age 22.45 ± 3.32 years were selected for final analysis. Data were collected using structured questionnaires. RESULTS: In general, it was observed that the non-daily smokers showed intermediate characteristics in relation to the smokers and non-smokers. However, there was a significant association between non-daily smoking and alcohol abuse. The non-daily smokers presented an odds ratio of 2.4 (95% confidence interval: 1.10-5.48 in relation to the daily smokers and an odds ratio of 3.3 (confidence interval: 1.7-6.5 in relation to the non-smokers, with regard to presenting a positive CAGE test, thereby indicating alcohol abuse or dependence. CONCLUSION: The study suggested that non-daily smoking and alcohol consumption were concomitant behaviors.

  10. Marijuana's dose-dependent effects in daily marijuana smokers.

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    Ramesh, Divya; Haney, Margaret; Cooper, Ziva D

    2013-08-01

    Active marijuana produces significant subjective, psychomotor, and physiological effects relative to inactive marijuana, yet demonstrating that these effects are dose-dependent has proven difficult. This within-subject, double-blind study was designed to develop a smoking procedure to obtain a marijuana dose-response function. In four outpatient laboratory sessions, daily marijuana smokers (N = 17 males, 1 female) smoked six 5-s puffs from 3 marijuana cigarettes (2 puffs/cigarette). The number of puffs from active (≥5.5% Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol/THC) and inactive (0.0% THC) marijuana varied according to condition (0, 2, 4, or 6 active puffs); active puffs were always smoked before inactive puffs. Subjective, physiological, and performance effects were assessed prior to and at set time points after marijuana administration. Active marijuana dose-dependently increased heart rate and decreased marijuana craving, despite evidence (carbon monoxide expiration, weight of marijuana cigarettes post-smoking) that participants inhaled less of each active marijuana cigarette than inactive cigarettes. Subjective ratings of marijuana "strength," "high," "liking," "good effect," and "take again" were increased by active marijuana compared with inactive marijuana, but these effects were not dose-dependent. Active marijuana also produced modest, non-dose-dependent deficits in attention, psychomotor function, and recall relative to the inactive condition. In summary, although changes in inhalation patterns as a function of marijuana strength likely minimized the difference between dose conditions, dose-dependent differences in marijuana's cardiovascular effects and ratings of craving were observed, whereas subjective ratings of marijuana effects did not significantly vary as a function of dose.

  11. Menthol cigarette smoking and obesity in young adult daily smokers in Hawaii

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    Alyssa Marie M. Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates 1 the relationship between menthol cigarette smoking and obesity and 2 the association of body mass index with the nicotine metabolite ratio among menthol and non-menthol daily smokers aged 18–35 (n = 175. A brief survey on smoking and measures of height and weight, carbon monoxide, and saliva samples were collected from participants from May to December 2013 in Honolulu, Hawaii. Multiple regression was used to estimate differences in body mass index among menthol and non-menthol smokers and the association of menthol smoking with obesity. We calculated the log of the nicotine metabolite ratio to examine differences in the nicotine metabolite ratio among normal, overweight, and obese smokers. Sixty-eight percent of smokers used menthol cigarettes. Results showed that 62% of normal, 54% of overweight, and 91% of obese smokers used menthol cigarettes (p = .000. The mean body mass index was significantly higher among menthol compared with non-menthol smokers (29.4 versus 24.5, p = .000. After controlling for gender, marital status, educational attainment, employment status, and race/ethnicity, menthol smokers were more than 3 times as likely as non-menthol smokers to be obese (p = .04. The nicotine metabolite ratio was significantly lower for overweight menthol smokers compared with non-menthol smokers (.16 versus .26, p = .02 in the unadjusted model, but was not significant after adjusting for the covariates. Consistent with prior studies, our data show that menthol smokers are more likely to be obese compared with non-menthol smokers. Future studies are needed to determine how flavored tobacco products influence obesity among smokers.

  12. Too Few Current, Former Smokers Screened for Lung Cancer

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    ... html Too Few Current, Former Smokers Screened for Lung Cancer Such testing could cut death rate by 20 ... the United States don't get screened for lung cancer even though they're at increased risk for ...

  13. Patterns of menthol cigarette use among current smokers, overall and within demographic strata, based on data from four U.S. government surveys.

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    Curtin, Geoffrey M; Sulsky, Sandra I; Van Landingham, Cynthia; Marano, Kristin M; Graves, Monica J; Ogden, Michael W; Swauger, James E

    2014-10-01

    The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, National Health Interview Survey and Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey provide estimates of the proportions of U.S. smokers who currently use menthol cigarettes, overall and within demographic strata. Among adult past-month, regular and daily smokers, menthol cigarette use ranges from 26% to 30%, with statistically higher proportions of female versus male smokers (8-11 percentage points higher) currently using menthol cigarettes. Compared to adult smokers overall, statistically higher proportions of non-Hispanic Black smokers (72-79%) and statistically lower proportions of non-Hispanic White smokers (19-22%) currently use menthol cigarettes, with no differences among smokers of other race/ethnicity groups (18-20% to 28-30%, depending on the survey). Higher proportions of younger adult past-month, regular and daily smokers (aged 18-25years) currently use menthol cigarettes compared to older adult smokers (aged 26-29years and/or ⩾30years); however, differences are small in magnitude, with the vast majority of adult smokers (70-75%) who currently use menthol cigarettes being aged ⩾30years. Comparisons between youth and adult smokers are provided, although data for youth smokers are less available and provide less consistent patterns of menthol cigarette use.

  14. Comparison of Puff Volume With Cigarettes per Day in Predicting Nicotine Uptake Among Daily Smokers.

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    Krebs, Nicolle M; Chen, Allshine; Zhu, Junjia; Sun, Dongxiao; Liao, Jason; Stennett, Andrea L; Muscat, Joshua E

    2016-07-01

    The role of inhalation behaviors as predictors of nicotine uptake was examined in the Pennsylvania Adult Smoking Study (2012-2014), a study of 332 adults whose cigarette smoking was measured in a naturalistic environment (e.g., at home) with portable handheld topography devices. Piecewise regression analyses showed that levels of salivary cotinine, trans-3'-hydroxycotinine, and total salivary nicotine metabolites (cotinine + trans-3'-hydroxycotinine) increased linearly up to a level of about 1 pack per day (20 cigarettes per day (CPD)) (P < 0.01). Total daily puff volume (TDPV; in mL) (P < 0.05) and total daily number of puffs (P < 0.05), but not other topographical measures, increased linearly with CPD up to a level of about 1 pack per day. The mean level of cotinine per cigarette did not change above 20 CPD and was 36% lower in heavy smokers (≥20 CPD) than in lighter smokers (<20 CPD) (15.6 ng/mL vs. 24.5 ng/mL, respectively; P < 0.01). Mediation models showed that TDPV accounted for 43%-63% of the association between CPD and nicotine metabolites for smokers of <20 CPD. TDPV was the best predictor of nicotine metabolite levels in light-to-moderate smokers (1-19 CPD). In contrast, neither CPD, total daily number of puffs, nor TDPV predicted nicotine metabolite levels above 20 CPD (up to 40 CPD). Finally, although light smokers are traditionally considered less dependent on nicotine, these findings suggest that they are exposed to more nicotine per cigarette than are heavy smokers due to more frequent, intensive puffing.

  15. Does Vaping in E-Cigarette Advertisements Affect Tobacco Smoking Urge, Intentions, and Perceptions in Daily, Intermittent, and Former Smokers?

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    Maloney, Erin K; Cappella, Joseph N

    2016-01-01

    Visual depictions of vaping in electronic cigarette advertisements may serve as smoking cues to smokers and former smokers, increasing urge to smoke and smoking behavior, and decreasing self-efficacy, attitudes, and intentions to quit or abstain. After assessing baseline urge to smoke, 301 daily smokers, 272 intermittent smokers, and 311 former smokers were randomly assigned to view three e-cigarette commercials with vaping visuals (the cue condition) or without vaping visuals (the no-cue condition), or to answer unrelated media use questions (the no-ad condition). Participants then answered a posttest questionnaire assessing the outcome variables of interest. Relative to other conditions, in the cue condition, daily smokers reported greater urge to smoke a tobacco cigarette and a marginally significantly greater incidence of actually smoking a tobacco cigarette during the experiment. Former smokers in the cue condition reported lower intentions to abstain from smoking than former smokers in other conditions. No significant differences emerged among intermittent smokers across conditions. These data suggest that visual depictions of vaping in e-cigarette commercials increase daily smokers' urge to smoke cigarettes and may lead to more actual smoking behavior. For former smokers, these cues in advertising may undermine abstinence efforts. Intermittent smokers did not appear to be reactive to these cues. A lack of significant differences between participants in the no-cue and no-ad conditions compared to the cue condition suggests that visual depictions of e-cigarettes and vaping function as smoking cues, and cue reactivity is the mechanism through which these effects were obtained.

  16. "Stimulus control in intermittent and daily smokers": Correction to Shiffman, Dunbar, and Ferguson (2015).

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    2015-12-01

    In the article "Stimulus Control in Intermittent and Daily Smokers" by Saul Shiffman, Michael S.Dunbar, and Stuart G. Ferguson (Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, Advance online publication.February 23, 2015. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/adb0000052), there was an error in the reported value in the Discussion section. The second sentence of the second paragraph should have read, “Notably,DS also showed strong stimulus control in this analysis, implying 85% accuracy in identifying smoking situations.” This was a result of a transcription error. All versions of this article have been corrected.

  17. Association between physical activity in daily life and pulmonary function in adult smokers

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    Miriane Lilian Barboza

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine whether the level of physical activity in daily life (PADL is associated with pulmonary function in adult smokers. Methods: We selected 62 adult smokers from among the participants of an epidemiological study conducted in the city of Santos, Brazil. The subjects underwent forced spirometry for pulmonary function assessment. The level of PADL was assessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and triaxial accelerometry, the device being used for seven days. The minimum level of PADL, in terms of quantity and intensity, was defined as 150 min/week of moderate to vigorous physical activity. Correlations between the studied variables were tested with Pearson's or Spearman's correlation coefficient, depending on the distribution of the variables. We used linear multiple regression in order to analyze the influence of PADL on the spirometric variables. The level of significance was set at 5%. Results: Evaluating all predictors, corrected for confounding factors, and using pulmonary function data as outcome variables, we found no significant associations between physical inactivity, as determined by accelerometry, and spirometric indices. The values for FVC were lower among the participants with arterial hypertension, and FEV1/FVC ratios were lower among those with diabetes mellitus. Obese participants and those with dyslipidemia presented with lower values for FVC and FEV1. Conclusions: Our results suggest that there is no consistent association between physical inactivity and pulmonary function in adult smokers. Smoking history should be given special attention in COPD prevention strategies, as should cardiovascular and metabolic comorbidities.

  18. The Relationship between Nicotine Dependence and Age among Current Smokers.

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    Huijie Li

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A recent study indicates that the incidence of smoking cessation varies with age. Although nicotine dependence (ND has been regarded as one of the most significant barriers of successful smoking cessation, few researches have focused on the relationship between nicotine dependence and age.A cross-sectional study (conducted in 2013 with 596 Chinese rural male current smokers was performed to study the relationship between ND and age. The ND level was assessed using the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND scale. The univariate two-degree fractional polynomials (FPs regression was used to explore the relation of ND to age.The mean of FTND scores in the middle-aged group (45-64 yr old was higher than that in the younger (<45 yr old and older groups (≥65 yr old. The FPs regression showed an inverse U-shaped relationship between ND and age.The middle-aged current smokers had higher degree of ND than the younger and the older groups, which showed an inverse U-shaped relationship between ND and age. This finding needs to be confirmed by further researches.

  19. Smoking frequency among current college student smokers: distinguishing characteristics and factors related to readiness to quit smoking.

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    Berg, Carla J; Ling, Pamela M; Hayes, Rashelle B; Berg, Erin; Nollen, Nikki; Nehl, Eric; Choi, Won S; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S

    2012-02-01

    Given the increased prevalence of non-daily smoking and changes in smoking patterns, particularly among young adults, we examined correlates of smoking level, specifically motives for smoking, and readiness to quit smoking among 2682 college undergraduates who completed an online survey. Overall, 64.7% (n = 1736) were non-smokers, 11.6% (n = 312) smoked 1-5 days, 10.5% (n = 281) smoked 6-29 days and 13.2% (n = 353) were daily smokers. Ordinal regression analyses modeling smoking level indicated that correlates of higher smoking level included having more friends who smoke (β = 0.63, 95% CI 0.57-0.69) and more frequent other tobacco use (β = 0.04, 95% CI 0.02-0.05), drinking (β = 0.04, 95% CI 0.02-0.07) and binge drinking (β = 0.09, 95% CI 0.06-0.13). Bivariate analyses indicated that daily smokers (versus the subgroups of non-daily smokers) were less likely to smoke for social reasons but more likely to smoke for self-confidence, boredom, and affect regulation. Controlling for sociodemographics, correlates of readiness to quit among current smokers included fewer friends who smoke (P = 0.002), less frequent binge drinking (P = 0.03), being a social smoker (P < 0.001), smoking less for self-confidence (P = 0.04), smoking more for boredom (P = 0.03) and less frequent smoking (P = 0.001). Specific motives for smoking and potential barriers to cessation particularly may be relevant to different groups of college student smokers.

  20. Differences in regional air trapping in current smokers with normal spirometry.

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    Karimi, Reza; Tornling, Göran; Forsslund, Helena; Mikko, Mikael; Wheelock, Åsa M; Nyrén, Sven; Sköld, C Magnus

    2017-01-01

    We investigated regional air trapping on computed tomography in current smokers with normal spirometry. It was hypothesised that presence of regional air trapping may indicate a specific manifestation of smoking-related changes.40 current smokers, 40 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and 40 healthy never- smokers underwent computed tomography scans. Regional air trapping was assessed on end-expiratory scans and emphysema, micronodules and bronchial wall thickening on inspiratory scans. The ratio of expiratory and inspiratory mean lung attenuation (E/I) was calculated as a measure of static (fixed) air trapping.Regional air trapping was present in 63% of current smokers, in 45% of never smokers and in 8% of COPD patients (p<0.001). Current smokers with and without regional air trapping had E/I ratio of 0.81 and 0.91, respectively (p<0.001). Forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) was significantly higher and emphysema less frequent in current smokers with regional air trapping.Current smokers with regional air trapping had higher FEV1 and less emphysema on computed tomography. In contrast, current smokers without regional air trapping resembled COPD. Our results highlight heterogeneity among smokers with normal spirometry and may contribute to early detection of smoking related structural changes in the lungs.

  1. Harm perception among Swedish daily smokers regarding nicotine, NRT-products and Swedish Snus

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    Wikmans Tom

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Sweden NRT-products and Snus, are easily available and used as smoking cessation aids. However, most quit attempts are made without any cessation aids. The limited use of these products as cessation aids may be influenced by the way smokers perceive the harmfulness of NRT-products and Snus compared to smoking. The present study examines these perceptions and their association with perceptions of the harmfulness of nicotine itself. Methods The study is based on the Swedish part of a two-nation web-based survey of daily smokers in Sweden (n = 1016 and Norway (n = 1000. Questionnaire items addressed perceptions of NRT-products' and Snus' harmfulness and nicotine's part of the health risks of smoking. Data analyses included cross-tabulations and logistic regressions. Results A majority, 59% of the answers to the question about harmfulness of NRT-products, and 75% of the answers about harmfulness of Snus, were inconsistent with the scientific evidence by demonstrating exaggerated perceptions of harmfulness. The strongest predictor of consistent answers was the perception of the harmfulness of nicotine. There were also significant associations with own experience of successful use of the products in question. Overall the perceptions of the harmfulness of nicotine were considerably exaggerated. This pattern was more pronounced among women than men. Prevailing misperceptions may be related to the way that different tobacco and nicotine products are presented in the media and other publicly available information sources. Conclusions Public information about smoking and health should be expanded to include objective and unambiguous information regarding nicotine's part in the harmfulness of smoking and the harmfulness of different nicotine-containing products compared to smoking. This is essential in order to preclude that misperceptions regarding these matters could discourage smokers from adopting effective cessation practices

  2. A prognostic tool to identify adolescents at high risk of becoming daily smokers

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    Paradis Gilles

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The American Academy of Pediatrics advocates that pediatricians should be involved in tobacco counseling and has developed guidelines for counseling. We present a prognostic tool for use by health care practitioners in both clinical and non-clinical settings, to identify adolescents at risk of becoming daily smokers. Methods Data were drawn from the Nicotine Dependence in Teens (NDIT Study, a prospective investigation of 1293 adolescents, initially aged 12-13 years, recruited in 10 secondary schools in Montreal, Canada in 1999. Questionnaires were administered every three months for five years. The prognostic tool was developed using estimated coefficients from multivariable logistic models. Model overfitting was corrected using bootstrap cross-validation. Goodness-of-fit and predictive ability of the models were assessed by R2, the c-statistic, and the Hosmer-Lemeshow test. Results The 1-year and 2-year probability of initiating daily smoking was a joint function of seven individual characteristics: age; ever smoked; ever felt like you needed a cigarette; parent(s smoke; sibling(s smoke; friend(s smoke; and ever drank alcohol. The models were characterized by reasonably good fit and predictive ability. They were transformed into user-friendly tables such that the risk of daily smoking can be easily computed by summing points for responses to each item. The prognostic tool is also available on-line at http://episerve.chumontreal.qc.ca/calculation_risk/daily-risk/daily_smokingadd.php. Conclusions The prognostic tool to identify youth at high risk of daily smoking may eventually be an important component of a comprehensive tobacco control system.

  3. Salivary cotinine concentrations in daily smokers in Barcelona, Spain: a cross-sectional study

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    Pascual José A

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Characterizing and comparing the determinant of cotinine concentrations in different populations should facilitate a better understanding of smoking patterns and addiction. This study describes and characterizes determinants of salivary cotinine concentration in a sample of Spanish adult daily smoker men and women. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out between March 2004 and December 2005 in a representative sample of 1245 people from the general population of Barcelona, Spain. A standard questionnaire was used to gather information on active tobacco smoking and passive exposure, and a saliva specimen was obtained to determine salivary cotinine concentration. Two hundred and eleven adult smokers (>16 years old with complete data were included in the analysis. Determinants of cotinine concentrations were assessed using linear regression models. Results Salivary cotinine concentration was associated with the reported number of cigarettes smoked in the previous 24 hours (R2 = 0.339; p R2 = 0.386; p Conclusion This study shows that salivary cotinine concentration is significantly associated with the number of cigarettes smoked and sex, but not with other smoking-related variables.

  4. Prevalence and correlates of current daily use of electronic cigarettes in the European Union: analysis of the 2014 Eurobarometer survey.

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    Farsalinos, Konstantinos E; Poulas, Konstantinos; Voudris, Vassilis; Le Houezec, Jacques

    2017-03-04

    The study purpose was to analyze current daily and current daily nicotine-containing electronic cigarette (EC) use in the European Union (EU). Special Eurobarometer 429, a cross-sectional survey performed in a representative sample of 28 member states of the EU in November and December of 2014, was analyzed. The prevalence of current daily and current daily nicotine-containing EC use was 1.08% (95% CI 0.95-1.20%) and 1.00% (95% CI 0.88-1.12%), respectively, and was mainly observed in current and former smokers. Minimal current daily (0.08%, 95% CI 0.03-0.12%) and current daily nicotine-containing EC use (0.04%, 95% CI 0.01-0.08%) was observed among never smokers. Smoking cessation with the help of ECs was reported by 47.12% (95% CI 41.28-52.96%) of current daily and 49.14% (95% CI 43.12-55.17%) of current daily nicotine-containing EC users. Additionally, 33.18% (95% CI 27.67-38.69%) and 31.40% (95% CI 25.80-36.99%) reported reduction in smoking consumption, respectively. The strongest correlates of daily EC use were being current and former smokers. In the EU in late 2014, current daily EC use was predominantly observed in current and former smokers and was associated with high self-reported rates of smoking cessation and reduction. Current daily EC use by never smokers was extremely infrequent.

  5. Naltrexone Maintenance Decreases Cannabis Self-Administration and Subjective Effects in Daily Cannabis Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, Margaret; Ramesh, Divya; Glass, Andrew; Pavlicova, Martina; Bedi, Gillinder; Cooper, Ziva D

    2015-10-01

    Given that cannabis use is increasing in the United States, pharmacological treatment options to treat cannabis use disorder are needed. Opioid antagonists modulate cannabinoid effects and may offer a potential approach to reducing cannabis use. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled human laboratory study, we assessed the effects of naltrexone maintenance on the reinforcing, subjective, psychomotor, and cardiovascular effects of active and inactive cannabis. Nontreatment-seeking, daily cannabis smokers were randomized to receive naltrexone (50 mg: n=18 M and 5 F) or placebo (0 mg; n=26 M and 2 F) capsules for 16 days. Before, during, and after medication maintenance, participants completed 10 laboratory sessions over 4-6 weeks, assessing cannabis' behavioral and cardiovascular effects. Medication compliance was verified by observed capsule administration, plasma naltrexone, and urinary riboflavin. Relative to placebo, maintenance on naltrexone significantly reduced both active cannabis self-administration and its positive subjective effects ('good effect'). Participants in the placebo group had 7.6 times (95% CI: 1.1-51.8) the odds of self-administering active cannabis compared with the naltrexone group. This attenuation of reinforcing and positive subjective effects also influenced cannabis use in the natural ecology. Naltrexone had intrinsic effects: decreasing ratings of friendliness, food intake, and systolic blood pressure, and increasing spontaneous reports of stomach upset and headache, yet dropout rates were comparable between groups. In summary, we show for the first time that maintenance on naltrexone decreased cannabis self-administration and ratings of 'good effect' in nontreatment-seeking daily cannabis smokers. Clinical studies in patients motivated to reduce their cannabis use are warranted to evaluate naltrexone's efficacy as a treatment for cannabis use disorder.

  6. Aspirin and Zileuton and Biomarker Expression in Nasal Tissue of Current Smokers | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    This randomized phase II trial studies the effects of aspirin and zileuton on genes related to tobacco use in current smokers. Aspirin and zileuton may interfere with genes related to tobacco use and may be useful in preventing lung cancer in current smokers. |

  7. Measures of initiation and progression to increased smoking among current menthol compared to non-menthol cigarette smokers based on data from four U.S. government surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Geoffrey M; Sulsky, Sandra I; Van Landingham, Cynthia; Marano, Kristin M; Graves, Monica J; Ogden, Michael W; Swauger, James E

    2014-11-01

    There are no large-scale, carefully designed cohort studies that provide evidence on whether menthol cigarette use is associated with a differential risk of initiating and/or progressing to increased smoking. However, questions of whether current menthol cigarette smokers initiated smoking at a younger age or are more likely to have transitioned from non-daily to daily cigarette use compared to non-menthol smokers can be addressed using cross-sectional data from U.S. government surveys. Analyses of nationally representative samples of adult and youth smokers indicate that current menthol cigarette use is not associated with an earlier age of having initiated smoking or greater likelihood of being a daily versus non-daily smoker. Some surveys likewise provide information on cigarette type preference (menthol versus non-menthol) among youth at different stages or trajectories of smoking, based on number of days smoked during the past month and/or cigarettes smoked per day. Prevalence of menthol cigarette use does not appear to differ among new, less experienced youth smokers compared to established youth smokers. While there are limitations with regard to inferences that can be drawn from cross-sectional analyses, these data do not suggest any adverse effects for menthol cigarettes on measures of initiation and progression to increased smoking.

  8. Disease Severity in Never Smokers, Ex-Smokers, and Current Smokers With Axial Spondyloarthritis: Results From the Scotland Registry for Ankylosing Spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gareth T; Ratz, Tiara; Dean, Linda E; Macfarlane, Gary J; Atzeni, Fabiola

    2017-09-01

    To examine the relationship between smoking, smoking cessation, and disease characteristics and quality of life (QoL) in spondyloarthritis. The Scotland Registry for Ankylosing Spondylitis collects data from clinically diagnosed patients with spondyloarthritis. Clinical data, including Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) and the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI) scores, were obtained from medical records. Mailed questionnaires contained information on smoking status and QoL (Ankylosing Spondylitis QoL questionnaire [ASQoL]). Linear and logistic regression were used to quantify the effect of smoking, and smoking cessation, on various disease-specific and QoL outcomes, with adjustments for age, sex, deprivation, education level, and alcohol use. Results are presented as regression coefficients (β) or odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Data were obtained from 946 participants (73.5% male, mean age 52 years). Current smoking was reported by 22%, and 38% were ex-smokers. Ever smokers had poorer BASDAI (β = 0.5 [95% CI 0.2, 0.9]) and BASFI scores (β = 0.8 [95% CI 0.4, 1.2]), and reported worse QoL (ASQoL β = 1.5 [95% CI 0.7, 2.3]). Compared to current smokers, ex-smokers reported less disease activity (BASDAI β = -0.5 [95% CI -1.0, -0.04]) and significantly better QoL (ASQoL β = -1.2 [95% CI -2.3, -0.2]). They also were more likely to have a history of uveitis (OR 2.4 [95% CI 1.5, 3.8]). Smokers with spondyloarthritis experience worse disease than those who are never smokers. However, this study provides new evidence that, among smokers, smoking cessation is associated with lower disease activity and better physical function and QoL. Clinicians should specifically promote smoking cessation as an adjunct to usual therapy in patients with spondyloarthritis. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  9. Smiling Instead of Smoking: Development of a Positive Psychology Smoking Cessation Smartphone App for Non-daily Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeppner, Bettina B; Hoeppner, Susanne S; Kelly, Lourah; Schick, Melissa; Kelly, John F

    2017-02-14

    The usefulness of mobile technology in supporting smoking cessation has been demonstrated, but little is known about how smartphone apps could best be leveraged. The purpose of this paper is to describe the program of research that led to the creation of a smoking cessation app for non-daily smokers, so as to stimulate further ideas to create "smart" smartphone apps to support health behavior change. Literature reviews to evaluate the appropriateness of the proposed app, content analyses of existing apps, and smoking cessation sessions with non-daily smokers (n = 38) to inform the design of the app. The literature reviews showed that (1) smoking cessation apps are sought after by smokers, (2) positive affect plays an important role in smoking cessation, (3) short, self-administered exercises consistently bring about enduring positive affect enhancements, and (4) low treatment-seeking rates of non-daily smokers despite high motivation to quit indicate a need for novel smoking cessation support. Directed content analyses of existing apps indicated that tailoring, two-way interactions, and proactive features are under-utilized in existing apps, despite the popularity of such features. Conventional content analyses of audio-recorded session tapes suggested that difficulty in quitting was generally linked to specific, readily identifiable occasions, and that social support was considered important but not consistently sought out. The "Smiling Instead of Smoking" (SIS) app is an Android app that is designed to act as a behavioral, in-the-pocket coach to enhance quitting success in non-daily smokers. It provides proactive, tailored behavioral coaching, interactive tools (e.g., enlisting social support), daily positive psychology exercises, and smoking self-monitoring.

  10. The motivational salience of cigarette-related stimuli among former, never, and current smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jason D; Versace, Francesco; Engelmann, Jeffery M; Cui, Yong; Slapin, Aurelija; Oum, Robert; Cinciripini, Paul M

    2015-02-01

    While smokers are known to find smoking-related stimuli motivationally salient, the extent to which former smokers do so is largely unknown. In this study, we collected event-related potential (ERP) data from former and never smokers and compared them to a sample of current smokers interested in quitting who completed the same ERP paradigm prior to smoking cessation treatment. All participants (n = 180) attended 1 laboratory session where we recorded dense-array ERPs in response to cigarette-related, pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral pictures and where we collected valence and arousal ratings of the pictures. We identified 3 spatial and temporal regions of interest, corresponding to the P1 (120-132 ms), early posterior negativity (EPN; 244-316 ms), and late positive potential (LPP; 384-800 ms) ERP components. We found that all participants produced larger P1 responses to cigarette-related pictures compared to the other picture categories. With the EPN component, we found that, similar to pleasant and unpleasant pictures, cigarette-related pictures attracted early attentional resources, regardless of smoking status. Both former and never smokers produced reduced LPP responses to cigarette-related and pleasant pictures compared to current smokers. Current smokers rated the cigarette-related pictures as being more pleasant and arousing than the former and never smokers. The LPP and picture-rating results suggest that former smokers, like never smokers, do not find cigarette-related stimuli to be as motivationally salient as current smokers. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Anxiety Sensitivity and Smoking Behavior Among Trauma-Exposed Daily Smokers: The Explanatory Role of Smoking-Related Avoidance and Inflexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshaie, Jafar; Zvolensky, Michael J; Salazar, Adriana; Vujanovic, Anka A; Schmidt, Norman B

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety sensitivity (AS), defined as the extent to which individuals believe that anxiety-related sensations have harmful consequences, is associated with smoking processes and poorer clinical outcomes among trauma-exposed smokers. Yet the specific mechanisms underlying this association are unclear. Smoking-specific avoidance and inflexibility is a construct implicated in multiple manifestations of mood regulation that may underlie smoking behavior. The current study examined the explanatory role of smoking-specific avoidance and inflexibility in terms of the relation between AS and indices of smoking behavior among trauma-exposed smokers. The sample consisted of 217 treatment-seeking adult smokers (44% female; M age = 37.8; SD = 13.2; age range: 18-65 years), who were exposed to at least one lifetime Criterion A trauma event (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders [4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR] Criterion A for trauma exposure). Bootstrap analysis (5,000 re-samples) revealed that AS was indirectly related to the (a) number of cigarettes smoked per day, (b) number of years being a daily smoker, (c) number of failed quit attempts, and (d) heaviness of smoking index among trauma-exposed smokers through its relation with smoking-specific avoidance and inflexibility. These findings provide initial evidence suggesting that smoking-specific avoidance and inflexibility may be an important construct in better understanding AS-smoking relations among trauma-exposed smokers. Future work is needed to explore the extent to which smoking-specific avoidance and inflexibility account for relations between AS and other smoking processes (e.g., withdrawal, cessation outcome) in the context of trauma and smoking comorbidity.

  12. Marijuana’s Dose-Dependent Effects in Daily Marijuana Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Divya; Haney, Margaret; Cooper, Ziva D.

    2015-01-01

    Active marijuana produces significant subjective, psychomotor, and physiological effects relative to inactive marijuana, yet demonstrating that these effects are dose-dependent has proven difficult. This within-subject, double-blind study was designed to develop a smoking procedure to obtain a marijuana dose–response function. In four outpatient laboratory sessions, daily marijuana smokers (N = 17 males, 1 female) smoked six 5-s puffs from 3 marijuana cigarettes (2 puffs/cigarette). The number of puffs from active (≥5.5% Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol/THC) and inactive (0.0% THC) marijuana varied according to condition (0, 2, 4, or 6 active puffs); active puffs were always smoked before inactive puffs. Subjective, physiological, and performance effects were assessed prior to and at set time points after marijuana administration. Active marijuana dose-dependently increased heart rate and decreased marijuana craving, despite evidence (carbon monoxide expiration, weight of marijuana cigarettes post-smoking) that participants inhaled less of each active marijuana cigarette than inactive cigarettes. Subjective ratings of marijuana “strength,” “high,” “liking,” “good effect,” and “take again” were increased by active marijuana compared with inactive marijuana, but these effects were not dose-dependent. Active marijuana also produced modest, non-dose-dependent deficits in attention, psychomotor function, and recall relative to the inactive condition. In summary, although changes in inhalation patterns as a function of marijuana strength likely minimized the difference between dose conditions, dose-dependent differences in marijuana’s cardiovascular effects and ratings of craving were observed, whereas subjective ratings of marijuana effects did not significantly vary as a function of dose. PMID:23937597

  13. Stress-related expectations about smoking cessation and future quit attempts and abstinence - a prospective study in daily smokers who wish to quit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov-Ettrup, Lise Skrubbeltrang; Egan, Kia Kejlskov; Dalum, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Smokers who wish to quit may refrain from doing so if they expect to experience more stress after haven given up. We test if stress-related expectations about smoking cessation are associated with quit attempts and abstinence among smokers who are motivated to quit. The study included 1809 daily ...

  14. Longitudinal study of spatially heterogeneous emphysema progression in current smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoya Tanabe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoke is the main risk factor for emphysema, which is a key pathology in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Low attenuation areas (LAA in computed tomography (CT images reflect emphysema, and the cumulative size distribution of LAA clusters follows a power law characterized by the exponent D. This property of LAA clusters can be explained by model simulation, where mechanical force breaks alveolar walls causing local heterogeneous lung tissue destruction. However, a longitudinal CT study has not investigated whether continuous smoking causes the spatially heterogeneous progression of emphysema. METHODS: We measured annual changes in ratios of LAA (LAA%, D and numbers of LAA clusters (LAN in CT images acquired at intervals of ≥ 3 years from 22 current and 31 former smokers with COPD to assess emphysema progression. We constructed model simulations using CT images to morphologically interpret changes in current smokers. RESULTS: D was decreased in current and former smokers, whereas LAA% and LAN were increased only in current smokers. The annual changes in LAA%, D, and LAN were greater in current, than in former smokers (1.03 vs. 0.37%, p=0.008; -0.045 vs. -0.01, p=0.004; 13.9 vs. 1.1, p=0.007, respectively. When LAA% increased in model simulations, the coalescence of neighboring LAA clusters decreased D, but the combination of changes in D and LAN in current smokers could not be explained by the homogeneous emphysema progression model despite cluster coalescence. Conversely, a model in which LAAs heterogeneously increased and LAA clusters merged somewhat in relatively advanced emphysematous regions could reflect actual changes. CONCLUSIONS: Susceptibility to parenchymal destruction induced by continuous smoking is not uniform over the lung, but might be higher in local regions of relatively advanced emphysema. These could result in the spatially heterogeneous progression of emphysema in current smokers.

  15. Pain experiences among a population-based cohort of current, former, and never regular smokers with lung and colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Adam; Japuntich, Sandra; Keating, Nancy L; Wallace, Robert; He, Yulei; Streck, Joanna M; Park, Elyse R

    2014-11-15

    Smoking and pain are prevalent and comorbid among patients with cancer. Limited work has compared pain experiences among current, former, and never (regular) smokers with lung and colorectal cancer. We studied pain experiences of patients with lung (n = 2390) and colorectal (n = 2993) cancer participating in the multi-regional Cancer Care Outcomes Research and Surveillance study. We examined reports of pain, pain treatment, pain severity, and pain-related interference within each cancer group by smoking status, adjusting for demographic, psychosocial, and cancer characteristics. Among lung cancer patients, current smokers reported pain and receiving pain treatment more often than former smokers. Never smokers did not differ from current and former smokers on endorsement of pain; however, they reported pain treatment less often than their counterparts. Current smokers reported greater pain severity than former smokers after adjusting for other contributing factors; however, no differences were detected between current and never smokers. There were no differences in pain-related interference. Among colorectal cancer patients, current smokers reported pain and pain treatment more often than former and never smokers; however, the latter 2 groups did not differ. Current smokers also reported greater pain severity than never smokers after adjustments; however, no differences were detected between current and former smokers. An identical pattern of findings was observed for pain-related interference. Many smokers with lung and colorectal cancer experience pain following a cancer diagnosis. Future work should assess if comprehensive smoking cessation treatments that address pain can reduce pain and facilitate smoking cessation among patients with cancer. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  16. An evaluation of pain-related anxiety among daily cigarette smokers in terms of negative and positive reinforcement smoking outcome expectancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Adam; Hogan, Julianna; McLeish, Alison C; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2010-06-01

    The present investigation sought to evaluate the unique explanatory relevance of pain-related anxiety in relation to negative and positive reinforcement smoking outcome expectancies among 135 (40.7% female; M(age) = 26.11, SD = 11.23) adult daily cigarette smokers. As predicted, pain-related anxiety was significantly related to greater expectancies that smoking will decrease negative affect, and lesser expectancies that smoking will result in positive outcomes. The observed effects were evident above and beyond the variance accounted for by gender, current level of non-specific bodily pain, daily cigarette use, relations with non-criterion outcome expectancies, and shared variance with anxiety sensitivity. Results suggest that there may be segments of the smoking population who are at relatively greater risk for certain expectancies for tobacco smoking by virtue of individual differences in pain-related anxiety.

  17. Factors associated with smoking frequency among current waterpipe smokers in the United States: Findings from the National College Health Assessment II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, M Rifat; Salloum, Ramzi G; Islam, Farahnaz; Ortiz, Kasim S; Kates, Frederick R; Maziak, Wasim

    2015-08-01

    Some waterpipe smokers exhibit nicotine dependent behaviors such as increased use over time and inability to quit, placing them at high risk of adverse health outcomes. This study examines the determinants of dependence by measuring frequency of use among current waterpipe smokers using a large national U.S. Data were drawn from four waves (Spring/Fall 2009 and Spring/Fall 2010) of the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment datasets. The sample was restricted to students who smoked a waterpipe at least once in the past 30 days (N=19,323). Ordered logistic regression modeled the factors associated with higher frequency of waterpipe smoking. Among current waterpipe smokers, 6% used a waterpipe daily or almost daily (20-29 days). Daily cigarette smokers were at higher odds of smoking a waterpipe at higher frequencies compared with non-smokers of cigarettes (OR=1.81; 95% CI=1.61-2.04). There was a strong association between daily cigar smoking and higher frequency of waterpipe smoking (OR=7.77; 95% CI=5.49-11.02). Similarly, students who used marijuana had higher odds of smoking a waterpipe at higher frequencies (OR=1.57; 95% CI=1.37-1.81). Daily consumers of other addictive substances are at a higher risk of intensive waterpipe smoking and thus higher risk of waterpipe dependence. Intervention programs must incorporate methods to reduce waterpipe dependence and subsequently prevent its deleterious health effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cigarette smoking cessation attempts among current US smokers who also use smokeless tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messer, Karen; Vijayaraghavan, Maya; White, Martha M.; Shi, Yuyan; Chang, Cindy; Conway, Kevin P.; Hartman, Anne; Schroeder, Megan J.; Compton, Wilson M.; Pierce, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Concurrent use of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco is common, but little is known regarding the association of smokeless tobacco use with cigarette smoking cessation. Dual users may have lower cigarette consumption levels, which may also play a role in smoking cessation. Methods The 2010–2011 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey included 26,760 current cigarette smokers, of which 675 concurrently used smokeless tobacco. We compared characteristics of the most recent cigarette smoking quit attempt of the past year between dual users and exclusive smokers, using multivariate regression. Results Dual users (45%) were more likely than exclusive smokers (37%) to have made a cigarette smoking quit attempt during the previous year (pcigarette dependence levels (ORadj 1.33, 95% CI 1.15–1.53). Half (48%) of dual users who made a quit attempt tried to quit “by switching to smokeless tobacco”. However, once in a quit attempt, dual users relapsed more quickly than exclusive smokers (Cox regression HRadj 1.13, 95% CI 1.02–1.26). There was no difference in 30-day abstinence rates on the most recent quit attempt (ORadj 1.09, 95% CI 0.88–1.37). For both groups, the best predictor of past 30-day abstinence was cigarette consumption level. Conclusions Current cigarette smokers who also use smokeless tobacco are more likely to have tried to quit, but relapse more quickly than exclusive smokers, and are not more likely to have attained 30 day smoking cessation. Prospective studies at the population level are needed. PMID:26253939

  19. Transcranial direct current stimulation reduces negative affect but not cigarette craving in overnight abstinent smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiansong eXu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS can enhance cognitive control functions including attention and top-down regulation over negative affect and substance craving in both healthy and clinical populations, including early abstinent (~1.5 h smokers. The aim of this study was to assess whether tDCS modulates negative affect, cigarette craving, and attention of overnight abstinent tobacco dependent smokers. In this study, 24 smokers received a real and a sham session of tDCS after overnight abstinence from smoking on two different days. We applied anode to the left dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC and cathode to the right supra orbital area for 20min with a current of 2.0mA. We used self-report questionnaires Profile of Mood State (POMS to assess negative affect and Urge to Smoke (UTS Scale to assess craving for cigarette smoking, and a computerized visual target identification task to assess attention immediately before and after each tDCS. Smokers reported significantly greater reductions in POMS scores of total mood disturbance and scores of tension-anxiety, depression-dejection, and confusion-bewilderment subscales after real relative to sham tDCS. Furthermore, this reduction in negative affect positively correlated with the level of nicotine dependence as assessed by Fagerström scale. However, reductions in cigarette craving after real vs. sham tDCS did not differ, nor were there differences in reaction time or hit rate change on the visual task. Smokers did not report significant side effects of tDCS. This study demonstrates the safety of tDCS and its promising effect in ameliorating negative affect in overnight abstinent smokers. Its efficacy in treating tobacco dependence deserves further investigation.

  20. Smoke and mirrors: the perceived benefits of continued tobacco use among current smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh Klein

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite 50+ years of public health efforts to reduce smoking rates in the United States, approximately one-fifth of the adults living in this country continue to smoke cigarettes. Previous studies have examined smokers’ risk perceptions of cigarette smoking, as well as the perceived benefits of quitting smoking. Less research has focused on the perceived benefits of smoking among current cigarette smokers. The latter is the main focus of the present paper. Questionnaire-based interviews were conducted with a community-based sample of 485 adult current cigarette smokers recruited from the Atlanta, Georgia, metropolitan area between 2004 and 2007. Active and passive recruiting approaches were used, along with a targeted sampling strategy. Results revealed that most current cigarette smokers perceive themselves to experience benefits as a result of their cigarette use, including (among others increased relaxation, diminished nervousness in social situations, enjoyment of the taste of cigarettes when smoking, and greater enjoyment of parties when smoking. Perceiving benefits from cigarette smoking was associated with a variety of tobacco use measures, such as smoking more cigarettes, an increased likelihood of chain smoking, and overall negative attitude toward quitting smoking, among others. Several factors were associated with the extent to which smokers perceived themselves to benefit from their tobacco use, including education attainment, the age of first purchasing cigarettes, the proportion of friends who smoked, hiding smoking from others, being internally-oriented regarding locus of control, and self-esteem.

  1. Associations of Insulin and IGFBP-3 with Lung Cancer Susceptibility in Current Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Gloria Y F; Zheng, Siqun L; Cushman, Mary; Perez-Soler, Roman; Kim, Mimi; Xue, Xiaonan; Wang, Tao; Schlecht, Nicolas F; Tinker, Lesley; Rohan, Thomas E; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Wallace, Robert; Chen, Chu; Xu, Jianfeng; Yu, Herbert

    2016-07-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling network is involved in lung carcinogenesis. This study examined whether ligands that activate or suppress the EGFR signaling network were associated with lung cancer risk in ever smokers. A nested case-control study within the Women's Health Initiative assessed baseline plasma levels of insulin, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-3, interleukin (IL)-6, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and nerve growth factor (NGF) in 1143 ever-smoking lung cancer cases and 1143 controls. Leptin was measured as an adiposity biomarker. Conditional logistic regression was used in data analyses. Leptin was inversely associated with lung cancer risk (odds ratio [ORcontinuous] per Ln [pg/mL] = 0.85, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.74 to 0.98). After adjusting for adiposity and other risk factors, null associations were found for IL-6, HGF, and NGF. In current smokers, but not former smokers, high insulin levels were associated with increased lung cancer risk (OR for 4th quartile vs others [ORq4] = 2.06, 95% CI = 1.30 to 3.26) whereas IGFBP-3 had a linear inverse association (ORcontinuous per μg/mL = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.41 to 0.98). The insulin association was consistent across subgroups defined by body mass index and histological type, but the IGFBP-3 association was specific to small cell lung cancer. There was a modest positive association between IGF-1 and lung cancer risk in current smokers (ORq4 = 1.44, 95% CI = 0.90 to 2.29). Independent of obesity, high insulin levels but reduced levels of IGFBP-3 were associated with increased lung cancer risk in current smokers. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Elevated resting heart rate is associated with greater risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in current and former smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Magnus T; Marott, Jacob L; Jensen, Gorm B

    2010-01-01

    . Current and former smokers had, irrespective of tobacco consumption, greater relative risk of elevated RHR compared to never smokers. The relative risk of all-cause mortality per 10bpm increase in RHR was (95% CI): 1.06 (1.01-1.10) in never smokers, 1.11 (1.07-1.15) in former smokers, 1.13 (1...

  3. Impact of a board-game approach on current smokers: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khazaal Yasser

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main objective of our study was to assess the impact of a board game on smoking status and smoking-related variables in current smokers. To accomplish this objective, we conducted a randomized controlled trial comparing the game group with a psychoeducation group and a waiting-list control group. Methods The following measures were performed at participant inclusion, as well as after a 2-week and a 3-month follow-up period: “Attitudes Towards Smoking Scale” (ATS-18, “Smoking Self-Efficacy Questionnaire” (SEQ-12, “Attitudes Towards Nicotine Replacement Therapy” scale (ANRT-12, number of cigarettes smoked per day, stages of change, quit attempts, and smoking status. Furthermore, participants were assessed for concurrent psychiatric disorders and for the severity of nicotine dependence with the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND. Results A time × group effect was observed for subscales of the ANRT-12, ATS-18 and SEQ-12, as well as for the number of cigarettes smoked per day. At three months follow-up, compared to the participants allocated to the waiting list group, those on Pick-Klop group were less likely to remain smoker. Outcomes at 3 months were not predicted by gender, age, FTND, stage of change, or psychiatric disorders at inclusion. Conclusions The board game seems to be a good option for smokers. The game led to improvements in variables known to predict quitting in smokers. Furthermore, it increased smoking-cessation rates at 3-months follow-up. The game is also an interesting alternative for smokers in the precontemplation stage.

  4. Impact of a board-game approach on current smokers: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaal, Yasser; Chatton, Anne; Prezzemolo, Roberto; Zebouni, Fadi; Edel, Yves; Jacquet, Johan; Ruggeri, Ornella; Burnens, Emilie; Monney, Grégoire; Protti, Anne-Sylvie; Etter, Jean-François; Khan, Riaz; Cornuz, Jacques; Zullino, Daniele

    2013-01-17

    The main objective of our study was to assess the impact of a board game on smoking status and smoking-related variables in current smokers. To accomplish this objective, we conducted a randomized controlled trial comparing the game group with a psychoeducation group and a waiting-list control group. The following measures were performed at participant inclusion, as well as after a 2-week and a 3-month follow-up period: "Attitudes Towards Smoking Scale" (ATS-18), "Smoking Self-Efficacy Questionnaire" (SEQ-12), "Attitudes Towards Nicotine Replacement Therapy" scale (ANRT-12), number of cigarettes smoked per day, stages of change, quit attempts, and smoking status. Furthermore, participants were assessed for concurrent psychiatric disorders and for the severity of nicotine dependence with the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND). A time × group effect was observed for subscales of the ANRT-12, ATS-18 and SEQ-12, as well as for the number of cigarettes smoked per day. At three months follow-up, compared to the participants allocated to the waiting list group, those on Pick-Klop group were less likely to remain smoker.Outcomes at 3 months were not predicted by gender, age, FTND, stage of change, or psychiatric disorders at inclusion. The board game seems to be a good option for smokers. The game led to improvements in variables known to predict quitting in smokers. Furthermore, it increased smoking-cessation rates at 3-months follow-up. The game is also an interesting alternative for smokers in the precontemplation stage.

  5. Predictors of quit attempts and abstinence among smokers not currently interested in quitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardin, Bianca F; Carpenter, Matthew J

    2012-10-01

    Rates of quitting smoking remain stagnant, and thus it is becoming increasingly important to identify determinants of successful quitting behavior. The primary purpose of the current study was to examine predictors of quit attempts and 7-day point prevalence abstinence in a large nationally based sample. The study population consisted exclusively of smokers with minimal interest in quitting in the immediate future, for whom the need to identify facilitating factors of cessation is highly significant. Participants consisted of 849 smokers participating in a nationwide population-based randomized controlled trial (RCT) to promote quit attempts and cessation; all participants were not currently interested in cessation. After adjusting for treatment group, and using a multivariate logistic approach, a combination of motivational and self-efficacy variables consistently predicted quit attempts, regardless of how quit attempts were defined (i.e., any self-defined vs. 24 hr). Additionally, a greater number of previous quit attempts significantly predicted making future quit attempts. In terms of achieving short-term abstinence, regardless of whether analyses were restricted to individuals who made prior quit attempts or not, self-efficacy emerged as the only significant consistent predictor. Unlike previous studies, we did not find strong evidence suggesting unique predictors for making a quit attempt compared with achieving abstinence. Our findings demonstrate that even among smokers not currently interested in quitting, self-efficacy and motivation are key factors in the cessation process. Overall, the findings have important implications, as they highlight factors to target for future treatment.

  6. Colorectal cancer screening in high-risk groups is increasing, although current smokers fall behind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluyemi, Aminat O; Welch, Amy R; Yoo, Lisa J; Lehman, Erik B; McGarrity, Thomas J; Chuang, Cynthia H

    2014-07-15

    There is limited information about colorectal cancer (CRC) screening trends in high-risk groups, including the black, obese, diabetic, and smoking populations. For this study, the authors evaluated national CRC screening trends in these high-risk groups to provide insights into whether screening resources are being appropriately used. This was a nationally representative, population-based study using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System from the Centers for Disease Control. Data analysis was performed using bivariate analyses with weighted logistic regression. In the general population, CRC screening increased significantly from 59% to 65% during the years 2006 to 2010. The screening prevalence in non-Hispanic blacks was 58% in 2006 and 65% in 2010. Among obese individuals, the prevalence of up-to-date CRC screening increased significantly from 59% in 2006 to 66% in 2010. Screening prevalence in individuals with diabetes was 63% in 2006 and 69% in 2010. The CRC screening prevalence in current smokers was 45% in 2006 and 50% in 2010. The odds of CRC screening in the non-Hispanic black population, the obese population, and the diabetic population were higher than in non-Hispanic whites, normal weight individuals, and the population without diabetes, respectively. Current smokers had significantly lower odds of CRC screening than never-smokers in the years studied (2006: odds ratio [OR], 0.71; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.66-0.76; 2008: OR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.63-0.71; 2010: OR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.66-0.73). The prevalence of CRC screening in high-risk groups is trending upward. Despite this, current smokers have significantly lower odds of CRC screening compared with the general population. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  7. Status of lipids and the frequency diseases of cardiovascular origin in smokers according to the length period of smoking and a number of cigarettes smoked daily

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bišanović, Senaida; Mehić, Bakir; Sivić, Suad

    2011-01-01

    Cigarette smoking affects all phases of atherosclerosis from endothelial dysfunction to acute occlusive clinical events. The problem is, whether the length of the period of cigarette smoking has a more reflection to the status of lipids and illnesses of cardiovascular system or the bigger number of smoked cigarettes in a shorter time-period? The observed sample has constituted of two groups of smokers, both gender, age 25-64 years old. The first group consisted of 210 examinees divided in 7 subgroups according to a number of years they have been smoking. The second group consisted of 150 examinees, which was divided in 5 subgroups, according to average number of cigarettes smoked daily. The average values of serum cholesterol (6.98 vs. 6.13 mmol/L), triglycerides (3.15 vs. 3.13 mmol/L) and LDL-cholesterol (3.80 vs. 3.64 mmol/L) were always higher in a group of smokers according to a number of daily smoked cigarettes. Average value of smoking consumption period was higher in a group of smokers according to the length of smoking consumption period than in a group of smokers according to a number of cigarettes smoked daily (20.34 y vs. 13.55 y.). Hypertension (72% vs. 30.9%), angina pectoris (44.6% vs. 20.4%), CHD (30.6% vs. 22.8%) and myocardial infarction (16% vs. 11.4%) appeared much more in the group of smokers according to a number of cigarettes smoked daily. More reflection to the status of lipids and illnesses of cardiovascular system has the bigger number of smoked cigarettes daily than the length of the period of cigarette smoking. PMID:21342142

  8. Mediation Role of C-Reactive Protein on the Association between Smoking Quantity and Type 2 Diabetes in Current Chinese Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Feng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Previous studies have indicated that cigarette smokers are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes and that both smoking and type 2 diabetes are associated with C-reactive protein (CRP. This study examined whether CRP mediates the association between smoking quantity and type 2 diabetes. Methods. Nine hundred and eighty-four current Chinese smokers were selected from a community-based chronic disease survey conducted in Guangzhou and Zhuhai. Type 2 diabetes was defined according to the WHO 1999 criteria. CRP was measured with flow cytometry. Binary logistic regression was performed to assess the mediation. Results. A positive association was observed between smoking quantity and type 2 diabetes (P<0.05. After controlling for potential confounders, daily cigarette consumption was significantly associated with higher CRP levels. Current smokers with type 2 diabetes had higher CRP levels than smokers without type 2 diabetes. The association between the smoking quantity and type 2 diabetes was mediated by CRP, which accounted for 50.77% of the association. Conclusions. This study provides further evidence that smoking quantity is positively associated with type 2 diabetes and suggests that the association between smoking and type 2 diabetes might be mediated by CRP.

  9. Smoking behaviors and intentions among current e-cigarette users, cigarette smokers, and dual users: A national survey of U.S. high school seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Sean Esteban; Veliz, Phil; McCabe, Vita V; Boyd, Carol J

    2017-03-01

    E-cigarette use among adolescents has increased significantly in recent years, but it remains unclear whether cigarette smoking behaviors and intentions for future cigarette smoking differ among current (i.e., 30-day) non-users, only e-cigarette users, only cigarette smokers, and dual users. A nationally representative sample of 4385 U.S. high school seniors were surveyed during the spring of their senior year via self-administered questionnaires in 2014. An estimated 9.6% of U.S. high school seniors reported current e-cigarette use only, 6.3% reported current cigarette smoking only, and 7.2% reported current dual use of e-cigarettes and cigarette smoking. There were no significant differences between current only cigarette smokers and dual users in the odds of early onset of cigarette smoking, daily cigarette smoking, intentions for future cigarette smoking, friends' cigarette smoking behaviors, attempts to quit cigarette smoking, or the inability to quit cigarette smoking. Adolescents who only used e-cigarettes had higher odds of intentions for future cigarette smoking in the next 5years (AOR=2.57, 95% CI: 1.21-5.24) than current non-users. Dual users and only cigarette smokers had higher odds of cigarette smoking behaviors and intentions for future cigarette smoking than non-users or only e-cigarette users. Adolescents who engage in current dual use have cigarette smoking behaviors and intentions for future cigarette smoking that more closely resemble cigarette smokers than e-cigarette users. Adolescents who only use e-cigarettes have higher intentions to engage in future cigarette smoking relative to their peers who do not engage in e-cigarette use or cigarette smoking.

  10. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, Currents

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily Currents data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/rama/), and...

  11. Body mass index and risk of lung cancer among never, former, and current smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Llewellyn; Brinton, Louise A; Spitz, Margaret R; Lam, Tram Kim; Park, Yikyung; Hollenbeck, Albert R; Freedman, Neal D; Gierach, Gretchen L

    2012-05-16

    Although obesity has been directly linked to the development of many cancers, many epidemiological studies have found that body mass index (BMI)--a surrogate marker of obesity--is inversely associated with the risk of lung cancer. These studies are difficult to interpret because of potential confounding by cigarette smoking, a major risk factor for lung cancer that is associated with lower BMI. We prospectively examined the association between BMI and the risk of lung cancer among 448 732 men and women aged 50-71 years who were recruited during 1995-1996 for the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study. BMI was calculated based on the participant's self-reported height and weight on the baseline questionnaire. We identified 9437 incident lung carcinomas (including 415 in never smokers) during a mean follow-up of 9.7 years through 2006. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) with adjustment for lung cancer risk factors, including smoking status. To address potential bias due to preexisting undiagnosed disease, we excluded potentially unhealthy participants in sensitivity analyses. All statistical tests were two-sided. The crude incidence rate of lung cancer over the study follow-up period was 233 per 100 000 person-years among men and 192 per 100 000 person-years among women. BMI was inversely associated with the risk of lung cancer among both men and women (BMI ≥35 vs 22.5-24.99 kg/m(2): HR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.70 to 0.94 and HR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.61 to 0.87, respectively). The inverse association was restricted to current and former smokers and was stronger after adjustment for smoking. Among smokers, the inverse association persisted even after finely stratifying on smoking status, time since quitting smoking, and number of cigarettes smoked per day. Sensitivity analyses did not support the possibility that the inverse association was due to

  12. Support for Indoor Bans on Electronic Cigarettes among Current and Former Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie K. Kolar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette use is increasing in the U.S. Although marketed as a safer alternative for cigarettes, initial evidence suggests that e-cigarettes may pose a secondhand exposure risk. The current study explored the prevalence and correlates of support for e-cigarette bans. Methods: A sample of 265 current/former smokers completed a cross-sectional telephone survey from June–September 2014; 45% Black, 31% White, 21% Hispanic. Items assessed support for home and workplace bans for cigarettes and e-cigarettes and associated risk perceptions. Results: Most participants were aware of e-cigarettes (99%. Results demonstrated less support for complete e-cigarette bans in homes and workplaces compared to cigarettes. Support for complete e-cigarette bans was strongest among older, higher income, married respondents, and former smokers. Complete e-cigarette bans were most strongly endorsed when perceptions of addictiveness and health risks were high. While both e-cigarette lifetime and never-users strongly supported cigarette smoking bans, endorsement for e-cigarette bans varied by lifetime use and intentions to use e-cigarettes. Conclusions: Support for indoor e-cigarette bans is relatively low among individuals with a smoking history. Support for e-cigarette bans may change as evidence regarding their use emerges. These findings have implications for public health policy.

  13. Meta-analysis approach to study the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among current, former and non-smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritul Kamal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative risk assessment for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD among current, former and non-smokers categories remains controversial and not studied in detail. We conducted a meta-analysis to summarize all the relevant published studies on this topic and to update the association between smoking and prevalence of COPD in current, former and non-smokers. Identification, screening, eligibility and inclusion of articles for the study were conducted as per the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA guidelines. Quality assessment of included studies was undertaken using a scoring sheet. Meta-analysis after the final synthesis of the selected studies was performed using the STATA and Comprehensive Meta-Analysis (CMA software. Estimates from forty two independent studies reporting 547,391 individuals were identified. Twenty two studies were conducted in Europe, nine in America and ten in Asia and one from New Zealand. The meta-analysis showed that the prevalence of COPD was significantly higher in current smokers compared with former and non-smokers. However, owing to large heterogeneity among the estimates obtained from the studies, stratification was done with respect to continent, diagnostic criteria of COPD and study design which also showed similar results. The stratified analysis also revealed similar trend of results with prevalence of COPD being higher in current smokers as compared to former and non-smokers. The present meta-analysis highlights the positive association between smoking and COPD prevalence. There is an urgent need to implement more effective policies towards the restriction of tobacco use, to reduce the burden of COPD.

  14. HbA1c, fasting and 2 h plasma glucose in current, ex- and never-smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soulimane, Soraya; Simon, Dominique; Herman, William H

    2014-01-01

    without known diabetes in 12 DETECT-2 consortium studies and in the French Data from an Epidemiological Study on the Insulin Resistance Syndrome (DESIR) and Telecom studies. Means of three glycaemic variables in current, ex- and never-smokers were modelled by linear regression, with study as a random...

  15. Ethnic Discrimination and Smoking-Related Outcomes among Former and Current Arab Male Smokers in Israel: The Buffering Effects of Social Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Amira; Daoud, Nihaya; Thrasher, James F; Bell, Bethany A; Walsemann, Katrina M

    2017-08-07

    We examined the relationship between two forms of ethnic discrimination-interpersonal and institutional-and smoking outcomes among Arab men in Israel, and whether social support buffered these associations. We used cross-sectional data of adult Arab men, current or former smokers (n = 954). Mixed-effects regression models estimated the association between discrimination and smoking status, and nicotine dependence among current smokers. Interpersonal discrimination was associated with higher likelihood of being a current smoker compared to a former smoker, whereas institutional group discrimination was not. Social support moderated the ethnic discrimination-nicotine dependence link. Among men with low social support, greater interpersonal discrimination was associated with greater nicotine dependence. Similarly, among smokers with high institutional group discrimination, those with high social support reported lower nicotine dependence compared to those with low social support. Ethnic discrimination should be considered in efforts to improve smoking outcomes among Arab male smokers in Israel.

  16. Evaluating the association between menthol cigarette use and the likelihood of being a former versus current smoker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulsky, Sandra I; Fuller, William G; Van Landingham, Cynthia; Ogden, Michael W; Swauger, James E; Curtin, Geoffrey M

    2014-10-01

    Menthol in cigarettes has been examined for its potential to affect smoking dependence, measured primarily as number of cigarettes smoked per day and time to first cigarette after waking; the ability to quit smoking constitutes an additional measure of dependence. Successful quitting among menthol compared to non-menthol cigarette smokers is difficult to determine from the literature, due in part to the various definitions of quitting used by researchers. Nevertheless, intervention and follow-up studies of smoking cessation treatments generally indicate no differences in quitting success among menthol compared to non-menthol smokers, while cross-sectional studies suggest some differences within race/ethnicity groups. The association between menthol cigarette use and likelihood of being a former versus current smoker was examined based on data from the National Health Interview Survey and Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey. Analyses stratified by race/ethnicity and limited to smokers who had quit at least one year prior to survey participation provided inconsistent results with regard to menthol cigarette use and quitting, both within surveys (i.e., comparing race/ethnicity groups) and between surveys (i.e., same race/ethnicity group across surveys). Evidence suggesting the existence or direction of an association between menthol in cigarettes and quitting depended on the data source.

  17. Elevated resting heart rate is associated with greater risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in current and former smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Magnus T; Marott, Jacob L; Jensen, Gorm B

    2010-01-01

    . Current and former smokers had, irrespective of tobacco consumption, greater relative risk of elevated RHR compared to never smokers. The relative risk of all-cause mortality per 10bpm increase in RHR was (95% CI): 1.06 (1.01-1.10) in never smokers, 1.11 (1.07-1.15) in former smokers, 1.13 (1.......09-1.16) in moderate smokers, and 1.13 (1.10-1.16) in heavy smokers. There was no gender difference. The risk estimates for cardiovascular and all-cause mortality were essentially similar. In univariate analyses, the difference in survival between a RHR in the highest (>80bpm) vs lowest quartile (...

  18. Smokers at Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilner, Susan

    1984-01-01

    Discusses current information on the health consequences of smoking and two types of risks: those associated with all smokers and the higher risks associated with other characteristics, such as to pregnant women, teenagers, heavy smokers, those with cardiovascular disease, users of alcohol, and smokers in certain occupations. (SK)

  19. Negative reinforcement/negative affect reduction cigarette smoking outcome expectancies: incremental validity for anxiety focused on bodily sensations and panic attack symptoms among daily smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Gonzalez, Adam; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O; Bernstein, Amit; Goodwin, Renee D

    2008-02-01

    The present investigation evaluated the incremental validity of negative reinforcement/negative affect reduction smoking outcome expectancies in the prediction of anxious and fearful responding to bodily sensations. Participants included 171 daily smokers (82 women, 89 men; mean age = 25.67 years, SD = 10.54). Consistent with prediction, negative reinforcement/negative affect reduction smoking outcome expectancies were significantly predictive of anxiety focused on bodily sensations and postchallenge intensity of cognitive panic attack symptoms, but not of physical panic symptoms. The observed effects were evident above and beyond the statistically significant variance accounted for by the covariates of anxiety sensitivity, negative affectivity, cigarettes per day, and weekly alcohol use and independent of other smoking outcome expectancy factors. Findings are discussed in terms of the role of negative reinforcement/negative affect reduction smoking outcome expectancies and vulnerability for panic symptoms and psychopathology.

  20. Pulmonary responses in current smokers and ex-smokers following a two hour exposure at rest to clean air and fine ambient air particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Increased susceptibility of smokers to ambient PM may potentially promote development of COPD and accelerate already present disease. OBJECTIVES: To characterize the acute and subacute lung function response and inflammatory effects of controlled chamber exposure t...

  1. Chronic bronchitis and current smoking are associated with more goblet cells in moderate to severe COPD and smokers without airflow obstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Kim

    Full Text Available Goblet cell hyperplasia is a classic but variable pathologic finding in COPD. Current literature shows that smoking is a risk factor for chronic bronchitis but the relationship of these clinical features to the presence and magnitude of large airway goblet cell hyperplasia has not been well described. We hypothesized that current smokers and chronic bronchitics would have more goblet cells than nonsmokers or those without chronic bronchitis (CB, independent of airflow obstruction.We recruited 15 subjects with moderate to severe COPD, 12 healthy smokers, and 11 healthy nonsmokers. Six endobronchial mucosal biopsies per subject were obtained by bronchoscopy and stained with periodic acid Schiff-Alcian Blue. Goblet cell density (GCD was quantified as goblet cell number per millimeter of basement membrane. Mucin volume density (MVD was quantified as volume of mucin per unit area of basement membrane.Healthy smokers had a greater GCD and MVD than nonsmokers and COPD subjects. COPD subjects had a greater GCD than nonsmokers. When current smokers (healthy smokers and COPD current smokers, n = 19 were compared with all nonsmokers (nonsmoking controls and COPD ex-smokers, n = 19, current smokers had a greater GCD and MVD. When those with CB (n = 12 were compared to those without CB (n = 26, the CB group had greater GCD. This finding was also seen in those with CB in the COPD group alone. In multivariate analysis, current smoking and CB were significant predictors of GCD using demographics, lung function, and smoking pack years as covariates. All other covariates were not significant predictors of GCD or MVD.Current smoking is associated with a more goblet cell hyperplasia and number, and CB is associated with more goblet cells, independent of the presence of airflow obstruction. This provides clinical and pathologic correlation for smokers with and without COPD.

  2. Racial/ethnic differences in electronic cigarette knowledge, social norms, and risk perceptions among current and former smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb Hooper, Monica; Kolar, Stephanie K

    2017-04-01

    Psychosocial factors that may affect electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) initiation or maintenance among racial/ethnic minorities are not well-understood. This study examined racial/ethnic differences in e-cigarette knowledge, risk perceptions, and social norms among current and former smokers. Individuals with a tobacco smoking history and an awareness of e-cigarettes (N=285) were recruited from the community from June to August 2014. Telephone-administered surveys assessed demographics, smoking status, and e-cigarette knowledge, risk perceptions, and normative beliefs. Analyses of covariance and multinomial logistic regression tested associations by race/ethnicity. Controlling for sociodemographics and smoking status, White participants scored significantly higher on e-cigarette knowledge, compared to both Hispanics and African Americans/Blacks. Knowledge was lower among African Americans/Blacks compared to Hispanics. Compared to both Whites and Hispanics, African American/Black participants held lower perceptions regarding e-cigarette health risks and were less likely to view e-cigarettes as addictive. Normative beliefs did not differ by race/ethnicity. In conclusion, e-cigarette knowledge, health risk perceptions, and perceived addictiveness differed by race/ethnicity. The variation in e-cigarette knowledge and beliefs among smokers and former smokers has implications for use, and potentially, dual use. Understanding these relationships in unrepresented populations can inform future research and practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Physical activity in relation to all-site and lung cancer incidence and mortality in current and former smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfano, Catherine M; Klesges, Robert C; Murray, David M; Bowen, Deborah J; McTiernan, Anne; Vander Weg, Mark W; Robinson, Leslie A; Cartmel, Brenda; Thornquist, Mark D; Barnett, Matt; Goodman, Gary E; Omenn, Gilbert S

    2004-12-01

    Increased physical activity has been associated with a reduction in the incidence and mortality from all-site cancer and some site-specific cancers in samples of primarily nonsmoking individuals; however, little is known about whether physical activity is associated with similar risk reductions among smokers and ex-smokers. This study examined physical activity in relation to all-site cancer and lung cancer incidence and mortality in a sample of current and former smokers (n = 7,045; 59% male; 95% Caucasian; mean age, 63 years) drawn from the beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial, a lung cancer chemoprevention trial. Hazard rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals associated with a 1 SD increase in physical activity were 0.86 (0.80-0.94) for all-site cancer only among men, 0.84 (0.69-1.03) for lung cancer only for younger participants, 0.75 (0.59-0.94) for cancer mortality among younger participants and 0.68 (0.53-0.89) among women, and 0.69 (0.53-0.90) for lung cancer mortality only among women. These results suggest that incidence may be more attenuated by physical activity for men and mortality more attenuated for women. Effects may be more pronounced for younger people and may differ inconsistently by pack-years of smoking. Physical activity may play a role in reducing cancer risk and mortality among those with significant tobacco exposure. Prospective studies using more sophisticated measures of physical activity assessed at multiple time points during follow-up are needed to corroborate these associations.

  4. The use of planned behavior theory in predicting cigarette smoking among Waterpipe smokers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Naif H Alanazi; Jerry W Lee; Hildemar Dos Santos; Jayakaran S Job; Khaled Bahjri

    2017-01-01

    .... Also, waterpipe smokers were likely to be former daily cigarette users. The aim of this study is to examine the likelihood of waterpipe use leading to cigarette use among current waterpipe users using theory of planned behavior...

  5. Health-related quality of life in current smokers with COPD: factors associated with current smoking and new insights into sex differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheruvu VK

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Vinay K Cheruvu,1 Lorriane A Odhiambo,1 Dana S Mowls,2 Melissa D Zullo,1 Abdi T Gudina1 1Department of Biostatistics, Environmental Health Sciences, and Epidemiology, College of Public Health, Kent State University, Kent, OH, 2Department of Biostatistics & Epidemiology, College of Public Health, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, USA Abstract: Findings from studies that examined the association between health-related ­quality of life (HRQOL and smoking status among COPD patients have been mixed. Moreover, factors associated with current smoking in COPD patients and differences by sex have not been fully elucidated. Data from the 2011 and 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System was used in this study. Four HRQOL indicators were examined in this study: general health, physical health, mental health, and activity limitations. General health was dichotomized into two groups: “excellent/very good/good” and “fair/poor”, and the other three HRQOL indicators were dichotomized into <14 (infrequent and ≥14 (frequent unhealthy days in the past 30 days. To examine HRQOL indicators in association with current versus former smoking and identify factors associated with current smoking, logistic regression models were used. Sex differences were explored. In COPD patients, current smokers compared to former smokers had significantly poor HRQOL on all subdomains: “fair/poor” general health (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.2 [95% confidence interval {CI}: 1.1–1.5]; poor physical health (AOR: 1.3 [CI: 1.1–1.5]; poor mental health (AOR: 1.8 [CI: 1.4–2.2]; and poor activity limitations (AOR: 1.5 [CI: 1.3–1.9]. HRQOL subdomains affected by current smoking differed by sex except activity limitations. General health (AOR: 1.5 [CI: 1.1–2.0] and activity limitations (AOR: 1.6 [95% CI: 1.2–2.2] in males and physical health (AOR: 1.3 [CI: 1.0–1.6], mental health (AOR: 2.1 [CI: 1.7–2.6], and activity

  6. Prevalence of simple nodular goiter and Hashimoto's thyroiditis in current, previous, and never smokers in a geographical area with mild iodine deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendina, D; De Palma, D; De Filippo, G; De Pascale, F; Muscariello, R; Ippolito, R; Fazio, V; Fiengo, A; Benvenuto, D; Strazzullo, P; Galletti, F

    2015-03-01

    Simple nodular goiter and Hashimoto's thyroiditis are 2 frequent nonmalignant thyroid diseases. Tobacco smoking has detrimental effects on the endocrine system and in particular on thyroid function and morphology. The objective of this cross-sectional study, involving 1800 Caucasian adults from a geographical area with mild iodine deficiency, was to evaluate the relationship between tobacco smoking, smoking cessation, and the prevalence of simple nodular goiter and Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Thyroid status was evaluated by ultrasonic exploration of the neck, measurement of FT3, FT4, TSH, antibodies against thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin, and urinary iodine excretion. The fine-needle aspiration biopsy of significant nodules was also performed. Smoking habits were evaluated by a specific questionnaire and the calculation of number of pack years. Both current and previous smokers showed an increased risk of simple nodular goiter compared to never smokers after adjustment for potential confounders and known goitrogen factors. Interestingly, the simple nodular goiter risk was similar for never smokers and for previous smokers declaring a time since cessation of smoking for more than 69 months. Smoking habit was not associated to an increased risk of Hashimoto's thyroiditis.Smoking appears to be an independent risk factor for simple nodular goiter but not for Hashimoto's thyroiditis in an area with mild iodine deficiency. A prolonged withdrawal of smoking dramatically reduces the risk of simple nodular goiter occurrence.

  7. Nondisclosure of Smoking Status to Health Care Providers among Current and Former Smokers in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Laurel Erin; Richardson, Amanda; Xiao, Haijun; Niaura, Raymond S.

    2013-01-01

    An unintended consequence of tobacco control's success in marginalizing smoking is that smokers may conceal their smoking from those who are best positioned to help them quit: health care providers (HCPs). The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence of, and factors related to, nondisclosure of smoking to HCPs. Data were obtained from…

  8. Periodontal Inflammatory Conditions Among Smokers and Never-Smokers With and Without Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Fawad; Al-Kheraif, Abdulaziz A; Salazar-Lazo, Karem; Yanez-Fontenla, Virginia; Aldosary, Khalid M; Alshehri, Mohammed; Malmstrom, Hans; Romanos, Georgios E

    2015-07-01

    There is a dearth of studies regarding the influence of cigarette smoking on periodontal inflammatory conditions among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aim of the present study is to assess periodontal inflammatory conditions among smokers and never-smokers with and without T2DM. One hundred individuals (50 patients with T2DM [25 smokers and 25 never-smokers] and 50 controls [25 smokers and 25 never-smokers]) were included. Information regarding age, sex, duration and daily frequency of smoking, duration and treatment of diabetes, and oral hygiene was recorded using a questionnaire. Periodontal parameters (plaque index [PI], bleeding on probing [BOP], probing depth [PD], clinical attachment loss [AL], and marginal bone loss [MBL]) were measured. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels were also recorded. Mean age, monthly income status, and education levels were comparable among smokers and never-smokers with and without T2DM. Mean HbA1c levels were significantly higher among patients with T2DM (8.2% ± 0.1%) compared with controls (4.4% ± 0.3%) (P Periodontal parameters were comparable among smokers and never-smokers with T2DM. Among controls, periodontal parameters (PI [P periodontal status than smokers and never-smokers in the control group (P Periodontal inflammatory conditions are comparable among smokers and never-smokers with T2DM. Among controls, periodontal inflammation is worse among smokers than never-smokers.

  9. Reactivity to smoking- and food-related cues in currently dieting and non-dieting young women smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenks, Rebecca A; Higgs, Suzanne

    2011-04-01

    There is some evidence to suggest that young women dieters who smoke experience greater cigarette cravings in the presence of food-related related cues. The aim of this experiment was to examine reactivity to both smoking-related and water cues by dieting and non-dieting women smokers in the presence or absence of food cues. Eighteen female undergraduates attended two sessions (food present and food absent). At each session, participants were presented with a cigarette and water cue in a counterbalanced order. Pre- and post-cue measures included the brief version of the Questionnaire for Smoking Urges, heart rate and self-reported mood. All smokers showed enhanced reactivity (increased craving and heart rate) to smoking versus water cues. For dieters there was a larger increase in cigarette craving and heart rate in response to the smoking-related cues in the presence of food compared with the absence of food, whereas for non-dieters there was a smaller increase in cigarette craving and heart rate in response to the smoking-related cues in the presence of food compared with the absence of food. Mood and appetite ratings were not significantly affected by either cue type or session. The results suggest that cue reactivity to smoking-related cues is modulated by the presence of incentive stimuli relevant to the individual.

  10. Affective motives for smoking among early stage smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Amanda R; Wahlquist, Amy E; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth; Gray, Kevin M; Saladin, Michael E; Carpenter, Matthew J

    2014-10-01

    As most smokers initiate smoking during adolescence, assessment of smoking motives that underlie trajectories of dependence is critical for both prevention and cessation efforts. In the current study, we expected participants with higher nicotine dependence would smoke (a) less for positive reinforcement (PR) and (b) more for negative reinforcement (NR) motives. We secondarily assessed the relative contribution of PR to NR motives across levels of dependence. Data were drawn from a study on cue-elicited craving among occasional versus daily adolescent smokers aged 16-20 years (N = 111). Smoking motives were assessed in relation to 3 commonly used measures of nicotine dependence: (a) Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND), (b) Autonomy over Smoking Scale (AUTOS), and (c) Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale (NDSS). Compared to occasional smokers, daily smokers had significantly higher scores on each dependence measure and endorsed more prominent NR smoking motives. Each measure of nicotine dependence was strongly associated with NR motives for smoking, although measures differed in their association with PR motives. As expected, the FTND, AUTOS, and NDSS each significantly predicted smoking motive difference score (PR - NR), such that higher dependence was associated with more prominent NR motives for smoking. Results are consistent with our understanding of dependence and provide further support for 3 common measures of nicotine dependence among early stage smokers. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Pain intensity and smoking behavior among treatment seeking smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshaie, Jafar; Ditre, Joseph W; Langdon, Kirsten J; Asmundson, Gordon J G; Paulus, Daniel J; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2016-03-30

    Empirical evidence supporting the interplay between pain intensity and tobacco smoking has been growing. The current investigation advances this work in three important ways: (1) controlling for negative affectivity and gender; (2) examining pain intensity in smokers from a community sample, rather than specialized pain treatment centers; and, (3) studying smokers who are highly motivated to quit. Participants were adult smokers (N=112; 35% female; Mage=41.4, SD=13.1) participating in a larger study examining barriers to cessation during a self-guided quit attempt. At baseline, participants completed self-report measures on pain intensity and smoking severity outcomes. As hypothesized, more intense pain was significantly associated with all four smoking severity variables: years as a daily smoker, current cigarettes per day, cigarettes per day during the heaviest lifetime smoking period, and current level of nicotine dependence. These associations remained when taking into account the variance accounted for by gender and negative affectivity. These data provide evidence that more intense pain is related to more severe smoking behavior and nicotine dependence. Pain reduction could be an important target in regard to smokers with chronic pain.

  12. Reasons for quitting smoking in young adult cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, Robert J; O'Loughlin, Erin K; Dugas, Erika N; Montreuil, Annie; Dutczak, Hartley; O'Loughlin, Jennifer

    2017-09-20

    Although most young adult smokers want to quit smoking, few can do so successfully. Increased understanding of reasons to quit in this age group could help tailor interventions, but few studies document reasons to quit in young adults or examine reasons to quit by smoker characteristics. In 2011-12, 311 current smokers (age 22-28, M=24.1; 48.9% male, 51.1% female; 50.4% daily smokers) from the Nicotine Dependence in Teens Study completed the Adolescent Reasons for Quitting scale. We assessed differences in the importance of 15 reasons to quit by sex, education, smoking frequency, quit attempt in the past year, perceived difficulty in quitting, and motivation to quit. We also examined differences between participants who discounted the importance of long-term health risks and those who acknowledged such risks. Concerns about getting sick or still smoking when older were considered very important by >70% of participants. Median scores were higher among daily smokers, those who had tried to quit or who expressed difficulty quitting, and those with strong motivation to quit. Discounters (14.5% of participants) were primarily nondaily, low-consumption smokers. Their Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence scores did not differ from non-discounters', and 11% (vs. 35.7% of non-discounters) were ICD-10 tobacco dependent. Novel smoking cessation interventions are needed to help young adult smokers quit by capitalizing on their health concerns. Discounters may need educational intervention to better understand the impact of even "light" smoking on their health before or in conjunction with quit interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Differences in "bottom-up" and "top-down" neural activity in current and former cigarette smokers: Evidence for neural substrates which may promote nicotine abstinence through increased cognitive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestor, Liam; McCabe, Ella; Jones, Jennifer; Clancy, Luke; Garavan, Hugh

    2011-06-15

    Drug-related stimuli, through conditioning, are thought to acquire incentive motivational properties that code possible reward availability and elicit an attentional bias, possibly through increased "bottom-up" neural processing. The processes underlying this attentional bias are considered important in the maintenance of addiction, and crucially, in relapse among substance users attempting to remain abstinent. Equally, impaired "top-down" cognitive control may impair the ability to restrain "bottom-up" pre-potent behaviours, such as drug use, following exposure to drug-related stimuli. Two experiments sought to identify the neural loci of bottom-up/top-down processing during fMRI. Experiment 1 utilised an attentional bias paradigm to examine the behavioural and neural responses to neutral, emotionally evocative and smoking-related cues in control (n=13), ex-smoking (n=10 - abstinent >12months) and smoking (n=13 - mean >6.5years of use) groups. Experiment 2 used a go/no-go paradigm to examine the neural correlates of motor response inhibition and error monitoring in the same sample. The results of Experiment 1 demonstrated that, across conditions, current smokers had significantly less neural activity in cortical but significantly more activity in subcortical areas compared to both controls and ex-smokers. Ex-smokers exhibited more neural activity than both control and smoker groups in prefrontal cortical regions. Similarly, Experiment 2 revealed that smokers had reduced neural activity in prefrontal cortical regions during motor response inhibition compared to controls while ex-smokers demonstrated greater neural activity in prefrontal cortical regions compared to both controls and smokers during error monitoring. The results reveal cortical and subcortical differences between current smokers and controls and a general pattern of increased prefrontal cortical activity in ex-smokers. These findings may suggest that elevated topdown control might be an important

  14. Kinetic tremor: differences between smokers and non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Elan D

    2007-05-01

    Tremor is among the acute effects of nicotine exposure. Published studies have focused on smoking-related postural (static) hand tremor rather than kinetic tremor (tremor during hand use), and gender differences in smoking-related tremor have not been examined. In a group of adults who were sampled from a population (mean+/-S.D.=65.7+/-11.5 years, range=18-92 years), the investigator assessed whether the severity of postural and kinetic tremors differed in smokers versus non-smokers, and whether this difference was influenced by gender. Twenty-seven (9.9%) of 273 subjects were current smokers. Greater tremor was observed in smokers than non-smokers during a variety of activities (drawing a spiral, using a spoon, finger-nose-finger maneuver, all phabits should be considered carefully in order to avoid over- or underestimating the effects of occupational and non-occupational exposures to other tremor-producing neurotoxins.

  15. Primary measures of dependence among menthol compared to non-menthol cigarette smokers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Geoffrey M; Sulsky, Sandra I; Van Landingham, Cynthia; Marano, Kristin M; Graves, Monica J; Ogden, Michael W; Swauger, James E

    2014-08-01

    Previously published studies provide somewhat inconsistent evidence on whether menthol in cigarettes is associated with increased dependence. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, National Health Interview Survey, and Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey collect data on current cigarette type preference and primary measures of dependence, and thus allow examination of whether menthol smokers are more dependent than non-menthol smokers. Analyses based on combined data from multiple administrations of each of these four nationally representative surveys, using three definitions for current smokers (i.e., smoked ⩾1day, ⩾10days and daily during the past month), consistently demonstrate that menthol smokers do not report smoking more cigarettes per day than non-menthol smokers. Moreover, two of the three surveys that provide data on time to first cigarette after waking indicate no difference in urgency to smoke among menthol compared to non-menthol smokers, while the third suggests menthol smokers may experience a greater urgency to smoke; estimates from all three surveys indicate that menthol versus non-menthol smokers do not report a higher Heaviness of Smoking Index. Collectively, these findings indicate no difference in dependence among U.S. smokers who use menthol compared to non-menthol cigarettes.

  16. Exfoliative cytology of oral mucosa among smokers, opium addicts and non-smokers: a cytomorphometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemipour, Maryam Alsadat; Aghababaie, Mahbobeh; Mirshekari, Toraj Reza; Asadi-Shekaari, Majid; Tahmasbi-Arashlow, Mehrnaz; Tahmasbi-Arashlow, Farzad; Gandjalikhan Nassab, Sayed Amir Hossein

    2013-12-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate keratinization as well as nuclear and cytoplasmic changes of oral epithelial cells among smokers, opium addicts and non-smokers through exfoliative cytology technique. Smears of buccal mucosa and mouth floor were collected from 300 males (100 smokers, 100 opium addicts and 100 non-smokers). The nucleus and cytoplasm sizes were determined using image analysis software. Data was analyzed with Mann-Whitney test and Student's t-test on SPSS version 13 statistical software. Statistical significance was defined as P < 0.05. The results revealed statistically significant differences in cellular and nuclear size and the nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio between smokers, opium addicts and non-smokers in different age groups. The mean size of the nucleus compared to that of cytoplasm was significantly higher in smokers and opium addicts compared to non-smokers after correction for age. The results of this study indicate different rates of epithelial cell keratinization in oral cavity among smokers, opium addicts and non-smokers. Also, our results suggest a possible relationship between the number of cigarettes per day, daily opium consumption and an increase in the rate of cellular proliferation of oral mucosal cells. The present study indicated a decrease in cellular diameter as well as an increase in nuclear diameter and nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio in smears taken from both smokers and opium addicts compared to non-smokers.

  17. Sex-effects on smoking cue perception in non-smokers, smokers, and ex-smokers: a pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Zanchi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionRecent neuroimaging research suggests sex-related brain differences in smoking addiction. In the present pilot study, we assessed gender-related differences in brain activation in response to cigarette-related video cues, investigating non-smokers, smokers and ex-smokers. MethodsFirst, we compared 29 females (28.6±5.3 versus 23 males (31.5±6.4 regardless of current smoking status to assess global gender-related effects. Second, we performed a post-hoc analysis of non-smokers (9 F, 8M, smokers (10F, 8M and ex-smokers (10F, 7M. Participants performed a block-design functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI paradigm contrasting smoking with control cue video exposures. Data analyses included task-related general linear model, voxel-based morphometry (VBM of gray matter, and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS of white matter. ResultsFirst, the global effect regardless of current smoking status revealed higher activation in the bilateral superior frontal gyrus and anterior cingulate cortex for females compared to males. Second, the analysis according to current smoking status demonstrated higher activation in female vs. male smokers vs. non-smokers in the superior frontal gyrus, anterior and posterior cingulate cortex, and precuneus, and higher activation in female vs. male ex-smokers vs. non-smokers in the right precentral gyrus, in the right insula and anterior cingulate cortex. No structural differences were found in grey or white matter.ConclusionThe current study identifies gender-related brain functional differences in smokers and ex-smokers compared to non-smokers. The current work can be considered as a starting point for future investigations into gender differences in brain responses to cigarette-related cues.

  18. Sq and EEJ—A Review on the Daily Variation of the Geomagnetic Field Caused by Ionospheric Dynamo Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Y.; Maute, A.

    2017-03-01

    A record of the geomagnetic field on the ground sometimes shows smooth daily variations on the order of a few tens of nano teslas. These daily variations, commonly known as Sq, are caused by electric currents of several μ A/m2 flowing on the sunlit side of the E-region ionosphere at about 90-150 km heights. We review advances in our understanding of the geomagnetic daily variation and its source ionospheric currents during the past 75 years. Observations and existing theories are first outlined as background knowledge for the non-specialist. Data analysis methods, such as spherical harmonic analysis, are then described in detail. Various aspects of the geomagnetic daily variation are discussed and interpreted using these results. Finally, remaining issues are highlighted to provide possible directions for future work.

  19. Sq and EEJ—A Review on the Daily Variation of the Geomagnetic Field Caused by Ionospheric Dynamo Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Y.; Maute, A.

    2016-09-01

    A record of the geomagnetic field on the ground sometimes shows smooth daily variations on the order of a few tens of nano teslas. These daily variations, commonly known as Sq, are caused by electric currents of several μA/m2 flowing on the sunlit side of the E-region ionosphere at about 90-150 km heights. We review advances in our understanding of the geomagnetic daily variation and its source ionospheric currents during the past 75 years. Observations and existing theories are first outlined as background knowledge for the non-specialist. Data analysis methods, such as spherical harmonic analysis, are then described in detail. Various aspects of the geomagnetic daily variation are discussed and interpreted using these results. Finally, remaining issues are highlighted to provide possible directions for future work.

  20. Heart Rate Variability and Wavelet-based Studies on ECG Signals from Smokers and Non-smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, K.; Goel, R.; Champaty, B.; Samantray, S.; Tibarewala, D. N.

    2013-12-01

    The current study deals with the heart rate variability (HRV) and wavelet-based ECG signal analysis of smokers and non-smokers. The results of HRV indicated dominance towards the sympathetic nervous system activity in smokers. The heart rate was found to be higher in case of smokers as compared to non-smokers ( p 90 % was achieved. The wavelet decomposition of the ECG signal was done using the Daubechies (db 6) wavelet family. No difference was observed between the smokers and non-smokers which apparently suggested that smoking does not affect the conduction pathway of heart.

  1. The Process of Cessation Among Current Tobacco Smokers: A Cross-Sectional Data Analysis From 21 Countries, Global Adult Tobacco Survey, 2009-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbulo, Lazarous; Palipudi, Krishna M; Nelson-Blutcher, Glenda; Murty, Komanduri S; Asma, Samira

    2015-09-17

    We analyzed data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) from 21 countries to categorize smokers by stages of cessation and highlight interventions that could be tailored to each stage. GATS is a nationally representative household survey that measures tobacco use and other key indicators by using a standardized protocol. The distribution of smokers into precontemplation, contemplation, and preparation stages varied by country. Using the stages of change model, each country can design and implement effective interventions suitable to its cultural, social, and economic situations to help smokers advance successfully through the stages of cessation.

  2. A current precipitation index-based model for continuous daily runoff simulation in seasonally snow covered sub-arctic catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanegbu, Justice O.; Marttila, Hannu; Ronkanen, Anna-Kaisa; Kløve, Bjørn

    2017-02-01

    A new precipitation index-based model, which includes a snow accumulation and melt component, has been developed to simulate hydrology in high latitude catchments. The model couples a point snowmelt model with a current precipitation index (CPI) formulation to simulate continuous daily runoff from catchments with seasonal snow cover. A new runoff conversion factor: CT and Lf, threshold flow factor ThQ and runoff transformation function Maxbas were introduced into the CPI equation, which converts and transforms the routed daily CPI into daily runoff and maintains the daily base flow in the catchment. The model was developed using twelve sub-arctic boreal catchments located above and below the Arctic Circle in northern Finland, representing a region with considerable seasonal snow cover. The results showed that the model can adequately simulate and produce the dynamics of daily runoff from catchments where the underlying physical conditions are not known. An open-access Excel-based model is provided with this paper for daily runoff simulations. The model can be used to estimate runoff in sub-arctic regions where little data is typically available but significant changes in climate are expected, with considerable shifts in the amount and timing of snowmelt and runoff.

  3. Tobacco demand, delay discounting, and smoking topography among smokers with and without psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Samantha G; Aston, Elizabeth R; Abrantes, Ana M; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2017-10-01

    Tobacco demand (i.e., relative value attributed to a given reinforcer) and delay discounting (i.e., relative preference for smaller immediate rewards over larger delayed rewards) are two behavioral economic processes that are linked to the progression of problematic substance use. These processes have not been studied among those with psychopathology, a vulnerable group of smokers. The current study examined differences in tobacco demand and delay discounting, and their association with smoking topography among smokers with (n=43) and without (n=64) past-year psychopathology. Adult daily smokers (n=107,Mage=43.5; SD=9.7) participated in a study on "smoking behavior." Past-year psychological disorders were assessed via a clinician-administered diagnostic assessment. All subjects participated in an ad libitum smoking trial and then completed an assessment of delay discounting (Monetary Choice Questionnaire) and tobacco demand (Cigarette Purchase Task) approximately 45-60min post-smoking. Smokers with psychopathology, compared to those without, had significantly higher demand intensity and maximum expenditure on tobacco (Omax), but did not differ on other demand indices or delay discounting. Smokers with psychopathology had shorter average inter-puff intervals and shorter time to cigarette completion than smokers without psychopathology. Tobacco demand and delay discounting measures were significantly intercorrelated among smokers with psychopathology, but not those without. Both behavioral economic measures were associated with specific aspects of smoking topography in smokers with psychopathology. The association between tobacco demand and delay discounting is evident among smokers with psychopathology and both measures were most consistently related to smoking behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Elevated resting heart rate is associated with greater risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in current and former smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Magnus T; Marott, Jacob L; Jensen, Gorm B

    2010-01-01

    .09-1.16) in moderate smokers, and 1.13 (1.10-1.16) in heavy smokers. There was no gender difference. The risk estimates for cardiovascular and all-cause mortality were essentially similar. In univariate analyses, the difference in survival between a RHR in the highest (>80bpm) vs lowest quartile (......BACKGROUND: Elevated resting heart rate is associated with mortality in general populations. Smokers may be at particular risk. The association between resting heart rate (RHR), smoking status and cardiovascular and total mortality was investigated in a general population. METHODS: Prospective...... study of 16,516 healthy subjects from the Copenhagen City Heart Study. 8709 deaths, hereof 3821 cardiovascular deaths, occurred during 33years of follow-up. RESULTS: In multivariate Cox models with time-dependent covariates RHR was significantly associated with both cardiovascular and total mortality...

  5. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Electronic Cigarette Use and Reasons for Use among Current and Former Smokers: Findings from a Community-Based Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Webb Hooper

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of e-cigarette use is increasing, yet few studies have focused on its use in racial/ethnic minority populations. We examined associations between race/ethnicity and e-cigarette use, plans to continue using e-cigarettes, and reasons for use among current/former smokers. Participants (285 in total; 29% non-Hispanic White, 42% African American/Black, and 29% Hispanic were recruited between June and November 2014. Telephone-administered surveys assessed demographics, cigarette smoking, e-cigarette use, plans to continue using, and reasons for use. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs and multivariable logistic regressions were conducted. African Americans/Blacks were significantly less likely to report ever-use compared to Whites and Hispanics (50% vs. 71% and 71%, respectively; p < 0.001. However, African American/Black ever users were more likely to report plans to continue using e-cigarettes compared to Whites and Hispanics (72% vs. 53% and 47%, respectively, p = 0.01. African American/Black participants were more likely to use e-cigarettes as a cessation aid compared to both Whites (p = 0.03 and Hispanics (p = 0.48. White participants were more likely to use e-cigarettes to save money compared to Hispanics (p = 0.02. In conclusion, racial/ethnic differences in e-cigarette use, intentions, and reasons for use emerged in our study. African American ever users may be particularly vulnerable to maintaining their use, particularly to try to quit smoking. These findings have implications for cigarette smoking and e-cigarette dual use, continued e-cigarette use, and potentially for smoking-related disparities.

  6. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Electronic Cigarette Use and Reasons for Use among Current and Former Smokers: Findings from a Community-Based Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb Hooper, Monica; Kolar, Stephanie K.

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of e-cigarette use is increasing, yet few studies have focused on its use in racial/ethnic minority populations. We examined associations between race/ethnicity and e-cigarette use, plans to continue using e-cigarettes, and reasons for use among current/former smokers. Participants (285 in total; 29% non-Hispanic White, 42% African American/Black, and 29% Hispanic) were recruited between June and November 2014. Telephone-administered surveys assessed demographics, cigarette smoking, e-cigarette use, plans to continue using, and reasons for use. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) and multivariable logistic regressions were conducted. African Americans/Blacks were significantly less likely to report ever-use compared to Whites and Hispanics (50% vs. 71% and 71%, respectively; p e-cigarettes compared to Whites and Hispanics (72% vs. 53% and 47%, respectively, p = 0.01). African American/Black participants were more likely to use e-cigarettes as a cessation aid compared to both Whites (p = 0.03) and Hispanics (p = 0.48). White participants were more likely to use e-cigarettes to save money compared to Hispanics (p = 0.02). In conclusion, racial/ethnic differences in e-cigarette use, intentions, and reasons for use emerged in our study. African American ever users may be particularly vulnerable to maintaining their use, particularly to try to quit smoking. These findings have implications for cigarette smoking and e-cigarette dual use, continued e-cigarette use, and potentially for smoking-related disparities. PMID:27754449

  7. Gender differences in responses to cues presented in the natural environment of cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, Jennifer M; Gray, Kevin M; McClure, Erin A; Carpenter, Matthew J; Tiffany, Stephen T; Saladin, Michael E

    2015-04-01

    Although the evidence is mixed, female smokers appear to have more difficulty quitting smoking than male smokers. Craving, stress, and negative affect have been hypothesized as potential factors underlying gender differences in quit rates. In the current study, the cue-reactivity paradigm was used to assess craving, stress, and negative affect in response to cues presented in the natural environment of cigarette smokers using ecological momentary assessment. Seventy-six daily smokers (42% female) responded to photographs (smoking, stress, and neutral) presented 4 times per day on an iPhone over the course of 2 weeks. Both smoking and stress cues elicited stronger cigarette craving and stress responses compared to neutral cues. Compared with males, females reported higher levels of post-stress cue craving, stress, and negative affect, but response to smoking cues did not differ by gender. Findings from this project were largely consistent with results from laboratory-based research and extend previous work by measuring response to cues in the natural environment of cigarette smokers. This study extends previous cue reactivity ecological momentary assessment research by using a new platform and by measuring response to stress cues outside of the laboratory. Findings from this project highlight the importance of addressing coping in response to stress cues in clinical settings, especially when working with female smokers. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Long term and transitional intermittent smokers: a longitudinal study.

    OpenAIRE

    Lindström, Martin; Isacsson, Sven-Olof

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate differences in snuff consumption, sociodemographic and psychosocial characteristics between baseline intermittent smokers that had become daily smokers, stopped smoking or remained intermittent smokers at the one year follow up. Design/setting/participants/measurements: A population of 12 507 individuals interviewed at baseline in 1992-94 and at a one year follow up, aged 45-69 years, was investigated in a longitudinal study. The three groups of baseline intermittent...

  9. The use of planned behavior theory in predicting cigarette smoking among Waterpipe smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanazi, Naif H; Lee, Jerry W; Dos Santos, Hildemar; Job, Jayakaran S; Bahjri, Khaled

    2017-01-01

    Waterpipe and cigarette smoking have been found to be associated with each other as cigarette smokers were more likely to be waterpipe users than non-cigarette smokers. Also, waterpipe smokers were likely to be former daily cigarette users. The aim of this study is to examine the likelihood of waterpipe use leading to cigarette use among current waterpipe users using theory of planned behavior. Four hundred six current waterpipe smokers who initially had started tobacco use with the waterpipe were recruited from 15 waterpipe lounges in 2015. From a total of 70 waterpipe lounges in Riyadh, the 15 waterpipe lounges were selected randomly and participants were also selected randomly inside each waterpipe lounge based on the table or section number. The survey was developed using the Qualtrics Online Survey Software and participants completed a survey using iPad tablets. Cigarette smoking and intention to smoke cigarettes were predicted by attitude and perceived behavioral control. There was no direct effect of subjective norm on the cigarette use behavior, yet subjective norm had a statistically significant indirect effect on intentions through attitude and perceived behavioral control. The findings of this study could be useful in prevention/intervention programs aimed at reducing tobacco smoking behaviors among waterpipe users. Intervention programs might be directed at the attitude and perceived behavioral control by targeting underlying behavioral and control beliefs. The theory of planned behavior provided solid explanations of intention to use cigarettes among waterpipe smokers.

  10. Effectiveness of daily versus non-daily granulocyte colony-stimulating factors in patients with solid tumours undergoing chemotherapy: a multivariate analysis of data from current practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almenar Cubells, D; Bosch Roig, C; Jiménez Orozco, E; Álvarez, R; Cuervo, JM; Díaz Fernández, N; Sánchez Heras, AB; Galán Brotons, A; Giner Marco, V; Codes M De Villena, M

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a multicentre, retrospective, observational study including patients with solid tumours (excluding breast cancer) that received granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (G-CSF) and chemotherapy. We investigated the effectiveness of daily vs. non-daily G-CSFs (pegfilgrastim) adjusting by potential confounders. The study included 391 patients (211 daily G-CSF; 180 pegfilgrastim), from whom 47.3% received primary prophylaxis (PP) (57.8% pegfilgrastim), 26.3% secondary prophylaxis (SP: initiation after cycle 1 and no reactive treatment in any cycle) (51.5% pegfilgrastim) and 26.3% reactive treatment (19.4% pegfilgrastim). Only 42.2% of patients with daily G-CSF and 46.2% with pegfilgrastim initiated prophylaxis within 72 h after chemotherapy, and only 10.5% of patients with daily G-CSF received it for ≥7 days. In the multivariate models, daily G-CSF was associated with higher risk of grade 3-4 neutropenia (G3-4N) vs. pegfilgrastim [odds ratio (OR): 1.73, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.004–2.97]. Relative to SP, PP protected against G3-4N (OR for SP vs. PP: 6.0, 95%CI: 3.2–11.4) and febrile neutropenia (OR: 3.1, 95%CI: 1.1–8.8), and was associated to less chemotherapy dose delays and reductions (OR for relative dose intensity neutropenia and its related events in the clinical practice. PMID:23331323

  11. Racial differences in hair nicotine concentrations among smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apelberg, Benjamin J; Hepp, Lisa M; Avila-Tang, Erika; Kim, Sungroul; Madsen, Camille; Ma, Jiemin; Samet, Jonathan M; Breysse, Patrick N

    2012-08-01

    In the United States, race/ethnicity is a strong determinant of tobacco use patterns, biomarkers of tobacco smoke components and metabolites, and likelihood of successful cessation. Although Black smokers tend to smoke fewer cigarettes than White smokers, they have higher cotinine levels and disease risk and lower cessation success. We examined racial differences in hair nicotine concentrations among daily tobacco smokers (n = 103) in Baltimore, Maryland. Participants completed a survey, and hair samples were collected and analyzed for nicotine concentration using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. After adjustment, hair nicotine concentrations among Black smokers were more than 5 times higher than among White smokers (95% CI 3.0, 10.5). Smokers reporting hair treatments other than coloring (bleaching, permanent, or straightening) in the past 12 months had 66% lower (95% CI 32%, 83%) hair nicotine concentrations. Smokers reporting smoking their first cigarette within 30 min of waking had twice the hair nicotine concentrations of those whose time to first cigarette was greater than 30 min after waking (95% CI 1.1, 4.2). For every additional cigarette smoked per day up to 20, mean hair nicotine concentration among all smokers increased by 4% (95% CI -1%, 9%). This study demonstrates that Black smokers have substantially higher hair nicotine levels than White smokers, after controlling for cigarettes smoked per day and other exposure sources. Time to first cigarette, cigarettes smoked per day, and use of hair treatments other than coloring were also associated with hair nicotine concentrations among smokers.

  12. Regulation of persistent sodium currents by glycogen synthase kinase 3 encodes daily rhythms of neuronal excitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Jodi R.; Dewoskin, Daniel; McMeekin, Laura J.; Cowell, Rita M.; Forger, Daniel B.; Gamble, Karen L.

    2016-11-01

    How neurons encode intracellular biochemical signalling cascades into electrical signals is not fully understood. Neurons in the central circadian clock in mammals provide a model system to investigate electrical encoding of biochemical timing signals. Here, using experimental and modelling approaches, we show how the activation of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) contributes to neuronal excitability through regulation of the persistent sodium current (INaP). INaP exhibits a day/night difference in peak magnitude and is regulated by GSK3. Using mathematical modelling, we predict and confirm that GSK3 activation of INaP affects the action potential afterhyperpolarization, which increases the spontaneous firing rate without affecting the resting membrane potential. Together, these results demonstrate a crucial link between the molecular circadian clock and electrical activity, providing examples of kinase regulation of electrical activity and the propagation of intracellular signals in neuronal networks.

  13. Is the smokers exposure to environmental tobacco smoke negligible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Federico

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Very few studies have evaluated the adverse effect of passive smoking exposure among active smokers, probably due to the unproven assumption that the dose of toxic compounds that a smoker inhales by passive smoke is negligible compared to the dose inhaled by active smoke. Methods In a controlled situation of indoor active smoking, we compared daily benzo(apyrene (BaP dose, estimated to be inhaled by smokers due to the mainstream (MS of cigarettes they have smoked, to the measured environmental tobacco smoke (ETS they inhaled in an indoor environment. For this aim, we re-examined our previous study on daily personal exposure to BaP of thirty newsagents, according to their smoking habits. Results Daily BaP dose due to indoor environmental contamination measured inside newsstands (traffic emission and ETS produced by smoker newsagents was linearly correlated (p = 0.001 R2 = 0.62 with estimated BaP dose from MS of daily smoked cigarettes. In smoker subjects, the percentage of BaP daily dose due to ETS, in comparison to mainstream dose due to smoked cigarettes, was estimated with 95% confidence interval, between 14.6% and 23% for full flavour cigarettes and between 21% and 34% for full flavour light cigarettes. Conclusions During indoor smoking, ETS contribution to total BaP dose of the same smoker, may be not negligible. Therefore both active and passive smoking exposures should be considered in studies about health of active smokers.

  14. Smoking status and its relationship with exercise capacity, physical activity in daily life and quality of life in physically independent, elderly individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, R; Gonçalves, C G; Hayashi, D; Costa, V de S P; Teixeira, D de C; de Freitas, E R F S; Felcar, J M; Pitta, F; Molari, M; Probst, V S

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the relationship between smoking status and exercise capacity, physical activity in daily life and health-related quality of life in physically independent, elderly (≥60 years) individuals. Cross-sectional, observational study. Community-dwelling, elderly individuals. One hundred and fifty-four elderly individuals were categorised into four groups according to their smoking status: never smokers (n=57), passive smokers (n=30), ex-smokers (n=45) and current smokers (n=22). Exercise capacity [6-minute walk test (6MWT)], physical activity in daily life (step counting) and health-related quality of life [36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) questionnaire] were assessed. Current and ex-smokers had lower mean exercise capacity compared with never smokers: 90 [standard deviation (SD) 10] % predicted, 91 (SD 12) % predicted and 100 (SD 13) % predicted distance on 6MWT, respectively [mean differences -9.8%, 95% confidence intervals (CI) -17.8 to -1.8 and -9.1%, 95% CI -15.4 to -2.7, respectively; Pelderly individuals, current smokers had lower exercise capacity than never smokers. Although the level of physical activity did not differ between the groups, an association was found with smoking. Tobacco exposure was associated with worse scores for the mental health dimension of SF-36 in physically independent, elderly individuals. Copyright © 2014 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Early supra- and subgingival plaque formation in experimental gingivitis in smokers and never-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Paula; Weidlich, Patricia; Oppermann, Rui Vicente; Rösing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate supragingival and subgingival plaque formation on the dentogingival area in smokers and never smokers using the experimental gingivitis model and a plaque scoring system that considers the presence of an area free of plaque between plaque and the gingival sulcus called the plaque free zone (PFZ). Male volunteers, 9 current smokers and 10 never-smokers, refrained from oral hygiene procedures in the maxillary incisors and canines (test teeth) for 25 days. Under conditions of clinically healthy gingiva (phase 1) and gingival inflammation (phase 2), the supragingival plaque formation pattern was observed for 4 days in the dentogingival area. Gingival crevicular fluid was also measured. Plaque was dyed with fucsine and its presence was recorded by a calibrated examiner based on a 3-criteria scoring system: 0 - absence of stained plaque; 1 - presence of stained plaque and supragingival PFZ; 2 - presence of stained plaque and absence of PFZ, indicating that subgingival plaque formation has taken place. In both phases, smokers presented a significantly lower relative frequency of sites with subgingival plaque compared to never-smokers (P < 0.001). Mean gingival crevicular fluid was significantly higher in the presence of gingival inflammation for both groups (P = 0.001), whereas smokers demonstrated a significantly lower frequency of gingival bleeding than did non-smokers (23.6% vs 66.1%; P < 0.001). Smokers presented significantly lower percentages of sites with subgingival plaque in all experimental periods and presented less gingival inflammation as shown by GBI and gingival crevicular fluid quantification.

  16. Exploring the Utility of Web-Based Social Media Advertising to Recruit Adult Heavy-Drinking Smokers for Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bold, Krysten W; Hanrahan, Tess H; O'Malley, Stephanie S; Fucito, Lisa M

    2016-05-18

    Identifying novel ways to recruit smokers for treatment studies is important. In particular, certain subgroups of adult smokers, such as heavy-drinking smokers, are at increased risk for serious medical problems and are less likely to try quitting smoking, so drawing this hard-to-reach population into treatment is important for improving health outcomes. This study examined the utility of Facebook advertisements to recruit smokers and heavy-drinking smokers for treatment research and evaluated smoking and alcohol use and current treatment goals among those who responded to the Web-based survey. Using Facebook's advertising program, 3 separate advertisements ran for 2 months targeting smokers who were thinking about quitting. Advertisements were shown to adult (at least 18 years of age), English-speaking Facebook users in the greater New Haven, Connecticut, area. Participants were invited to complete a Web-based survey to determine initial eligibility for a smoking cessation research study. Advertisements generated 1781 clicks and 272 valid, completed surveys in 2 months, with one advertisement generating the most interest. Facebook advertising was highly cost-effective, averaging $0.27 per click, $1.76 per completed survey, and $4.37 per participant meeting initial screening eligibility. On average, those who completed the Web-based survey were 36.8 (SD 10.4) years old, and 65.8% (179/272) were female. Advertisements were successful in reaching smokers; all respondents reported daily smoking (mean 16.2 [SD 7.0] cigarettes per day). The majority of smokers (254/272, 93.4%) were interested in changing their smoking behavior immediately. Many smokers (161/272, 59.2%) also reported heavy alcohol consumption at least once a month. Among smokers interested in reducing their alcohol use, more were heavy drinkers (45/56, 80.4%) compared to non-heavy drinkers (11/56, 19.6%; χ(2)[1,N=272]=13.0, Padvertisements designed to target smokers were cost-effective and successful

  17. Smoking topography and abstinence in adult female smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Erin A; Saladin, Michael E; Baker, Nathaniel L; Carpenter, Matthew J; Gray, Kevin M

    2013-12-01

    Preliminary evidence, within both adults and adolescents, suggests that the intensity with which cigarettes are smoked (i.e., smoking topography) is predictive of success during a cessation attempt. These reports have also shown topography to be superior compared to other variables, such as cigarettes per day, in the prediction of abstinence. The possibility that gender may influence this predictive relationship has not been evaluated but may be clinically useful in tailoring gender-specific interventions. Within the context of a clinical trial for smoking cessation among women, adult daily smokers completed a laboratory session that included a 1-hour ad libitum smoking period in which measures of topography were collected (N=135). Participants were then randomized to active medication (nicotine patch vs. varenicline) and abstinence was monitored for 4weeks. Among all smoking topography measures and all abstinence outcomes, a moderate association was found between longer puff duration and greater puff volume and continued smoking during the active 4-week treatment phase, but only within the nicotine patch group. Based on the weak topography-abstinence relationship among female smokers found in the current study, future studies should focus on explicit gender comparisons to examine if these associations are specific to or more robust in male smokers. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Smoking topography and abstinence in adult female smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Erin A.; Saladin, Michael E.; Baker, Nathaniel L.; Carpenter, Matthew J.; Gray, Kevin M.

    2013-01-01

    Preliminary evidence, within both adults and adolescents, suggests that the intensity with which cigarettes are smoked (i.e. smoking topography) is predictive of success during a cessation attempt. These reports have also shown topography to be superior compared to other variables, such as cigarettes per day, in the prediction of abstinence. The possibility that gender may influence this predictive relationship has not been evaluated, but may be clinically useful in tailoring gender-specific interventions. Within the context of a clinical trial for smoking cessation among women, adult daily smokers completed a laboratory session that included a 1-hour ad-libitum smoking period in which measures of topography were collected (N=135). Participants were then randomized to active medication (nicotine patch vs. varenicline) and abstinence was monitored for 4 weeks. Among all smoking topography measures and all abstinence outcomes, a moderate association was found between longer puff duration and greater puff volume and continued smoking during the active 4-week treatment phase, but only within the nicotine patch group. Based on the weak topography-abstinence relationship among female smokers found in the current study, future studies should focus on explicit gender comparisons to examine if these associations are specific to or more robust in male smokers. PMID:24018226

  19. Isolated and skeptical: social engagement and trust in information sources among smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutten, Lila J Finney; Blake, Kelly; Hesse, Bradford W; Ackerson, Leland K

    2011-09-01

    Our study compared indicators of social engagement and trust among current, former, and never smokers. Multinomial regression analyses of data from the 2005 U.S. Health Information National Trends Survey (n = 5586) were conducted to identify independent associations between social engagement, trust in health information sources, and smoking status. Never smokers (odds ratio (OR) = 2.08) and former smokers (OR = 2.48) were significantly more likely to belong to community organizations than current smokers. Never (OR = 4.59) and former smokers (OR = 1.96) were more likely than current smokers to attend religious services. Never smokers (OR = 1.38) were significantly more likely than current smokers to use the Internet. Former smokers (OR = 1.41) were more likely than current smokers to be married. Compared to current smokers, never smokers were significantly more likely to trust health care professionals (OR = 1.52) and less likely to trust the Internet (OR=0.59) for health information. Current smokers are less socially engaged and less trusting of information resources than non-smokers.

  20. Ulcerative colitis in smokers, non-smokers and ex-smokers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guillermo Bastida; Belén Beltrán

    2011-01-01

    Smoking is a major environmental factor that interferes in the establishment and clinical course of ulcerative colitis (UC). Firstly, the risk of smoking status impact in the development of UC is reviewed, showing that current smoking has a protective association with UC.Similarly, being a former smoker is associated with an increased risk of UC. The concept that smoking could have a role in determining the inflammatory bowel disease phenotype is also discussed. Gender may also be considered, as current smoking delays disease onset in men but not in women. No clear conclusions can be driven from the studies trying to clarify whether childhood passive smoking or prenatal smoke exposure have an influence on the development of UC, mainly due to methodology flaws. The influence of smoking on disease course is the second aspect analysed. Some studies show a disease course more benign in smokers that in non-smokers, with lower hospitalizations rates, less flare-ups, lower use of oral steroids and even less risk of proximal extension. This is not verified by some other studies. Similarly, the rate of colectomy does not seem to be determined by the smoking status of the patient.The third issue reviewed is the use of nicotine as a therapeutic agent. The place of nicotine in the treatment of UC is unclear, although it could be useful in selected cases, particularly in recent ex-smokers with moderate but refractory attacks of UC. Finally, the effect of smoking cessation in UC patients is summarised. Given that smoking represents a major worldwide cause of death,for inpatients with UC the risks of smoking far outweigh any possible benefit. Thus, physicians should advise,encourage and assist UC patients who smoke to quit.

  1. Effects of honey supplementation on inflammatory markers among chronic smokers: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, Wan Syaheedah Wan; Romli, Aminah Che; Mohamed, Mahaneem

    2017-03-28

    Honey has been demonstrated to possess anti-inflammatory property. This is a randomized, controlled, open-label trial to determine the effects of 12-week honey oral supplementation on plasma inflammatory markers such as high sensitive C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α among chronic smokers. A total of 32 non-smokers and 64 chronic smokers from Quit Smoking Clinic and Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia participated in the study. Smokers were then randomized into 2 groups: smokers with honey group that received Malaysian Tualang honey (20 g/day daily for 12 weeks) and smokers without honey group. Blood was obtained from non-smokers and smokers at pre-intervention, and from smokers at post-intervention for measurement of the inflammatory markers. At pre-intervention, smokers had significantly higher high sensitive C-reactive protein than non-smokers. In smokers with honey group, tumor necrosis factor-α was significantly increased while high sensitive C-reactive protein was significantly reduced at post-intervention than at pre-intervention. This study suggests that honey supplementation has opposite effects on tumor necrosis factor-α and high sensitive C-reactive protein indicating the inconclusive effect of honey on inflammation among chronic smokers which needs further study on other inflammatory markers. The Trial has been registered in the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12615001236583 . Registered 11 November 2015 (Retrospectively Registered).

  2. Knowledge of risk tobacco in smokers, former-smokers and non-smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Ruiz Mori

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetive: Determine in a population of non-smokers, smokers and former-smokers, the level of knowledge of the health risks that smoking generate. Material and Methods: An epidemiological, observational, descriptive and cross-sectional research, was conducted in September 2015 in the city of Lima and Callao. Asurvey of over 18 was applied. Participants were divided into three groups, smokers, former-smokers and non-smokers. Results: The study included 2270 subjects, 744 were smokers, 752 former-smokers and 774 non-smokers. The group that mostly associated the tobacco to many diseases was the group of former-smokers, 53.8% of them mentioned to lung cancer as the most common disease related to tobacco. The non-smokers was the group that knows less often the risks of smoking. In all three groups, the most tobacco-related disease was the lung cancer, followed by myocardial infarction, while fertility was little associated. Television was the main means of dissemination about the dangers of smoking, while social networks do not have a leading role. For the former-smokers will hit more information about the risks of smoking (p<0.05. Conclusion: Former-smokers had more information on the risk of smoking. In the three groups the most tobacco-related disease was the lung cancer, and there was very little information about fertility and cigarette consumption. Formersmokers do the impacted more risk information cigarette. Television remains the main instrument to fight against smoking.

  3. Antioxidant activity of noni juice in heavy smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Mian-Ying

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Noni (Morinda citrifolia juice has demonstrated antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo. To evaluate this activity in humans, noni juice from Tahiti (TNJ was evaluated in a 30 day, double-blind, and placebo controlled clinical trial with 285 current heavy smokers. Research participants were randomly assigned to three daily treatment groups: 118 mL placebo, 29.5 mL TNJ, and 118 mL TNJ. Plasma superoxide anion radicals (SAR and lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH levels were measured pre and post-intervention. Results After 30 days, mean SAR decreased from 0.26 ± 0.14 to 0.19 ± 0.10 μmol/mL in the 29.5 mL dose group (P P P P Conclusion The results suggest an antioxidant activity from noni juice in humans exposed to tobacco smoke, thereby replicating the results found previous chemical and in vivo tests.

  4. Life gain in Italian smokers who quit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrozzi, Laura; Falcone, Franco; Carreras, Giulia; Pistelli, Francesco; Gorini, Giuseppe; Martini, Andrea; Viegi, Giovanni

    2014-02-26

    This study aims to estimate the number of life years gained with quitting smoking in Italian smokers of both sexes, by number of cigarettes smoked per day (cig/day) and age at cessation. All-cause mortality tables by age, sex and smoking status were computed, based on Italian smoking data, and the survival curves of former and current smokers were compared. The more cig/day a man/woman smokes, and the younger his/her age of quitting smoking, the more years of life he/she gains with cessation. In fact, cessation at age 30, 40, 50, or 60 years gained, respectively, about 7, 7, 6, or 5, and 5, 5, 4, or 3 years of life, respectively, for men and women that smoked 10-19 cig/day. The gain in life years was higher for heavy smokers (9 years for >20 cig/day) and lower for light smokers (4 years for 1-9 cig/day). Consistently with prospective studies conducted worldwide, quitting smoking increases life expectancy regardless of age, gender and number of cig/day. The estimates of the number of years of life that could be gained by quitting smoking, when computed specifically for a single smoker, could be used by physicians and health professionals to promote a quit attempt.

  5. Cigarette smokers' classification of tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casseus, M; Garmon, J; Hrywna, M; Delnevo, C D

    2016-11-01

    Cigarette consumption has declined in the USA. However, cigar consumption has increased. This may be due in part to some cigarette smokers switching to filtered cigars as a less expensive substitute for cigarettes. Additionally, some cigarette smokers may perceive and consume little filtered cigars as cigarettes. The purpose of this study was to determine how cigarette smokers classify tobacco products when presented with photographs of those products. An online survey was conducted with a sample of 344 self-identified cigarette smokers. Respondents were presented with pictures of various types of tobacco products, both with and without packaging, and then asked to categorise them as either a cigarette, little cigar, cigarillo, cigar or machine-injected roll-your-own cigarette (RYO). Respondents were also asked about their tobacco use and purchasing behaviour. Overall, respondents had difficulty distinguishing between cigarettes, little cigars, cigarillos and RYO. When presented with images of the products without packaging, 93% of respondents identified RYO as a cigarette, while 42% identified a little cigar as a cigarette. Additionally, respondents stated that they would consider purchasing little cigars as substitutes for cigarettes because of the price advantage. The results of this survey suggest that when presented with photographs of tobacco products, large proportions of current smokers were unable to differentiate between cigarettes, little cigars, cigarillos, RYO and cigars. Findings have implications for existing public health efforts targeting cigarette smokers, and underscore the need to review current definitions of tobacco products and federal excise taxes on such products. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. Oral Iloprost Improves Endobronchial Dysplasia in Former Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Robert L.; Blatchford, Patrick J.; Kittelson, John; Minna, John D.; Kelly, Karen; Massion, Pierre P.; Franklin, Wilbur A.; Mao, Jenny; Wilson, David O.; Merrick, Daniel T.; Hirsch, Fred R.; Kennedy, Timothy C.; Bunn, Paul A.; Geraci, Mark W.; Miller, York E.

    2011-01-01

    There are no established chemopreventive agents for lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Prostacyclin levels are low in lung cancer and supplementation prevents lung cancer in preclinical models. We carried out a multicenter double-blind, randomized, phase II placebo-controlled trial of oral iloprost in current or former smokers with sputum cytologic atypia or endobronchial dysplasia. Bronchoscopy was performed at study entry and after completion of six months of therapy. Within each subject, the results were calculated by using the average score of all biopsies (Avg), the worst biopsy score (Max), and the dysplasia index (DI). Change in Avg was the primary end point, evaluated in all subjects, as well as in current and former smokers. The accrual goal of 152 subjects was reached and 125 completed both bronchoscopies (60/75 iloprost, 65/77 placebo). Treatment groups were well matched for age, tobacco exposure, and baseline histology. Baseline histology was significantly worse for current smokers (Avg 3.0) than former smokers (Avg 2.1). When compared with placebo, former smokers receiving oral iloprost exhibited a significantly greater improvement in Avg (0.41 units better, P = 0.010), in Max (1.10 units better, P = 0.002), and in DI (12.45%, P = 0.006). No histologic improvement occurred in current smokers. Oral iloprost significantly improves endobronchial histology in former smokers and deserves further study to determine if it can prevent the development of lung cancer. PMID:21636546

  7. Staying a smoker or becoming an ex-smoker after hospitalisation for unstable angina or myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Emily Christine; Nelson, Mark Raymond

    2017-09-01

    The aim of our study was to better understand processes of ongoing smoking or smoking cessation (quitting) following hospitalisation for myocardial infarction or unstable angina (acute cardiac syndromes). In-depth interviews were used to elicit participants' stories about ongoing smoking and quitting. In total, 18 interviews with smokers and 14 interviews with ex-smokers were analysed. Our findings illustrate the complex social nature of smoking practices including cessation. We found that smoking cessation following hospitalisation for acute cardiac syndromes is to some extent a performative act linked to 'doing health' and claiming a new identity, that of a virtuous ex-smoker in the hope that this will prevent further illness. For some ex-smokers hospitalisation had facilitated this shift, acting as a rite of passage and disrupting un-contemplated habits. Those participants who continued to smoke had often considered quitting or had even stopped smoking for a short period of time after hospitalisation; however, they did not undergo the identity shift described by ex-smokers and smoking remained firmly entrenched in their sense of self and the pattern of their daily lives. The ongoing smokers described feeling ashamed and stigmatised because of their smoking and felt that quitting was impossible for them. Our study provides an entry point into the smokers' world at a time when their smoking has become problematised and highly visible due to their illness and when smoking cessation or continuance carries much higher stakes and more immediate consequences than might ordinarily be the case.

  8. Predictors of neutrophilic airway inflammation in young smokers with asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Christian Grabow; Munck, Christian; Helby, Jens

    2014-01-01

    . The investigation also included analysis for effect of pack years, current tobacco consumption, body mass index, lung function, FeNO; methacholine and mannitol responsiveness, atopy, gender, asthma history and presence of bacteria. The most common potentially pathogenic bacteria found were Streptococcus spp...... smokers, neutrophilia may be induced when a certain threshold of tobacco consumption is reached....... asthmatic smokers not on steroid treatment, including analysis of tobacco history and bacterial colonization. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 52 steroid-free, current smokers with asthma were examined with induced sputum, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), lung function, ACQ6 score, mannitol...

  9. Effect of Intensity of Cigarette Smoking on Leukocytes among Adult Men and Women Smokers in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahena Shipa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smoking is one of the preventable causes of disease in middle and low-income countries. This study was conducted in smokers and non-smokers to observe the changes in total count of leukocytes in cigarette smokers in relation to body mass index (BMI and blood pressure (BP. Methods:The study populations were from different sources including diagnostic center and general hospital, and consisted of 58 smokers and 77 non-smokers, with a broad range of age groups. The variables considered for this study were the smoking status of current smokers and non-smokers, and blood samples of the subject, anthropometric data and also blood pressure data. Results: Total leukocytes in smokers were found to be higher than the non-smokers along with the increasing of lymphocytes. Leukocytes were also found to be increased with intensity of smoking in adult men and women. The BMI of the smokers showed decreasing trend compared to non-smokers. The relation between blood pressure and smoking was not well established, as there were only little changes on systolic blood pressure (SBP of smokers found according to smoking intensity. Conclusion: Cigarette smoking has negative effects on leukocytes both in men and women smokers in terms of certain anthropometric parameters.

  10. Distinct SNP combinations confer susceptibility to urinary bladder cancer in smokers and non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwender, Holger; Selinski, Silvia; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Marchan, Rosemarie; Ickstadt, Katja; Golka, Klaus; Hengstler, Jan G

    2012-01-01

    Recently, genome-wide association studies have identified and validated genetic variations associated with urinary bladder cancer (UBC). However, it is still unknown whether the high-risk alleles of several SNPs interact with one another, leading to an even higher disease risk. Additionally, there is no information available on how the UBC risk due to these SNPs compare to the risk of cigarette smoking and to occupational exposure to urinary bladder carcinogens, and whether the same or different SNP combinations are relevant in smokers and non-smokers. To address these questions, we analyzed the genotypes of six SNPs, previously found to be associated with UBC, together with the GSTM1 deletion, in 1,595 UBC cases and 1,760 controls, stratified for smoking habits. We identified the strongest interactions of different orders and tested the stability of their effect by bootstrapping. We found that different SNP combinations were relevant in smokers and non-smokers. In smokers, polymorphisms involved in detoxification of cigarette smoke carcinogens were most relevant (GSTM1, rs11892031), in contrast to those in non-smokers with MYC and APOBEC3A near polymorphisms (rs9642880, rs1014971) being the most influential. Stable combinations of up to three high-risk alleles resulted in higher odds ratios (OR) than the individual SNPs, although the interaction effect was less than additive. The highest stable combination effects resulted in an OR of about 2.0, which is still lower than the ORs of cigarette smoking (here, current smokers' OR: 3.28) and comparable to occupational carcinogen exposure risks which, depending on the workplace, show mostly ORs up to 2.0.

  11. Distinct SNP combinations confer susceptibility to urinary bladder cancer in smokers and non-smokers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Schwender

    Full Text Available Recently, genome-wide association studies have identified and validated genetic variations associated with urinary bladder cancer (UBC. However, it is still unknown whether the high-risk alleles of several SNPs interact with one another, leading to an even higher disease risk. Additionally, there is no information available on how the UBC risk due to these SNPs compare to the risk of cigarette smoking and to occupational exposure to urinary bladder carcinogens, and whether the same or different SNP combinations are relevant in smokers and non-smokers. To address these questions, we analyzed the genotypes of six SNPs, previously found to be associated with UBC, together with the GSTM1 deletion, in 1,595 UBC cases and 1,760 controls, stratified for smoking habits. We identified the strongest interactions of different orders and tested the stability of their effect by bootstrapping. We found that different SNP combinations were relevant in smokers and non-smokers. In smokers, polymorphisms involved in detoxification of cigarette smoke carcinogens were most relevant (GSTM1, rs11892031, in contrast to those in non-smokers with MYC and APOBEC3A near polymorphisms (rs9642880, rs1014971 being the most influential. Stable combinations of up to three high-risk alleles resulted in higher odds ratios (OR than the individual SNPs, although the interaction effect was less than additive. The highest stable combination effects resulted in an OR of about 2.0, which is still lower than the ORs of cigarette smoking (here, current smokers' OR: 3.28 and comparable to occupational carcinogen exposure risks which, depending on the workplace, show mostly ORs up to 2.0.

  12. Are quit attempts among U.S. female nurses who smoke different from female smokers in the general population? An analysis of the 2006/2007 tobacco use supplement to the current population survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarna Linda

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking is a significant women's health issue. Examining smoking behaviors among occupational groups with a high prevalence of women may reveal the culture of smoking behavior and quit efforts of female smokers. The purpose of this study was to examine how smoking and quitting characteristics (i.e., ever and recent quit attempts among females in the occupation of nursing are similar or different to those of women in the general population. Methods Cross-sectional data from the Tobacco Use Supplement of the Current Population Survey 2006/2007 were used to compare smoking behaviors of nurses (n = 2, 566 to those of non-healthcare professional women (n = 93, 717. Smoking characteristics included years of smoking, number of cigarettes, and time to first cigarette with smoking within the first 30 minutes as an indicator of nicotine dependence. Logistic regression models using replicate weights were used to determine correlates of ever and previous 12 months quit attempts. Results Nurses had a lower smoking prevalence than other women (12.1% vs 16.6%, p p = 0.0002; but not in the previous 12 months (42% vs 43%, p = 0.77. Among those who ever made a quit attempt, nurses who smoked within 30 minutes of waking, were more likely to have made a quit attempt compared to other women (OR = 3.1, 95% CI: 1.9, 5.1. When considering quit attempts within the last 12 months, nurses whose first cigarette was after 30 minutes of waking were less likely to have made a quit attempt compared to other females (OR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.49, 0.98. There were no other significant differences in ever/recent quitting. Conclusions Smoking prevalence among female nurses was lower than among women who were not in healthcare occupations, as expected. The lack of difference in recent quit efforts among female nurses as compared to other female smokers has not been previously reported. The link between lower level of nicotine dependence, as reflected by the longer

  13. Effects of intravenous nicotine on prepulse inhibition in smokers and non-smokers: relationship with familial smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobes, David J; MacQueen, David A; Blank, Melissa D; Saladin, Michael E; Malcolm, Robert J

    2013-09-01

    The reinforcing properties of nicotine may be, in part, derived from its ability to enhance certain forms of cognitive processing. Several animal and human studies have shown that nicotine increases prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle reflex. However, it remains unclear whether these effects are related to smoking susceptibility. The current study examined the effects of intravenously delivered nicotine on PPI in smokers and non-smokers, as well as its association with a quantitative index of familial smoking. The sample consisted of 30 non-smokers and 16 smokers, who completed an initial assessment, followed on a separate day by a laboratory assessment of PPI prior to and following each of two intravenous nicotine infusions. Separate doses were used in smoker and non-smoker samples. Analyses indicated that both nicotine infusions acutely enhanced PPI among non-smokers, and this enhancement was positively related to the degree of smoking among first and second-degree relatives. Smokers also displayed PPI enhancement after receiving the first infusion, but this effect was unrelated to familial smoking. These data suggest that the PPI paradigm may have utility as an endophenotype for cognitive processes which contribute to smoking risk.

  14. Effect of transcranial direct current stimulation on visual perception function and performance capability of activities of daily living in stroke patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ko-Un; Kim, Su-Han; An, Tae-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on visual perception and performance of activities of daily living in patients with stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty subjects were assigned equally to a tDCS plus traditional occupational therapy group (experimental group) and a traditional occupational therapy group (control group). The intervention was implemented five times per week, 30 minutes each, for six weeks. In order to assess visual perception function before and after the intervention, the motor-free visual perception test (MVPT) was conducted, and in order to compare the performance of activities of daily living, the Functional Independence Measure scale was employed. [Results] According to the results, both groups improved in visual perception function and in performance of activities of daily living. Although there was no significant difference between the two groups, the experimental group exhibited higher scores. [Conclusion] In conclusion, the application of tDCS for the rehabilitation of patients with stroke may positively affect their visual perception and ability to perform activities of daily living.

  15. Effect of transcranial direct current stimulation on visual perception function and performance capability of activities of daily living in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ko-Un; Kim, Su-Han; An, Tae-Gyu

    2016-09-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on visual perception and performance of activities of daily living in patients with stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty subjects were assigned equally to a tDCS plus traditional occupational therapy group (experimental group) and a traditional occupational therapy group (control group). The intervention was implemented five times per week, 30 minutes each, for six weeks. In order to assess visual perception function before and after the intervention, the motor-free visual perception test (MVPT) was conducted, and in order to compare the performance of activities of daily living, the Functional Independence Measure scale was employed. [Results] According to the results, both groups improved in visual perception function and in performance of activities of daily living. Although there was no significant difference between the two groups, the experimental group exhibited higher scores. [Conclusion] In conclusion, the application of tDCS for the rehabilitation of patients with stroke may positively affect their visual perception and ability to perform activities of daily living.

  16. Gender, Ethnicity, and Their Intersectionality in the Prediction of Smoking Outcome Expectancies in Regular Cigarette Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Claudia G; Bello, Mariel S; Andrabi, Nafeesa; Pang, Raina D; Hendricks, Peter S; Bluthenthal, Ricky N; Leventhal, Adam M

    2016-01-01

    The current study utilized the intersectionality framework to explore whether smoking outcome expectancies (i.e., cognitions about the anticipated effects of smoking) were predicted by gender and ethnicity, and the gender-by-ethnicity interaction. In a cross-sectional design, daily smokers from the general community (32.2% women; non-Hispanic African American [n = 175], non-Hispanic White [n = 109], or Hispanic [n = 26]) completed self-report measures on smoking expectancies and other co-factors. Results showed that women reported greater negative reinforcement (i.e., anticipated smoking-induced negative affect reduction) and weight control (i.e., anticipated smoking-induced appetite/weight suppression) expectancies than men. Hispanic (vs. African American or White) smokers endorsed greater negative reinforcement expectancies. A gender-by-ethnicity interaction was found for weight control expectancies, such that White women reported greater weight control expectancies than White men, but no gender differences among African American and Hispanic smokers were found. These findings suggest that gender, ethnicity, and their intersectionality should be considered in research on cognitive mechanisms that may contribute to tobacco-related health disparities.

  17. Smokers' sources of e-cigarette awareness and risk information

    OpenAIRE

    Wackowski, Olivia A.; Bover Manderski, Michelle T.; Delnevo, Cristine D.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Few studies have explored sources of e-cigarette awareness and peoples' e-cigarette information needs, interests, or behaviors. This study contributes to both domains of e-cigarette research. Methods: Results are based on a 2014 e-cigarette focused survey of 519 current smokers from a nationally representative research panel. Results: Smokers most frequently reported seeing e-cigarettes in stores (86.4%) and used in person (83%). Many (73%) had also heard about e-cigarette...

  18. The risk of arrhythmias following coronary artery bypass surgery: do smokers have a paradox effect?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Al-Sarraf, Nael

    2010-11-01

    Smoking is reported to increase the risk of arrhythmias. However, there are limited data on its effects on arrhythmias following coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). This is a retrospective review of a prospective database of all CABG patients over an eight-year period. Our cohort (n=2813) was subdivided into: current (n=1169), former (n=837), and non-smokers (n=807). Predictors of arrhythmias following CABG in relation to smoking status were analysed. Atrial arrhythmias occurred in 942 patients (33%). Ventricular arrhythmias occurred in 48 patients (2%) and high-grade atrioventricular block occurred in five patients (0.2%). Arrhythmias were lower in current smokers than former and non-smokers (29% vs. 40% vs. 39%, respectively P<0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed 30% arrhythmia risk reduction in smokers compared to non-smokers [odds ratio (OR) 0.7, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.5-0.8] and this effect persisted after accounting for potential confounders while former smokers had the same risk as non-smokers (OR 1.04, CI 0.9-1.3). There were no significant differences in mortality. Smokers are less prone to develop arrhythmias following CABG. This paradox effect is lost in former smokers. This effect is possibly due to a lower state of hyper adrenergic stimulation observed in smokers than non-smokers following the stress of surgery.

  19. The impact of chronic bupropion on plasma cotinine and on the subjective effects of ad lib smoking: a randomized controlled trial in unmotivated smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Sarwar; Zawertailo, Laurie; Busto, Usoa; Zack, Martin; Farvolden, Peter; Selby, Peter

    2010-02-01

    Bupropion is an efficacious non-nicotine medication for smoking cessation; however, its cessation-mediating mechanism is unclear. This randomized, placebo-controlled trial examined the effect of bupropion SR (300 mg/day for 6 weeks) on plasma cotinine and on the subjective effects of smoking in 24 current daily smokers who were not trying to quit or reduce smoking. Subjective effects of smoking, as well as cue-elicited responses were assessed at bi-weekly experimental sessions using validated scales. Several indices of cigarette consumption were measured. Plasma cotinine decreased from 280 (+/-133) microg/l at baseline to 205 (+/-108) microg/l at end of treatment in the bupropion group (p=0.036), but no significant change was found in the placebo group. Daily cigarette count and puff topography did not significantly change in either group. In contrast to placebo, bupropion increased post-smoking satiety (p=0.045). Both groups reported higher craving (p=0.025) and withdrawal (p=0.014) after exposure to smoking-related pictures, compared to neutral pictures. This biased reactivity was not significantly affected by treatment condition (p>0.1). Therefore, bupropion does not appear to impact the smokers' response to conditioned smoking-related cues but influences the unconditioned subjective effects of smoking in unmotivated smokers. This study is among the first to systematically investigate the effect of chronic bupropion administration, free from the confounding effect of the smoker's motivation to quit smoking.

  20. Relationship of Clinical and Pathologic Nodal Staging in Locally Advanced Breast Cancer: Current Controversies in Daily Practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Felice, Francesca; Musio, Daniela; Bulzonetti, Nadia; Raffetto, Nicola; Tombolini, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Systemic neo-adjuvant therapy plays a primary role in the management of locally advanced breast cancer. Without having any negative effect in overall survival, induction chemotherapy potentially assures a surgery approach in unresectable disease or a conservative treatment in technically resectable disease and acts on a well-vascularized tumor bed, without the modifications induced by surgery. A specific issue has a central function in the neo-adjuvant setting: lymph nodes status. It still represents one of the strongest predictors of long-term prognosis in breast cancer. The discussion of regional radiation therapy should be a matter of debate, especially in a pathological complete response. Currently, the indication for radiotherapy is based on the clinical stage before the surgery, even for the irradiation of the loco-regional lymph nodes. Regardless of pathological down-staging, radiation therapy is accepted as standard adjuvant treatment in locally advanced breast cancer. PMID:25247013

  1. The Self-Reported Oral Health Status and Dental Attendance of Smokers and Non-Smokers in England.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Csikar

    Full Text Available Smoking has been identified as the second greatest risk factor for global death and disability and has impacts on the oral cavity from aesthetic changes to fatal diseases such as oral cancer. The paper presents a secondary analysis of the National Adult Dental Health Survey (2009. The analysis used descriptive statistics, bivariate analyses and logistic regression models to report the self-reported oral health status and dental attendance of smokers and non-smokers in England. Of the 9,657 participants, 21% reported they were currently smoking. When compared with smokers; non-smokers were more likely to report 'good oral health' (75% versus 57% respectively, p<0.05. Smokers were twice as likely to attend the dentist symptomatically (OR = 2.27, CI = 2.02-2.55 compared with non-smoker regardless the deprivation status. Smokers were more likely to attend symptomatically in the most deprived quintiles (OR = 1.99, CI = 1.57-2.52 and perceive they had poorer oral health (OR = 1.77, CI = 1.42-2.20. The present research is consistent with earlier sub-national research and should be considered when planning early diagnosis and management strategies for smoking-related conditions, considering the potential impact dental teams might have on smoking rates.

  2. Racial Differences in Serum Cotinine Levels of Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa B. Signorello

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to estimate black/white differences in cotinine levels for current smokers of both sexes, and to explore the potential contribution of mentholated cigarettes to these differences. Sera from 255 current smokers sampled from Southern Community Cohort Study participants (65 black men, 65 black women, 63 white men, 62 white women were analyzed for cotinine, and linear regression was used to model the effect of race on cotinine level, adjusting for the number of cigarettes smoked within the last 24 hours, use of menthol vs. non-menthol cigarettes, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, and age. Black smokers smoked fewer cigarettes than white smokers, yet had crude mean cotinine levels nearly as high or higher than white smokers. After multivariate adjustment, cotinine levels were an average of 50 ng/ml higher among black than white women (p=0.008 and non-significantly 12 ng/ml higher among black than white men (p=0.52. We observed no increase in cotinine levels associated with menthol cigarette use. We conclude that differences in cotinine levels among smokers suggest racial variation in exposure to and/or metabolism of tobacco smoke constituents, but our findings do not support a role for menthol preference in this disparity.

  3. The relationship of current depressive symptoms and past depression with cognitive impairment and instrumental activities of daily living in an elderly population: the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reppermund, S; Brodaty, H; Crawford, J D; Kochan, N A; Slavin, M J; Trollor, J N; Draper, B; Sachdev, P S

    2011-12-01

    Depressive symptoms are common in the elderly and they have been associated with cognitive and functional impairment. However, relatively less is known about the relationship of a lifetime history of depression to cognitive impairment and functional status. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess whether current depressive symptoms and past depression are associated with cognitive or functional impairment in a community-based sample representative of east Sydney, Australia. We also examined whether there was an interaction between current and past depression in their effects on cognitive performance. Eight hundred non-demented aged participants received a neuropsychological assessment, a past psychiatric history interview and the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale. The Bayer-Activities of Daily Living scale was completed by an informant to determine functional ability. Clinically relevant depressive symptoms were present in 6.1% of the sample and 16.6% reported a history of depression. Participants with current depression had significantly higher levels of psychological distress and anxiety, and lower life satisfaction and performed worse on memory and executive function compared to participants without current depression. After controlling for anxiety the effect on executive function was no longer significant while the effect on memory remained significant. A history of depression was associated with worse executive function, higher levels of psychological distress and anxiety, and lower life satisfaction. After controlling for psychological distress the effect of past depression on executive function was no longer significant. There were no significant interactions between current and past depression in their effects on cognitive performance. There were no differences between participants with or without current depression and with or without past depression on functional abilities. These results support the view that current and past depressive

  4. Australian urban Indigenous smokers' perspectives on nicotine products and tobacco harm reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuke, Kym; Ford, Pauline; Foley, Wendy; Mutch, Allyson; Fitzgerald, Lisa; Gartner, Coral

    2017-05-10

    Indigenous Australians experience a significant gap in life expectancy compared with non-Indigenous Australians. Indigenous communities have high-smoking prevalence and low engagement with cessation therapies. This qualitative research, conducted in an urban Australian Indigenous community, explored smokers' views on smoking, quitting and engagement with current nicotine replacement therapies. Opinions on acceptability of tobacco harm reduction were sought. We explored the acceptability of novel nicotine products, that is, new or unfamiliar products, including non-therapeutic options, such as e-cigarettes. Focus groups and individual interviews with adult Indigenous daily smokers (n = 27) were used. Current and novel nicotine products were displayed and demonstrated. Discussions were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed thematically. Participants expressed interest in trying existing and novel nicotine products. Short-to-medium term use of nicotine replacement therapy for quitting was generally acceptable; views on long-term use were mixed. Interest in use of tobacco substitutes depended on their perceived effectiveness, providing a 'kick' and 'relieving stress'. Desirable qualities for tobacco substitutes were identified with gender differences and product preferences noted. The unpleasant taste of existing products is a barrier to both short-term and long-term use. We found substantial interest in trying some existing and novel nicotine products, mostly for short-term use. A number of attributes were identified that would make nicotine products potentially acceptable as a long-term substitute. Some participants were interested in long-term substitution if acceptable products were available. Improvements in current products and access to novel products are needed if tobacco harm reduction is to be acceptable. [Yuke K, Ford P, Foley W, Mutch A, Fitzgerald L, Gartner C. Australian urban Indigenous smokers' perspectives on nicotine products and tobacco harm

  5. More than a belated Gutenberg Age: Daily Newspapers in India. An Overview of the Print Media Development since the 1980s, Key Issues and Current Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja-Christina Schneider

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available While TV may still be the dominant medium in India today, and the internet and mobile phone industry are currently growing at a tremendous speed, ‘old’ media such as the press don’t seem to be losing ground as yet. In times of a recurrent debate about the crisis of print media in Europe and the US, the Indian newspaper market still keeps growing and has attracted the interest of multinational corporations. One reason for this is that India is presently one of the largest markets for English-language newspapers and magazines in the world. Notwithstanding the continued growth of the English-language press, it is above all daily newspapers in the major Indian languages which form the motor of this unprecedented press boom. The article shows that in the wake of economic liberalization and the enforcement of the consumption-oriented market economy, the newspaper market in India can be said to be changing from a linguistically ‘split public’, which was characterized by many asymmetries for decades, to an integrated multilingual ‘consumer sphere’. It can thus be argued that in this new consumer sphere, the old existing and imaginary boundaries between ‘English-language’, ‘Indian-language’ or ‘regional newspapers’ are becoming increasingly fuzzy, whereas the new geographies of the ‘regional’ are now very important for the expansion and consolidation of daily newspapers. In order to de-westernize the current debate about the ‘newspaper crisis’, it would thus be important to look at different historical as well as contemporary trajectories of newspaper developments in the framework of changing media configurations in the so-called global South, which may differ significantly from the European or North American context.

  6. Cigarette Smoking Practice and Attitudes, and Proposed Effective Smoking Cessation Measures among College Student Smokers in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yanping; Ying, Mao; Fan, Hongqi

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to investigate the average daily consumption of cigarettes and its correlates, attitudes toward smoking, and suggestions for anti-smoking measures in a sample of Chinese college student smokers. Design/methodology/approach: A sample of 150 college student cigarette smokers in Baoding, a city near Beijing, filled out a…

  7. Cigarette Smoking Practice and Attitudes, and Proposed Effective Smoking Cessation Measures among College Student Smokers in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yanping; Ying, Mao; Fan, Hongqi

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to investigate the average daily consumption of cigarettes and its correlates, attitudes toward smoking, and suggestions for anti-smoking measures in a sample of Chinese college student smokers. Design/methodology/approach: A sample of 150 college student cigarette smokers in Baoding, a city near Beijing, filled out a…

  8. Does tobacco industry marketing of 'light' cigarettes give smokers a rationale for postponing quitting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilpin, Elizabeth A; Emery, Sherry; White, Martha M; Pierce, John P

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this analysis was to examine further whether tobacco industry marketing using the labels light and ultra-light is perceived by smokers as a health claim. Smokers might view low tar/nicotine brands of cigarettes as a means to reduce the harm to their health from smoking and postpone quitting. Data were from smokers responding to a large, population-based survey of Californians' smoking behavior, conducted in 1996 (8,582 current smokers). Sixty percent of smokers thought the labels light and ultra-light referred to low tar/nicotine cigarettes, or otherwise implied a health claim. This percentage was higher for smokers of low tar/nicotine brands. Among smokers of regular brands, the more highly addicted, those who were trying unsuccessfully to quit, those who had cut consumption or thought about it, and those with health concerns were more likely to have considered switching. While some of these characteristics also were associated with smokers of low tar/nicotine brands, the associations were not as numerous or as strong. We conclude that some smokers appear to view low tar/nicotine brands as one short-term strategy to reduce the harm to their health from smoking without quitting. By implying reduced tar or nicotine exposure, tobacco industry marketing using the labels light and ultra-light is misleading smokers. The use of such labels should be regulated.

  9. DailyMed Webservices

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The DailyMed RESTful API is a web service for accessing current SPL information. It is implemented using HTTP and can be thought of as a collection of resources,...

  10. Cell recovery in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in smokers is dependent on cumulative smoking history.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Karimi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Smoking is a risk factor for various lung diseases in which BAL may be used as a part of a clinical investigation. Interpretation of BAL fluid cellularity is however difficult due to high variability, in particular among smokers. In this study we aimed to evaluate the effect of smoking on BAL cellular components in asymptomatic smokers. The effects of smoking cessation, age and gender were also investigated in groups of smokers and exsmokers. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of BAL findings, to our knowledge the largest single center investigation, in our department from 1999 to 2009. One hundred thirty two current smokers (48 males and 84 females and 44 ex-smokers (16 males and 28 females were included. A group of 295 (132 males and 163 females never-smokers served as reference. RESULT: The median [5-95 pctl] total number of cells and cell concentration in current smokers were 63.4 [28.6-132.1]×10(6 and 382.1 [189.7-864.3]×10(6/L respectively and correlated positively to the cumulative smoking history. Macrophages were the predominant cell type (96.7% [90.4-99.0] followed by lymphocytes (2% [0.8-7.7] and neutrophils (0.6% [0-2.9]. The concentration of all inflammatory cells was increased in smokers compared to never smokers and ex-smokers. BAL fluid recovery was negatively correlated with age (p<0.001. Smoking men had a lower BAL fluid recovery than smoking women. CONCLUSION: Smoking has a profound effect on BAL fluid cellularity, which is dependent on smoking history. Our results performed on a large group of current smokers and ex-smokers in a well standardized way, can contribute to better interpretation of BAL fluid cellularity in clinical context.

  11. Smoker identity development among adolescents who smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertel, Andrew W; Mermelstein, Robin J

    2016-06-01

    Adolescents who smoke are more likely to escalate their smoking frequency if they believe smoking is self-defining. Knowing factors that are associated with development of a smoker identity among adolescents who smoke may help to identify who will become a regular smoker. We investigated whether smoker identity development is associated with internal and external motives for smoking. For comparison, we also investigated whether social smoker identity development is associated with internal and external motives for smoking. Adolescents who smoke (n = 292) completed measures of smoker and social smoker identity, internal motives for smoking (negative affect coping, positive affect enhancement), and external motives for smoking (social fit) at baseline, 6-, 15-, and 24-month assessments of an ongoing longitudinal study of smoking patterns. We examined whether change in smoker and social smoker identity from 6 to 24 months was associated with change in motives at earlier assessment waves. We also explored whether gender moderated these relationships. Increases in negative affect coping motives were associated with smoker identity development among both males and females. Increases in social motives were associated with smoker identity development among males, and increases in negative affect coping motives were associated with social smoker identity development among females. Smoker and social smoker identities are signaled by negative affect coping as well as social motives for smoking. (PsycINFO Database Record

  12. Dopamine function in cigarette smokers: an [¹⁸F]-DOPA PET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Michael A P; Pepper, Fiona; Egerton, Alice; Demjaha, Arsime; Tomasi, Gianpaolo; Mouchlianitis, Elias; Maximen, Levi; Veronese, Mattia; Turkheimer, Federico; Selvaraj, Sudhakar; Howes, Oliver D

    2014-09-01

    Tobacco addiction is a global public health problem. Addiction to tobacco is thought to involve the effects of nicotine on the dopaminergic system. Only one study has previously investigated dopamine synthesis capacity in cigarette smokers. This study, exclusively in male volunteers, reported increased dopamine synthesis capacity in heavy smokers compared with non-smokers. We sought to determine whether dopamine synthesis capacity was elevated in a larger sample of cigarette smokers that included females. Dopamine synthesis capacity was measured in 15 daily moderate smokers with 15 sex- and age-matched control subjects who had never smoked tobacco. Dopamine synthesis capacity (indexed as the influx rate constant K(i)(cer)) was measured with positron emission tomography and 3,4-dihydroxy-6-[(18)F]-fluoro-l-phenylalanine. There was no significant group difference in dopamine synthesis capacity between smokers and non-smoker controls in the whole striatum (t28=0.64, p=0.53) or any of its functional subdivisions. In smokers, there were no significant relationships between the number of cigarettes smoked per day and dopamine synthesis capacity in the whole striatum (r=-0.23, p=0.41) or any striatal subdivision. These findings indicate that moderate smoking is not associated with altered striatal dopamine synthesis capacity.

  13. Decreased peak expiratory flow in pediatric passive smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitri Yanti

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Indonesia ranks fifth among countries with the highest aggregate levels of tobacco consumption in the world. Infants and children exposed to environmental tobacco smoke have increased rates of asthma, respiratory and ear infections, as well as reduced lung function. The effects of tobacco smoke exposure on lung function in children have been reported to be dependent on the source of smoke and the length and dose of exposure. Lung function may also be affected by a child’s gender and asthma status. Objective To compare peak expiratory flow (PEF in pediatric passive smokers to that of children not exposed to second hand smoke, and to define factors that may affect PEF in passive smokers. Methods In August 2009 we conducted a cross-sectional study at an elementary school in the Langkat district. Subjects were aged 6 to 12 years, and divided into two groups: passive smokers and those not exposed to secondhand smoke. Subjects’ PEFs were measured with a Mini-Wright peak flow meter. Measurements were performed in triplicate with the highest value recorded as the PEF. Demographic data including age, sex, weight, height, family income, parental education levels and occupations were obtained through questionnaires. Results Of the 170 participants, 100 were passive smokers and 70 were not exposed to secondhand smoke. Age distribution, weight and height were similar in both groups. We observed a significant difference in PEFs between the group of passive smokers and the group not exposed to secondhand smoke, 211.3 L/minute (SD 61.08 and 242.7 L/minute (SD 77.09, respectively (P < 0.005. The number of years of exposure to smoke (P = 0.079 and the number of cigarettes smoked daily in the household (P = 0.098 did not significantly influence PEF. Conclusion The PEF in pediatric passive smokers was significantly lower than that of children not exposed to secondhand smoke. PEF in passive smokers was not influenced by the number of years of smoke

  14. Virtual Reality Cue Reactivity Assessment: A Comparison of Treatment- vs. Nontreatment-Seeking Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordnick, Patrick S.; Yoon, Jin H.; Kaganoff, Eili; Carter, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The cue-reactivity paradigm has been widely used to assess craving among cigarette smokers. Seeking to replicate and expand on previous virtual reality (VR) nicotine cue-reactivity research on nontreatment-seeking smokers, the current study compared subjective reports of craving for cigarettes when exposed to smoking (proximal and…

  15. Recruiting Diverse Smokers: Enrollment Yields and Cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodar, Kaitlyn E; Hall, Marissa G; Butler, Eboneé N; Parada, Humberto; Stein-Seroussi, Al; Hanley, Sean; Brewer, Noel T

    2016-12-16

    To help tobacco control research better include vulnerable populations, we sought to identify effective ways to recruit diverse smokers. In 2014-2015, we recruited 2149 adult cigarette smokers in California and North Carolina, United States, to participate in a randomized trial of pictorial cigarette pack warnings. The most effective means of recruiting smokers were the classified advertising website Craigslist (28% of participants), word of mouth (23%), Facebook (16%), and flyers or postcards (14%). Low-income and African American smokers were more likely to respond to interpersonal contact (including staff in-person recruitment and word of mouth) than were high-income and non-African American smokers (all p < 0.05). Hispanic and gay, lesbian, and bisexual smokers were more likely to be recruited by Craigslist than non-Hispanic and straight smokers (both p < 0.05). Of the recruitment methods requiring cost, the cheapest was Craigslist ($3-7 per smoker). The most expensive methods were newspaper ads in California ($375 per smoker) and staff in-person recruiting in North Carolina ($180 per smoker). Successfully recruiting diverse smokers requires using multiple methods including interpersonal, online, and other media. Craigslist and word of mouth are especially useful and low-cost ways to recruit diverse smokers.

  16. Recruiting Diverse Smokers: Enrollment Yields and Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaitlyn E. Brodar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To help tobacco control research better include vulnerable populations, we sought to identify effective ways to recruit diverse smokers. In 2014–2015, we recruited 2149 adult cigarette smokers in California and North Carolina, United States, to participate in a randomized trial of pictorial cigarette pack warnings. The most effective means of recruiting smokers were the classified advertising website Craigslist (28% of participants, word of mouth (23%, Facebook (16%, and flyers or postcards (14%. Low-income and African American smokers were more likely to respond to interpersonal contact (including staff in-person recruitment and word of mouth than were high-income and non-African American smokers (all p < 0.05. Hispanic and gay, lesbian, and bisexual smokers were more likely to be recruited by Craigslist than non-Hispanic and straight smokers (both p < 0.05. Of the recruitment methods requiring cost, the cheapest was Craigslist ($3–7 per smoker. The most expensive methods were newspaper ads in California ($375 per smoker and staff in-person recruiting in North Carolina ($180 per smoker. Successfully recruiting diverse smokers requires using multiple methods including interpersonal, online, and other media. Craigslist and word of mouth are especially useful and low-cost ways to recruit diverse smokers.

  17. Daily scale winter-time sea surface temperature variability and the Iberian Poleward Current in the southern Bay of Biscay from 1981 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Esnaola

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The combination of remotely sensed gappy sea surface temperature (SST images with the missing data filling Data Interpolating EOFs (DINEOF technique followed by a Principal Component Analysis of the reconstructed data, has been used to identify the time evolution and the daily scale variability of the winter-time surface signal of the Iberian Poleward Current (IPC during the 1981–2010 period. An exhaustive comparison with the existing bibliography, and the vertical temperature and salinity profiles related to its extremes over the Bay of Biscay area, show that the obtained time series accurately reflect the variability of the IPC. A physical mechanism involving both atmospheric and oceanic variables is proposed in relation to the variability of the IPC. It jointly takes into account several mechanisms that have separately been related to the variability of the IPC, i.e. the south-westerly winds, the Joint Effect of Baroclinicity And Relief (JEBAR effect, the topographic β effect and a weakened North Atlantic Gyre. This mechanism emerges from an atmospheric 500 hPa circulation anomaly that has not a simple relationship with any of the most common North Atlantic teleconnection patterns. It then generates mutually coherent SST and sea level anomaly patterns in the North Atlantic area due to the action of anomalous wind-stress and heat-fluxes, and locally, it also generates the conditions for the mentioned mechanisms in the Bay of Biscay area.

  18. Nicotine dependance among adult male smokers in rural Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gad, Rita R; El-Setouhy, Maged; Haroun, Amany; Gadalla, Shahinaz; Abdel-Aziz, Fatma; Aboul-Fotouh, Aisha; Mohamed, Mostafa K; Mikhail, Nabiel; Israel, Ebenezer

    2003-12-01

    Nicotine dependence is a significant public health problem. This study describes the nicotine dependence status among male adults in rural communities in Egypt. A survey was carried out in five rural villages in Egypt to study the smoking prevalence. A total of 938 current smokers were identified and their nicotine dependence status was studied. About 9% of all smokers in the studied villages were found to have heavy dependence to nicotine. Heavy dependence was associated with younger age of smoking initiation (p<0.05) and more smoking in the first hours of the day (p<0.001). Heavy dependent smokers are less likely to quit smoking (p<0.001), lack the confidence to quit by themselves (p<0.001) and less likely to have tried to quit earlier (p<0.001). Dependent smokers are more likely to smoke in the presence of their children (p<0.001). Reasons for smoking included the habit of smoking helping them to keep them going when tired, to make them alert and not knowing what to do with their hands without a cigarette. The main reasons they identified for restarting smoking after quitting were the signs of withdrawal namely headaches, irritability and difficulty in concentration. Nicotine dependence status and attributes were comparable to studies reported in other countries around the world. Enhanced behavioral and medical intervention strategies are needed to motivate helping both low and heavy nicotine dependent smokers to increase the number and effectiveness of quit attempts.

  19. PLAUR polymorphisms and lung function in UK smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connolly Martin J

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously identified Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor (PLAUR as an asthma susceptibility gene. In the current study we tested the hypothesis that PLAUR single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs determine baseline lung function and contribute to the development of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD in smokers. Methods 25 PLAUR SNPs were genotyped in COPD subjects and individuals with smoking history (n = 992. Linear regression was used to determine the effects of polymorphism on baseline lung function (FEV1, FEV1/FVC in all smokers. Genotype frequencies were compared in spirometry defined smoking controls (n = 176 versus COPD cases (n = 599 and COPD severity (GOLD stratification using logistic regression. Results Five SNPs showed a significant association (p 1 respectively. rs740587(-22346, rs11668247(-20040 and rs344779(-3666 in the 5'region were associated with increased FEV1/FVC ratio. rs740587 was also protective for COPD susceptibility and rs11668247 was protective for COPD severity although no allele dose relationship was apparent. Interestingly, several of these associations were driven by male smokers not females. Conclusion This study provides tentative evidence that the asthma associated gene PLAUR also influences baseline lung function in smokers. However the case-control analyses do not support the conclusion that PLAUR is a major COPD susceptibility gene in smokers. PLAUR is a key serine protease receptor involved in the generation of plasmin and has been implicated in airway remodelling.

  20. Natural killer cell activity in cigarette smokers and asbestos workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginns, L.C.; Ryu, J.H.; Rogol, P.R.; Sprince, N.L.; Oliver, L.C.; Larsson, C.J.

    1985-06-01

    In order to evaluate the effects of cigarette smoking and asbestos exposure on cellular immunity, the authors tested a group of cigarette smokers and asbestos workers for natural killer (NK) activity in the peripheral blood. The mean NK activity in cigarette smokers was lower than in normal subjects (13.7 +/- 1.6 versus 29.0 +/- 3%; p less than 0.05). As a group, the mean NK activity for the asbestos-exposed group was also reduced compared with that of the nonsmoking control group (22.6 +/- 3.2%; p less than 0.05). When divided according to the smoking status, the asbestos workers who were nonsmokers or ex-smokers showed similar decreases in NK activity compared with normal subjects (19.5 +/- 6.2 and 21.2 +/- 4.5%, respectively; p less than 0.05). A subgroup of asbestos-exposed subjects who currently smoked showed no decrease in NK activity. The data show that NK activity is reduced in the peripheral blood of cigarette smokers and asbestos workers. The relatively normal NK activity found in asbestos workers who also smoked is unexplained. Impairment of NK activity is a potential mechanism for the increased incidence of infection and cancer in smokers and neoplasia in asbestos workers.

  1. Characteristics of adult smokers presenting to a mind-body medicine clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luberto, Christina M; Chad-Friedman, Emma; Dossett, Michelle L; Perez, Giselle K; Park, Elyse R

    2016-09-29

    Mind-body interventions can improve vulnerabilities that underlie smoking behavior. The characteristics of smokers who use mind-body medicine have not been explored, preventing the development of targeted interventions. Patients (N = 593) presenting to a mind-body medicine clinic completed self-report measures. Patients were 67 percent never smokers, 27 percent former smokers, and 6 percent current smokers. Current smokers were younger; more likely to be single, unemployed, or on disability; and report greater depression symptoms, greater pain, and lower social support (ps mind-body medicine have unique psychosocial needs that should be targeted in mind-body smoking cessation interventions.

  2. Gold standard program for heavy smokers in a real-life setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Tim; Rasmussen, Mette; Heitmann, Berit L

    2013-01-01

    ) and to identify modifiable factors associated with continuous abstinence. Methods: In this nationwide clinical study based on 36,550 smokers attending an intensive cessation program in Denmark. Heavy smoking was defined as ≥7 points in the Fagerström Nicotine Dependency Test, smoking ≥20 cigarettes daily or ≥20...... pack-years. Results: Overall, 28% had a Fagerström score ≥7 points, 58% smoked ≥20 cigarettes daily and 68% smoked ≥20 pack-years. Continuous abstinence was 33% in responders (6-months response rate: 78%); however, abstinence was approximately 1-6% lower in the heavy smokers than the overall population...

  3. Non-specific interstitial pneumonia in cigarette smokers: a CT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marten, Katharina [Georg August University of Goettingen, Department of Radiology, Goettingen (Germany); Milne, David [Green Lane Hospital, Department of Radiology, Auckland (New Zealand); Antoniou, Katerina M. [University of Crete, Department of Thoracic Medicine, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Nicholson, Andrew G. [Royal Brompton Hospital, Department of Histopathology, London (United Kingdom); Tennant, Rachel C.; Wells, Athol U. [Royal Brompton Hospital, Interstitial Lung Disease Unit, London (United Kingdom); Hansel, Trevor T. [Royal Brompton Hospital, Clinical Trials Unit, London (United Kingdom); Hansell, David M. [Royal Brompton Hospital, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-15

    The goal of this study was to seek indirect evidence that smoking is an aetiological factor in some patients with non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP). Ten current and eight ex-smokers with NSIP were compared to controls including 137 current smokers with no known interstitial lung disease and 11 non-smokers with NSIP. Prevalence and extent of emphysema in 18 smokers with NSIP were compared with subjects meeting GOLD criteria for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; group A; n = 34) and healthy smokers (normal FEV{sub 1}; group B; n = 103), respectively. Emphysema was present in 14/18 (77.8%) smokers with NSIP. Emphysema did not differ in prevalence between NSIP patients and group A controls (25/34, 73.5%), but was strikingly more prevalent in NSIP patients than in group B controls (18/103, 17.5%, P < 0.0005). On multiple logistic regression, the likelihood of emphysema increased when NSIP was present (OR = 18.8; 95% CI = 5.3-66.3; P < 0.0005) and with increasing age (OR = 1.04; 95% CI = 0.99-1.11; P = 0.08). Emphysema is as prevalent in smokers with NSIP as in smokers with COPD, and is strikingly more prevalent in these two groups than in healthy smoking controls. The association between NSIP and emphysema provides indirect support for a smoking pathogenesis hypothesis in some NSIP patients. (orig.)

  4. Self-monitoring effects of ecological momentary assessment on smokers' perceived risk and worry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnan, Renee E; Köblitz, Amber R; McCaul, Kevin D; Dillard, Amanda J

    2013-06-01

    Using ecological momentary assessment (EMA), we sought to determine whether differences in reporting would exist for smokers who self-monitored their smoking-related negative thoughts five times daily in comparison to a non-EMA control group. One hundred seventeen smokers were randomly assigned to two conditions. Eighty-eight smokers carried personal digital assistants (PDAs) for 2 weeks and monitored negative thoughts each day, and 29 smokers did not self-monitor their negative thoughts. All smokers completed pretest and posttest assessments reporting their perceived risk and worry associated with smoking consequences. The data revealed evidence of self-monitoring effects, as smokers in the EMA condition reported less worry after 2 weeks of self-monitoring compared to smokers in the control condition. The two conditions did not differ in their reports of perceived risk of smoking consequences. These data suggest that EMA procedures asking respondents to self-monitor their thoughts about smoking may influence feelings about their smoking behavior.

  5. Effects of acute tobacco abstinence in adolescent smokers compared with nonsmokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Anne E; Cavallo, Dana A; Dahl, Tricia; Wu, Ran; George, Tony P; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2008-07-01

    Abstinence effects such as nicotine withdrawal and mood changes contribute to the maintenance of cigarette smoking in adult smokers, and emerging reports on adolescent smokers suggest they may experience similar subjective effects when deprived. This study aimed to prospectively document tobacco abstinence-induced changes during the first 48 hours of abstinence in adolescent smokers compared with nonsmokers, to distinguish effects distinct from typical adolescent lability. Fifty-seven adolescent smokers and 44 adolescent nonsmokers were assessed during a 48-hour inpatient session. Characteristic nicotine withdrawal symptoms, cravings for cigarettes, and mood symptoms were measured at 13 time points following initiation of abstinence. The only abstinence-related effects observed were changes in craving for tobacco and feelings of anger. Tobacco craving increased and peaked quickly following initiation of abstinence and displayed a slight decrease toward the end of the 48-hour abstinence period, while anger symptoms peaked after a more prolonged abstinence. Overall, smokers' symptoms and cravings were positively associated with amount of daily smoking but not with reports of dependence or biological measures of extent of use. We observed that among adolescent smokers, the primary effects associated with abstinence from cigarettes are relatively minimal, and include a heightened and persistent craving to smoke and increases in anger. Although smokers had greater negative mood symptoms compared with nonsmokers, the presence and severity of most of these symptoms appear to be minimally altered by abstinence and not associated with dependency or biological indicators of amount of tobacco use.

  6. smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Weidberg

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes/Objetivo: A pesar de que los cigarrillos electrónicos se han usado cada vez más como alternativa al consumo de tabaco, pocos estudios han explorado los factores psicológicos asociados a su uso. Estudios previos que analizan los correlatos del cigarrillo electrónico se han centrado en las características sociodemográficas y de dependencia del tabaco. Sin embargo, ningún estudio ha analizado características psicológicas como la impulsividad en usuarios de cigarrillo electrónico. El objetivo del estudio fue comparar las tasas de impulsividad en cuatro grupos de participantes: usuarios actuales de cigarrillo electrónico que eran ex-fumadores, fumadores de tabaco, ex-fumadores y controles. Método: Una muestra de 136 participantes completó una versión informatizada de la tarea de descuento por demora para reforzadores monetarios hipotéticos. Resultados: El descuento por demora fue mayor entre los usuarios de cigarrillo electrónico que entre los ex-fumadores. Los usuarios de cigarrillo electrónico mostraron un descuento intermedio que no difirió del de los fumadores y los controles. Además, el descuento por demora fue significativamente mayor entre los fumadores en comparación con los ex-fumadores y los controles. Conclusiones: Nuestros resultados amplían la literatura previa sobre descuento por demora arrojando nueva evidencia sobre los niveles de impulsividad en los usuarios de cigarrillo electrónico. © 2017 Asociación Española de Psicología Conductual. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. This is an open access article under the CC BY−NC−ND license (http://creativecommons. org/licenses/by−nc−nd/4.0/.

  7. Non-small cell lung cancer in never smokers: a clinical entity to be identified

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilka Lopes Santoro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: It has been recognized that patients with non-small cell lung cancer who are lifelong never-smokers constitute a distinct clinical entity. The aim of this study was to assess clinical risk factors for survival among neversmokers with non-small cell lung cancer. METHODS: All consecutive non-small cell lung cancer patients diagnosed (n = 285 between May 2005 and May 2009 were included. The clinical characteristics of never-smokers and ever-smokers (former and current were compared using chi-squared or Student's t tests. Survival curves were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and log-rank tests were used for survival comparisons. A Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was evaluated by adjusting for age (continuous variable, gender (female vs. male, smoking status (never- vs. ever-smoker, the Karnofsky Performance Status Scale (continuous variable, histological type (adenocarcinoma vs. non-adenocarcinoma, AJCC staging (early vs. advanced staging, and treatment (chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy vs. the best treatment support. RESULTS: Of the 285 non-small cell lung cancer patients, 56 patients were never-smokers. Univariate analyses indicated that the never-smoker patients were more likely to be female (68% vs. 32% and have adenocarcinoma (70% vs. 51%. Overall median survival was 15.7 months (95% CI: 13.2 to 18.2. The never-smoker patients had a better survival rate than their counterpart, the ever-smokers. Never-smoker status, higher Karnofsky Performance Status, early staging, and treatment were independent and favorable prognostic factors for survival after adjusting for age, gender, and adenocarcinoma in multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Epidemiological differences exist between never- and ever-smokers with lung cancer. Overall survival among never-smokers was found to be higher and independent of gender and histological type.

  8. Can you please put it out? Predicting non-smokers' assertiveness intentions at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspropoulos, Eleftherios; Lazuras, Lambros; Rodafinos, Angelos; Eiser, J Richard

    2010-04-01

    The present study aimed to identify the psychosocial predictors of non-smoker employee intentions to ask smokers not to smoke at work. The predictive effects of past behaviour, anticipated regret, social norms, attitudinal, outcome expectancy and behavioural control beliefs were investigated in relation to the Attitudes-Social influence-self-Efficacy (ASE) model. Data were collected from Greek non-smoker employees (n=137, mean age=33.5, SD=10.5, 54.7% female) in 15 companies. The main outcome measure was assertiveness intention. Data on participants' past smoking, age, gender and on current smoking policy in the company were also collected. The majority of employees (77.4%) reported being annoyed by exposure to passive smoking at work, but only 37% reported having asked a smoker colleague not to smoke in the last 30 days. Regression analysis showed that the strongest predictor of non-smokers' assertiveness intentions was how often they believed that other non-smokers were assertive. Perceived control over being assertive, annoyance with secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure at work and past assertive behaviour also significantly predicted assertiveness intentions. Assertiveness by non-smoker employees seems to be guided mainly by normative and behavioural control beliefs, annoyance with SHS exposure at work, and past behaviour. Interventions to promote assertiveness in non-smokers might benefit from efficacy training combined with conveying the messages that the majority of other non-smokers are frequently annoyed by exposure to SHS, and that nearly half of all non-smokers are assertive towards smokers.

  9. Cessation Strategies Young Adult Smokers Use After Participating in a Facebook Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrul, Johannes; Ramo, Danielle E

    2017-01-28

    Young adults underutilize current evidence-based smoking cessation strategies; yet social media are widely used and accepted among this population. A better understanding of whether and how young adults try to quit smoking in the context of a social media smoking cessation intervention could inform future intervention improvements. We examined frequency, strategies used, and predictors of self-initiated 24-hour quit attempts among young adults participating in a Facebook intervention. A total of 79 young adult smokers (mean age = 20.8; 20.3% female) were recruited on Facebook for a feasibility trial. Participants joined motivationally tailored private Facebook groups and received daily posts over 12 weeks. Assessments were completed at baseline, 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up. In 12 months, 52 participants (65.5%) completed 215 quit attempts (mean = 4.1; median = 4; range 1-14); 75.4% of attempts were undertaken with the Facebook intervention alone, 17.7% used an electronic cigarette (e-cigarette), 7.4% used nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), and 3.7% used additional professional advice. Non-daily smokers, those who smoked fewer cigarettes, and those in an advanced stage of change at baseline were more likely to make a quit attempt. E-cigarette use to aide a quit attempt during the study period was associated with reporting a past year quit attempt at baseline. No baseline characteristics predicted NRT use. After participating in a Facebook smoking cessation intervention, young adults predominantly tried to quit without additional assistance. E-cigarettes are used more frequently as cessation aid than NRT. The use of evidence-based smoking cessation strategies should be improved in this population.

  10. Major Disease Prevalence and Menstrual Characteristics in Infertile Female Korean Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the prevalence of smoking and factors associated with smoking in infertile Korean women. Smoking status, education, occupation, personal habits, past medical history, current illness, stress level, and menstrual characteristics were collected from self-report questionnaires. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used to assess the degree of depression. Data on the causes of infertility and levels of six reproductive hormones were collected from medical records. Among 785 women less than 42 years of age, the prevalence of current, secondhand, past, and never smokers were 12.7%, 45.7%, 0.9%, and 40.6%, respectively. Primary infertility was more frequent in secondhand smokers. Causes of infertility were similar among current, secondhand, and never smokers. Current smokers were less educated (P infertility and diabetes mellitus were significantly different according to smoking status among infertile women. PMID:28049245

  11. Recruiting Diverse Smokers: Enrollment Yields and Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodar, Kaitlyn E.; Hall, Marissa G.; Butler, Eboneé N.; Parada, Humberto; Stein-Seroussi, Al; Hanley, Sean; Brewer, Noel T.

    2016-01-01

    To help tobacco control research better include vulnerable populations, we sought to identify effective ways to recruit diverse smokers. In 2014–2015, we recruited 2149 adult cigarette smokers in California and North Carolina, United States, to participate in a randomized trial of pictorial cigarette pack warnings. The most effective means of recruiting smokers were the classified advertising website Craigslist (28% of participants), word of mouth (23%), Facebook (16%), and flyers or postcards (14%). Low-income and African American smokers were more likely to respond to interpersonal contact (including staff in-person recruitment and word of mouth) than were high-income and non-African American smokers (all p newspaper ads in California ($375 per smoker) and staff in-person recruiting in North Carolina ($180 per smoker). Successfully recruiting diverse smokers requires using multiple methods including interpersonal, online, and other media. Craigslist and word of mouth are especially useful and low-cost ways to recruit diverse smokers. PMID:27999280

  12. Health education pamphlets about smoking-their benefit to smokers and non-smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meillier, Lucette Kirsten; Osler, M; Sabroe, Svend

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this present study was to compare the use by smokers and non-smokers of pamphlets about smoking as delivered from different settings. The study was a nation-wide cross-sectional survey of 1924 randomly selected, Danish men and women, aged 14-77 y, who had answered a mailed questionnaire...... to be targeted towards smokers who are considering stopping smoking. In general practice, smokers not thinking of stopping were open to health education, and pamphlets used in this setting should also target this group. Non-smokers contribute indirectly to smokers quitting by providing support to smokers...... and pamphlets for non-smokers need to be more targeted towards this social role....

  13. Smokers' attitudes and behaviors related to consumer demand for cessation counseling in the medical care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Deanne; Wolff, Lisa S; Orleans, Tracy; Mockenhaupt, Robin E; Massett, Holly A; Vose, Kathryn Kahler

    2007-05-01

    This study describes a new segmentation strategy exploring smokers' interest levels in counseling in the medical care setting in order to understand how public health communications can be designed to increase consumer demand for cessation services within this population. A subsample of 431 smokers from a large, nationally representative mail survey was analyzed and categorized into three cessation-demand groups: Low demand (LD), medium demand (MD), and high demand (HD). HD smokers were most likely to be heavy smokers, to make quitting a high priority, and to have self-efficacy in quitting. MD and LD smokers were less likely than HD smokers to have been told to quit smoking by a health care provider in the past or to believe that counseling is effective. The first step in the regression analysis revealed that age, cigarettes smoked per month, whether smokers were currently trying to quit, and whether they were ever told to quit smoking by their health care provider accounted for 21% of the variance in smokers' interest in smoking cessation counseling, F(4, 234) = 16.49, pconsumer demand for cessation counseling.

  14. The forgotten smoker: a qualitative study of attitudes towards smoking, quitting, and tobacco control policies among continuing smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppal, Navneet; Shahab, Lion; Britton, John; Ratschen, Elena

    2013-05-03

    Although research suggests that the majority of smokers want to quit smoking, the uptake of Stop Smoking Services, designed to assist smokers with quitting, remains low. Little is known about continuing smokers who do not access these services, and opportunities to influence their motivation and encourage quit attempts through the uptake of services. Using PRIME theory, this study explored differences between continuing smokers who had varying levels of motivation to quit, in terms of their plans to quit, evaluative beliefs about smoking, cigarette dependence, and attitudes towards tobacco control policies and services. Twenty-two current smokers, recruited from the community, were classified by motivation level to quit using a self-report questionnaire (two groups: high/low). Four focus groups (n=13) and individual interviews (n=9) were conducted with both groups using an interview guide incorporating aspects of PRIME theory. Discussion areas included motives for smoking, attitudes towards smoking and quitting, perceptions of dependence, motives for quitting, barriers to quitting, and attitudes towards existing and impending tobacco control policies and services. Verbatim transcripts were analysed using thematic framework analysis. All participants expressed low motivation to quit during discussions, despite some initially self-classifying as having high explicit levels of motivation to quit. Both groups reported similar attitudes towards smoking and quitting, including a perceived psychological addiction to smoking, positive evaluations about smoking which inhibited plans to quit, and similar suggested methods to increase motivation (simply wanting to, save money, improve health). Most felt that they 'ought' to quit as opposed to 'wanted' to. Little influence was ascribed towards tobacco control policies such as plain packaging and hidden sales displays, and participants felt that price increases of tobacco products needed to be considerable in order to influence

  15. Assessing the importance of spatio-temporal RCM resolution when estimating sub-daily extreme precipitation under current and future climate conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunyer Pinya, Maria Antonia; Luchner, J.; Onof, C.

    2017-01-01

    The increase in extreme precipitation is likely to be one of the most significant impacts of climate change in cities due to increased pluvial flood risk. Hence, reliable information on changes in sub-daily extreme precipitation is needed for robust adaptation strategies. This study explores...

  16. Daily Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larson, Karin; Giro, Francesca; Graham, Todd

    media are fostering a more ‘connected’ and reciprocal relationship between citizens and politicians. Throughout many Western democracies, research points to the in- creasing valorisation of Twitter as an informal, intimate and open space for (ev- eryday) political communication, raising important......, it ignores the communicative mundaneness of daily democracy. This paper accordingly in- vestigates and compares the ways in which members of parliament (MPs) in three European countries – Italy, Sweden and United Kingdom – utilize Twit- ter during off-peak periods, focusing on the extent to which social...... basic patterns of usage. Second, we analyse the types of tweets (e.g. retweet, @-reply); third, their function (e.g. self-promotion, critiquing, requesting input/support); fourth, interaction (whom MPs communicate with). Finally, we examine the content (the political/personal topics tweeted about...

  17. Serum cotinine levels and diabetes mellitus in never smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshaarawy, Omayma; Elbaz, Hosam A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study is to examine the association of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure evident by serum cotinine level, and diabetes mellitus in never smokers. Previous studies suggest that active tobacco cigarette smoking is associated with diabetes mellitus risk. However it is not clear if the low-level "background" ETS exposure is associated with diabetes among never smokers. We present evidence from five independent replications based on the US nationally representative National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) conducted 2003-12. Our exposure of interest is ETS exposure among never smokers, measured by serum cotinine levels (ng/mL), and our main outcome is diabetes mellitus assessed via self-reported physician-diagnosis, current use of insulin and/or oral hypoglycemic medications, plasma fasting glucose levels ≥126mg/dL or glycohemoglobin levels ≥6.5%. The conceptual model encompassed age, sex, ethnic self-identification, education, poverty-income ratio, alcohol drinking, total cholesterol and body mass index. In never smokers, higher serum cotinine levels were positively associated with diabetes mellitus (the meta-analytic summary estimate is 1.2, 95% CI=1.1, 1.2). This association was not evident among never smokers with cotinine levels below 3ng/mL. These replications help sustain evidence of ETS-diabetes mellitus association, which might be explained by shared psychosocial characteristics. Prospective studies with appropriate biomarkers are needed to further investigate this association. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Dimensions of impulsive behavior in adolescent smokers and nonsmokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Sherecce; Collins, Christine; Leraas, Kristen; Reynolds, Brady

    2009-10-01

    Robust associations have been identified between impulsive personality characteristics and cigarette smoking during adolescents, indicating that impulsive behavior may play an important role in the initiation of cigarette smoking. The present study extended this research by using laboratory behavioral assessments to explore relationships between three specific dimensions of impulsive behavior (impulsive decision-making, inattention, and disinhibition) and adolescent cigarette smoking. Participants were male and female adolescent smokers (n = 50) and nonsmokers (n = 50). Adolescent smokers were more impulsive on a measure of decision-making; however, there were significant smoking status by gender interaction effects for impulsive inattention and disinhibition. Male smokers were most impulsive on the measure of inattention, but male smokers were least impulsive on the measure of disinhibition. Correlations between biomarkers of smoking and impulsive inattention and disinhibition were found for females but not males. The current findings, coupled with previous findings (Reynolds et al., 2007), indicate there may be robust gender difference in associations between certain types of impulsive behavior and cigarette smoking during adolescence.

  19. Adolescents' perceptions about smokers in Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Devadasan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevalence of tobacco use among adolescents in India is very high. Despite many epidemiological studies exploring tobacco use among youth, there is no published data on adolescents' perceptions about smokers in Indian society and its implications on tobacco control. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a stratified random sampling with probability proportional to school-type (government or private owned. Data was collected using a pretested, self-administered, anonymous questionnaire with a mix of close and open-ended questions from a sample of 1087 students. Chi-square test was used to measure associations. Qualitative data was analysed through inductive coding. Results The response rate for the study was 82.5% and the sample population had a mean age of 16.9 years (SD = 1.9 with 57.8% male students. Majority of respondents (84.6% reported negative perceptions about smokers while 20.4% of respondents reported positive perceptions. Female students reported significantly higher disapproval rate (negative perceptions for smoking compared to male students (89.7% Vs 71.6% in case of male smoker; 81.2% Vs 67.3% in case of female smoker. Dominant themes defining perceptions about smokers included 'hatred/hostility/Intolerance', 'against family values/norms', 'not aware of tobacco harms' and 'under stress/emotional trauma'. Themes like 'culture', 'character' and 'power' specifically described negative social image of female smoker but projected a neutral or sometimes even a positive image of male smoker. There was a significant association between adolescents' positive perceptions of smokers and tobacco use by themselves as well as their close associates. Conclusions Adolescents' stereotypes of smokers, especially female smokers are largely negative. We suggest that tobacco control interventions targeting adolescents should be gender specific, should also involve their peers, family and school personnel, and should go

  20. A qualitative analysis of smokers' perceptions about lung cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gressard, Lindsay; DeGroff, Amy S; Richards, Thomas B; Melillo, Stephanie; Kish-Doto, Julia; Heminger, Christina L; Rohan, Elizabeth A; Allen, Kristine Gabuten

    2017-06-21

    In 2013, the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) began recommending lung cancer screening for high risk smokers aged 55-80 years using low-dose computed tomography (CT) scan. In light of these updated recommendations, there is a need to understand smokers' knowledge of and experiences with lung cancer screening in order to inform the design of patient education and tobacco cessation programs. The purpose of this study is to describe results of a qualitative study examining smokers' perceptions around lung cancer screening tests. In 2009, prior to the release of the updated USPSTF recommendations, we conducted 12 120-min, gender-specific focus groups with 105 current smokers in Charlotte, North Carolina and Cincinnati, Ohio. Focus group facilitators asked participants about their experience with three lung cancer screening tests, including CT scan, chest x-ray, and sputum cytology. Focus group transcripts were transcribed and qualitatively analyzed using constant comparative methods. Participants were 41-67 years-old, with a mean smoking history of 38.9 pack-years. Overall, 34.3% would meet the USPSTF's current eligibility criteria for screening. Most participants were unaware of all three lung cancer screening tests. The few participants who had been screened recalled limited information about the test. Nevertheless, many participants expressed a strong desire to pursue lung cancer screening. Using the social ecological model for health promotion, we identified potential barriers to lung cancer screening at the 1) health care system level (cost of procedure, confusion around results), 2) cultural level (fatalistic beliefs, distrust of medical system), and 3) individual level (lack of knowledge, denial of risk, concerns about the procedure). Although this study was conducted prior to the updated USPSTF recommendations, these findings provide a baseline for future studies examining smokers' perceptions of lung cancer screening. We recommend clear and patient

  1. The role of dopamine in inhibitory control in smokers and non-smokers: a pharmacological fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luijten, Maartje; Veltman, Dick J; Hester, Robert; Smits, Marion; Nijs, Ilse M T; Pepplinkhuizen, Lolke; Franken, Ingmar H A

    2013-10-01

    Contemporary theoretical models of substance dependence posit that deficits in inhibitory control play an important role in substance dependence. The neural network underlying inhibitory control and its association with substance dependence have been widely investigated. However, the pharmacology of inhibitory control is still insufficiently clear. The aims of the current study were twofold. First, we investigated the role of dopamine in inhibitory control and associated brain activation. Second, the proposed link between dopamine and impaired inhibitory control in nicotine dependence was investigated by comparing smokers and non-smoking controls. Haloperidol (2 mg), a dopamine D2/D3 receptor antagonist, and placebo were administered to 25 smokers and 25 non-smoking controls in a double-blind randomized cross-over design while performing a Go/NoGo task during fMRI scanning. Haloperidol reduced NoGo accuracy and associated brain activation in the ACC, right SFG and left IFG, showing that optimal dopamine levels are crucial to effectively implement inhibitory control. In addition, smokers showed behavioral deficits on the Go/NoGo task as well as hypoactivity in the left IFG, right MFG and ACC after placebo, supporting the hypothesis of a hypoactive prefrontal system in smokers. Haloperidol had a stronger impact on prefrontal brain activation in non-smoking controls compared to smokers, which is in line with the inverted 'U' curve theory of dopamine and cognitive control. The current findings suggest that altered baseline dopamine levels in addicted individuals may contribute to the often observed reduction in inhibitory control in these populations.

  2. Relation of resistin levels with C-reactve protein, homocysteine and uric acid in smokers and non-smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Esbah

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: We found that smoking may have influence on resistin levels and in smokers, insulin resistance is related to resistin levels, but in smoker and non-smokers body mass may not have any association with resistin. Resistin also may not have a role in C-reactive protein, homocysteine and uric acid levels both in smokers and non-smokers.

  3. Adaptive angiogenesis in placentas of heavy smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfarrer, C; Macara, L; Leiser, R; Kingdom, J

    1999-07-24

    Smoking in pregnancy increases perinatal morbidity and mortality, suggesting impaired placental function, though placental weight is increased. We used scanning electron microscopy to show adaptive angiogenesis in term placental villi from smokers (n=4) and non-smokers (n=4). These images may aid communication of the dangers of smoking in pregnancy.

  4. How Do Light and Intermittent Smokers Differ from Heavy Smokers in Young Adulthood: The Role of Smoking Restraint Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrul, Johannes; Ferguson, Stuart G; Bühler, Anneke

    2016-01-01

    Light and intermittent smoking has become a prevalent pattern of use among young adults. Little is known about which factors differentiate light and intermittent smokers (LITS) from heavy smokers (HS) in young adulthood. In this study, we compare young adult LITS with HS with regard to demographic- and smoking-related variables, self-control abilities, and concrete strategies of smoking restraint. The data were collected as part of an Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) study with 137 German young adult smokers (M Age = 21.1 years, 46.0% female; 76 HS [≥10 cigarettes/day] and 61 LITS [≤5 cigarettes/day]). Participants were recruited over the Internet and completed a baseline questionnaire online. Several variables differentiated LITS and HS in a multiple logistic regression analysis: LITS reported fewer smoking friends (p < .001) and a higher self-efficacy to resist smoking (p < .01). Further, LITS smoking status was associated with reporting a past quit attempt (p < .05) and the use of smoking restraint strategies (counting, limiting, and purposefully not smoking cigarettes; p < .05). Notably, nicotine dependence and trait self-control abilities did not differentiate between LITS and HS. Our results point to the role of smoking restraint strategies and self-monitoring of smoking to limit the daily number of cigarettes smoked.

  5. The French Observational Cohort of Usual Smokers (FOCUS cohort: French smokers perceptions and attitudes towards smoking cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solesse Anne

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite increasing governmental anti-smoking measures, smoking prevalence remains at a high level in France. Methods The objectives of this panel study were (1 to estimate smoking prevalence in France, (2 to identify smokers' profiles according to their perceptions, attitudes and behaviour in relation to smoking cessation, (3 to determine predictive factors of quit attempts, and (4 to assess tobacco-related behaviours and their evolutions according to the changes in the smokers' environments. A representative sample of French population was defined using the quota method. The identified cohort of smokers was assessed, in terms of smoking behaviour, previous quit attempts, and intention to quit smoking. Results A response rate of 66% for the screening enabled to identify a representative sample of the French population (N = 3 889 comprising 809 current smokers (21%. A majority of current smokers (63% had made an attempt to quit smoking. Main reasons for having made the last attempt were cost (44%, social pressure (39%, wish to improve physical fitness (36%, fear of a future smoking-related disease (24%, and weariness of smoking (21%. Few attempts (16% were encouraged by a physician. In those who used some kind of support (38%, NRT was the mostly used. Relapse was triggered by craving (45%, anxiety/stress (34%, a significant life event (21, weight gain (18%, and irritability (16%. Depression was rarely quoted (5%. Forty percent of smokers declared they intended to quit smoking permanently. Main reasons were cost (65%, physical fitness improvement (53%, fear of a future smoking-related disease (43%, weariness of tobacco (34%, and social pressure (30%. Using a smoking cessation treatment was considered by 43% of smokers that intended to quit. Barriers to smoking cessation were mainly fear of increased stress (62%, irritability (51%, and anxiety (42%, enjoying smoking (41%, and weight concerns (33%. Conclusion Smoking prevalence

  6. STUDY OF PULMONARY FUNCTION TESTS AMONG SMOKERS AND NON-SMOKERS IN A RURAL AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubeena Bano

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In India smoking is a common habit prevalent in both urban and rural areas. Cigarette smoking has extensive effects on respiratory function and is clearly implicated in the etiology of a number of respiratory diseases, particularly chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and bronchial carcinoma. An attempt has been made to study the pulmonary function tests among smoker and non-smoker population in a rural area.The pulmonary functions were done on a computerized spirometer in 100 male subjects comprising of 50 smokers and 50 non smokers. Almost all the pulmonary function parameters were significantly reducedin smokers and obstructive pulmonary impairment was commonest.

  7. The impact and acceptability of Canadian-style cigarette warning labels among U.S. smokers and nonsmokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Ellen; Romer, Daniel; Slovic, Paul; Jamieson, Kathleen Hall; Wharfield, Leisha; Mertz, C K; Carpenter, Stephanie M

    2007-04-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major source of mortality and medical costs in the United States. More graphic and salient warning labels on cigarette packs as used in Canada may help to reduce smoking initiation and increase quit attempts. However, the labels also may lead to defensive reactions among smokers. In an experimental setting, smokers and nonsmokers were exposed to Canadian or U.S. warning labels. Compared with current U.S. labels, Canadian labels produced more negative affective reactions to smoking cues and to the smoker image among both smokers and nonsmokers without signs of defensive reactions from smokers. A majority of both smokers and nonsmokers endorsed the use of Canadian labels in the United States. Canadian-style warnings should be adopted in the United States as part of the country's overall tobacco control strategy.

  8. Children’s Exposure to Secondhand and Thirdhand Smoke Carcinogens and Toxicants in Homes of Hookah Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daffa, Reem M.; Liles, Sandy; Jackson, Sheila R.; Kassem, Noura O.; Younis, Maram A.; Mehta, Setoo; Chen, Menglan; Jacob, Peyton; Carmella, Steve G.; Chatfield, Dale A.; Benowitz, Neal L.; Matt, Georg E.; Hecht, Stephen S.; Hovell, Melbourne F.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: We examined homes of hookah-only smokers and nonsmokers for levels of indoor air nicotine (a marker of secondhand smoke) and indoor surface nicotine (a marker of thirdhand smoke), child uptake of nicotine, the carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), and the toxicant acrolein by analyzing their corresponding metabolites cotinine, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) and NNAL-glucuronides (total NNAL) and 3-hydroxypropylmercapturic acid. Methods: Data were collected at 3 home visits during a 7-day study period from a convenience sample of 24 households with a child 5 years or younger. Three child urine samples and 2 air and surface samples from the living room and the child bedroom were taken in homes of nonsmokers (n = 5) and hookah-only smokers (n = 19) comprised of daily hookah smokers (n = 8) and weekly/monthly hookah smokers (n = 11). Results: Nicotine levels in indoor air and on surfaces in the child bedrooms in homes of daily hookah smokers were significantly higher than in homes of nonsmokers. Uptake of nicotine, NNK, and acrolein in children living in daily hookah smoker homes was significantly higher than in children living in nonsmoker homes. Uptake of nicotine and NNK in children living in weekly/monthly hookah smoker homes was significantly higher than in children living in nonsmoker homes. Conclusions: Our data provide the first evidence for uptake of nicotine, the tobacco-specific lung carcinogen NNK, and the ciliatoxic and cardiotoxic agent acrolein in children living in homes of hookah smokers. Our findings suggest that daily and occasional hookah use in homes present a serious, emerging threat to children’s long-term health. PMID:24590387

  9. A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON PULMONARY FUNCTION TEST BETWEEN SMOKERS AND NON-SMOKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dibakar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Smokers are prone to develop Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases (COPD than non-smokers. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases (COPD includes chronic bronchitis, bronchial Asthma, and emphysema. Pulmonary function test is a routine procedure for assessment and monitoring diseases. OBJECTIVE To estimate the Pulmonary function test like Forced Vital Capacity(FVC, Forced Expiratory Volume in one second(FEV₁, FEV₁/FVC ratio and Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFRamong smokers and non-smokers. Also, to study the effect of age and body mass index (BMI on the pulmonary function of these groups of people. MATERIAL AND METHOD It is a cross sectional study. The study was conducted among students and staff of Silchar Medical College and Hospital 121 subjects were selected, among them 60 were smokers and 61 non-smokers. Spirometric tests were carried out to assess pulmonary function. EXCLUSIONS CRITERIA Subjects having cardio pulmonary diseases. RESULT Mean FVC, FEV₁ and PEFR were found to be of lower value in smokers than non-smokers. There were significant differences between mean spirometric values among smokers and non-smokers. CONCLUSION Pulmonary function declines in smokers.

  10. Characteristics of Smokers from a National Sample Who Engaged in Any Physical Activity: Implications for Cardiovascular Health Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Freda; Lenhart, Clare M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tobacco is a major cause of cardiovascular disease, and current treatments lack long-term efficacy. Promoting physical activity may be a viable population-level approach to improving cardiovascular health among smokers. Purpose: To characterize smokers engaging in any physical activity based on demographics, quitting behaviors, health…

  11. The effect of inhaled corticosteroids on the development of emphysema in smokers assessed by annual computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Saher B; Dirksen, Asger; Ulrik, Charlotte S

    2009-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of inhaled corticosteroids on disease progression in smokers with moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), as assessed by annual computed tomography (CT) using lung density (LD) measurements. Two hundred and fifty-four current smokers...

  12. The Association between Cannabis Use and Motivation and Intentions to Quit Tobacco within a Sample of Australian Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twyman, Laura; Bonevski, Billie; Paul, Christine; Kay-Lambkin, Frances J.; Bryant, Jamie; Oldmeadow, C.; Palazzi, K.; Guillaumier, A.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to (i) describe concurrent and simultaneous tobacco and cannabis use and (ii) investigate the association between cannabis use and motivation and intentions to quit tobacco in a sample of socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2013 and 2014 with current tobacco smokers receiving aid from…

  13. Chronic daily headaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayyaz Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic Daily Headache is a descriptive term that includes disorders with headaches on more days than not and affects 4% of the general population. The condition has a debilitating effect on individuals and society through direct cost to healthcare and indirectly to the economy in general. To successfully manage chronic daily headache syndromes it is important to exclude secondary causes with comprehensive history and relevant investigations; identify risk factors that predict its development and recognise its sub-types to appropriately manage the condition. Chronic migraine, chronic tension-type headache, new daily persistent headache and medication overuse headache accounts for the vast majority of chronic daily headaches. The scope of this article is to review the primary headache disorders. Secondary headaches are not discussed except medication overuse headache that often accompanies primary headache disorders. The article critically reviews the literature on the current understanding of daily headache disorders focusing in particular on recent developments in the treatment of frequent headaches.

  14. Hookah smoking and cancer: carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA levels in exclusive/ever hookah smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaouachi Kamal

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have recently published some work on CEA levels in hookah (also called narghile, shisha elsewhere and cigarette smokers. Hookah smokers had higher levels of CEA than non-smokers although mean levels were low compared to cigarette smokers. However some of them were also users of other tobacco products (cigarettes, bidis, etc.. Objectives To find serum CEA levels in ever/exclusive hookah smokers, i.e. those who smoked only hookah (no cigarettes, bidis, etc., prepared between 1 and 4 times a day with a quantity of up to 120 g of a tobacco-molasses mixture each (i.e. the tobacco weight equivalent of up to 60 cigarettes of 1 g each and consumed in 1 to 8 sessions. Methods Enhanced chemiluminescent immunometric technique was applied to measure CEA levels in serum samples from 59 exclusive male smokers with age ranging from 20–80 years (mean = 58.8 ± 14.7 years and 8–65 years of smoking (mean = 37.7 ± 16.8. 36 non-smokers served as controls. Subjects were divided into 3 groups according to the number of preparations; the number of sessions and the total daily smoking time: Light (1; 1; ≤ 20 minutes; Medium (1–3; 1–3; >20 min to ≤ 2 hrs and Heavy smokers (2–4; 3–8; >2 hrs to ≤ 6 hrs. Because of the nature of distribution of CEA levels among our individuals, Wilcoxon's rank sum two-sample test was applied to compare the variables. Results The overall CEA levels in exclusive hookah smokers (mean: 3.58 ± 2.61 ng/ml; n = 59 were not significantly different (p ≤ 0.0937 from the levels in non-smokers (2.35 ± 0.71 ng/ml. Mean levels in light, medium and heavy smokers were: 1.06 ± 0.492 ng/ml (n = 5; 2.52 ± 1.15 ng/ml (n = 28 and 5.11 ± 3.08 ng/ml (n = 26 respectively. The levels in medium smokers and non-smokers were also not significantly different (p ≤ 0.9138. In heavy smokers, the CEA levels were significantly higher than in non-smokers (p ≤ 0.0001567. Conclusion Overall CEA levels in exclusive hookah

  15. Double-strand break damage and associated DNA repair genes predispose smokers to gene methylation

    OpenAIRE

    Leng, Shuguang; Stidley, Christine A.; Willink, Randy; Bernauer, Amanda; Do, Kieu; Picchi, Maria A.; Sheng, Xin; Frasco, Melissa, A.; Berg, David Van Den; Gilliland, Frank D.; Zima, Christopher; Crowell, Richard E.; Belinsky, Steven A.

    2008-01-01

    Gene promoter hypermethylation in sputum is a promising biomarker for predicting lung cancer. Identifying factors that predispose smokers to methylation of multiple gene promoters in the lung could impact strategies for early detection and chemoprevention. This study evaluated the hypothesis that double-strand break repair capacity and sequence variation in genes in this pathway are associated with a high methylation index in a cohort of current and former cancer-free smokers. A 50% reduction...

  16. Unique relationships between facets of mindfulness and eating pathology among female smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Claire E; Apperson McVay, Megan; Kinsaul, Jessica; Benitez, Lindsay; Vinci, Christine; Stewart, Diana W; Copeland, Amy L

    2012-12-01

    Female smokers often have higher levels of eating disorder symptoms than non-smokers, and concerns about eating and weight might interfere with smoking cessation. Thus, it is critical to identify factors to promote healthier eating and body image in this population. Initial research suggests that specific aspects of trait mindfulness predict lower body dissatisfaction and eating disorder symptoms among non-smokers. However, these relationships are unknown among smokers. The current study examined associations between facets of trait mindfulness and eating disorder symptoms in 112 college female smokers (83% Caucasian; mean age 20 years, SD=1.69). After controlling for relevant sociodemographic variables, Describing and Nonjudging facets of mindfulness predicted lower bulimic symptoms and body dissatisfaction (psmindfulness facets are related to lower eating disorder symptoms among smokers, whereas other facets are not associated or have a positive relationship with these symptoms. Mindfulness-based interventions focusing on Describing, Nonjudging, and Acting with Awareness may help to reduce eating pathology among female smokers, which could potentially improve smoking cessation rates in this population.

  17. Effects of Intravenous Nicotine on Prepulse Inhibition in Smokers and Nonsmokers: Relationship with Familial Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobes, David J.; MacQueen, David A.; Blank, Melissa D.; Saladin, Michael E.; Malcolm, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale The reinforcing properties of nicotine may be, in part, derived from its ability to enhance certain forms of cognitive processing. Several animal and human studies have shown that nicotine increases prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle reflex. However, it remains unclear whether these effects are related to smoking susceptibility. Objectives The current study examined the effects of intravenously delivered nicotine on PPI in smokers and nonsmokers, as well as its association with a quantitative index of familial smoking. Methods The sample consisted of 30 non-smokers and 16 smokers, who completed an initial assessment, followed on a separate day by a laboratory assessment of PPI prior to and following each of two intravenous nicotine infusions. Separate doses were used in smoker and non-smoker samples. Results Analyses indicated that both nicotine infusions acutely enhanced PPI among non-smokers, and this enhancement was positively related to the degree of smoking among first and second-degree relatives. Smokers also displayed PPI enhancement after receiving the first infusion, but this effect was unrelated to familial smoking. Conclusions These data suggest that the PPI paradigm may have utility as an endophenotype for cognitive processes which contribute to smoking risk. PMID:23624809

  18. Patterns of motivations and ways of quitting smoking among Polish smokers: A questionnaire study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ucinska Romana

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The majority of Polish smokers declare their will to quit smoking and many of them attempt to quit. Although morbidity and mortality from tobacco-related diseases are among the highest in the world, there is a lack of comprehensive cessation support for smokers. We aimed to investigate how Poles, including the medically ill, cope with quitting cigarettes and what their motivations to quit are. Methods Convenience sampling was used for the purpose of the study. Individuals attending several health care units were screened for a history of quit attempts. Ex-smokers were defined as smoking previously at least one cigarette/day but who have no longer been smoking for at least one month. Attempts at quitting were defined as abstaining from cigarettes for at least one day. Data on socio-demographics, tobacco use, quitting behaviors and reasons to quit from 618 subjects (385 ex- and 233 current smokers who fulfilled these criteria were collected with the use of a questionnaire. For the comparison of proportions, a chi-square test was used. Results In the entire study population, 77% of smokers attempted to quit smoking on their own and a similar proportion of smokers (76% used the cold turkey method when quitting. Current smokers were more likely than former smokers to use some form of aid (p = 0.0001, mainly nicotine replacement therapy (68%. The most important reasons for quitting smoking were: general health concern (57%, personal health problems (32% and social reasons (32%. However, 41% of smokers prompted to quitting by personal health problems related to tobacco smoking did not see the link between the two. A small proportion of ex-smokers (3% abstaining from cigarettes for longer than a year were not confident about their self-efficacy to sustain abstinence further. Conclusion The majority of Polish smokers, including patients with tobacco-related diseases, attempt to quit without smoking cessation assistance, thus there is

  19. Blackened bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in crack smokers. A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenebaum, E; Copeland, A; Grewal, R

    1993-11-01

    A retrospective study was performed on heavily pigmented pulmonary cytologic specimens from 14 hospital patients to determine the clinical features distinguishing these cases. The lavage fluid or sputum in each case was turbid and gray or black, exceeding the blackness usually seen in heavy tobacco smokers dwelling in the same urban environment. Excessive carbonaceous material was observed in the cytoplasm of pulmonary alveolar macrophages or the extracellular compartment of the smears. The latter feature is not seen in cigarette smokers. Many other pigmentary sources were ruled out, including melanin, hemosiderin, medicinal charcoal, India ink, and hematoxylin crystals. The common feature of the patients was that they recently or currently smoked the crack form of cocaine heavily; five patients also had positive toxicologic results for cocaine at admission. The authors suggest that blackened bronchoalveolar lavage fluid indicates the possibility of crack cocaine smoking and the associated sequelae, particularly when the carbonaceous material is present in the extracellular compartment.

  20. Smokers' decision making: more than mere risk taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ert, Eyal; Yechiam, Eldad; Arshavsky, Olga

    2013-01-01

    The fact that smoking is bad for people's health has become common knowledge, yet a substantial amount of people still smoke. Previous studies that sought to better understand this phenomenon have found that smoking is associated with the tendency to take risk in other areas of life as well. The current paper explores factors that may underlie this tendency. An experimental analysis shows that smokers are more easily tempted by immediate high rewards compared to nonsmokers. Thus the salience of risky alternatives that produce large rewards most of the time can direct smokers to make bad choices even in an abstract situation such as the Iowa Gambling Task. These findings suggest that the risk taking behavior associated with smoking is not related to the mere pursuit of rewards but rather reflects a tendency to yield to immediate temptation.

  1. Smokers' decision making: more than mere risk taking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyal Ert

    Full Text Available The fact that smoking is bad for people's health has become common knowledge, yet a substantial amount of people still smoke. Previous studies that sought to better understand this phenomenon have found that smoking is associated with the tendency to take risk in other areas of life as well. The current paper explores factors that may underlie this tendency. An experimental analysis shows that smokers are more easily tempted by immediate high rewards compared to nonsmokers. Thus the salience of risky alternatives that produce large rewards most of the time can direct smokers to make bad choices even in an abstract situation such as the Iowa Gambling Task. These findings suggest that the risk taking behavior associated with smoking is not related to the mere pursuit of rewards but rather reflects a tendency to yield to immediate temptation.

  2. Specific dimensions of impulsivity are differentially associated with daily and non-daily cigarette smoking in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dustin C; Peters, Jessica R; Adams, Zachary W; Milich, Richard; Lynam, Donald R

    2015-07-01

    Young adults are at risk for initiation of tobacco use and progression to tobacco dependence. Not every person who smokes cigarettes becomes tobacco dependent, however, and non-daily smoking is becoming more prevalent among those who use tobacco. It is likely that individual differences in psychosocial and behavioral factors influence risk for engaging in non-daily and daily cigarette smoking. The objective of this study was to investigate the associations between impulsivity and smoking status in young adults who vary in frequency of cigarette smoking. Young adult first-year college students between the ages of 18-24 (512) were classified to one of three groups: non-smokers, non-daily smokers, or daily smokers, and impulsivity was assessed using the UPPS-P (negative and positive urgency, lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance, sensation seeking). When all impulsivity dimensions were used simultaneously to predict smoking status, negative urgency predicted increased risk of membership in the daily smoking group and lack of premeditation predicted increased risk of membership in the non-daily smoking group. These results suggest that dimensions of impulsivity may contribute differentially to forms of smoking behavior in young adults.

  3. Feasibility of a group cessation program for co-smokers of cannabis and tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Julia; Haug, Severin; Kraemer, Thomas; Schaub, Michael P

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to evaluate the feasibility and effects of a group cessation program for cannabis and tobacco co-smokers. Using a repeated-measures design with pre-, post- and six months follow-up assessments, feasibility (intervention utilisation, safety and acceptability) and changes in substance use behaviour and mental health were evaluated. The intervention consisted of five to six group sessions and was based on current treatment techniques (e.g. motivational interviewing, cognitive-behavioural therapy, and self-control training). In total, 77 adults who used cannabis at least once weekly and cigarettes or similar products at least once daily participated in the study. Within nine months, the target sample size was reached. Treatment retention was 62.3%, and only three participants discontinued treatment due to severe problems (concentration problems, sleeping problems, depressive symptoms, and/or distorted perceptions). In total, 41.5% and 23.4% reported abstinence from cigarettes, cannabis or both at the end of treatment and the follow-up, respectively. The individual abstinence rates for cigarettes and cannabis were 32.5% and 23.4% (end of treatment) and 10.4% and 19.5% (follow-up), and 13% (end of treatment) and 5.2% (follow-up) achieved dual abstinence validated for tobacco abstinence. Over the study period, significant decreases in tobacco and cannabis use frequencies and significant improvements in additional outcomes (drinking problems, symptoms of cannabis use disorder, nicotine dependence, depression and anxiety) were achieved. The evaluated intervention for co-smokers is feasible regarding recruitment, intervention retention and safety. The promising results regarding substance use and mental health support a randomised controlled trial to evaluate effectiveness. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  4. Allegheny County Jail Daily Census

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — A daily census of the inmates at the Allegheny County Jail (ACJ). Includes gender, race, age at booking, and current age. The records for each month contain a...

  5. Smokers Show Lower Levels of Psychological Well-Being and Mindfulness than Non-Smokers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víviam Vargas Barros

    Full Text Available Mindfulness is defined as "paying attention in a particular way, on purpose, in the present moment, and nonjudgmentally". Mindfulness is associated with positive affect, life satisfaction, self-esteem, lower negative affect and rumination. Conversely, evidence suggests a relationship between nicotine dependence and psychiatric disorders. This study aimed to compare the levels of Mindfulness and Subjective Well-Being (SWB between smokers and non-smokers. Ninety seven smokers and eighty four non-smokers participated in the study (n = 181. The Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ-BR and the Subjective Well-Being Scale (SWBS were used. In all the factors of SWBS, the total scores in the FFMQ-BR and in the facets of Observing and Non-Reactivity, the non-smokers scored higher than the smokers. This study suggests that smokers present lower levels of Mindfulness and SWB than non-smokers. Consequently, we propose that Mindfulness-Based Interventions (MBI may help smokers deal with treatment and abstinence by increasing their level of SWB.

  6. Adult smokers' receptivity to a television advert for electronic nicotine delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Annice E; Lee, Youn Ok; Shafer, Paul; Nonnemaker, James; Makarenko, Olga

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the present work was to examine adult smokers' awareness of and receptivity to an electronic nicotine delivery system (ENDS) television advert, and whether viewing the advert influenced urge to smoke and intention to try ENDS. A television advert for ENDS brand blu eCigs was shown to an online convenience sample of 519 Florida adult smokers. We measured current smokers' awareness of and receptivity to the advert, and whether seeing the advert influenced their thoughts about smoking or quitting, urge to smoke and intention to try ENDS. Results were stratified by prior ENDS use. Approximately 62.3% of current smokers were aware of the advert. Smokers found the advert informative (73.8%), attention grabbing (67.5%) and innovative (64.5%), with prior ENDS users rating the advert more favourably than non-users. Seeing the advert elicited an urge to smoke (mean 42.1, SD=1.9) and thoughts about smoking cigarettes (75.8%) as well as quitting (74.6%). Prior END users were significantly more likely than non-users to report thinking about smoking cigarettes after seeing the advert (Padvertising and examine how exposure to ENDS adverts influences smokers' use of ENDS, dual use with cigarettes and cessation behaviour. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Pronounced increase in risk of acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction in younger smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Amelia; Steele, Lloyd; Fotheringham, James; Iqbal, Javaid; Sultan, Ayyaz; Teare, M Dawn; Grech, Ever D

    2017-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that smokers presented with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) a decade earlier than non-smokers. However, no account has been made for population smoking trends, an important deficit addressed by this study. The combination of admission data on patients with acute STEMI undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention and demographic data supplied by the Office for National Statistics for the South Yorkshire population between 2009-2012 were analysed to generate incidence rates and rate ratios (RR) to quantify the relative risk of STEMI from smoking, overall and by age group. There were 1795 STEMI patients included of which 72.9% were male. 68 patients were excluded as they had no smoking status recorded, leaving 48.5% of the remaining population as current smokers, 27.2% ex-smokers and 24.3% never smokers. Smokers were over-represented with overall smoking prevalence in South Yorkshire calculated at 22.4%. The incidence of STEMI in smokers aged under 50, 50-65 and over 65 years was 59.7, 316.9 and 331.0 per 100 000 patient years at risk compared to 7.0, 60.9 and 106.8 for the combined group of ex- and never smokers. This gave smokers under the age of 50 years an 8.47 (95% CI 6.80 to 10.54) increase in rate compared to non-smokers of the same age, with the 50-65 and over 65 age groups having RRs of 5.20 (95% CI 4.76 to 5.69) and 3.10 (95% CI 2.67 to 3.60), respectively. Smoking was associated with an eightfold increased risk of acute STEMI in younger smokers, when compared to ex- and never smokers. Further efforts to reduce smoking in the youngest are needed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Dimensions of impulsive behavior and treatment outcomes for adolescent smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Millie; Penfold, Robert B; Hawkins, Ariane; Maccombs, Jared; Wallace, Bryan; Reynolds, Brady

    2014-02-01

    Adolescent cigarette smoking rates remain a significant public health concern, and as a result there is a continued need to understand factors that contribute to an adolescent's ability to reduce or quit smoking. Previous research suggests that impulsive behavior may be associated with treatment outcomes for smoking. The current research (N = 81) explored 3 dimensions of impulsive behavior as predictors of treatment response from a social-cognitive type program for adolescent smokers (i.e., Not On Tobacco; N-O-T). Measures included laboratory assessments of delay discounting, sustained attention, and behavioral disinhibition. A self-report measure of impulsivity was also included. Adolescent smokers who had better sustained attention were more likely to reduce or quit smoking by the end of treatment. No other measures of impulsivity were significantly associated with treatment response. From these findings, an adolescent smoker's ability to sustain attention appears to be an important behavioral attribute to consider when implementing smoking cessation programs such as N-O-T.

  9. PREP advertisement features affect smokers' beliefs regarding potential harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, A A; Tang, K Z; Tuller, M D; Cappella, J N

    2008-09-01

    The Institute of Medicine report on potential reduced exposure products (PREPs) recommends that advertising and labelling be regulated to prevent explicitly or implicitly false or misleading claims. Belief that a product is less harmful may increase use or prevent smoking cessation. To determine the effect of altering advertisement features on smokers' beliefs of the harm exposure from a PREP. A Quest advertisement was digitally altered using computer software and presented to participants using web-based television recruitment contracted through a survey company. 500 current smokers completed demographic and smoking history questions, were randomised to view one of three advertisement conditions, then completed eight items assessing their beliefs of the harmfulness of the product. Advertisement conditions included the original, unaltered advertisement; a "red" condition where the cigarette packages were digitally altered to the colour red, implying increased harm potential; and a "no text" condition where all text was removed to reduce explicit product information. Polytomous logistic regression, using "incorrect," "unsure" and "correct" as outcomes, and advertisement type and covariates as predictors, was used for analyses. Participants randomised to the "no text" advertisement were less likely to be incorrect in their beliefs that Quest cigarettes are lower in tar, less addictive, less likely to cause cancer, have fewer chemicals, are healthier and make smoking safer. Smokers can form false beliefs about the harmfulness of PREP products based on how the PREPs are marketed. Careful examination must be undertaken to provide empirical evidence to better formulate regulatory principles of PREP advertising.

  10. Masticatory Changes as a Result of Oral Disorders in Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rech, Rafaela Soares

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction For chewing to occur properly, it is necessary that all oral structures are present and of normal standard. Objectives The aim of this study is to verify the presence of oral changes in smokers and the impact of the changes on masticatory function compared with individuals who never smoked. Methods Forty-eight subjects were evaluated, split into two study groups (24 subjects each of current tobacco users and individuals who have never smoked. The variables halitosis, presence of lesions suggestive of caries and periodontal problems, number of teeth, classification of malocclusions according to angle, standard grinding food, chewing pattern, and speed of chewing were evaluated. Results There was no statistically significant difference in tooth loss between the groups, but the smokers had more losses manifesting malocclusion. Most smokers had halitosis and lesions suggestive of caries and periodontal problems; the halitosis was associated with the latter variable. Masticatory speed was also reduced significantly in these individuals compared with the control group when associated with occlusal alterations, in addition to grinding food with the tongue. No difference was observed regarding the chewing pattern. The presence of halitosis and periodontal problems were more common in those who smoke more than 20 years. Conclusion There is an association between smoking and dental changes, which cause increased masticatory changes.

  11. The separate and combined effects of nicotine and alcohol on working memory capacity in nonabstinent smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenstein, Justin E; Kassel, Jon D; Wardle, Margaret C; Veilleux, Jennifer C; Evatt, Daniel P; Heinz, Adrienne J; Roesch, Linda L; Braun, Ashley R; Yates, Marisa C

    2010-04-01

    Research indicates that nicotine and alcohol are often used on the same occasion. However, the reasons for their concurrent use are not well understood. We hypothesized that one reason smokers use tobacco when they drink alcohol is to compensate for alcohol's negative effects on processing capacity with nicotine's enhancement of processing capacity. As such, the present study tested this theory by using an independent groups design to examine the separate and combined acute effects of alcohol and nicotine on working memory (WM) capacity. Nonabstinent daily smokers (n = 127) performed the counting span task (CSPAN) after consuming either an alcohol (men: 0.8 g/kg; women: 0.7 g/kg) or placebo beverage and smoking either nicotinized (1.14 mg nicotine, 15.9 mg tar) or denicotinized (.06 mg nicotine, 17.9 mg tar) cigarettes. Analyses revealed that smokers who smoked the nicotinized cigarettes performed significantly worse on the CSPAN task than smokers who smoked the denicotinized cigarettes. Although there was no main effect of alcohol on WM performance, women exhibited better WM performance than men after consuming alcohol whereas men performed better than women on the WM task after consuming the placebo beverage. Findings also revealed no interaction between the two substances on WM performance. Taken together, results suggest that nicotine impairs nonabstinent smokers' verbal WM capacity and that gender moderates the effects of alcohol on WM. Furthermore, the present findings failed to support the notion that nicotine compensates for alcohol-related decrements in working memory capacity.

  12. More than a belated Gutenberg Age: Daily Newspapers in India. An Overview of the Print Media Development since the 1980s, Key Issues and Current Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Nadja-Christina Schneider

    2013-01-01

    While TV may still be the dominant medium in India today, and the internet and mobile phone industry are currently growing at a tremendous speed, ‘old’ media such as the press don’t seem to be losing ground as yet. In times of a recurrent debate about the crisis of print media in Europe and the US, the Indian newspaper market still keeps growing and has attracted the interest of multinational corporations. One reason for this is that India is presently one of the largest market...

  13. The consequences of high cigarette excise taxes for low-income smokers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew C Farrelly

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To illustrate the burden of high cigarette excise taxes on low-income smokers. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using data from the New York and national Adult Tobacco Surveys from 2010-2011, we estimated how smoking prevalence, daily cigarette consumption, and share of annual income spent on cigarettes vary by annual income (less than $30,000; $30,000-$59,999; and more than $60,000. The 2010-2011 sample includes 7,536 adults and 1,294 smokers from New York and 3,777 adults and 748 smokers nationally. Overall, smoking prevalence is lower in New York (16.1% than nationally (22.2% and is strongly associated with income in New York and nationally (P<.001. Smoking prevalence ranges from 12.2% to 33.7% nationally and from 10.1% to 24.3% from the highest to lowest income group. In 2010-2011, the lowest income group spent 23.6% of annual household income on cigarettes in New York (up from 11.6% in 2003-2004 and 14.2% nationally. Daily cigarette consumption is not related to income. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although high cigarette taxes are an effective method for reducing cigarette smoking, they can impose a significant financial burden on low-income smokers.

  14. Cross-Sectional Survey on Quitting Attempts among Adolescent Smokers in Dharan, Eastern Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranil Man Singh Pradhan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Adolescents frequently attempt smoking cessation but are unable to maintain long term abstinence because they are dependent on nicotine and experience withdrawal symptoms. Objectives. This study aimed to explore the quitting attempts among adolescent smokers in Dharan Municipality of Eastern Nepal. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted using pretested self-administered questionnaire adapted from Global Youth Tobacco Survey to assess current smokers and quitting attempts among 1312 adolescent students in middle (14-15 years and late adolescence (16–19 years. Chi square test was used for association of various factors with quitting attempts. Results. The prevalence of current smoking was 13.7%. Among the current smokers, 66.5% had attempted to quit in the past because they believed smoking was harmful to health (35.5%. The median duration of quitting was 150 days. Nearly 8% of the current smokers were unwilling to quit in the future because they thought it is already a habit (60%. Smokers who are willing to quit smoking in the future were more likely to have made quitting attempts (OR = 1.36, 95% CI = 0.40–4.45. Conclusion. Relapse often occurs even after multiple quitting attempts. Tobacco focused interventions to support abstinence are important during adolescence to prevent habituation.

  15. Comparison of salivary calcium level in smokers and non-smokers with chronic periodontitis, aggressive periodontitis, and healthy controls

    OpenAIRE

    Kambalyal, Preeti; Kambalyal, Prabhuraj; Hungund, Shital

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare salivary calcium (Ca) level in smokers and non-smokers with chronic periodontitis, aggressive periodontitis, and healthy controls. Materials and Methods: 56 subjects were included in the study and were grouped as follows: 12 subjects who were periodontally healthy (Group I), 12 subjects having chronic periodontitis who were non-smokers (Group II), 12 non-smokers having aggressive periodontitis (Group III), 12 smokers with chronic periodontit...

  16. Effectiveness of Oral N-acetyl-cystein in Reduction of Pulmonary Complications in Smokers Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    SJ Mir Hoseini; MH Abdollahi; H Hoseini; A Halvani; N Rahati Talab; SK Foroozan Nia; H Moshtaghion

    2009-01-01

    .... In this study, the effect of oral N-acetyl-cystein in reduction of severity of hypoxemia and atelectasis in current smokers who smoked more than 10 packs/year and had undergone CABG was evaluated. Methods...

  17. Smoker's Paradox in Patients With ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Tanush; Kolte, Dhaval; Khera, Sahil; Harikrishnan, Prakash; Mujib, Marjan; Aronow, Wilbert S; Jain, Diwakar; Ahmed, Ali; Cooper, Howard A; Frishman, William H; Bhatt, Deepak L; Fonarow, Gregg C; Panza, Julio A

    2016-04-22

    Prior studies have found that smokers undergoing thrombolytic therapy for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction have lower in-hospital mortality than nonsmokers, a phenomenon called the "smoker's paradox." Evidence, however, has been conflicting regarding whether this paradoxical association persists in the era of primary percutaneous coronary intervention. We used the 2003-2012 National Inpatient Sample databases to identify all patients aged ≥18 years who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Multivariable logistic regression was used to compare in-hospital mortality between smokers (current and former) and nonsmokers. Of the 985 174 patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention, 438 954 (44.6%) were smokers. Smokers were younger, were more often men, and were less likely to have traditional vascular risk factors than nonsmokers. Smokers had lower observed in-hospital mortality compared with nonsmokers (2.0% versus 5.9%; unadjusted odds ratio 0.32, 95% CI 0.31-0.33, Pparadox also applies to ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  18. How does increasingly plainer cigarette packaging influence adult smokers' perceptions about brand image? An experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, M A; Germain, D; Durkin, S J

    2008-12-01

    Cigarette packaging is a key marketing strategy for promoting brand image. Plain packaging has been proposed to limit brand image, but tobacco companies would resist removal of branding design elements. A 3 (brand types) x 4 (degree of plain packaging) between-subject experimental design was used, using an internet online method, to expose 813 adult Australian smokers to one randomly selected cigarette pack, after which respondents completed ratings of the pack. Compared with current cigarette packs with full branding, cigarette packs that displayed progressively fewer branding design elements were perceived increasingly unfavourably in terms of smokers' appraisals of the packs, the smokers who might smoke such packs, and the inferred experience of smoking a cigarette from these packs. For example, cardboard brown packs with the number of enclosed cigarettes displayed on the front of the pack and featuring only the brand name in small standard font at the bottom of the pack face were rated as significantly less attractive and popular than original branded packs. Smokers of these plain packs were rated as significantly less trendy/stylish, less sociable/outgoing and less mature than smokers of the original pack. Compared with original packs, smokers inferred that cigarettes from these plain packs would be less rich in tobacco, less satisfying and of lower quality tobacco. Plain packaging policies that remove most brand design elements are likely to be most successful in removing cigarette brand image associations.

  19. Is snus the same as dip? Smokers' perceptions of new smokeless tobacco advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahreinifar, Sareh; Sheon, Nicolas M; Ling, Pamela M

    2013-03-01

    Since 2006, leading US cigarette companies have been promoting new snus products as line extensions of popular cigarette brands. These promotional efforts include direct mail marketing to consumers on cigarette company mailing lists. This study examines smokers' reactions to this advertising and perceptions of the new snus products. Eight focus groups (n=65 participants) were conducted in San Francisco and Los Angeles in 2010 with smokers who received tobacco direct mail advertising. The focus group discussions assessed smokers' perceptions of the new snus products. Focus group videos were transcribed and coded using Transana software to identify common themes. Most participants were aware of snus advertising and many had tried free samples. Most were aware that snus was supposed to be 'different' from traditional chewing tobacco but consistently did not know why. Participants willing to try snus still identified strongly as smokers, and for some participants, trying snus reinforced their preference for smoking. Snus' major benefits were use in smoke-free environments and avoiding social stigma related to secondhand smoke. Participants were sceptical of the idea that snus was safer than cigarettes and did not see it as an acceptable substitute for cigarettes or as a cessation aid. Smokers repeated some messages featured in early snus advertising. Snus was not seen as an acceptable substitute for smoking or way to quit cigarettes. Current smoker responses to snus advertising are not consistent with harm reduction.

  20. Effect of passive heat stress on arterial stiffness in smokers versus non-smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyen, N. E.; Ganio, M. S.; Burchfield, J. M.; Tucker, M. A.; Gonzalez, M. A.; Dougherty, E. K.; Robinson, F. B.; Ridings, C. B.; Veilleux, J. C.

    2016-04-01

    In non-smokers, passive heat stress increases shear stress and vasodilation, decreasing arterial stiffness. Smokers, who reportedly have arterial dysfunction, may have similar improvements in arterial stiffness with passive heat stress. Therefore, we examined the effects of an acute bout of whole-body passive heat stress on arterial stiffness in smokers vs. non-smokers. Thirteen smokers (8.8 ± 5.5 [median = 6] cigarettes per day for >4 years) and 13 non-smokers matched for age, mass, height, and exercise habits (27 ± 8 years; 78.8 ± 15.4 kg; 177.6 ± 6.7 cm) were passively heated to 1.5 °C core temperature ( T C) increase. At baseline and each 0.5 °C T C increase, peripheral (pPWV) and central pulse wave velocity (cPWV) were measured via Doppler ultrasound. No differences existed between smokers and non-smokers for any variables (all p > 0.05), except cPWV slightly increased from baseline (526.7 ± 81.7 cm · s-1) to 1.5 °C Δ T C (579.7 ± 69.8 cm · s-1; p 0.05). Changes in cPWV and pPWV during heating correlated ( p < 0.05) with baseline PWV in smokers (cPWV: r = -0.59; pPWV: r = -0.62) and non-smokers (cPWV: r = -0.45; pPWV: r = -0.77). Independent of smoking status, baseline stiffness appears to mediate the magnitude of heating-induced changes in arterial stiffness.

  1. PULMONARY AND BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SMOKER AND NON-SMOKER MODERN DANCERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Agopyan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Although the harmful effects of smoking on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems have been established for a long time, the effect on physiological and physical parameters in modern female dancers is not well documented. Objective: To determine differences in selected pulmonary functions, biochemical parameters, and body composition in female smoker and non-smoker modern dancers who are university or graduate students. Methods: A total of twenty-two female modern dancers (mean age of 24.6 ± 4.3 years, who were non-smokers (n = 11 and smokers (n = 11, voluntarily participated in the study. The smokers had been smoking 1 to 20 cigarettes per day for an average period of seven years. The pulmonary function test Mir Spirobank Spirometer, (Italy was applied; selected biochemical parameters were tested, and various anthropometric measurements (height, weight and seven skinfold thickness were performed. The results of body composition were evaluated using Jackson-Pollock equations. Intergroup comparisons were performed using the Mann-Whitney U test. Result: No significant differences were found between smoker and non-smoker dancers in terms of body composition (body fat, % body fat, lean body fat and selected biochemical parameters (p > 0.05. However, non-smokers had prediction values of forced expiratory volume during the first second (FEV1 and peak expiratory flow (PEF significantly better (p < 0.05. The effect of smoking on the performance of female modern dancers should be examined in a longitudinal study, with a higher number of participants. Conclusion: It was observed that smoking reduces lung pulmonary capacity at a certain rate, although the biochemical parameters and body composition of the female smoker and non-smoker dancers were similar.

  2. Comparative study of pulmonary functions and oxidative stress in smokers and non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waseem, Shah Mohammad Abbas; Mobarak, Mohd Hossain; Islam, Najmul; Ahmad, Zuber

    2012-01-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disorder (COPD) is projected to rank third leading cause of deaths by 2030 as per WHO. COPD is a multi-etiological disease. The airflow dysfunction is usually progressive, associated with an abnormal inflammatory response of the lungs to noxious particles or gasses. As the lung is exposed to high levels of oxygen, it is more susceptible to oxidants mediated injury. Gender based differences are identifiable risk factors. Smoking is found to be a major risk factor in the causation of COPD resulting in oxidative stress . The aim of the present study is to evaluate the oxidant antioxidant imbalance in healthy non smoker controls and smokers with COPD. A total of 60 control (healthy non smokers) and 121 smokers having COPD were studied. The mean age is more in smoker group as compared to healthy controls, which identifies advancing age as a risk factor for COPD. The mean BMI and weight of smoker group is reduced as compared to control group. GOLD 2008 criteria was used to assess lung functions. Lung functions namely FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC% and FEV1% Predicted showed significant reduction in smoker group as compared to healthy non smoker controls. MDA in control and smoker group (1.09 +/- 0.09 and 1.41 +/- 0.23 nmol/ml respectively) showed significant changes (P < 0.001). Our results also demonstrate significant reduction in anti oxidant enzymes namely SOD (units/mg of serum protein), Catalase (units/mg of serum protein) and GPX (nmol of NADPH oxidized/ min/mg of serum protein) in smoker group as compared to healthy controls. On the basis of study it is concluded that smoking, gender and oxidant antioxidant imbalance are identifiable risk factors in COPD.

  3. Prevalence and progression of combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema in asymptomatic smokers: A case-control study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Kum Ju; Jin, Gong Yong; Han, Young Min; Kim, Yong Seek; Chon, Su Bin; Lee, Young Sun [Chonbuk National University Medical School and Hospital, Department of Radiology, Institute of Medical Science, Research Institute of Clinical Medicine, Jeonju, Jeonbuk (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Keun Sang [Chonbuk National University Medical School, Department of Preventive Medicine, Research Institute of Clinical Medicine, Jeonju, Jeonbuk (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hye Mi [Chonbuk National University, Department of Statistics and Institute of Applied Statistics, Jeonju, Jeonbuk (Korea, Republic of); Lynch, David [National Jewish Health, Department of Radiology, Denver, CO (United States)

    2015-08-15

    We aimed to estimate the prevalence of combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) and describe the follow-up CT results of CPFE in asymptomatic smokers. This study was retrospective, and approved by an institutional review board. CT images of 2,016 current or previous male smokers who underwent low-dose chest CT at our healthcare centre were reviewed. Quantitative CT analysis was used to assess the extent of emphysema, and two radiologists visually analyzed the extent of fibrosis. Changes in fibrosis (no change, improvement, or progression) were evaluated on follow-up CT imaging (n = 42). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, multivariate logistic regression and its ROC curve were used for survival and progression analysis. The prevalence of CPFE among asymptomatic male smokers was 3.1 % (63/2,016). The median follow-up period was 50.4 months, and 72.7 % (16/22) of continued smoker had progressing fibrosis on follow-up CT. CPFE progressed more rapidly in continuous smokers than in former smokers (p = 0.002). The 3.5-year follow-up period after initial CPFE diagnosis maximized the sum of sensitivity and specificity of CPFE progression prediction in continuous smokers. The prevalence of CPFE turned out not to be inconsiderable in asymptomatic male smokers, but serial CT follow-up would be helpful in recognizing disease progression. (orig.)

  4. No difference in striatal dopamine transporter availability between active smokers, ex-smokers and non-smokers using (123I)FP-CIT (DaTSCAN) and SPECT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, G; Knudsen, Gitte Moos; Jensen, PS;

    2013-01-01

    tobacco smoking: (1) non-smokers (n = 64), (2) ex-smokers (n = 39) and (3) active smokers (n = 26). For imaging of the DAT availability, we used [123I]FP-CIT (DaTSCAN) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Data were collected in collaboration between 13 SPECT centres located in 10...

  5. Basement membrane and vascular remodelling in smokers and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muller H Konrad

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about airway remodelling in bronchial biopsies (BB in smokers and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. We conducted an initial pilot study comparing BB from COPD patients with nonsmoking controls. This pilot study suggested the presence of reticular basement membrane (Rbm fragmentation and altered vessel distribution in COPD. Methods To determine whether Rbm fragmentation and altered vessel distribution in BB were specific for COPD we designed a cross-sectional study and stained BB from 19 current smokers and 14 ex-smokers with mild to moderate COPD and compared these to 15 current smokers with normal lung function and 17 healthy and nonsmoking subjects. Results Thickness of the Rbm was not significantly different between groups; although in COPD this parameter was quite variable. The Rbm showed fragmentation and splitting in both current smoking groups and ex-smoker COPD compared with healthy nonsmokers (p Conclusions Airway remodelling in smokers and mild to moderate COPD is associated with fragmentation of the Rbm and altered distribution of vessels in the airway wall. Rbm fragmentation was also present to as great an extent in ex-smokers with COPD. These characteristics may have potential physiological consequences.

  6. Prevalence and profile of daily smokers seen at three primary health care units in Pelotas, southern Brazil Prevalência e perfil dos fumantes diários usuários de três unidades básicas de saúde de Pelotas, sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariane Ricardo Acosta Lopez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of daily smoking among users of three primary health care units affiliated with a university hospital in the municipality of Pelotas, southern Brazil, and to identify factors associated with daily tobacco consumption. Methods: This cross-sectional study included all individuals over 14 years of age who sought treatment at the health care units between June 29, 2009, and February 23, 2010, and lived in the area covered by the unit. Interviews were conducted during home visits to collect data on sociodemographic characteristics and health behaviors; the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI was used to assess the presence of mood disorders; and a question from the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST on the daily use of tobacco in the past 3 months was used to assess smoking. Results: The total sample comprised 1,848 individuals, mostly female (72.9%, aged between 46 and 60 years (28.5%, and belonging to socioeconomic class C (61%. The prevalence of daily smoking was 23.4% (n = 432, and there was a statistically significant difference between men and women: 27 vs. 22.1% (p Objetivos: Estimar a prevalência do uso diário de tabaco entre usuários de três unidades básicas de saúde (UBSs vinculadas a um hospital universitário na cidade de Pelotas (RS e identificar fatores associados ao consumo diário de tabaco. Métodos: Participaram deste estudo transversal todos os indivíduos maiores de 14 anos que procuraram atendimento nas UBSs no período de 29 de junho de 2009 a 23 de fevereiro de 2010 e que moravam na área de abrangência da UBS. Entrevistas foram realizadas durante visitas domiciliares para coletar dados sobre características sociodemográficas e comportamentos de saúde; a entrevista estruturada Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI foi utilizada para avaliar a presença de transtornos de humor; e uma pergunta do instrumento Alcohol

  7. Comparison of no-reflow phenomenon after percutaneous coronary intervention for acute myocardial infarction between smokers and nonsmokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Shemirani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: No-reflow phenomenon after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI in patients with acute ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI is relatively common and has therapeutic and prognostic implications. Cigarette smoking is known as deleterious in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD, but the effect of smoking on no-reflow phenomenon is less investigated. The aim of this study was to compare no-reflow phenomenon after percutneous coronary intervention for acute myocardial infarction, between smokers and non smokers. Materials and Methods: A total of 141 patients who were admitted to Chamran Hospital (Isfahan, Iran between March and September, 2012 with a diagnosis of STEMI, enrolled into our Cohort study. Patients were divided into current smoker and nonsmoker groups (based on patient′s information. All patients underwent primary PCI or rescue PCI within the first 12-h of chest pain. No-reflow phenomenon, thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (MI flow, and 24-h complications were assessed in both groups. Results: A total of 47 current smoker cases (32.9% and 94 (65.7% nonsmoker cases were evaluated. Smokers in comparison to nonsmokers were younger (53.47 ± 10.59 vs. 61.46 ± 10.55, P < 0.001 and they were less likely to be hypertensive (15.2% vs. 44.7%, P < 0.001, diabetic (17% vs. 36.2%, P < 0.05, and female gender (4.3% vs. 25.5%, P < 0.01. Angiographic and procedural characteristics of both groups were similar. 9 patients died during the first 24-h after PCI (4.3% of smokers and 6.4% of nonsmokers, P: 0.72. No-reflow phenomenon was observed in 29.8% of current smokers and 31.5% of nonsmokers (P = 0.77. Conclusion: No-reflow phenomenon or short-term complications were not significantly different between current smokers and non smokers.

  8. Channels to Meet Foreign Partners and the Daily Life Adaptation in the Current Society of the Southern Thai Families Whose Members are married to Foreigners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jirawitt Phannarat

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative research study used a phenomenological approach by studying from 20 families in southern Thailand whose members are married to foreigners (Western and Asian and live in various provinces in the south, including Songkhla, Surat Thani, Krabi, Trang, Phuket, Trang, and Chumphon. The data was analyzed by using an interpreting method. The inductive reasoning was performed and the results then were presented in a descriptive analysis. The study results reveal that the channels to meet foreign partners are through working in similar or the same occupations and working in the fields that are likely to meet the foreigners, such as teaching English language in high schools, teaching foreign languages, and studying abroad. The adaptation started early since when they began dating. The results also find that these days the society began to open wide about marriages between Thais and foreigners than in the past. For economic adaptation, most families are moderate to good standing. Due to current economic conditions, higher cost of living affect the family economic condition, they then agree to resolve the problem by reducing unnecessary costs within the family and maintain austerity budget to reduce unnecessary costs in order to have sufficient income for the family. For the cultural adaptation, Thai families whose members are married to foreigners uniquely have positive attitude and openness to ideas and able to exchange ideas with each other when they see things differently. The foreign spouses are also able to accept and learn the southern Thai culture, and at the same time the families are also open to learn the foreign culture.

  9. [Smoking cessation among HIV smokers: Experience of a French hospital-based smoking cessation service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choulika, S; Le Faou, A-L

    2017-04-01

    There is a particular need among HIV-infected patients to stop smoking because of the risk of smoking-related complications and the high prevalence of cigarette smoking among them. Only a few studies have focused on this population in real-world settings. Investigate the effectiveness of a smoking cessation support for HIV-infected patients at the Georges Pompidou University hospital (HEGP) smoking cessation service during the 2011-2012 period. A retrospective study of smoking cessation medical records was performed for 39 smokers who had visited for the first time the HEGP smoking cessation service during the 2011-2012 period and declared to be infected by the HIV on their smoking cessation self-questionnaire. The study has described smokers' characteristics and follow-up to measure the abstinence rate, validated by the patient declaration, the registration of the number of days without cigarettes between each visit and a measure of expired carbon monoxide ≤ 5ppm at each visit. We examined smokers lost to follow-up and they have been considered as smokers. Maintained abstinence rates at 3 month-follow-up and at 9 months/one year were registered. The 39 HIV-infected smokers registered in the study were mainly male (30/39), were heavy smokers with a consumption mean of nearly 23 cigarettes per day. One third presented high nicotine dependence with a Fagerström test ≥ 7. A depression history was reported among one third of them. Symptoms of anxiety and depression were declared by 20% and 33% respectively among them. Thirteen percent of them received opioid replacement therapies, 41% were cannabis users (one out of four were daily users) and 10 % declared alcohol abuse. 85% of patients received nicotine replacement therapy (patch and/or oral forms) and 15% varenicline(®), along with behavioral support techniques. At 3 month-follow-up, smoking cessation was validated for 20.5% of patients and at 9 months/1 year, smoking cessation rate decreased at 13%. When

  10. [In-patient smoker? - Providing appropriate intervention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamplona, Paula

    2007-01-01

    Tobacco use is the most avoidable cause of death. Other than provoking multiple diseases requiring hospitalisation, Tobacco Use is also a disease requiring management in the hospital setting, not only in terms of controlling the withdrawal symptoms of the patient, who has been abruptly prohibited from smoking, but also for fulfilling legislation which prohibits tobacco use in the health services, the only efficient way of preventing exposure of non-smokers to environmental tobacco smoke. Treating the in-patient smoker in an appropriate way also provides a window of opportunity for promoting not just a temporary but a complete smoking cessation.

  11. What would menthol smokers do if menthol in cigarettes were banned? Behavioral intentions and simulated demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Richard J; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Carter, Lawrence P; Cummings, K Michael

    2012-07-01

      The US Food and Drug Administration must consider whether to ban the use of menthol in cigarettes. This study examines how current smokers might respond to such a ban on menthol cigarettes.   Convenience sample of adolescent and adult smokers recruited from an online survey panel.   United States, 2010.   A total of 471 adolescent and adult current cigarette smokers.   Respondents were asked a series of questions about how they might react if menthol cigarettes were banned. In addition, participants completed a simulation purchase task to estimate the demand for menthol and non-menthol cigarettes across a range of prices.   Overall, 36.1% of respondents said they always (18.9%) or usually (17.2%) smoked menthol cigarettes. When asked how they might respond to a ban on menthol cigarettes, 35% of current menthol smokers said they would stop smoking, and 25% said they would 'find a way to buy a menthol brand'. Those who reported they might quit tended to have greater current intentions to quit [odds ratio (OR) = 4.47], while those who reported that they might seek illicit menthol cigarettes were far less likely to report current intentions to quit (OR = 0.06). Estimates for demand elasticity for preferred cigarette type were similar for menthol (α = 0.0051) and non-menthol (α = 0.0049) smokers. Demand elasticity and peak consumption were related to usual cigarette type and cigarettes smoked per day, but did not appear to differ by race, gender or age.   Preliminary evidence suggests that a significant minority of smokers of menthol cigarettes in the United States would try to stop smoking altogether if such cigarettes were banned. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  12. Cryopreservation increases DNA fragmentation in spermatozoa of smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Mehmet Serif; Senturk, Gozde Erkanli; Ercan, Feriha

    2013-05-01

    Smoking causes subfertility due to deterioration of spermatozoa including decreased concentration and abnormal morphology. Although evidence on the deleterious effects of smoking on spermatozoa parameters is well known, its interference with cryopreservation is not clear. This study aimed to investigate the effects of cryopreservation on sperm parameters and DNA fragmentation in non-smokers and smokers. Semen samples were obtained from 40 normospermic male volunteers of whom 20 were non-smokers and 20 smokers. Samples were analyzed in terms of motility, concentration, morphology, and DNA fragmentation before freezing and 1 and 3 months after freezing and thawing. Ultrastructural alterations were investigated by transmission electron microscopy. Sperm morphology seemed to be more affected after cryopreservation in samples obtained from smokers. Ultrastructural examination showed alterations in the integrity of the membranes and increased subacrosomal swelling. Before freezing, the increase in DNA fragmentation rate in smokers was not statistically significant compared to that of non-smokers. However, after thawing, the DNA fragmentation rates were significantly high in both non-smokers and smokers compared to their respective rates before freezing. The extent of the increase in DNA fragmentation rate was significantly higher in smokers after thawing compared to that of non-smokers. In conclusion, cryopreservation causes alterations in membrane integrity and increases DNA fragmentation, thus triggering relatively negative effects on the sperm samples of smokers compared to that of non-smokers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Energy Drink Use Among Ohio Appalachian Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Genevieve; Shoben, Abigail; Pasch, Keryn E; Klein, Elizabeth G

    2016-10-01

    Caffeine-containing energy drinks have emerged as a public health concern due to their association with caffeine toxicity and alcohol use. Despite the fact that previous research has linked caffeine use in the form of coffee drinking to smoking, there is little research examining the association between energy drinks and smoking. The present study examines demographic and behavioral factors associated with energy drink use among a sample of rural Ohio Appalachian smokers. It was hypothesized that male gender, young age (21-30 years.) and alcohol use would be associated with energy drink use. A sample of adult smokers (n = 298) from Ohio Appalachian counties were interviewed regarding demographic and behavioral factors. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between these factors and energy drink use. Seventy percent of Ohio Appalachian smokers studied had ever used an energy drink and 40 % had used an energy drink in the past month. Young age, male gender, and single marital status were associated with higher odds of ever having used an energy drink. Young age, and binge drinking were associated with higher odds of past 30-day use while abstinence from drinking was associated with lower odds of past 30-day use. Ohio Appalachian adult smokers had higher rates of energy drink use compared to previous estimates of ever or past month use found in other studies. The combined use of caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol warrants attention due to potential for health risk.

  14. Prevalence characteristics of COPD in never smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadan M. Bakr

    2012-07-01

    Conclusions: This study revealed that never smokers constitute a significant proportion of the Egyptian COPD patients. When dealing with COPD management, clinicians must be oriented with the different risk factors, other than tobacco smoke, that play a key role in the development and pathogenesis of COPD, because despite smoking is the most important risk factor, its absence doesn’t exclude COPD diagnosis.

  15. STUDY OF ECG CHANGES IN SMOKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syamala Devi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is intended to evaluate the changes in Electrocardiogram (ECG in apparently healthy adult male smokers. This cross-sectional study covers 40 smokers, who smoked on an average 10 cigarettes per day for at least 5 years, and 40 non-smokers to find out the possible risk factors for cardiovascular disorders. This study was conducted during April 2011 to April 2012 in the Department of Physiology of Andhra Medical College, on subjects whose age ranged from 20 to 60 years. The ECG results were evaluated for different parameters like heart rate, P-wave, P-R interval, QRS complex, QT interval, and T-wave. The results were analyzed using student’s t-test. The probability (p value was calculated. The analysis showed that QRS and QT interval were shortened and that the QTc interval was widened in the smokers, although the values did not show any statistical significance. From the statistical analysis of the results obtained in the present study and their comparison with those of published reports, it appears that smoking 10 cigarettes per day for 5 Years does not cause major change in ECG wave forms.

  16. Perceptions of smokers influence nonsmoker attitudes and preferences for interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillard, Amanda J; Magnan, Renee E; Köblitz, Amber R; McCaul, Kevin D

    2013-04-01

    In two studies, we examined nonsmokers' perceptions of smokers and consequences of the perceptions. In Study 1, smokers answered questions about their sense of self, dependence on smoking, and motivation to quit. Nonsmokers answered questions about their perceptions of these characteristics. Differences between smokers' self-descriptions and nonsmokers' perceptions were observed. Study 2 asked nonsmokers to judge two types of smokers for which the descriptions were based on Study 1 findings. Results showed that nonsmokers held a more negative attitude about and were less willing to engage in different close relationships with the smoker who was described in terms of nonsmokers' perceptions rather than smokers' reports. Attitude mediated the relationship between type of smoker and willingness to date a smoker.

  17. Cytogenetical analysis in blood lymphocytes of cigarette smokers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S. Christobher

    2016-06-16

    Jun 16, 2016 ... Results: Increased CA is observed in heavy smokers compared to light and non smokers ... amines, and trace metals [4], which act as important mutagenic ... parameters for assessing genotoxic effects of chemical or phys-.

  18. A COMPARISON OF AGGRESSION AND IMPULSIVITY BETWEEN SMOKERS AND NON-SMOKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzma Zaidi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to investigate the role of aggression and impulsivity in smoking among male adult students. It was hypothesized that there would be significant difference between smokers and  non- smokers on the traits of aggression and impulsivity. The sample of two hundred male adult students was selected from different universities of Islamabad. Two subscales of Impulsiveness and Aggression  were administered to measure the personality traits of aggression and impulsivity. Descriptive statistics and  t-test was calculated for analysis of data. Results showed that there is significant differences in aggression and impulsivity between smokers and non-smokers. The result can be helpful for psychologist and other professionals to plan public health therapeutic and social reengineering interventions for youth.

  19. On polar daily geomagnetic variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola De Michelis

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to investigate the nature of the daily magnetic field perturbations produced by ionospheric and magnetospheric currents at high latitudes. We analyse the hourly means of the X and Y geomagnetic field components recorded by a meridian chain of permanent geomagnetic observatories in the polar region of the Northern Hemisphere during a period of four years (1995-1998 around the solar minimum. We apply a mathematical method, known as natural orthogonal component (NOC, which is capable of characterizing the dominant modes of the geomagnetic field daily variability through a set of empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs. Using the first two modes we reconstruct a two-dimensional equivalent current representation of the ionospheric electric currents, which contribute substantially to the geomagnetic daily variations. The obtained current structures resemble the equivalent current patterns of DP2 and DP1. We characterize these currents by studying their evolution with the geomagnetic activity level and by analysing their dependence on the interplanetary magnetic field. The obtained results support the idea of a coexistence of two main processes during all analysed period although one of them, the directly driven process, represents the dominant component of the geomagnetic daily variation.

  20. Endothelin receptor-antagonists suppress lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokine release from alveolar macrophages of non-smokers, smokers and COPD subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Kathrin; Köhler-Bachmann, Stefanie; Jungck, David; Körber, Sandra; Yanik, Sarah; Knoop, Heiko; Wehde, Deborah; Rheinländer, Sonja; Walther, Jörg W; Kronsbein, Juliane; Knobloch, Jürgen; Koch, Andrea

    2015-12-01

    Smoking-induced COPD is characterized by chronic airway inflammation, which becomes enhanced by bacterial infections resulting in accelerated disease progression called exacerbation. Alveolar macrophages (AM) release endothelin-1 (ET-1), IL-6, CCL-2 and MMP-9, all of which are linked to COPD pathogenesis and exacerbation. ET-1 signals via ETA- and ETB-receptors (ETAR, ETBR). This is blocked by endothelin receptor antagonists (ERAs), like bosentan, which targets both receptors, ETAR-selective ambrisentan and ETBR-specific BQ788. Therefore, ERAs could have anti-inflammatory potential, which might be useful in COPD and other inflammatory lung diseases. We hypothesized that ERAs suppress cytokine release from AM of smokers and COPD subjects induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the most important immunogen of gram-negative bacteria. AM were isolated from the broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) of n=29 subjects (11 non-smokers, 10 current smokers without COPD, 8 smokers with COPD), cultivated and stimulated with LPS in the presence or absence of ERAs. Cytokines were measured by ELISA. Endothelin receptor expression was investigated by RT-PCR and western blot. AM expressed ETAR and ETBR mRNA, but only ETBR protein was detected. LPS and ET-1 both induced IL-6, CCL-2 and MMP-9. LPS-induced IL-6 release was increased in COPD versus non-smokers and smokers. Bosentan, ambrisentan and BQ788 all partially reduced all cytokines without differences between cohorts. Specific ETBR inhibition was most effective. LPS induced ET-1, which was exclusively blocked by BQ788. In conclusion, LPS induces ET-1 release in AM, which in turn leads to CCL-2, IL-6 and MMP-9 expression rendering AM sensitive for ERAs. ERAs could have anti-inflammatory potential in smoking-induced COPD.

  1. ALPHA – 1 ANTITRYPSIN IN SMOKERS AND NON SMOKERS CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panchal Mittal A, Shaikh Sahema M, Sadariya Bhavesh R, Bhoi Bharat K, Sharma Hariom M

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study is to correlate and compare alpha-1 antitrypsin level in smoker and non smoker chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. Material and Methods: A comparative study was carried out in 200 subjects, more than 40 years of age and having chronic obstructive pulmonary disease for more than 1 year with a history of smoking at least 20 cigarettes per day (Group A and without a history of smoking (Group B. Pulmonary function tests were used to diagnose the disease as per the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD classification. Alpha-1 antitrypsin level was done by turbidimetry method on fully auto analyzer I-Lab 650 (Instrumentation Laboratory, USA at Clinical Biochemistry Section, Laboratory Services Sir Takhtsinhji Hospital, Bhavnagar. Statistical analysis was done by using unpaired t-test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Results: Results of present study shows that alpha-1 antitrypsin level was decreased in smoker chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients (150.83±18.853 when compared to non smokers (183.97±29.383. There was statistically significant difference in alpha-1 antitrypsin level between the two groups with ‘p’ value of <0.0001. Pearson’s correlation test show negative correlation between smoker and non-smoker chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. Conclusion: The values of serum alpha-1 antitrypsin levels were more significantly decreased in smokers indicating an important role of smoking in pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Alpha-1 antitrypsin can act as a predictor for future development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in smokers and in nonsmokers.

  2. A HOSPITAL BASED STUDY ON LIPID PROFILE IN SMOKERS AND NON SMOKERS- A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afroz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Smoking is one of the environmental factors which can alter normal lipid profile. It is one of the major risk fa ctors in the genesis of coronary atherosclerosis and development of coronary heart disease. AIMS: To evaluate and compare the lipid profile in both groups and to evaluate the existence of dose de pendent relationship and durational significance between smoking and lipid profile among smokers. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Out of 100 apparently healthy male subjects of age group 21-4 0yrs, 50 were smokers and 50 were non smokers. All the subjects were non alcoholic, non – obese, normotensives and from same socioeconomic status. Subjects who smoke more than equal 10 cigarettes for more than 2 years were considered as smokers group. METHODS AND MATERIAL: The subjects were asked to fast overnight and early morning blood samples colle cted and analyzed for lipid profile by appropriate methods. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: The student’s unpaired “t” test was used for statistical analysis. P-value of < 0.05 or P va lue <0.01 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: In our study we found serum TC, TG, LDL and VLDL w ere higher in smokers as compared to non smokers and the serum HDL level was significantly decreased in smokers compared to non smokers showing greater risk of thes e persons to atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. Conclusions: - We conclude our study with the obser vation that smoking causes alteration in lipid profile. Increased amount and duration of smok ing causes more dyslipidaemia .This alteration in serum lipid levels increases risk for coronary artery disease.

  3. Maternal bonding styles in smokers and non-smokers: a comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Csala, Iren; Elemery, Monika; Martinovszky, Fruzsina; Dome, Peter; Dome, Balazs; Faludi, Gabor; Sandor, Imola; Gyorffy, Zsuzsa; Birkas, Emma; Lazary, Judit

    2016-01-01

    Background Parental bonding has been implicated in smoking behavior, and the quality of maternal bonding (MB) has been associated with poor mental health and substance use. However, little is known about the association of MB and the smoking of the offspring. Methods In our study, 129 smokers and 610 non-smoker medical students completed the parental bonding instrument, which measures MB along two dimensions: care and overprotection. Four categories can be created by high and low scores on ca...

  4. A Decision Tree Approach for Predicting Smokers' Quit Intentions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Jiang Ding; Susan Bedingfield; Chung-Hsing Yeh; Ron Borland; David Young; Jian-Ying Zhang; Sonja Petrovic-Lazarevic; Ken Coghill

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a decision treeapproach for predicting smokers' quit intentions usingthe data from the International Tobacco Control FourCountry Survey. Three rule-based classification modelsare generated from three data sets using attributes inrelation to demographics, warning labels, and smokers'beliefs. Both demographic attributes and warning labelattributes are important in predicting smokers' quitintentions. The model's ability to predict smokers' quitintentions is enhanced, if the attributes regardingsmokers' internal motivation and beliefs about quittingare included.

  5. Knowledge, attitudes and preferences regarding genetic testing for smoking cessation. A cross-sectional survey among Dutch smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smerecnik, Chris; van Schooten, Frederik J; de Vries, Hein; van Schayck, Constant P

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Recent research strongly suggests that genetic variation influences smokers' ability to stop. Therefore, the use of (pharmaco) genetic testing may increase cessation rates. This study aims to assess the intention of smokers concerning undergoing genetic testing for smoking cessation and their knowledge, attitudes and preferences about this subject. Design Online cross-sectional survey. Setting Database internet research company of which every inhabitant of the Netherlands of ≥12 years with an email address and capable of understanding Dutch can become a member. Participants 587 of 711 Dutch smokers aged ≥18 years, daily smokers for ≥5 years and smoke on average ≥10 cigarettes/day (response rate=83%). Primary and secondary outcome measures Smokers' knowledge, attitudes and preferences and their intention to undergo genetic testing for smoking cessation. Results Knowledge on the influence of genetic factors in smoking addiction and cessation was found to be low. Smokers underestimated their chances of having a genetic predisposition and the influence of this on smoking cessation. Participants perceived few disadvantages, some advantages and showed moderate self-efficacy towards undergoing a genetic test and dealing with the results. Smokers were mildly interested in receiving information and participating in genetic testing, especially when offered by their general practitioner (GP). Conclusions For successful implementation of genetic testing for smoking in general practice, several issues should be addressed, such as the knowledge on smoking cessation, genetics and genetic testing (including advantages and disadvantages) and the influence of genetics on smoking addiction and cessation. Furthermore, smokers allocate their GPs a crucial role in the provision of information and the delivery of a genetic test for smoking; however, it is unclear whether GPs will be able and willing to take on this role. PMID:22223839

  6. A brief measure of Smokers' knowledge of lung cancer screening with low-dose computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M. Lowenstein

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe the development and psychometric properties of a new, brief measure of smokers' knowledge of lung cancer screening with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT. Content experts identified key facts smokers should know in making an informed decision about lung cancer screening. Sample questions were drafted and iteratively refined based on feedback from content experts and cognitive testing with ten smokers. The resulting 16-item knowledge measure was completed by 108 heavy smokers in Houston, Texas, recruited from 12/2014 to 09/2015. Item difficulty, item discrimination, internal consistency and test-retest reliability were assessed. Group differences based upon education levels and smoking history were explored. Several items were dropped due to ceiling effects or overlapping constructs, resulting in a 12-item knowledge measure. Additional items with high item uncertainty were retained because of their importance in informed decision making about lung cancer screening. Internal consistency reliability of the final scale was acceptable (KR-20 = 0.66 and test-retest reliability of the overall scale was 0.84 (intraclass correlation. Knowledge scores differed across education levels (F = 3.36, p = 0.04, while no differences were observed between current and former smokers (F = 1.43, p = 0.24 or among participants who met or did not meet the 30-pack-year screening eligibility criterion (F = 0.57, p = 0.45. The new measure provides a brief, valid and reliable indicator of smokers' knowledge of key concepts central to making an informed decision about lung cancer screening with LDCT, and can be part of a broader assessment of the quality of smokers' decision making about lung cancer screening.

  7. Smartphone Ownership Among US Adult Cigarette Smokers: 2014 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffner, Jaimee L; Mull, Kristin E

    2017-08-31

    Despite increasing interest in smartphone apps as a platform for delivery of tobacco cessation interventions, no previous studies have evaluated the prevalence and characteristics of smokers who can access smartphone-delivered interventions. To guide treatment development in this new platform and to evaluate disparities in access to smartphone-delivered interventions, we examined associations of smartphone ownership with demographics, tobacco use and thoughts about quitting, other health behaviors, physical and mental health, health care access, and Internet and technology utilization using a nationally representative sample of US adult smokers. Data were from the National Cancer Institute's 2014 Health Information National Trends Survey 4 (HINTS 4), Cycle 4. This mailed survey targeted noninstitutionalized individuals aged 18 years or older using two-stage stratified random sampling. For this analysis, we restricted the sample to current smokers with complete data on smartphone ownership (n=479). Nearly two-thirds (weighted percent=63.8%, 248/479) of smokers reported owning a smartphone. Those who were younger (Pvegetable consumption (P=.03) and were more likely to report past-year efforts to increase exercise (P=.001) and to lose weight (P=.02). No differences in health care access and utilization were found. Smartphone owners reported better physical and mental health in several domains and higher access to and utilization of technology and the Internet, including for health reasons. Smartphone ownership among smokers mirrors many trends in the general population, including the overall rate of ownership and the association with younger age and higher socioeconomic status. Apps for smoking cessation could potentially capitalize on smartphone owners' efforts at multiple health behavior changes and interest in communicating with health care providers via technology. These data also highlight the importance of accessible treatment options for smokers without

  8. Transdermal Nicotine During Cue Reactivity in Adult Smokers With and Without Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morissette, Sandra B.; Gulliver, Suzy Bird; Kamholz, Barbara W.; Spiegel, David A.; Tiffany, Stephen T.; Barlow, David H.

    2012-01-01

    Transdermal nicotine almost doubles tobacco cessation rates; however little is known about what happens to smokers during the quit process when they are wearing the nicotine patch and confronted with high-risk smoking triggers. This is particularly important for smokers with psychological disorders who disproportionately represent today’s smokers and have more trouble quitting. Using a mixed between- and within-subjects design, smokers with anxiety disorders (n = 61) and smokers without any current Axis I disorders (n = 38) received transdermal nicotine (21 mg) or a placebo patch over two assessment days separated by 48 hours. Urge to smoke was evaluated during a 5-hour patch absorption period (reflecting general smoking deprivation) and during imaginal exposure to theoretically high-risk triggers containing smoking cues, anxiety cues, both, or neutral cues. No differences were observed between smokers with and without anxiety disorders. Significant Patch X Time and Patch X Cue Content interactions were found. Both patch conditions experienced an increase in urge during the deprivation period, but post-absorption urge was significantly higher in the placebo condition, suggesting that transdermal nicotine attenuated the degree to which urge to smoke increased over time. During the cue reactivity trials, when participants received the nicotine patch, they experienced significantly lower urge in response to both smoking-only and neutral cues, but not when anxiety cues were present (alone or in combination with smoking cues). These data suggest that transdermal nicotine alleviates urge only under certain circumstances, and that adjunctive interventions are likely necessary to address smoking urges in response to spikes in distress among smokers trying to quit. PMID:22686966

  9. Putamen functional connectivity during inhibitory control in smokers and non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkermans, Sophie E A; Luijten, Maartje; van Rooij, Daan; Franken, Ingmar H A; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2016-12-05

    The putamen has been shown to play a key role in inhibitory control and addiction, and consists of distinct subregions associated with distinct functions. The anterior putamen is thought to be specialized in goal-directed control or response-monitoring in connection with frontal regions, whereas the posterior part is specialized in habitual or automatic responding in connection with sensorimotor regions. The present study is the first to delineate functional networks of the anterior and posterior putamen in a Go-NoGo response inhibition task, and to examine differences between smokers (n = 25) and non-smokers (n = 23) within these networks. Functional connectivity analyses were conducted on fMRI data from a Go-NoGo study, using the generalized form of psychophysiological interaction with anterior and posterior putamen seed regions. In the context of inhibition, the anterior putamen exhibited connectivity with the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and precuneus (pFWE  putamen showed connectivity with regions implicated in sensorimotor processing. When we compared smokers to non-smokers, we did not observe the expected weaker connectivity between the anterior putamen and ACC during inhibition in smokers. Instead, our study revealed stronger inhibition-related connectivity between the anterior putamen and right insula in smokers. This finding highlights the involvement of putamen - insula interactions in addiction and impulse control.

  10. [Tooth decay and its complication prognosis in smokers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orekhova, L Iu; Osipova, M V

    2014-01-01

    The study focuses on complicated and non-complicated tooth decay course and prognosis in smokers. Oral status, prevention and treatment effectiveness was assessed in 330 non-smokers and 345 smoking patients. The results allowed concluding with guidelines for tooth decay prevention and treatment in smokers.

  11. Identifying Subgroups among Hardcore Smokers: a Latent Profile Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bommelé, J.; Kleinjan, M.; Schoenmakers, T.M.; Eijnden, R. van den; Mheen, D. van de

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Hardcore smokers are smokers who have little to no intention to quit. Previous research suggests that there are distinct subgroups among hardcore smokers and that these subgroups vary in the perceived pros and cons of smoking and quitting. Identifying these subgroups could help to deve

  12. Impaired acetylcholine-induced cutaneous vasodilation in young smokers: roles of nitric oxide and prostanoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Naoto; Reinke, Maggie C; Brunt, Vienna E; Minson, Christopher T

    2013-03-01

    Cigarette smoking attenuates acetylcholine (ACh)-induced cutaneous vasodilation in humans, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that smokers have impaired nitric oxide (NO)- and cyclooxygenase (COX)-dependent cutaneous vasodilation to ACh infusion. Twelve young smokers, who have smoked more than 5.2 ± 0.7 yr with an average daily consumption of 11.4 ± 1.2 cigarettes, and 12 nonsmokers were tested. Age, body mass index, and resting mean arterial pressure were similar between the groups. Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) was evaluated as laser-Doppler flux divided by mean arterial pressure, normalized to maximal CVC (local heating to 43.0°C plus sodium nitroprusside administration). We evaluated the increase in CVC from baseline to peak (CVCΔpeak) and area under the curve of CVC (CVCAUC) during a bolus infusion (1 min) of 137.5 μM ACh at four intradermal microdialysis sites: 1) Ringer (control), 2) 10 mM N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME; NO synthase inhibitor), 3) 10 mM ketorolac (COX inhibitor), and 4) combination of l-NAME + ketorolac. CVCΔpeak and CVCAUC at the Ringer site in nonsmokers were greater than in smokers (CVCΔpeak, 42.9 ± 5.1 vs. 22.3 ± 3.5%max, P vasodilation in young smokers is related to diminished NO- and COX-dependent vasodilation.

  13. Emotion differentiation and intensity during acute tobacco abstinence: A comparison of heavy and light smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, Erin S; Bujarski, Spencer; Leventhal, Adam M; Ray, Lara A

    2015-08-01

    The ability to recognize and label discrete emotions, termed emotion differentiation, is particularly pertinent to overall emotion regulation abilities. Patterns of deficient emotion differentiation have been associated with mood and anxiety disorders but have yet to be examined in relation to nicotine dependence. This study employed ecological momentary assessment to examine smokers' subjective experience of discrete emotions during 24-h of forced tobacco abstinence. Thirty daily smokers rated their emotions up to 23 times over the 24-hour period, and smoking abstinence was biologically verified. From these data, we computed individual difference measures of emotion differentiation, overall emotion intensity, and emotional variability. As hypothesized, heavy smokers reported poorer negative emotion differentiation than light smokers (d=0.55), along with more intense negative emotion (d=0.97) and greater negative emotion variability (d=0.97). No differences were observed in positive emotion differentiation. Across the sample, poorer negative emotion differentiation was associated with greater endorsement of psychological motives to smoke, including negative and positive reinforcement motives, while positive emotion differentiation was not.

  14. Harm reduction--a treatment approach for resistant smokers with tobacco-related symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Ruiz, Carlos; Solano, Segismundo; Viteri, Soledad Alonso; Ferrero, Miguel Barrueco; Torrecilla, Miguel; Mezquita, Miguel Hernández

    2002-01-01

    Smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) appear to represent a hard-core group, and this presents a dilemma for chest physicians. A reduction in cigarette smoking benefits health, and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) can aid smoking reduction. Hence we studied the efficacy of nicotine gum in helping hard-core smokers with severe COPD to quit. Seventeen smokers with severe COPD (FEV(1) 38-47% of predicted normal) who smoked >30 cigarettes/day but were unable to quit were encouraged to reduce their smoking as much as possible by using 4-mg nicotine gum. Five gradually reduced their daily tobacco consumption and, 18 months after starting NRT, were smoking an average of 6 cigarettes/day while still using nicotine gum. Compared to baseline, their respiratory symptoms had improved, and both FEV(1) and FVC had increased. There was no improvement in pulmonary function in the group of smokers who did not reduce their cigarette consumption. No adverse events relating to nicotine occurred among the patients who used NRT to reduce their smoking. We propose that this reduction approach should be considered for patients with respiratory disease who are unable or unwilling to stop smoking. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  15. Multi-Vitamins, Folate, and Green Vegetables Protect Against Gene Promoter Methylation in the Aerodigestive Tract of Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Stidley, Christine A.; Picchi, Maria A.; Leng, Shuguang; Willink, Randy; Crowell, Richard E.; Flores, Kristina G.; Kang, Huining; Byers, Tim; Gilliland, Frank D.; Belinsky, Steven A.

    2010-01-01

    The detection of gene promoter hypermethylation in sputum is a promising molecular marker for early lung cancer detection. Epidemiologic studies suggest that dietary fruits and vegetables and the micronutrients they contain may reduce risk of lung cancer. This investigation evaluated whether diet and multi-vitamin use influence the prevalence for gene methylation in the cells exfoliated from the aerodigestive tract of current and former smokers. Members (n = 1101) of the Lovelace Smokers Coho...

  16. The Effects of 8-Weeks Aerobic Exercise Program on Blood Lipids and Cholesterol Profile of Smokers vs. Non Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taifour, Akef; AL-Shishani, Ahmad; Khasawneh, Aman; AL-Nawaiseh, Ali; Bakeer, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 8-week aerobic exercise program on blood lipids and cholesterol profile of smoker's vs. non-smokers. A total of 34 male subjects (18 non-smokers and 16 smokers) took part in this study. Both groups were pre- and post tested in their blood-lipids and cholesterol profile before and after the 8-week…

  17. Gender differences in characteristics and outcomes of smokers diagnosed with psychosis participating in a smoking cessation intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filia, Sacha L; Baker, Amanda L; Gurvich, Caroline T; Richmond, Robyn; Lewin, Terry J; Kulkarni, Jayashri

    2014-03-30

    While research has identified gender differences in characteristics and outcomes of smokers in the general population, no studies have examined this among smokers with psychosis. This study aimed to explore gender differences among 298 smokers with psychosis (schizophrenia, schizoaffective and bipolar affective disorder) participating in a smoking intervention study. Results revealed a general lack of gender differences on a range of variables for smokers with psychosis including reasons for smoking/quitting, readiness and motivation to quit, use of nicotine replacement therapy, and smoking outcomes including point prevalence or continuous abstinence, and there were no significant predictors of smoking reduction status according to gender at any of the follow-up time-points. The current study did find that female smokers with psychosis were significantly more likely than males to report that they smoked to prevent weight gain. Furthermore, the females reported significantly more reasons for quitting smoking and were more likely to be driven by extrinsic motivators to quit such as immediate reinforcement and social influence, compared to the male smokers with psychosis. Clinical implications include specifically focussing on weight issues and enhancing intrinsic motivation to quit smoking for female smokers with psychosis; and strengthening reasons for quitting among males with psychosis.

  18. Nasal mucociliary transportability of male and female smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzeloto, Juliana Souza; Ramos, Dionei; C F Freire, Ana Paula; G D Christofaro, Diego; M C Ramos, Ercy

    2017-04-08

    Female smoker's present increased susceptibility to several diseases when compared to the opposite gender. However, there are no studies showing differences in nasal mucociliary transport behavior between male and female smokers. To compare the nasal mucociliary transportability in male and female smokers and non-smokers, taking into consideration age, anthropometric data, smoking load and pulmonary function. The analysis included 139 individuals (33 men and 37 women smokers and 32 men and 37 women non-smokers). All participants answered an initial interview to obtain personal data and smoking load. Anthropometric data and carbon monoxide in the exhaled air were assessed. Individuals also performed pulmonary function test and Saccharin Transit Time test. To compare saccharin transit time values between men and women, smokers and non-smokers, stratification of all independent variables was performed (sociodemographic, smoking and respiratory variables) into two categories: below and above the median values. There was no difference between men and women, smokers and non-smokers, regarding nasal mucociliary transportability. Significant differences were only observed between non-smokers. Among those with less forced vital capacity values (transport faster than men. Moreover, it was observed influence of BMI and COex (women smokers), FCV and FEV1 (men non-smokers) and FEF25-75% (women non-smokers) on saccharin transit time values. Based on the findings of this study, nasal mucociliary transport in male and female adult smokers, apparently healthy, are similar. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of Taste Threshold in Smokers and Non-Smokers Using Electrogustometry and Fungiform Papillae Count: A Case Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Veena Sathya; Puttabuddi, Jaishankar Homberhalli; Chengappa, Rachita; Ambaldhage, Vijaya Kumara; Naik, Purnachandrarao; Raheel, Syed Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Smoking in long term is not only responsible for cancerous changes but is also one of the reasons of altered taste sensation in smokers. These taste changes are hypothesized to be due to reduction in density of fungiform papillae on the dorsum of the tongue. Aim The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between fungiform papillae count, blood Red Cell Distribution Width (RDW) and electrogustometric thresholds in smokers and non-smokers. Materials and Methods Fungiform papillae count was assessed using digital photography and imaging software while electrogustometric thresholds were assessed using modified Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation (TENS) machine in 30 smokers and 30 non-smokers. The subjects also underwent RDW evaluation. The data collected was analyzed using Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Results Fungiform papillae counts in smokers were less than those of non-smokers and an inverse relationship was detected between smoking and fungiform papillae count. Electrogustometric thresholds were more in smokers than non-smokers and showed direct relationship with smoking. RDW was significantly more in smokers compared to non-smokers. An inverse relationship was observed between fungiform papillae count and RDW. Conclusion Our results suggest that smokers have a high taste threshold because of decrease in the number of fungiform papillae on the tongue and RDW values do show an inverse relationship with fungiform papillae density which depicts subclinical nutritional deficiency bringing atrophic changes in tongue. PMID:27437340

  20. Hepatocyte Growth Factor Levels in the Saliva and Gingival Crevicular Fluid in Smokers with Periodontitis

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    Sukumaran Anil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF production by oral fibroblasts is enhanced by various molecules that are induced during inflammatory conditions including periodontitis. HGF plays an important role in the progression of periodontitis, by stimulating intense growth of epithelial cells and preventing regeneration of connective tissue attachments. Smokers have a greater risk factor in the pathogenesis and progression of periodontal disease. The objective of the study was to estimate the level of HGF in saliva and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF in smokers with periodontitis and to compare these levels with that of nonsmokers with periodontitis and healthy controls. The HGF levels were found to be significantly high in the saliva and GCF of smokers with periodontitis compared to both never-smokers with periodontitis and the healthy control group. The elevated levels of HGF in the saliva and GCF in the study population could explain the intrinsic mechanism triggering the severity of the periodontitis in smokers. Further studies are necessary to validate the current observations and to establish a sensitive marker to predict periodontal disease activity.

  1. Hepatocyte growth factor levels in the saliva and gingival crevicular fluid in smokers with periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anil, Sukumaran; Vellappally, Sajith; Preethanath, R S; Mokeem, Sameer A; AlMoharib, Hani S; Patil, Shankargouda; Chalisserry, Elna P; Al Kheraif, Abdulaziz A

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) production by oral fibroblasts is enhanced by various molecules that are induced during inflammatory conditions including periodontitis. HGF plays an important role in the progression of periodontitis, by stimulating intense growth of epithelial cells and preventing regeneration of connective tissue attachments. Smokers have a greater risk factor in the pathogenesis and progression of periodontal disease. The objective of the study was to estimate the level of HGF in saliva and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in smokers with periodontitis and to compare these levels with that of nonsmokers with periodontitis and healthy controls. The HGF levels were found to be significantly high in the saliva and GCF of smokers with periodontitis compared to both never-smokers with periodontitis and the healthy control group. The elevated levels of HGF in the saliva and GCF in the study population could explain the intrinsic mechanism triggering the severity of the periodontitis in smokers. Further studies are necessary to validate the current observations and to establish a sensitive marker to predict periodontal disease activity.

  2. Association between salivary sialic acid and periodontal health status among smokers

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    Jwan Ibrahim Jawzali

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion: Salivary free sialic acid may be used as a diagnostic oxidative stress biomarker for periodontal diseases among young current smokers. Cumulative destructive effect of long duration of smoking on the periodontum can be controlled by smoking cessation, good oral hygiene and diet habit in early old ages.

  3. CT-quantified emphysema in male heavy smokers: association with lung function decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohamed Hoesein, F.A.; Hoop, B. de; Zanen, P.; Gietema, H.; Kruitwagen, C.L.J.J.; Ginneken, B. van; Isgum, I.; Mol, C.; Klaveren, R.J. van; Dijkstra, A.E.; Groen, H.J.; Boezen, H.M.; Postma, D.S.; Prokop, M.; Lammers, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Emphysema and small airway disease both contribute to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a disease characterised by accelerated decline in lung function. The association between the extent of emphysema in male current and former smokers and lung function decline was

  4. CT-quantified emphysema in male heavy smokers : association with lung function decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohamed Hoesein, Firdaus A A; de Hoop, Bartjan; Zanen, Pieter; Gietema, Hester; Kruitwagen, Cas L J J; van Ginneken, Bram; Isgum, Ivana; Mol, Christian; van Klaveren, Rob J; Dijkstra, Akkelies E; Groen, Hendricus; Boezen, Hendrika; Postma, Dirkje S; Prokop, Mathias; Lammers, Jan-Willem J

    BACKGROUND: Emphysema and small airway disease both contribute to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a disease characterised by accelerated decline in lung function. The association between the extent of emphysema in male current and former smokers and lung function decline was

  5. A Decision Tree Approach for Predicting Smokers' Quit Intentions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Jiang Ding; Susan Bedingfield; Chung-Hsing Yeh; Ron Borland; David Young; Jian-Ying Zhang; Sonja Petrovic-Lazarevic; Ken Coghill

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a decision tree approach for predicting smokers'quit intentions using the data from the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey. Three rule-based classification models are generated from three data sets using attributes in relation to demographics, warning labels, and smokers' beliefs. Both demographic attributes and warning label attributes are important in predicting smokers' quit intentions. The model's ability to predict smokers' quit intentions is enhanced, if the attributes regarding smokers' internal motivation and beliefs about quitting are included.

  6. Anti-p-benzoquinone antibody level as a prospective biomarker to identify smokers at risk for COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Santanu; Bhattacharyya, Parthasarathi; Mitra, Subhra; Kundu, Somenath; Panda, Samiran; Chatterjee, Indu B

    2017-01-01

    Identification of smokers having predisposition to COPD is important for early intervention to reduce the huge global burden of the disease. Using a guinea pig model, we have shown that p-benzoquinone (p-BQ) derived from cigarette smoke (CS) in the lung is a causative factor for CS-induced emphysema. p-BQ is also derived from CS in smokers and it elicits the production of anti-p-BQ antibody in humans. We therefore hypothesized that anti-p-BQ antibody might have a protective role against COPD and could be used as a predictive biomarker for COPD in smokers. The objective of this study was to compare the serum anti-p-BQ antibody level between smokers with and without COPD for the evaluation of the hypothesis. Serum anti-p-BQ antibody concentrations of current male smokers with (n=227) or without (n=308) COPD were measured by an indirect enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA) developed in our laboratory. COPD was diagnosed by spirometry according to Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) guidelines. A significant difference was observed in the serum anti-p-BQ antibody level between smokers with and without COPD (Mann-Whitney U-test =4,632.5, P=0.000). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis indicated that the ELISA had significant precision (area under the curve [AUC] =0.934, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.913-0.935) for identifying smokers with COPD from their low antibody level. The antibody cutoff value of 29.4 mg/dL was constructed from the ROC coordinates to estimate the risk for COPD in smokers. While 90.3% of smokers with COPD had a low antibody value (≤29.4 mg/dL), the majority (86.4%) of smokers without COPD had a high antibody value (≤29.4 mg/dL); 13.6% of current smokers without COPD having an antibody level below this cutoff value (odds ratio [OR] =59.3, 95% CI: 34.15-101.99) were considered to be at risk for COPD. Our results indicate that serum anti-p-BQ antibody level may be used as a biomarker to identify

  7. Change of Taste Sensitivity of Clove Cigarette Smokers in Medan

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    Marlina Simamora

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Tongue has taste buds that contain taste receptor which affected by many factors, including smoking habit. Objective: To analyze the differences of sweet and bitter taste sensitivity in the pedicab driver clove cigarette smokers compared to non-smokers in Medan Padang Bulan. Methods: This study was conducted by placing the sweet taste strips and bitter taste strips on four taste receptors of the tongue, with increasing solution concentration in 74 subjects. This was a cross sectional study on pedicab driver population in Medan Padang Bulan. Results: There were differences between clove cigarette smokers and non-smokers on sweet taste examination (p<0.005. There was a difference between clove cigarette smokers and non-smokers on examination bitter taste receptors (p<0.005. On the clove cigarette smokers, there was no significant difference between sweet taste and bitter taste on the receptors itself. Conclusion: Non-smokers are more sensitive to sweet taste than the clove cigarette smokers. Bitter taste sensitivity is greater in cigarettes smokers than in non-smokers. Taste receptors on all location of the tongue could taste sweet and bitter substances, but a certain location of taste receptors were more sensitive compared to others.

  8. Daily Weather Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These daily weather records were compiled from a subset of stations in the Global Historical Climatological Network (GHCN)-Daily dataset. A weather record is...

  9. Tobacco-specific nitrosamine exposures in smokers and nonsmokers exposed to cigarette or waterpipe tobacco smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwan, Ghada; Hecht, Stephen S; Carmella, Steven G; Loffredo, Christopher A

    2013-01-01

    The causal relationship between tobacco smoking and a variety of cancers is attributable to the carcinogens that smokers inhale, including tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs). We aimed to assess the exposure to TSNAs in waterpipe smokers (WPS), cigarette smokers (CS), and nonsmoking females exposed to tobacco smoke. We measured 2 metabolites, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) and its glucuronides (NNAl-Gluc) in the urine of males who were either current CS or WPS, and their wives exposed to either cigarette or waterpipe smoke in a sample of 46 subjects from rural Egypt. Of the 24 current male smokers, 54.2% were exclusive CS and 45.8% were exclusive WPS. Among wives, 59.1% reported exposure to cigarette smoke and 40.9% to waterpipe smoke. The geometric mean of urinary NNAL was 0.19 ± 0.60 pmol/ml urine (range 0.005-2.58) in the total sample. Significantly higher levels of NNAL were observed among male smokers of either cigarettes or waterpipe (0.89 ± 0.53 pmol/ml, range 0.78-2.58 in CS and 0.21-1.71 in WPS) compared with nonsmoking wives (0.04 ± 0.18 pmol/ml, range 0.01-0.60 in CS wives, 0.05-0.23 in WPS wives, p = .000). Among males, CS had significantly higher levels of NNAL compared with WPS (1.22 vs. 0.62; p = .007). However, no significant difference was detected in NNAL levels between wives exposed to cigarette smoke or waterpipe smoke. Cigarette smokers levels of NNAL were higher than WPS levels in males. Exposure to tobacco smoke was evident in wives of both CS and WPS. Among WPS, NNAL tended to increase with increasing numbers of hagars smoked/day.

  10. US smokers' reactions to a brief trial of oral nicotine products

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    Mahoney Martin C

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been suggested that cigarette smokers will switch to alternative oral nicotine delivery products to reduce their health risks if informed of the relative risk difference. However, it is important to assess how smokers are likely to use cigarette alternatives before making predictions about their potential to promote individual or population harm reduction. Objectives This study examines smokers' interest in using a smokeless tobacco or a nicotine replacement product as a substitute for their cigarettes. Methods The study included 67 adult cigarette smokers, not currently interested in quitting, who were given an opportunity to sample four alternative oral nicotine products: 1 Camel Snus, 2 Marlboro Snus, 3 Stonewall dissolvable tobacco tablets, and 4 Commit nicotine lozenges. At visit 1, subjects were presented information about the relative benefits/risks of oral nicotine delivery compared to cigarettes. At visit 2, subjects were given a supply of each of the four products to sample at home for a week. At visit 3, subjects received a one-week supply of their preferred product to see if using such products reduced or eliminated cigarette use. Results After multiple product sampling, participants preferred the Commit lozenges over the three smokeless tobacco products (p = 0.011. Following the one week single-product trial experience, GEE models controlling for gender, age, level of education, baseline cigarettes use, and alternative product chosen, indicated a significant decline in cigarettes smoked per day across one week of single-product sampling (p Conclusions Findings from this study show that smokers, who are currently unwilling to make a quit attempt, may be willing to use alternative products in the short term as a temporary substitute for smoking. However, this use is more likely to be for partial substitution (i.e. they will continue to smoke, albeit at a lower rate rather than complete substitution. Of the

  11. Transitions in Smokers' Social Networks After Quit Attempts: A Latent Transition Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Bethany C; Smith, Rachel A; Piper, Megan E; Roberts, Linda J; Baker, Timothy B

    2016-12-01

    Smokers' social networks vary in size, composition, and amount of exposure to smoking. The extent to which smokers' social networks change after a quit attempt is unknown, as is the relation between quitting success and later network changes. Unique types of social networks for 691 smokers enrolled in a smoking-cessation trial were identified based on network size, new network members, members' smoking habits, within network smoking, smoking buddies, and romantic partners' smoking. Latent transition analysis was used to identify the network classes and to predict transitions in class membership across 3 years from biochemically assessed smoking abstinence. Five network classes were identified: Immersed (large network, extensive smoking exposure including smoking buddies), Low Smoking Exposure (large network, minimal smoking exposure), Smoking Partner (small network, smoking exposure primarily from partner), Isolated (small network, minimal smoking exposure), and Distant Smoking Exposure (small network, considerable nonpartner smoking exposure). Abstinence at years 1 and 2 was associated with shifts in participants' social networks to less contact with smokers and larger networks in years 2 and 3. In the years following a smoking-cessation attempt, smokers' social networks changed, and abstinence status predicted these changes. Networks defined by high levels of exposure to smokers were especially associated with continued smoking. Abstinence, however, predicted transitions to larger social networks comprising less smoking exposure. These results support treatments that aim to reduce exposure to smoking cues and smokers, including partners who smoke. Prior research has shown that social network features predict the likelihood of subsequent smoking cessation. The current research illustrates how successful quitting predicts social network change over 3 years following a quit attempt. Specifically, abstinence predicts transitions to networks that are larger and afford

  12. Simultaneous vitality and DNA-fragmentation measurement in spermatozoa of smokers and non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bantel, A; Fleury-Feith, J; Poirot, C; Berthaut, I; Garcin, C; Landais, P; Ravel, C

    2015-03-01

    Because cigarette smoke is a powerful ROS producer, we hypothesized that the spermatozoa of smokers would be more at risk of having increased DNA fragmentation than spermatozoa of non-smoking men. A cross-sectional study was performed on consenting smokers and non-smokers, consulting in an infertility clinic for routine sperm analysis. The application of a novel TUNEL assay coupled to a vitality marker, LIVE/DEAD®, allowed both DNA fragmentation and viability measurement within spermatozoa of participants to be analyzed by flow cytometry. The coupled vitality-DNA fragmentation analysis revealed that non-smokers and smokers, respectively presented medians of 3.6% [0.6-36.8] and 3.3% [0.9-9.6] DNA fragmented spermatozoa among the living spermatozoa population (P > 0.05). No deleterious effect of smoking on spermatozoa was found in our study. More studies concerning potential mutagenic capacities of cigarette smoke on spermatozoa are necessary. In addition, the coupled vitality-DNA fragmentation analysis may orient Assisted Reproductive Technology teams when confronted with patients having a high percentage of DNA-fragmented living spermatozoa. © 2014 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  13. Physical activity moderates the association between nicotine dependence and depression among U.S. smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Walker, Jerome F; Kane, Christy; Cardinal, Bradley J

    2014-01-01

    Research demonstrates that nicotine dependence and depression are associated and that physical activity is effective in reducing depression symptoms. However, our understanding of the potential beneficial effects of physical activity on depression in current smokers is more limited. The purpose of this study was to examine whether physical activity moderates the association between nicotine dependence and depression in U.S. smokers. Cross-sectional. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006. Four hundred forty-one current adult smokers. Participants wore an accelerometer for at least 4 days and completed questionnaires to assess nicotine dependence and depression. Effect modification and statistical interaction models were used. Both models were significant. With regard to the statistical interaction model, and after controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, comorbidity index, homocysteine, cotinine, total cholesterol, sedentary behavior, and vitamins C, D, and E, objectively measured physical activity moderated the association between nicotine dependence and depression (interaction variable: odds ratio = 3.43; 95% confidence interval: 1.02-11.51; p = .04). In this national sample of current smokers, physical activity moderated the association between nicotine dependence and depression. These results suggest that those individuals with nicotine dependence and who are less physically active are more likely to be depressed than what would be expected on the basis of the individual effects of nicotine and physical inactivity separately.

  14. Attenuated predictive power of a normal myocardial perfusion scan in young smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolak, Arik; Rafaeli, Einat; Toledano, Ronen; Novack, Victor; Gilutz, Harel; Henkin, Yaakov

    2014-06-01

    The negative predictive value of a normal myocardial perfusion image (MPI) for myocardial infarction or cardiac death is very high. However, it is unclear whether a normal MPI, reflecting non-compromised blood flow in the stable state, would have the same prognostic implications in smokers as in patients who do not smoke. The incidence of total mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and myocardial infarction was evaluated in 11,812 subjects (14.6% of whom were current smokers at the time of the study) with a normal MPI study and no past history of coronary artery disease during the period 1997 to 2008. During an average follow-up of 72.4 ± 32.4 months the risk for an acute myocardial infarction in current smokers was approximately 50% higher than the corresponding risk in non-smokers, despite a younger average age. Cox proportional regression models show that current smoking was associated with an increased hazard rate for the composite endpoint below age 60 (HR=2.09, 95%CI 1.43-3.07, pInternal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. [Ascorbic acid consumption and serum levels in smokers and non-smokers adult men in Hermosillo, Sonora, México].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Rosa Olivia; Wyatt, C Jane; Saavedra, Javier; Ornelas, Alicia

    2002-12-01

    Ascorbic acid is one of the important antioxidant nutrients that can aid in the prevention of oxidative cellular damage. Adequate dietary intake is essential as humans can not synthesize this vitamin. It has been reported that smokers require higher dietary intakes to maintain their serum levels. The objective of this study was to determine serum levels of ascorbic acid in young male smokers and non smokers in the city of Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. In addition, their dietary intake of ascorbic acid was determined by a 24 h dietary recall. The dietary intake of ascorbic acid in 12 smokers was 64 +/- 11 mg/d and in 13 non smokers it was 70 +/- 12 mg/d. The smokers in this study did not meet the dietary recommendation of 100 mg/d. Serum ascorbic acid values in smokers and non smokers were 24.2 +/- 6.9 mumol/L and 30.9 +/- 3.7 mumol/L respectively. No significant difference was found among the 2 groups. Although the average serum ascorbic acid values fell within the range considered normal, 50% of the smokers had individual values that were below 23 mumol/L, indicating that these subjects have hipovitaminosis. A positive correlation between intake and serum levels was obtained for smokers (r = 0.71; p = 0.03). The results of this study suggest smokers may be at increased risk for chronic diseases due to their low intake and low serum levels of ascorbic acid.

  16. A comparative study of the oral hygiene status of smokers and non-smokers in Ibadan, Oyo state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modupe O Arowojolu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of tobacco smoking on gingival health and the oral hygiene status of respondents. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 213 adults from three communities in the Ibadan North local government was carried out. Respondents were divided into two groups comprising of 117 smokers (cases and 96 non-smokers (control. Intra oral examination was done using the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S and Gingival index (GI. Results: The mean age of the smokers was 31.2 ± 12.6 years and that of the non-smokers 32.8 ± 9.5 years. The mean Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S was 1.15 ± 0.51 for the non-smokers and 2.19 ± 0.62 for the smokers (P < 0.05. The mean GI was 1.06 ± 0.55 for the non-smokers and 1.62 ± 0.58 for the smokers (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The study shows that smoking is associated with increased severity of gingival disease. It is, therefore, recommended that smokers should be encouraged to visit a dentist for preventive procedure more regularly than the non-smokers and better still, smokers should be encouraged to quit smoking as gingival disease is not without consequences if allowed to persist.

  17. [Meanings about smoking for women participant in a group for smokers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckerdt, Neusa da Silva; Corradi-Webster, Clarissa Mendonça

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to understand the meanings produced about smoking by women participating in a group for smokers in Florianopolis, SC, Brazil. Seven participants took part in structured interviews with five open questions. The theoretical framework was social constructionism with two themes: 1) Cigarettes in the women's life cycle 2) Expectations regarding treatment. The repertories used to describe the beginning of consumption in adolescence included glamour, charm, independence and peer acceptance and those used to describe the maintenance of consumption in adulthood included anxiety, depression and coping with daily stress. Regarding expectations for treatment they believed that contact with people who experience the same difficulties in relation to the cessation of consumption and the dream of a healthy life would be motivating. The treatment offered to smokers should explore strategies for women to achieve what they want regarding the consumption of cigarettes.

  18. Bronchial Responsiveness Is Related to Increased Exhaled NO (FENO) in Non-Smokers and Decreased FENO in Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinovschi, Andrei; Janson, Christer; Högman, Marieann; Rolla, Giovanni; Torén, Kjell; Norbäck, Dan; Olin, Anna-Carin

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Both atopy and smoking are known to be associated with increased bronchial responsiveness. Fraction of nitric oxide (NO) in the exhaled air (FENO), a marker of airways inflammation, is decreased by smoking and increased by atopy. NO has also a physiological bronchodilating and bronchoprotective role. Objectives To investigate how the relation between FENO and bronchial responsiveness is modulated by atopy and smoking habits. Methods Exhaled NO measurements and methacholine challenge were performed in 468 subjects from the random sample of three European Community Respiratory Health Survey II centers: Turin (Italy), Gothenburg and Uppsala (both Sweden). Atopy status was defined by using specific IgE measurements while smoking status was questionnaire-assessed. Main Results Increased bronchial responsiveness was associated with increased FENO levels in non-smokers (p = 0.02) and decreased FENO levels in current smokers (p = 0.03). The negative association between bronchial responsiveness and FENO was seen only in the group smoking less responsiveness was associated with increased FENO in atopic subjects (p = 0.04) while no significant association was found in non-atopic participants. The reported interaction between FENO and smoking and atopy, respectively were maintained after adjusting for possible confounders (p-valuesresponsiveness with smoking and atopy, suggesting different mechanisms behind atopy- and smoking-related increases of bronchial responsiveness. PMID:22563393

  19. Comparison of cyanide exposure markers in the biofluids of smokers and non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinnakota, Chakravarthy V; Peetha, Naga S; Perrizo, Mitch G; Ferris, David G; Oda, Robert P; Rockwood, Gary A; Logue, Brian A

    2012-11-01

    Cyanide is highly toxic and is present in many foods, combustion products (e.g. cigarette smoke), industrial processes, and has been used as a terrorist weapon. In this study, cyanide and its major metabolites, thiocyanate and 2-amino-2-thiazoline-4-carboxylic acid (ATCA), were analyzed from various human biofluids of smokers (low-level chronic cyanide exposure group) and non-smokers to gain insight into the relationship of these biomarkers to cyanide exposure. The concentrations of each biomarker tested were elevated for smokers in each biofluid. Significant differences (p cyanide exposure, and other statistical methods were performed to better understand the relationship between cyanide and its metabolites. Of the markers studied, the results indicate plasma ATCA, in particular, showed excellent promise as a biomarker for chronic low-level cyanide exposure.

  20. E-Cigarette Awareness, Perceptions and Use among Community-Recruited Smokers in Hong Kong.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Ping Wang

    Full Text Available Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes are being increasingly used. We examined the correlates associated with e-cigarette awareness, use and perceived effectiveness in smoking cessation among Chinese daily smokers in Hong Kong.Daily smokers (N = 1,307 were recruited to a community-based randomised controlled trial ('Quit to Win' in 2014. Socio-demographic characteristics, conventional cigarette smoking status, nicotine addiction level, quit attempts, quit intention, e-cigarette awareness, use and perceived effectiveness on quitting were reported at baseline and 1-week follow-up. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with e-cigarette awareness, use and perceived effectiveness in quitting.Most smokers (82.6%, 95% CI 80.2%-84.9% had heard about e-cigarettes, and 13.3% (11.3%-15.5% ever used e-cigarettes. Most users (74.1% and non-users (91.2% did not perceive e-cigarettes as effective in quitting. Being younger and having a larger family income were associated with e-cigarette awareness. Being younger, a tertiary education and a stronger addiction to nicotine were associated with e-cigarette use, which was itself associated with lower levels of intention to quit and had no association with attempts to quit (P for trend 0.45. E-cigarette use, the last quit attempt being a month earlier, having made a quit attempt lasting 24 hours or longer and perceiving quitting as important were all associated with the perceived effectiveness of e-cigarettes in quitting (all P <0.05.Among community-recruited smokers who intended to quit, awareness of e-cigarettes was high, but most did not perceive e-cigarettes as effective in quitting. Correlates concerning e-cigarette perceptions and use will help to inform prospective studies, public education and policy on controlling e-cigarettes.

  1. Salivary Lipid Peroxidation and Total Sialic Acid Levels in Smokers and Smokeless Tobacco Users as Maraş Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naciye Kurtul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Maraş powder (MP, a different type of smokeless tobacco (ST and prepared from a tobacco of species Nicotiana rustica Linn, is widely used in Turkey. We aimed to investigate the effects of MP on salivary total sialic acid (TSA and malondialdehyde (MDA levels and to compare these parameters in smokers and MP users (MPUs. The salivary TSA and MDA concentrations were significantly higher in the smokers and MPU than those of control subjects and also in MPU than that of smokers. We have also observed that as the number of cigarettes consumed and MP amount increases, TSA and MDA levels increase too. In smokers, MDA values were significantly correlated with the number of cigarettes smoked and the duration of smoking. In MPU, both MDA and TSA levels were significantly correlated with the duration of MP use and the amount of daily consumed MP. We have concluded increased salivary TSA and MDA levels associated in MPU and smokers. Results can help to evaluate harmful effects of these habits. It is important to point out that bigger change in the measured parameters has been observed for MP use. This observation may be an important indication of harmful effects of ST use as MP.

  2. Concurrent associations between anxiety sensitivity and perceived health and health disability among young adult daily smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McLeish, A.C.; Zvolensky, M.J.; Smits, J.A.J.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the incremental validity of anxiety sensitivity (fear of arousal-related physical and psychological sensations) relative to health factors (smoking variables, alcohol use and exercise level), in predicting perceived health and disability among a sample

  3. Concurrent associations between anxiety sensitivity and perceived health and health disability among young adult daily smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McLeish, A.C.; Zvolensky, M.J.; Smits, J.A.J.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the incremental validity of anxiety sensitivity (fear of arousal-related physical and psychological sensations) relative to health factors (smoking variables, alcohol use and exercise level), in predicting perceived health and disability among a sample o

  4. Craving, cue reactivity, and stimulus control among early-stage young smokers: effects of smoking intensity and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Matthew J; Saladin, Michael E; Larowe, Steven D; McClure, Erin A; Simonian, Susan; Upadhyaya, Himanshu P; Gray, Kevin M

    2014-02-01

    Smoking initiation usually begins in adolescence, but how and for whom nicotine dependence emerges during this period is unclear. The cue-reactivity paradigm is well suited to examine one marker of dependence: craving-related stimulus control, i.e., the ability of environmental cues to elicit craving to smoke. This study examined the effects of both level of smoking involvement (daily vs. occasional smoking) and gender on reactivity to both smoking and alcohol cues. Young (age range 16-20; 42% female) daily (n = 55) and occasional (n = 52) smokers were exposed to each of three counterbalanced cues: (a) in vivo smoking (e.g., sight, smell, lighting of cigarette), (b) alcohol (e.g., opening, pouring, and smell of preferred beverage), and (c) neutral cue. Daily smokers exhibited higher levels of tonic (i.e., noncue-elicited) craving than did occasional smokers. Both groups showed significant increases in craving in response to cues (i.e., cue-elicited craving), with little evidence that cue-elicited craving differed between groups. Females were more cue reactive to both the alcohol and smoking cues than males, particularly for the positively reinforced aspects of smoking (i.e., hedonic craving). There were no gender × group interaction effects in response to either the alcohol or the smoking cue. Findings show the presence of cue-elicited craving even among occasional smokers and are consistent with literature demonstrating heightened sensitivity to environmental cues among females. Cue-elicited craving may be one mechanism that contributes to the maintenance of smoking behavior and perhaps to the development of nicotine dependence within early stage smokers.

  5. Analsysis of frequency of tuberculosis in smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Škodrić-Trifunović Vesna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Smoking and tuberculosis are among the most important problems of public health. Smoking and tuberculosis are responsible for 5 million and 2 million deaths per year, respectively, whereas smoking is responsible for half a million deaths in patients with tuberculosis. Discussion and Review of Literature. Nicotine is a significant suppressor of function of macrophages, dendritic cells and T-cells, which explains the immunosuppressive features of smoking that help develop the infection. Tobacco smoke contains many substances with immunomodulatory effects, including nicotine, carbon monoxide, acrolein, peroxynitrite and many others. The dominant immune and pathophysiological mechanism is the reduction of synthesis of tumor necrosis factor in lung macrophages, leading to increased susceptibility of persons who are exposed to tobacco smoke for developing active tuberculosis after infection and increased susceptibility to the development of other infections, such as infections of Gram-negative bacteria. Based on epidemiological studies and studies on this problem in the past 50 years, the World Health Organization has published the finding that smoking increases the risk of infection with M. tuberculosis, increases the risk of progression of infection to active disease and the risk of death. The prevalence of tuberculosis is higher in smokers and former smokers than in nonsmokers. The risk of tuberculosis depends on the number of cigarettes smoked and length of period the person has been a smoker. Passive smoking accelerates the development of active tuberculosis. in children who live with persons suffering from active tuberculosis, Conclusion. Given the multiple consequences of the association between smoking and tuberculosis, prevention of smoking may be an important measure in the control of tuberculosis. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175046 i br. 175081

  6. Fundamental frequency and voice perturbation measures in smokers and non-smokers: An acoustic and perceptual study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Allison

    This research examined the fundamental frequency and perturbation (jitter % and shimmer %) measures in young adult (20-30 year-old) and middle-aged adult (40-55 year-old) smokers and non-smokers; there were 36 smokers and 36 non-smokers. Acoustic analysis was carried out utilizing one task: production of sustained /a/. These voice samples were analyzed utilizing Multi-Dimensional Voice Program (MDVP) software, which provided values for fundamental frequency, jitter %, and shimmer %.These values were analyzed for trends regarding smoking status, age, and gender. Statistical significance was found regarding the fundamental frequency, jitter %, and shimmer % for smokers as compared to non-smokers; smokers were found to have significantly lower fundamental frequency values, and significantly higher jitter % and shimmer % values. Statistical significance was not found regarding fundamental frequency, jitter %, and shimmer % for age group comparisons. With regard to gender, statistical significance was found regarding fundamental frequency; females were found to have statistically higher fundamental frequencies as compared to males. However, the relationships between gender and jitter % and shimmer % lacked statistical significance. These results indicate that smoking negatively affects voice quality. This study also examined the ability of untrained listeners to identify smokers and non-smokers based on their voices. Results of this voice perception task suggest that listeners are not accurately able to identify smokers and non-smokers, as statistical significance was not reached. However, despite a lack of significance, trends in data suggest that listeners are able to utilize voice quality to identify smokers and non-smokers.

  7. Project Exhale: preliminary evaluation of a tailored smoking cessation treatment for HIV-positive African American smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Alicia K; Conrad, Megan; Kuhns, Lisa; Vargas, Maria; King, Andrea C

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the feasibility, acceptability, and outcomes of a culturally tailored smoking cessation intervention for HIV-positive African American male smokers. Eligible smokers were enrolled in a seven-session group-based treatment combined with nicotine patch. The mean age of participants was M=46 years. The majority were daily smokers (71%), smoked a mentholated brand (80%), and averaged 8.6 (standard deviation [SD]=8.1) cigarettes per day. Baseline nicotine dependency scores (M=5.8) indicated a moderate to high degree of physical dependence. Of the 31 participants enrolled, the majority completed treatment (≥3 sessions; 68%), 1-month follow-up (74%), and 3-month follow-up (87%) interviews. Program acceptability scores were strong. However, adherence to the patch was low, with 39% reporting daily patch use. The majority of participants (80%, n=24) made a quit attempt. Furthermore, over the course of the intervention, smoking urge, cigarettes smoked, nicotine dependence, withdrawal symptoms, and depression scores all significantly decreased. Follow-up quit rates at 1 and 3 months ranged from 6% to 24%, with treatment completers having better outcomes. This first of its kind intervention for HIV-positive African American male smokers was feasible, acceptable, and showed benefit for reducing smoking behaviors and depression scores. Smoking cessation outcomes were on par with other similar programs. A larger trial is needed to address limitations and to confirm benefits.

  8. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PULMONARY FUNCTION IN DIFFERENT TYPES OF SMOKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Majeed

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES The aim and objective of this study is to compare the pulmonary function variables with the help of spirometer among beedi smokers, cigarette smokers and subjects who smoked both beedi and cigarette. BACKGROUND Smoking is a major public health problem and a major cause of many preventable diseases and premature deaths all over the world. Pulmonary function variables will differ based on the type of smoking i.e. Beedi smokers, cigarette smokers, subjects who smoked both beedi and cigarette. METHODS Cross sectional study done on 90 male smokers attending the Pulmonary Outpatient Department of Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Hospital. Spirometry was done to assess the pulmonary function. CONCLUSION Pulmonary function values showed significant reduction in beedi smokers than people who smoke both beedi and cigarette, followed by subjects who smoked cigarette alone.

  9. MRO SOW Daily Script

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Forest E.; Khanampornpan, Teerapat; Gladden, Roy E.

    2008-01-01

    The MRO SOW daily script (wherein "MRO" signifies "Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter" and "SOW" signifies "sequence systems engineer of the week") is a computer program that automates portions of the MRO daily SOW procedure, which includes checking file-system sizes and automated sequence processor (ASP) log files. The MRO SOW daily script effects clear reporting of (1) the status of, and requirements imposed on, the file system and (2) the ASP log files.

  10. Oral exfoliative cytology in female reverse smokers having stomatitis nicotina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, C R; Sarma, P R; Kameswari, V R

    1975-01-01

    1. The Karyopyknotic index of the palatal and lingual mucosa is increased in female reverse smokers when compared to non-smoking females. 2. The Karyopyknotic index of the buccal mucosa did not show any change in female reverse smokers when compared to non-smoking females. 3. The Karyopyknotic index did not show any change with age in the non-smoking females. 4. Very few cases show epithelial atypia in palatal smears from female reverse smokers having stomatitis nicotina.

  11. Young adult smokers' neural response to graphic cigarette warning labels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam E. Green

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: In this sample of young adult smokers, GWLs promoted neural activation in brain regions involved in cognitive and affective decision-making and memory formation and the effects of GWLs did not differ on branded or plain cigarette packaging. These findings complement other recent neuroimaging GWL studies conducted with older adult smokers and with adolescents by demonstrating similar patterns of neural activation in response to GWLs among young adult smokers.

  12. Smokers with MS have greater decrements in quality of life and disability than non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Farren Bs; Gunzler, Douglas D; Ontaneda, Daniel; Marrie, Ruth Ann

    2017-01-01

    Tobacco smoke plays a pathogenic role in multiple sclerosis (MS) and may accelerate disease progression, yet, some people with MS continue to smoke after disease onset. The average smoker reports diminished health-related quality of life (HRQOL) across many populations. To describe the relationships between smoking status and HRQOL, disease activity, and global disability in a US population with MS. We compared smokers to non-smokers in 950 responders to the Spring 2014 update survey completed by North American Research Committee on Multiple Sclerosis (NARCOMS) registry participants. HRQOL was assessed using Short Form-12 version 2 (SF-12v2), disease activity was investigated using eight Performance Scales (PS) and three Functionality Scales (FS). Global disability was evaluated using Patient Determined Disease Steps (PDDS) and an item response theory (IRT) summed score based on the PS and FS. Smokers had lower HRQOL ( p disability ( p = 2 × 10(-7)). Active smoking is meaningfully associated with deficits across multiple domains in people with MS and adds to the growing literature of the need for MS-tailored smoking cessation programs.

  13. Perceived pros and cons of smoking and quitting in hard-core smokers: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bommelé, Jeroen; Schoenmakers, Tim M; Kleinjan, Marloes; van Straaten, Barbara; Wits, Elske; Snelleman, Michelle; van de Mheen, Dike

    2014-02-18

    In the last decade, so-called hard-core smokers have received increasing interest in research literature. For smokers in general, the study of perceived costs and benefits (or 'pros and cons') of smoking and quitting is of particular importance in predicting motivation to quit and actual quitting attempts. Therefore, this study aims to gain insight into the perceived pros and cons of smoking and quitting in hard-core smokers. We conducted 11 focus group interviews among current hard-core smokers (n = 32) and former hard-core smokers (n = 31) in the Netherlands. Subsequently, each participant listed his or her main pros and cons in a questionnaire. We used a structural procedure to analyse the data obtained from the group interviews and from the questionnaires. Using the qualitative data of both the questionnaires and the transcripts, the perceived pros and cons of smoking and smoking cessation were grouped into 6 main categories: Finance, Health, Intrapersonal Processes, Social Environment, Physical Environment and Food and Weight. Although the perceived pros and cons of smoking in hard-core smokers largely mirror the perceived pros and cons of quitting, there are some major differences with respect to weight, social integration, health of children and stress reduction, that should be taken into account in clinical settings and when developing interventions. Based on these findings we propose the 'Distorted Mirror Hypothesis'.

  14. Observational study of safety and efficacy of varenicline for smoking cessation among Filipino smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Peter W; Casiano, Errol M; Escoto, Laarni; Claveria, Angelica M

    2011-10-01

    Varenicline, an α4β2 receptor nicotinic receptor partial agonist, is known to be an effective aid for smoking cessation. To date, few observational studies of varenicline have been conducted. This prospective, non-interventional, post-marketing surveillance study (NCT00794365) was designed to monitor the efficacy and safety of varenicline for 12 weeks in Filipino smokers who were motivated to quit. This study was conducted between July 2, 2008, and November 23, 2009, in 70 centers throughout the Philippines. Participants were adult smokers who were prescribed varenicline (0.5 mg orally once daily, days 1 to 3; 0.5 mg twice daily, days 4 to 7; 1 mg twice daily for the remainder of a 12-week treatment period) for the first time. Participants made five clinic visits (weeks 0, 1, 4, 8, and 12). Adverse events (AEs) were recorded at each clinic visit and up to 28 days after administration of the last study treatment. Seven-day point prevalence of smoking cessation was measured at weeks 4, 8, and 12. A total of 330 participants were enrolled into the study, of whom 251 (76.1%) completed the study. At the end of week 12, 57.6% (95% confidence interval, 52.0, 63.0) of participants had been abstinent for the previous 7 days. The most frequently reported AEs were headache (5.5%), dizziness (3.9%), and nausea (3.6%). Ten participants (3.0%) permanently discontinued varenicline treatment due to AEs, and 13 (3.9%) reduced their varenicline dose or discontinued treatment temporarily due to AEs. There were no reports of any serious AEs, deaths, suicidal ideation, or behavior. The results of this study in adult Filipino smokers prescribed varenicline for the first time during routine clinical practice demonstrate that varenicline was well tolerated and efficacious as an aid for smoking cessation.

  15. Community-acquired pneumonia among smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almirall, Jordi; Blanquer, José; Bello, Salvador

    2014-06-01

    Recent studies have left absolutely no doubt that tobacco increases susceptibility to bacterial lung infection, even in passive smokers. This relationship also shows a dose-response effect, since the risk reduces spectacularly 10 years after giving up smoking, returning to the level of non-smokers. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the causative microorganism responsible for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) most frequently associated with smoking, particularly in invasive pneumococcal disease and septic shock. It is not clear how it acts on the progress of pneumonia, but there is evidence to suggest that the prognosis for pneumococcal pneumonia is worse. In CAP caused by Legionella pneumophila, it has also been observed that smoking is the most important risk factor, with the risk rising 121% for each pack of cigarettes smoked a day. Tobacco use may also favor diseases that are also known risk factors for CAP, such as periodontal disease and upper respiratory viral infections. By way of prevention, while giving up smoking should always be proposed, the use of the pneumococcal vaccine is also recommended, regardless of the presence of other comorbidities. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Association between anxiety, obesity and periodontal disease in smokers and non-smokers: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhay P. Kolte

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Psychological stress is known to be a relevant risk factor for many inflammatory conditions, including periodontal disease. A few studies have probed the relationship between obesity and periodontal disease. Therefore this cross-sectional study was aimed to examine the relationship between psychological stress and obesity and periodontal disease in smokers and non-smokers. Methods. The participants included 90 patients, equally divided into three groups of non-smokers and periodontally healthy, non-smokers and smokers with untreated moderate-to-severe chronic periodontitis. Socioeconomic data, psychosocial measurements, physical parameters and clinical findings of PPD, CAL, PI and GI were recorded. Results. The clinical parameters were assessed for three groups in three different anxiety levels of mild, moderate and se-vere. Intra-group comparison of PPD and CAL in the three anxiety levels showed increased periodontal destruction with an increase in anxiety levels, the results being statistically highly significant for PPD differences in smokers (P < 0.0001. The mean differences in PPD and CAL in severe anxiety levels between smokers and non-smokers were 0.68 mm and 0.70 mm and both the findings were statistically significant. The mean PPD and CAL in smoker and non-smoker groups in obese patients was higher as compared to non-obese patients and the differences were highly significant (P < 0.001. Conclusion. The results of our study indicated a positive and strong correlation between anxiety, obesity and periodontal disease in smokers and non-smokers. Smoking appears to further attenuate this association.

  17. Quit Attempt Correlates among Smokers by Race/Ethnicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Teplinskaya

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cigarette smoking is the leading preventable cause of premature deaths in the U.S., accounting for approximately 443,000 deaths annually. Although smoking prevalence in recent decades has declined substantially among all racial/ethnic groups, disparities in smoking-related behaviors among racial/ethnic groups continue to exist. Two of the goals of Healthy People 2020 are to reduce smoking prevalence among adults to 12% or less and to increase smoking cessation attempts by adult smokers from 41% to 80%. Our study assesses whether correlates of quit attempts vary by race/ethnicity among adult (≥18 years smokers in the U.S. Understanding racial/ethnic differences in how both internal and external factors affect quit attempts is important for targeting smoking-cessation interventions to decrease tobacco-use disparities. Methods: We used 2003 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (CPS data from 16,213 adults to examine whether the relationship between demographic characteristics, smoking behaviors, smoking policies and having made a quit attempt in the past year varied by race/ethnicity. Results: Hispanics and persons of multiple races were more likely to have made a quit attempt than whites. Overall, younger individuals and those with >high school education, who smoked fewer cigarettes per day and had smoked for fewer years were more likely to have made a quit attempt. Having a smoke-free home, receiving a doctor’s advice to quit, smoking menthol cigarettes and having a greater time to when you smoked your first cigarette of the day were also associated with having made a quit attempt. The relationship between these four variables and quit attempts varied by race/ethnicity; most notably receiving a doctor’s advice was not related to quit attempts among Asian American/Pacific Islanders and menthol use among whites was associated with a lower prevalence of quit attempts while black menthol users were more likely

  18. Increased long-term recreational physical activity is associated with older age at natural menopause among heavy smokers: the California Teachers Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emaus, Aina; Dieli-Conwright, Christina; Xu, Xinxin; Lacey, James V.; Ingles, Sue A.; Reynolds, Peggy; Bernstein, Leslie; Henderson, Katherine D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Although physical activity modulates the hypothalamic-ovarian-pituitary axis, the few studies investigating whether physical activity is associated with age at natural menopause have had mixed results. We set out to determine whether physical activity is associated with the timing of natural menopause in a large cohort of California women, overall, and by smoking history. Methods We investigated the association between long-term physical activity (hours/week/year) and age at natural menopause among 97,945 women in the California Teachers Study. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression methods were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The impact of cigarette smoking (never smoker, former-light smoker, former-heavy smoker, current-light smoker, current-heavy smoker) as an effect modifier was evaluated. Results In a multivariable model adjusting for body mass index at age 18, age at menarche, race/ethnicity, and age at first full-term pregnancy, increased physical activity was statistically significantly associated with older age at natural menopause (ptrend=0.005). Higher body mass index at age 18 (ptrend=0.0003) and older age at menarche (ptrend=0.0003) were also associated with older age at natural menopause. Hispanic ethnicity (vs. non-Hispanic whites, HR 1.17, 95% CI 1.09–1.26), current smokers (vs. never smokers, HR 1.68, 95% CI 1.60–1.75 for current-light smokers; HR 1.38, 95% CI 1.33–1.44 for current-heavy smokers) and older age at first full-term pregnancy (HR≥29, 2+ full-term pregnancies vs. <29, 2+ full-term pregnancies 1.10, 95% CI 1.06–1.14) were associated with earlier age at natural menopause. Upon stratification by smoking history, increased physical activity was statistically significantly associated with older natural menopause among heavy smokers only (HRHighest vs. Lowest quartile 0.88, 95% CI 0.81–0.97, ptrend=0.02 for former-heavy smokers; HRHighest vs. Lowest quartile 0.89, 95

  19. Increased long-term recreational physical activity is associated with older age at natural menopause among heavy smokers: the California Teachers Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emaus, Aina; Dieli-Conwright, Christina; Xu, Xinxin; Lacey, James V; Ingles, Sue A; Reynolds, Peggy; Bernstein, Leslie; Henderson, Katherine D

    2013-03-01

    Although physical activity modulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, the few studies that have investigated whether physical activity is associated with age at natural menopause have yielded mixed results. We set out to determine whether physical activity is associated with the timing of natural menopause in a large cohort of California women overall and by smoking history. We investigated the association between long-term physical activity (h/wk/y) and age at natural menopause among 97,945 women in the California Teachers Study. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression methods were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The impact of cigarette smoking (never smoker, former light smoker, former heavy smoker, current light smoker, and current heavy smoker) as an effect modifier was evaluated. In a multivariable model adjusted for body mass index at age 18 years, age at menarche, race/ethnicity, and age at first full-term pregnancy, increased physical activity was statistically significantly associated with older age at natural menopause (P(trend) = 0.005). Higher body mass index at age 18 years (P(trend) = 0.0003) and older age at menarche (P(trend) = 0.0003) were also associated with older age at natural menopause. Hispanic ethnicity (vs non-Hispanic whites; HR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.09-1.26), current smokers (vs never smokers; HR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.60-1.75 for current light smokers; HR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.33-1.44 for current heavy smokers), and older age at first full-term pregnancy (HR(≥29, 2+ full-term pregnancies) vs HR(menopause. Upon stratification by smoking history, increased physical activity was statistically significantly associated with older age at natural menopause among heavy smokers only (HR(highest quartile) vs HR(lowest quartile), 0.88; 95% CI, 0.81-0.97; P(trend) = 0.02 for former heavy smokers; HR(highest quartile) vs HR(lowest quartile), 0.89; 95% CI, 0.80-0.99; P(trend) = 0.04 for current heavy

  20. Comparative Study of Peak Expiratory Flow Rate and Maximum Voluntary Ventilation Between Smokers and Non-Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karia Ritesh M

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Objectives of this study is to study effect of smoking on Peak Expiratory Flow Rate and Maximum Voluntary Ventilation in apparently healthy tobacco smokers and non-smokers and to compare the result of both the studies to assess the effects of smoking Method: The present study was carried out by computerized software of Pulmonary Function Test named ‘Spiro Excel’ on 50 non-smokers and 50 smokers. Smokers are divided in three gropus. Full series of test take 4 to 5 minutes. Tests were compared in the both smokers and non-smokers group by the ‘unpaired t test’. Statistical significance was indicated by ‘p’ value < 0.05. Results: From the result it is found that actual value of Peak Expiratory Flow Rate and Maximum Voluntary Ventilation are significantly lower in all smokers group than non-smokers. The difference of actual mean value is increases as the degree of smoking increases. [National J of Med Res 2012; 2(2.000: 191-193

  1. Determination of a saliva cotinine cut-off to distinguish pregnant smokers from pregnant non-smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F

    2007-01-01

    Objective validation of smoking status is necessary. Earlier studies have used saliva cotinine concentrations between 14.2 and 30 ng/ml as cut-off values to distinguish pregnant smokers from non-smokers. However, these cut-offs derive from studies including men and non-pregnant women. This consti......Objective validation of smoking status is necessary. Earlier studies have used saliva cotinine concentrations between 14.2 and 30 ng/ml as cut-off values to distinguish pregnant smokers from non-smokers. However, these cut-offs derive from studies including men and non-pregnant women...

  2. Factors affecting exposure to nicotine and carbon monoxide in adult cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad-Kah, Raheema; Liang, Qiwei; Frost-Pineda, Kimberly; Mendes, Paul E; Roethig, Hans J; Sarkar, Mohamadi

    2011-10-01

    Exposure to cigarette smoke among smokers is highly variable. This variability has been attributed to differences in smoking behavior as measured by smoking topography, as well as other behavioral and subjective aspects of smoking. The objective of this study was to determine the factors affecting smoke exposure as estimated by biomarkers of exposure to nicotine and carbon monoxide (CO). In a multi-center cross-sectional study of 3585 adult smokers and 1077 adult nonsmokers, exposure to nicotine and CO was estimated by 24h urinary excretion of nicotine and five of its metabolites and by blood carboxyhemoglobin, respectively. Number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD) was determined from cigarette butts returned. Puffing parameters were determined through a CreSS® micro device and a 182-item adult smoker questionnaire (ASQ) was administered. The relationship between exposure and demographic factors, smoking machine measured tar yield and CPD was examined in a statistical model (Model A). Topography parameters were added to this model (Model B) which was further expanded (Model C) by adding selected questions from the ASQ identified by a data reduction process. In all the models, CPD was the most important and highest ranking factor determining daily exposure. Other statistically significant factors were number of years smoked, questions related to morning smoking, topography and tar yield categories. In conclusion, the models investigated in this analysis, explain about 30-40% of variability in exposure to nicotine and CO.

  3. Anxiety and Depressed Mood Decline Following Smoking Abstinence in Adult Smokers with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covey, Lirio S; Hu, Mei-Chen; Winhusen, Theresa; Lima, Jennifer; Berlin, Ivan; Nunes, Edward

    2015-12-01

    A preponderance of relevant research has indicated reduction in anxiety and depressive symptoms following smoking abstinence. This secondary analysis investigated whether the phenomenon extends to smokers with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The study setting was an 11-Week double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial of osmotic release oral system methylphenidate (OROS-MPH) as a cessation aid when added to nicotine patch and counseling. Participants were 255 adult smokers with ADHD. The study outcomes are: anxiety (Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI)) and depressed mood (Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI)) measured one Week and six Weeks after a target quit day (TQD). The main predictor is point-prevalence abstinence measured at Weeks 1 and 6 after TQD. Covariates are treatment (OROS-MPH vs placebo), past major depression, past anxiety disorder, number of cigarettes smoked daily, demographics (age, gender, education, marital status) and baseline scores on the BAI, BDI, and the DSM-IV ADHD Rating Scale. Abstinence was significantly associated with lower anxiety ratings throughout the post-quit period (panxiety (pAnxiety and depression ratings at baseline predicted increased ratings of corresponding measures during the post-quit period. Stopping smoking yielded reductions in anxiety and depressed mood in smokers with ADHD treated with nicotine patch and counseling. Treatment with OROS-MPH yielded mood reductions in delayed manner. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Perception and intentions to quit among waterpipe smokers in Qatar: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaam, M; Al-Marridi, W; Fares, H; Izham, M; Kheir, N; Awaisu, A

    2016-03-21

    To evaluate the perceptions and attitudes of waterpipe (shisha) smokers in Qatar regarding the health risks associated with addiction and to determine their intentions to quit. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 181 self-reported waterpipe smokers. Participants were approached in public places as well as in shisha cafes in Qatar. The questionnaire included items related to perception, attitude and intention to quit. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were performed for data analyses, with P ≤ 0.05 considered statistically significant. About 44% of the respondents believed that waterpipe smoking was safer than cigarette smoking, and more than 70% would not mind if their children became involved in waterpipe smoking. More than half of the current smokers wanted to quit smoking shisha at some point, and 17% identified health concerns as the main motivating factor for their intention to quit. A large proportion of shisha smokers viewed shisha as a safer alternative to cigarettes, yet they admitted to intending to quit. These findings underscore the need to design educational interventions and awareness campaigns as well as impose stringent laws on waterpipe smoking in public places in Qatar.

  5. Cigarette litter: smokers' attitudes and behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Jessica M; Rubenstein, Rebecca A; Curry, Laurel E; Shank, Sarah E; Cartwright, Julia C

    2012-06-01

    Cigarette butts are consistently the most collected items in litter clean-up efforts, which are a costly burden to local economies. In addition, tobacco waste may be detrimental to our natural environment. The tobacco industry has conducted or funded numerous studies on smokers' littering knowledge and behavior, however, non-industry sponsored research is rare. We sought to examine whether demographics and smokers' knowledge and beliefs toward cigarette waste as litter predicts littering behavior. Smokers aged 18 and older (n = 1,000) were interviewed about their knowledge and beliefs towards cigarette waste as litter. Respondents were members of the Research Now panel, an online panel of over three million respondents in the United States. Multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to determine factors significantly predictive of ever having littered cigarette butts or having littered cigarette butts within the past month (p-value littered cigarette butts at least once in their life, by disposing of them on the ground or throwing them out of a car window. Over half (55.7%) reported disposing of cigarette butts on the ground, in a sewer/gutter, or down a drain in the past month. Those who did not consider cigarette butts to be litter were over three and half times as likely to report having ever littered cigarette butts (OR = 3.68, 95%CI = 2.04, 6.66) and four times as likely to have littered cigarette butts in the past month (OR = 4.00, 95%CI = 2.53, 6.32). Males were significantly more likely to have littered cigarette butts in the past month compared to females (OR = 1.49, 95%CI = 1.14, 1.94). Holding the belief that cigarette butts are not litter was the only belief in this study that predicted ever or past-month littering of cigarette waste. Messages in anti-cigarette-litter campaigns should emphasize that cigarette butts are not just litter but are toxic waste and are harmful when disposed of improperly.

  6. "A cigarette a day keeps the goodies away": smokers show automatic approach tendencies for smoking--but not for food-related stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla Machulska

    tendencies in smokers. Nevertheless, our findings are of special importance for current etiological models and smoking cessation programs aimed at modifying nicotine-related approach tendencies in the context of a nicotine addiction.

  7. Long-term smoking causes more advanced coronary endothelial dysfunction in middle-aged smokers compared to young smokers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naya, Masanao; Goto, Daisuke; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Morita, Koichi; Manabe, Osamu; Hirata, Kenji; Tamaki, Nagara [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Yoshinaga, Keiichiro [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Molecular Imaging, Sapporo (Japan); Katoh, Chietsugu [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Health Science, Sapporo (Japan)

    2011-03-15

    Smoking cessation has been shown to normalize the coronary endothelial dysfunction in healthy young smokers. However, its effect has not been explored in middle-aged smokers with a longer history of smoking. Therefore, we compared the effects of smoking cessation on coronary vasomotor response between both young and middle-aged smokers and identified the predictor for its improvement. This study investigated 14 young healthy smokers (age 25.2 {+-} 2.3 years), 13 middle-aged smokers (age 42.0 {+-} 6.5 years) and 10 non-smokers. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was measured by using {sup 15}O-water positron emission tomography (PET). At baseline, the ratio of MBF during the cold pressor test (CPT) to that at rest (MBF{sub CPT/rest}), the index of coronary endothelial function, was significantly decreased in both young and middle-aged smokers compared to non-smokers (1.24 {+-} 0.20 and 1.10 {+-} 0.39 vs 1.53 {+-} 0.18, p < 0.05 and p < 0.001, respectively). The ratio of MBF during adenosine triphosphate infusion to that at rest was significantly decreased in middle-aged smokers compared to young smokers and non-smokers (3.34 {+-} 1.52 vs 4.43 {+-} 0.92 and 4.69 {+-} 1.25, p < 0.05, respectively). MBF{sub CPT/rest} at 1 month after smoking cessation significantly increased in young smokers, but not in middle-aged smokers. By multivariate analysis, baseline serum malondialdehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein (MDA-LDL) was an independent predictor for the changes in MBF{sub CPT/rest} after smoking cessation ({beta} = -0.45, p < 0.05). Coronary endothelial dysfunction was reversible by short-term smoking cessation in young smokers, but not in middle-aged smokers, which was associated with serum MDA-LDL levels. Long-term smoking exposure could lead to more advanced coronary endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis possibly via oxidative stress. (orig.)

  8. Impact of supragingival therapy on subgingival microbial profile in smokers versus non-smokers with severe chronic periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Meulman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess subgingival microbiological changes in smokers versus non-smokers presenting severe chronic periodontitis after supragingival periodontal therapy (ST.Non-smokers (n=10 and smokers (n=10 presenting at least nine teeth with probing pocket depth (PPD (≥5 mm, bleeding on probing (BoP, and no history of periodontal treatment in the last 6 months were selected. Clinical parameters assessed were plaque index (PI, BoP, PPD, relative gingival margin position (rGMP and relative clinical attachment level (rCAL. Subgingival biofilm was collected before and 21 days after ST. DNA was extracted and the 16S rRNA gene was amplified with the universal primer pair, 27F and 1492R. Amplified genes were cloned, sequenced, and identified by comparison with known 16S rRNA sequences. Statistical analysis was performed by Student's t and Chi-Square tests (α=5%.Clinically, ST promoted a significant reduction in PI and PPD, and gain of rCAL for both groups, with no significant intergroup difference. Microbiologically, at baseline, data analysis demonstrated that smokers harbored a higher proportion of Porphyromonas endodontalis, Bacteroidetes sp., Fusobacterium sp. and Tannerella forsythia and a lower number of cultivated phylotypes (p<0.05. Furthermore, non-smokers featured significant reductions in key phylotypes associated with periodontitis, whereas smokers presented more modest changes.Within the limits of the present study, ST promoted comparable clinical improvements in smokers and non-smokers with severe chronic periodontitis. However, in smokers, ST only slightly affected the subgingival biofilm biodiversity, as compared with non-smokers.

  9. Beliefs and perceptions toward quitting waterpipe smoking among cafe waterpipe tobacco smokers in Bahrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgan, Saif M; Marhoon, Zaid A; Whitford, David L

    2013-11-01

    There is a rising prevalence of waterpipe smoking worldwide, but still a paucity of information on perceptions toward quitting waterpipe use. We set out to establish the beliefs and perceptions of café waterpipe smokers toward quitting waterpipe smoking in the Kingdom of Bahrain. A cross-sectional study. A random sample of 20 of 91 cafés serving waterpipe tobacco in Bahrain was taken. A questionnaire was administered in each café to 20 participants aged 18 and above. Three hundred eighty participants completed questionnaires from waterpipe smokers. Eighty-four percent of participants were Bahraini and 71% had a university degree. Mean age was 28.9 years. Average age of waterpipe smoking initiation was 20.3 years. The majority of waterpipe users chose flavored tobacco. Sixty-one percent smoked waterpipe tobacco daily with a mean smoking time of 2.6hr/day. Seventy-two percent considered waterpipe tobacco as harmful as or more harmful than cigarettes, but 67% considered cigarettes as more addictive. Eighty-two percent stated that they could quit waterpipe at any time, but only 40% were interested in quitting. Interest in quitting smoking was related to 4 variables: a physician mentioning the need to quit smoking, being non-Bahraini, having a family with a hostile attitude toward waterpipe smoking, and not considering oneself "hooked" on waterpipe tobacco. Waterpipe smokers in Bahrain cafés are frequent and high users. Health professionals must consider waterpipe smoking in all consultations and health promotion messages. A partnership between health professionals and disapproving members of families may be an effective strategy in encouraging waterpipe smokers to quit.

  10. Blood Pressure Control in Smokers with Arterial Hypertension Who Switched to Electronic Cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Polosa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Electronic cigarettes (ECs are battery-operated devices designed to vaporise nicotine, which may help smokers with quitting or reducing their tobacco consumption. No data is available regarding the health effects of ECs use among smokers with arterial hypertension and whether regular use results in blood pressure (BP changes. We investigated long-term changes in resting BP and level of BP control in hypertensive smokers who quit or reduced substantially their tobacco consumption by switching to ECs. A medical records review of patients with hypertension was conducted to identify patients reporting regular daily use of ECs on at least two consecutive follow-up visits. Regularly smoking hypertensive patients were included as a reference group. A marked reduction in cigarette consumption was observed in ECs users (n = 43 though consumption remained unchanged in the control group (n = 46. Compared to baseline, at 12 months (follow-up visit 2 decline in cigarette consumption was associated with significant reductions in median (25th-, 75th-centile systolic BP (140 (134.5, 144 to 130 (123.5, 138.5 mmHg; p < 0.001 and diastolic BP (86 (78, 90 to 80 (74.5, 90 mmHg; p = 0.006. No significant changes were observed in the control group. As expected, decline in cigarette consumption in the ECs users was also associated with improved BP control. The study concludes that regular ECs use may aid smokers with arterial hypertension reduce or abstain from cigarette smoking, with only trivial post-cessation weight gain. This resulted in improvements in systolic and diastolic BP as well as better BP control.

  11. Blood Pressure Control in Smokers with Arterial Hypertension Who Switched to Electronic Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polosa, Riccardo; Morjaria, Jaymin B.; Caponnetto, Pasquale; Battaglia, Eliana; Russo, Cristina; Ciampi, Claudio; Adams, George; Bruno, Cosimo M.

    2016-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (ECs) are battery-operated devices designed to vaporise nicotine, which may help smokers with quitting or reducing their tobacco consumption. No data is available regarding the health effects of ECs use among smokers with arterial hypertension and whether regular use results in blood pressure (BP) changes. We investigated long-term changes in resting BP and level of BP control in hypertensive smokers who quit or reduced substantially their tobacco consumption by switching to ECs. A medical records review of patients with hypertension was conducted to identify patients reporting regular daily use of ECs on at least two consecutive follow-up visits. Regularly smoking hypertensive patients were included as a reference group. A marked reduction in cigarette consumption was observed in ECs users (n = 43) though consumption remained unchanged in the control group (n = 46). Compared to baseline, at 12 months (follow-up visit 2) decline in cigarette consumption was associated with significant reductions in median (25th-, 75th-centile) systolic BP (140 (134.5, 144) to 130 (123.5, 138.5) mmHg; p < 0.001) and diastolic BP (86 (78, 90) to 80 (74.5, 90) mmHg; p = 0.006). No significant changes were observed in the control group. As expected, decline in cigarette consumption in the ECs users was also associated with improved BP control. The study concludes that regular ECs use may aid smokers with arterial hypertension reduce or abstain from cigarette smoking, with only trivial post-cessation weight gain. This resulted in improvements in systolic and diastolic BP as well as better BP control. PMID:27845734

  12. Leukokeratosis nicotina glossi-smokers' tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farman, A G; Van Wyk, C W

    1977-12-01

    "Leukokeratosis nicotina glossi" or "smokers' tongue" is a homogeneous leukoplakia with evenly distributed pin-point hemispherical depressions. Histologically, there is a loss of glossal papillae, hyperkeratosis, acanthosis and the formation of large drop-shaped rete pegs with central clefting and occasional parakeratotic plugging. Mitotic activity and atypia are not marked and there is no evidence of Candida species infection. In some respects the lesion histologically resembles verrucous carcinoma but, unlike that condition, papillomatosis is not clinically noticeable and an invasive "leading edge" is not apparent. All but one of the subjects in which the lesion was seen were men, all had concurrent leukokeratosis nicotina palati and two gave histories of laryngeal carcinoma.

  13. Automatic Smoker Detection from Telephone Speech Signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alavijeh, Amir Hossein Poorjam; Hesaraki, Soheila; Safavi, Saeid

    2017-01-01

    on Gaussian mixture model means and weights respectively. Each framework is evaluated using different classification algorithms to detect the smoker speakers. Finally, score-level fusion of the i-vector-based and the NFA-based recognizers is considered to improve the classification accuracy. The proposed......This paper proposes an automatic smoking habit detection from spontaneous telephone speech signals. In this method, each utterance is modeled using i-vector and non-negative factor analysis (NFA) frameworks, which yield low-dimensional representation of utterances by applying factor analysis...... method is evaluated on telephone speech signals of speakers whose smoking habits are known drawn from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) 2008 and 2010 Speaker Recognition Evaluation databases. Experimental results over 1194 utterances show the effectiveness of the proposed approach...

  14. μ suppression as an indicator of activation of the perceptual-motor system by smoking-related cues in smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickter, Cheryl L; Kieffaber, Paul D; Kittel, Julie A; Forestell, Catherine A

    2013-07-01

    The goal of the current study was to determine whether activation of the mirror neuron system, as measured by mu rhythm desynchronization, varied as a function of image content in smokers compared with nonsmokers. EEG activity was recorded while participants passively viewed images depicting smoking-related and nonsmoking-related stimuli. In half of the images, cues were depicted alone (inactive), while for the remaining images, cues were depicted with humans interacting with them (active). For the nonsmoking stimuli, smokers and nonsmokers showed greater mu suppression to the active cues compared to the inactive cues. However, for the smoking-related stimuli, smokers showed greater perception-action coupling for the active cues as reflected in their enhanced mu suppression, compared to nonsmokers. The results of the current study support the involvement of the perceptual-motor system in the activation of motivated drug use behaviors.

  15. Identification of an autophagy defect in smokers' alveolar macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monick, Martha M; Powers, Linda S; Walters, Katherine; Lovan, Nina; Zhang, Michael; Gerke, Alicia; Hansdottir, Sif; Hunninghake, Gary W

    2010-11-01

    Alveolar macrophages are essential for clearing bacteria from the alveolar surface and preventing microbe-induced infections. It is well documented that smokers have an increased incidence of infections, in particular lung infections. Alveolar macrophages accumulate in smokers' lungs, but they have a functional immune deficit. In this study, we identify an autophagy defect in smokers' alveolar macrophages. Smokers' alveolar macrophages accumulate both autophagosomes and p62, a marker of autophagic flux. The decrease in the process of autophagy leads to impaired protein aggregate clearance, dysfunctional mitochondria, and defective delivery of bacteria to lysosomes. This study identifies the autophagy pathway as a potential target for interventions designed to decrease infection rates in smokers and possibly in individuals with high environmental particulate exposure.

  16. Near-field entrainment in black smoker plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. E.; Germanovich, L. N.; Lowell, R. P.

    2013-12-01

    In this work, we study the entrainment rate of the ambient fluid into a plume in the extreme conditions of hydrothermal venting at ocean floor depths that would be difficult to reproduce in the laboratory. Specifically, we investigate the flow regime in the lower parts of three black smoker plumes in the Main Endeavour Field on the Juan de Fuca Ridge discharging at temperatures of 249°C, 333°C, and 336°C and a pressure of 21 MPa. Such flow conditions are typical for ocean floor hydrothermal venting but would be difficult to reproduce in the laboratory. The centerline temperature was measured at several heights in the plume above the orifice. Using a previously developed turbine flow meter, we also measured the mean flow velocity at the orifice. Measurements were conducted during dives 4452 and 4518 on the submersible Alvin. Using these measurements, we obtained a range of 0.064 - 0.068 for values of the entrainment coefficient α, which is assumed constant near the orifice. This is half the value of α ≈ 0.12 - 0.13 that would be expected for plume flow regimes based on the existing laboratory results and field measurements in lower temperature and pressure conditions. In fact, α = 0.064 - 0.068 is even smaller than the value of α ≈ 0.075 characteristic of jet flow regimes and appears to be the lowest reported in the literature. Assuming that the mean value α = 0.066 is typical for hydrothermal venting at ocean floor depths, we then characterized the flow regimes of 63 black smoker plumes located on the Endeavor Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Work with the obtained data is ongoing, but current results indicate that approximately half of these black smokers are lazy in the sense that their plumes exhibit momentum deficits compared to the pure plume flow that develops as the plume rises. The remaining half produces forced plumes that show the momentum excess compared to the pure plumes. The lower value of the entrainment coefficient has important

  17. Absence of a 'smoker's paradox' in field triaged ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahwala, Usaid K; Murphy, John C; Nelson, Gregory I C; Bhindi, Ravinay

    2013-01-01

    The 'smoker's paradox' refers to the observation of favorable prognosis in current smokers following an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Initial positive findings were in the era of fibrinolysis, with more contemporary studies finding conflicting results. We sought to determine the presence of a 'smoker's paradox' in a cohort of ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) patients identified via field triage, treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI). This was a single center retrospective cohort study identifying consecutive STEMI patients presenting for pPCI via field triage. The primary end points were all cause mortality, major adverse cardiac events (MACE), major bleeding, in-hospital cardiac arrest and length of stay (LOS). A total of 382 patients were included in the study. Current smokers were more likely to be younger (pparadox' does not appear to be relevant among STEMI patients undergoing pPCI, identified via field triage. The previously documented 'smoker's paradox' may have been an indication of patient characteristics and the historical treatment of STEMI with thrombolysis. Further studies with larger numbers may be warranted. © 2013.

  18. DailyMed

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — DailyMed provides high quality information about marketed drugs. This information includes FDA labels (package inserts). This Web site provides health information...

  19. Lightship Daily Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observations taken on board lightships along the United States coasts from 1936 - 1983. Generally 4-6 observations daily. Also includes deck logs, which give...

  20. Daily Weather Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Several different government offices have published the Daily weather maps over its history. The publication has also gone by different names over time. The U.S....

  1. Dementia - daily care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000030.htm Dementia - daily care To use the sharing features on ... prevent choking. Tips for Talking With Someone With Dementia Keep distractions and noise down: Turn off the ...

  2. Similar Squamous Cell Carcinoma Epithelium microRNA Expression in Never Smokers and Ever Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolokythas, Antonia; Zhou, Yalu; Schwartz, Joel L; Adami, Guy R

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of oral tumors in patients who never used mutagenic agents such as tobacco is increasing. In an effort to better understand these tumors we studied microRNA (miRNA) expression in tumor epithelium of never tobacco users, tumor epithelium of ever tobacco users, and nonpathological control oral epithelium. A comparison of levels among 372 miRNAs in 12 never tobacco users with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) versus 10 healthy controls was made using the reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. A similar analysis was done with 8 ever tobacco users with OSCC. These comparisons revealed miR-10b-5p, miR-196a-5p, and miR-31-5p as enriched in the tumor epithelium in OSCC of both never and ever tobacco users. Examination of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project miRNA data on 305 OSCCs and 30 controls revealed 100% of those miRNAs enriched in never smoker OSCCs in this patient group were also enriched in ever smoker OSCCs. Nonsupervised clustering of TCGA OSCCs was suggestive of two or four subgroups of tumors based on miRNA levels with limited evidence for differences in tobacco exposure among the groups. Results from both patient groups together stress the importance of miR196a-5p in OSCC malignancy in both never and ever smokers, and emphasize the overall similarity of miRNA expression in OSCCs in these two risk groups. It implies that there may be great similarity in etiology of OSCC in never and ever smokers and that classifying OSCC based on tobacco exposure may not be helpful in the clinic.

  3. Similar Squamous Cell Carcinoma Epithelium microRNA Expression in Never Smokers and Ever Smokers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Kolokythas

    Full Text Available The incidence of oral tumors in patients who never used mutagenic agents such as tobacco is increasing. In an effort to better understand these tumors we studied microRNA (miRNA expression in tumor epithelium of never tobacco users, tumor epithelium of ever tobacco users, and nonpathological control oral epithelium. A comparison of levels among 372 miRNAs in 12 never tobacco users with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC versus 10 healthy controls was made using the reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. A similar analysis was done with 8 ever tobacco users with OSCC. These comparisons revealed miR-10b-5p, miR-196a-5p, and miR-31-5p as enriched in the tumor epithelium in OSCC of both never and ever tobacco users. Examination of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA project miRNA data on 305 OSCCs and 30 controls revealed 100% of those miRNAs enriched in never smoker OSCCs in this patient group were also enriched in ever smoker OSCCs. Nonsupervised clustering of TCGA OSCCs was suggestive of two or four subgroups of tumors based on miRNA levels with limited evidence for differences in tobacco exposure among the groups. Results from both patient groups together stress the importance of miR196a-5p in OSCC malignancy in both never and ever smokers, and emphasize the overall similarity of miRNA expression in OSCCs in these two risk groups. It implies that there may be great similarity in etiology of OSCC in never and ever smokers and that classifying OSCC based on tobacco exposure may not be helpful in the clinic.

  4. Smartphone Ownership Among US Adult Cigarette Smokers: 2014 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mull, Kristin E

    2017-01-01

    Background Despite increasing interest in smartphone apps as a platform for delivery of tobacco cessation interventions, no previous studies have evaluated the prevalence and characteristics of smokers who can access smartphone-delivered interventions. Objective To guide treatment development in this new platform and to evaluate disparities in access to smartphone-delivered interventions, we examined associations of smartphone ownership with demographics, tobacco use and thoughts about quitting, other health behaviors, physical and mental health, health care access, and Internet and technology utilization using a nationally representative sample of US adult smokers. Methods Data were from the National Cancer Institute’s 2014 Health Information National Trends Survey 4 (HINTS 4), Cycle 4. This mailed survey targeted noninstitutionalized individuals aged 18 years or older using two-stage stratified random sampling. For this analysis, we restricted the sample to current smokers with complete data on smartphone ownership (n=479). Results Nearly two-thirds (weighted percent=63.8%, 248/479) of smokers reported owning a smartphone. Those who were younger (PSmartphone owners did not differ from nonowners on frequency of smoking, recent quit attempts, or future plans to quit smoking, although they reported greater belief in the benefits of quitting (P=.04). Despite being equally likely to be overweight or obese, smartphone owners reported greater fruit and vegetable consumption (P=.03) and were more likely to report past-year efforts to increase exercise (P=.001) and to lose weight (P=.02). No differences in health care access and utilization were found. Smartphone owners reported better physical and mental health in several domains and higher access to and utilization of technology and the Internet, including for health reasons. Conclusions Smartphone ownership among smokers mirrors many trends in the general population, including the overall rate of ownership and the

  5. Autonomous Motivation as a Critical Factor in Self-Efficacy among Rural Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Carla J.; Cox, Lisa Sanderson; Mahnken, Jonathan D.; Greiner, K. Allen; Edward F. Ellerbeck

    2008-01-01

    Self-efficacy has been related to intent to stop smoking, abstinence success, and risk for relapse. Because limited attention has been given to self-efficacy among rural smokers, the current study examined correlates of self-efficacy among rural primary care patients smoking ≥ 10 cigarettes per day. Participants completed a telephone survey assessing demographics, smoking and medical history, social environment, self-efficacy, nicotine dependence, motivation for quitting, and depression. Amon...

  6. Determination of a saliva cotinine cut-off to distinguish pregnant smokers from pregnant non-smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F

    2007-01-01

    Objective validation of smoking status is necessary. Earlier studies have used saliva cotinine concentrations between 14.2 and 30 ng/ml as cut-off values to distinguish pregnant smokers from non-smokers. However, these cut-offs derive from studies including men and non-pregnant women. This consti...

  7. A study of deterioration of pulmonary function parameters among smokers and recovery among ex-smokers in bus depot workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivas, B Sudha; Sunitha, M S; Nataraj, S M; Dhar, Murali

    2012-01-01

    Smoking has deleterious effects on Pulmonary Function Test (PFT) parameters; however, evidences about recovery in ex-smokers are ambiguous. Therefore present study was conducted to quantify relative deterioration of PFT parameters and to assess reversibility of the same. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 84 bus-depot workers consisting of equal number of smokers, ex-smokers and non-smokers. PFT observations were obtained using Medspiror following standard methods and precautions. Comparisons among three groups were performed employing one-way ANOVA and post-hoc tests. There were substantial effects of smoking on PFT parameters (deterioration was up-to half). Partial recovery was found in all the parameters of ex-smokers. Frequency and duration of smoking were negatively correlated with some of the parameters. In conclusion, present study has demonstrated considerable deterioration of PFT parameters in smokers and indications of recovery in ex-smokers. Further detailed study with larger sample size and stricter definition of ex-smokers is recommended.

  8. Profiles of smokers and non-smokers with type 2 diabetes: initial visit at a diabetes education centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gucciardi, Enza; Mathew, Rebecca; Demelo, Margaret; Bondy, Susan J

    2011-10-01

    This study explores differences in psychosocial, behavioral and clinical characteristics among smoking and non-smoking individuals with diabetes attending diabetes education centers (DEC). A questionnaire was administered to 275 individuals with type 2 diabetes attending two DECs between October 2003 and 2005. The participants' characteristics were analyzed and multivariable linear and ordinal regressions were performed to adjust for variables correlated with smoking. Findings revealed that smokers, compared to non-smokers, had lower outcome expectations of the benefits of self-management, lower diastolic blood pressure, and followed their recommended diet and tested blood glucose levels less often than non-smokers. Smokers also had lower intentions to use resources outside and within the DEC. Results demonstrate poorer self-care behaviors among smokers compared to non-smokers and further suggest cognitive and behavioral differences between smokers and non-smokers regarding participation and attitudes toward self-management practices. These findings identify issues that need to be addressed in diabetes self-management programs to allow for more effective interventions tailored to the healthcare needs of this specific population. Copyright © 2011 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Association between anxiety, obesity and periodontal disease in smokers and non-smokers: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    P Kolte, Abhay; A Kolte, Rajashri; N Lathiya, Vrushali

    2016-01-01

    Background. Psychological stress is known to be a relevant risk factor for many inflammatory conditions, including periodontal disease. A few studies have probed the relationship between obesity and periodontal disease. Therefore this cross-sectional study was aimed to examine the relationship between psychological stress and obesity and periodontal disease in smokers and non-smokers. Methods. The participants included 90 patients, equally divided into three groups of non-smokers and periodontally healthy, non-smokers and smokers with untreated moderate-to-severe chronic periodontitis. Socioeconomic data, psychosocial measurements, physical parameters and clinical findings of PPD, CAL, PI and GI were recorded. Results. The clinical parameters were assessed for three groups in three different anxiety levels of mild, moderate and severe. Intra-group comparison of PPD and CAL in the three anxiety levels showed increased periodontal destruction with an increase in anxiety levels, the results being statistically highly significant for PPD differences in smokers (P periodontal disease in smokers and non-smokers. Smoking appears to further attenuate this association.

  10. Decreased endothelium-dependent coronary vasomotion in healthy young smokers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwado, Yasuyoshi; Yoshinaga, Keiichiro; Furuyama, Hideto; Tsukamoto, Eriko; Tamaki, Nagara [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Kita-Ku, Kita 15 Nishi 7, Sapporo, 060-8638 (Japan); Ito, Yoshinori; Noriyasu, Kazuyuki [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Katoh, Chietsugu; Kuge, Yuji [Department of Tracer Kinetics, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan)

    2002-08-01

    Chronic cigarette smoking alters coronary vascular endothelial response. To determine whether altered response also occurs in young individuals without manifest coronary disease we quantified coronary blood flow at rest, following adenosine vasodilator stress and during the cold pressor test in healthy young smokers. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was quantified by oxygen-15 labelled water positron emission tomography in 30 healthy men aged from 20 to 35 years (18 smokers and 12 non-smokers, aged 27.4{+-}4.4 vs 26.3{+-}3.3). The smokers had been smoking cigarettes for 9.4{+-}4.9 pack-years. MBF was measured at rest, during intravenous adenosine triphosphate (ATP: 0.16 mg kg{sup -1} min{sup -1}) infusion (hyperaemic response), and during cold pressor test (CPT) (endothelial vasodilator response). Rest MBF and hyperaemic MBF did not differ significantly between the smokers and the non-smokers (rest: 0.86{+-}0.11 vs 0.92{+-}0.14 and ATP: 3.20{+-}1.12 vs 3.69{+-}0.76 ml g{sup -1} min{sup -1}; P=NS). Coronary flow reserve was similar between the two groups (smokers: 3.78{+-}1.83; non-smokers: 4.03{+-}0.68; P=NS). Although CPT induced a similar increase in rate-pressure product (RPP) in the smokers and the non-smokers (10,430{+-}1,820 vs 9,236{+-}1,356 beats min{sup -1} mmHg{sup -1}), CPT MBF corrected by RPP was significantly decreased in the smokers (0.65{+-}0.12 ml g{sup -1} min{sup -1}) compared with the non-smokers (0.87{+-}0.12 ml g{sup -1} min{sup -1}) (P<0.05). In addition, the ratio of CPT MBF to resting MBF was inversely correlated with pack-years (r=-0.57, P=0.014). Endothelium-dependent coronary artery vasodilator function is impaired in apparently healthy young smokers. (orig.)

  11. A Comparison of Oral Sensory Effects of Three TRPA1 Agonists in Young Adult Smokers and Non-smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Ø. Hansen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study profiled intra-oral somatosensory and vasomotor responses to three different transient receptor potential (TRP channels, subfamily A, member 1 (TRPA1 agonists (menthol, nicotine, and cinnamaldehyde in smoking and non-smoking young adults. Healthy non-smokers (N = 30 and otherwise healthy smokers (N = 25 participated in a randomized, double-blinded, cross-over study consisting of three experimental sessions in which they received menthol (30 mg, nicotine (4 mg, or cinnamaldehyde (25 mg chewing gum. Throughout a standardized 10 min chewing regime, burning, cooling, and irritation intensities, and location were recorded. In addition, blood pressure, heart rate and intra-oral temperature were assessed before, during, and after chewing. Basal intra-oral temperature was lower in smokers (35.2°C ± 1.58 as compared to non-smokers (35.9°C ± 1.61 [F(1, 52 = 8.5, P = 0.005, post hoc, p = 0.005]. However, the increase in temperature, heart rate, and blood pressure in response to chewing menthol, nicotine, and cinnamaldehyde gums were similar between smokers and non-smokers. Although smoking status did not influence the intensity of burning, cooling, and irritation, smokers did report nicotine burn more often (92% than non-smokers (63% [χ(1, N=552 = 6.208, P = 0.013]. Reports of nicotine burn consistently occurred at the back of the throat and cinnamaldehyde burn on the tongue. The cooling sensation of menthol was more widely distributed in the mouth of non-smokers as compared to smokers. Smoking alters thermoregulation, somatosensory, and possibly TRPA1 receptor responsiveness and suggests that accumulated exposure of nicotine by way of cigarette smoke alters oral sensory and vasomotor sensitivity.

  12. Double dissociation of working memory and attentional processes in smokers and non-smokers with and without nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundey, Jessica; Amu, Rosa; Ambrus, Géza Gergely; Batsikadze, Georgi; Paulus, Walter; Nitsche, Michael A

    2015-07-01

    Nicotine has been shown to affect cortical excitability measured using transcranial magnetic stimulation in smoking and non-smoking subjects in different ways. In tobacco-deprived smokers, administration of nicotine restores compromised cortical facilitation while in non-smokers, it enhances cortical inhibition. As cortical excitability and activity are closely linked to cognitive processes, we aimed to explore whether nicotine-induced physiological alterations in non-smokers and smokers are associated with cognitive changes. Specifically, we assessed the impact of nicotine on working memory performance (n-back letter task) and on attentional processes (Stroop interference test) in healthy smokers and non-smokers. Both tasks have been shown to rely on prefrontal areas, and nicotinic receptors are relevantly involved in prefrontal function. Sixteen smoking and 16 non-smoking subjects participated in the 3-back letter task and 21 smoking and 21 non-smoking subjects in the Stroop test after the respective application of placebo or nicotine patches. The results show that working memory and attentional processes are compromised in nicotine-deprived smokers compared to non-smoking individuals. After administration of nicotine, working memory performance in smokers improved, while non-smoking subjects displayed decreased accuracy with increased number of errors. The effects have been shown to be more apparent for working memory performance than attentional processes. In summary, cognitive functions can be restored by nicotine in deprived smokers, whereas non-smokers do not gain additional benefit. The respective changes are in accordance with related effects of nicotine on cortical excitability in both groups.

  13. Steroid resistance in COPD? Overlap and differential anti-inflammatory effects in smokers and ex-smokers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan J M Hoonhorst

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS reduce exacerbation rates and improve health status but can increase the risk of pneumonia in COPD. The GLUCOLD study, investigating patients with mild-to-moderate COPD, has shown that long-term (2.5-year ICS therapy induces anti-inflammatory effects. The literature suggests that cigarette smoking causes ICS insensitivity. The aim of this study is to compare anti-inflammatory effects of ICS in persistent smokers and persistent ex-smokers in a post-hoc analysis of the GLUCOLD study. METHODS: Persistent smokers (n = 41 and persistent ex-smokers (n = 31 from the GLUCOLD cohort were investigated. Effects of ICS treatment compared with placebo were estimated by analysing changes in lung function, hyperresponsiveness, and inflammatory cells in sputum and bronchial biopsies during short-term (0-6 months and long-term (6-30 months treatment using multiple regression analyses. RESULTS: Bronchial mast cells were reduced by short-term and long-term ICS treatment in both smokers and ex-smokers. In contrast, CD3⁺, CD4⁺, and CD8⁺ cells were reduced by short-term ICS treatment in smokers only. In addition, sputum neutrophils and lymphocytes, and bronchial CD8⁺ cells were reduced after long-term treatment in ex-smokers only. No significant interactions existed between smoking and ICS treatment. CONCLUSION: Even in the presence of smoking, long-term ICS treatment may lead to anti-inflammatory effects in the lung. Some anti-inflammatory ICS effects are comparable in smokers and ex-smokers with COPD, other effects are cell-specific. The clinical relevance of these findings, however, are uncertain.

  14. Effects of a family-assisted smoking cessation intervention based on motivational interviewing among low-motivated smokers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fei Fei; Jiao, Na Na; Zhang, Liu Yi; Lei, Yang; Zhang, Jing Ping

    2015-08-01

    To test the efficacy of a family-assisted smoking cessation intervention based on Motivational interviewing (MI) among low-motivated Chinese smokers. A two-armed randomized controlled trial study design was utilized. 159 Smoker-supporter pairs were randomly allocated to the intervention (a family-assisted MI intervention-77) or control (an intensity-matched health education-82) group (IG & CG). Change in smoking characteristics, communication characteristics, Partner Intervention Questionnaire (PIQ), Decisional Balance Scale (DBL), and Situational Temptations Scale (STP) were measured at baseline, post-intervention, 3-month and 6-month follow-up. Compared to CG, IG had more significant increase over time in self-report quitting attempts of at least 24h, biochemically verified 7-day smoking abstinence, the Positive dimension of PIQ and the Cons in DBL, whereas the daily cigarettes smoked, the Pros in DBL and STP were showed more significant decrease over time in IG (Peffective in changing the smoking behaviors and increasing the communication between smokers and family, than health education. Using the family-assisted smoking cessation intervention based on MI, community health service providers can influence and empower low-motivated smokers positively for quit smoking. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Oesophageal cancer in never-smokers and never-drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, K K; Duffy, S W; Day, N E; Lam, T H

    1995-03-16

    Alcohol, tobacco and diet are the most important determinants of oesophageal cancer. Previous studies which examined smoking in non-drinkers and drinking in non-smokers did not report the main effects of dietary factors or the smoking and drinking effects adjusted for dietary factors. Data from a hospital-based case-control study in Hong Kong Chinese were used to examine the effects of dietary variables as well as tobacco and alcohol in never-drinkers and never-smokers. Among the 400 cases, there were 68 never-smokers and 53 never-drinkers; 540 were never-smokers and 407 were never-drinkers among 1598 controls. In never-smokers, alcohol drinking was strongly associated with risk. Use of green leafy vegetables and citrus fruits was protective. Among never-drinkers, smokers had increased risk, but the protective effect of vegetables and fruits did not reach statistical significance. In never-smokers and in never-drinkers alike, frequent consumption of pickled vegetables and being born in Teochew or Hokkien were associated with increased risks. This study provides further support for the independent effects of alcohol, tobacco and diet in oesophageal cancer.

  16. It's complicated: Examining smokers' relationships with their cigarette brands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sarah E; Coleman, Blair N; Schmitt, Carol L

    2016-12-01

    Despite increased restrictions and taxes, decreased social acceptability, and widespread awareness of the harms of tobacco use, many in the U.S. continue to smoke cigarettes. Thus, understanding smokers' attitudes and motivations remains an important goal. This study adopts the consumer psychology concept of brand relationship to provide a new lens through which to examine smokers' attitudes about their cigarette use. Twelve focus groups (N = 143) were conducted with adult cigarette smokers from September to November, 2013. Using a semistructured moderator guide and "top of mind" worksheets, the discussion examined participants' attitudes toward (a) their own cigarette brand and (b) tobacco companies in general. Data were coded and analyzed following principles of thematic analysis. Adult smokers reported positive attitudes toward their cigarette brand, as their brand was strongly associated with the positive experience of smoking (e.g., satisfying craving and relief from withdrawal). In contrast, thinking about tobacco companies in general evoked negative reactions, revealing overwhelmingly negative attitudes toward the industry. Findings reveal a complicated relationship between smokers and their cigarette brand: simultaneously embracing their cigarettes and rejecting the industry that makes them. Taken together, these data suggest smokers maintain largely positive brand relationships, diverting negative feelings about smoking toward the tobacco industry. Finally, they highlight the synergy between branding and the subjective smoking experience, whereby positive brand attitudes are reinforced through withdrawal relief. Ultimately, this information could inform a more complete understanding of how smokers interpret and respond to tobacco communications, including marketing from their brand. (PsycINFO Database Record

  17. Noticing cigarette health warnings and support for new health warnings among non-smokers in China: findings from the International Tobacco Control project (ITC) China survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zejun; Elton-Marshall, Tara; Fong, Geoffrey T; Quah, Anne Chiew Kin; Feng, Guoze; Jiang, Yuan; Hitchman, Sara C

    2017-05-19

    Health warnings labels (HWLs) have the potential to effectively communicate the health risks of smoking to smokers and non-smokers, and encourage smokers to quit. This study sought to examine whether non-smokers in China notice the current text-only HWLs and whether they support adding more health information and including pictures on HWLs. Adult non-smokers (n = 1324) were drawn from Wave 4 (September 2011-November 2012) of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) China Survey. The proportion of non-smokers who noticed the HWLs, and supported adding more health information and pictures to the HWLs was examined. Additionally, the relation between non-smokers' demographic characteristics, including whether they had a smoking partner, their number of smoking friends, and noticing the HWLs and support for adding health information and pictures was examined. Because the HWLs changed during the survey period (April 2012), differences between non-smokers who completed the survey before and after the change were examined. 12.2% reported they noticed the HWLs often in the last month. The multivariate model, adjusting for demographics showed that respondents with a smoking partner (OR = 2.41, 95% CI 1.42-4.13, p = 0.001) noticed the HWLs more often. 64.8% of respondents agreed that the HWLs should have more information, and 80.2% supported including pictures. The multivariate model showed that non-smokers who completed the survey after the HWLs were implemented (OR = 0.63, 95% CI 0.40-0.99, p = 0.04) were less likely to support adding more health information. The multivariate model showed a significant relation between having a smoking partner and supporting pictorial HWLs (OR = 2.03, 95% CI 1.24-3.33, p = 0.005). The findings indicate that the Chinese HWLs are noticed by a minority of non-smokers and that non-smokers strongly support strengthening the Chinese warning labels with more health information and pictures. Additionally, because the HWLs are noticed

  18. Global Historical Climatology Network - Daily (GHCN-Daily), Version 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Historical Climatology Network - Daily (GHCN-Daily) dataset integrates daily climate observations from approximately 30 different data sources. Version 3...

  19. Predictors, indicators, and validated measures of dependence in menthol smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost-Pineda, Kimberly; Muhammad-Kah, Raheema; Rimmer, Lonnie; Liang, Qiwei

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a comprehensive review of the menthol cigarette dependence-related literature and results from an original analysis of the Total Exposure Study (TES), which included 1,100 menthol and 2,400 nonmenthol adult smokers. The substantial scientific evidence available related to age of first cigarette, age of regular use, single-item dependence indicators (smoking frequency, cigarettes per day, time to first cigarette, night waking to smoke), smoking duration, numerous validated and widely accepted measures of nicotine/cigarette dependence, and our analysis of the TES do not support that menthol smokers are more dependent than nonmenthol smokers or that menthol increases dependence.

  20. Vulnerability and self-perceived health status among light and heavy smokers: the relationship to short-term fear appeal tobacco control messages Vulnerabilidade e percepção de saúde auto-referida entre fumantes leves e pesados: a relação com mensagens anti-fumo voltadas para o apelo ao medo imediato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Salem Szklo

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available It is important to stimulate smokers to acquire some level of risk perception associated with their current behavior in order to motivate smoking cessation. The present article attempts to understand how the content of short-term fear appeal government tobacco messages may interact with different levels of daily cigarette consumption in order to affect smokers' vulnerabilities, expressed by self-perceived health status. A Poisson model was used to estimate the prevalence ratio of fair or poor self-perceived health status (FPHS according to daily cigarette consumption. We also calculated the proportions of smokers who stated that selected health warning pictures on cigarette packets encourage people to quit smoking, stratified by self-perceived health status and daily cigarette consumption. The proportion of smokers with FPHS was 25% higher among those who smoked > 20 cigarettes/day (p = 0.01. Among smokers with FPHS, heavy smokers showed the highest proportions of responses in favor of selected warning pictures most closely related to losses in ordinary daily living, such as shortness of breath and being bothered by cigarette addiction. Short-term loss-framed tobacco control messages seem to have raised awareness of vulnerability among heavier smokers.É importante incentivar os fumantes a adquirir algum nível de percepção do risco associado ao seu comportamento atual, para motivá-los a parar de fumar. O artigo procura elucidar em que medida o conteúdo do apelo ao medo imediato contido em mensagens anti-fumo nas campanhas governamentais pode interagir com o consumo diário de cigarros, no sentido de afetar as vulnerabilidades dos fumantes, expressas pela percepção de saúde auto-referida. Um modelo de Poisson foi utilizado para estimar a razão de prevalências de percepção de saúde auto-referida regular ou ruim, segundo consumo diário de cigarros. Calculou-se também a proporção de fumantes que afirmou que mensagens anti

  1. Urinary biomarkers of smokers' exposure to tobacco smoke constituents in tobacco products assessment: a fit for purpose approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Evan O; Minet, Emmanuel; McEwan, Michael

    2013-09-01

    There are established guidelines for bioanalytical assay validation and qualification of biomarkers. In this review, they were applied to a panel of urinary biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure as part of a "fit for purpose" approach to the assessment of smoke constituents exposure in groups of tobacco product smokers. Clinical studies have allowed the identification of a group of tobacco exposure biomarkers demonstrating a good doseresponse relationship whilst others such as dihydroxybutyl mercapturic acid and 2-carboxy-1-methylethylmercapturic acid - did not reproducibly discriminate smokers and non-smokers. Furthermore, there are currently no agreed common reference standards to measure absolute concentrations and few inter-laboratory trials have been performed to establish consensus values for interim standards. Thus, we also discuss in this review additional requirements for the generation of robust data on urinary biomarkers, including toxicant metabolism and disposition, method validation and qualification for use in tobacco products comparison studies.

  2. Lung adenocarcinoma of never smokers and smokers harbor differential regions of genetic alteration and exhibit different levels of genomic instability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsie L Thu

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that the observed clinical distinctions between lung tumors in smokers and never smokers (NS extend beyond specific gene mutations, such as EGFR, EML4-ALK, and KRAS, some of which have been translated into targeted therapies. However, the molecular alterations identified thus far cannot explain all of the clinical and biological disparities observed in lung tumors of NS and smokers. To this end, we performed an unbiased genome-wide, comparative study to identify novel genomic aberrations that differ between smokers and NS. High resolution whole genome DNA copy number profiling of 69 lung adenocarcinomas from smokers (n = 39 and NS (n = 30 revealed both global and regional disparities in the tumor genomes of these two groups. We found that NS lung tumors had a greater proportion of their genomes altered than those of smokers. Moreover, copy number gains on chromosomes 5q, 7p, and 16p occurred more frequently in NS. We validated our findings in two independently generated public datasets. Our findings provide a novel line of evidence distinguishing genetic differences between smoker and NS lung tumors, namely, that the extent of segmental genomic alterations is greater in NS tumors. Collectively, our findings provide evidence that these lung tumors are globally and genetically different, which implies they are likely driven by distinct molecular mechanisms.

  3. The female smoker: from addiction to recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, Arden G; Christen, Joan A

    2003-10-01

    Millions of American girls and women have been drawn to smoking by an industry that has been clearly and systematically targeting women of all ages and life circumstances. Big tobacco's well-timed marketing strategies skillfully link cigarette use to typical female values: independence, self-reliance, weight control, stress management, social progress and popularity, personal attractiveness, autonomy, self-fulfillment, youth, happiness, personal success, health, and active, vigorous, and strenuous lifestyles. Biologically speaking, women are especially vulnerable to the legion of health problems of tobacco use. Smoking is a critical hazard for women in their reproductive years, particularly when they are pregnant. The US Public Health Service 2000 Clinical Practice Guideline provides helpful guidance and sound general recommendations for the treatment of women of all ages for tobacco use and dependence. Women and girls who smoke represent diverse subgroups of the population with unique issues and needs. The 2001 Surgeon General's Report on Women and Smoking stresses the importance of multistrategy programs for treating female smokers. This approach includes antitobacco media campaigns, increases in tobacco prices, promotion of nonsmoking in public places, curbs on tobacco advertising and promotion, enforcement of legislation to reduce youth access to tobacco products, and effective tobacco use treatment programs.

  4. Does menopause start earlier in smokers? Evidence from the Pro-Saude Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula de Holanda Mendes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: cigarette smoking has been the modifiable risk factor most consistently associated with earlier menopause. This preliminary study based on cross-sectional data aimed to analyze the association between smoking status and age of onset of menopause in a Brazilian population. METHODS: a cross-sectional study was carried out with 1,222 female employees of Rio de Janeiro university campuses aged over 35 years who were at risk of natural menopause. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to investigate the association between smoking status and age at the onset of menopause, adjusting for education, parity and alcohol consumption. RESULTS: current smokers showed a 56% increase in the risk of menopause, being 1.8 years younger at menopause onset compared with women who had never smoked. However, no differences were observed between former smokers and women who had never smoked. The adjusted median age at menopause was 49.5 years for current smokers and 51.3 years for women who had never smoked (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: the results suggest a deleterious but potentially reversible effect of smoking on the age of onset of menopause, which should receive greater attention in tobacco control efforts. Longitudinal analyses of this association will be carried out in the future in a follow-up study of this population.

  5. Personal, social, and cultural correlates of self-efficacy beliefs among South Korean college smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyunyi; So, Jiyeon; Lee, Jinro

    2009-06-01

    Much research has documented the significant influence of self-efficacy on smoking cessation, but considerably less is known as to what health communicators can do to promote or address barriers to self-efficacy. This study investigated personal, social, and cultural correlates of smoking self-efficacy. A survey of college smokers was done in South Korea, where the current smoking rate among males is over 56%. At the personal level, the perceived success-fullness of the last quit trial positively predicted self-efficacy. At the social level, interpersonal communication with friends was positively associated with self-efficacy. The cultural orientation of independent self-construal was positively associated with self-efficacy. These results indicate that factors affecting smokers' self-efficacy are operative in multiple domains and levels. Future communication programs should promote positive perceptions about prior quit trials, and segment the audience in terms of their self-construal to effectively enhance self-efficacy.

  6. Exhaled breath condensate pH as a biomarker of COPD severity in ex-smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alchanatis Manos

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Endogenous airway acidification, as assessed by exhaled breath condensate (EBC pH, is present in patients with stable COPD. The aim of this study was to measure EBC pH levels in a large cohort of COPD patients and to evaluate associations with functional parameters according to their smoking status. EBC was collected from 161 patients with stable COPD and 112 controls (current and ex-smokers. EBC pH was measured after Argon deaeration and all subjects underwent pulmonary function testing. EBC pH was lower in COPD patients compared to controls [7.21 (7.02, 7.44 vs. 7.50 (7.40, 7.66; p Endogenous airway acidification is related to disease severity and to parameters expressing hyperinflation and air trapping in ex-smokers with COPD. The possible role of EBC pH in COPD needs to be further evaluated in longitudinal studies.

  7. Micronuclei as prognostic indicators in oral cytological smears: A comparison between smokers and non-smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesh Vishwanath Kamath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Micronucleus is a microscopically visible round or oval cytoplasmic chromatin mass in the extra nuclear vicinity, originated from aberrant mitosis, which consists of eccentric chromosomes that have failed to reach spindle poles during mitosis and are used as biomarkers for assessment of DNA damage. Micronuclei are characteristically seen in exfoliated cells of the buccal mucosa and urinary bladder wall in precancerous and cancerous conditions. Oral habits of smoking tobacco or chewing areca nut damage the oral tissues. An assessment of the damage is feasible by the detection of micronuclei in exfoliated cells of the oral tissues using smears. Objectives: The present study was designed to assess the presence or increase of micronuclei in buccal smears of individuals with tobacco habits against a control group of teetotalers. Materials and Methods: Two groups (smokers and non-smokers of 50 individuals each were examined. Buccal smears of all participants were taken using cytobrush and stained with standard Papanicolaou′s (PAP stain. Presence of micronuclei was assessed under Χ100 magnification and a count per 500 cells was determined. The results were analyzed statistically using t-test and Mann-Whitney test. Results: Smears of individuals with tobacco habits showed a significant increase in the total number of micronuclei per 500 cell counts. There was a definite correlation between the occurrence of micronuclei and the frequency and duration of smoking. A paradoxical age related increase in middle-aged groups was also observed. Conclusions: The genotoxic effects of tobacco smoke cause chromosomal damage in the epithelial cells of the oral mucosa and are reflected in the increased micronuclei in smokers. This is present even in the absence of clinically evident changes. This observation is vital in utilization of the micronuclei detection in smears as a prognostic, educational and interventional tool in the management of patients

  8. Toothbrushing: Do It Daily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Child Care, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Offers a practical guide for promoting daily toothbrushing in young children. Discusses the importance of proper dental care, explains the causes of tooth decay, describes proper dental care for infants and young children, recommends materials and teaching methods, and discusses visits to the dentist and the benefits of fluoride for dental health.…

  9. Effects of the nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine on ad-lib smoking behavior, topography, and nicotine levels in smokers with and without schizophrenia: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Sherry A; Weinberger, Andrea H; Harrison, Emily L R; Coppola, Sabrina; George, Tony P

    2009-12-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia have higher plasma nicotine levels in comparison to non-psychiatric smokers, even when differences in smoking are equated. This difference may be related to how intensely cigarettes are smoked but this has not been well studied. Mecamylamine (MEC), a non-competitive nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) antagonist, which has been shown to increase ad-lib smoking and to affect smoking topography, was used in the current study as a pharmacological probe to increase our understanding of smoking behavior, smoking topography, and resulting nicotine levels in smokers with schizophrenia. This preliminary study used a within-subject, placebo-controlled design in smokers with schizophrenia (n=6) and healthy control smokers (n=8) to examine the effects of MEC (10mg/day) on ad-lib smoking behavior, topography, nicotine levels, and tobacco craving across two smoking deprivation conditions (no deprivation and 12-h deprivation). MEC, compared to placebo, increased the number of cigarettes smoked and plasma nicotine levels. MEC increased smoking intensity and resulted in greater plasma nicotine levels in smokers with schizophrenia compared to controls, although these results were not consistent across deprivation conditions. MEC also increased tobacco craving in smokers with schizophrenia but not in control smokers. Our results suggest that antagonism of high-affinity nAChRs in smokers with schizophrenia may prompt compensatory smoking, increasing the intensity of smoking and nicotine exposure without alleviating craving. Further work is needed to assess whether nicotine levels are directly mediated by how intensely the cigarettes are smoked, and to confirm whether this effect is more pronounced in smokers with schizophrenia.

  10. Correlation between nicotine dependence and barriers to cessation between exclusive cigarette smokers and dual (water pipe smokers among Arab Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Shahawy O

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Omar El-Shahawy,1 Linda Haddad2 1Department of Social and Behavioral Health, School of Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA; 2College of Nursing, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA Background: Evidence suggests that dual cigarette and water pipe use is growing among minority groups, particularly among Arab Americans. Differences in nicotine dependence and barriers to smoking cessation among such dual smokers have not been previously examined in this population. We examined potential differences that might exist between exclusive cigarette smokers and dual smokers (cigarette and water pipe pertaining to nicotine dependence and barriers to cessation among Arab Americans. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study using a convenience sample of self-identified Arab immigrant smokers (n=131 living in the Richmond, VA metropolitan area. Data were collected using four questionnaires: Demographic and Cultural Information questionnaire, Tobacco Use questionnaire, Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND questionnaire, and Barriers to Cessation questionnaire. We examined differences in nicotine dependence and barriers to cessation between exclusive cigarette smokers and dual smokers of cigarettes and water pipe. Furthermore, we explored the correlations of these measures with select variables. Results: There was a significant difference in the FTND scores between the exclusive cigarette smokers (mean M=2.55, standard deviation [SD] =2.10 and dual smokers (M=3.71, SD =2.42; t(129 = (2.51, P=0.0066.There was also a significant difference in the Barriers to Cessation scores between exclusive cigarette smokers (M=38.47, SD =13.07 and dual smokers (M=45.21, SD =9.27; t(129 = (2.56, P=0.0058. Furthermore, there was a highly significant correlation among FTND scores, Barriers to Cessation scores, and past quit attempts among dual smokers. Conclusion: Water pipe tobacco smoking seems to be both adding to the dependence

  11. Risk of acute gout among active smokers: data from nationwide inpatient sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poudel, Dilli Ram; Karmacharya, Paras; Donato, Anthony

    2016-12-01

    Smoking has been found to be negatively correlated with serum uric acid levels by virtue of reduced production and increased consumption of endogenous antioxidant uric acid among smokers and has been reported to decrease incidence of gout. To shed further light on the question of association between active smoking and acute gout by examining this association using a large inpatient US database, using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample data from 2009 to 2011, we identified current smokers based on the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) code 305.1 and were assumed to have ceased smoking during hospital stay. Patients who developed acute gout inhospital were identified based on ICD-9 code 274.01 at secondary diagnosis position. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to derive odds ratio for measures of association. Statistical analysis was done using STATA version 13.0 (College Station, TX). A total of 17,847,045 discharge records were used which included 13,932 (0.08 %) inhospital acute gouty arthritis and 2,615,944 (14.66 %) active smokers. Both univariate (OR 0.59, CI 0.54-0.63, p < 0.0001) and multivariate (OR 0.64, CI 0.59-0.68, p < 0.0001) regressions showed statistically significant reduction of acute gout among hospitalized patients who were current smokers but were assumed to have ceased smoking during hospital stay. Active tobacco use was associated with a lower risk of acute inpatient gouty arthritis, even when controlling for conventional risk factors. More study is needed to correlate this finding with uric acid levels, and a better understanding of the mechanisms that explain this finding are necessary.

  12. Distinct Phenotypes of Cigarette Smokers Identified by Cluster Analysis of Patients with Severe Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Satoshi; Taniguchi, Natsuko; Makita, Hironi; Nakamaru, Yuji; Shimizu, Kaoruko; Shijubo, Noriharu; Fuke, Satoshi; Takeyabu, Kimihiro; Oguri, Mitsuru; Kimura, Hirokazu; Maeda, Yukiko; Suzuki, Masaru; Nagai, Katsura; Ito, Yoichi M; Wenzel, Sally E; Nishimura, Masaharu

    2015-12-01

    Smoking may have multifactorial effects on asthma phenotypes, particularly in severe asthma. Cluster analysis has been applied to explore novel phenotypes, which are not based on any a priori hypotheses. To explore novel severe asthma phenotypes by cluster analysis when including cigarette smokers. We recruited a total of 127 subjects with severe asthma, including 59 current or ex-smokers, from our university hospital and its 29 affiliated hospitals/pulmonary clinics. Twelve clinical variables obtained during a 2-day hospital stay were used for cluster analysis. After clustering using clinical variables, the sputum levels of 14 molecules were measured to biologically characterize the clinical clusters. Five clinical clusters were identified, including two characterized by high pack-year exposure to cigarette smoking and low FEV1/FVC. There were marked differences between the two clusters of cigarette smokers. One had high levels of circulating eosinophils, high IgE levels, and a high sinus disease score. The other was characterized by low levels of the same parameters. Sputum analysis revealed increased levels of IL-5 in the former cluster and increased levels of IL-6 and osteopontin in the latter. The other three clusters were similar to those previously reported: young onset/atopic, nonsmoker/less eosinophilic, and female/obese. Key clinical variables were confirmed to be stable and consistent 1 year later. This study reveals two distinct phenotypes of severe asthma in current and former cigarette smokers with potentially different biological pathways contributing to fixed airflow limitation. Clinical trial registered with www.umin.ac.jp (000003254).

  13. Persistence of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder risk among former smokers: Results from a contemporary, prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty, Christopher J.; Wright, Jonathan L.; Hotaling, James M.; Bhatti, Parveen; Porter, Michael P.; White, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Cigarette smoking is a known risk factor for urothelial carcinoma (UC) of the bladder. However, the persistence of an increased risk for UC following smoking cessation is not well established. We assessed the risk of UC among former smokers using a recent, prospective cohort with a high proportion of former smokers. Materials and methods Study participants were members of the VITamins And Lifestyle cohort (VITAL), a group of 77,719 men and women between the ages of 50 and 76 years from western Washington State. Smoking history and other risk factors were obtained at the time of recruitment. The primary outcome was a new diagnosis of UC (n = 385), as determined through linkage to a population-based cancer registry. Results and limitations The cohort included 8% current and 44% former smokers, and among the UC cases, 15% were current and 60% former smokers. Both the current and former smoker had an increased risk of UC compared with never smokers (hazard ratio [HRs]: 3.81; 95% confidence intervals [CI] 2.71–5.35 and 2.0; 95% CI 1.55–2.58, respectively). Among former smokers, the risk of UC increased with the pack-years smoked and decreased with the years since quitting. When both the measures of smoking were considered together, the risk of UC was similar for long-term quitters and recent quitters for a given level of pack-years. For example, for those with pack-years of 22.5–37.5, the HR of UC was 1.91 (95% CI 1.17–3.11) for the distant quitters (≥23.5 y before baseline) and HR = 1.92 (95% CI 1.26–2.94) among the recent quitters. Limitations include the small number of cases at the extremes of smoking history and errors in self-reported smoking history. Conclusions The risk of bladder cancer in former smokers remains elevated >32 years after quitting, even among those with moderate smoking histories. This argues that a history of smoking confers a lifelong increased risk of UC. PMID:23506963

  14. Persistence of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder risk among former smokers: results from a contemporary, prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty, Christopher J; Wright, Jonathan L; Hotaling, James M; Bhatti, Parveen; Porter, Michael P; White, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a known risk factor for urothelial carcinoma (UC) of the bladder. However, the persistence of an increased risk for UC following smoking cessation is not well established. We assessed the risk of UC among former smokers using a recent, prospective cohort with a high proportion of former smokers. Study participants were members of the VITamins And Lifestyle cohort (VITAL), a group of 77,719 men and women between the ages of 50 and 76 years from western Washington State. Smoking history and other risk factors were obtained at the time of recruitment. The primary outcome was a new diagnosis of UC (n =385), as determined through linkage to a population-based cancer registry. The cohort included 8% current and 44% former smokers, and among the UC cases, 15% were current and 60% former smokers. Both the current and former smoker had an increased risk of UC compared with never smokers (hazard ratio [HRs]: 3.81; 95% confidence intervals [CI] 2.71-5.35 and 2.0; 95% CI 1.55-2.58, respectively). Among former smokers, the risk of UC increased with the pack-years smoked and decreased with the years since quitting. When both the measures of smoking were considered together, the risk of UC was similar for long-term quitters and recent quitters for a given level of pack-years. For example, for those with pack-years of 22.5-37.5, the HR of UC was 1.91 (95% CI 1.17-3.11) for the distant quitters (≥ 23.5 y before baseline) and HR = 1.92 (95% CI 1.26-2.94) among the recent quitters. Limitations include the small number of cases at the extremes of smoking history and errors in self-reported smoking history. The risk of bladder cancer in former smokers remains elevated>32 years after quitting, even among those with moderate smoking histories. This argues that a history of smoking confers a lifelong increased risk of UC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Social relations and smoking abstinence among ever-smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross, Lone; Thomsen, Birthe Lykke Riegels; Boesen, Sidsel Helle;

    2013-01-01

    Relational strain may be a risk factor for relapse after smoking cessation whereas social support may be protective. This study aimed to assess which aspects of social relations were associated with smoking abstinence among ever-smokers.......Relational strain may be a risk factor for relapse after smoking cessation whereas social support may be protective. This study aimed to assess which aspects of social relations were associated with smoking abstinence among ever-smokers....

  16. FUMEPOC: Early detection of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Antonio

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently is not feasible using conventional spirometry as a screening method in Primary Care especially among smoking population to detect chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in early stages. Therefore, the FUMEPOC study protocol intends to analyze the validity and reliability of Vitalograph COPD-6 spirometer as simpler tool to aid screening and diagnosis of this disease in early stages in primary care surgery. Methods / Design Study design: An observational, descriptive study of diagnostic tests, undertaken in Primary Care and Pneumology Outpatient Care Centre at San Juan Hospital and Elda Hospital. All smokers attending the primary care surgery and consent to participate in the study will undergo a test with Vitalograph COPD-6 spirometer. Subsequently, a conventional spirometry will be performed in the hospital and the results will be compared with those of the Vitalograph COPD-6 test. Discussion It is difficult to use the spirometry as screening for early diagnose test in real conditions of primary care clinical practice. The use of a simpler tool, Vitalograph COPD-6 spirometer, can help in the early diagnose and therefore, it could improve the clinical management of the disease.

  17. Influence of tobacco marketing and exposure to smokers on adolescent susceptibility to smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, N; Farkas, A; Gilpin, E; Berry, C; Pierce, J P

    1995-10-18

    Marketing (n = 361) were 3.91 (95% CI = 2.38-6.42) times as likely to be susceptible as those who scored 0. Even adolescents who scored 2 (n = 1090) were 2.03 (95% CI = 1.31-3.15) times as likely to be susceptible. There was no interaction effect between score on the Index of Receptivity to Tobacco Marketing and exposure to smokers. Our results support the hypothesis that tobacco marketing may be a stronger current influence in encouraging adolescents to initiate the smoking uptake process than exposure to peer or family smokers or sociodemographic variables including perceived school performance.

  18. Smoking-Cue Induced Brain Activation In Adolescent Light Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Mark L.; Luks, Tracy L.; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara; Dryden, Wendy; Rait, Michelle A.; Simpson, Gregory V.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Using fMRI, we examined whether or not adolescents with low levels of nicotine exposure (light smokers) display neural activation in areas shown to be involved with addiction in response to smoking-related stimuli. Design/Setting/Participants Twelve adolescent light smokers (aged 13 to17, smoked 1 to 5 cigarettes per day) and 12 non-smokers (ages 13 to 17, never smoked a cigarette) from the San Francisco Bay Area underwent fMRI scanning. During scanning they viewed blocks of photographic smoking and control cues. Smoking cues consisted of pictures of people smoking cigarettes and smoking-related objects such as lighters and ashtrays. Neutral cues consisted of everyday objects and people engaged in everyday activities. Findings For smokers, smoking cues elicited greater activation than neutral cues in the mesolimbic reward circuit (left anterior cingulate (T=7.88, pbrain regions seen in adult and heavy teen smokers suggests that even at low levels of smoking, adolescents exhibit heightened reactivity to smoking cues. This paper adds to the existing literature suggesting that nicotine dependence may begin with exposure to low levels of nicotine, underscoring the need for early intervention among adolescent smokers. PMID:21185518

  19. Symptoms in smokers trying to quit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helgason Asgeir R

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims To describe the prevalence and intensity of different symptoms in relation to tobacco abstinence. To explore latent dimensions between symptoms in smokers trying to quit. Design A cross sectional study using a questionnaire to retrospectively assess symptoms over a period of 12 months. Setting Swedish telephone quitline, a nationwide free of charge service. Participants All 741 individuals who had called the quitline and signed up for smoking cessation treatment between February 2000 to November 2001 and reported to have been smoke free for at least 24 hours during the previous 12 month period from first contact. Measurements Assessments were made by self-report, and abstinence was defined as "not a single puff of smoke during the last week". A factor analysis approach where individual items aggregate into factors was used to explore the relationship between the different symptoms. Findings High intensity of symptoms related to unsuccessful quitting attempts and included craving, irritability, apprehension/anxiety, difficulties concentrating, restlessness, depression/depressed mood, and insomnia. The factor loadings of all 17 symptoms resulted in three factors with factor 1, psychological being the most important. High scores on this factor relates to unsuccessful quitting attempts. Using Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT for 5 weeks or longer, reduced symptoms included in factor 1. The other two factors were factor 2 physiological and factor 3 neurological. Conclusion Symptoms that are psychological and/or neurological in nature are interrelated and appear to be the most significant obstacles for successful quitting attempts in a population-based setting. These symptoms may be successfully treated with NRT.

  20. Symptoms in smokers trying to quit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helgason Asgeir R

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims To describe the prevalence and intensity of different symptoms in relation to tobacco abstinence. To explore latent dimensions between symptoms in smokers trying to quit. Design A cross sectional study using a questionnaire to retrospectively assess symptoms over a period of 12 months. Setting Swedish telephone quitline, a nationwide free of charge service. Participants All 741 individuals who had called the quitline and signed up for smoking cessation treatment between February 2000 to November 2001 and reported to have been smoke free for at least 24 hours during the previous 12 month period from first contact. Measurements Assessments were made by self-report, and abstinence was defined as "not a single puff of smoke during the last week". A factor analysis approach where individual items aggregate into factors was used to explore the relationship between the different symptoms. Findings High intensity of symptoms related to unsuccessful quitting attempts and included craving, irritability, apprehension/anxiety, difficulties concentrating, restlessness, depression/depressed mood, and insomnia. The factor loadings of all 17 symptoms resulted in three factors with factor 1, psychological being the most important. High scores on this factor relates to unsuccessful quitting attempts. Using Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT for 5 weeks or longer, reduced symptoms included in factor 1. The other two factors were factor 2 physiological and factor 3 neurological. Conclusion Symptoms that are psychological and/or neurological in nature are interrelated and appear to be the most significant obstacles for successful quitting attempts in a population-based setting. These symptoms may be successfully treated with NRT.

  1. Making Daily Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Wind, Simon

    , social networks, understanding of places and ultimately ourselves and others. To successfully accomplish everyday life, households have to cope with large number of different activities and mobility in relation to their children, work, social life, obligations, expectations, needs and wishes. Drawing...... practice configurations. The paper draws on empirical material collected from the project ‘Analysis of activity-based travel chains and sustainable mobility’ (ACTUM WP2), consisting of qualitative semi-structured interviews with 45 respondents in 11 children families spread across the Greater Copenhagen...... accomplishing daily life. The study also shows that practices need constant maintenance as they are continuously de-stabilised by changing conditions and situations. This careful and competent work involved in the maintenance and adjustment of daily practices is done in relation to the household member...

  2. Making Daily Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Wind, Simon

    ’s normative and affective orientation towards daily mobility, spanning from being a ‘waste of time’ to being a ‘meaningful’ activity. For instance, besides fulfilling a practical purpose, mobility practices are often ‘mobile-with’ constellations of synchronised, however temporal, movement and thus household......In 2012 the average daily transportation distance for every Dane were 40 km (TU Data). Realising how much of life is spend thinking about, planning and performing mobility practices it becomes evident that it is much more than an instrumental physical phenomenon – it has great repercussions on life......, social networks, understanding of places and ultimately ourselves and others. To successfully accomplish everyday life, households have to cope with large number of different activities and mobility in relation to their children, work, social life, obligations, expectations, needs and wishes. Drawing...

  3. Self-reported price of cigarettes, consumption and compensatory behaviours in a cohort of Mexican smokers before and after a cigarette tax increase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenz-de-Miera, Belen; Chaloupka, Frank J; Waters, Hugh R; Hernandez-Avila, Mauricio; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact of a 2007 cigarette tax increase from 110% to 140% of the price to the retailer on cigarette price and consumption among Mexican smokers, including efforts to offset price increases. Methods Data were analysed from the 2006 and 2007 administrations of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Policy Evaluation Survey in Mexico, which is a population-based cohort of adult smokers. Self-reported price of last cigarette purchase, place of last purchase, preferred brand, daily consumption and quit behaviour were assessed at baseline and follow-up. Results Self-reported cigarette prices increased by 12.7% after the tax increase, with prices for international brands increasing more than for national brands (13.5% vs 8.7%, respectively). Although the tax increases were not fully passed onto consumers particularly on national brands, no evidence was found for smokers changing behaviour to offset price increases. Consistent declines in consumption across groups defined by sociodemographic and smoking-related psychosocial variables suggest a relatively uniform impact of the tax increase across subpopulations. However, decreased consumption appeared limited to people who smoked relatively more cigarettes a day (>5 cigarettes/day). Average daily consumption among lighter smokers did not significantly decline. A total of 13% (n=98) of the sample reported being quit for a month or more at follow-up. In multivariate models, lighter smokers were more likely than heavier smokers to be quit. Conclusions Results suggest that the 2007 tax increase was passed on to consumers, whose consumption generally declined. Since no other tobacco control policies or programmes were implemented during the period analysed, the tax increase appears likely to have decreased consumption. PMID:20870740

  4. Why Don't Smokers Want Help to Quit? A Qualitative Study of Smokers' Attitudes towards Assisted vs. Unassisted Quitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morphett, Kylie; Partridge, Brad; Gartner, Coral; Carter, Adrian; Hall, Wayne

    2015-06-10

    The development of prescription medication for smoking cessation and the introduction of evidence-based guidelines for health professionals has increasingly medicalised smoking cessation. There are debates about whether medicalisation is a positive development, or whether it has devalued unassisted quitting. In this debate the views of smokers have been neglected. This study explored the attitudes of smokers towards a range of quitting methods, and their considerations when judging their value. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 29 smokers and analysed data using thematic analysis. The results show that the perceived nature of an individual smoker's addiction was central to judgments about the value of pharmacological cessation aids, as was personal experience with a method, and how well it was judged to align with an individual's situation and personality. Unassisted quitting was often described as the best method. Negative views of pharmacological cessation aids were frequently expressed, particularly concerns about side effects from prescription medications. Smokers' views about the value of different methods were not independent: attitudes about cessation aids were shaped by positive attitudes towards unassisted quitting. Examining smokers' attitudes towards either assisted or unassisted quitting in isolation provides incomplete information on quitting preferences.

  5. Discrimination and characterization of breath from smokers and non-smokers via electronic nose and GC/MS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Katharina; Reulecke, Sina; Voss, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to prove the general applicability of an electronic nose for analyzing exhaled breath considering the dependency on smoking. At first, odor compounds from spices (n=6) were detected via the electronic nose and further characterized and classified with gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry to demonstrate the principle ability of the electronic nose. Then, the exhaled breath from smokers and non-smokers were analyzed to prove the influence of smoking on breath analyses with the electronic nose. The exhaled breath was sampled from 11 smokers and 11 non-smokers in a special sampling bag with the mounted sensor chip of the electronic nose. Additionally, solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) technique was established for detection of the specific chemical compounds with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC/MS). For analyses of the sensor signals the principle component analysis (PCA) was applied and the groups were differentiated by linear discriminant function analysis. In accordance to the discrimination between the different spices and between smokers and non-smokers the PCA analysis leads to an optimum accuracy of 100%. The results of this study show that an electronic nose has the ability to detect different changes of odor components and provides separation of smoking side effects in smelling different diseases.

  6. Tax Avoidance and Evasion: Cigarette Purchases From Indian Reservations Among US Adult Smokers, 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Xu, Xin; Tynan, Michael A; Gerzoff, Robert B; Caraballo, Ralph S; Promoff, Gabbi R

    Excise taxes are the primary public health strategy used to increase the price of cigarettes in the United States. Rather than quitting or reducing consumption of cigarettes, some price-sensitive smokers may avoid state and local excise taxes by purchasing cigarettes from Indian reservations. The objectives of this study were to (1) provide the most recent state-specific prevalence of purchases made on Indian reservations by non-American Indians/Alaska Natives (non-AI/ANs) and (2) assess the impact of these purchases on state tax revenues. We used data from a large national and state-representative survey, the 2010-2011 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey, which collects self-reported measures on cigarette use and purchases. Nationwide, 3.8% of non-AI/AN smokers reported purchasing cigarettes from Indian reservations. However, in Arizona, Nevada, New Mexico, New York, Oklahoma, and Washington State, about 15% to 30% of smokers reported making such purchases, resulting in annual tax revenue losses ranging from $3.5 million (Washington State) to $292 million (New York) during 2010-2011. Strategies to reduce the sale of non- or lower-taxed cigarettes to non-AI/ANs on Indian reservations have the potential to decrease smoking prevalence and recoup lost revenue from purchases made on reservations.

  7. Behavioural and psychological responses of lower educated smokers to the smoke-free legislation in Dutch hospitality venues: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Heiden, Sander; Gebhardt, Winifred A; Willemsen, Marc C; Nagelhout, Gera E; Dijkstra, Arie

    2013-01-01

    In 2008, smoke-free legislation was implemented in hospitality venues (HV) in the Netherlands. We investigated how continuing smokers with a lower educational background respond behaviourally and psychologically to the legislation and the norm it communicates. In 2010, 18 lower-educated daily smokers were interviewed. Transcripts were analysed with MAXQDA software. Theories of self-awareness and social in- and exclusion were applied to interpret findings. Smokers had become more self-aware and the experience of a more negative norm surrounding smoking had made them reevaluate their smoking. Smokers had also become more self-aware of their own smoking, both in HV and in general. Feelings of increased social exclusion were reported. Participants dealt with the increased awareness and feelings of social exclusion in different ways depending on their evaluation of the smoking ban, changes in attitude towards own smoking, changes in HV patronage and changes in smoking behaviour. Theories of self-awareness and social in- and exclusion were useful in understanding consequences of a HV smoking ban on continuing smokers. Four different types of responses were identified, i.e. (1) actively trying to quit, (2) socially conscious smoking, (3) feeling victimised and (4) rejecting the norm. Implications for future smoke-free legislation are discussed.

  8. Developing a Nicotine Patch Adherence Intervention for HIV-positive Latino Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadel, William G.; Galvan, Frank H.; Tucker, Joan S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes two phases of formative research that were undertaken to develop a smoking cessation treatment module that has the goal of improving adherence with the nicotine patch in HIV-positive Latino smokers. Each research phase (Phase I and II) was conducted independent of the other and used different methods to inform the development of the intervention. Phase I interviewed n=14 smokers who had previous experience using the nicotine patch to gain detailed understanding of how, when, and why they used it; their perceived barriers to using it; and their perspective on ways to improve adherence to it. Phase II provided n=35 smokers with brief smoking cessation treatment and nicotine patches, then interviewed them in “near real time” over a two month period about their use of the patch during a quit attempt (e.g., perceived barriers and facilitators). Authors of the paper conducted a qualitative analysis of the themes emerging from the interview transcripts across these two phases. Results indicated that consistent use of the nicotine patch was associated with maintaining high motivation for use (i.e., not necessarily motivation to quit, but motivation to continue patch use); linking its use with established daily routines (e.g., with taking other medications, with brushing teeth); and maintaining realistic expectations for patch efficacy (e.g., that users may still experience some level of craving and/or withdrawal). This information will used to develop and pilot test a brief treatment module that focuses on improving nicotine patch adherence. PMID:27070097

  9. INFLUENCE OF ACUTE EXERCISE ON OXIDATIVE STRESS IN CHRONIC SMOKERS

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    Zehra Serdar

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The relative oxidative insult caused by exercise and smoking on biological systems are well documented, however, their cumulative influence needs to be clarified. In order to examine the collective effects of exercise and smoking on oxidant and antioxidant parameters, young male smokers (n=10 and non-smokers (n=10 made to perform a negative slope (10% cycling exercise for 30 minutes at individual load equivalent to 60% maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max. Pre- and post-exercise (post-ex haematocrit, haemoglobin, white blood cells, plasma malondialdehyde (MDA levels, protein carbonyl formation and non-HDL oxidation, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPX activities, serum ceruloplasmin (CER and urinary cotinine concentrations were evaluated. Pre-ex CER and urinary cotinine concentrations of smokers were significantly higher (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively compared to that of non-smokers and pre-ex CER concentrations were significantly correlated with cotinine levels in all subjects (p<0.05. Significant (p<0.01 increases were observed in non-HDL oxidation following the exercise in both groups and the elevations were more pronounced in smokers. Pre-ex SOD and GPX activities were not different between the two groups, however post-ex enzyme activities were significantly reduced in smokers (p<0.05. MDA and protein carbonyl concentrations were not different between the two groups and there were not any significant changes due to exercise.In conclusion, according to the results of the present study, we suggest that erythrocyte antioxidants SOD and GPX and plasma non-HDL are more prone to the possible oxidant damage of acute physical exercise in chronic smokers.

  10. Differentiation of chronic and aggressive forms of periodontitis and of smokers and non-smokers by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihal Simsek Ozek

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine if Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR could distinguish chronic periodontitis (CP and aggressive periodontitis (AgP patients by cross-sectional salivary spectral analyses and to assess the potential confounding influence of smoking on discriminating spectral signatures. Methods: FTIR analysis of saliva collected from patients with CP (n = 18, 7 smokers, AgP (n = 23, 9 smokers was performed. Smoking status was confirmed by salivary cotinine analysis. Spectral band area analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis was performed. Results: Spectral analyses indicated significantly lower lipid, phospholipid, protein, amino acid, lactic acid, nucleic acid contents in smoker than non-smoker AgP group. Amino acid, phospholipid, lactic acid contents were significantly lower in smoker than non-smoker CP group. Thiocyanate levels successfully differentiated smokers from non-smokers, irrespective of periodontal status. Cluster analysis to discriminate smokers from non-smokers and CP from AgP was highly promising. Conclusions: FTIR can be employed to discriminate smokers from non-smokers and CP from AgP.

  11. Characteristics of Participants Enrolled in a Brief Motivational Enhancement for Smokers

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    Amy L Copeland

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Daily smoking is associated with elevated blood pressure, CO toxicity, and impaired pulmonary lung functioning. The benefits of successful smoking cessation are readily apparent, given the health improvements associated with cessation, as well as the reduction of secondhand smoke to which nonsmoking coworkers and family members are exposed. Previous literature indicates that providing personalized information to smokers (versus general base rates without engaging in confrontational pressure to quit smoking, leads to increased interest in quitting smoking and willingness to enter smoking cessation programs. The goal of this study was to examine the pre-treatment characteristics of the smokers entering a brief motivational enhancement intervention based on personally tailored health feedback. Participants (N = 28 were 88.2% Caucasian, 59% male, and were an average of 23.0 years of age. On average, they smoked 20.08 cigarettes per day (CPD, for a mean of 6.6 years, a mean Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND score of 4.7, and obtained a mean breath carbon monoxide (CO reading of 19.1 ppm. Smoking related adverse health outcomes were predictive of stages of change (SOC motivation to quit smoking. Implication for cessation programs are discussed.

  12. Tobacco toxicant exposure in cigarette smokers who use or do not use other tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nollen, Nicole L; Mayo, Matthew S; Clark, Lauren; Cox, Lisa Sanderson; Khariwala, Samir S; Pulvers, Kim; Benowitz, Neal L; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S

    2017-10-01

    Non-cigarette other tobacco products (OTP; e.g., cigarillos, little cigars) are typically used in combination with cigarettes, but limited data exists on the tobacco toxicant exposure profiles of dual cigarette-OTP (Cig-OTP) users. This study examined biomarkers of nicotine and carcinogen exposure in cigarette smokers who used or did not use OTP. 111 Cig-OTP and 111 cigarette only (Cig Only) users who smoked equivalent cigarettes per day were matched on age (=40), race (African American, White), and gender. Participants reported past 7-day daily use of cigarettes and OTP and provided urine for nicotine, cotinine, total nicotine equivalents (TNE) and total NNAL concentrations. Cig-OTP users reported greater past 7-day tobacco use (15.9 versus 13.0 products/day, pCig Only users (pCig-OTP users had lower levels of nicotine and metabolites of a lung carcinogen relative to Cig-Only users, but concentrations of toxicants among Cig-OTP users were still at levels that place smokers at great risk from the detrimental health effects of smoking. Our study finds that nicotine and carcinogen exposure in Cig-OTP users are lower compared to cigarette only users, but still likely to be associated with substantial harm. A better understanding of why toxicant levels may be lower in Cig-OTP is an important area for future study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Nondaily smokers' experience of craving on days they do not smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, Saul; Dunbar, Michael S; Tindle, Hilary A; Ferguson, Stuart G

    2015-08-01

    Nondaily, or intermittent smokers (ITS), represent a growing pattern in adult smoking that needs to be explained by models of drug dependence. ITS regularly and voluntarily abstain from smoking, yet have difficulty quitting. We examine potential accounts of ITS' smoking by exploring their experience of craving and withdrawal on the days they abstain. For 3 weeks, 146 ITS and 194 daily smokers used the Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) to monitor craving, withdrawal, and smoking in real-time. ITS' craving (p < .001) and arousal (p < .001) were significantly lower on the 34.4% of days when they abstained (compared with days they smoked), and they experienced no increases in withdrawal symptoms. ITS who abstained for longer experienced lower craving, even on their first day of abstinence (p < .001). Within strata defined by longest duration of abstinence (1, 2-3, 4-6, ≥7 days), craving did not change over time, demonstrating no increase as resumption of smoking approached. Craving increased only at the moment smoking resumed. Furthermore, duration of abstinence runs varied more within persons than across persons. These findings contradict the predictions of a model positing that craving recurs at fixed intervals. Findings are consistent with the hypothesis that ITS' smoking is cued or primed by particular stimuli rather than by temporal cycles. These analyses demonstrate that ITS do not experience increased craving or withdrawal on days they do not smoke, and show neither signs of classical dependence nor regular cycles of craving and smoking.

  14. Workplace smoking restrictions: smoking behavior and the intention to change among continuing smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüge, Jeannette; Broda, Anja; Ulbricht, Sabina; Klein, Gudrun; Rumpf, Hans-Jürgen; John, Ulrich; Meyer, Christian

    2010-12-01

    In this study, the association between three levels of workplace smoking restrictions and smoking behavior and variables related to the intention to quit among continuing smokers was examined. Adult smokers were recruited from consecutive patients attending a random sample of 34 general medical practices from a pre-defined, north-eastern German region. Self-reported data were gathered in the waiting room by questionnaire. Cross-sectional data of 1,012 employees were analyzed using ordered logistic regression analyses. Among the sample, 12% reported a smoke-free workplace, 51% had partial, and 37% no smoking restrictions. Daily cigarette consumption was lower when there were higher levels of restriction. No association was found between smoking restrictions and previous attempts to quit, nicotine dependence, or indicators of adjusted inhalation to compensate for the lower number of cigarettes (e.g. puffs per cigarette, darker coloring of filter). Smoking restrictions were positively associated with single psychological measures related to the intention to quit. Employees who continue to smoke may benefit from workplace smoking restrictions in terms of reduced, active smoke exposure and psychological effects increasing their readiness to quit.

  15. Periodontal bone height of exclusive narghile smokers compared with exclusive cigarette smokers

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    Mehdi Khemiss

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the periodontal bone height (PBH of exclusive narghile smokers (ENS with that of exclusive cigarette smokers (ECS. Methods: Tunisian males aged 20–35 years who have been ENS for more than five narghile-years or ECS for more than five pack-years were recruited to participate in this comparative cross-sectional study. Information about oral health habits and tobacco consumption were gathered using a predetermined questionnaire. Plaque levels were recorded in four sites using the plaque index of Loe and Silness. The PBH was measured mesially and distally from digital panoramic radiographs of each tooth and expressed as a percentage of the root length. A PBH level ≤0.70 was applied as a cutoff reference value signifying bone loss. Student t-test and Chi2 test were used to compare quantitative and qualitative data of both groups. Results: There were no significant differences between the ENS (n=60 and ECS (n=60 groups regarding age and the consumed quantities of tobacco (28±4 vs. 27±5 years, 7±3 narghile-years vs. 8±3 pack-years, respectively. Compared with the ECS group, the ENS group had a significantly higher plaque index (mean±SD values were 1.54±0.70 vs. 1.84±0.73, respectively. However, the two groups had similar means of PBH (0.85±0.03 vs. 0.86±0.04 and tooth brushing frequencies (1.1±0.8 vs. 0.9±0.6 a day, respectively and had similar bone loss frequencies (15% vs. 12%, respectively. Conclusions: Both ENS and ECS exhibited the same PBH reduction, which means that both types of tobacco smoking are associated with periodontal bone loss.

  16. Salivary immunoglobulin classes in Nigerian smokers with periodontitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Olatunde; A; Olayanju; Sheu; K; Rahamon; Ijeboime; O; Joseph; Olatunbosun; G; Arinola

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To determine the levels of salivary immunoglobulin classes in Nigerian smokers and non-smokers with periodontitis.METHODS:Sixty-nine individuals were recruited into this study after obtaining informed consent.They were subdivided into three groups that consisted of 20(aged 46 ± 11 years) cigarette smokers with periodontitis(S+P);24(40 ± 12 years) smokers without periodontitis(S-P);and 25(53 ± 11 years) non-smokers with periodontitis(NS+P).An oral and maxillofacial surgeon used radiographs for periodontal probing for the diagnosis of periodontitis.The smokers included subjects who smoked at least six cigarettes per day and all the periodontitis patients were newly diagnosed.About 5 mL of unstimulated saliva was expectorated by each subject into plain sample bottles.Salivary immunoglobulin levels were estimated using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay.Student’s t test was used to deter-mine significant differences between the means.Values of P < 0.05 were regarded as significant.RESULTS:No significant differences were observed in the mean salivary levels of the immunoglobulin classes(IgG,IgA,IgM and IgE) when S+P was compared with S-P.Mean salivary levels of IgA(520.0 ± 155.1 ng/mL vs 670.0 ± 110 ng/mL,P = 0.000) and IgM(644.5 ± 160.0 ng/mL vs 791.4 ± 43.7 ng/mL,P = 0.000) were significantly lower in the S+P compared with NS+P group.Salivary IgA(570.4 ± 145.6 ng/mL vs 670.0 ± 110 ng/mL,P = 0.008) and IgM(703.1 ± 169.3 ng/mL vs 791.4 ± 43.7 ng/mL,P = 0.012) levels were significantly lower in the S-P compared with NS+P group.Only one(5%) periodontal patient had detectable levels of salivary IgE(0.20 IU/mL).Similarly,only one smoker(4.17%) had detectable levels of salivary IgE(0.04 IU/mL) and two non-smokers(9.52%) had detectable levels of IgE(0.24 IU/mL).CONCLUSION:Our study suggests that reduced salivary IgA and IgM levels in smokers with periodontitis could enhance increased susceptibility to periodontitis.

  17. Functional Connectivity During Exposure to Favorite-Food, Stress, and Neutral-Relaxing Imagery Differs Between Smokers and Nonsmokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Kathleen A; Sinha, Rajita; Lacadie, Cheryl M; Scheinost, Dustin; Jastreboff, Ania M; Constable, R Todd; Potenza, Marc N

    2016-09-01

    Tobacco-use disorder is a complex condition involving multiple brain networks and presenting with multiple behavioral correlates including changes in diet and stress. In a previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study of neural responses to favorite-food, stress, and neutral-relaxing imagery, smokers versus nonsmokers demonstrated blunted corticostriatal-limbic responses to favorite-food cues. Based on other recent reports of alterations in functional brain networks in smokers, the current study examined functional connectivity during exposure to favorite-food, stress, and neutral-relaxing imagery in smokers and nonsmokers, using the same dataset. The intrinsic connectivity distribution was measured to identify brain regions that differed in degree of functional connectivity between groups during each imagery condition. Resulting clusters were evaluated for seed-to-voxel connectivity to identify the specific connections that differed between groups during each imagery condition. During exposure to favorite-food imagery, smokers versus nonsmokers showed lower connectivity in the supramarginal gyrus, and differences in connectivity between the supramarginal gyrus and the corticostriatal-limbic system. During exposure to neutral-relaxing imagery, smokers versus nonsmokers showed greater connectivity in the precuneus, and greater connectivity between the precuneus and the posterior insula and rolandic operculum. During exposure to stress imagery, smokers versus nonsmokers showed lower connectivity in the cerebellum. These findings provide data-driven insights into smoking-related alterations in brain functional connectivity patterns related to appetitive, relaxing, and stressful states. This study uses a data-driven approach to demonstrate that smokers and nonsmokers show differential patterns of functional connectivity during guided imagery related to personalized favorite-food, stress, and neutral-relaxing cues, in brain regions implicated in attention

  18. Native, discount, or premium brand cigarettes: what types of cigarettes are Canadian youth currently smoking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elton-Marshall, Tara; Leatherdale, Scott T; Burkhalter, Robin

    2013-02-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the brand distribution of premium, discount, and native cigarette brands and to identify the factors associated with smoking these brands among a nationally representative sample of Canadian youth smokers. Data from 3,137 current smokers in Grades 9-12 participating in the 2008-2009 Youth Smoking Survey (YSS) were used to examine the prevalence and factors associated with different cigarette brand preferences. The most prevalent brand of cigarette smoked was premium cigarettes (44.7%), followed by discount cigarettes (33.7%), and to be native cigarettes (7.3%). There was significant variability in brand preference by province with the majority of youth in Atlantic Canada and Quebec smoking a discount brand of cigarettes and higher prevalence rates of native cigarette use in Ontario and Quebec. Respondents were more likely to smoke discount cigarettes if they were female, daily smokers, or if they only had $1-20 a week in spending money. Respondents were more likely to smoke native cigarettes if they were Aboriginal, heavier smokers, or if they reported having no weekly spending money. A significant proportion of students from Grade 9 to 12 in Canada smoke cigarettes that are more affordable than premium brands and it appears that the market share for these more affordable cigarette options has increased in recent years. Given that the price of cigarettes is an important determinant in youth smoking behavior, it is critical to develop and continue to enforce tobacco control strategies designed to eliminate access to cheaper sources of cigarettes among youth populations.

  19. E-cigarette use among smokers with serious mental illness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith J Prochaska

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We examined electronic cigarette (EC use, correlates of use, and associated changes in smoking behavior among smokers with serious mental illness in a clinical trial. METHODS: Adult smokers were recruited during acute psychiatric hospitalization (N = 956, 73% enrollment among approached smokers in the San Francisco Bay Area between 2009-2013. At baseline, participants averaged 17 (SD = 10 cigarettes per day for 19 (SD = 14 years; 24% intended to quit smoking in the next month. Analyses examined frequency and correlates of EC use reported over the 18-month trial and changes in smoking behavior by EC use status. FINDINGS: EC use was 11% overall, and by year of enrollment, increased from 0% in 2009 to 25% in 2013. In multiple logistic regression, the likelihood of EC use was significantly greater with each additional year of recruitment, for those aged 18-26, and for those in the preparation versus precontemplation stage of change, and unlikely among Hispanic participants. EC use was unrelated to gender, psychiatric diagnosis, and measures of tobacco dependence at baseline. Further, over the 18-month trial, EC use was not associated with changes in smoking status or, among continued smokers, with reductions in cigarettes per day. INTERPRETATION: Within a clinical trial with smokers with serious mental illness, EC use increased over time, particularly among younger adults and those intending to quit tobacco. EC use was unrelated to changes in smoking. The findings are of clinical interest and warrant further study.

  20. The moderating role of partner support among smokers and abstainers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Graça Pereira

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the moderating effect of partner support in the relationship between psychological morbidity and quality of life among smokers and abstainers. Methods: This observational cross-sectional study assessed “partner support”, “psychological morbidity” (depression, anxiety and stress and “quality of life” in a convenience sample of 224 smokers and 169 abstainers through questionnaires that were validated and analyzed using regression and simple slopes. Results: Partner support (positive and negative among smokers appeared as a moderator in the relationship between psychological morbidity and physical quality of life. As for mental quality of life, the partner support did not have a moderating effect. The results among abstainers are similar to those found among smokers. When positive partner support is strong, there is an opposite relationship between psychological morbidity and quality of life. However, this relationship is stronger when negative partner support is strong and, in this case, the relationship between psychological morbidity and quality of life is negative. Conclusion: Partner support, whether positive or negative, was an important moderator concerning quality of life and psychological morbidity of smokers and abstainers. doi:10.5020/18061230.2013.p349

  1. Alcohol consumption as a predictor of reactivity to smoking and stress cues presented in the natural environment of smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomko, Rachel L; Saladin, Michael E; McClure, Erin A; Squeglia, Lindsay M; Carpenter, Matthew J; Tiffany, Stephen T; Baker, Nathaniel L; Gray, Kevin M

    2017-02-01

    The high prevalence of co-occurring alcohol and tobacco use underscores the importance of understanding the influence of alcohol consumption on risk factors for smoking and relapse. Alcohol has been shown to impact reactivity to smoking and stress-related cues, both of which are common antecedents to smoking and smoking relapse. The objective of the current study is to examine associations between alcohol use, cigarette craving, and stress reactivity following exposure to smoking and stress cues delivered in participants' daily lives. Using cue-reactivity ecological momentary assessment (CREMA), adult smokers (n = 138) reported cigarette craving, stress, and past hour alcohol use on a mobile device four times per day for 2 weeks, resulting in a range of 4493-5983 data points per analysis. Questions were followed by exposure to pictorial neutral, stressful, or smoking cues delivered via the mobile device. Craving and affect were re-assessed following cue exposure. Results showed that recent (past hour) alcohol use was significantly associated with increases in the following: (a) tonic (non-cue-elicited) cigarette craving, (b) stress cue-elicited cigarette craving, and (c) stress cue-elicited stress reactivity, in the context of high-baseline stress. There was no significant association between alcohol use and smoking cue-elicited craving. Alcohol use may increase risk for smoking and relapse to smoking by increasing cigarette craving and, in certain contexts, stress following stress cue exposure. Though alcohol is known for its anxiolytic properties, under some conditions, it may increase reactivity to stress cues.

  2. Smoker reactivity to cues: effects on craving and on smoking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, Saul; Dunbar, Michael; Kirchner, Thomas; Li, Xiaoxue; Tindle, Hilary; Anderson, Stewart; Scholl, Sarah

    2013-02-01

    We assessed craving and smoking in response to smoking-relevant cues. Two hundred seven daily smokers viewed images related to 1 of 6 cue sets (cigarettes, positive and negative affect, alcohol, smoking prohibitions, and neutral cues) in separate sessions. Compared with neutral cues, cigarette cues significantly increased craving, and positive affect cues significantly decreased craving. When subjects were then allowed to smoke during continuing cue exposure, cues did not affect the likelihood of smoking or the amount smoked (number of cigarettes, number of puffs, puff time, or increased carbon monoxide). However, craving intensity predicted likelihood of smoking, latency to smoke, and amount smoked, with craving increases after cue exposure making significant independent contributions. Some craving effects were curvilinear, suggesting that they are subject to thresholds and might not be observed under some circumstances.

  3. Smoker Reactivity to Cues: Effects on Craving and on Smoking behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, Saul; Dunbar, Michael; Kirchner, Thomas; Li, Xiaoxue; Tindle, Hilary; Anderson, Stewart; Scholl, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    We assessed craving and smoking in response to smoking-relevant cues. 207 daily smokers viewed images related to one of six cue sets (cigarettes, positive and negative affect, alcohol, smoking prohibitions, and neutral cues) in separate sessions. Compared to neutral cues, cigarette cues significantly increased craving, and positive affect cues significantly decreased craving. When subjects were then allowed to smoke during continuing cue exposure, cues did not affect the likelihood of smoking or the amount smoked (number of cigarettes, number of puffs, puff time, or increased carbon monoxide). However, craving intensity predicted likelihood of smoking, latency to smoke, and amount smoked, with craving increases after cue exposure making significant independent contributions. Some craving effects were curvilinear, suggesting that they are subject to thresholds and might not be observed under some circumstances. PMID:22708884

  4. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, ADCP

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) water currents data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian...

  5. Acute effects of short term use of e-cigarettes on airways physiology and respiratory symptoms in smokers with and without airways obstructive diseases and in healthy non smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasios Palamidas

    2017-03-01

    Short term use of e-cigarette has acute effects on airways physiology and respiratory symptoms in COPD smokers, asthmatic smokers, “healthy” smokers and healthy never smokers. E-cigarette use is associated with health effects in healthy never smokers irrespectively of nicotine concentration. More studies are needed to investigate both short and long term effects of e-cig.

  6. Differences in reasons for smoking between younger and older smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oei, T P; Tilley, D; Gow, K

    1991-01-01

    The reasons why older people smoke have not been examined in the literature. This paper attempted to examine the differences in motivation and maintenance factors of elderly and young smokers using the Horn-Waingrow Why do you smoke questionnaire. One hundred and thirteen clinical patients and 112 non-patient controls were used in this study. The clinical group was divided into an elderly group (n = 58) and a younger group (n = 55). The results of a discriminant analysis showed that patients significantly differed from non-patients on 'automatic habit and stimulation', and 'crutch/tension reduction' factors. Elderly patients were found to be significantly differentiated from both younger patients and the control group on the 'pleasurable relaxation' factor. These findings offer support for the US Surgeon Generals' report that elderly smokers do have different motivating factors for their smoking behaviours from younger smokers.

  7. Cannabidiol reduces cigarette consumption in tobacco smokers: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Celia J A; Das, Ravi K; Joye, Alyssa; Curran, H Valerie; Kamboj, Sunjeev K

    2013-09-01

    The role of the endocannabinoid system in nicotine addiction is being increasingly acknowledged. We conducted a pilot, randomised double blind placebo controlled study set out to assess the impact of the ad-hoc use of cannabidiol (CBD) in smokers who wished to stop smoking. 24 smokers were randomised to receive an inhaler of CBD (n=12) or placebo (n=12) for one week, they were instructed to use the inhaler when they felt the urge to smoke. Over the treatment week, placebo treated smokers showed no differences in number of cigarettes smoked. In contrast, those treated with CBD significantly reduced the number of cigarettes smoked by ~40% during treatment. Results also indicated some maintenance of this effect at follow-up. These preliminary data, combined with the strong preclinical rationale for use of this compound, suggest CBD to be a potential treatment for nicotine addiction that warrants further exploration.

  8. Daily sperm production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyjovska, Zdenka Orabi; Boisen, Anne Mette Zenner; Jackson, Petra

    2013-01-01

    instillation with Printex90. Body and testicle weight, sperm content per g testicular parenchyma and daily sperm production (DSP) were assessed. The protocol for assessment of DSP was optimized for application in mice (C57BL/6J) and the influence of different parameters was studied. Maternal particulate...... exposure did not affect DSP statistically significantly in the F1 generation, although TiO2 tended to reduce sperm counts. Overall, time-to-first F2 litter increased with decreasing sperm production. There was no effect on sperm production in the F2 generation originating after TiO2 exposure. F2 offspring......, whose fathers were prenatally exposed to Printex90, showed lowered sperm production. Furthermore, we report statistically significant differences in sperm production between mouse strains....

  9. New daily persistent headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Tyagi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available New daily persistent headache (NDPH is a chronic headache developing in a person who does not have a past history of headaches. The headache begins acutely and reaches its peak within 3 days. It is important to exclude secondary causes, particularly headaches due to alterations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF pressure and volume. A significant proportion of NDPH sufferers may have intractable headaches that are refractory to treatment. The condition is best viewed as a syndrome rather than a diagnosis. The headache can mimic chronic migraine and chronic tension-type headache, and it is also important to exclude secondary causes, particularly headaches due to alterations in CSF pressure and volume. A large proportion of NDPH sufferers have migrainous features to their headache and should be managed with treatments used for treating migraine. A small group of NDPH sufferers may have intractable headaches that are refractory to treatment.

  10. Physics in daily life

    CERN Document Server

    Hermans, Jo

    2012-01-01

    This book provides answers to everyday questions that any curious mind would ask, like : Why is water blue ? What makes ice so slippery ? How do we localize sound ? How do we keep our body temperature so nice and constant ? How do we survive the sauna at 90 C ? Why do large raindrops fall faster than small ones, and what exactly is their speed ? The answers are given in an accessible and playful way, and are illustrated with funny cartoons. In this book forty "Physics in Daily Life" columns, which appeared earlier in Europhysics News, are brought together in one inspiring volume. As well as being a source of enjoyment and satisfying insights for anyone with some physics background, it also serves as a very good teaching tool for science students. This booklet is a feast of erudition and humour.

  11. Direct Observations of Parenting and Real-time Negative Affect among Adolescent Smokers and Non-Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Melanie J.; Mermelstein, Robin J.; Wakschlag, Lauren S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective This longitudinal study examined how observations of parental general communication style and control with their adolescents predicted changes in negative affect over time for adolescent smokers and non-smokers. Method Participants were 9th and 10th grade adolescents (N = 111; 56.8% female) who had all experimented with cigarettes and were thus at risk for continued smoking and escalation; 36% of these adolescents (n = 40) had smoked in the past month at baseline and were considered smokers in the present analyses. Adolescents participated separately with mothers and fathers in observed parent-adolescent problem-solving discussions to assess parenting at baseline. Adolescent negative affect was assessed at baseline, 6- and 24-months via ecological momentary assessment. Results Among both smoking and non-smoking adolescents, escalating negative affect significantly increased risk for future smoking. Higher quality maternal and paternal communication predicted a decline in negative affect over 1.5 years for adolescent smokers but was not related to negative affect for non-smokers. Controlling maternal, but not paternal, parenting predicted escalation in negative affect for all adolescents. Conclusions Findings suggest that reducing negative affect among experimenting youth can reduce risk for smoking escalation. Therefore, family-based prevention efforts for adolescent smoking escalation might consider parental general communication style and control as intervention targets. However, adolescent smoking status and parent gender may moderate these effects. PMID:23153193

  12. Severity of dependence modulates smokers' neuronal cue reactivity and cigarette craving elicited by tobacco advertisement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollstädt-Klein, Sabine; Kobiella, Andrea; Bühler, Mira; Graf, Caroline; Fehr, Christoph; Mann, Karl; Smolka, Michael N

    2011-01-01

    Smoking-related cues elicit craving and mesocorticolimbic brain activation in smokers. Severity of nicotine dependence seems to moderate cue reactivity, but the direction and mechanisms of its influence remains unclear. Although tobacco control policies demand a ban on tobacco advertising, cue reactivity studies in smokers so far have not employed tobacco advertisement as experimental stimuli. We investigated whether tobacco advertisement elicits cue reactivity at a behavioral (subjective craving) and a neural level (using functional magnetic resonance imaging) in 22 smokers and 21 never-smokers. Moreover, we studied the influence of severity of dependence on cue reactivity. In smokers, tobacco advertisement elicited substantially more craving than control advertisement whereas never-smokers reported no cue induced craving. Surprisingly, neuronal cue reactivity did not differ between smokers and never-smokers. Moderately dependent smokers' craving increased over the course of the experiment, whereas highly dependent smokers' craving was unaffected. Moderately dependent smokers' brain activity elicited by tobacco advertisement was higher in the amygdala, hippocampus, putamen and thalamus compared with highly dependent smokers. Furthermore, limbic brain activation predicted picture recognition rates after the scanning session, even in never-smokers. Our findings show that tobacco advertisement elicits cigarette craving and neuronal cue reactivity primarily in moderately dependent smokers, indicating that they might be particularly responsive towards external smoking-related cues. On the other hand, neuronal cue reactivity and cigarette craving in highly dependent smokers is more likely triggered by internal cues such as withdrawal symptoms. Tobacco advertisement seems to likewise appeal to smokers and non-smokers, clarifying the potential danger especially for young non-smokers.

  13. Predicting the risk of chronic bronchitis in teenage smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.I. Ilchenko

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. The purpose of the study was to create a prognostic model of the risk of chronic respiratory pathology in teenage smokers comfortable to use in practical medicine. Materials and methods. 73 teenage smokers aged 14–18 years (average age is 16.4 ± 0.2 years have been exa­mined. They were divided into two groups: group 1 consisted of 36 teenage smo­kers with chronic bronchitis (average age is 16.8 ± 0.2 years and comparison group comprised 37 apparently healthy teenage smokers (average age is 15.9 ± 0.2 years. We have studied clinical-anamnestic, functiona­­linstrumental data (spirometry, radiography of chest organs, level of nitric oxide in expired breath condensate, respiratory muscles strength and molecular-genetic factors of the risk of developing chronic pathology of respiratory organs in teenage smokers — 103 characteristics overall. The method of consequent (sequential analysis of Wald and Bayes strategy were used to create a prognostic model of the risk of chronic bronchitis. Results. The principle of working with a mathematical model for predicting the risk of chronic respiratory pathology development in teenage smokers is to sum up diagnostic factors that are consistent with the signs found in the patient. When the sum of diagnostic components is +13, the deve­lopment of chronic bronchitis is diagnosed in teenage smo­kers with error probability ≤ 5 % (р < 0.05; when the sum is +20 — the probability of diagnosis is 99 % (р < 0.01. Conclusions. Our algorithm for predicting the risk of develo­ping chronic bronchitis in teenage smokers will help early detection of high-risk patients in the formation of this pathology for personalized preventive measures that will allow practitioners to prevent chronic pathological processes and to improve the quality of life.

  14. Characteristics of smokers accessing the Puerto Rico Quitline

    Science.gov (United States)

    ORTIZ, ANA PATRICIA; DÁAZ-TORO, ELBA C.; CALO, WILLIAM A.; CORREA-FERNÁNDEZ, VIRMARIE; CASES, ANTONIO; SANTOS-ORTIZ, MARÍA C.; MAZAS, CARLOS; MEJÍA, LUZ; WETTER, DAVID W.

    2009-01-01

    Background: In 2004, the Puerto Rico Department of Health implemented the Puerto Rico Quitline (PRQ), a proactive, telephone-based smoking cessation counseling program. This study examines the demographic and smoking-related characteristics of the individuals served by the PRQ. Methods: Analyses included PRQ participants registered from December 2004-December 2005. PRQ call rates and rate ratios (RR) were calculated overall, among smokers, and stratified by relevant covariates. Associations between sex and relevant characteristics of PRQ participants were compared using regression models. Results: Call rates per 100,000 smokers in PR were lower among men than women (RR=0.50, 95% CI=0.44-0.56), and higher among all age groups ≥ 25 years of age as compared to those aged 15-24 years (RRs=4.34-8.14) and among smokers living in the San Juan metropolitan area relative to smokers residing outside the metropolitan area (RR=1.45, 95% CI=1.29-1.63). Mass media was the most common way in which participants learned about the PRQ (>70%), with only 2-3% of callers reporting a physician's referral as the source of their information about the PRQ. With respect to reasons for quitting, men were less likely than women to report concern about a child's health (OR=0.62, 95% CI=0.46-0.84) and cigarette odor (OR=0.64, 95% CI=0.41-0.99). Meanwhile, men were more likely (OR=1.39, 95% CI=1.01-1.91) to report the influence of other smokers as a barrier during quitting. Conclusions: PRQ promotion and outreach efforts should target populations underserved by the PRQ including male, young adult, and non-metropolitan area smokers. Initiatives that link the PRQ with primary care providers in promoting smoking cessation should be encouraged. PMID:18782965

  15. Relationship between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and subclinical coronary artery disease in long-term smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas; Køber, Lars; Pedersen, Jesper Holst;

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular conditions are reported to be the most frequent cause of death in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, it remains unsettled whether severity of COPD per se is associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) independent of traditional cardiovascular risk...... factors. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the presence and severity of COPD and the amount of coronary artery calcium deposit, an indicator of CAD and cardiac risk, in a large population of current and former long-term smokers....

  16. A comparison of emotion regulation strategies in response to craving cognitions: Effects on smoking behaviour, craving and affect in dependent smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Beadman, M.; Das, R. K.; Freeman, T. P.; Scragg, P.; West, R; Kamboj, S. K.

    2015-01-01

    AIM: The effects of three emotion regulation strategies that targeted smoking-related thoughts were compared on outcomes relevant to smoking cessation. METHOD: Daily smokers applied defusion (n = 25), reappraisal (n = 25) or suppression (n = 23) to thoughts associated with smoking during a cue-induced craving procedure. Smoking behaviour, approach/avoidance behavioural bias, and subjective measures of experiential avoidance, craving, and affect were assessed during the experimental session, w...

  17. Urinary mercapturic acids and a hemoglobin adduct for the dosimetry of acrylamide exposure in smokers and nonsmokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Michael; Kavvadias, Dominique; Riedel, Kirsten; Scherer, Gerhard; Tricker, Anthony R

    2006-09-01

    Acrylamide, used in the manufacture of polyacrylamide and grouting agents, is also present in the diet and tobacco smoke. It is a neurotoxin and a probable human carcinogen. Analytical methods were established to determine the mercapturic acids of acrylamide (N-acetyl-S-(2-carbamoylethyl)-L-cysteine, AAMA) and its metabolite glycidamide (N-(R/S)-acetyl-S-(2-carbamoyl-2-hydroxyethyl)-L-cysteine, GAMA) by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), as well as the N-terminal valine adduct of acrylamide (N-2-carbamoylethylvaline, AAVal) released by N-alkyl Edman degradation of hemoglobin by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Twenty-four-hour urine samples from 60 smokers and 60 nonsmokers were analyzed for AAMA and GAMA, and blood samples were analyzed for AAVal. Smokers excreted 2.5-fold higher amounts of AAMA and 1.7-fold higher amounts of GAMA in their urine and had 3-fold higher levels of AAVal in their blood. All three biomarkers of acrylamide exposure were strongly correlated with the smoking dose as determined by the daily cigarette consumption, nicotine equivalents (the molar sum of nicotine, cotinine, trans-3'-hydroxycotinine, and their respective glucuronides) in urine, salivary cotinine, and carbon monoxide in expired breath. In nonsmokers, a weak but significant correlation between AAMA and the estimated dietary intake of acrylamide was found. It is concluded that all three biomarkers of acrylamide are suitable for the determination of exposure in both smokers and nonsmokers.

  18. Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Utility of Pulmonary Function Tests in Predicting Emphysema in Ever-Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrah Kheradmand

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Emphysema is largely an under-diagnosed medical condition that can exist in smokers in the absence of airway obstruction. We aimed to determine the sensitivity and specificity of pulmonary function tests (PFTs in assessing emphysema using quantitative CT scans as the reference standard. We enrolled 224 ever-smokers (current or former over the age of 40. CT of thorax was used to quantify the low attenuation area (% emphysema, and to measure the standardized airway wall thickness. PFTs were used individually and in combination to predict their ability to discriminate radiographic emphysema. Significant emphysema (>7% was detected in 122 (54% subjects. Twenty six (21% emphysema subjects had no evidence of airflow obstruction (FEV1/FVC ratio 23% emphysema showed airflow obstruction. The sensitivity and specificity of spirometry for detecting radiographic emphysema were 79% and 75%, respectively. Standardized airway wall thickness was increased in subjects with airflow obstruction, but did not correlate with emphysema severity. In this cohort of lifetime ever-smokers, PFTs alone were inadequate for diagnosing emphysema. Airway wall thickness quantified by CT morphometry was associated with airflow limitation, but not with emphysema indicating that the heterogeneous nature of lung disease in smokers may represent distinct phenotypes.

  19. Citicoline Treatment Improves Measures of Impulsivity and Task Performance in Chronic Marijuana Smokers: A Pilot BOLD fMRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Staci A; Sagar, Kelly A; Dahlgren, Mary Kathryn; Gonenç, Atilla; Conn, Nina A; Winer, Jeffrey P; Penetar, David; Lukas, Scott E

    2015-09-30

    Citicoline is an endogenous nucleotide that has historically been used to treat stroke, traumatic brain injury, and cognitive dysfunction. Research has also shown that citicoline treatment is associated with improved cognitive performance in substance-abusing populations. We hypothesized that marijuana (MJ) smokers who received citicoline would demonstrate improvement in cognitive performance as well as increased neural efficiency during tasks of cognitive control relative to those who received placebo. The current study tested this hypothesis by examining the effects of citicoline in treatment-seeking chronic MJ smokers. In an 8-week double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 19 MJ smokers were randomly assigned via a double-blind procedure to the citicoline (8 Males, 2 Females) or placebo group (9 Males, 0 Females). All participants completed fMRI scanning at baseline and after 8 weeks of treatment during two cognitive measures of inhibitory processing, the Multi Source Interference Test (MSIT) and Stroop Color Word Test, and also completed the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), a self-report measure of impulsivity. Following the 8 week trial, MJ smokers treated with citicoline demonstrated significantly lower levels of behavioral impulsivity, improved task accuracy on both the MSIT and Stroop tasks, and exhibited significantly different patterns of brain activation relative to baseline levels and relative to those who received placebo. Findings suggest that citicoline may facilitate the treatment of MJ use disorders by improving the cognitive skills necessary to fully engage in comprehensive treatment programs.

  20. Tobacco Use and Environmental Smoke Exposure among Taiwanese Pregnant Smokers and Recent Quitters: Risk Perception, Attitude, and Avoidance Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Chang Lee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we conducted an empirical survey of the avoidance behaviors and risk perceptions of active and passive smoking pregnant smokers and recent quitters. We employed an online questionnaire survey by recruiting 166 voluntary participants from an online parenting community in Taiwan. The results of the empirical survey revealed that three-fourths of smokers quit smoking during pregnancy and one-fourth continued smoking. All pregnant women who continued smoking had partners or lived with relatives who smoked. Current smokers and quitters differed significantly in their risk perceptions and attitudes toward smoking during pregnancy. Most pregnant smokers and quitters adopted passive smoking avoidance behaviors at home and in public. Nevertheless, one-fifth of pregnant women chose not to avoid passive smoking. We concluded that most women stop smoking during pregnancy; however, most women continue to be exposed to passive-smoking environments. Perceived fetal health risks and attitudes toward smoking during pregnancy are critical predictors of the anti-smoking behaviors of pregnant women.

  1. Posttraumatic stress symptoms and body mass index among World Trade Center disaster-exposed smokers: A preliminary examination of the role of anxiety sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Samantha G; Paulus, Daniel J; Gonzalez, Adam; Mahaffey, Brittain L; Bromet, Evelyn J; Luft, Benjamin J; Kotov, Roman; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2016-07-30

    Among individuals exposed to the World Trade Center (WTC) disaster on September 11, 2001, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and symptoms are both common and associated with increased cigarette smoking and body mass. However, there is little information on the specific processes underlying the relationship of PTSD symptoms with body mass. The current study is an initial exploratory test of anxiety sensitivity, the fear of internal bodily sensations, as a possible mechanism linking PTSD symptom severity and body mass index (BMI). Participants were 147 adult daily smokers (34.0% female) exposed to the WTC disaster (via rescue/recovery work or direct witness). The direct and indirect associations between PTSD symptom severity and BMI via anxiety sensitivity (total score and subscales of physical, cognitive, and social concerns) were examined. PTSD symptom severity was related to BMI indirectly via anxiety sensitivity; this effect was specific to physical concerns about the meaning of bodily sensations. Interventions focusing on anxiety sensitivity reduction (specifically addressing physical concerns about bodily sensations) may be useful in addressing elevated BMI among trauma-exposed persons.

  2. Increased CYP1A1 expression in human exfoliated urothelial cells of cigarette smokers compared to non-smokers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerrenhaus, Angelika; Roos, Peter H. [Institute for Occupational Physiology at the University Dortmund, Dortmund (Germany); Mueller, Tina [Institute for Occupational Physiology at the University Dortmund, Dortmund (Germany); University Dortmund, Department of Statistics, Mathematical Statistics with Applications in Biometrics, Dortmund (Germany)

    2007-01-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, arylamines and nitrosamines, constituents of cigarette smoke, are known inducers of bladder cancer. The biochemical response of the target tissue, the bladder urothelium, following inhalation of cigarette smoke has not been studied so far. We used exfoliated transitional urothelial cells from human urine samples to analyze effects of smoking on induction of the cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP1A1. Samples of 40 subjects, including male and female smokers and non-smokers, were examined. A prerequisite for the immunofluorescence microscopic analysis of the cells was the enrichment of the urothelial cell population. This was achieved by a new method which is based on magnetic cell sorting exploiting specific binding of immobilized Griffonia simplicifolia lectin to the surface of urothelial cells. Immunostaining of the final cell preparation with a monoclonal antibody to CYP1A1 showed that about 6% of the urothelial cells of non-smokers stained positive for CYP1A1. However, this fraction of positive cells was more than 44% of the urothelial cells in samples from cigarette smokers. In spite of the individual variation, the difference was statistically significant. There were no gender-related differences in the portion of CYP1A1 expressing urothelial cells of smokers and non-smokers. In essence, we show for the first time that human urothelial cells respond to cigarette smoking by induction of CYP1A1. The approach opens new fields of mechanistic and biomarker research with respect to the pathogenetic processes of cancer development in the human bladder. (orig.)

  3. "Comparison of AgNORs count in exfoliative cytology of normal oral mucosa in smokers and non- smokers"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrabi Sh.

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: A strong causal relationship exists between cigarette smoking and development of oral squamous cell carcinoma, so oral screening using exfoliative cytology has been recommended to facilitate the early diagnosis of cellular alterations in oral mucosa and silver staining (AgNOR technique has been proven to be of value in the detection of incipient cellular alterations. The purpose of this study was to compare the argyrophilic nucleolar regions (AgNORs count of cells collected from normal mucosa of cigarette smokers with that obtained from non- smokers. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, cytologic smears of normal tongue, buccal mucosa and floor of the mouth from 19 smokers and 19 non- smokers were stained for AgNORs. The AgNORs count was established on 100 cells. The count value of groups were compared and analyzed using the Levens, Paired T, Student and Factorial tests. Using P<0.05 as the limit of significance. Results: The AgNORs were round and had a clustered distribution in both groups. The mean AgNORs count was statistically higher in cells of smokers than non- smokers (P<0.05. There was a significant difference between smears from the floor of the mouth and other anatomical sites in both groups. In this study, no correlation was found between AgNORs count and gender. Conclusion: Analysis of AgNORs suggests that there might be a correlation between the smoking habit and an increased rate of cellular proliferation in the oral mucosal cells.

  4. Edificio Daily Mirror

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams, Owen

    1963-07-01

    Full Text Available The building has 18 levels. The Press occupies the 4 basement floors. The ground floor is taken up with the entrance hall, and an indoor carriage way. A snack bar and the telephone operators are situated on the second floor. The production department and the medical services are located on the third storey, whilst the fourth is occupied by the offices and library. The fifth floor is the beginning of the higher section of the building. This floor and up to including the 11th floor are devoted to office space, except for the 10th storey, which contains the office apartments of the directors and the Council Chamber. Equipment related to various services of the building is housed on the 12th storey. Finally, this tall building constitutes a fine landmark in the London skyline. The Daily Mirror building is outstanding for the appropriate nature, the completeness and the quality of its installations, which thus provide the most widely read paper in the world with outstandingly efficient offices.Este edificio consta de 18 plantas. El cuerpo de Prensa se aloja en los cuatro sótanos; los vestíbulos de entrada y una calzada interior para vehículos se hallan en la planta baja; la primera alberga un snack-bar y centralita telefónica; la segunda, el departamento de producción y centro de asistencia médica, y la tercera, las oficinas y biblioteca principales. La cuarta planta señala el comienzo del bloque alto; esta planta, junto con las quinta, sexta, séptima, octava y décima, están dedicadas a oficinas. La novena contiene las oficinas-apartamentos de los directores y salas de Consejo, y la undécima, la maquinaria para las diversas instalaciones del edificio. La elevada torre constituye un grandioso hito de referencia en esta zona de Londres. El «Daily Mirror» se distingue por el acierto, número y perfección de sus instalaciones, que proporcionan, al periódico de mayor actualidad mundial, las más adecuadas y amplias oficinas modernas.

  5. ROLE OF HR C T IN EARLY DETECTION OF EMPHYSEMA IN SMOKERS WITH NORMAL CHEST RADIOGRAPH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalamala Baskara

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Emphysema is defined by the American Thoracic Society thr ough pathological criteria as "A bnormal permanent enlargement of airspaces distal to terminal bronchioles , accompanied by destruction of their walls and without obvious fibrosis." In the present scenario there is no diagnostic tool to detect the susceptible smoker. Hence a noninvasive tool that can detect the pathologic al changes early will be of immense value to guide the physician to alter the risk factors in asymptomatic patients as emphysema has its roots decades before the onset of symptoms. Recently High Resolution Computed Tomography Scan (HRCT has established it self as a sensitive modality for the detection of early emphysema. MATERIALS AND METHODS : The study group consisted of 32 adult current smokers defined as those who have been smoking five or more cigarettes per day regularly for more than five years. The s tudy group was chosen from attendants/healthy volunteers who attended the outpatient department , Government Fever Hospital , Guntur between January 2014 to march 2015. RESULTS : All the 32 subjects included in the study were males. Overall normal spirometer was observed in all the subjects. 17 (53% out of 32 subjects had CT evidence of emphysema. 5 of these 17 subjects with emphysema showed evidence of air trapping on expiratory scans only with normal inspiratory HRCT scan. 15 subjects (47% had no evidence of emphysema on both inspiratory and expiratory HRCT scans. The incidence of emphysema increased with increasing age and pack years . CONCLUSIONS : The present study concludes that HRCT done in both inspiration and expiration is a good noninvasive modality to detect early emphysema in asymptomatic current smokers there by enabling the physician to implement preventive measures in susceptible subjects. The present study also emphasized the advantage of expiratory scan in detecting emphysema when inspiratory s can is normal. The HRCT of lung is also

  6. Comparison of Barriers to Cessation among Arab American Smokers of Cigarettes and Waterpipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Haddad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study examined the differences in barriers to cessation and reasons for quitting smoking among dual smokers of cigarettes and waterpipe tobacco, exclusive cigarette smokers and exclusive waterpipe smokers. Participants were Arab American adults residing in Richmond, Virginia, who were recruited from Middle Eastern grocery stores, restaurants/lounges and faith and charity organizations. The study yielded several key findings: (1 Exclusive cigarette and waterpipe smokers had similar mean barriers to quitting and were more concerned about their health than dual smokers. (F(2, 150 = 5.594, p = 0.0045. This implies that barriers to smoking and health concerns could be a function of the individual who smokes rather than the modality of smoking itself. (2 Exclusive cigarette or waterpipe smokers and dual smokers may have different reasons for quitting, since they have different reasons for smoking. The proportion of smokers who endorsed smoking as a messy habit as the reason among exclusive cigarette smokers was 0.37, whereas the proportion among exclusive waterpipe smokers was 0.04 and among dual smokers 0.39. The difference in proportions is significant, χ2 (df = 2, N = 154 = 13.17, p = 0.0014. In summary, this study supports the need to further investigate dual cigarette and waterpipe smokers, as the study results indicate greater barriers to smoking cessation in this group. Recognition and understanding of these barriers among dual tobacco users would be important for any future tobacco intervention among waterpipe smokers.

  7. Craving and Withdrawal Symptoms During Smoking Cessation: Comparison of Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Ivan; Singleton, Edward G; Heishman, Stephen J

    2016-04-01

    Although pregnant smokers are aware of the negative peri- and postnatal health consequences of smoking, the cessation rate in pregnancy is low, raising the question of why pregnant smokers have difficulty quitting. Reasons might be that pregnant smokers experience more intense craving and withdrawal symptoms than non-pregnant smokers. We compared craving and withdrawal in 306 pregnant smokers versus 93 non-pregnant women using data from two smoking cessation trials. Complete data were analyzed using pre-quit and post-quit (2 weeks after quit date) craving and withdrawal measured by the 12-item French Tobacco Craving Questionnaire (FTCQ-12) and French Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale (FMNWS). Pregnant smokers started smoking and smoked regularly earlier and succeeded far less at quitting smoking by week 2 than the general population of smokers (11% versus 43%). Post-quit date FTCQ-12 general score was higher in pregnant smokers compared to comparison groups, and was driven by elevated emotionality and expectancy. FMNWS decreased significantly less among pregnant smokers than among non-pregnant smokers. Insufficient reduction of craving and withdrawal symptoms in response to a quit attempt may partially explain why pregnant smokers may have more difficulty quitting than non-pregnant smokers. Because this was a historical comparison, findings are preliminary; however, they might foster further investigation of differences in craving and withdrawal symptoms in pregnant versus non-pregnant smokers.

  8. How Can We Balance Ethics and Law When Treating Smokers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Senderovich

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A physician is a valued member of society on whom many individuals rely for both professional advice and support during times when they may feel to be at a disadvantage, whether it be physically or mentally. An issue on the rise today concerns the population of smokers in our society. Many are coming to share the opinion that physicians should not provide treatments for smokers. Some of the opinions are based on the claim that smokers are morally responsible for their medical conditions. But, providing care in a fair manner includes not treating differently those who suffer from addiction. Moreover, it is important to recognize that allocating medical resources based on moral responsibility will undermine the physician–patient relationship which is necessary for the practice of medicine. Many countries have codes and policies that physicians must legally follow in terms of providing treatments. With acceptance of the fact that the patient may be unable to execute the decisions made by the physician, it is the legal duty of the physician to provide care and not abandon the patient. An analysis of the many policies around the world brings forward certain changes that must be made in order to make sure that physicians fulfil their legal duty, which is to provide care. As such, this article looks into the existing ethical dilemma in treating smokers around the world, with a review of some policies that will guide our approach in this matter.

  9. Residual outcome expectations and relapse in ex-smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, A; Borland, R

    2003-01-01

    From a social cognitive theoretical point of view, strong positive outcome expectations of smoking are a cause of relapse in smoking cessation, working in concert with self-efficacy. This study investigated whether and to what extent this could be verified in a sample of ex-smokers. Some (N = 324) e

  10. "Sick" or "hooked": smokers' perception of their addiction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eiser, J.R.; van der Pligt, J.

    1986-01-01

    A postal questionnaire was completed by 127 female and 89 male smokers (mean age 32.32 yrs) who had contacted a TV company for help with stopping smoking. Ss recorded how well each of 20 statements described their feelings about their own smoking. These responses were submitted to a principal

  11. Behavioral Strategies for Nonsmokers: Avoiding and Confronting Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason, Leonard A.

    Nonsmokers repeatedly breathe smoke-polluted air in various settings, despite the evidence demonstrating the deleterious consequences upon such passive smokers. The extent of exposure to environmental irritants during a 17-day baseline period was tested, and the efficacy of two simple behavioral strategies in reducing smoke were documented…

  12. Analysis of lipid profile in cancer patients, smokers, and nonsmokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, A Vikramsimha; Killampalli, Lakshmi Keerthana; Prakash, A Ravi; Naag, Sushma; Sreenath, G; Biraggari, Sunil Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Lipids play an important role in maintaining the cell membrane integrity. Lipid profile is a panel of blood tests that serve as an initial medical screening for abnormalities in lipids and approximate risk for cancer, cardiovascular diseases, pancreatitis, etc., The present study evaluates the alterations in lipid profile in cancer patients, smokers, and nonsmokers and aims to achieve a correlation between them. The study is an in vitro type of cross-sectional study with 25 oral cancer patients, 25 chronic smokers (habit persisting for 15 years or more), and 15 nonsmokers as control group. Blood samples had been collected, and triglycerides (TGs), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were analyzed using a lipid profile kit and an autoanalyzer. The results were analyzed using the unpaired t-test and ANOVA test (P lipid profile in smokers and cancer patients. The decrease in lipid profile in cancer patients might be due to their increased utilization of lipids by neoplastic cells in membrane biogenesis. Therefore, a decrease in lipid profile in smokers can be assumed that they might be more prone to develop cancerous conditions.

  13. Factors affecting the motivation of smokers to quit smoking

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    Gourgoulianis K.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available smoking. Success of smoking cessation depends mainly on the balance between motivation and the degree of nicotine dependence. The objective of this study was to investigate factors affecting the motivation of smokers to stop smoking. Method: Data were collected from 139 smokers, aged 18-69 divided in two groups. Questionnaires were completed about the demographic data, smoking history, anthropometric characteristics, degree of nicotine dependence, motivation degree and alcohol consumption. Results: Body Mass Index was positively correlated with the dependence degree and heavy smoking, while those who were overweight in adolescence showed a lower degree of motivation for smoking cessation. Individuals with moderate or heavy alcohol consumption, those who smoked in their working environment and were heavier smokers needed greater motivation. The low degree of dependence was associated with a lower degree of motivation, while those who showed medium dependence were moderately motivated. Conclusions: Health care professionals should take into account all the above components with the aim of motivating smokers to stop smoking.

  14. Tips From Former Smokers – Brett

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-07-07

    Brett had gum disease—a danger for all smokers. Brett talks about having most of teeth pulled during one long surgery.  Created: 7/7/2014 by Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion.   Date Released: 7/7/2014.

  15. Perception of nasal pungency in smokers and nonsmokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cometto-Muñiz, J E; Cain, W S

    1982-10-01

    Two experiments explored the difference in common chemical sensitivity between smokers and nonsmokers. The first experiment confirmed and extended our previous finding that smokers have a higher threshold than nonsmokers for a short-latency, reflex transitory apnea in response to a nasal irritant (carbon dioxide). The experiment revealed that even short periods of smoking (6-10 min) just before the measurement will further impair the smokers's sensitivity to an irritant. Application of the novel scaling technique magnitude matching, whereby persons judged the perceived magnitude of various levels of an irritant, odorant, and tone in the same session, implied that smokers actually perceive irritation less keenly than nonsmokers. The psychophysical functions for pungency in the two groups suggested that the insensitivity may arise from conductive factors (e.g., thickening of the mucus barrier) rather than from neural factors. The results of the scaling and those for the threshold for transitory apnea showed excellent quantitative agreement and indicated that the threshold for the reflex occurred at a criterion level of perceived pungency.

  16. "Sick" or "hooked": smokers' perception of their addiction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.R. Eiser; J. van der Pligt

    1986-01-01

    A postal questionnaire was completed by 127 female and 89 male smokers (mean age 32.32 yrs) who had contacted a TV company for help with stopping smoking. Ss recorded how well each of 20 statements described their feelings about their own smoking. These responses were submitted to a principal compon

  17. Influence of smoking cues in movies on craving among smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lochbühler, K.C.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Scholte, R.H.J.

    2009-01-01

    Aims - Research has shown that smoking-related cues are important triggers for craving. The objective of the present study was to test whether smoking cues in movies also function as triggers to evoke craving. To accomplish this, we conducted a pilot study in which we examined smokers' reactivity to

  18. Change in left ventricular systolic function in patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction: Evidence for smoker's paradox or pseudo-paradox?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Burak; Ozeke, Ozcan; Unal, Sefa; Karakurt, Mustafa; Kara, Meryem; Kirbas, Ozgur; Sen, Fatih; Korkmaz, Ahmet; Aras, Dursun; Aydogdu, Sinan

    The 'smoker's paradox' refers to the observation of favorable prognosis in current smokers following an acute ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in the era of fibrinolysis, however, several STEMI studies have demonstrated conflicting results in patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (p-PCI). Aim of the current study was to evaluate the impact of cigarette smoking on left ventricular function in STEMI patients undergoing p-PCI. Our population is represented by 74 first-time anterior STEMI patients undergoing p-PCI, 37 of whom were smokers. We assessed left ventricular function by left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) on the second day after admission and at 3-month follow-up. Early predictors of adverse left ventricular remodelling after STEMI treated by p-PCI were examined. Basal demographics and comorbidities were similar between groups. Although the LVEF during the early phase was higher in smokers compared to non-smokers (44.95±7.93% vs. 40.32±7.28%; p=0.011); it worsened in smokers at follow-up (mean decrease in LVEF: -2.70±5.95%), whereas it improved in non-smokers (mean recovery of LVEF: +2.97±8.45%). In univariate analysis, diabetes mellitus, peak troponin I, current smoking, and lower TIMI flow grade after p-PCI, pain-to-door time and door-to-balloon times were predictors of adverse left ventricular remodelling. After multivariate logistic regression analysis, smoking at admission, lower TIMI flow grade after p-PCI, the pain-to-door time and door-to-balloon times remained independent predictors of deterioration in LVEF. True or persistent 'smoker's paradox' does not appear to be relevant among STEMI patients undergoing p-PCI. The 'smoker's paradox' is in fact a pseudo-paradox. Further studies with larger numbers may be warranted. Copyright © 2016 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Changes in airway histone deacetylase2 in smokers and COPD with inhaled corticosteroids: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhwinder Singh Sohal

    Full Text Available The expression of HDAC2 is reported as reduced in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. We assessed HDAC2 expression within the airways of smokers and subjects with COPD and effects of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS, using immuno-histology to contrast with previous molecular methodology. Endobronchial biopsies (ebb from current smokers with COPD (COPD-CS; n = 15, ex-smokers with COPD (COPD-ES; n = 17, smokers with normal lung function (NS; n = 16 and normal controls (NC; n = 9 were immunostained for HDAC2. A double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled 6 months intervention study assessed effects of ICS on HDAC2 in 34 COPD subjects. There was no difference in epithelial HDAC2 staining in all groups. There was a significant reduction in total cell numbers in the lamina propria (LP in COPD-CS and NS (p<0.05. LP cellularity correlated inversely with smoking history in COPD-CS (R = -0.8, p<0.003. HDAC2 expression increased markedly in NS (p<0.001; in contrast COPD-CS was associated with suppressed signal (p<0.03, while normal in COPD-ES. ICS did not affect HDAC2 cell staining. Our findings suggest that airway HDAC2 expression is increased in the LP by smoking itself, but is reduced in COPD. Ex-smokers have normalised HDAC2 cell expression, but ICS had no effect. The paper emphasise the pit-falls of relying on molecular data alone to define airway changes.The Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR. REGISTRY NUMBER: ACTRN12612001111864.

  20. Systemic cytokine signaling via IL-17 in smokers with obstructive pulmonary disease: a link to bacterial colonization?

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    Andelid K

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Kristina Andelid,1 Sara Tengvall,1 Anders Andersson,1 Bettina Levänen,2 Karin Christenson,3 Pernilla Jirholt,3 Christina Åhrén,4 Ingemar Qvarfordt,1 Ann Ekberg-Jansson,1 Anders Lindén2 1Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; 2Unit of Lung and Airway Research, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 3Department of Rheumatology and Inflammation Research, Institute of Medicine, 4Department of Infectious Diseases, Infection Control Unit, Institute of Biomedicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden Abstract: We examined whether systemic cytokine signaling via interleukin (IL-17 and growth-related oncogene-α (GRO-α is impaired in smokers with obstructive pulmonary disease including chronic bronchitis (OPD-CB. We also examined how this systemic cytokine signaling relates to bacterial colonization in the airways of the smokers with OPD-CB. Currently smoking OPD-CB patients (n=60, corresponding to Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease [GOLD] stage I–IV underwent recurrent blood and sputum sampling over 60 weeks, during stable conditions and at exacerbations. We characterized cytokine protein concentrations in blood and bacterial growth in sputum. Asymptomatic smokers (n=10 and never-smokers (n=10 were included as control groups. During stable clinical conditions, the protein concentrations of IL-17 and GRO-α were markedly lower among OPD-CB patients compared with never-smoker controls, whereas the asymptomatic smoker controls displayed intermediate concentrations. Notably, among OPD-CB patients, colonization by opportunistic pathogens was associated with markedly lower IL-17 and GRO-α, compared with colonization by common respiratory pathogens or oropharyngeal flora. During exacerbations in the OPD-CB patients, GRO-α and neutrophil

  1. Characteristics of smoking cessation in former smokers in a rural area of Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koshi Nakamura

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: Personal health concerns in former smokers in Nanao, Japan were the predominant motivation for quitting smoking, with the vast majority of former smokers achieving successful smoking cessation by themselves.

  2. Laryngeal findings and acoustic changes in hubble-bubble smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Abdul-latif; Sibai, Abla; Oubari, Dima; Ashkar, Jihad; Fuleihan, Nabil

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of our investigation was to evaluate the laryngeal findings and acoustic changes in hubble-bubble smokers. A total of 42 subjects with history of hubble-bubble smoking were recruited for this study. A corresponding group with a history of cigarette smoking and controls were matched. All subjects underwent laryngeal video-endostroboscopic evaluation and acoustic analysis. In the hubble-bubble smoking group, 61.9% were males. The average age was 30.02 +/- 9.48 years and the average number of years of smoking was 8.09 +/- 6.45 years. Three subjects had dysphonia at the time of examination. The incidence of benign lesions of the vocal folds in the hubble-bubble group was 21.5%, with edema being the most common at 16.7% followed by cyst at 4.8%. The incidence of laryngeal findings was significantly higher in the hubble-bubble group compared to controls. In the cigarette-smoking group, the most common finding was vocal fold cyst in 14.8% followed by polyps in 7.4%, and edema, sulcus vocalis and granuloma. These findings were not significantly different from the hubble-bubble group except for the thick mucus, which was significantly higher in the latter. There were no significant changes in any of the acoustic parameters between hubble-bubble smokers and controls except for the VTI and MPT, which were significantly lower in the hubble-bubble group. In comparison with the cigarette-smoking group, hubble-bubble smokers had significantly higher Fundamental frequency and habitual pitch (p value 0.042 and 0.008, respectively). The laryngeal findings in hubble-bubble smokers are comparable to cigarette smokers. These laryngeal findings are not translated acoustically, as all the acoustic parameters are within normal range compared to controls.

  3. Impact of the Spanish smoking law in smoker hospitality workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Fernández, Esteve; Fu, Marcela; Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; López, María J; Ariza, Carles; Pascual, José A; Schiaffino, Anna; Pérez-Ortuño, Raúl; Saltó, Esteve; Nebot, Manel

    2009-09-01

    A smoke-free law went into effect in Spain on 1 January 2006, affecting all enclosed workplaces except hospitality venues, where only partial bans were implemented. The objective was to evaluate the impact of the law among hospitality workers who smoke. The study design is a before-and-after evaluation. We formed a cohort at baseline, during the 3 months before the law went into effect, with 431 hospitality workers (222 smokers). From them, 288 were successfully followed-up 12 months after the ban (118 were smokers at baseline). We analyzed the quit rate, the reduction in the number of cigarettes smoked per day, changes in the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) scores, and changes in salivary cotinine concentrations in smokers from baseline to 1 year after the ban. Among 118 smokers, six (5.1%) quit smoking. Among the 112 remaining smokers, the mean number of cigarettes smoked decreased by 8.9% after the ban (from 17.9 to 16.3 cigarettes/day, p 6) was reduced by half after the ban (19.5% vs. 9.7%, p = .03). Salivary cotinine decreased by 4.4% after the ban (geometric mean 104.3 vs. 99.7 ng/ml, p = .02). No meaningful differences were found in quit rates and the FTND scores according to type of regulation. The Spanish smoking law has had beneficial effects (reduction in number of cigarettes smoked, cotinine levels, and FTND score) among hospitality workers who smoke.

  4. The relationship between impulsivity, risk-taking propensity and nicotine dependence among older adolescent smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Katherine K; Mackillop, James; Carpenter, Matthew J

    2013-01-01

    Impulsivity and risk-taking propensity are neurobehavioral traits that reliably distinguish between smoking and non-smoking adults. However, how these traits relate to smoking quantity and nicotine dependence among older adolescent smokers is unclear. The current study examined impulsivity and risk-taking propensity in relation to smoking behavior and nicotine dependence among current older adolescent smokers (age 16-20 years; N=107). Participants completed the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11), the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART), and self-report measures of smoking behavior and nicotine dependence. Results indicated a significant positive relationship between nicotine dependence and the Attention subscale (β=.20, t=2.07, prisk-taking propensity was associated with less dependence. These data suggest that impulsivity and risk-taking propensity are related to older adolescent smoking but are separable traits with distinguishable associations with nicotine dependence among adolescents. These findings support the notion that impulsivity is related to heightened nicotine dependence, but suggest that the relationship between risk-taking propensity and nicotine dependence is more ambiguous and warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. DETERMINATION of the TRACE ELEMENT LEVELS in HAIR of SMOKERS and NON-SMOKERS by ICP-MS

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    Elif Varhan Oral

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available For at least 50 years, determination of the trace element levels in human hair has been used to assess environmental and vocational exposure to toxic elements . As compared to other biological matrices (e.g. blood, urine, human hair is stable and therefore useful as a matrice. In this study, analyses of toxic and essential trace elements, such as Cd, Pb, Cu and Fe, were done in hair samples which we collected from male smokers (10 people and non-smokers (10 people who live in Diyarbakır, Turkey and concentrations in hair samples were compared. Hair samples were washed by a standard procedure proposed by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Then the samples were dried for 16 h at 110°C in an oven. Solubilization procedure was carried out by nitric acid hydrogen peroxide mixture (3:1 in closed vessels in a microwave oven. Trace element analyses were carried out by using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS  technique. In our study, while concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Fe elements were found to be considerably higher in smokers than non-smokers, similar results were observed in Cu concentrations. The precision and accuracy of the method was evaluated by applying spike method to samples. Analytical recovery results were found between 91.2% and 104.6%.

  6. Debunking the claim that abstinence is usually healthier for smokers than switching to a low-risk alternative, and other observations about anti-tobacco-harm-reduction arguments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillips Carl V

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nicotine is so desirable to many people that when they are given only the options of consuming nicotine by smoking, with its high health costs, and not consuming nicotine at all, many opt for the former. Few smokers realize that there is a third choice: non-combustion nicotine sources, such as smokeless tobacco, electronic cigarettes, or pharmaceutical nicotine, which eliminate almost all the risk while still allowing consumption of nicotine. Widespread dissemination of misleading health claims is used to prevent smokers from learning about this lifesaving option, and to discourage opinion leaders from telling smokers the truth. One common misleading claim is a risk-risk comparison that has not before been quantified: A smoker who would have eventually quit nicotine entirely, but learns the truth about low-risk alternatives, might switch to an alternative instead of quitting entirely, and thus might suffer a net increase in health risk. While this has mathematical face validity, a simple calculation of the tradeoff -- switching to lifelong low-risk nicotine use versus continuing to smoke until quitting -- shows that such net health costs are extremely unlikely and of trivial maximum magnitude. In particular, for the average smoker, smoking for just one more month before quitting causes greater health risk than switching to a low-risk nicotine source and never quitting it. Thus, discouraging a smoker, even one who would have quit entirely, from switching to a low-risk alternative is almost certainly more likely to kill him than it is to save him. Similarly, a strategy of waiting for better anti-smoking tools to be developed, rather than encouraging immediate tobacco harm reduction using current options, kills more smokers every month than it could possibly ever save.

  7. A Comparison of Mortality Rates in a Large Population of Smokers and Non-smokers: based on the Presence or Absence of Coronary Artery Calcification

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, John W; Blaha, Michael J; Rivera, Juan J; Budoff, Matthew J; Khan, Atif N; Shaw, Leslee J; Berman, Daniel S; Raggi, Paolo; Min, James K; Rumberger, John A; Callister, Tracy Q; Blumenthal, Roger S.; Nasir, Khurram

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To further study the interplay between smoking status, Coronary Artery Calcium (CAC) and all-cause mortality. Background Prior studies have not directly compared the relative prognostic impact of CAC in smokers versus non-smokers. In particular, while zero CAC is a known favorable prognostic-marker, whether smokers without CAC have as good a prognosis as non-smokers without CAC is unknown. Given computed tomography (CT) screening for lung cancer appears effective in smokers, the relative prognostic implications of visualizing any CAC versus no CAC on such screening also deserve study. Methods Our study cohort consisted of 44,042 asymptomatic individuals referred for non-contrast cardiac CT (age 54±11 years, 54% males). Subjects were followed for a mean of 5.6 years. The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality. Results Approximately 14% (n=6020) of subjects were active smokers at enrollment. There were 901 deaths (2.05%) overall, with increased mortality in smokers vs. non-smokers (4.3% vs. 1.7%, p400). In multivariable analysis within these strata, we found mortality hazard ratios (HRs) of 3.8 (95% CI, 2.8-5.2), 3.5 (2.6-4.9), and 2.7 (2.1-3.5), respectively, in smokers compared to nonsmokers. At each stratum of elevated CAC score, mortality in smokers was consistently higher than mortality in non-smokers from the CAC stratum above. However, among the 19,898 individuals with CAC=0, the mortality HR for smokers without CAC was 3.6 (95% CI, 2.3-5.7), compared to non-smokers without CAC. Conclusion Smoking is a risk factor for death across the entire spectrum of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis. Smokers with any coronary calcification are at significantly increased future mortality risk than smokers without CAC. However, the absence of CAC may not be as useful a “negative risk factor” in active smokers; as this group has mortality rates similar to non-smokers with mild to moderate atherosclerosis. PMID:23058072

  8. Why do smokers try to quit without medication or counselling? A qualitative study with ex-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrea L; Carter, Stacy M; Chapman, Simon; Dunlop, Sally M; Freeman, Becky

    2015-04-30

    When tobacco smokers quit, between half and two-thirds quit unassisted: that is, they do not consult their general practitioner (GP), use pharmacotherapy (nicotine-replacement therapy, bupropion or varenicline), or phone a quitline. We sought to understand why smokers quit unassisted. Qualitative grounded theory study (in-depth interviews, theoretical sampling, concurrent data collection and data analysis). 21 Australian adult ex-smokers (aged 28-68 years; 9 males and 12 females) who quit unassisted within the past 6 months to 2 years. 12 participants had previous experience of using assistance to quit; 9 had never previously used assistance. Community, Australia. Along with previously identified barriers to use of cessation assistance (cost, access, lack of awareness or knowledge of assistance, including misperceptions about effectiveness or safety), our study produced new explanations of why smokers quit unassisted: (1) they prioritise lay knowledge gained directly from personal experiences and indirectly from others over professional or theoretical knowledge; (2) their evaluation of the costs and benefits of quitting unassisted versus those of using assistance favours quitting unassisted; (3) they believe quitting is their personal responsibility; and (4) they perceive quitting unassisted to be the 'right' or 'better' choice in terms of how this relates to their own self-identity or self-image. Deep-rooted personal and societal values such as independence, strength, autonomy and self-control appear to be influencing smokers' beliefs and decisions about quitting. The reasons for smokers' rejection of the conventional medical model for smoking cessation are complex and go beyond modifiable or correctable problems relating to misperceptions or treatment barriers. These findings suggest that GPs could recognise and respect smokers' reasons for rejecting assistance, validate and approve their choices, and modify brief interventions to support their preference

  9. A Qualitative Study of Smokers' Responses to Messages Discouraging Dual Tobacco Product Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Lucy; Kostygina, Ganna; Sheon, Nicolas M.; Ling, Pamela M.

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette companies increasingly promote novel smokeless tobacco products to smokers, encouraging them to use smokeless tobacco in smoke-free environments. New messages may counteract this promotion. We developed 12 initial anti-smokeless message ideas and tested them in eight online focus groups with 75 US smokers. Those smokers who never tried…

  10. Influence of indacaterol on daily physical activity in patients with untreated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishijima Y

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Yu Nishijima,1,* Seigo Minami,1,* Suguru Yamamoto,1 Yoshitaka Ogata,1 Taro Koba,1,2 Shinji Futami,1 Kiyoshi Komuta1 1Department of Respiratory Medicine, Osaka Police Hospital, Tennoji-ku, Osaka, Japan; 2Department of Internal Medicine, National Hospital Organization, Kinki-Chuo Chest Medical Center, Kita-ku, Sakai, Osaka, Japan *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Indacaterol, a once-daily, long-acting ß2-agonist, may improve not only respiratory function, dyspnea symptoms, and quality of life, but also physical activity for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of 12-week indacaterol therapy on daytime physical activity in patients with untreated COPD. Methods: The subjects were stable and untreated COPD outpatients with a percent predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (%FEV1 below 80%. Baseline assessments included clinical assessment, respiratory function testing, arterial blood gas analysis, the COPD assessment test (CAT™, and the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey, Japanese version 2 (SF-36v2®. Patients underwent monitoring by uniaxial accelerometer before and after 12 weeks once-daily inhalation of indacaterol 150 µg/day. Results: Eighteen patients were evaluable. Patient characteristics included a mean age of 74.2 years, and three patients were current smokers. Indacaterol improved mean (± standard deviation [SD] %FEV1 from 55.2% (±17.9% to 61.0% (±17.3% (P=0.003, CAT scores from 16.4 (±10.2 points to 12.4 (±8.2 points (P=0.04, some scales of the SF-36v2 (physical component summary, 41.6±9.7 points to 45.1±7.9 points, P=0.03, and number of daily steps (3,311.5±2,103.3 steps/day to 3,841.8±2,096.8 steps/day, P=0.02, but did not affect daily energy expenditure (85.0±77.2 kcal change to 90.9±56.8 kcal, P=0.29 or exercise duration of an intensity of level 1 or more (36.4±23.9 minutes increase to 40.8±21.6 minutes

  11. Influence of indacaterol on daily physical activity in patients with untreated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishijima, Yu; Minami, Seigo; Yamamoto, Suguru; Ogata, Yoshitaka; Koba, Taro; Futami, Shinji; Komuta, Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Indacaterol, a once-daily, long-acting β2-agonist, may improve not only respiratory function, dyspnea symptoms, and quality of life, but also physical activity for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study aimed to evaluate the effect of 12-week indacaterol therapy on daytime physical activity in patients with untreated COPD. The subjects were stable and untreated COPD outpatients with a percent predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (%FEV1) below 80%. Baseline assessments included clinical assessment, respiratory function testing, arterial blood gas analysis, the COPD assessment test (CAT™), and the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey, Japanese version 2 (SF-36v2(®)). Patients underwent monitoring by uniaxial accelerometer before and after 12 weeks once-daily inhalation of indacaterol 150 μg/day. Eighteen patients were evaluable. Patient characteristics included a mean age of 74.2 years, and three patients were current smokers. Indacaterol improved mean (± standard deviation [SD]) %FEV1 from 55.2% (±17.9%) to 61.0% (±17.3%) (P=0.003), CAT scores from 16.4 (±10.2) points to 12.4 (±8.2) points (P=0.04), some scales of the SF-36v2 (physical component summary, 41.6±9.7 points to 45.1±7.9 points, P=0.03), and number of daily steps (3,311.5±2,103.3 steps/day to 3,841.8±2,096.8 steps/day, P=0.02), but did not affect daily energy expenditure (85.0±77.2 kcal change to 90.9±56.8 kcal, P=0.29) or exercise duration of an intensity of level 1 or more (36.4±23.9 minutes increase to 40.8±21.6 minutes, P=0.12). Twelve weeks of indacaterol improved respiratory function and quality of life, but did not significantly affect physical activity in patients with moderate-to-severe COPD.

  12. A column-switching liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for quantitation of 2-cyanoethylmercapturic acid and 2-hydroxyethylmercapturic acid in Chinese smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Hongwei; Xiong, Wei; Gao, Na; Zhang, Xiaotao; Tang, Gangling; Hu, Qingyuan

    2012-11-01

    The acrylonitrile metabolites 2-cyanoethylmercapturic acid (CEMA) and 2-hydroxyethylmercapturic acid (HEMA) have been determined in human urine using an automated column-switching procedure. A diluted sample was centrifuged just prior to being injected into a reusable precolumn packed with a restricted access material and coupled to a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry system. This method achieved satisfactory reproducibility and accuracy. Average intra- and interday variations (% relative standard deviations) ranged from 2.4 to 3.8% for CEMA and from 2.7 to 10.5% for HEMA. The limits of quantification were 0.003 and 0.099ng/ml for CEMA and HEMA, respectively. It was used to study the uptake of acrylonitrile from smoke constituents by both nonsmokers and smokers of different tar yield cigarettes under ISO 3308 smoking condition. Metabolite concentrations in smoker urine samples were approximately 12 times higher compared with those in nonsmokers for CEMA and 3 times higher for HEMA. Urinary CEMA levels show a clear dose-response relationship with daily cigarette consumption and urinary cotinine. CEMA can also discriminate between smokers of different ISO cigarettes. Because HEMA is not specific, it is only slightly related to smoking and acrylonitrile exposure. The validated biomarker CEMA will continue to be useful for studies of acrylonitrile uptake by smokers.

  13. Other tobacco product and electronic cigarette use among homeless cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggett, Travis P; Campbell, Eric G; Chang, Yuchiao; Rigotti, Nancy A

    2016-09-01

    We determined the prevalence and correlates of other tobacco product and electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use in a clinic-based sample of homeless cigarette smokers. In April-July 2014, we used time-location sampling to conduct a cross-sectional, in-person survey of 306 currently homeless adult cigarette smokers recruited from 5 clinical sites at Boston Health Care for the Homeless Program. We assessed past-month use of large cigars, little cigars, smokeless tobacco, and e-cigarettes. Among those who had used e-cigarettes, we assessed the reasons for doing so. We used logistic regression analysis to identify the participant characteristics associated with the use of each product. Eighty-six percent of eligible individuals participated in the survey. In the past month, 37% of respondents used large cigars, 44% used little cigars, 8% used smokeless tobacco, 24% used an e-cigarette, and 68% used any of these products. Reasons for e-cigarette use included curiosity (85%) and to help quit conventional cigarettes (69%). In multivariable regression analyses, homeless smokers with greater subsistence difficulties were more likely to use little cigars (p=0.01) and less likely to use e-cigarettes (p=0.001). Non-Hispanic black (p=0.01), Hispanic (pcigarette use to help quit smoking (p=0.02). Health care providers who serve homeless people should consider routine screening for the use of other tobacco products and e-cigarettes to help guide smoking cessation discussions and tobacco treatment planning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Omeprazole/amoxicillin: improved eradication of Helicobacter pylori in smokers because of N-acetylcysteine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zala, G; Flury, R; Wüst, J; Meyenberger, C; Ammann, R; Wirth, H P

    1994-08-09

    Colonization of Helicobacter pylori (HP) beneath the protective film of gastric mucus enables the organism to survive in the hostile environment of the gastric mucosa. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a sulfhydryl compound with potent mucolytic activity, induces a reduction of gastric barrier mucus thickness of about 75% and reduces mucus viscoelasticity. We therefore tested the hypothesis whether better eradication results could be achieved by addition of NAC to omeprazole/amoxicillin (OME/AMOX). 34 HP positive outpatients with endoscopically documented recurrent duodenal ulcer were included in an ongoing, prospective, randomized trial. Exclusion criteria were: alcoholism, previous gastric surgery, or intake of antibiotics, OME, bismuth salts, corticosteroids or NSAIDs within 4 weeks before study entry. Patients currently smoking > 10 cigarettes/day were classified as smokers. HP infection was confirmed by histology (3 biopsy specimens from gastric antrum and 2 from gastric body; H&E, Giemsa) and at least positive rapid urease test or culture. All 34 patients underwent ulcer therapy with OME (20 mg per day) for 20 days (d 1-20). Group A: in 17 patients (5 females, 12 males, mean age 46 [29-74] years; 8 smokers, 9 nonsmokers) the subsequent eradication therapy, consisting of oral OME (40 mg bid) and AMOX solute (750 mg tid) for 10 days, was combined with NAC solute (2 x 600 mg bid (d 21-30). Group B: 17 patients (2 females, 15 males, mean age 39 [19-70] years; 11 smokers, 6 nonsmokers) underwent eradication therapy without NAC (d 21-30). Control endoscopy was done after a minimal interval of 30 days from the end of treatment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Differences between nicotine-abstinent smokers and non-smokers in terms of visuospatial attention and inhibition before and after single-blind nicotine administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logemann, H N A; Böcker, K B E; Deschamps, P K H; Kemner, C; Kenemans, J L

    2014-09-26

    The cholinergic system is implicated in visuospatial attention and inhibition, however the exact role is still unclear. Two key mechanisms in visuospatial attention are bias and disengagement. Bias refers to neuronal signals that enhance the sensitivity of the sensory cortex, disengagement is the decoupling of attention. Previous studies suggest that nicotine affects disengagement and (related) inhibition. However the exact relation is still unknown. Furthermore, nicotine-abstinence in 'healthy' smokers may resemble some anomalies of visuospatial attention and inhibition as seen in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Smokers and non-smokers (32 male students) performed in a visuospatial cueing (VSC) task, to assess bias and disengagement, and in a stop-signal task (SST) to assess inhibition. It was expected that nicotine abstinent smokers compared to non-smokers, would show poor disengagement (indicated by an enhanced validity effect) and poor inhibitory control (indicated by an enhanced stop-signal reaction time (SSRT)). It was expected that nicotine would positively affect disengagement and inhibition: hypothesis 1 stated that this effect would be larger in smokers as opposed to non-smokers, in terms of smoking-related deficient inhibitory control. Hypothesis 2 stated the exact opposite, in terms of drug-tolerance. Results indicated no baseline differences. Nicotine enhanced inhibition more in non-smokers relative to smokers. Integrating the results, nicotine-abstinent smokers do not seem to resemble ADHD patients, and do not seem to smoke in order to self-medicate a pre-existing deficit pertaining to mechanisms of visuospatial attention and inhibition. Nicotine may affect inhibition more in non-smokers relative to smokers, consistent with a drug-tolerance account.

  16. A six-month crossover chemoprevention clinical trial of tea in smokers and non-smokers: methodological issues in a feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dash Chiranjeev

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemoprevention crossover trials of tea can be more efficient than parallel designs but the attrition and compliance rates with such trials are unknown. Methods Attrition (dropouts and compliance with treatment were assessed in a 25-week randomized, placebo controlled, crossover, feasibility clinical trial of four tea treatments to investigate the effect of tea on oral cancer biomarkers. Each treatment lasted 4 weeks with 2 weeks of washout in between. Participants were 32 smokers and 33 non-smokers without any evidence of premalignant oral lesions. The interventions consisted of packets of green tea, black tea, caffeinated water, or placebo. Participants were assigned to each treatment for four weeks, and were instructed to drink five packets per day while on the treatment. Dropout from the trial and compliance (consumption of ≥ 85% of the prescribed treatment packets are the main outcome measures reported. Results There was a high rate of dropout (51% from the study, and the rates were significantly higher among smokers (64% than non-smokers (36%. Among participants who completed the study the rate of compliance was 72%. The highest rates of dropouts occurred between the first and second treatment visits in both smokers (38% dropout and non-smokers (18% dropout. Throughout the study smokers were more likely to dropout than non-smokers. Black tea treatment was associated with the highest rates of dropout among smokers (37%, but was associated with the lowest rate of dropout among non-smokers (4%. Conclusions In a study conducted to test the feasibility of a four-treatment crossover tea trial, a high rate of dropout among smokers and non-smokers was observed. Multi-arm crossover tea trials might pose a higher burden on participants and research is needed to improve adherence and treatment compliance in such trials. Trial registration number ISRCTN70410203

  17. Multiple analytical approaches reveal distinct gene-environment interactions in smokers and non smokers in lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakhshan Ihsan

    Full Text Available Complex disease such as cancer results from interactions of multiple genetic and environmental factors. Studying these factors singularly cannot explain the underlying pathogenetic mechanism of the disease. Multi-analytical approach, including logistic regression (LR, classification and regression tree (CART and multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR, was applied in 188 lung cancer cases and 290 controls to explore high order interactions among xenobiotic metabolizing genes and environmental risk factors. Smoking was identified as the predominant risk factor by all three analytical approaches. Individually, CYP1A1*2A polymorphism was significantly associated with increased lung cancer risk (OR = 1.69;95%CI = 1.11-2.59,p = 0.01, whereas EPHX1 Tyr113His and SULT1A1 Arg213His conferred reduced risk (OR = 0.40;95%CI = 0.25-0.65,p<0.001 and OR = 0.51;95%CI = 0.33-0.78,p = 0.002 respectively. In smokers, EPHX1 Tyr113His and SULT1A1 Arg213His polymorphisms reduced the risk of lung cancer, whereas CYP1A1*2A, CYP1A1*2C and GSTP1 Ile105Val imparted increased risk in non-smokers only. While exploring non-linear interactions through CART analysis, smokers carrying the combination of EPHX1 113TC (Tyr/His, SULT1A1 213GG (Arg/Arg or AA (His/His and GSTM1 null genotypes showed the highest risk for lung cancer (OR = 3.73;95%CI = 1.33-10.55,p = 0.006, whereas combined effect of CYP1A1*2A 6235CC or TC, SULT1A1 213GG (Arg/Arg and betel quid chewing showed maximum risk in non-smokers (OR = 2.93;95%CI = 1.15-7.51,p = 0.01. MDR analysis identified two distinct predictor models for the risk of lung cancer in smokers (tobacco chewing, EPHX1 Tyr113His, and SULT1A1 Arg213His and non-smokers (CYP1A1*2A, GSTP1 Ile105Val and SULT1A1 Arg213His with testing balance accuracy (TBA of 0.6436 and 0.6677 respectively. Interaction entropy interpretations of MDR results showed non-additive interactions of tobacco chewing with

  18. An internet-based abstinence reinforcement smoking cessation intervention in rural smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoops, William W; Dallery, Jesse; Fields, Nell M; Nuzzo, Paul A; Schoenberg, Nancy E; Martin, Catherine A; Casey, Baretta; Wong, Conrad J

    2009-11-01

    The implementation of cigarette smoking abstinence reinforcement programs may be hindered by the time intensive burden placed on patients and treatment providers. The use of remote monitoring and reinforcement of smoking abstinence may enhance the accessibility and acceptability of this intervention, particularly in rural areas where transportation can be unreliable and treatment providers distant. This study determined the effectiveness of an Internet-based abstinence reinforcement intervention in initiating and maintaining smoking abstinence in rural smokers. Sixty-eight smokers were enrolled to evaluate the efficacy of an Internet-based smoking cessation program. During the 6-week intervention period, all participants were asked to record 2 videos of breath carbon monoxide (CO) samples daily. Participants also typed the value of their CO readings into web-based software that provided feedback and reinforcement based on their smoking status. Participants (n=35) in the Abstinence Contingent (AC) group received monetary incentives contingent on recent smoking abstinence (i.e., CO of 4 parts per million or below). Participants (n=33) in the Yoked Control (YC) group received monetary incentives independent of smoking status. Participants in the AC group were significantly more likely than the YC group to post negative CO samples on the study website (OR=4.56; 95% CI=2.18-9.52). Participants assigned to AC were also significantly more likely to achieve some level of continuous abstinence over the 6-week intervention compared to those assigned to YC. These results demonstrate the feasibility and short-term efficacy of delivering reinforcement for smoking abstinence over the Internet to rural populations.

  19. Autoreactive T Cells in Human Smokers Is Predictive of Clinical Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuang eXu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Cross-sectional studies have suggested a role for activation of adaptive immunity in smokers with emphysema, but the clinical application of these findings has not been explored. Here we examined the utility of detecting autoreactive T cells as a screening tool for emphysema in an at-risk population of smokers. We followed 156 former and current (ever-smokers for two years to assess whether peripheral blood CD4 T cell cytokine responses to lung elastin fragments (EFs could discriminate between those with and without emphysema, and to evaluate the relevance of autoreactive T cells to predict changes during follow-up in lung physiological parameters. Volunteers underwent baseline complete phenotypic assessment with pulmonary function tests, quantitative chest CT, yearly six minutes walk distance (6MWD testing, and annual measurement of CD4 T cell cytokine responses to EFs. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve to predict emphysema for interferon gamma (IFN-γ, and interleukin 6 (IL-6 responses to EFs were 0.81 (95% CI of 0.74 to 0.88 and 0.79 (95% CI of 0.72 to 0.86 respectively. We developed a dual cytokine enzyme-linked immunocell spot assay, the γ-6 Spot, using CD4 T cell IFN-γ and IL-6 responses and found that it discriminated emphysema with 90% sensitivity. After adjusting for potential confounders, the presence of autoreactive T cells was predictive of a decrease in 6MWD over two years (decline in 6MWD, -19 meters (m per fold change in IFN-γ; P=0.026, and -26 m per fold change in IL-6; P=0.003. These findings collectively suggest that the EF specific autoreactive CD4 T cell assay, γ-6 Spot, could provide a non-invasive diagnostic tool with potential application to large-scale screening to discriminate emphysema in ever-smokers, and predict early relevant physiological outcomes in those at risk.

  20. Logistiline Daily Service / Paavo Kangur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kangur, Paavo, 1966-

    2005-01-01

    Sügisel ostis Leedu endise majandusministri Valetntinas Milaknise firma Daily Service ära kõik bürootarvetemüüja Reval Impexi aktsiad. 300 miljoni kroonise aastakäibega firma Eesti tütarettevõte prognoosib oma tänavuseks käibeks 31,2 miljonit krooni. Lisa: Daily Service'i struktuur

  1. Logistiline Daily Service / Paavo Kangur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kangur, Paavo, 1966-

    2005-01-01

    Sügisel ostis Leedu endise majandusministri Valetntinas Milaknise firma Daily Service ära kõik bürootarvetemüüja Reval Impexi aktsiad. 300 miljoni kroonise aastakäibega firma Eesti tütarettevõte prognoosib oma tänavuseks käibeks 31,2 miljonit krooni. Lisa: Daily Service'i struktuur

  2. Aesthetic Depigmentation of Gingival Smoker's Melanosis Using Carbon Dioxide Lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Luis Silva; Costa, José Adriano; da Câmara, Marco Infante; Albuquerque, Rui; Martins, Marco; Pacheco, José Júlio; Salazar, Filomena; Figueira, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Melanic pigmentation results from melanin produced by the melanocytes present in the basal layer of the oral epithelium. One of the most common causes of oral pigmentation is smoker melanosis, a condition associated with the melanocyte stimulation caused by cigarette smoke. This paper aims to illustrate the use of a carbon dioxide laser in the removal of the gingival melanic pigmentation for aesthetic reasons in a 27-year-old female patient with history of a smoking habit. The carbon dioxide laser vaporisation was performed on the gingival mucosa with effective and quick results and without any complications or significant symptoms after the treatment. We conclude that a carbon dioxide laser could be a useful, effective, and safe instrument to treat the aesthetic complications caused by oral smoker melanosis.

  3. Social norms of cigarette and hookah smokers in Iranian universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roohafza, Hamidreza; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Shahnam, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: First experiences of tobacco use usually occur in adolescence. The recognition of social norms leading to youth smoking is hence necessary. We tried to assess the social norms among Iranian young cigarette and hookah smokers. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 451...... girls and 361 boys aging 20-25 years old who entered Isfahan and Kashan Universities (Iran) in 2007. Demographic factors (age, gender, and age at smoking onset) cigarette and hookah smoking status, having a smoking father or smoking friends and four related social norms were recorded. Binary logistic...... regression analysis was used to separately determine associations between hookah and cigarette smoking and the four social norm variables. RESULTS: CIGARETTE AND HOOKAH SMOKERS HAD SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES WITH NONSMOKERS IN TWO SOCIAL NORMS: "Perceived smoking by important characters" [odds ratio (OR) = 1...

  4. Constant-load exercise decreases the serum concentration of myeloperoxidase in healthy smokers and smokers with COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holz O

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Olaf Holz,1,* Stefan Roepcke,2,* Henrik Watz,3 Uwe Tegtbur,4 Gezim Lahu,2 Jens M Hohlfeld1 1Fraunhofer Institute for Toxicology and Experimental Medicine (ITEM, German Center for Lung Research (DZL, BREATH, Hannover, Germany; 2Takeda Pharmaceuticals International GmbH, Glattpark-Opfikon, Switzerland; 3Pulmonary Research Institute at Lung Clinic Grosshansdorf, German Center for Lung Research (DZL, ARCN, Grosshansdorf, 4Institute for Sports Medicine, Hannover Medical School (MHH, Hannover, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: There is an ongoing demand for easily accessible biomarkers related to pathophysiological processes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Short-term intense exercise is known to increase the peripheral blood levels of cytokines. Therefore, we tested the potential and the repeatability of an exercise challenge to amplify seven serum biomarkers (interleukin 6 [IL6], C-reactive protein [CRP], myeloperoxidase [MPO], leukotriene B4, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, and von Willebrand factor [VWF] in smokers with and without COPD. Twenty-three smokers with moderate COPD (GOLD 2 and 23 sex- and age-matched healthy smokers underwent up to 30-minute submaximal, constant-load exercise (75% of maximum work load on two occasions separated by 4 weeks (second challenge n=19/20. Serum samples were obtained before, 5 minutes after the start, at the end of exercise (maximum 30 minutes or until exhaustion, and after additional 20 minutes of rest. The median (interquartile range exercise time until exhaustion in the two challenges was 10.0 (4.0 minutes and 10.0 (8.0 minutes in smokers with COPD and 22.0 (16.0 minutes and 26.5 (14.5 minutes in healthy smokers. The exercise challenge significantly increased the serum concentrations of IL6 and VWF, but decreased the concentrations of MPO. Healthy smokers showed a significantly greater increase (at

  5. Trial Protocol: Randomised controlled trial of the effects of very low calorie diet, modest dietary restriction, and sequential behavioural programme on hunger, urges to smoke, abstinence and weight gain in overweight smokers stopping smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajek Peter

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Weight gain accompanies smoking cessation, but dieting during quitting is controversial as hunger may increase urges to smoke. This is a feasibility trial for the investigation of a very low calorie diet (VLCD, individual modest energy restriction, and usual advice on hunger, ketosis, urges to smoke, abstinence and weight gain in overweight smokers trying to quit. Methods This is a 3 armed, unblinded, randomized controlled trial in overweight (BMI > 25 kg/m2, daily smokers (CO > 10 ppm; with at least 30 participants in each group. Each group receives identical behavioural support and NRT patches (25 mg(8 weeks,15 mg(2 weeks,10 mg(2 weeks. The VLCD group receive a 429-559 kcal/day liquid formula beginning 1 week before quitting and continuing for 4 weeks afterwards. The modest energy restricted group (termed individual dietary and activity planning(IDAP engage in goal-setting and receive an energy prescription based on individual basal metabolic rate(BMR aiming for daily reduction of 600 kcal. The control group receive usual dietary advice that accompanies smoking cessation i.e. avoiding feeling hungry but eating healthy snacks. After this, the VLCD participants receive IDAP to provide support for changing eating habits in the longer term; the IDAP group continues receiving this support. The control group receive IDAP 8 weeks after quitting. This allows us to compare IDAP following a successful quit attempt with dieting concurrently during quitting. It also aims to prevent attrition in the unblinded, control group by meeting their need for weight management. Follow-up occurs at 6 and 12 months. Outcome measures include participant acceptability, measured qualitatively by semi-structured interviewing and quantitatively by recruitment and attrition rates. Feasibility of running the trial within primary care is measured by interview and questionnaire of the treatment providers. Adherence to the VLCD is verified by the presence of

  6. False promises: the tobacco industry, "low tar" cigarettes, and older smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Janine K; Malone, Ruth E

    2008-09-01

    To investigate the role of the tobacco industry in marketing to and sustaining tobacco addiction among older smokers and aging baby boomers, We performed archival searches of electronic archives of internal tobacco company documents using a snowball sampling approach. Analysis was done using iterative and comparative review of documents, classification by themes, and a hermeneutic interpretive approach to develop a case study. Based on extensive marketing research, tobacco companies aggressively targeted older smokers and sought to prevent them from quitting. Innovative marketing approaches were used. "Low tar" cigarettes were developed in response to the health concerns of older smokers, despite industry knowledge that such products had no health advantage and did not help smokers quit. Tobacco industry activities influence the context of cessation for older smokers in several ways. Through marketing "low tar" or "light" cigarettes to older smokers "at risk" of quitting, the industry contributes to the illusion that such cigarettes are safer, although "light" cigarettes may make it harder for addicted smokers to quit. Through targeted mailings of coupons and incentives, the industry discourages older smokers from quitting. Through rhetoric aimed at convincing addicted smokers that they alone are responsible for their smoking, the industry contributes to self-blame, a documented barrier to cessation. Educating practitioners, older smokers, and families about the tobacco industry's influence may decrease the tendency to "blame the victim," thereby enhancing the likelihood of older adults receiving tobacco addiction treatment. Comprehensive tobacco control measures must include a focus on older smokers.

  7. Bond strength of adhesives to dentin contaminated with smoker's saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzon, Lilliam M; Oguri, Makoto; O'Keefe, Kathy; Dusevish, Vladimir; Spencer, Paulette; Powers, John M; Marshall, Grayson W

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of contamination with smoker's and non-smoker's saliva on the bond strength of resin composite to superficial dentin using different adhesive systems. The interfacial structure between the resin and dentin was evaluated for each treatment using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). Freshly extracted human molars were ground with 600-grit SiC paper to expose the superficial dentin. Adhesives [One-Up-Bond-F-Plus (OUFP) and Adper-Prompt-L-Pop (APLP)] and resin composite (TPHSpectrum) were bonded to the dentin (n = 8/group, 180 total specimens) under five surface conditions: control (adhesive applied following manufacturers' instructions); saliva, then 5-s air dry, then adhesive; adhesive, saliva, 5-s air dry; adhesive, saliva, 5-s water rinse, 5-s air dry (ASW group); and adhesive, saliva, 5-s water rinse, 5-s air dry, reapply adhesive (ASWA group). After storage in water at 37 degrees C for 24 h, the specimens were debonded under tension at a speed of 0.5 mm/min. ESEM photomicrographs of the dentin/adhesive interfaces were taken. Mean bond strength ranged from 8.1 to 24.1 MPa. Fisher's protected least significant difference (P = 0.05) intervals for critical adhesive, saliva, and surface condition differences were 1.3, 1.3, and 2.1 MPa, respectively. There were no significant differences in bond strength to dentin between contamination by smoker's and nonsmoker's saliva, but bond strengths were significantly different between adhesive systems, with OUFP twice as strong as APLP under almost all conditions. After adhesive application and contamination with either smoker's or nonsmoker's saliva followed by washing and reapplication of the adhesive (ASWA group), the bond strength of both adhesive systems was the same as that of the control group.

  8. Statement on the safety of ?-carotene use in heavy smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Following a request by the European Commission the Scientific Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS was asked to conclude on the possible link between the ingestion of β-carotene and cancer enhancement in heavy smokers. The safety of (synthetic β-carotene [E 160a (ii] has been evaluated previously by JECFA (1975 and by the SCF (2000a.  In 2000, the SCF concluded that there were insufficient data to set a precise figure for a Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL of β-carotene (SCF, 2000b. Unexpectedly, two independent trials revealed that heavy smokers (at least 1 package/day for 36 years on average receiving long-term β-carotene (20 mg/day supplementation or β-carotene (30 mg/day + retinol (25 000 International Unit (IU vitamin A supplementation, showed increased rather than decreased incidences of lung cancer. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCT demonstrated absence of any protective effect associated with β-carotene supplementation with regard to cancer risk. Epidemiological studies reported no increased lung cancer incidence in heavy smokers at supplemental dose levels of β-carotene varying from 6 – 15 mg/day for about 5 up to 7 years. The Panel concluded that exposure to β-carotene from its use as food additive and as food supplement at a level below 15 mg/day do not give rise to concerns about adverse health effects in the general population, including heavy smokers.

  9. Depressive Symptoms, Drinking Problems, and Smoking Cessation in Older Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Kenney, Brent A.; Holahan, Charles J.; Holahan, Carole K.; Brennan, Penny L.; Schutte, Kathleen K.; Moos, Rudolf H.

    2009-01-01

    This study modeled the predictive association between depressive symptoms and smoking cessation in a sample of 442 late-middle-aged smokers; assessments occurred at four time-points across a 10-year period. In addition, the study examined the role of baseline drinking problems in moderating the relationship between depressive symptoms and smoking cessation. Findings supported hypotheses. More depressive symptoms prospectively predicted a lower likelihood of smoking cessation. In addition, the...

  10. Predictors of the Perception of Smoking Health Risks in Smokers With or Without Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, William J; Wehring, Heidi J; Burton, George; Raley, Heather; Feldman, Stephanie; Heishman, Stephen J; Kelly, Deanna L

    2017-01-01

    This study sought to examine the predictors of health risk perception in smokers with or without schizophrenia. The health risk subscale from the Smoking Consequences Questionnaire was dichotomized and used to measure health risk perception in smokers with (n = 67) and without schizophrenia (n = 100). A backward stepwise logistic regression was conducted using variables associated at the bivariate level to determine multivariate predictors. Overall, 62.5% of smokers without schizophrenia and 40.3% of smokers with schizophrenia completely recognize the health risks of smoking (p ≤ .01). Multivariate predictors for smokers without schizophrenia included: sex (Exp (B) = .3; p schizophrenia, predictors were education (Exp (B) = .7; p schizophrenia. Commonly used techniques for education on the health consequences of cigarettes may work in smokers with schizophrenia, but intervention efforts specifically tailored to smokers with schizophrenia might be more efficacious.

  11. Decreased Global Network Efficiency in Young Male Smoker: An EEG Study during the Resting State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoping Su

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous electroencephalogram (EEG studies revealed reduced spectral power during the resting state in smokers. However, few studies investigated the changes of global brain networks during the resting state in young smokers by EEG. In the present study, we used minimum spanning tree (MST to assess the differences of global network efficiency between young smoker (n = 20 and nonsmokers (n = 20. Compared with healthy nonsmokers, young smokers showed decreased leaf fraction, kappa value, increased diameter and eccentricity value in alpha band (r = 0.574, p = 0.008, which suggested the global network efficiency was decreased in young smokers. We also found positive correlation between leaf fraction and onset time of smoking in smokers. These results provided more scientific evidence of the abnormal neural oscillations of young smokers and improved our understanding of smoking addiction.

  12. Effects of divalproex on smoking cue reactivity and cessation outcomes among smokers achieving initial abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditre, Joseph W; Oliver, Jason A; Myrick, Hugh; Henderson, Scott; Saladin, Michael E; Drobes, David J

    2012-08-01

    Divalproex, a GABA agonist, may be a useful agent in the treatment of tobacco dependence. Cue reactivity assessment paradigms are ideally suited to explore basic mechanisms underlying the pharmacological effects of medications that purport to have efficacy for smoking cessation. Our primary goal in the current study was to examine the effects of divalproex on in-treatment reactivity to smoking-relevant and affective cues, and to determine if these reactions were predictive of posttreatment smoking behavior. There were 120 nicotine dependent smokers enrolled in an 8-week double-blind clinical trial and randomly assigned to either divalproex or placebo conditions. Of these, 72 smokers (60% female) who achieved a minimal level of abstinence underwent an in-treatment cue reactivity assessment. Contrary to expectations, divalproex was associated with greater craving and arousal during smoking cue presentation. Divalproex also inhibited cardiovascular response to pleasant cues. Although no significant differences in cessation-related outcomes between divalproex- and placebo-treated participants were observed, cue-elicited craving to smoke predicted end-of-treatment and posttreatment smoking rates. These findings suggest that in-treatment cue reactivity assessment may proactively and dynamically inform ongoing treatment as well as provide a tool for screening potential medications for smoking cessation.

  13. A feasibility study of home-based contingency management with adolescent smokers of rural Appalachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Brady; Harris, Millie; Slone, Stacey A; Shelton, Brent J; Dallery, Jesse; Stoops, William; Lewis, Russell

    2015-12-01

    Cigarette smoking among adolescents remains a significant public health concern. This problem is compounded in regions such as rural Appalachia where rates of smoking are consistently higher than national averages and access to treatments is limited. The current research evaluated a home-based contingency management program completed over the Internet with adolescent smokers recruited from rural Appalachia. Participants (N = 62) submitted 3 video recordings per day showing their breath carbon monoxide (CO) levels using a handheld CO monitor. Participants were assigned to either an active treatment condition (AT; n = 31) in which reductions in breath CO were reinforced or a control treatment condition (CT; n = 31) in which providing timely video recordings were reinforced with no requirement to reduce breath CO. Results revealed that participants in the AT condition reduced their breath CO levels significantly more so during treatment than participants in the CT condition. Within-group comparisons revealed that participants in both conditions significantly reduced their breath CO, self-reported smoking, and nicotine dependence ratings during treatment. However, only participants in the AT condition significantly reduced urinary cotinine levels during treatment, and only participants in this condition maintained all reductions until 6-week post treatment. Participants in the CT condition only maintained self-reported smoking reductions until posttreatment assessments. These results support the feasibility and initial efficacy of this incentive-based approach to smoking cessation with adolescent smokers living in rural locations.

  14. [What determines smoking habits in pregnancy? A qualitative study among pregnant smokers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugland, S; Haug, K; Wold, B

    1995-06-30

    In this article we present results from a qualitative study among 33 pregnant smokers, who took part in an in-depth interview in the 27th-35th weeks of pregnancy. The aim was to obtain insight into pregnant women's own experience of smoking in pregnancy. The pregnant women interviewed were concerned about their smoking habits. In spite of this, they still expressed positive attitudes towards smoking, and many did not experience pregnancy as a favourable time to stop. The study shows that pregnant women still lack important knowledge about the dangers of smoking. Pregnant smokers' attitudes towards scientific facts, and the role cigarettes play in their everyday lives, are considered to be important variables in determining smoking in pregnancy. The pregnant women experienced that their partner and health-personnel played a minor role in changing smoking behaviour. The reasons the women gave for smoking in pregnancy are discussed in the light of current theories on changing health behaviour. Four key questions are proposed which can be used by doctor and midwife to obtain knowledge of pregnant women's perception of the seriousness of smoking and the associated risks, and of the gains and barriers connected with quitting.

  15. An overview of oral mucosa condition of shisha smoker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmi Amtha

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Shisha is a water pipe that tobacco extract and fruit scented burnt using coal. It produces the smoke through the vessel and inhaled using a hose with good taste. The culture of shisha smoking is popular in Midle East country that curently has been also entering Indonesia. The side effect of shisha smoking habit is still very rare reported. Aim of this study is to describe the oral mucosa condition of shisha user. A preliminary observasional study was conducted at several sisha cafe at South Jakarta. Under informed consent, subject with habit of tobacco and shisha smoker were included. Sociodemographic data (age, gender, duration, frequency of smoking, salivary flow rate and oral mucosa changes were documented. Eighteen subjects were recruited into this study. Most of shisha smoker was also tobacco smoker. Shisha was more practiced by male at  age (15-24 years old. The oral mucosa changes such as keratosis, melanosis, leukoedema, coated tongue, gingivitis and xerostomia were found on subject with habit of tobacco smoking habit only or both shisha and tobacco smoking. In conclusion apparently the shisha smoking habit may casue oral mucosa changes almost the same with tobacco smoking habit

  16. AWARENESS OF HARMFUL EFFECTS OF SMOKING AMONG SMOKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikanti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Smoking is the preventable risk factor for many non - communicable diseases like COPD, atherosclerotic diseases, stroke and many malignancies. Many smokers smoke their 1 st cigarette at early age due to various social factors. Ma ny of the smokers doesn’t know the harmful effects of the smoking on individual systems. METHODS : Prospective study conducted on 102 smokers attending to outpatient department of the Government fever hospital, Guntur. They were surveyed about their smoking preferences. After taking the preliminary details they are enquired about the level of awareness of harmful effects of smoking. RESULT : More than half the members (n=56 , 54.90% smoke in their houses. They don’t know about effect of second hand smoke on th e health of the members. Only few members know the complication of the smoking like Skin diseases (17 , 16.66%, Cerebrovascular accidents (26 , 25.49% and endocrine complications including diabetes (n=2, 1.8%. Most of subjects know risk of Carcinomas (92,90 .19%, Cardiovascular diseases (34,33.33% and Respiratory diseases (85,83.33%. People continue smoking inspite of awareness of complications of smoking due their addiction. CONCLUSIONS : Newer policies should raise towards educating the people about the exact impact of smoking on health. Policies should target the younger people that should stop smoking their 1 st cigarette or beedi

  17. Evaluation of the lung cancer risks at which to screen ever- and never-smokers: screening rules applied to the PLCO and NLST cohorts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin C Tammemägi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lung cancer risks at which individuals should be screened with computed tomography (CT for lung cancer are undecided. This study's objectives are to identify a risk threshold for selecting individuals for screening, to compare its efficiency with the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF criteria for identifying screenees, and to determine whether never-smokers should be screened. Lung cancer risks are compared between smokers aged 55-64 and ≥ 65-80 y. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Applying the PLCO(m2012 model, a model based on 6-y lung cancer incidence, we identified the risk threshold above which National Lung Screening Trial (NLST, n = 53,452 CT arm lung cancer mortality rates were consistently lower than rates in the chest X-ray (CXR arm. We evaluated the USPSTF and PLCO(m2012 risk criteria in intervention arm (CXR smokers (n = 37,327 of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO. The numbers of smokers selected for screening, and the sensitivities, specificities, and positive predictive values (PPVs for identifying lung cancers were assessed. A modified model (PLCOall2014 evaluated risks in never-smokers. At PLCO(m2012 risk ≥ 0.0151, the 65th percentile of risk, the NLST CT arm mortality rates are consistently below the CXR arm's rates. The number needed to screen to prevent one lung cancer death in the 65th to 100th percentile risk group is 255 (95% CI 143 to 1,184, and in the 30th to 15 y, 8.5% had PLCO(m2012 risk ≥ 0.0151. None of 65,711 PLCO never-smokers had PLCO(m2012 risk ≥ 0.0151. Risks and lung cancers were significantly greater in PLCO smokers aged ≥ 65-80 y than in those aged 55-64 y. This study omitted cost-effectiveness analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The USPSTF criteria for CT screening include some low-risk individuals and exclude some high-risk individuals. Use of the PLCO(m2012 risk ≥ 0.0151 criterion can improve screening efficiency. Currently, never-smokers should not be screened

  18. Cotinine and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons levels in the amniotic fluid and fetal cord at birth and in the urine from pregnant smokers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia de Barros Machado

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking during pregnancy has several impacts on fetal development, including teratogenic effects. The objective of this study was to assess whether the toxic substances (cotinine and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in pregnant smokers are transmitted to their fetuses. The outcomes were analyzed measuring cotinine and 1-hydroxypyrene in the amniotic fluid and maternal urine, benzopyrene and cotinine in the umbilical cord blood. Through a controlled cross-sectional design, 125 pregnant women were selected and classified according to their smoking status: 37 current smokers, 25 passive smokers and 63 non-smokers (controls. We performed high-performance liquid chromatography to measure substances' concentrations. A post-hoc Tukey's test was used to analyze the differences between the groups. All variables were significantly different between controls and smokers. The mean ratios between the concentration of cotinine in smokers compared to controls were as follows: 5.9 [2.5-13.5], p<0.001 in the urine; 25 [11.9-52.9], p<0.001 in the amniotic fluid; and 2.6 [1.0-6.8], p = 0.044 in the umbilical cord blood. The mean ratios of 1-hydroxypyrene concentration between smokers and controls were 7.3 [1.6-29.6], p = 0.003 in the urine and 1.3 [1.0-1.7], p = 0.012 in the amniotic fluid, and of benzopyrene in umbilical cord blood was 2.9 [1.7-4.7], p<0.001. There were no significant differences between controls and passive smokers. When comparing the three groups together, there were statistical differences between all variables. Thus, the fetuses of pregnant smokers are exposed to toxic and carcinogens substances. To our knowledge, this is the first study to measure 1-hydroxypyrene in the amniotic fluid and benzopyrene in umbilical cord blood by high-performance liquid chromatography when considering pregnant women in relation to smoking exposure only.

  19. A study of reduction in breath-holding time in smokers and recovery among ex-smokers in bus depot workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakthavathsalam Sreenivas Sudha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smoking has deleterious effects on breath-holding time (BHT, which has been used in respiratory physiology as a measure of ventilatory response. Evidences regarding assessment of the reversibility of the impact of smoking on BHT and recovery in ex-smokers are ambiguous. Hence, this study was conducted to quantify the reduction in BHT and to assess the reversibility of the same. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 84 bus-depot workers consisting of equal number of smokers, ex-smokers, and non-smokers. Breath-holding time was recorded using the mouth piece attached to the mercury manometer where the subjects were advised to blow through the mouth piece after full inspiration as long as possible till the breaking point following standard methods and precautions. Comparisons among 3 groups were performed employing one-way ANOVA and post-hoc tests. The significance of difference in BHT between the 2 categories of frequency and duration of smoking was tested using Student′s t-test for independent samples. Results: BHT was found to be significantly reduced among smokers compared to non-smokers. Almost complete recovery of BHT was observed in ex-smokers. There was deterioration in BHT with increase in BMI, and a statistically significant negative correlation was observed when BHT was correlated with age, especially in smokers. Conclusion: Present study has demonstrated considerable reduction of BHT in smokers and indications of recovery in ex-smokers. Further detailed study with larger sample size, stricter definition of ex-smokers, and considering physical activity is recommended.

  20. Up-regulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in menthol cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Arthur L; Mukhin, Alexey G; La Charite, Jaime; Ta, Karen; Farahi, Judah; Sugar, Catherine A; Mamoun, Michael S; Vellios, Evan; Archie, Meena; Kozman, Maggie; Phuong, Jonathan; Arlorio, Franca; Mandelkern, Mark A

    2013-06-01

    One-third of smokers primarily use menthol cigarettes and usage of these cigarettes leads to elevated serum nicotine levels and more difficulty quitting in standard treatment programmes. Previous brain imaging studies demonstrate that smoking (without regard to cigarette type) leads to up-regulation of β(2)*-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). We sought to determine if menthol cigarette usage results in greater nAChR up-regulation than non-menthol cigarette usage. Altogether, 114 participants (22 menthol cigarette smokers, 41 non-menthol cigarette smokers and 51 non-smokers) underwent positron emission tomography scanning using the α(4)β(2)* nAChR radioligand 2-[(18)F]fluoro-A-85380 (2-FA). In comparing menthol to non-menthol cigarette smokers, an overall test of 2-FA total volume of distribution values revealed a significant between-group difference, resulting from menthol smokers having 9-28% higher α(4)β(2)* nAChR densities than non-menthol smokers across regions. In comparing the entire group of smokers to non-smokers, an overall test revealed a significant between-group difference, resulting from smokers having higher α(4)β(2)* nAChR levels in all regions studied (36-42%) other than thalamus (3%). Study results demonstrate that menthol smokers have greater up-regulation of nAChRs than non-menthol smokers. This difference is presumably related to higher nicotine exposure in menthol smokers, although other mechanisms for menthol influencing receptor density are possible. These results provide additional information about the severity of menthol cigarette use and may help explain why these smokers have more trouble quitting in standard treatment programmes.

  1. Outgoing Longwave Radiation Daily Climate Data Record (OLR Daily CDR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The product contains the 1-degree by 1-degree daily mean outgoing longwave radiation flux at the top of the atmosphere derived from HIRS radiance observations...

  2. Daily and Sub-daily Precipitation for the Former USSR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a compilation of in situ daily and hourly meteorological observations for the former USSR initially obtained within the framework of several joint...

  3. Beyond Traditional Newspaper Advertisement: Leveraging Facebook-Targeted Advertisement to Recruit Long-Term Smokers for Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter-Harris, Lisa; Bartlett Ellis, Rebecca; Warrick, Adam; Rawl, Susan

    2016-06-15

    Smokers are a stigmatized population, but an important population to reach for the purpose of research. Therefore, innovative recruitment methods are needed that are both cost-effective and efficacious in recruiting this population. The aim of the present article was to evaluate the feasibility of Facebook-targeted advertisement to recruit long-term smokers eligible for lung cancer screening for a descriptive, cross-sectional survey. A social media recruitment campaign was launched using Facebook-targeted advertisement to target age and keywords related to tobacco smoking in the Facebook users profile, interests, and likes. A 3-day newspaper advertisement recruitment campaign was used as a comparison. The study that used both recruitment methods aimed to test the psychometric properties of 4 newly developed lung cancer screening health belief scales. Data were collected via cross-sectional survey methodology using an Web-based survey platform. The Facebook-targeted advertisements were viewed 56,621 times over an 18-day campaign in 2015 in the United States. The advertisement campaign yielded 1121 unique clicks to the Web-based survey platform at a cost of $1.51 per completed survey. Of those who clicked through to the study survey platform, 423 (37.7%) consented to participate; 92 (8.2%) dropped out during completion of the survey yielding a final study pool of 331 completed surveys. Recruitment by newspaper advertisement yielded a total of 30 participants in response to a 3-day advertisement campaign; recruitment efficacy resulted in 10 participants/day at $40.80 per completed survey. Participants represented current (n=182; 51%) and former smokers (n=178; 49%) with a mean age of 63.4 years (SD 6.0). Cost of the advertisement campaign was $500 total for the 18-day campaign. Recruitment by Facebook was more efficacious and cost-effective compared with newspaper advertisement. Facebook offers a new venue for recruitment into research studies that offer the potential

  4. Beyond Traditional Newspaper Advertisement: Leveraging Facebook-Targeted Advertisement to Recruit Long-Term Smokers for Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrick, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Background Smokers are a stigmatized population, but an important population to reach for the purpose of research. Therefore, innovative recruitment methods are needed that are both cost-effective and efficacious in recruiting this population. Objective The aim of the present article was to evaluate the feasibility of Facebook-targeted advertisement to recruit long-term smokers eligible for lung cancer screening for a descriptive, cross-sectional survey. Methods A social media recruitment campaign was launched using Facebook-targeted advertisement to target age and keywords related to tobacco smoking in the Facebook users profile, interests, and likes. A 3-day newspaper advertisement recruitment campaign was used as a comparison. The study that used both recruitment methods aimed to test the psychometric properties of 4 newly developed lung cancer screening health belief scales. Data were collected via cross-sectional survey methodology using an Web-based survey platform. Results The Facebook-targeted advertisements were viewed 56,621 times over an 18-day campaign in 2015 in the United States. The advertisement campaign yielded 1121 unique clicks to the Web-based survey platform at a cost of $1.51 per completed survey. Of those who clicked through to the study survey platform, 423 (37.7%) consented to participate; 92 (8.2%) dropped out during completion of the survey yielding a final study pool of 331 completed surveys. Recruitment by newspaper advertisement yielded a total of 30 participants in response to a 3-day advertisement campaign; recruitment efficacy resulted in 10 participants/day at $40.80 per completed survey. Participants represented current (n=182; 51%) and former smokers (n=178; 49%) with a mean age of 63.4 years (SD 6.0). Cost of the advertisement campaign was $500 total for the 18-day campaign. Conclusions Recruitment by Facebook was more efficacious and cost-effective compared with newspaper advertisement. Facebook offers a new venue for

  5. The relation between price and daily consumption of cigarettes and bidis: Findings from the Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Wave 1 Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P S Pawar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: In India, 14% of the population use smoked tobacco products. Increasing prices of these products is one of the measures to curb their consumption. Aims: This study analyzes "unit price" and "daily consumption" of cigarettes and bidis and investigates their relation with each other. Settings And Design: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in four states of India (Bihar, West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra as a part of the International Tobacco Control Policy (TCP Evaluation Project (the TCP India Project during 2010-2011. Methods: Information was collected from adult (aged ≥15 daily exclusive smokers of cigarette/bidi regarding (a last purchase (purchase in pack/loose, brand and price and (b daily consumption. Average unit price and daily consumption was calculated for different brands and states. Regression model was used to assess the impact of price on daily consumption. Results: Bidis were much less expensive (₹0.39 than cigarettes (₹3.1. The daily consumption was higher (14 among bidi smokers than cigarette smokers (8. The prices and daily consumption of bidis (₹0.33-0.43; 12-15 and cigarettes (₹2.9-3.6; 5-9 varied across the four states. The unit prices of bidis and cigarettes did not influence their daily consumption. Smokers purchasing bidis in packs paid substantially less per unit and purchase of bidis and cigarettes in packs influenced their consumption positively. Conclusions: Cigarettes although more expensive than bidis, seem very cheap if compared internationally. Hence, prices of both cigarettes and bidis do not influence their consumption.

  6. Are Metals Emitted from Electronic Cigarettes a Reason for Health Concern? A Risk-Assessment Analysis of Currently Available Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos E. Farsalinos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies have found that metals are emitted to the electronic cigarette (EC aerosol. However, the potential health impact of exposure to such metals has not been adequately defined. The purpose of this study was to perform a risk assessment analysis, evaluating the exposure of electronic cigarette (EC users to metal emissions based on findings from the published literature. Methods: Two studies were found in the literature, measuring metals emitted to the aerosol from 13 EC products. We estimated that users take on average 600 EC puffs per day, but we evaluated the daily exposure from 1200 puffs. Estimates of exposure were compared with the chronic Permissible Daily Exposure (PDE from inhalational medications defined by the U.S. Pharmacopeia (cadmium, chromium, copper, lead and nickel, the Minimal Risk Level (MRL defined by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (manganese and the Recommended Exposure Limit (REL defined by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (aluminum, barium, iron, tin, titanium, zinc and zirconium. Results: The average daily exposure from 13 EC products was 2.6 to 387 times lower than the safety cut-off point of PDEs, 325 times lower than the safety limit of MRL and 665 to 77,514 times lower than the safety cut-off point of RELs. Only one of the 13 products was found to result in exposure 10% higher than PDE for one metal (cadmium at the extreme daily use of 1200 puffs. Significant differences in emissions between products were observed. Conclusions: Based on currently available data, overall exposure to metals from EC use is not expected to be of significant health concern for smokers switching to EC use, but is an unnecessary source of exposure for never-smokers. Metal analysis should be expanded to more products and exposure can be further reduced through improvements in product quality and appropriate choice of materials.

  7. Success of dental implants in smokers and non-smokers: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraschini, V; Barboza, E dS Porto

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this review was to test the null hypothesis of no difference in marginal bone loss and implant failure rates between smokers and non-smokers with respect to the follow-up period. An extensive electronic search was performed in PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials to identify relevant articles published up to February 2015. The eligibility criteria included randomized and non-randomized clinical studies. After an exhaustive selection process, 15 articles were included. The meta-analysis was expressed in terms of the odds ratio (OR) or standardized mean difference (SMD) with a confidence interval (CI) of 95%. There was a statistically significant difference in marginal bone loss favouring the non-smoking group (SMD 0.49, 95% CI 0.07-0.90; P=0.02). An independent analysis revealed an increase in marginal bone loss in the maxilla of smokers, compared to the mandible (SMD 0.40, 95% CI 0.24-0.55; P<0.00001). A statistically significant difference in implant failure in favour of the non-smoking group was also observed (OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.68-2.30; P<0.00001). However, the subgroup analysis for follow-up time revealed no significant increase in implant failure proportional to the increase in follow-up time (P=0.26).

  8. Prevalence and correlates of pulmonary emphysema in smokers and former smokers. A densitometric study of participants in the ITALUNG trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camiciottoli, Gianna [Universita di Firenze, Dipartimento Area Critica, Firenze (Italy); Cavigli, Edoardo; Grassi, Luca; Orlandi, Ilaria; Picozzi, Giulia; Mascalchi, Mario [Universita di Firenze, Radiodiagnostica, Dipartimento Fisiopatologia Clinica, Firenze (Italy); Diciotti, Stefano [Universita di Firenze, Dipartimento Elettronica e Telecomunicazioni, Firenze (Italy); Zappa, Marco; Paci, Eugenio [Centro di Studio e Prevenzione Oncologica, Firenze (Italy); Pegna, Andrea Lopes [Azienda Ospedaliera-Universitaria di Careggi, Pneumologia, Firenze (Italy); Falaschi, Fabio [Azienda Ospedaliera-Universitaria Pisana, Radiodiagnostica II, Pisa (Italy)

    2009-01-15

    We assessed with computed tomography (CT) densitometry the prevalence of emphysema in 266 (175 men and 91 women; mean age 64{+-}4 years) smokers and former smokers enrolled in the ITALUNG trial of lung cancer screening with low-dose thin-slice CT. Whole-lung volume and the relative area at -950 Hounsfield units (RA{sub 950}) and mean lung attenuation (MLA) in 1 of every 10 slices (mean, 24 slices per subject) were measured. Lung volume, MLA and RA950 significantly correlated each other and with age. Average RA950>6.8% qualifying for emphysema was present in 71(26.6%) of 266 subjects, with a higher prevalence in men than in women (30.3% vs 19.8%; p=0.003). Only in smokers was a weak (r=0.18; p=0.05) correlation between RA950 and packs/year observed. In multiple regression analysis, the variability of RA950 (R2=0.24) or MLA (R2=0.34) was significantly, but weakly explained by age, lung volume and packs/year. Other factors besides smoking may also have a significant role in the etiopathogenesis of pulmonary emphysema. (orig.)

  9. Cigarette Fires Involving Upholstered Furniture in Residences: The Role that Smokers, Smoker Behavior, and Fire Standard Compliant Cigarettes Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butry, David T; Thomas, Douglas S

    2017-05-01

    Residential structure fires pose a significant risk to life and property. A major source of these fires is the ignition of upholstered furniture by cigarettes. It has long been established that cigarettes and other lighted tobacco products could ignite upholstered furniture and were a leading cause of fire deaths in residences. In recent years, states have adopted fire standard compliant cigarettes ('FSC cigarettes') that are made with a wrapping paper that contains regularly spaced bands, which increases the likelihood of self-extinguishment. This paper measures the effectiveness of FSC cigarettes on the number of residential fires involving upholstered furniture, and the resulting fatalities, injuries, and extent of flame spread, while accounting for the under-reporting of fire incidents. In total, four models were estimated using fire department data from 2002 to 2011. The results provide evidence that FSC cigarettes, on average, reduced the number of residential fires by 45 %, reduced fatalities by 23 %, and extent of flame spread by 27 % in 2011. No effect on injuries was found. Within each state, effectiveness is moderated by the number of smokers and their consumption patterns. In general, FSC cigarettes are more effective in places with a large smoking population who engage in heavier smoking. There is a very limited effect on the lightest of smokers, suggesting behavioral differences between heavy and light smokers that influence fire risk.

  10. Life expectancy and life expectancy with disability of normal weight, overweight, and obese smokers and nonsmokers in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majer, Istvan M; Nusselder, Wilma J; Mackenbach, Johan P; Kunst, Anton E

    2011-07-01

    The goal of this study was to estimate life expectancy (LE) and LE with disability (LwD) among normal weight, overweight, and obese smokers and nonsmokers in Western Europe. Data from four waves (1998-2001) of the European Community Household Panel (ECHP) were used; a standardized multipurpose annual longitudinal survey. Self-reported health and socioeconomic information was collected repeatedly using uniform questionnaires for 66,331 individuals in nine countries. Health status was measured in terms of disability in daily activities. Multistate Markov (MSM) models were applied to obtain hazard ratios (HRs) and age-specific transition rates according to BMI and smoking status. Multistate life tables were computed using the predicted transition probabilities to estimate LE and LwD. Significant associations were observed between disability incidence and BMI (HR = 1.15 for overweight, HR = 1.64 for obese, compared to normal weight). The risk of mortality was negatively associated with overweight status among disabled (HR = 0.77). Overweight people had higher LE than people with normal-weight and obesity. Among women, overweight and obese nonsmokers expect 3.6 and 6.1 more years of LwD than normal weight persons, respectively. In contrast, daily smokers expect lower LE but a similar LwD. The same patterns were observed among people with high education and those with low education. To conclude, daily smoking is associated with mortality more than with disability, whereas obesity is associated with disability more than with mortality. The findings suggest that further tobacco control would contribute to increasing LE, while tackling the obesity epidemic is necessary to prevent an expansion of disability.

  11. Characteristics and Prognosis of Never-Smokers and Smokers with Asthma in the Copenhagen General Population Study. A Prospective Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Çolak, Yunus; Afzal, Shoaib; Nordestgaard, Børge G;

    2015-01-01

    RATIONALE: Asthma is associated with complications, cardiovascular comorbidities, and higher mortality in some individuals. OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that, among individuals with asthma, never-smokers have different characteristics and a better prognosis than smokers. METHODS: We recruit...... with asthma. Thus, tobacco smoking was the main explanation for poor prognosis in asthma....

  12. Lightship Daily Observations - NARA Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observations taken on board lightships along the United States coasts from 1893 - 1943. Generally 4-6 observations daily. Also includes deck logs, which give...

  13. The patient with daily headaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maizels, Morris

    2004-12-15

    The term "chronic daily headache" (CDH) describes a variety of headache types, of which chronic migraine is the most common. Daily headaches often are disabling and may be challenging to diagnose and treat. Medication overuse, or drug rebound headache, is the most treatable cause of refractory daily headache. A pathologic underlying cause should be considered in patients with recent-onset daily headache, a change from a previous headache pattern, or associated neurologic or systemic symptoms. Treatment of CDH focuses on reduction of headache triggers and use of preventive medication, most commonly anti-depressants, antiepileptic drugs, and beta blockers. Medication overuse must be treated with discontinuation of symptomatic medicines, a transitional therapy, and long-term prophylaxis. Anxiety and depression are common in patients with CDH and should be identified and treated. Although the condition is challenging, appropriate treatment of patients with CDH can bring about significant improvement in the patient's quality-of-life.

  14. How and Why Do Smokers Start Using E-Cigarettes? Qualitative Study of Vapers in London, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elle Wadsworth

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the study were to (1 describe how and why smokers start to vape and what products they use; (2 relate findings to the COM-B theory of behaviour change (three conditions are necessary for behaviour change (B: capability (C, opportunity (O, and motivation (M; and (3 to consider implications for e-cigarette policy research. Semi-structured interviews (n = 30 were conducted in London, UK, with smokers or ex-smokers who were currently using or had used e-cigarettes. E-cigarette initiation (behaviour was facilitated by: capability (physical capability to use an e-cigarette and psychological capability to understand that using e-cigarettes was less harmful than smoking; opportunity (physical opportunity to access e-cigarettes in shops, at a lower cost than cigarettes, and to vape in “smoke-free” environments, as well as social opportunity to vape with friends and family; and motivation (automatic motivation including curiosity, and reflective motivation, including self-conscious decision-making processes related to perceived health benefits. The application of the COM-B model identified multiple factors that may lead to e-cigarette initiation, including those that could be influenced by policy, such as price relative to cigarettes and use in smoke-free environments. The effects of these policies on initiation should be further investigated along with the possible moderating/mediating effects of social support.

  15. Exploring the Utility of Web-Based Social Media Advertising to Recruit Adult Heavy-Drinking Smokers for Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Bold, Krysten W.; Hanrahan, Tess H; O'Malley, Stephanie S.; Fucito, Lisa M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Identifying novel ways to recruit smokers for treatment studies is important. In particular, certain subgroups of adult smokers, such as heavy-drinking smokers, are at increased risk for serious medical problems and are less likely to try quitting smoking, so drawing this hard-to-reach population into treatment is important for improving health outcomes. Objective This study examined the utility of Facebook advertisements to recruit smokers and heavy-drinking smokers for treatment ...

  16. Extended plasma cannabinoid excretion in chronic frequent cannabis smokers during sustained abstinence and correlation with psychomotor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karschner, Erin L; Swortwood, Madeleine J; Hirvonen, Jussi; Goodwin, Robert S; Bosker, Wendy M; Ramaekers, Johannes G; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2016-07-01

    Cannabis smoking increases motor vehicle accident risk. Empirically defined cannabinoid detection windows are important to drugged driving legislation. Our aims were to establish plasma cannabinoid detection windows in frequent cannabis smokers and to determine if residual cannabinoid concentrations were correlated with psychomotor performance. Twenty-eight male chronic frequent cannabis smokers resided on a secure research unit for up to 33 days with daily blood collection. Plasma specimens were analyzed for Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC), and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Critical tracking and divided attention tasks were administered at baseline (after overnight stay to ensure lack of acute intoxication) and after 1, 2, and 3 weeks of cannabis abstinence. Twenty-seven of the twenty-eight participants were THC-positive at admission (median 4.2 µg/L). THC concentrations significantly decreased 24 h after admission, but were still ≥2 µg/L in 16 of the 28 participants 48 h after admission. THC was detected in 3 of 5 specimens on day 30. The last positive 11-OH-THC specimen was 15 days after admission. THCCOOH was measureable in 4 of 5 participants after 30 days of abstinence. Years of prior cannabis use significantly correlated with THC concentrations on admission, and days 7 and 14. Tracking error, evaluated by the Divided Attention Task, was the only evaluated psychomotor assessment significantly correlated with cannabinoid concentrations at baseline and day 8 (11-OH-THC only). Median THC was 0.3 µg/L in 5 chronic frequent cannabis smokers' plasma samples after 30 days of sustained abstinence. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  17. Effects of plain package branding and graphic health warnings on adolescent smokers in the USA, Spain and France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, J Craig; Netemeyer, Richard G; Burton, Scot; Kees, Jeremy

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide an experimental test of the effects of plain pack branding and graphic health warnings (GHWs) in three different countries for an important and vulnerable population, that is, adolescents who are experimenting with smoking. The effects of plain pack branding (logo present, logo absent), and graphic visual warning level (absent, low, medium, high) are studied experimentally for their impact on adolescent cigarette craving, evoked fear, pack feelings and thoughts of quitting in the USA, Spain and France. A total of 1066 adolescents who were experimenting with smoking served as participants in the study. A quota sample produced 375 respondents in the USA, 337 in Spain and 354 in France. Overall findings indicate that the GHWs were effective in impacting adolescent cigarette craving, evoked fear, pack feelings and thoughts of quitting. The plain pack effects were not as strong, yet reduced craving, increased fear, and decreased pack feelings for all three samples combined, and for US adolescent smokers individually, irrespective of the GHWs. For French adolescent smokers, plain pack effects for craving were limited to low/moderate GHW levels. For Spanish adolescent smokers, plain pack feeling effects were limited to the absence of the GHWs. The results show that plain packs can independently strengthen the more instantaneous, direct effects (short of quitting thoughts) found with the GHWs. Yet, the plain pack results were attenuated for Spanish and French adolescent smokers, who are currently exposed to GHWs. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. Use of nicotine substitute prescribed at hourly plus ab libitum intake or ad libitum for heavy smokers willing to quit: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zellweger Jean-Pierre

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To assess the impact of instructional guidance in the regular use of use nicotine nasal spray (NNS on the true use of NNS during the first three weeks of smoking cessation for heavy smokers who are willing to quit. Methods This randomized, open, controlled trial included 50 patients who were heavy smokers, were willing to quit, and attending an academic outpatient clinic in Western Switzerland. Patients were randomised to instruction on NNS use as "ad libitum" (administration whenever cravings appear; control group or to use NNS when craving appears and at least every hour when awake (intervention group. Intakes were monitored using an electronic device fixed in the spray unit (MDILog™ during the first three weeks of use. Self reported abstinence from smoking at six months was confirmed by expired-air carbon monoxide. Using intention-to-treat analysis, random-effect GLS regression was used to calculate the mean difference of daily doses between groups controlling for lack of independence between measures from the same individual. Results One patient was lost to follow-up. At baseline randomization, the group receiving instruction to use NNS hourly included more women, patients with previous desires to quit, and patients with more psychiatric comorbidities and less somatic complaints compared to the group instructed to use NNS with cravings (group imbalance. Both groups self-administered more than the daily recommended dosage of 8 uses. Mean daily usage was 13.6 dose/day and 11.1 dose/day for the group instructed to use NNS hourly and with cravings, respectively. Adjusting for baseline imbalance, the increased daily doses in the intervention group (hourly use remained nonsignificant compared to ad libitum use (-0.5 dose/day; CI 95% -6.2; 5.3, from day 1 to day 7; and 2.3 dose/day; CI 95% -5.4; 10.0, from day 8 to day 21. Instructing patients to use the NNS daily had no effect on smoking cessation at six months (RR = 0.69; CI

  19. The Potential Explanatory Role of Perceived Stress in Associations Between Subjective Social Status and Health-Related Quality of Life Among Homeless Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garey, Lorra; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Kendzor, Darla E; Businelle, Michael S

    2016-01-01

    Homeless individuals smoke at high rates relative to the general population and are at heightened risk of tobacco-related illnesses and poor health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Homeless smokers also report low subjective social status (SSS) or perceived social standing relative to others. SSS may contribute to poor HRQoL, potentially through perceived stress. The current study examined the role of perceived stress in the association of SSS and HRQoL among 227 (70.9% male, Mage = 43.2) homeless smokers. Participants completed self-report measures of SSS, perceived stress, and HRQoL. Perceived stress partially explained the relation between SSS (United States and Community) and HRQoL in covariate-adjusted analyses. Results suggested that perceived stress is a pathway through which SSS contributes to HRQoL among homeless smokers. Findings broaden current understanding of the impact of social disadvantage and perceived stress on HRQoL among homeless smokers.

  20. Stratification by smoking status reveals an association of CHRNA5-A3-B4 genotype with body mass index in never smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Amy E; Morris, Richard W; Fluharty, Meg E; Bjorngaard, Johan H; Åsvold, Bjørn Olav; Gabrielsen, Maiken E; Campbell, Archie; Marioni, Riccardo; Kumari, Meena; Hällfors, Jenni; Männistö, Satu; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Kaakinen, Marika; Cavadino, Alana; Postmus, Iris; Husemoen, Lise Lotte N; Skaaby, Tea; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S; Treur, Jorien L; Willemsen, Gonneke; Dale, Caroline; Wannamethee, S Goya; Lahti, Jari; Palotie, Aarno; Räikkönen, Katri; Kisialiou, Aliaksei; McConnachie, Alex; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Wong, Andrew; Dalgård, Christine; Paternoster, Lavinia; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Tyrrell, Jessica; Horwood, John; Fergusson, David M; Kennedy, Martin A; Frayling, Tim; Nohr, Ellen A; Christiansen, Lene; Ohm Kyvik, Kirsten; Kuh, Diana; Watt, Graham; Eriksson, Johan; Whincup, Peter H; Vink, Jacqueline M; Boomsma, Dorret I; Davey Smith, George; Lawlor, Debbie; Linneberg, Allan; Ford, Ian; Jukema, J Wouter; Power, Christine; Hyppönen, Elina; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Preisig, Martin; Borodulin, Katja; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kivimaki, Mika; Smith, Blair H; Hayward, Caroline; Romundstad, Pål R; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Munafò, Marcus R; Sattar, Naveed

    2014-12-01

    We previously used a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the CHRNA5-A3-B4 gene cluster associated with heaviness of smoking within smokers to confirm the causal effect of smoking in reducing body mass index (BMI) in a Mendelian randomisation analysis. While seeking to extend these findings in a larger sample we found that this SNP is associated with 0.74% lower body mass index (BMI) per minor allele in current smokers (95% CI -0.97 to -0.51, P = 2.00 × 10(-10)), but also unexpectedly found that it was associated with 0.35% higher BMI in never smokers (95% CI +0.18 to +0.52, P = 6.38 × 10(-5)). An interaction test confirmed that these estimates differed from each other (P = 4.95 × 10(-13)). This difference in effects suggests the variant influences BMI both via pathways unrelated to smoking, and via the weight-reducing effects of smoking. It would therefore be essentially undetectable in an unstratified genome-wide association study of BMI, given the opposite association with BMI in never and current smokers. This demonstrates that novel associations may be obscured by hidden population sub-structure. Stratification on well-characterized environmental factors known to impact on health outcomes may therefore reveal novel genetic associations.

  1. EGFR mutations in patients with lung adenocarcinoma in southwest China: are G719S/A and L861Q more likely detected in tumors derived from smokers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang QS

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Qiushi Wang,1 Jianghong Mou,1 Xin Yang,1 Yong He,2 Zengpeng Li,1 Qingya Luo,1 Yanqing Li,1 Li Lin,1 Yu Ma,1 Hualiang Xiao11Department of Pathology, 2Department of Respiration, Daping Hospital and Research Institute of Surgery, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of ChinaBackground: The clinical characteristics of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR hotspot mutations, such as deletions in exon 19, substitution of L858R in exon 21, and mutations in exon 20, have been widely reported in nonsmall cell lung cancer. However, the clinical features of other low frequency EGFR mutations in these four exons (especially the relationship with smoking history, eg, substitutions of G719S/A/C in exon 18 and L861Q in exon 21, remain unclear. This study investigated the relationship between G719S/A/C and L861Q mutations (in exon 18 and 21 and smoking history.Methods: Specimens from 194 patients with lung adenocarcinoma were analyzed for EGFR mutations in exons 18–21 by high-resolution melting curve analysis and amplification refractory mutation technology to establish the relationship between G719S/A/C and L861Q mutations and smoking history.Results: Ninety-six of 194 tumors (49.5% were confirmed to be EGFR mutation-positive. Among these mutations, 71 of 104 (68.3% were from never smokers, six of 17 (35.3% were from former smokers, and 19 of 73 (26.0% were from current smokers (P < 0.001. The mutation rate in heavy smokers (5/23, 21.7% was significa