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Sample records for current daily smokers

  1. Classifying a smoker scale in adult daily and nondaily smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulvers, Kim; Scheuermann, Taneisha S; Romero, Devan R; Basora, Brittany; Luo, Xianghua; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S

    2014-05-01

    Smoker identity, or the strength of beliefs about oneself as a smoker, is a robust marker of smoking behavior. However, many nondaily smokers do not identify as smokers, underestimating their risk for tobacco-related disease and resulting in missed intervention opportunities. Assessing underlying beliefs about characteristics used to classify smokers may help explain the discrepancy between smoking behavior and smoker identity. This study examines the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Classifying a Smoker scale among a racially diverse sample of adult smokers. A cross-sectional survey was administered through an online panel survey service to 2,376 current smokers who were at least 25 years of age. The sample was stratified to obtain equal numbers of 3 racial/ethnic groups (African American, Latino, and White) across smoking level (nondaily and daily smoking). The Classifying a Smoker scale displayed a single factor structure and excellent internal consistency (α = .91). Classifying a Smoker scores significantly increased at each level of smoking, F(3,2375) = 23.68, p smoker identity, stronger dependence on cigarettes, greater health risk perceptions, more smoking friends, and were more likely to carry cigarettes. Classifying a Smoker scores explained unique variance in smoking variables above and beyond that explained by smoker identity. The present study supports the use of the Classifying a Smoker scale among diverse, experienced smokers. Stronger endorsement of characteristics used to classify a smoker (i.e., stricter criteria) was positively associated with heavier smoking and related characteristics. Prospective studies are needed to inform prevention and treatment efforts.

  2. Comparison of native light daily smokers and light daily smokers who were former heavy smokers.

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    Fish, Laura J; Pollak, Kathryn I; Scheuermann, Taneisha S; Cox, Lisa Sanderson; Mathur, Charu; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S

    2015-05-01

    An increasing proportion of daily smokers are light smokers (≤10 cigarettes per day). Some light smokers have never smoked more than 10 cigarettes per day (native light smokers) and others smoked at higher levels but have cut down (converted light smokers). It is important that we expand our understanding of these distinct subgroups of light smokers in order to develop effective interventions. Data for this report come from a larger sample of smokers who completed a cross-sectional survey administered through an online panel survey service. The sample of 522 light smokers included 256 native light smokers and 266 as converted light smokers. The goal of the analysis was to examine demographic, smoking, and psychosocial factors that differentiate between native and converted light smokers. Multivariable logistic regression results showed 4 variables that differentiated between native and converted light smokers. Native light smokers were more likely to be Black than White, smoke fewer cigarettes per day, smoked fewer total years, and had higher perceived risk of heart disease than converted light smokers. Native and converted light smokers are similar in many ways and also differ on some important characteristics. Further exploration of group difference is needed and could help to inform for cessation strategies for daily light smokers. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Intent to Quit among Daily and Non-Daily College Student Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsker, E. A.; Berg, C. J.; Nehl, E. J.; Prokhorov, A. V.; Buchanan, T. S.; Ahluwalia, J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Given the high prevalence of young adult smoking, we examined (i) psychosocial factors and substance use among college students representing five smoking patterns and histories [non-smokers, quitters, native non-daily smokers (i.e. never daily smokers), converted non-daily smokers (i.e. former daily smokers) and daily smokers] and (ii) smoking…

  4. Reasons for smoking among tri-ethnic daily and nondaily smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulvers, Kim; Scheuermann, Taneisha S; Emami, Ashley S; Basora, Brittany; Luo, Xianghua; Khariwala, Samir S; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S

    2014-12-01

    Nondaily smokers experience adverse effects from tobacco use, yet they have been understudied compared to daily smokers. Understanding how reasons for smoking (RS) differ by smoking level, gender, and race/ethnicity could inform tailored interventions. A cross-sectional survey was administered through an online panel survey service to 2,376 current smokers who were at least 25 years of age. The sample was stratified to obtain equal numbers of 3 racial/ethnic groups (African American [AA], Latino, and White) across smoking level (native nondaily, converted nondaily, daily light, and daily moderate/heavy). A 7-factor structure of a 20-item Modified Reasons for Smoking Scale (MRSS) was confirmed (each subscale alpha > 0.80). Each factor of the MRSS varied by smoking level, with nondaily smokers endorsing all RS less frequently than daily smokers (p smoker subgroups incrementally differed from one another (p smokers. Males reported stronger RS on 5 out of 7 reasons (p Whites and AAs on all reasons (p .05). AAs and Whites were comparable on all RS (p > .05). The present study highlights considerable variability across smoking level, gender, and race/ethnicity in strength of RS. Addressing subgroup differences in RS may contribute to more sensitive and effective prevention and treatment efforts. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Factors influencing quit attempts among male daily smokers in China.

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    Zhao, Luhua; Song, Yang; Xiao, Lin; Palipudi, Krishna; Asma, Samira

    2015-12-01

    China has the largest population of smokers in the world, yet the quit rate is low. We used data from the 2010 Global Adult Tobacco Survey China to identify factors influencing quit attempts among male Chinese daily smokers. The study sample included 3303 male daily smokers. To determine the factors that were significantly associated with making a quit attempt, we conducted logistic regression analyses. In addition, mediation analyses were carried out to investigate how the intermediate association among demographics (age, education, urbanicity) and smoking-related variables affected making a quit attempt. An estimated 11.0% of male daily smokers tried to quit smoking in the 12 months prior to the survey. Logistic regression analysis indicated that younger age (15-24 years), being advised to quit by a health care provider (HCP) in the past 12 months, lower cigarette cost per pack, monthly or less frequent exposure to smoking at home, and awareness of the harms of tobacco use were significantly associated with making a quit attempt. Additional mediation analyses showed that having knowledge of the harm of tobacco, exposure to smoking at home, and having been advised to quit by an HCP were mediators of making a quit attempt for other independent variables. Evidence-based tobacco control measures such as conducting educational campaigns on the harms of tobacco use, establishing smoke-free policies at home, and integrating tobacco cessation advice into primary health care services can increase quit attempts and reduce smoking among male Chinese daily smokers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Factors influencing quit attempts among male daily smokers in China✩

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Luhua; Song, Yang; Xiao, Lin; Palipudi, Krishna; Asma, Samira

    2015-01-01

    Background China has the largest population of smokers in the world, yet the quit rate is low. We used data from the 2010 Global Adult Tobacco Survey China to identify factors influencing quit attempts among male Chinese daily smokers. Methods The study sample included 3303 male daily smokers. To determine the factors that were significantly associated with making a quit attempt, we conducted logistic regression analyses. In addition, mediation anal yses were carried out to investigate how the intermediate association among demographics (age, education, urbanicity) and smoking related variables affected making a quit attempt. Results An estimated 11.0% of male daily smokers tried to quit smoking in the 12 months prior to the survey. Logistic regression analysis indicated that younger age (15–24 years), being advised to quit by a health care provider (HCP) in the past 12 months, lower cigarette cost per pack, monthly or less frequent exposure to smoking at home, and awareness of the harms of tobacco use were significantly associated with making a quit attempt. Additional mediation analyses showed that having knowledge of the harm of tobacco, exposure to smoking at home, and having been advised to quit by an HCP were mediators of making a quit attempt for other independent variables. Conclusion Evidence-based tobacco control measures such as conducting educational campaigns on the harms of tobacco use, establishing smoke-free policies at home, and integrating tobacco cessation advice into primary health care services can increase quit attempts and reduce smoking among male Chinese daily smokers. PMID:26441296

  7. Mood, mood regulation, and frontal systems functioning in current smokers, long-term abstinent ex-smokers, and never-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyvers, Michael; Carlopio, Cassandra; Vicole Bothma, Honours; Edwards, Mark S

    2014-01-01

    Indices of mood, mood regulation, and executive functioning were examined in 61 current smokers who have smoked daily for at least one year, 36 ex-smokers who had not smoked a cigarette for at least one year, and 86 never-smokers. All participants completed the following measures online: Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21), the Negative Mood Regulation (NMR) scale, the Frontal Systems Behavior Scale (FrSBe), the Fagerström Test for Cigarette Dependence (FTCD), and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) followed by Tukey post-hoc tests revealed significant differences (p ex-smokers and never-smokers on DASS, NMR, and FrSBe, as well as heavier drinking as measured by AUDIT. These differences remained significant even after controlling for AUDIT scores. Results most plausibly reflect a return to pre-smoking baseline brain function in long-term abstinent ex-smokers.

  8. Smoking patterns and stimulus control in intermittent and daily smokers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saul Shiffman

    Full Text Available Intermittent smokers (ITS - who smoke less than daily - comprise an increasing proportion of adult smokers. Their smoking patterns challenge theoretical models of smoking motivation, which emphasize regular and frequent smoking to maintain nicotine levels and avoid withdrawal, but yet have gone largely unexamined. We characterized smoking patterns among 212 ITS (smoking 4-27 days per month compared to 194 daily smokers (DS; smoking 5-30 cigarettes daily who monitored situational antecedents of smoking using ecological momentary assessment. Subjects recorded each cigarette on an electronic diary, and situational variables were assessed in a random subset (n=21,539 smoking episodes; parallel assessments were obtained by beeping subjects at random when they were not smoking (n=26,930 non-smoking occasions. Compared to DS, ITS' smoking was more strongly associated with being away from home, being in a bar, drinking alcohol, socializing, being with friends and acquaintances, and when others were smoking. Mood had only modest effects in either group. DS' and ITS' smoking were substantially and equally suppressed by smoking restrictions, although ITS more often cited self-imposed restrictions. ITS' smoking was consistently more associated with environmental cues and contexts, especially those associated with positive or "indulgent" smoking situations. Stimulus control may be an important influence in maintaining smoking and making quitting difficult among ITS.

  9. Smoking Patterns and Stimulus Control in Intermittent and Daily Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, Saul; Dunbar, Michael S.; Li, Xiaoxue; Scholl, Sarah M.; Tindle, Hilary A.; Anderson, Stewart J.; Ferguson, Stuart G.

    2014-01-01

    Intermittent smokers (ITS) – who smoke less than daily – comprise an increasing proportion of adult smokers. Their smoking patterns challenge theoretical models of smoking motivation, which emphasize regular and frequent smoking to maintain nicotine levels and avoid withdrawal, but yet have gone largely unexamined. We characterized smoking patterns among 212 ITS (smoking 4–27 days per month) compared to 194 daily smokers (DS; smoking 5–30 cigarettes daily) who monitored situational antecedents of smoking using ecological momentary assessment. Subjects recorded each cigarette on an electronic diary, and situational variables were assessed in a random subset (n = 21,539 smoking episodes); parallel assessments were obtained by beeping subjects at random when they were not smoking (n = 26,930 non-smoking occasions). Compared to DS, ITS' smoking was more strongly associated with being away from home, being in a bar, drinking alcohol, socializing, being with friends and acquaintances, and when others were smoking. Mood had only modest effects in either group. DS' and ITS' smoking were substantially and equally suppressed by smoking restrictions, although ITS more often cited self-imposed restrictions. ITS' smoking was consistently more associated with environmental cues and contexts, especially those associated with positive or “indulgent” smoking situations. Stimulus control may be an important influence in maintaining smoking and making quitting difficult among ITS. PMID:24599056

  10. Plain packaging increases visual attention to health warnings on cigarette packs in non-smokers and weekly smokers but not daily smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munafò, Marcus R; Roberts, Nicole; Bauld, Linda; Leonards, Ute

    2011-08-01

    To assess the impact of plain packaging on visual attention towards health warning information on cigarette packs. Mixed-model experimental design, comprising smoking status as a between-subjects factor, and package type (branded versus plain) as a within-subjects factor. University laboratory. Convenience sample of young adults, comprising non-smokers (n = 15), weekly smokers (n = 14) and daily smokers (n = 14). Number of saccades (eye movements) towards health warnings on cigarette packs, to directly index visual attention. Analysis of variance indicated more eye movements (i.e. greater visual attention) towards health warnings compared to brand information on plain packs versus branded packs. This effect was observed among non-smokers and weekly smokers, but not daily smokers. Among non-smokers and non-daily cigarette smokers, plain packaging appears to increase visual attention towards health warning information and away from brand information. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  11. Intent to quit, quit attempts, and perceived health risk reduction among African American, Latino, and White nondaily and daily smokers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuermann, Taneisha S; Nollen, Nicole L; Luo, Xianghua; Cox, Lisa Sanderson; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S

    2017-10-16

    Ethnic and racial differences in smoking patterns and behaviors have been well documented and most African American and Latino smokers are nondaily or light smokers. However, differences within smoking levels are understudied. Our primary aim was to determine whether there are racial and ethnic differences among African American, Latino, and White nondaily, light daily, and moderate to heavy daily smokers on (1) perceived health risk reduction, (2) intentions to quit, and (3) past year quit attempts. Smokers were recruited through an online research panel for a cross-sectional survey (n = 2376). Sampling quotas were used to obtain equal numbers of African American, Latino, and White nondaily and daily smokers. African American (59.6%) and Latino (54%) nondaily smokers were more likely than White nondaily smokers (45%) to currently limit their cigarettes per day (cpd) as a perceived health risk reduction strategy (p smokers were more likely than Latino and White nondaily smokers (p smokers (15%) were more likely than either Latinos (7.8%) or Whites (8.5%) to intend to quit in the next 30 days (p smokers were more likely than Whites (49%) to have made a quit attempt in the past year (p smokers. Racial and ethnic group differences were more pronounced among nondaily smokers compared to light daily smoker and moderate to heavy daily smokers. Smoking level is an important consideration in understanding racial and ethnic variation in perceived health risk reduction and cessation-related behaviors.

  12. Reference values of fractional excretion of exhaled nitric oxide among non-smokers and current smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torén, Kjell; Murgia, Nicola; Schiöler, Linus; Bake, Björn; Olin, Anna-Carin

    2017-08-25

    Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FE NO ) is used to assess of airway inflammation; diagnose asthma and monitor adherence to advised therapy. Reliable and accurate reference values for FE NO are needed for both non-smoking and current smoking adults in the clinical setting. The present study was performed to establish reference adult FE NO values among never-smokers, former smokers and current smokers. FE NO was measured in 5265 subjects aged 25-75 years in a general-population study, using a chemiluminescence (Niox ™) analyser according to the guidelines of the American Thoracic Society and the European Respiratory Society. Atopy was based on the presence of immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies to common inhalant allergens (measured using Phadiatop® test). Spirometry without bronchodilation was performed and forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expired volume in 1 s (FEV 1 ) and the ratio of FEV 1 to FVC values were obtained. After excluding subjects with asthma, chronic bronchitis, spirometric airway obstruction and current cold, 3378 subjects remained. Equations for predictions of FE NO values were modelled using nonparametric regression models. FE NO levels were similar in never-smokers and former smokers, and these two groups were therefore merged into a group termed "non-smokers". Reference equations, including the 5th and 95th percentiles, were generated for female and male non-smokers, based on age, height and atopy. Regression models for current smokers were unstable. Hence, the proposed reference values for current smokers are based on the univariate distribution of FE NO and fixed cut-off limits. Reference values for FE NO among respiratory healthy non-smokers should be outlined stratified for gender using individual reference values. For current smokers separate cut-off limits are proposed.

  13. Use of and Interest in Smoking Cessation Strategies among Daily and Nondaily College Student Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Carla J.; Sutfin, Erin L.; Mendel, Jennifer; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine use of and interest in cessation strategies among nondaily and daily college student smokers. Participants: 800 undergraduate student smokers aged 18 to 25. Methods: The authors examined nondaily versus daily smoking in relation to use of and interest in cessation strategies using an online survey. Results: Nondaily (65.8%)…

  14. Lifestyle, health characteristics and alcohol abuse in young adults who are non-daily smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Izabel de Ugalde Marques da Rocha

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVES: Despite the decline in the prevalence of tobacco use in many countries, including Brazil, there are growing numbers of smokers who continue to smoke at a low daily rate, or less frequently (non-daily smokers. This group needs to be better characterized in order to direct preventive actions and public health policies. The aim here was to compare lifestyle, health characteristics and alcoholism problems among young adult smokers, non-daily smokers and non-smokers. DESIGN AND SETTING: This was a cross-sectional study in which volunteers from the university community and its surrounds in Santa Maria, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, were included between October 2007 and January 2008. METHODS: Out of 1240 volunteers initially contacted in a university cafeteria, a total of 728 participants of mean age 22.45 ± 3.32 years were selected for final analysis. Data were collected using structured questionnaires. RESULTS: In general, it was observed that the non-daily smokers showed intermediate characteristics in relation to the smokers and non-smokers. However, there was a significant association between non-daily smoking and alcohol abuse. The non-daily smokers presented an odds ratio of 2.4 (95% confidence interval: 1.10-5.48 in relation to the daily smokers and an odds ratio of 3.3 (confidence interval: 1.7-6.5 in relation to the non-smokers, with regard to presenting a positive CAGE test, thereby indicating alcohol abuse or dependence. CONCLUSION: The study suggested that non-daily smoking and alcohol consumption were concomitant behaviors.

  15. Lifestyle, health characteristics and alcohol abuse in young adults who are non-daily smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Maria Izabel de Ugalde Marques da; Barrio-Lera, Juan Pablo; Jardim, Gabriel Behr Gomes; Mucellini, Amanda Brondani; Cirolini, Luiza; Jung, Ivo Emilio da Cruz; Mânica-Cattani, Maria Fernanda; Silveira, Aron Ferreira da; Souza Filho, Olmiro Cezimbra de; Cruz, Ivana Beatrice Mânica da

    2010-12-01

    Despite the decline in the prevalence of tobacco use in many countries, including Brazil, there are growing numbers of smokers who continue to smoke at a low daily rate, or less frequently (non-daily smokers). This group needs to be better characterized in order to direct preventive actions and public health policies. The aim here was to compare lifestyle, health characteristics and alcoholism problems among young adult smokers, non-daily smokers and non-smokers. This was a cross-sectional study in which volunteers from the university community and its surrounds in Santa Maria, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, were included between October 2007 and January 2008. Out of 1240 volunteers initially contacted in a university cafeteria, a total of 728 participants of mean age 22.45 ± 3.32 years were selected for final analysis. Data were collected using structured questionnaires. In general, it was observed that the non-daily smokers showed intermediate characteristics in relation to the smokers and non-smokers. However, there was a significant association between non-daily smoking and alcohol abuse. The non-daily smokers presented an odds ratio of 2.4 (95% confidence interval: 1.10-5.48) in relation to the daily smokers and an odds ratio of 3.3 (confidence interval: 1.7-6.5) in relation to the non-smokers, with regard to presenting a positive CAGE test, thereby indicating alcohol abuse or dependence. The study suggested that non-daily smoking and alcohol consumption were concomitant behaviors.

  16. Epidemiological profile of non-daily smokers in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to be the cause of 8% of all annual adult deaths in South Africa.2,3 This estimate is likely to grow in the future as ... study suggests that as many as 39% of women smokers in Australia could be ND smokers.9 Studies from ... and Inequality report18 identified race as one of the most significant indicators of poverty, with 61% of ...

  17. Menthol cigarette smoking and obesity in young adult daily smokers in Hawaii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa Marie M. Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates 1 the relationship between menthol cigarette smoking and obesity and 2 the association of body mass index with the nicotine metabolite ratio among menthol and non-menthol daily smokers aged 18–35 (n = 175. A brief survey on smoking and measures of height and weight, carbon monoxide, and saliva samples were collected from participants from May to December 2013 in Honolulu, Hawaii. Multiple regression was used to estimate differences in body mass index among menthol and non-menthol smokers and the association of menthol smoking with obesity. We calculated the log of the nicotine metabolite ratio to examine differences in the nicotine metabolite ratio among normal, overweight, and obese smokers. Sixty-eight percent of smokers used menthol cigarettes. Results showed that 62% of normal, 54% of overweight, and 91% of obese smokers used menthol cigarettes (p = .000. The mean body mass index was significantly higher among menthol compared with non-menthol smokers (29.4 versus 24.5, p = .000. After controlling for gender, marital status, educational attainment, employment status, and race/ethnicity, menthol smokers were more than 3 times as likely as non-menthol smokers to be obese (p = .04. The nicotine metabolite ratio was significantly lower for overweight menthol smokers compared with non-menthol smokers (.16 versus .26, p = .02 in the unadjusted model, but was not significant after adjusting for the covariates. Consistent with prior studies, our data show that menthol smokers are more likely to be obese compared with non-menthol smokers. Future studies are needed to determine how flavored tobacco products influence obesity among smokers.

  18. Impact of different aspects of social participation and social capital on smoking cessation among daily smokers: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, M; Isacsson, S-O; Elmståhl, S

    2003-09-01

    To investigate differences in different aspects of social participation and social capital among baseline daily smokers that had remained daily smokers, become intermittent smokers, or stopped smoking at one year follow up. 12,507 individuals, aged 45-69 years, interviewed at baseline between 1992 and 1994 and at a one year follow up were investigated in this longitudinal study. The three groups of baseline daily smokers were compared to the reference population (baseline intermittent smokers and non-smokers) according to different aspects of social participation and social capital. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess differences in different aspects of social participation and social capital. The baseline daily smokers that remained daily smokers at the one year follow up had significantly increased odds ratios of non-participation in study circles in other places than at work, meeting of organisations other than unions, theatre/cinema, arts exhibition, church, sports events, large gatherings of relatives, and private parties compared to the reference population. The baseline daily smokers that had become intermittent smokers at the one year follow up had significantly increased odds ratios of non-participation in church services. The baseline daily smokers that had stopped smoking had increased odds ratios of non-participation in having attended a meeting of organisations other than labour unions during the past year, having been to a theatre or cinema, and of having visited an arts exhibition during the past year. All three categories of baseline daily smokers had significantly decreased odds ratios of non-participation in night club/entertainment. The baseline daily smokers that had remained daily smokers at the one year follow up had particularly high rates of non-participation compared to the reference population in both activities specifically related to social capital, such as other study circles, meetings of organisations other than

  19. Comparison of Puff Volume With Cigarettes per Day in Predicting Nicotine Uptake Among Daily Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Nicolle M.; Chen, Allshine; Zhu, Junjia; Sun, Dongxiao; Liao, Jason; Stennett, Andrea L.; Muscat, Joshua E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The role of inhalation behaviors as predictors of nicotine uptake was examined in the Pennsylvania Adult Smoking Study (2012–2014), a study of 332 adults whose cigarette smoking was measured in a naturalistic environment (e.g., at home) with portable handheld topography devices. Piecewise regression analyses showed that levels of salivary cotinine, trans-3′-hydroxycotinine, and total salivary nicotine metabolites (cotinine + trans-3′-hydroxycotinine) increased linearly up to a level of about 1 pack per day (20 cigarettes per day (CPD)) (P < 0.01). Total daily puff volume (TDPV; in mL) (P < 0.05) and total daily number of puffs (P < 0.05), but not other topographical measures, increased linearly with CPD up to a level of about 1 pack per day. The mean level of cotinine per cigarette did not change above 20 CPD and was 36% lower in heavy smokers (≥20 CPD) than in lighter smokers (<20 CPD) (15.6 ng/mL vs. 24.5 ng/mL, respectively; P < 0.01). Mediation models showed that TDPV accounted for 43%–63% of the association between CPD and nicotine metabolites for smokers of <20 CPD. TDPV was the best predictor of nicotine metabolite levels in light-to-moderate smokers (1–19 CPD). In contrast, neither CPD, total daily number of puffs, nor TDPV predicted nicotine metabolite levels above 20 CPD (up to 40 CPD). Finally, although light smokers are traditionally considered less dependent on nicotine, these findings suggest that they are exposed to more nicotine per cigarette than are heavy smokers due to more frequent, intensive puffing. PMID:27313218

  20. Surgery for Herniated Lumbar Disc in Daily Tobacco Smokers: A Multicenter Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsbu, Mattis A; Salvesen, Øyvind; Werner, David A T; Franssen, Eric; Weber, Clemens; Nygaard, Øystein P; Solberg, Tore K; Gulati, Sasha

    2018-01-01

    To compare clinical outcomes at 1 year following single-level lumbar microdiscectomy in daily tobacco smokers and nonsmokers. Data were collected through the Norwegian Registry for Spine Surgery. The primary endpoint was a change in the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) at 1 year. Secondary endpoints were change in quality of life measured with EuroQol 5 Dimensions (EQ-5D), leg and back pain measured with a numerical rating scale (NRS), and rates of surgical complications. A total of 5514 patients were enrolled, including 3907 nonsmokers and 1607 smokers. A significant improvement in ODI was observed for the entire cohort (mean, 31.1 points; 95% confidence interval [CI], 30.4-31.8; P < 0.001). Nonsmokers experienced a greater improvement in ODI at 1 year compared with smokers (mean, 4.1 points; 95% CI, 2.5-5.7; P < 0.001). Nonsmokers were more likely to achieve a minimal important change (MIC), defined as an ODI improvement of ≥10 points, compared with smokers (85.5% vs. 79.5%; P < 0.001). Nonsmokers experienced greater improvements in EQ-5D (mean difference, 0.068; 95% CI, 0.04-0.09; P < 0.001), back pain NRS (mean difference, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.21-0.66; P < 0.001), and leg pain NRS (mean difference, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.31-0.77; P < 0.001). There was no difference between smokers and nonsmokers in the overall complication rate (6.2% vs. 6.7%; P = 0.512). Smoking was identified as a negative predictor for ODI change in a multiple regression analysis (P < 0.001). Nonsmokers reported a greater improvement in ODI at 1 year following microdiscectomy, and smokers were less likely to experience an MIC. Nonetheless, significant improvement was also found among smokers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Daily Patterns of Conjoint Smoking and Drinking in College Student Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Kristina M.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Sher, Kenneth J.

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological data indicate a robust association between smoking and alcohol use. However, a critical question that is less resolved is the extent to which the smoking event takes place during the time of alcohol consumption. The present study used data from an eight-week prospective web-based study of college student smokers to examine daily associations between smoking and alcohol use, using measures of both likelihood and level of use. Findings indicated that within a person, consumption...

  2. Does Vaping in E-Cigarette Advertisements Affect Tobacco Smoking Urge, Intentions, and Perceptions in Daily, Intermittent, and Former Smokers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Erin K; Cappella, Joseph N

    2016-01-01

    Visual depictions of vaping in electronic cigarette advertisements may serve as smoking cues to smokers and former smokers, increasing urge to smoke and smoking behavior, and decreasing self-efficacy, attitudes, and intentions to quit or abstain. After assessing baseline urge to smoke, 301 daily smokers, 272 intermittent smokers, and 311 former smokers were randomly assigned to view three e-cigarette commercials with vaping visuals (the cue condition) or without vaping visuals (the no-cue condition), or to answer unrelated media use questions (the no-ad condition). Participants then answered a posttest questionnaire assessing the outcome variables of interest. Relative to other conditions, in the cue condition, daily smokers reported greater urge to smoke a tobacco cigarette and a marginally significantly greater incidence of actually smoking a tobacco cigarette during the experiment. Former smokers in the cue condition reported lower intentions to abstain from smoking than former smokers in other conditions. No significant differences emerged among intermittent smokers across conditions. These data suggest that visual depictions of vaping in e-cigarette commercials increase daily smokers' urge to smoke cigarettes and may lead to more actual smoking behavior. For former smokers, these cues in advertising may undermine abstinence efforts. Intermittent smokers did not appear to be reactive to these cues. A lack of significant differences between participants in the no-cue and no-ad conditions compared to the cue condition suggests that visual depictions of e-cigarettes and vaping function as smoking cues, and cue reactivity is the mechanism through which these effects were obtained.

  3. Differential use of other tobacco products among current and former cigarette smokers by income level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, Maya; Pierce, John P; White, Martha; Messer, Karen

    2014-10-01

    With the declining sales of cigarettes, the tobacco industry has been promoting other forms of combustible and smokeless tobacco to current and former cigarette smokers. Exposure to the promotion of tobacco products has been shown to vary by income level. We combined the 2006 through 2011 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health to compare the prevalence and patterns of other tobacco use (cigar, snuff, and chewing tobacco) between current and former cigarette smokers by income level. Other tobacco use was minimal among females and among male non-smokers. Approximately a third of both current and former male cigarette smokers reported past-year other tobacco use. Overall, current smokers were more likely than former smokers to have used cigars (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.69, 95% CI 1.50-1.92) or snuff (AOR 1.14, 95% CI 1.01-1.28) in the past year. The association of smoking status with other tobacco use differed by income level (interaction term p-value<0.001). Among lower income groups, current smokers were more likely to use cigars and snuff compared to former smokers. Among the highest income group, former smokers were just as likely to use smokeless tobacco as current smokers. The differing patterns of use of other tobacco between current and former smokers by income level highlight a need for studies to understand the motivations for the use of these products and their role in smoking cessation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cryptococcal meningitis in a daily cannabis smoker without evidence of immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Bryan B; Hedrick, Rebecca; Vanle, Brigitte C; Becker, Courtney A; Nguyen, Chris; Underhill, David M; Morgan, Margie A; Kopple, Joel D; Danovitch, Itai; IsHak, Waguih William

    2018-01-26

    Cryptococcal meningitis is a life-threatening condition most commonly observed in immunocompromised individuals. We describe a daily cannabis smoker without evidence of immunodeficiency presenting with confirmed Cryptococcus neoformans meningitis. An investigation of cannabis samples from the patient's preferred dispensary demonstrated contamination with several varieties of Cryptococcus , including C. neoformans , and other opportunistic fungi. These findings raise concern regarding the safety of dispensary-grade cannabis, even in immunocompetent users. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Association between physical activity in daily life and pulmonary function in adult smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriane Lilian Barboza

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine whether the level of physical activity in daily life (PADL is associated with pulmonary function in adult smokers. Methods: We selected 62 adult smokers from among the participants of an epidemiological study conducted in the city of Santos, Brazil. The subjects underwent forced spirometry for pulmonary function assessment. The level of PADL was assessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and triaxial accelerometry, the device being used for seven days. The minimum level of PADL, in terms of quantity and intensity, was defined as 150 min/week of moderate to vigorous physical activity. Correlations between the studied variables were tested with Pearson's or Spearman's correlation coefficient, depending on the distribution of the variables. We used linear multiple regression in order to analyze the influence of PADL on the spirometric variables. The level of significance was set at 5%. Results: Evaluating all predictors, corrected for confounding factors, and using pulmonary function data as outcome variables, we found no significant associations between physical inactivity, as determined by accelerometry, and spirometric indices. The values for FVC were lower among the participants with arterial hypertension, and FEV1/FVC ratios were lower among those with diabetes mellitus. Obese participants and those with dyslipidemia presented with lower values for FVC and FEV1. Conclusions: Our results suggest that there is no consistent association between physical inactivity and pulmonary function in adult smokers. Smoking history should be given special attention in COPD prevention strategies, as should cardiovascular and metabolic comorbidities.

  6. Distress tolerance dimensions and smoking behavior among Mexican daily smokers: A preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Brooke Y; Garey, Lorra; Bakhshaie, Jafar; Rodríguez, Rubén; Cárdenas, Samuel Jurado; Coy, Patricia Edith Campos; Zvolensk, Michael J

    2017-06-01

    Distress intolerance has been implicated in various aspects of smoking maintenance and quit behavior, although past work has been conducted almost exclusively among European American samples. The present study sought to extend past work by exploring distinct subdimensions of distress tolerance (Tolerance, Appraisal, Regulation, and Absorption) among a sample of 113 (53.1% female; M age =22.81, SD=2.13) adult daily smokers from Mexico City, Mexico in regard to multiple indices of problematic smoking. Results indicated that the Appraisal dimension of distress intolerance was associated with smoking more cigarettes per day, a greater number of (lifetime) failed quit attempts, and an increased likelihood of early smoking relapse. These findings remained significant after controlling for negative affectivity, gender, alcohol usage as well as the variance accounted for by other distress tolerance dimensions. Such results provide novel preliminary empirical evidence that lesser perceived ability to tolerate distress because it is appraised as 'unacceptable' may be a particularly important element of the construct in terms of better understanding multiple public health relevant indicators of smoking for Mexican smokers. Overall, the present findings uniquely contribute to a growing body of research related to distress intolerance and its implications for explicating the nature of the maintenance of smoking behavior among a highly understudied segment of the smoking population (Mexican smokers). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Momentary Associations Between Reported Craving and Valuing Health in Daily Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Robert Ross; Martino, Steve; Carroll, Kathleen M; Smyth, Joshua M; Pincus, Aaron L; Wilson, Stephen J

    2017-06-01

    Research suggests that a blunted response to nondrug rewards, especially under conditions associated with strong cigarette cravings, is associated with reduced abstinence motivation in daily smokers. One limitation of previous studies is that they have largely focused on monetary rewards as broad representative of nondrug rewards. It remains unclear whether craving dampens responses to more abstract nondrug rewards, such as personal values. Personal values often have a positive valence and are frequently assumed to remain stable across time and situations. However, there may be time-varying and contextual influences on smokers' appraisal of values in daily life. Characterizing fluctuations in value importance in relation to relapse precipitants (eg, craving) may inform interventions that leverage personal values as motivation for cessation. Daily smokers (n = 18) completed ecological momentary assessment surveys measuring the importance of specific personal values and smoking-related variables during 8 days of monetarily reinforced cigarette abstinence. We hypothesized that value ratings would demonstrate adequate within-person heterogeneity for multilevel modeling and that within-person fluctuations in craving would be negatively related to valuing personal health. All values demonstrated adequate within-person variability for multilevel modeling. Within-person craving was negatively related to health valuation (p = .012) and a cross-level interaction (p > .0001) suggested this effect is stronger for individuals who report greater overall craving. Greater craving is associated with decreased importance of personal health in the moment, particularly for those with high average levels of craving. Timely interventions that bolster importance of health during moments of elevated craving can potentially improve cessation outcomes. This study builds on research highlighting the positive influence of personal values in motivating behavior change. Values are an often used

  8. Oral fluid cannabinoids in chronic, daily Cannabis smokers during sustained, monitored abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dayong; Milman, Garry; Barnes, Allan J; Goodwin, Robert S; Hirvonen, Jussi; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2011-08-01

    Oral fluid (OF) is an accepted alternative biological matrix for drug treatment, workplace, and DUID (driving under the influence of drugs) investigations, but establishing the cannabinoid OF detection window and concentration cutoff criteria are important. Cannabinoid concentrations were quantified in OF from chronic, daily cannabis smokers during monitored abstinence. Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)(3), cannabidiol (CBD), cannabinol (CBN), and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) were determined in daily OF samples collected with the Quantisal™ device. GC-MS limits of quantification (LOQ) were 0.5 μg/L for THC and CBD, 1 μg/L for CBN, and 7.5 ng/L for THCCOOH. After providing written informed consent for this institutional review board-approved study, 28 participants resided from 4 to 33 days on the secure research unit and provided 577 OF specimens. At the LOQ, THC was generally quantifiable for 48 h, whereas CBD and CBN were detected only at admission. Median THCCOOH detection time was 13 days (CI 6.4-19.6 days). Mean THC detection rates decreased from 89.3% at admission to 17.9% after 48 h, whereas THCCOOH gradually decreased from 89.3% to 64.3% within 4 days. Criteria of THC ≥2 μg/L and THCCOOH ≥20 ng/L reduced detection to THC ratio ≤4 ng/μg or presence of CBD or CBN may indicate more recent smoking. THC, THCCOOH, CBD, and CBN quantification in confirmatory OF cannabinoid testing is recommended. Inclusion of multiple cannabinoid cutoffs accounted for residual cannabinoid excretion in OF from chronic, daily cannabis smokers and could reduce the potential for positive test results from passive cannabis smoke exposure and lead to greatly improved test interpretation.

  9. A prognostic tool to identify adolescents at high risk of becoming daily smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paradis Gilles

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The American Academy of Pediatrics advocates that pediatricians should be involved in tobacco counseling and has developed guidelines for counseling. We present a prognostic tool for use by health care practitioners in both clinical and non-clinical settings, to identify adolescents at risk of becoming daily smokers. Methods Data were drawn from the Nicotine Dependence in Teens (NDIT Study, a prospective investigation of 1293 adolescents, initially aged 12-13 years, recruited in 10 secondary schools in Montreal, Canada in 1999. Questionnaires were administered every three months for five years. The prognostic tool was developed using estimated coefficients from multivariable logistic models. Model overfitting was corrected using bootstrap cross-validation. Goodness-of-fit and predictive ability of the models were assessed by R2, the c-statistic, and the Hosmer-Lemeshow test. Results The 1-year and 2-year probability of initiating daily smoking was a joint function of seven individual characteristics: age; ever smoked; ever felt like you needed a cigarette; parent(s smoke; sibling(s smoke; friend(s smoke; and ever drank alcohol. The models were characterized by reasonably good fit and predictive ability. They were transformed into user-friendly tables such that the risk of daily smoking can be easily computed by summing points for responses to each item. The prognostic tool is also available on-line at http://episerve.chumontreal.qc.ca/calculation_risk/daily-risk/daily_smokingadd.php. Conclusions The prognostic tool to identify youth at high risk of daily smoking may eventually be an important component of a comprehensive tobacco control system.

  10. High sedentary behavior and compromised physical capabilities in adult smokers despite the suitable level of physical activity in daily life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Tonon Lauria

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2017v19n1p62   Sedentary behavior may play an important role for health outcomes, regardless of the amount of physical activity in daily life (PADL.We aimed to evaluate and compare sedentary behavior as well as physical capabilities in physically active smokers and non-smokers. Twenty-eight adult smokers and 38 non-smokers free of lung disease were matched for age, sex, body mass index, body composition, cardiovascular risk and moderate-to-vigorous PADL. Participants underwent spirometry, cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET, six-minute walk test (6MWT, isokinetic dynamometry, and body composition (bioelectrical impedance.Despite the similar amount of moderate-to-vigorous PADL(median, 4.5h/week for smokers and 4.0h/week for non-smokers, smokers spent more time lying (median, 8.2h/week: 95% confidence interval, 5.4 to 19.1 vs. 6.1h/week: 3.7 to 11.2 and in sedentary activities (median, 100h/week: 66 to 129 vs. 78h/week: 55 to 122 compared to non-smokers. Smokers also presented worse spirometry, peak V’O2 and maximum heart rate in the CPET, 6MWT, and isokinetic indices (p<0.05. We observed a strong correlation between the time spent lying and spirometry (r = - 0.730 in smokers. Smoking is related to higher sedentary behavior, despite the suitable PADL. An appropriate PADL did not reduce the deleterious effects of smoking on physical capabilities. Interrupting sedentary behavior may be an appropriate intervention target in smokers for reducing the risk of diseases.

  11. Using student and school factors to differentiate adolescent current smokers from experimental smokers in Canada: a multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaai, Susan C; Leatherdale, Scott T; Manske, Stephen R; Brown, K Stephen

    2013-08-01

    In order to understand the factors that differentiate adolescents who have tried smoking from those who have become established smokers, this study examined which student- and school-level factors differentiated current smokers from experimental smokers among a nationally representative sample of Canadian secondary school students. Student-level secondary data from the 2008-2009 Canadian Youth Smoking Survey was linked with school-level data from the 2006 Census and one built environment characteristic, and examined using multilevel logistic regression analyses. The current smoking rates varied (Pschools. The number of tobacco retailers surrounding the schools was associated with current smoking when adjusting for student characteristics. Additionally, students were more likely to be current smokers if they were: male, in higher grades, believed that smoking can help when they are bored, reported low school connectedness, used marijuana, had a sibling or close friend who smoked, and had no smoking bans at home. These study findings suggest that school anti-smoking strategies need to target males, increase students' attachment to their school, address tobacco-related beliefs, and include interventions targeting smoking siblings and friends. The government should consider zoning restrictions to limit sales of tobacco products near schools. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Naltrexone Maintenance Decreases Cannabis Self-Administration and Subjective Effects in Daily Cannabis Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, Margaret; Ramesh, Divya; Glass, Andrew; Pavlicova, Martina; Bedi, Gillinder; Cooper, Ziva D

    2015-01-01

    Given that cannabis use is increasing in the United States, pharmacological treatment options to treat cannabis use disorder are needed. Opioid antagonists modulate cannabinoid effects and may offer a potential approach to reducing cannabis use. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled human laboratory study, we assessed the effects of naltrexone maintenance on the reinforcing, subjective, psychomotor, and cardiovascular effects of active and inactive cannabis. Nontreatment-seeking, daily cannabis smokers were randomized to receive naltrexone (50 mg: n=18 M and 5 F) or placebo (0 mg; n=26 M and 2 F) capsules for 16 days. Before, during, and after medication maintenance, participants completed 10 laboratory sessions over 4–6 weeks, assessing cannabis' behavioral and cardiovascular effects. Medication compliance was verified by observed capsule administration, plasma naltrexone, and urinary riboflavin. Relative to placebo, maintenance on naltrexone significantly reduced both active cannabis self-administration and its positive subjective effects (‘good effect'). Participants in the placebo group had 7.6 times (95% CI: 1.1–51.8) the odds of self-administering active cannabis compared with the naltrexone group. This attenuation of reinforcing and positive subjective effects also influenced cannabis use in the natural ecology. Naltrexone had intrinsic effects: decreasing ratings of friendliness, food intake, and systolic blood pressure, and increasing spontaneous reports of stomach upset and headache, yet dropout rates were comparable between groups. In summary, we show for the first time that maintenance on naltrexone decreased cannabis self-administration and ratings of ‘good effect' in nontreatment-seeking daily cannabis smokers. Clinical studies in patients motivated to reduce their cannabis use are warranted to evaluate naltrexone's efficacy as a treatment for cannabis use disorder. PMID:25881117

  13. Aspirin and Zileuton and Biomarker Expression in Nasal Tissue of Current Smokers | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    This randomized phase II trial studies the effects of aspirin and zileuton on genes related to tobacco use in current smokers. Aspirin and zileuton may interfere with genes related to tobacco use and may be useful in preventing lung cancer in current smokers. |

  14. Mucociliary clearance and its relation with the level of physical activity in daily life in healthy smokers and nonsmokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Proença

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the relationship between mucociliary transport and physical activity in daily life (PADL in smokers and nonsmokers. Methods: Fifty-two current smokers were submitted to an assessment of mucociliary transport (saccharin transit time, STT, carbon monoxide levels in the exhaled air, lung function and smoking history. In addition, subjects kept a pedometer worn at the waist for six days in order to determine their level of PADL (steps/day. The tests were also performed on 30 matched healthy nonsmokers who served as control group. Results: Light smokers (≤15 cigarettes/day had a STT of 9 (7–11 min (median [confidence interval], which was similar to nonsmokers (8 [8–11] min; p = 0.8. Both moderate (16–25 cigarettes/day and heavy (>25 cigarettes/day smokers had a significantly higher STT (13 [11–17] min and 13 [10–21] min, respectively than nonsmokers and light smokers (p  0.05 for all. In the general group of smokers, STT was not significantly correlated with PADL, pack/years index, years of smoking or age (r  0.09 for all. There was significant negative correlation between STT and PADL only in light smokers (r = −0.55; p = 0.02 and nonsmokers (r = −0.42; p = 0.02, but not in moderate and heavy smokers. Conclusion: In light smokers and non-smokers, better mucociliary function is associated to higher daily physical activity level, as opposed to the decreased mucociliary function observed in smokers, i.e., those with moderate and heavy cigarette consumption. Resumo: Objetivos: Investigar a relação entre o transporte mucociliar e a atividade física na vida diária (AFVD em fumantes e não fumantes. Métodos: Cinquenta e dois fumantes foram submetidos à avaliação do transporte mucociliar (Tempo de Trânsito de Sacarina, TTS, dos níveis de monóxido de carbono no ar expirado, da função pulmonar e do hist

  15. Differences in regional air trapping in current smokers with normal spirometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Reza; Tornling, Göran; Forsslund, Helena; Mikko, Mikael; Wheelock, Åsa M; Nyrén, Sven; Sköld, C Magnus

    2017-01-01

    We investigated regional air trapping on computed tomography in current smokers with normal spirometry. It was hypothesised that presence of regional air trapping may indicate a specific manifestation of smoking-related changes.40 current smokers, 40 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and 40 healthy never- smokers underwent computed tomography scans. Regional air trapping was assessed on end-expiratory scans and emphysema, micronodules and bronchial wall thickening on inspiratory scans. The ratio of expiratory and inspiratory mean lung attenuation (E/I) was calculated as a measure of static (fixed) air trapping.Regional air trapping was present in 63% of current smokers, in 45% of never smokers and in 8% of COPD patients (psmokers with and without regional air trapping had E/I ratio of 0.81 and 0.91, respectively (psmokers with regional air trapping.Current smokers with regional air trapping had higher FEV 1 and less emphysema on computed tomography. In contrast, current smokers without regional air trapping resembled COPD. Our results highlight heterogeneity among smokers with normal spirometry and may contribute to early detection of smoking related structural changes in the lungs. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  16. Around-the-clock oral THC effects on sleep in male chronic daily cannabis smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelick, David A; Goodwin, Robert S; Schwilke, Eugene; Schroeder, Jennifer R; Schwope, David M; Kelly, Deanna L; Ortemann-Renon, Catherine; Bonnet, Denis; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2013-01-01

    Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) promotes sleep in animals; clinical use of THC is associated with somnolence. Human laboratory studies of oral THC have not shown consistent effects on sleep. We prospectively evaluated self-reported sleep parameters during controlled oral THC administration to research volunteers. Thirteen male chronic daily cannabis smokers (mean ± SD age 24.6± 3.7 years, self-reported smoking frequency of 5.5 ± 5.9 (range 1-24) joint-equivalents daily at study entry) were administered oral THC doses (20 mg) around-the-clock for 7 days (40-120 mg daily) starting the afternoon after admission. The St. Mary's Hospital Sleep Questionnaire was completed every morning. Plasma THC and 11-OH-THC (active metabolite) concentrations were measured in venous blood samples collected every evening. Changes in sleep characteristics over time and associations between sleep characteristics and plasma cannabinoid concentrations were evaluated with repeated measures mixed linear regression. Higher evening THC and 11-OH-THC concentrations were significantly associated with shorter sleep latency, less difficulty falling asleep, and more daytime sleep the following day. In contrast, the duration of calculated and self-reported nighttime sleep decreased slightly (3.54 and 5.34 minutes per night, respectively) but significantly during the study. These findings suggest that tolerance to the somnolent effects of THC may have occurred, but results should be considered preliminary due to design limitations. Somnolence from oral THC may dissipate with chronic, high-dose use. This has implications for patients who may take chronic oral THC for medicinal purposes, including cannabis dependence treatment. (Am J Addict 2013;22:510-514). Copyright © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  17. Helping adolescents quit smoking:a needs assessment of current and former teen smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingree, Suzanne; Boberg, Eric; Patten, Christi; Offord, Kenneth; Gaie, Martha; Schensky, Ann; Gustafson, David H; Dornelas, Ellen; Ahluwalia, Jasjit

    2004-01-01

    This study compared the survey responses of 280 current and former adolescent smokers for what they perceived would be helpful (or what had helped) in quitting smoking. The survey was developed from focus groups and was structured using Prochaska and DiClementes Stages of Change health behavior framework. Results showed that former smokers and current smokers in the preparation stage of change shared beliefs about the importance of interpersonal support, those who were contemplating a quit decision worried about obstacles and internal issues, and current smokers not thinking about quitting focused on external rewards. The findings that significant differences exist based on the adolescent smokers Stage of Change imply that this framework can be appropriately applied to this context.

  18. Secondhand smoke exposure and serum cotinine levels among current smokers in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Ryan P; Tsoh, Janice Y; Sung, Hai-Yen; Max, Wendy

    2016-03-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) likely provides additional exposure to nicotine and toxins for smokers, but has been understudied. Our objective was to determine whether SHS exposure among smokers yields detectable differences in cotinine levels compared with unexposed smokers at the population level. Using the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for the years 1999-2012, we compared serum cotinine levels of 4547 current adult cigarette smokers stratified by self-reported SHS exposure sources (home and/or work) and smoking intensity. A weighted multivariable linear regression model determined the association between SHS exposure and cotinine levels among smokers. Smokers with SHS exposure at home (43.8%) had higher cotinine levels (β=0.483, p≤0.001) compared with those with no SHS exposure at home after controlling for the number of cigarettes smoked per day and number of days smoked in the previous 5 days, survey year, age, gender and education. Smokers with SHS exposure at work (20.0%) did not have significantly higher cotinine levels after adjustment. The adjusted geometric mean cotinine levels of light smokers (1-9 cigarettes per day) with no SHS exposure, exposure at work only, home only, and both home and work were 52.0, 62.7, 67.2, 74.4 ng/mL, respectively, compared with 219.4, 220.9, 255.2, 250.5 ng/mL among moderate/heavy smokers (≥10 cigarettes per day). Smokers living in residences where others smoke inside the home had significantly higher cotinine levels than smokers reporting no SHS exposure, regardless of individual smoking intensity. Future research should target the role that SHS exposure may have in nicotine dependence, cessation outcomes and other health impacts among smokers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  19. The Reliability and Stability of Puff Topography Variables in Non-Daily Smokers Assessed in the Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gass, Julie C; Germeroth, Lisa J; Wray, Jennifer M; Tiffany, Stephen T

    2016-04-01

    Puff topography variables, often measured using the Clinical Research Support System device, have traditionally been studied in regular, daily smokers and have been shown to be highly stable. However, more recent research has focused on non-daily smokers as a population of interest. As such, the aim of this article was to examine puff topography stability (cross-cigarette agreement over time) and reliability (within-cigarette consistency) in non-daily smokers across six laboratory sessions. One hundred seven non-daily smokers attended six laboratory sessions over the course of 3 months. At each session, they smoked one cigarette through the Clinical Research Support System pocket, in addition to completing questionnaires about their smoking history and dependence. Puff topography measurements were highly reliable (α values ranged from 0.87-0.95) and puff behavior was highly stable across sessions (r values ranged from 0.38-0.84). Adding sessions substantially improved reliability estimates. Aspects of puffing behavior observed in session, including puff volume, puff duration, time of puff peak, and total cigarette volume were related to level of smoke exposure, measured by expired carbon monoxide. Instability in puffing behavior was not predicted by recent or long-term smoking patterns. Puff topography appears to be a stable and routinized aspect of smoking in non-daily smokers. The feasibility of assessing puff topography in this population is supported by the high reliabilities observed, though it should be noted that reliability greatly improved by having more than one session. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Smiling Instead of Smoking: Development of a Positive Psychology Smoking Cessation Smartphone App for Non-daily Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeppner, Bettina B; Hoeppner, Susanne S; Kelly, Lourah; Schick, Melissa; Kelly, John F

    2017-10-01

    The usefulness of mobile technology in supporting smoking cessation has been demonstrated, but little is known about how smartphone apps could best be leveraged. The purpose of this paper is to describe the program of research that led to the creation of a smoking cessation app for non-daily smokers, so as to stimulate further ideas to create "smart" smartphone apps to support health behavior change. Literature reviews to evaluate the appropriateness of the proposed app, content analyses of existing apps, and smoking cessation sessions with non-daily smokers (n = 38) to inform the design of the app. The literature reviews showed that (1) smoking cessation apps are sought after by smokers, (2) positive affect plays an important role in smoking cessation, (3) short, self-administered exercises consistently bring about enduring positive affect enhancements, and (4) low treatment-seeking rates of non-daily smokers despite high motivation to quit indicate a need for novel smoking cessation support. Directed content analyses of existing apps indicated that tailoring, two-way interactions, and proactive features are under-utilized in existing apps, despite the popularity of such features. Conventional content analyses of audio-recorded session tapes suggested that difficulty in quitting was generally linked to specific, readily identifiable occasions, and that social support was considered important but not consistently sought out. The "Smiling Instead of Smoking" (SIS) app is an Android app that is designed to act as a behavioral, in-the-pocket coach to enhance quitting success in non-daily smokers. It provides proactive, tailored behavioral coaching, interactive tools (e.g., enlisting social support), daily positive psychology exercises, and smoking self-monitoring.

  1. Risk perception and intention to quit among a tri-ethnic sample of nondaily, light daily, and moderate/heavy daily smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoy, Elaine; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Scheuermann, Taneisha S; Agarwal, Mohit; Mathur, Charu; Choi, Won S; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S

    2014-10-01

    Although the relationship between risk perceptions and quit intentions has been established, few studies explore the potential impact of smoking level on these associations, and none have done so among diversely-aged samples of multiple ethnicities. Participants, ranging in age from 25 to 81, were 1133 nondaily smokers (smoked ≥1 cigarette on 4 to 24days in the past 30days), 556 light daily smokers (≤10 cigarettes per day), and 585 moderate to heavy daily smokers (>10 cigarettes per day). Each smoking level comprised approximately equal numbers of African Americans, Latinos, and Whites. A logistic regression analysis, adjusted for sociodemographics, self-rated health, time to the first cigarette of the day and smoking level, was used to examine the association between risk perception (perceived risk of acquiring lung cancer, lung disease, and heart disease) and intention to quit (≤6months versus >6months/never). A second adjusted model tested moderation by smoking level with an interaction term. Greater risk perception was associated with a higher odds of planning to quit within 6months (AOR=1.34, CI.95=1.24, 1.45). Smoking level did not moderate this association (p=.85). Results suggest that educating all smokers, irrespective of their smoking level, about increased risk of developing smoking-related diseases might be a helpful strategy to enhance their intention to make a smoking quit attempt. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Relationships between drinking motives and smoking expectancies among daily smokers who are also problem drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Dawn W; Zvolensky, Michael J; Garey, Lorra; Ditre, Joseph W; Schmidt, Norman B

    2014-01-01

    There is a high co-occurrence of problem drinking and regular cigarette smoking, and cognitive processes (e.g., motivation to use, expectations about the consequences of use) related to each are positively associated with one another. We explored drinking motives in relation to cognitive-based smoking processes among smokers with problematic drinking. We expected that drinking coping motives would be associated with smoking consequences related to negative reinforcement and negative personal outcomes and inflexibility of smoking behavior; observed effects for coping motives would be unique from shared variance with other motives and incrementally evident beyond the variance accounted for by tobacco-related health problems, smoking rate, negative affectivity, cannabis use, and gender. The sample included 195 individuals recruited into a larger study of smoking cessation treatments (i.e., they were interested in quitting), who were heavy drinkers and smoked daily. Participants were primarily male (n = 122, 63%), fairly young (Mage = 30.3 years; SD = 12.46), and predominantly White/Caucasian (n = 175, 80%). Roughly 57% (n = 111) had at least one comorbid Axis I disorder, the most common being social anxiety (n = 21, 11%) and generalized anxiety disorder (n = 12, 6%). Coping drinking motives predicted negative smoking consequences, negative reinforcement, and smoking inflexibility. Enhancement drinking motives marginally predicted positive reinforcement. Conformity drinking motives predicted smoking consequences related to appetite/weight control. Social drinking motives predicted negative reinforcement and barriers to cessation and marginally predicted positive reinforcement. Theoretical models and clinical activities focused on smoking cessation among problem drinkers may benefit from considering the role of drinking motives, particularly coping-oriented motives, to better understanding cognitive-based smoking processes.

  3. Panic attack history and anxiety sensitivity in relation to cognitive-based smoking processes among treatment-seeking daily smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kirsten A; Farris, Samantha G; Schmidt, Norman B; Smits, Jasper A J; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Empirical research has found that panic attacks are related to increased risk of more severe nicotine withdrawal and poor cessation outcome. Anxiety sensitivity (AS; fear of anxiety and related sensations) has similarly been found to be related to an increased risk of acute nicotine withdrawal and poorer cessation outcome. However, research has yet to examine the relative contributions of panic attacks and AS in terms of cognitive-based smoking processes (e.g., negative reinforcement smoking expectancies, addictive and negative affect-based reduction smoking motives, barriers to cessation, problem symptoms experienced while quitting). Participants (n = 242; 57.4% male; M (age) = 38.1) were daily smokers recruited as a part of a larger randomized control trial for smoking cessation. It was hypothesized that both panic attacks and AS would uniquely and independently predict the studied cognitive-based smoking processes. As hypothesized, AS was uniquely and positively associated with all smoking processes after controlling for average number of cigarettes smoked per day, current Axis I diagnosis, and participant sex. However, panic attack history was only significantly related to problem symptoms experienced while quitting smoking. Although past research has demonstrated significant associations between panic attacks and certain aspects of cigarette smoking (e.g., severity of nicotine withdrawal; lower abstinence rates, and negative affect reduction motives), the present findings suggest that AS may be more relevant to understanding beliefs about and motives for smoking behavior as well as perceptions of cessation-related difficulties.

  4. Financial strain and cognitive-based smoking processes: The explanatory role of depressive symptoms among adult daily smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Zuzuky; Anjum, Sahar; Garey, Lorra; Kauffman, Brooke Y; Rodríguez-Cano, Rubén; Langdon, Kirsten J; Neighbors, Clayton; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2017-07-01

    Little work has focused on the underlying mechanisms that may link financial strain and smoking processes. The current study tested the hypothesis that financial strain would exert an indirect effect on cognitive-based smoking processes via depressive symptoms. Three clinically significant dependent variables linked to the maintenance of smoking were evaluated: negative affect reduction motives, negative mood abstinence expectancies, and perceived barriers for quitting. Participants included 102 adult daily smokers (M age =33.0years, SD=13.60; 35.3% female) recruited from the community to participate in a self-guided (unaided; no psychological or pharmacological intervention) smoking cessation study. Results indicated that depressive symptoms explain, in part, the relation between financial strain and smoking motives for negative affect reduction, negative mood abstinence expectancies, and perceived barriers for quitting. Results indicate that smoking interventions for individuals with high levels of financial strain may potentially benefit from the addition of therapeutic tactics aimed at reducing depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Impact of prolonged cannabinoid excretion in chronic daily cannabis smokers' blood on per se drugged driving laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamaschi, Mateus M; Karschner, Erin L; Goodwin, Robert S; Scheidweiler, Karl B; Hirvonen, Jussi; Queiroz, Regina H C; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2013-03-01

    Cannabis is the illicit drug most frequently reported with impaired driving and motor vehicle accidents. Some "per se" laws make it illegal to drive with any amount of drug in the body, while others establish blood, saliva, or urine concentrations above which it is illegal to drive. The persistence of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in chronic daily cannabis smokers' blood is unknown. Thirty male chronic daily cannabis smokers resided on a secure research unit for up to 33 days, with daily blood collection. Samples were processed in an ice bath during sample preparation to minimize cannabinoid adsorption onto precipitant material. We quantified THC by 2-dimensional GC-MS. Of the 30 participants, 27 were THC-positive on admission, with a median (range) concentration of 1.4 μg/L (0.3-6.3). THC decreased gradually; only 1 of 11 participants was negative at 26 days, 2 of 5 remained THC-positive (0.3 μg/L) for 30 days, and 5.0% of participants had THC ≥ 1.0 μg/L for 12 days. Median 11-hydroxy-THC concentrations were 1.1 μg/L on admission, with no results ≥ 1.0 μg/L 24 h later. 11-Nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) detection rates were 96.7% on admission, decreasing slowly to 95.7% and 85.7% on days 8 and 22, respectively; 4 of 5 participants remained THCCOOH positive (0.6-2.7 μg/L) after 30 days, and 1 remained positive on discharge at 33 days. Cannabinoids can be detected in blood of chronic daily cannabis smokers during a month of sustained abstinence. This is consistent with the time course of persisting neurocognitive impairment reported in recent studies.

  6. Pain experiences among a population-based cohort of current, former, and never regular smokers with lung and colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Adam; Japuntich, Sandra; Keating, Nancy L; Wallace, Robert; He, Yulei; Streck, Joanna M; Park, Elyse R

    2014-11-15

    Smoking and pain are prevalent and comorbid among patients with cancer. Limited work has compared pain experiences among current, former, and never (regular) smokers with lung and colorectal cancer. We studied pain experiences of patients with lung (n = 2390) and colorectal (n = 2993) cancer participating in the multi-regional Cancer Care Outcomes Research and Surveillance study. We examined reports of pain, pain treatment, pain severity, and pain-related interference within each cancer group by smoking status, adjusting for demographic, psychosocial, and cancer characteristics. Among lung cancer patients, current smokers reported pain and receiving pain treatment more often than former smokers. Never smokers did not differ from current and former smokers on endorsement of pain; however, they reported pain treatment less often than their counterparts. Current smokers reported greater pain severity than former smokers after adjusting for other contributing factors; however, no differences were detected between current and never smokers. There were no differences in pain-related interference. Among colorectal cancer patients, current smokers reported pain and pain treatment more often than former and never smokers; however, the latter 2 groups did not differ. Current smokers also reported greater pain severity than never smokers after adjustments; however, no differences were detected between current and former smokers. An identical pattern of findings was observed for pain-related interference. Many smokers with lung and colorectal cancer experience pain following a cancer diagnosis. Future work should assess if comprehensive smoking cessation treatments that address pain can reduce pain and facilitate smoking cessation among patients with cancer. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  7. Sex-related differences in serum cotinine concentrations in daily cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Wen Qi; Cohen, Sigal Ben-Zaken; Man, S F Paul; Sin, Don D

    2008-08-01

    Self-reported use of cigarettes generally underestimates the true cigarette exposure of smokers. Serum cotinine is considered the best biomarker to evaluate tobacco exposure. This study determined whether or not there were any significant differences in serum cotinine concentrations between men and women when they reported smoking the same number of cigarettes per day. We analyzed cotinine and tobacco consumption data on 680 women and 840 men, aged 20 years or older, who smoked at least 100 cigarettes during their lifetime and were still actively smoking at the time of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (1999-2002). Overall, compared with men, women reported smoking fewer cigarettes per day (16.1 vs. 18.7, ppoverty status, the use of either menthol or regular cigarettes, and the nicotine content in cigarettes, female compared with male smokers had lower serum cotinine concentrations (difference of 117.6 nmol/L; 95% CI = 42.6-192.6, p = .003). The difference was particularly notable in moderate to heavy smokers (i.e., those who smoked more than 15 cigarettes/day). These findings indicate that significant sex-related differences exist in serum cotinine levels among smokers, which suggests that self-reports may overestimate cigarette exposure in women compared with men.

  8. Cigarette smoking cessation attempts among current US smokers who also use smokeless tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messer, Karen; Vijayaraghavan, Maya; White, Martha M.; Shi, Yuyan; Chang, Cindy; Conway, Kevin P.; Hartman, Anne; Schroeder, Megan J.; Compton, Wilson M.; Pierce, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Concurrent use of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco is common, but little is known regarding the association of smokeless tobacco use with cigarette smoking cessation. Dual users may have lower cigarette consumption levels, which may also play a role in smoking cessation. Methods The 2010–2011 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey included 26,760 current cigarette smokers, of which 675 concurrently used smokeless tobacco. We compared characteristics of the most recent cigarette smoking quit attempt of the past year between dual users and exclusive smokers, using multivariate regression. Results Dual users (45%) were more likely than exclusive smokers (37%) to have made a cigarette smoking quit attempt during the previous year (pcigarette dependence levels (ORadj 1.33, 95% CI 1.15–1.53). Half (48%) of dual users who made a quit attempt tried to quit “by switching to smokeless tobacco”. However, once in a quit attempt, dual users relapsed more quickly than exclusive smokers (Cox regression HRadj 1.13, 95% CI 1.02–1.26). There was no difference in 30-day abstinence rates on the most recent quit attempt (ORadj 1.09, 95% CI 0.88–1.37). For both groups, the best predictor of past 30-day abstinence was cigarette consumption level. Conclusions Current cigarette smokers who also use smokeless tobacco are more likely to have tried to quit, but relapse more quickly than exclusive smokers, and are not more likely to have attained 30 day smoking cessation. Prospective studies at the population level are needed. PMID:26253939

  9. Examining Daily Electronic Cigarette Puff Topography Among Established and Non-established Cigarette Smokers in their Natural Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youn Ok; Nonnemaker, James M; Bradfield, Brian; Hensel, Edward C; Robinson, Risa J

    2017-10-04

    Understanding exposures and potential health effects of ecigarettes is complex. Users' puffing behavior, or topography, affects function of ecigarette devices (e.g., coil temperature) and composition of their emissions. Users with different topographies are likely exposed to different amounts of any harmful or potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs). In this study, we compare ecigarette topographies of established cigarette smokers and non-established cigarette smokers. Data measuring e-cigarette topography were collected using a wireless hand-held monitoring device in users' everyday lives over 1 week. Young adult (aged 18-25) participants (N=20) used disposable e-cigarettes with the monitor as they normally would and responded to online surveys. Topography characteristics of established versus non-established cigarette smokers were compared. On average, established cigarette smokers in the sample had larger first puff volume (130.9ml vs. 56.0ml, ptopography characteristics differ by level of current cigarette smoking. This suggests that exposures to constituents of e-cigarettes depends on user characteristics and that specific topography parameters may be needed for different user populations when assessing ecigarette health effects. A user's topography affects his or her exposure to HPHCs. As this study demonstrates, user characteristics, such as level of smoking, can influence topography. Thus, it is crucial to understand the topography profiles of different user types to assess the potential for population harm and to identify potentially vulnerable populations. This study only looked at topography of cigarette smokers using disposable e-cigarettes. Further research is needed to better understand potential variation in ecigarette topography and resulting exposures to HPHCs among users of different e-cigarette devices and liquids. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights

  10. Transcranial direct current stimulation reduces negative affect but not cigarette craving in overnight abstinent smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiansong eXu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS can enhance cognitive control functions including attention and top-down regulation over negative affect and substance craving in both healthy and clinical populations, including early abstinent (~1.5 h smokers. The aim of this study was to assess whether tDCS modulates negative affect, cigarette craving, and attention of overnight abstinent tobacco dependent smokers. In this study, 24 smokers received a real and a sham session of tDCS after overnight abstinence from smoking on two different days. We applied anode to the left dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC and cathode to the right supra orbital area for 20min with a current of 2.0mA. We used self-report questionnaires Profile of Mood State (POMS to assess negative affect and Urge to Smoke (UTS Scale to assess craving for cigarette smoking, and a computerized visual target identification task to assess attention immediately before and after each tDCS. Smokers reported significantly greater reductions in POMS scores of total mood disturbance and scores of tension-anxiety, depression-dejection, and confusion-bewilderment subscales after real relative to sham tDCS. Furthermore, this reduction in negative affect positively correlated with the level of nicotine dependence as assessed by Fagerström scale. However, reductions in cigarette craving after real vs. sham tDCS did not differ, nor were there differences in reaction time or hit rate change on the visual task. Smokers did not report significant side effects of tDCS. This study demonstrates the safety of tDCS and its promising effect in ameliorating negative affect in overnight abstinent smokers. Its efficacy in treating tobacco dependence deserves further investigation.

  11. Racial disparities in smoking knowledge among current smokers: data from the health information national trends surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Rachel Ann; Gerrard, Meg; Gibbons, Frederick X

    2010-10-01

    Although African-Americans (Blacks) smoke fewer cigarettes per day than European-Americans (Whites), there is ample evidence that Blacks are more susceptible to smoking-related health consequences. A variety of behavioural, social and biological factors have been linked to this increased risk. There has been little research, however, on racial differences in smoking-related knowledge and perceived risk of lung cancer. The primary goal of the current study was to evaluate beliefs and knowledge that contribute to race disparities in lung cancer risk among current smokers. Data from two separate nationally representative surveys (the Health Information National Trends surveys 2003 and 2005) were analysed. Logistic and hierarchical regressions were conducted; gender, age, education level, annual household income and amount of smoking were included as covariates. In both studies, Black smokers were significantly more likely to endorse inaccurate statements than were White smokers, and did not estimate their lung cancer risk to be significantly higher than Whites. Results highlight an important racial disparity in public health knowledge among current smokers.

  12. Smoke and mirrors: the perceived benefits of continued tobacco use among current smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh Klein

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite 50+ years of public health efforts to reduce smoking rates in the United States, approximately one-fifth of the adults living in this country continue to smoke cigarettes. Previous studies have examined smokers’ risk perceptions of cigarette smoking, as well as the perceived benefits of quitting smoking. Less research has focused on the perceived benefits of smoking among current cigarette smokers. The latter is the main focus of the present paper. Questionnaire-based interviews were conducted with a community-based sample of 485 adult current cigarette smokers recruited from the Atlanta, Georgia, metropolitan area between 2004 and 2007. Active and passive recruiting approaches were used, along with a targeted sampling strategy. Results revealed that most current cigarette smokers perceive themselves to experience benefits as a result of their cigarette use, including (among others increased relaxation, diminished nervousness in social situations, enjoyment of the taste of cigarettes when smoking, and greater enjoyment of parties when smoking. Perceiving benefits from cigarette smoking was associated with a variety of tobacco use measures, such as smoking more cigarettes, an increased likelihood of chain smoking, and overall negative attitude toward quitting smoking, among others. Several factors were associated with the extent to which smokers perceived themselves to benefit from their tobacco use, including education attainment, the age of first purchasing cigarettes, the proportion of friends who smoked, hiding smoking from others, being internally-oriented regarding locus of control, and self-esteem.

  13. Impact of a board-game approach on current smokers: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khazaal Yasser

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main objective of our study was to assess the impact of a board game on smoking status and smoking-related variables in current smokers. To accomplish this objective, we conducted a randomized controlled trial comparing the game group with a psychoeducation group and a waiting-list control group. Methods The following measures were performed at participant inclusion, as well as after a 2-week and a 3-month follow-up period: “Attitudes Towards Smoking Scale” (ATS-18, “Smoking Self-Efficacy Questionnaire” (SEQ-12, “Attitudes Towards Nicotine Replacement Therapy” scale (ANRT-12, number of cigarettes smoked per day, stages of change, quit attempts, and smoking status. Furthermore, participants were assessed for concurrent psychiatric disorders and for the severity of nicotine dependence with the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND. Results A time × group effect was observed for subscales of the ANRT-12, ATS-18 and SEQ-12, as well as for the number of cigarettes smoked per day. At three months follow-up, compared to the participants allocated to the waiting list group, those on Pick-Klop group were less likely to remain smoker. Outcomes at 3 months were not predicted by gender, age, FTND, stage of change, or psychiatric disorders at inclusion. Conclusions The board game seems to be a good option for smokers. The game led to improvements in variables known to predict quitting in smokers. Furthermore, it increased smoking-cessation rates at 3-months follow-up. The game is also an interesting alternative for smokers in the precontemplation stage.

  14. Increased levels of (class switched memory B cells in peripheral blood of current smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Geffen Wouter H

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is increasing evidence that a specific immune response contributes to the pathogenesis of COPD. B-cell follicles are present in lung tissue and increased anti-elastin titers have been found in plasma of COPD patients. Additionally, regulatory T cells (Tregs have been implicated in its pathogenesis as they control immunological reactions. We hypothesize that the specific immune response in COPD is smoke induced, either by a direct effect of smoking or as a result of smoke-induced lung tissue destruction (i.e. formation of neo-epitopes or auto antigens. Furthermore, we propose that Tregs are involved in the suppression of this smoke-induced specific immune response. The presence of B cells, memory B cells and Tregs was assessed by flow cytometry in peripheral blood of 20 COPD patients and 29 healthy individuals and related to their current smoking status. COPD patients had lower (memory B-cell percentages and higher Treg percentages in peripheral blood than healthy individuals, with a significant negative correlation between these cells. Interestingly, current smokers had higher percentages of (class-switched memory B cells than ex-smokers and never smokers, irrespective of COPD. This increase in (class-switched memory B cells in current smokers is intriguing and suggests that smoke-induced neo-antigens may be constantly induced in the lung. The negative correlation between B cells and Tregs in blood is in line with previously published observations that Tregs can suppress B cells. Future studies focusing on the presence of these (class switched memory B cells in the lung, their antigen specificity and their interaction with Tregs are necessary to further elucidate the specific B-cell response in COPD.

  15. Colorectal cancer screening in high-risk groups is increasing, although current smokers fall behind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluyemi, Aminat O; Welch, Amy R; Yoo, Lisa J; Lehman, Erik B; McGarrity, Thomas J; Chuang, Cynthia H

    2014-07-15

    There is limited information about colorectal cancer (CRC) screening trends in high-risk groups, including the black, obese, diabetic, and smoking populations. For this study, the authors evaluated national CRC screening trends in these high-risk groups to provide insights into whether screening resources are being appropriately used. This was a nationally representative, population-based study using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System from the Centers for Disease Control. Data analysis was performed using bivariate analyses with weighted logistic regression. In the general population, CRC screening increased significantly from 59% to 65% during the years 2006 to 2010. The screening prevalence in non-Hispanic blacks was 58% in 2006 and 65% in 2010. Among obese individuals, the prevalence of up-to-date CRC screening increased significantly from 59% in 2006 to 66% in 2010. Screening prevalence in individuals with diabetes was 63% in 2006 and 69% in 2010. The CRC screening prevalence in current smokers was 45% in 2006 and 50% in 2010. The odds of CRC screening in the non-Hispanic black population, the obese population, and the diabetic population were higher than in non-Hispanic whites, normal weight individuals, and the population without diabetes, respectively. Current smokers had significantly lower odds of CRC screening than never-smokers in the years studied (2006: odds ratio [OR], 0.71; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.66-0.76; 2008: OR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.63-0.71; 2010: OR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.66-0.73). The prevalence of CRC screening in high-risk groups is trending upward. Despite this, current smokers have significantly lower odds of CRC screening compared with the general population. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  16. Effects of wages on smoking decisions of current and past smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Juan; Leigh, J Paul

    2015-08-01

    We used longitudinal data and instrumental variables (IVs) in a prospective design to test for the causal effects of wages on smoking prevalence among current and past smokers. Nationally representative U.S. data were drawn from the 1999-2009 waves of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. Our overall sample was restricted to full time employed persons, aged 21-65 years. We excluded part time workers and youths because smoking and wage correlations would be complicated by labor supply decisions. We excluded adult never smokers because people rarely begin smoking after the age of 20 years. IVs were created with state-level minimum wages and unionization rates. We analyzed subsamples of men, women, the less educated, the more educated, quitters, and backsliders. Validity and strength of instruments within the IV analysis were conducted with the Sargan-Hansen J statistic and F tests. We found some evidence that low wages lead to more smoking in the overall sample and substantial evidence for men, persons with high school educations or less (wages lead to 5.5 and 4.6 percentage point decreases in smoking for men and the less educated; they also increased the average chance of quitting among base-year smokers from 17.0% to 20.4%. Statistical tests suggested that IVs were strong and valid in most samples. Subjects' other family income, including spouses' wages, was entered as a control variable. Increases in an individual's wages, independent of other income, decreased the prevalence of smoking among current and past smokers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The relationships between menthol cigarette preference and state tobacco control policies on smoking behaviors of young adult smokers in the 2006-07 Tobacco Use Supplements to the Current Population Surveys (TUS CPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahijevych, Karen; Ford, Jodi

    2010-12-01

    To examine relationships between the preference for menthol cigarettes and young adult smoking behaviors, including the extent to which state tobacco control policies moderate these relationships. Cross-sectional design using secondary data from the 2006-07 Tobacco Use Supplements to the Current Population Surveys (TUS CPS) surveys appended with 2006 state-policy data. United States nationally representative survey. A total of 2241 young adult daily smokers and 688 young adult non-daily smokers. The two dependent variables of smoking behaviors were smoking first cigarette within 30 minutes of waking (TTF) and number of cigarettes smoked per day (cpd). Primary independent variables included menthol brand preference and state tobacco control policies (youth access laws, clean indoor air laws and cigarette excise taxes), adjusting for controls. Among daily smokers, there were no significant associations between menthol brand preference and TTF or cpd. However, lower educational attainment, not being in the labor force and the lack of home smoking rules were associated positively with shorter TTF, being white and the lack of home smoking rules were associated positively with cpd. Among daily smokers, state excise taxes were associated negatively with higher cpd. Among non-daily smokers, menthol brand preference was associated positively with shorter TTF, but associations did not vary with state tobacco control policies. Menthol brand preference was not associated significantly with cpd, but male gender, unmarried status and the lack of home smoking rules were associated positively with greater cpd among non-daily smokers. Young adult non-daily smokers who preferred menthol cigarettes were significantly more dependent than those who preferred non-menthol cigarettes, as shown through the shorter TTF. Associations between menthol brand preference and smoking behaviors did not vary with state tobacco control policies. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction © 2010 Society for the

  18. Mediation Role of C-Reactive Protein on the Association between Smoking Quantity and Type 2 Diabetes in Current Chinese Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Feng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Previous studies have indicated that cigarette smokers are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes and that both smoking and type 2 diabetes are associated with C-reactive protein (CRP. This study examined whether CRP mediates the association between smoking quantity and type 2 diabetes. Methods. Nine hundred and eighty-four current Chinese smokers were selected from a community-based chronic disease survey conducted in Guangzhou and Zhuhai. Type 2 diabetes was defined according to the WHO 1999 criteria. CRP was measured with flow cytometry. Binary logistic regression was performed to assess the mediation. Results. A positive association was observed between smoking quantity and type 2 diabetes (P<0.05. After controlling for potential confounders, daily cigarette consumption was significantly associated with higher CRP levels. Current smokers with type 2 diabetes had higher CRP levels than smokers without type 2 diabetes. The association between the smoking quantity and type 2 diabetes was mediated by CRP, which accounted for 50.77% of the association. Conclusions. This study provides further evidence that smoking quantity is positively associated with type 2 diabetes and suggests that the association between smoking and type 2 diabetes might be mediated by CRP.

  19. Impact of a board-game approach on current smokers: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Khazaal, Yasser; Chatton, Anne; Prezzemolo, Roberto; Zebouni, Fadi; Edel, Yves; Jacquet, Johan; Ruggeri, Ornella; Burnens, Emilie; Monney, Gr?goire; Protti, Anne-Sylvie; Etter, Jean-Fran?ois; Khan, Riaz; Cornuz, Jacques; Zullino, Daniele

    2013-01-01

    Background The main objective of our study was to assess the impact of a board game on smoking status and smoking-related variables in current smokers. To accomplish this objective, we conducted a randomized controlled trial comparing the game group with a psychoeducation group and a waiting-list control group. Methods The following measures were performed at participant inclusion, as well as after a 2-week and a 3-month follow-up period: “Attitudes Towards Smoking Scale” (ATS-18), “Smoking S...

  20. Tolerance to effects of high-dose oral δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and plasma cannabinoid concentrations in male daily cannabis smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelick, David A; Goodwin, Robert S; Schwilke, Eugene; Schwope, David M; Darwin, William D; Kelly, Deanna L; McMahon, Robert P; Liu, Fang; Ortemann-Renon, Catherine; Bonnet, Denis; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2013-01-01

    Oral cannabinoids are taken for medicinal or recreational purposes, yet little is known about tolerance to their effects after high-dose extended exposure. The development of tolerance to effects of around-the-clock oral synthetic Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) (20 mg every 3.5-6 h) was evaluated in 13 healthy male daily cannabis smokers residing on a secure research unit: 40 mg on Day 1; 100 mg on Days 2-4; 120 mg on Days 5-6. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), heart rate, and symptoms of subjective intoxication (100 mm visual-analogue scales, VAS) were assessed the morning of Day 1 (before any oral THC), and on Days 2, 4 and 6, every 30 min for 3 h after the first morning THC dose. Morning subjective intoxication ratings increased from Days 1 to 2, and then declined on Days 4 and 6. The morning THC dose increased intoxication ratings on Day 2, but had less effect on Days 4 and 6, a pattern consistent with tolerance. THC lowered BP and increased heart rate over the six days. Plasma THC and 11-OH-THC concentrations increased significantly over the first five days of dosing. Six days of around-the-clock, oral THC produced tolerance to subjective intoxication, but not to cardiovascular effects.

  1. Differences in quit attempts between non-Hispanic Black and White daily smokers: the role of smoking motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacio, Guadalupe A; Guzman, Iris Y; Shapiro, Jenessa R; Ray, Lara A

    2014-12-01

    The prevalence of smoking across racial/ethnic groups has declined over the years, yet racial health disparities for smoking persist. Studies indicate that non-Hispanic Black smokers attempt to quit smoking more often compared to non-Hispanic White smokers but are less successful at doing so. Research suggests that motives to quit smoking differ by race, however, less is known about the role of motives to smoke in explaining racial differences in attempts to quit smoking. This study examined whether smoking motives accounted for the differential rates in quit attempts between non-Hispanic Black (n=155) and non-Hispanic White (n=159) smokers. Data were culled from a larger study of heavy-drinking smokers. The Wisconsin Index of Smoking Dependence Motives (WISDM) assessed motives to smoke. As expected, Black and White smokers reported similar smoking patterns, yet Black smokers reported higher rates of failed attempts to quit smoking than White smokers. Findings indicated that Black, compared to White, smokers endorsed lower scores in the negative reinforcement, positive reinforcement, and taste WISDM subscales and scores in these subscales mediated the relationship between race and quit attempts. In this study, Blacks, compared to Whites, endorsed lower motives to smoke, which are generally associated with successful quit attempts, yet they experienced more failed attempts to quit smoking. This study demonstrates racial health disparities at the level of smoking motives and suggests that Black smokers remain vulnerable to failed quit attempts despite reporting lower motives to smoke. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Smoking behaviors and intentions among current e-cigarette users, cigarette smokers, and dual users: A national survey of U.S. high school seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Sean Esteban; Veliz, Phil; McCabe, Vita V; Boyd, Carol J

    2017-06-01

    E-cigarette use among adolescents has increased significantly in recent years, but it remains unclear whether cigarette smoking behaviors and intentions for future cigarette smoking differ among current (i.e., 30-day) non-users, only e-cigarette users, only cigarette smokers, and dual users. A nationally representative sample of 4385 U.S. high school seniors were surveyed during the spring of their senior year via self-administered questionnaires in 2014. An estimated 9.6% of U.S. high school seniors reported current e-cigarette use only, 6.3% reported current cigarette smoking only, and 7.2% reported current dual use of e-cigarettes and cigarette smoking. There were no significant differences between current only cigarette smokers and dual users in the odds of early onset of cigarette smoking, daily cigarette smoking, intentions for future cigarette smoking, friends' cigarette smoking behaviors, attempts to quit cigarette smoking, or the inability to quit cigarette smoking. Adolescents who only used e-cigarettes had higher odds of intentions for future cigarette smoking in the next 5years (AOR=2.57, 95% CI: 1.21-5.24) than current non-users. Dual users and only cigarette smokers had higher odds of cigarette smoking behaviors and intentions for future cigarette smoking than non-users or only e-cigarette users. Adolescents who engage in current dual use have cigarette smoking behaviors and intentions for future cigarette smoking that more closely resemble cigarette smokers than e-cigarette users. Adolescents who only use e-cigarettes have higher intentions to engage in future cigarette smoking relative to their peers who do not engage in e-cigarette use or cigarette smoking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Support for Indoor Bans on Electronic Cigarettes among Current and Former Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie K. Kolar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette use is increasing in the U.S. Although marketed as a safer alternative for cigarettes, initial evidence suggests that e-cigarettes may pose a secondhand exposure risk. The current study explored the prevalence and correlates of support for e-cigarette bans. Methods: A sample of 265 current/former smokers completed a cross-sectional telephone survey from June–September 2014; 45% Black, 31% White, 21% Hispanic. Items assessed support for home and workplace bans for cigarettes and e-cigarettes and associated risk perceptions. Results: Most participants were aware of e-cigarettes (99%. Results demonstrated less support for complete e-cigarette bans in homes and workplaces compared to cigarettes. Support for complete e-cigarette bans was strongest among older, higher income, married respondents, and former smokers. Complete e-cigarette bans were most strongly endorsed when perceptions of addictiveness and health risks were high. While both e-cigarette lifetime and never-users strongly supported cigarette smoking bans, endorsement for e-cigarette bans varied by lifetime use and intentions to use e-cigarettes. Conclusions: Support for indoor e-cigarette bans is relatively low among individuals with a smoking history. Support for e-cigarette bans may change as evidence regarding their use emerges. These findings have implications for public health policy.

  4. Stress-related expectations about smoking cessation and future quit attempts and abstinence - a prospective study in daily smokers who wish to quit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov-Ettrup, Lise Skrubbeltrang; Egan, Kia Kejlskov; Dalum, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Smokers who wish to quit may refrain from doing so if they expect to experience more stress after haven given up. We test if stress-related expectations about smoking cessation are associated with quit attempts and abstinence among smokers who are motivated to quit. The study included 1809 daily...... after 3, 8 and 14 months. We found that the association between expecting to be more stressed if giving up smoking differed between participants who had previously attempted to quit and those who had not: In participants who previously attempted to quit (47%), expecting to be more stressed......, expectations about stress were not associated with abstinence. Results indicate that expectations about stress in relation to smoking cessation are an important determinant of cessation in smokers who previously attempted to quit. Addressing stress and how to handle stressful situations may increase...

  5. Preferred flavors and reasons for e-cigarette use and discontinued use among never, current, and former smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Carla J

    2016-03-01

    To compare e-cigarette flavors preferred and reasons for use and discontinued use across never, current, and former e-cigarette users and cigarette smokers. We recruited 1567 participants aged 18-34 years through Facebook ads targeting tobacco users and nonusers in August 2014 to complete an online survey. We assessed tobacco use, preferred flavors, and reasons for e-cigarette use and discontinued use. Our sample was 49 % male, 87 % White; 56 % current cigarette smokers; and 53 % e-cigarette users. Current e-cigarette users used an average of 20.9 days in the past 30 (SD = 11.7) and 55.2 puffs/day (SD = 37.3). Compared to never and current smokers, former smokers used e-cigarettes more frequently (p's flavors, and the most commonly reported reason for e-cigarette use was "they might be less harmful than cigarettes". The most endorsed reason for discontinued e-cigarette use was "using other tobacco products instead". Never, current, and former smokers had distinct reasons for e-cigarette use and discontinued use and differed in flavor preferences. Regulating marketing and flavors may impact e-cigarette uptake by young adults.

  6. Bone density loss on computed tomography at 3-year follow-up in current compared to former male smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pompe, E.; Bartstra, J.; Verhaar, H.J.; Koning, H.J. de; Aalst, C.M. van der; Oudkerk, M.; Vliegenthart, R.; Lammers, J.-W.J.; Jong, P.A. de; Mohamed Hoesein, F.A.A.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Cigarette smoking negatively affects bone quality and increases fracture risk. Little is known on the effect of smoking cessation and computed tomography (CT)-derived bone mineral density (BMD) decline in the spine. We evaluated the association of current and former smoking with BMD decline after 3-year follow-up. Methods: Male current and former smokers participating in a lung cancer screening trial who underwent baseline and 3-year follow-up CT were included. BMD was measured by manual placement of a region of interest in the first lumbar vertebra and expressed in Hounsfield Unit (HU). Multiple linear regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between pack years smoked and smoking status with BMD decline. Results: 408 participants were included with median (25th–75th percentile) age of 59.4 (55.9–63.5) years. At the start of the study, 197 (48.3%) participants were current smokers and 211 (51.7%) were former smokers and had a similar amount of pack years. Current smokers had quit smoking for 6 (4–8) years prior to inclusion. There was no difference in BMD between current and former smokers at baseline (109 ± 34 HU vs. 108 ± 32 HU, p = 0.96). At 3-year follow-up, current smokers had a mean BMD decline of −3 ± 13 HU (p = 0.001), while BMD in former smokers did not change as compared to baseline (1 ± 13 HU, p = 0.34). After adjustment for BMD at baseline and body mass index, current smoking was independently associated with BMD decline (−3.8 HU, p = 0.003). Age, pack years, and the presence of a fracture at baseline did not associate with BMD decline. Conclusions: Current smokers showed a more rapid BMD decline over a 3-year period compared to former smokers. This information might be important to identify subjects at risk for osteoporosis and emphasizes the importance of smoking cessation in light of BMD decline.

  7. Bone density loss on computed tomography at 3-year follow-up in current compared to former male smokers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pompe, E., E-mail: e.pompe@umcutrecht.nl [Department of Pulmonology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Bartstra, J. [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Verhaar, H.J. [Department of Geriatric Medicine, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Koning, H.J. de; Aalst, C.M. van der [Department of Public Health, Erasmus MC − University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Oudkerk, M. [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Vliegenthart, R. [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Center for Medical Imaging-North East Netherlands, Groningen (Netherlands); Lammers, J.-W.J. [Department of Pulmonology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Jong, P.A. de; Mohamed Hoesein, F.A.A. [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2017-04-15

    Objectives: Cigarette smoking negatively affects bone quality and increases fracture risk. Little is known on the effect of smoking cessation and computed tomography (CT)-derived bone mineral density (BMD) decline in the spine. We evaluated the association of current and former smoking with BMD decline after 3-year follow-up. Methods: Male current and former smokers participating in a lung cancer screening trial who underwent baseline and 3-year follow-up CT were included. BMD was measured by manual placement of a region of interest in the first lumbar vertebra and expressed in Hounsfield Unit (HU). Multiple linear regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between pack years smoked and smoking status with BMD decline. Results: 408 participants were included with median (25th–75th percentile) age of 59.4 (55.9–63.5) years. At the start of the study, 197 (48.3%) participants were current smokers and 211 (51.7%) were former smokers and had a similar amount of pack years. Current smokers had quit smoking for 6 (4–8) years prior to inclusion. There was no difference in BMD between current and former smokers at baseline (109 ± 34 HU vs. 108 ± 32 HU, p = 0.96). At 3-year follow-up, current smokers had a mean BMD decline of −3 ± 13 HU (p = 0.001), while BMD in former smokers did not change as compared to baseline (1 ± 13 HU, p = 0.34). After adjustment for BMD at baseline and body mass index, current smoking was independently associated with BMD decline (−3.8 HU, p = 0.003). Age, pack years, and the presence of a fracture at baseline did not associate with BMD decline. Conclusions: Current smokers showed a more rapid BMD decline over a 3-year period compared to former smokers. This information might be important to identify subjects at risk for osteoporosis and emphasizes the importance of smoking cessation in light of BMD decline.

  8. Association of Smoke-Free Laws With Lower Percentages of New and Current Smokers Among Adolescents and Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Anna V.; Dutra, Lauren M.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Smoke-free laws are associated with a lower prevalence of smoking. OBJECTIVE To quantify the effect of 100% smoke-free laws on the smoking behavior of adolescents and young adults in a longitudinal analysis. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Pooled logistic regression and zero-inflated negative binomial regression analysis of participants in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (data from 1997 to 2007), with complete data on initiation of smoking (n = 4098) and number of days respondents reported smoking in the past 30 days (n = 3913). EXPOSURES Laws for 100% smoke-free workplaces, laws for 100% smoke-free bars, and state cigarette taxes. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Smoking initiation (first report of smoking cigarette), current (for 30 days) smoking, and number of days respondents reported smoking in the past 30 days among current smokers. RESULTS Laws for 100% smoke-free workplaces, but not bars, were associated with significantly lower odds of initiating smoking (odds ratio, 0.66 [95%CI, 0.44-0.99]). Laws for 100% smoke-free bars were associated with lower odds of being a current smoker (odds ratio, 0.80 [95%CI, 0.71-0.90]) and fewer days of smoking (incidence rate ratio, 0.85 [95% CI, 0.80-0.90]) among current smokers. Taxes were associated with a lower percentage of new smokers but not current smokers among adolescents and young adults. The effect of smoke-free workplace laws on smoking initiation is equivalent to a $1.57 (in 2007 dollars) tax increase. Smoke-free bar laws are associated with lower rates of current smoking, as well as a decrease in the number of days reported smoking among current smokers. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Smoke-free laws are an important tobacco control tool. They not only protect bystanders from secondhand smoke but also contribute to less smoking among adolescents and young adults. PMID:26348866

  9. HbA1c, fasting and 2 h plasma glucose in current, ex- and never-smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soulimane, Soraya; Simon, Dominique; Herman, William H

    2014-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The relationships between smoking and glycaemic variables have not been well explored. We compared HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2 h plasma glucose (2H-PG) in current, ex- and never-smokers. METHODS: This meta-analysis used individual data from 16,886 men and 18,539 women...... factor. The I (2) statistic was used to evaluate heterogeneity among studies. RESULTS: HbA1c was 0.10% (95% CI 0.08, 0.12) (1.1 mmol/mol [0.9, 1.3]) higher in current smokers and 0.03% (0.01, 0.05) (0.3 mmol/mol [0.1, 0.5]) higher in ex-smokers, compared with never-smokers. For FPG.......09]). There was a large and unexplained heterogeneity among studies, with I (2) always above 50%; I (2) was little changed after stratification by sex and adjustment for age and BMI. In this study population, current smokers had a prevalence of diabetes that was 1.30% higher as screened by HbA1c and 0.52% lower...

  10. The effect of quitting smoking on costs and healthcare utilization in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a comparison of current smokers versus ex-smokers in routine clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicras-Mainar, Antoni; Rejas-Gutiérrez, Javier; Navarro-Artieda, Ruth; Ibáñez-Nolla, Jordi

    2014-08-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a prevalent condition mainly related to smoking, which is associated with a substantial economic burden. The purpose was to compare healthcare resource utilization and costs according to smoking status in patients with COPD in routine clinical practice. A retrospective cohort nested case-control study was designed. The cohort was composed of male and female COPD outpatients, 40 years or older, covered by the Badalona Serveis Assistencials (a health provider) health plan. Cases were current smokers with COPD and controls (two per case) were former smokers with COPD (at least 12 months without smoking), matched for age, sex, duration of COPD, and burden of comorbidity. The index date was the last visit recorded in the database, and the analysis was performed retrospectively on healthcare resource utilization data for the 12 months before the index date. A total of 930 COPD records were analyzed: 310 current and 620 former smokers [mean age 69.4 years (84.6 % male)]. Cases had more exacerbations, physician visits of any type, and drug therapies related to COPD were more common. As a consequence, current smokers had higher average annual healthcare costs: €3,784 (1,888) versus €2,302 (2,451), p use of healthcare resources, mainly COPD drugs and physician visits, compared with former smokers who had abstained for at least 12 months. As a consequence, current smokers had higher healthcare costs to the National Health System in Spain than ex-smokers.

  11. Acute and chronic effects of smoking on inflammation markers in exhaled breath condensate in current smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koczulla, A-Rembert; Noeske, Sarah; Herr, Christian; Jörres, Rudolf A; Römmelt, Horst; Vogelmeier, Claus; Bals, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Long-term cigarette smoking is associated with pulmonary inflammation, but the acute effects of smoking have been less well studied. Analysis of the exhaled breath condensate (EBC) can provide noninvasive markers that might be indicative of inflammation. The aim of the study was to determine whether the pH , electrical conductivity and the levels of ammonium and interleukin 8 (IL-8) of EBC were altered in smokers and whether they changed after smoking a single cigarette. We included 19 healthy nonsmokers (controls), 29 asymptomatic smokers, 10 patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) [Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stages (GOLD) stages II-III], and 10 patients with exacerbated COPD. In 13 smokers, EBC was also analyzed before and after smoking. EBC was obtained during 10 min tidal breathing with a cooled RTube. pH was determined after deaeration with argon. Acute smoking did not alter the pH or ammonium and IL-8 levels, but raised conductivity. As in COPD patients, the pH was significantly decreased in chronic smokers with a history of at least 10 pack-years compared to controls. EBC can be used to detect the acute and chronic effects of smoking. The increased conductivity of EBC after smoking suggests acute inflammatory effects. The reduced pH in chronic smokers shows cigarette-induced inflammation. 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Predictive model accuracy in estimating last Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) intake from plasma and whole blood cannabinoid concentrations in chronic, daily cannabis smokers administered subchronic oral THC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karschner, Erin L; Schwope, David M; Schwilke, Eugene W; Goodwin, Robert S; Kelly, Deanna L; Gorelick, David A; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2012-10-01

    Determining time since last cannabis/Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) exposure is important in clinical, workplace, and forensic settings. Mathematical models calculating time of last exposure from whole blood concentrations typically employ a theoretical 0.5 whole blood-to-plasma (WB/P) ratio. No studies previously evaluated predictive models utilizing empirically-derived WB/P ratios, or whole blood cannabinoid pharmacokinetics after subchronic THC dosing. Ten male chronic, daily cannabis smokers received escalating around-the-clock oral THC (40-120 mg daily) for 8 days. Cannabinoids were quantified in whole blood and plasma by two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Maximum whole blood THC occurred 3.0 h after the first oral THC dose and 103.5h (4.3 days) during multiple THC dosing. Median WB/P ratios were THC 0.63 (n=196), 11-hydroxy-THC 0.60 (n=189), and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) 0.55 (n=200). Predictive models utilizing these WB/P ratios accurately estimated last cannabis exposure in 96% and 100% of specimens collected within 1-5h after a single oral THC dose and throughout multiple dosing, respectively. Models were only 60% and 12.5% accurate 12.5 and 22.5h after the last THC dose, respectively. Predictive models estimating time since last cannabis intake from whole blood and plasma cannabinoid concentrations were inaccurate during abstinence, but highly accurate during active THC dosing. THC redistribution from large cannabinoid body stores and high circulating THCCOOH concentrations create different pharmacokinetic profiles than those in less than daily cannabis smokers that were used to derive the models. Thus, the models do not accurately predict time of last THC intake in individuals consuming THC daily. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  13. The Contribution of Beverages to Intakes of Energy and MyPlate Components by Current, Former, and Never Smokers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zizza, Claire A; Sebastian, Rhonda S; Wilkinson Enns, Cecilia; ISIK, Zeynep; Goldman, Joseph D; Moshfegh, Alanna J

    2015-12-01

    Although beverage intake patterns have been shown to differ by smoking status, it is unknown whether the contributions of beverages to intakes of energy and MyPlate components also differ. The purpose of this study was to compare beverage intakes and contributions of energy and MyPlate components by source (food alone, beverages alone, and food and beverages together) in diets of adult current, former, and never smokers. Dietary data from 4,823 men and 4,672 women aged ≥20 years who participated in What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2008, were analyzed. Beverage intake and the contributions to energy and MyPlate components by beverages. Regression analyses identified differences in intake among groups. Current smokers consumed more total beverages, coffee, and sugar-sweetened beverages than never and former smokers (Pbeverages than never and former smokers, whereas female current and former smokers both consumed more alcoholic beverages than never smokers. Current smokers obtained more energy from beverages than their nonsmoking counterparts, although total energy intake did not differ. Intakes of added sugars, alcohol, and empty calories were higher for current than never smokers, and differences were accounted for by current smokers' beverage choices. This study adds to the body of research on smoking and dietary behavior by showing that not only do smokers consume a higher volume of beverages, but they also have a higher intake of energy provided by beverages, mainly empty calories from added sugars and alcohol. Our findings highlight the importance of assessing beverages' contribution to the total diet. Recognizing the common co-occurrence of smoking and specific beverage choices can help target health promotion and disease prevention efforts for this subpopulation. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Smokers at Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilner, Susan

    1984-01-01

    Discusses current information on the health consequences of smoking and two types of risks: those associated with all smokers and the higher risks associated with other characteristics, such as to pregnant women, teenagers, heavy smokers, those with cardiovascular disease, users of alcohol, and smokers in certain occupations. (SK)

  15. Chronic bronchitis and current smoking are associated with more goblet cells in moderate to severe COPD and smokers without airflow obstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Kim

    Full Text Available Goblet cell hyperplasia is a classic but variable pathologic finding in COPD. Current literature shows that smoking is a risk factor for chronic bronchitis but the relationship of these clinical features to the presence and magnitude of large airway goblet cell hyperplasia has not been well described. We hypothesized that current smokers and chronic bronchitics would have more goblet cells than nonsmokers or those without chronic bronchitis (CB, independent of airflow obstruction.We recruited 15 subjects with moderate to severe COPD, 12 healthy smokers, and 11 healthy nonsmokers. Six endobronchial mucosal biopsies per subject were obtained by bronchoscopy and stained with periodic acid Schiff-Alcian Blue. Goblet cell density (GCD was quantified as goblet cell number per millimeter of basement membrane. Mucin volume density (MVD was quantified as volume of mucin per unit area of basement membrane.Healthy smokers had a greater GCD and MVD than nonsmokers and COPD subjects. COPD subjects had a greater GCD than nonsmokers. When current smokers (healthy smokers and COPD current smokers, n = 19 were compared with all nonsmokers (nonsmoking controls and COPD ex-smokers, n = 19, current smokers had a greater GCD and MVD. When those with CB (n = 12 were compared to those without CB (n = 26, the CB group had greater GCD. This finding was also seen in those with CB in the COPD group alone. In multivariate analysis, current smoking and CB were significant predictors of GCD using demographics, lung function, and smoking pack years as covariates. All other covariates were not significant predictors of GCD or MVD.Current smoking is associated with a more goblet cell hyperplasia and number, and CB is associated with more goblet cells, independent of the presence of airflow obstruction. This provides clinical and pathologic correlation for smokers with and without COPD.

  16. Current Situation of Highway Daily Maintenance Management in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Feng Ming

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Combined with the industry property, characteristics and management needs of highway maintenance project in Beijing, through investigation and research of the highway daily maintenance management, the present situation of highway repair and maintenance is expounded from the aspects such as the determination of maintenance funds and plan, maintenance management mode, and so on. Then in order to explore the new mechanisms for market management of highway maintenance, the advantages and disadvantages of highway maintenance and minor repairment of Beijing are analyzed.

  17. Advice From Former-Smoking E-Cigarette Users to Current Smokers on How to Use E-Cigarettes as Part of an Attempt to Quit Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Christopher; Dickson, Tiffany; McKeganey, Neil

    2017-08-03

    Substitution of e-cigarettes for tobacco smoking has the potential to prevent almost all the harm caused by smoking. Identifying strategies that may increase smokers' capability, opportunity and motivation to use e-cigarettes in place of tobacco cigarettes is vital. Former smokers who have successfully used e-cigarettes to quit smoking may be especially well qualified to increase current smokers' interest in switching and ability to switch to e-cigarettes. A multi-national, self-selected sample of 4192 former smokers who quit smoking by using e-cigarettes were asked, via an online survey, the advice they would offer to smokers who are considering using e-cigarettes to support an attempt to quit smoking. Thematic analysis of participants' qualitative responses identified four emergent themes: (1) Find a combination of vaping device, flavors of e-liquid and nicotine strength that "works for you"; (2) Continuing to smoke for a while after starting to vape is OK; (3) Failure to quit smoking with the use of approved smoking cessation aids before success with e-cigarettes is common; and (4) Awareness of improved health and hygiene since switching to vaping. Experienced vapers who used to smoke appear eager to give smokers advice and practical information about vaping that may assist attempts to switch from smoking to vaping. Encouraging cigarette smokers to interact with experienced vapers in places where vapers themselves once received advice and now give advice about vaping-vape shops and online discussion fora-may have significant potential to help more smokers to switch to e-cigarette use. This study describes the advice that former-smokers who used e-cigarettes to quit smoking would offer to smokers who are considering using an e-cigarette to support an attempt to quit smoking. Vapers advised smokers to find the right combination of device, flavors and nicotine strength, continue to smoke and vape for a while if they wished, not be deterred by past failed attempts

  18. Factors affecting the variability in the observed levels of cadmium in blood and urine among former and current smokers aged 20-64 and ≥ 65years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ram B

    2017-03-01

    Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 1999-2012 were used to evaluate factors that affect observed levels of blood cadmium (BCd) and urine cadmium (UCd) among former and current smokers aged 20-64 and ≥65 years. Adjusted levels (AGM) for BCd and UCd were higher among females as compared to males. The order of AGM for BCd by race/ethnicity for 20-64 years old was non-Hispanic white (NHW) NHB for ≥65 years old. The order of AGMs for UCd for 20-64-year-old current smokers was NHW > NHB and NHW > NHB for former smokers. For 20-64-year-old current smokers, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke at home was associated with higher levels of BCd. Levels of both UCd and BCd increased with age, but the rate of increase was as much as seven times higher among ≥65 years old than 20-64 years old. For current smokers, the number of cigarettes smoked inside home was positively associated with the levels of BCd. For current smokers aged 20-64 years, the number of cigarettes smoked inside home was positively associated with the levels of UCd (p smokers, levels of both UCd and BCd were positively associated (p < 0.1) with the number of cigarettes smoked per day at the time of quitting smoking and negatively associated with the time since smoking was quitted (p < 0.01).

  19. A Qualitative Study of Smoker Identity Among College Student Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Juliana D; Aloise-Young, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    This research was motivated by findings that college students who smoke cigarettes often self-categorize as nonsmokers, that is, they reject the social identity of "smoker." The goal of the present study was to shed light on college students' smoker identities beyond the smoker/nonsmoker dichotomy. Focus groups were conducted to investigate how college students categorize their own smoking patterns and to identify what behaviors and attitudes are associated with these different categories of smoker identities. Forty-one students from a western university participated in this study in November 2011. The focus group results indicated that there were five distinct smoker identities on campus. Light and regular smokers were the daily smoker identities present, while stress, social, and drunk smokers were the occasional smoker identities. Moreover, each of these smoker identities was defined by a unique pattern of smoking behavior, attitudes, and motives. These findings support the notion that there are different types of smokers, both daily and occasional, in the college population. We suggest that researchers, healthcare providers, and prevention/intervention programs may all benefit from distinguishing between these different types of smokers.

  20. Association of Smoke-Free Laws With Lower Percentages of New and Current Smokers Among Adolescents and Young Adults: An 11-Year Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Anna V; Dutra, Lauren M; Neilands, Torsten B; Glantz, Stanton A

    2015-09-01

    Smoke-free laws are associated with a lower prevalence of smoking. To quantify the effect of 100% smoke-free laws on the smoking behavior of adolescents and young adults in a longitudinal analysis. Pooled logistic regression and zero-inflated negative binomial regression analysis of participants in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (data from 1997 to 2007), with complete data on initiation of smoking (n = 4098) and number of days respondents reported smoking in the past 30 days (n = 3913). Laws for 100% smoke-free workplaces, laws for 100% smoke-free bars, and state cigarette taxes. Smoking initiation (first report of smoking cigarette), current (for 30 days) smoking, and number of days respondents reported smoking in the past 30 days among current smokers. Laws for 100% smoke-free workplaces, but not bars, were associated with significantly lower odds of initiating smoking (odds ratio, 0.66 [95% CI, 0.44-0.99]). Laws for 100% smoke-free bars were associated with lower odds of being a current smoker (odds ratio, 0.80 [95% CI, 0.71-0.90]) and fewer days of smoking (incidence rate ratio, 0.85 [95% CI, 0.80-0.90]) among current smokers. Taxes were associated with a lower percentage of new smokers but not current smokers among adolescents and young adults. The effect of smoke-free workplace laws on smoking initiation is equivalent to a $1.57 (in 2007 dollars) tax increase. Smoke-free bar laws are associated with lower rates of current smoking, as well as a decrease in the number of days reported smoking among current smokers. Smoke-free laws are an important tobacco control tool. They not only protect bystanders from secondhand smoke but also contribute to less smoking among adolescents and young adults.

  1. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, 1977-present, Currents

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily Currents data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  2. Health-related quality of life in current smokers with COPD: factors associated with current smoking and new insights into sex differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheruvu VK

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Vinay K Cheruvu,1 Lorriane A Odhiambo,1 Dana S Mowls,2 Melissa D Zullo,1 Abdi T Gudina1 1Department of Biostatistics, Environmental Health Sciences, and Epidemiology, College of Public Health, Kent State University, Kent, OH, 2Department of Biostatistics & Epidemiology, College of Public Health, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, USA Abstract: Findings from studies that examined the association between health-related ­quality of life (HRQOL and smoking status among COPD patients have been mixed. Moreover, factors associated with current smoking in COPD patients and differences by sex have not been fully elucidated. Data from the 2011 and 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System was used in this study. Four HRQOL indicators were examined in this study: general health, physical health, mental health, and activity limitations. General health was dichotomized into two groups: “excellent/very good/good” and “fair/poor”, and the other three HRQOL indicators were dichotomized into <14 (infrequent and ≥14 (frequent unhealthy days in the past 30 days. To examine HRQOL indicators in association with current versus former smoking and identify factors associated with current smoking, logistic regression models were used. Sex differences were explored. In COPD patients, current smokers compared to former smokers had significantly poor HRQOL on all subdomains: “fair/poor” general health (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.2 [95% confidence interval {CI}: 1.1–1.5]; poor physical health (AOR: 1.3 [CI: 1.1–1.5]; poor mental health (AOR: 1.8 [CI: 1.4–2.2]; and poor activity limitations (AOR: 1.5 [CI: 1.3–1.9]. HRQOL subdomains affected by current smoking differed by sex except activity limitations. General health (AOR: 1.5 [CI: 1.1–2.0] and activity limitations (AOR: 1.6 [95% CI: 1.2–2.2] in males and physical health (AOR: 1.3 [CI: 1.0–1.6], mental health (AOR: 2.1 [CI: 1.7–2.6], and activity

  3. Health-related quality of life in current smokers with COPD: factors associated with current smoking and new insights into sex differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheruvu, Vinay K; Odhiambo, Lorriane A; Mowls, Dana S; Zullo, Melissa D; Gudina, Abdi T

    2016-01-01

    Findings from studies that examined the association between health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and smoking status among COPD patients have been mixed. Moreover, factors associated with current smoking in COPD patients and differences by sex have not been fully elucidated. Data from the 2011 and 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System was used in this study. Four HRQOL indicators were examined in this study: general health, physical health, mental health, and activity limitations. General health was dichotomized into two groups: "excellent/very good/good" and "fair/poor", and the other three HRQOL indicators were dichotomized into smoking and identify factors associated with current smoking, logistic regression models were used. Sex differences were explored. In COPD patients, current smokers compared to former smokers had significantly poor HRQOL on all subdomains: "fair/poor" general health (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.2 [95% confidence interval {CI}: 1.1-1.5]); poor physical health (AOR: 1.3 [CI: 1.1-1.5]); poor mental health (AOR: 1.8 [CI: 1.4-2.2]); and poor activity limitations (AOR: 1.5 [CI: 1.3-1.9]). HRQOL subdomains affected by current smoking differed by sex except activity limitations. General health (AOR: 1.5 [CI: 1.1-2.0]) and activity limitations (AOR: 1.6 [95% CI: 1.2-2.2]) in males and physical health (AOR: 1.3 [CI: 1.0-1.6]), mental health (AOR: 2.1 [CI: 1.7-2.6]), and activity limitations (AOR: 1.5 [CI: 1.2-1.9]) in females were significantly impaired due to current smoking. Factors associated with current smoking differed by sex except being unmarried and having less than a college degree, which were associated with current smoking in both males and females. These findings have important implications for health care providers in designing more effective interventions which tailor to and target specific subgroups for smoking cessation.

  4. A smoking cessation programme for current and recent ex-smokers following diagnosis of a potentially curable cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, J; Plueckhahn, I; Cruickshank, D; Churilov, L; Mileshkin, L

    2016-09-01

    Cancer patients who quit smoking have improved survival rates. The time of diagnosis provides a 'teachable moment' when healthcare providers can offer smoking-cessation treatment. To assess the impact on quit rates of a tailored smoking-cessation intervention for patients diagnosed with a potentially curable cancer. A prospective, one-arm cohort study of current smokers and recent quitters (cancer was performed. Intervention involved an initial motivational interview, regular follow up and pharmacotherapy when appropriate. Quit rates were measured at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months by self-reported abstinence and biochemical confirmation. The primary end point was prolonged abstinence at 12 months. Changes in quality of life parameters and distress were also assessed. Seventy-one patients were recruited, with a median age of 56 years. Forty-one patients (58%) had a smoking-related cancer. The prolonged abstinence rate at 12 months was 24% (95% confidence interval 14-36%). Factors associated with successful quitting included being in the preparation or action phase of readiness to change at study entry (P = 0.012) and having complications of treatment requiring hospitalisation (P = 0.024). Between baseline and 12 months, quitters reported improvement in self-control (P cancer require intensive support to quit. An individualised behavioural and pharmacological intervention can be successful in helping patients quit smoking, with quality of life improvements seen amongst successful quitters. Population measures to stop people starting smoking remain essential. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  5. Oxidative modification of albumin in the parenchymal lung tissue of current smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Wan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is accumulating evidence that oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathophysiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. One current hypothesis is that the increased oxidant burden in these patients is not adequately counterbalanced by the lung antioxidant systems. Objective To determine the levels of oxidised human serum albumin (HSA in COPD lung explants and the effect of oxidation on HSA degradation using an ex vivo lung explant model. Methods Parenchymal lung tissue was obtained from 38 patients (15F/23M undergoing lung resection and stratified by smoking history and disease using the GOLD guidelines and the lower limit of normal for FEV1/FVC ratio. Lung tissue was homogenised and analysed by ELISA for total levels of HSA and carbonylated HSA. To determine oxidised HSA degradation lung tissue explants were incubated with either 200 μg/ml HSA or oxidised HSA and supernatants collected at 1, 2, 4, 6, and 24 h and analysed for HSA using ELISA and immunoblot. Results When stratified by disease, lung tissue from GOLD II (median = 38.2 μg/ml and GOLD I (median = 48.4 μg/ml patients had lower levels of HSA compared to patients with normal lung function (median = 71.9 μg/ml, P Conclusion We report on a reliable methodology for measuring levels of oxidised HSA in human lung tissue and cell culture supernatant. We propose that differences in the levels of oxidised HSA within lung tissue from COPD patients and current smokers provides further evidence for an oxidant/antioxidant imbalance and has important biological implications for the disease.

  6. Effects of Prefrontal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation and Motivation to Quit in Tobacco Smokers: A Randomized, Sham Controlled, Double-Blind Trial

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    Maria C. Vitor de Souza Brangioni

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS applied over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC has been shown to reduce cravings in tobacco addiction; however, results have been somewhat mixed. In this study, we hypothesized that motivation to quit smoking is a critical factor of tDCS effects in smokers. Therefore, we conducted a double-blind, randomized clinical trial to evaluate the effects of both tDCS and motivation to quit on cigarette consumption and the relationship between these two factors. DLPFC tDCS was applied once a day for 5 days. Our primary outcome was the amount of cigarettes smoked per day. We collected this information at baseline (d1, at the end of the treatment period (d5, 2 days later (d7 and at the 4-week follow-up (d35. Visual Analog Scale (VAS for motivation to quit was collected at the same time-points. 36 subjects (45 ± 11 years old; 24.2 ± 11.5 cigarettes daily smoked, 21 women were randomized to receive either active or sham tDCS. In our multivariate analysis, as to take into account the mediation and moderation effects of motivation to quit, we found a significant main effect of tDCS, showing that tDCS was associated with a significant reduction of cigarettes smoked per day. We also showed a significant interaction effect of motivation to quit and treatment, supporting our hypothesis that tDCS effects were moderated by motivation to quit, indicating that higher levels of motivation were associated with a larger tDCS response. We found that the participants' motivation to quit alone, both at baseline and at follow-up, does not explain the decrease in the average cigarette consumption. Repetitive prefrontal tDCS coupled with high motivation significantly reduced cigarette consumption up to 4-weeks post-intervention.Clinical Trial Registration: http://ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02146014.

  7. Think abstractly, smoke less: a brief construal-level intervention can promote self-control, leading to reduced cigarette consumption among current smokers.

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    Chiou, Wen-Bin; Wu, Wen-Hsiung; Chang, Ming-Hsu

    2013-05-01

    Inadequate self-control has been linked to behavioural and impulse-control problems such as overeating, alcohol and drug abuse and smoking. Construal-level theory (CLT) suggests that a high-level construal (highlighting central goals associated with an event), relative to a low-level construal (highlighting means and resources), promotes self-control. Inspired by CLT, we examined whether smokers primed with a high-level (versus low-level) construal mind-set would show reductions in smoking that might be mediated by improved self-control. A single-factor (construal level: high, low, control) between-subjects design was employed. We used a widely employed why/how paradigm to induce high/low construal levels, whereby participants were asked to respond to questions about 'why' or 'how' they would maintain good physical health. Laboratory at Kaohsiung Medical University, Taiwan. A community sample consisting of 102 daily smokers participated in this experiment. The Stroop task measuring self-control was implemented after the construal-level manipulation. The dependent measure was actual cigarette consumption during an ostensible survey. Participants in a high-level construal mind-set smoked fewer cigarettes [mean = 1.3, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.9, 1.7] than those in a low-level construal mind-set (mean = 2.6, 95% CI: 2.2, 3.0; P self-control (B = -1.14, 95% CI: -1.65, -0.74, P self-control that leads to reduced cigarette consumption. Thus, reminding smokers to think abstractly about health may be an effective strategy that could help them to smoke fewer cigarettes. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  8. COPD in Never Smokers

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    McBurnie, Mary Ann; Vollmer, William M.; Gudmundsson, Gunnar; Welte, Tobias; Nizankowska-Mogilnicka, Ewa; Studnicka, Michael; Bateman, Eric; Anto, Josep M.; Burney, Peter; Mannino, David M.; Buist, Sonia A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Never smokers comprise a substantial proportion of patients with COPD. Their characteristics and possible risk factors in this population are not yet well defined. Methods: We analyzed data from 14 countries that participated in the international, population-based Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease (BOLD) study. Participants were aged ≥ 40 years and completed postbronchodilator spirometry testing plus questionnaires about respiratory symptoms, health status, and exposure to COPD risk factors. A diagnosis of COPD was based on the postbronchodilator FEV1/FVC ratio, according to current GOLD (Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease) guidelines. In addition to this, the lower limit of normal (LLN) was evaluated as an alternative threshold for the FEV1/FVC ratio. Results: Among 4,291 never smokers, 6.6% met criteria for mild (GOLD stage I) COPD, and 5.6% met criteria for moderate to very severe (GOLD stage II+) COPD. Although never smokers were less likely to have COPD and had less severe COPD than ever smokers, never smokers nonetheless comprised 23.3% (240/1,031) of those classified with GOLD stage II+ COPD. This proportion was similar, 20.5% (171/832), even when the LLN was used as a threshold for the FEV1/FVC ratio. Predictors of COPD in never smokers include age, education, occupational exposure, childhood respiratory diseases, and BMI alterations. Conclusion: This multicenter international study confirms previous evidence that never smokers comprise a substantial proportion of individuals with COPD. Our data suggest that, in addition to increased age, a prior diagnosis of asthma and, among women, lower education levels are associated with an increased risk for COPD among never smokers. PMID:20884729

  9. Identity change among smokers and ex-smokers: Findings from the ITC Netherlands Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Eline; van Laar, Colette; Gebhardt, Winifred A; Fokkema, Marjolein; van den Putte, Bas; Dijkstra, Arie; Fong, Geoffrey T; Willemsen, Marc C

    2017-06-01

    Successful smoking cessation appears to be facilitated by identity change, that is, when quitting or nonsmoking becomes part of smokers' and ex-smokers' self-concepts. The current longitudinal study is the first to examine how identity changes over time among smokers and ex-smokers and whether this can be predicted by socioeconomic status (SES) and psychosocial factors (i.e., attitude, perceived health damage, social norms, stigma, acceptance, self-evaluative emotions, health worries, expected social support). We examined identification with smoking (i.e., smoker self-identity) and quitting (i.e., quitter self-identity) among a large sample of smokers (n = 742) and ex-smokers (n = 201) in a cohort study with yearly measurements between 2009 and 2014. Latent growth curve modeling was used as an advanced statistical technique. As hypothesized, smokers perceived themselves more as smokers and less as quitters than do ex-smokers, and identification with smoking increased over time among smokers and decreased among ex-smokers. Furthermore, psychosocial factors predicted baseline identity and identity development. Socioeconomic status (SES) was particularly important. Specifically, lower SES smokers and lower SES ex-smokers identified more strongly with smoking, and smoker and quitter identities were more resistant to change among lower SES groups. Moreover, stronger proquitting social norms were associated with increasing quitter identities over time among smokers and ex-smokers and with decreasing smoker identities among ex-smokers. Predictors of identity differed between smokers and ex-smokers. Results suggest that SES and proquitting social norms should be taken into account when developing ways to facilitate identity change and, thereby, successful smoking cessation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Differences in happiness between smokers, ex-smokers and never smokers: cross-sectional findings from a national household survey.

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    Shahab, Lion; West, Robert

    2012-02-01

    Happiness has become established as an important psychological dimension and not merely the obverse of depression and anxiety. Ex-smokers report that they are happier than when they were smoking but this could reflect biased recall. To date, no studies have examined happiness as a function of smoking status in ex-smokers of varying length of abstinence compared with current and never smokers. A cross-sectional household study of a nationally representative sample of adults examined the association between smoking status (never smoker, smoker, ex-smokerhappiness adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics (N=6923). After adjusting for age, gender and social grade, ex-smokers of ≥ 1 year reported higher levels of happiness than smokers (phappiness among current smokers. Ex-smokers who have stopped for a year or more are happier than current smokers and similar to never smokers. Whilst these results are cross-sectional and have to be interpreted with caution, this adds to the evidence that smoking may decrease happiness and stopping may increase it. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Perceived price sensitivity by ethnicity and smoking frequency among California Hispanic and non-Hispanic white smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Mark G; Edland, Steven D; Hofstetter, C Richard; Al-Delaimy, Wael K

    2013-06-01

    Little is currently known about price sensitivity across ethnic groups as well as for non-daily smokers. To address this issue, this study compared perceived price sensitivity across smoking status (daily and non-daily) and within ethnicity (Hispanic and non-Hispanic White) in a recent representative population survey of California smokers. This study employed data from the 2008 California Tobacco Survey (CTS), a large population-based random-digit-dialed telephone survey. Participants were 1,777 non-Hispanic White and 450 Hispanic respondents who had smoked at least 100 cigarettes and currently smoked daily or on some days. Differences in perceived price sensitivity were found by ethnicity when controlling for age, gender, and cigarette consumption. Comparisons across ethnic groups indicated that Hispanic smokers, in general, have more price-sensitive perceptions than non-Hispanic White smokers. However, daily versus non-daily status had no effect on price sensitivity when controlling for cigarette quantity. These findings indicate that pricing increases may be differentially influential for Hispanic compared with non-Hispanic White smokers across smoking status categories.

  12. The case against a smoker's license.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Collin

    Full Text Available Tobacco continues to kill millions of people around the world each year and its use is increasing in some countries, which makes the need for new, creative, and radical efforts to achieve the tobacco control endgame vitally important. One such effort is discussed in this PLOS Medicine Debate, where Simon Chapman presents his proposal for a "smoker's license" and Jeff Collin argues against. Chapman sets out a case for introducing a smart card license for smokers designed to limit access to tobacco products and encourage cessation. Key elements of the smoker's license include smokers setting daily limits, financial incentives for permanent license surrender, and a test of health risk knowledge for commencing smokers. Collin argues against the proposal, saying that it would shift focus away from the real vector of the epidemic--the tobacco industry--and that by focusing on individuals it would censure victims, increase stigmatization of smokers, and marginalize the poor.

  13. The case for a smoker's license.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Chapman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND TO THE DEBATE: Tobacco continues to kill millions of people around the world each year and its use is increasing in some countries, which makes the need for new, creative, and radical efforts to achieve the tobacco control endgame vitally important. One such effort is discussed in this PLOS Medicine Debate, where Simon Chapman presents his proposal for a "smoker's license" and Jeff Collin argues against. Chapman sets out a case for introducing a smart card license for smokers designed to limit access to tobacco products and encourage cessation. Key elements of the smoker's license include smokers setting daily limits, financial incentives for permanent license surrender, and a test of health risk knowledge for commencing smokers. Collin argues against the proposal, saying that it would shift focus away from the real vector of the epidemic--the tobacco industry--and that by focusing on individuals it would censure victims, increase stigmatization of smokers, and marginalize the poor.

  14. The case for a smoker's license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco continues to kill millions of people around the world each year and its use is increasing in some countries, which makes the need for new, creative, and radical efforts to achieve the tobacco control endgame vitally important. One such effort is discussed in this PLOS Medicine Debate, where Simon Chapman presents his proposal for a "smoker's license" and Jeff Collin argues against. Chapman sets out a case for introducing a smart card license for smokers designed to limit access to tobacco products and encourage cessation. Key elements of the smoker's license include smokers setting daily limits, financial incentives for permanent license surrender, and a test of health risk knowledge for commencing smokers. Collin argues against the proposal, saying that it would shift focus away from the real vector of the epidemic--the tobacco industry--and that by focusing on individuals it would censure victims, increase stigmatization of smokers, and marginalize the poor.

  15. The case against a smoker's license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco continues to kill millions of people around the world each year and its use is increasing in some countries, which makes the need for new, creative, and radical efforts to achieve the tobacco control endgame vitally important. One such effort is discussed in this PLOS Medicine Debate, where Simon Chapman presents his proposal for a "smoker's license" and Jeff Collin argues against. Chapman sets out a case for introducing a smart card license for smokers designed to limit access to tobacco products and encourage cessation. Key elements of the smoker's license include smokers setting daily limits, financial incentives for permanent license surrender, and a test of health risk knowledge for commencing smokers. Collin argues against the proposal, saying that it would shift focus away from the real vector of the epidemic--the tobacco industry--and that by focusing on individuals it would censure victims, increase stigmatization of smokers, and marginalize the poor.

  16. Sex-effects on smoking cue perception in non-smokers, smokers, and ex-smokers: a pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Zanchi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionRecent neuroimaging research suggests sex-related brain differences in smoking addiction. In the present pilot study, we assessed gender-related differences in brain activation in response to cigarette-related video cues, investigating non-smokers, smokers and ex-smokers. MethodsFirst, we compared 29 females (28.6±5.3 versus 23 males (31.5±6.4 regardless of current smoking status to assess global gender-related effects. Second, we performed a post-hoc analysis of non-smokers (9 F, 8M, smokers (10F, 8M and ex-smokers (10F, 7M. Participants performed a block-design functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI paradigm contrasting smoking with control cue video exposures. Data analyses included task-related general linear model, voxel-based morphometry (VBM of gray matter, and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS of white matter. ResultsFirst, the global effect regardless of current smoking status revealed higher activation in the bilateral superior frontal gyrus and anterior cingulate cortex for females compared to males. Second, the analysis according to current smoking status demonstrated higher activation in female vs. male smokers vs. non-smokers in the superior frontal gyrus, anterior and posterior cingulate cortex, and precuneus, and higher activation in female vs. male ex-smokers vs. non-smokers in the right precentral gyrus, in the right insula and anterior cingulate cortex. No structural differences were found in grey or white matter.ConclusionThe current study identifies gender-related brain functional differences in smokers and ex-smokers compared to non-smokers. The current work can be considered as a starting point for future investigations into gender differences in brain responses to cigarette-related cues.

  17. Sex Effects on Smoking Cue Perception in Non-Smokers, Smokers, and Ex-Smokers: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanchi, Davide; Brody, Arthur; Borgwardt, Stefan; Haller, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Recent neuroimaging research suggests sex-related brain differences in smoking addiction. In the present pilot study, we assessed gender-related differences in brain activation in response to cigarette-related video cues, investigating non-smokers, smokers, and ex-smokers. First, we compared 29 females (28.6 ± 5.3) vs. 23 males (31.5 ± 6.4), regardless of current smoking status to assess global gender-related effects. Second, we performed a post hoc analysis of non-smokers (9 females and 8 males), smokers (10 females and 8 males), and ex-smokers (10 females and 7 males). Participants performed a block-design functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm contrasting smoking with control cue video exposures. Data analyses included task-related general linear model, voxel-based morphometry of gray matter (GM), and tract-based spatial statistics of white matter (WM). First, the global effect regardless of current smoking status revealed higher activation in the bilateral superior frontal gyrus and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) for females compared to males. Second, the analysis according to current smoking status demonstrated higher activation in female vs. male smokers vs. non-smokers in the superior frontal gyrus, anterior and posterior cingulate cortex, and precuneus, and higher activation in female vs. male ex-smokers vs. non-smokers in the right precentral gyrus, in the right insula and ACC. No structural differences were found in GM or WM. The current study identifies gender-related brain functional differences in smokers and ex-smokers compared to non-smokers. The current work can be considered as a starting point for future investigations into gender differences in brain responses to cigarette-related cues.

  18. Electronic cigarette use behaviors and motivations among smokers and non-smokers.

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    Sussan, Thomas E; Shahzad, Fatima G; Tabassum, Eefa; Cohen, Joanna E; Wise, Robert A; Blaha, Michael J; Holbrook, Janet T; Biswal, Shyam

    2017-09-08

    The use of electronic cigarettes (EC) has risen exponentially over the past decade, including among never smokers, and ECs are now the most popular tobacco product among teenagers in the US. While, EC manufacturers utilize numerous marketing strategies to target both smokers and non-smokers, it is unclear how perceptions and behaviors differ between these two groups. We conducted a survey of 320 adults either via online surveys or in Baltimore vape shops to determine demographics, behaviors, perceptions, and motivations underlying use of ECs. Our survey respondents were predominantly young, Caucasian males, 74% of whom identified themselves as former smokers, while 20% identified as current smokers and 6% were never smokers. Former smokers reported a longer history of EC use and higher nicotine concentrations than current smokers. For former and current smokers, the primary motivation for EC use was assistance to quit smoking, and nearly half indicated that they plan to reduce their nicotine concentration and eventually quit using ECs. Among former smokers, self-reports on use and measures of dependence were consistent with nicotine replacement as their primary motivation. The majority of former and current smokers also reported that their respiratory health had improved as a result of EC use, although this effect was stronger for former smokers. Never smokers reported less frequent EC use and dependence compared to former and current smokers. Their motivations for use were more commonly for enjoyment and popularity, and they displayed a reduced desire to eventually quit using ECs. These responses provide insight into the underlying thoughts and behaviors of smoking and non-smoking EC users and also suggest that never smoking EC users are an emerging demographic with different motivations and perceptions than those of current and former smokers.

  19. Electronic cigarette use behaviors and motivations among smokers and non-smokers

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    Thomas E. Sussan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of electronic cigarettes (EC has risen exponentially over the past decade, including among never smokers, and ECs are now the most popular tobacco product among teenagers in the US. While, EC manufacturers utilize numerous marketing strategies to target both smokers and non-smokers, it is unclear how perceptions and behaviors differ between these two groups. Methods We conducted a survey of 320 adults either via online surveys or in Baltimore vape shops to determine demographics, behaviors, perceptions, and motivations underlying use of ECs. Results Our survey respondents were predominantly young, Caucasian males, 74% of whom identified themselves as former smokers, while 20% identified as current smokers and 6% were never smokers. Former smokers reported a longer history of EC use and higher nicotine concentrations than current smokers. For former and current smokers, the primary motivation for EC use was assistance to quit smoking, and nearly half indicated that they plan to reduce their nicotine concentration and eventually quit using ECs. Among former smokers, self-reports on use and measures of dependence were consistent with nicotine replacement as their primary motivation. The majority of former and current smokers also reported that their respiratory health had improved as a result of EC use, although this effect was stronger for former smokers. Never smokers reported less frequent EC use and dependence compared to former and current smokers. Their motivations for use were more commonly for enjoyment and popularity, and they displayed a reduced desire to eventually quit using ECs. Conclusions These responses provide insight into the underlying thoughts and behaviors of smoking and non-smoking EC users and also suggest that never smoking EC users are an emerging demographic with different motivations and perceptions than those of current and former smokers.

  20. The Process of Cessation Among Current Tobacco Smokers: A Cross-Sectional Data Analysis From 21 Countries, Global Adult Tobacco Survey, 2009–2013

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    Palipudi, Krishna M.; Nelson-Blutcher, Glenda; Murty, Komanduri S.; Asma, Samira

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) from 21 countries to categorize smokers by stages of cessation and highlight interventions that could be tailored to each stage. GATS is a nationally representative household survey that measures tobacco use and other key indicators by using a standardized protocol. The distribution of smokers into precontemplation, contemplation, and preparation stages varied by country. Using the stages of change model, each country can design and implement effective interventions suitable to its cultural, social, and economic situations to help smokers advance successfully through the stages of cessation. PMID:26378897

  1. The Process of Cessation Among Current Tobacco Smokers: A Cross-Sectional Data Analysis From 21 Countries, Global Adult Tobacco Survey, 2009-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbulo, Lazarous; Palipudi, Krishna M; Nelson-Blutcher, Glenda; Murty, Komanduri S; Asma, Samira

    2015-09-17

    We analyzed data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) from 21 countries to categorize smokers by stages of cessation and highlight interventions that could be tailored to each stage. GATS is a nationally representative household survey that measures tobacco use and other key indicators by using a standardized protocol. The distribution of smokers into precontemplation, contemplation, and preparation stages varied by country. Using the stages of change model, each country can design and implement effective interventions suitable to its cultural, social, and economic situations to help smokers advance successfully through the stages of cessation.

  2. Exfoliative cytology of oral mucosa among smokers, opium addicts and non-smokers: a cytomorphometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemipour, Maryam Alsadat; Aghababaie, Mahbobeh; Mirshekari, Toraj Reza; Asadi-Shekaari, Majid; Tahmasbi-Arashlow, Mehrnaz; Tahmasbi-Arashlow, Farzad; Gandjalikhan Nassab, Sayed Amir Hossein

    2013-12-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate keratinization as well as nuclear and cytoplasmic changes of oral epithelial cells among smokers, opium addicts and non-smokers through exfoliative cytology technique. Smears of buccal mucosa and mouth floor were collected from 300 males (100 smokers, 100 opium addicts and 100 non-smokers). The nucleus and cytoplasm sizes were determined using image analysis software. Data was analyzed with Mann-Whitney test and Student's t-test on SPSS version 13 statistical software. Statistical significance was defined as P opium addicts and non-smokers in different age groups. The mean size of the nucleus compared to that of cytoplasm was significantly higher in smokers and opium addicts compared to non-smokers after correction for age. The results of this study indicate different rates of epithelial cell keratinization in oral cavity among smokers, opium addicts and non-smokers. Also, our results suggest a possible relationship between the number of cigarettes per day, daily opium consumption and an increase in the rate of cellular proliferation of oral mucosal cells. The present study indicated a decrease in cellular diameter as well as an increase in nuclear diameter and nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio in smears taken from both smokers and opium addicts compared to non-smokers.

  3. Social Smoking among Intermittent Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, Saul; Li, Xiaoxue; Dunbar, Michael S.; Ferguson, Stuart G.; Tindle, Hilary A.; Scholl, Sarah M.

    2015-01-01

    Background “Social smoking” - smoking mostly or even only with others – may be an important pattern that implies smoking motivated extrinsically by social influences. Non-daily smokers (intermittent smokers; ITS) are often assumed to be social smokers, with some authors even assuming that all ITS are social smokers (SS+). We sought to identify and characterize social smokers in a sample of ITS. Methods 204 adult ITS (smoking 4–27 days/month) recorded the circumstances of smoking in their natural settings using Ecological Momentary Assessment, while also recording their circumstances in nonsmoking moments. SS+ were defined as ITS who were with others when they smoked most of their cigarettes, and who were ≥ 50% more likely to be with others when smoking than when not. Results Only 13% of ITS were SS+. Although defined solely on the basis of presence of others, SS+ showed a distinct pattern of smoking across multiple dimensions: Compared to other ITS (who were significantly less likely to smoke when with others), SS+ smoking was more associated with socializing, being with friends and acquaintances, drinking alcohol, weekends, evening or nighttime, being in other people’s homes, but not their own home. SS+ smoking was low in the morning and increased in the evening. SS+ smoked fewer days/week and were less dependent, but did not differ demographically. Conclusions Social smoking does constitute a highly distinct smoking pattern, but is not common among adult ITS. PMID:26205313

  4. Why Don’t More Smokers Switch to Using E-Cigarettes: The Views of Confirmed Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeganey, Neil; Dickson, Tiffany

    2017-01-01

    Whilst e-cigarettes have been characterised by Public Health England as being around 95% less harmful than combustible tobacco products, only a minority of current smokers (around 16% within the UK) are using these devices. In this paper we report the results of an online survey of 650 smokers in contact with a smokers’ rights group in the UK. A total of 91% of the smokers surveyed were smoking on a daily basis. Fifty nine percent reported having used electronic nicotine delivery systems, the majority of whom reported having used e-cigarettes. Those smokers that had not used these devices principally explained this in terms of the pleasure they derived from smoking. The features smokers’ liked most about e-cigarette had to do with the range of settings in which they could be used, the lack of an offensive smell associated with their use, the available flavours and the reduced level of harm. The elements which smokers liked least about e-cigarettes had to do with the vaping experience, the technology, the chemical nature of e-liquids and the complex technology that was associated with these devices. If a greater number of smokers are to be encouraged to take up e-cigarettes, it will be necessary not only to convey accurate information on the relative harm of these devices (compared to combustible tobacco products), but to ensure that they are able to be used in a wider range of settings than those within which smoking can currently occur and that the vaping experience more closely resembles the smoking experience. PMID:28621763

  5. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Electronic Cigarette Use and Reasons for Use among Current and Former Smokers: Findings from a Community-Based Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Webb Hooper

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of e-cigarette use is increasing, yet few studies have focused on its use in racial/ethnic minority populations. We examined associations between race/ethnicity and e-cigarette use, plans to continue using e-cigarettes, and reasons for use among current/former smokers. Participants (285 in total; 29% non-Hispanic White, 42% African American/Black, and 29% Hispanic were recruited between June and November 2014. Telephone-administered surveys assessed demographics, cigarette smoking, e-cigarette use, plans to continue using, and reasons for use. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs and multivariable logistic regressions were conducted. African Americans/Blacks were significantly less likely to report ever-use compared to Whites and Hispanics (50% vs. 71% and 71%, respectively; p < 0.001. However, African American/Black ever users were more likely to report plans to continue using e-cigarettes compared to Whites and Hispanics (72% vs. 53% and 47%, respectively, p = 0.01. African American/Black participants were more likely to use e-cigarettes as a cessation aid compared to both Whites (p = 0.03 and Hispanics (p = 0.48. White participants were more likely to use e-cigarettes to save money compared to Hispanics (p = 0.02. In conclusion, racial/ethnic differences in e-cigarette use, intentions, and reasons for use emerged in our study. African American ever users may be particularly vulnerable to maintaining their use, particularly to try to quit smoking. These findings have implications for cigarette smoking and e-cigarette dual use, continued e-cigarette use, and potentially for smoking-related disparities.

  6. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Electronic Cigarette Use and Reasons for Use among Current and Former Smokers: Findings from a Community-Based Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb Hooper, Monica; Kolar, Stephanie K

    2016-10-14

    The prevalence of e-cigarette use is increasing, yet few studies have focused on its use in racial/ethnic minority populations. We examined associations between race/ethnicity and e-cigarette use, plans to continue using e-cigarettes, and reasons for use among current/former smokers. Participants (285 in total; 29% non-Hispanic White, 42% African American/Black, and 29% Hispanic) were recruited between June and November 2014. Telephone-administered surveys assessed demographics, cigarette smoking, e-cigarette use, plans to continue using, and reasons for use. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) and multivariable logistic regressions were conducted. African Americans/Blacks were significantly less likely to report ever-use compared to Whites and Hispanics (50% vs. 71% and 71%, respectively; p Whites and Hispanics (72% vs. 53% and 47%, respectively, p = 0.01). African American/Black participants were more likely to use e-cigarettes as a cessation aid compared to both Whites ( p = 0.03) and Hispanics ( p = 0.48). White participants were more likely to use e-cigarettes to save money compared to Hispanics ( p = 0.02). In conclusion, racial/ethnic differences in e-cigarette use, intentions, and reasons for use emerged in our study. African American ever users may be particularly vulnerable to maintaining their use, particularly to try to quit smoking. These findings have implications for cigarette smoking and e-cigarette dual use, continued e-cigarette use, and potentially for smoking-related disparities.

  7. Tobacco demand, delay discounting, and smoking topography among smokers with and without psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Samantha G; Aston, Elizabeth R; Abrantes, Ana M; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2017-10-01

    Tobacco demand (i.e., relative value attributed to a given reinforcer) and delay discounting (i.e., relative preference for smaller immediate rewards over larger delayed rewards) are two behavioral economic processes that are linked to the progression of problematic substance use. These processes have not been studied among those with psychopathology, a vulnerable group of smokers. The current study examined differences in tobacco demand and delay discounting, and their association with smoking topography among smokers with (n=43) and without (n=64) past-year psychopathology. Adult daily smokers (n=107,M age =43.5; SD=9.7) participated in a study on "smoking behavior." Past-year psychological disorders were assessed via a clinician-administered diagnostic assessment. All subjects participated in an ad libitum smoking trial and then completed an assessment of delay discounting (Monetary Choice Questionnaire) and tobacco demand (Cigarette Purchase Task) approximately 45-60min post-smoking. Smokers with psychopathology, compared to those without, had significantly higher demand intensity and maximum expenditure on tobacco (O max ), but did not differ on other demand indices or delay discounting. Smokers with psychopathology had shorter average inter-puff intervals and shorter time to cigarette completion than smokers without psychopathology. Tobacco demand and delay discounting measures were significantly intercorrelated among smokers with psychopathology, but not those without. Both behavioral economic measures were associated with specific aspects of smoking topography in smokers with psychopathology. The association between tobacco demand and delay discounting is evident among smokers with psychopathology and both measures were most consistently related to smoking behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. What Do Smokers Want in A Smartphone-Based Cessation Application?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Jason A; Hallyburton, Matthew B; Pacek, Lauren R; Mitchell, John T; Vilardaga, Roger; Fuemmeler, Bernard F; Joseph McClernon, F

    2017-08-03

    Fueled by rapid technological advances over the past decade, there is growing interest in the use of smartphones to aid in smoking cessation. Hundreds of applications have been developed for this purpose, but little is known about how these applications are accessed and used by smokers or what features smokers believe would be most useful. The present study sought to understand the prevalence of smartphone ownership and patterns of use among smokers as well as the perceived utility of various smartphone application features for smoking cessation that are currently in development or already available. Daily cigarette smokers (n = 224) reported on smartphone ownership, their patterns of smartphone usage, and perceived utility of features. Features were ranked according to perceived utility and differences in both perceived utility and general smartphone use patterns were examined as a function of demographic and smoking-related variables. Most smokers (80.4%) own a smartphone, but experience with smoking cessation applications is extremely rare (6.1%). Ownership and patterns of usage differed as a function of demographic and smoking-related variables. Overall, gain-framed features were rated as most useful, while loss-framed and interpersonal features were rated as least useful. Mobile health interventions have the potential to reach a large number of smokers but are currently underutilized. Additional effort is needed to ensure parity in treatment access. Gain-framed messages may be especially useful for engaging smokers, even if other features ultimately drive treatment effects. This study describes patterns of smartphone usage among smokers and identifies the smartphone application features smokers believe would be most useful during a quit attempt. Findings indicate which subgroups of smokers are most likely to be reached with mobile health interventions and suggests that inclusion of specific features may be helpful for engaging smokers in the smoking cessation

  9. Internet and Mobile Phone Text Messaging Intervention for College Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, William; Obermayer, Jami; Jean-Mary, Jersino

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors developed a smoking cessation program using mobile phone text messaging to provide tailored and stage-specific messages to college smokers. Participants and Methods: The authors recruited 31 daily smokers who desired to quit from a college campus and asked them to use an Internet and mobile phone text messaging program to…

  10. The use of planned behavior theory in predicting cigarette smoking among Waterpipe smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanazi, Naif H; Lee, Jerry W; Dos Santos, Hildemar; Job, Jayakaran S; Bahjri, Khaled

    2017-01-01

    Waterpipe and cigarette smoking have been found to be associated with each other as cigarette smokers were more likely to be waterpipe users than non-cigarette smokers. Also, waterpipe smokers were likely to be former daily cigarette users. The aim of this study is to examine the likelihood of waterpipe use leading to cigarette use among current waterpipe users using theory of planned behavior. Four hundred six current waterpipe smokers who initially had started tobacco use with the waterpipe were recruited from 15 waterpipe lounges in 2015. From a total of 70 waterpipe lounges in Riyadh, the 15 waterpipe lounges were selected randomly and participants were also selected randomly inside each waterpipe lounge based on the table or section number. The survey was developed using the Qualtrics Online Survey Software and participants completed a survey using iPad tablets. Cigarette smoking and intention to smoke cigarettes were predicted by attitude and perceived behavioral control. There was no direct effect of subjective norm on the cigarette use behavior, yet subjective norm had a statistically significant indirect effect on intentions through attitude and perceived behavioral control. The findings of this study could be useful in prevention/intervention programs aimed at reducing tobacco smoking behaviors among waterpipe users. Intervention programs might be directed at the attitude and perceived behavioral control by targeting underlying behavioral and control beliefs. The theory of planned behavior provided solid explanations of intention to use cigarettes among waterpipe smokers.

  11. Identity change among smokers and ex-smokers: Findings from the ITC Netherlands survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, E.; van Laar, C.; Gebhardt, W.A.; Fokkema, M.; van den Putte, B.; Dijkstra, A.; Fong, G.T.; Willemsen, M.C.

    2017-01-01

    Successful smoking cessation appears to be facilitated by identity change, that is, when quitting or nonsmoking becomes part of smokers’ and ex-smokers’ self-concepts. The current longitudinal study is the first to examine how identity changes over time among smokers and ex-smokers and whether this

  12. Racial differences in hair nicotine concentrations among smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apelberg, Benjamin J; Hepp, Lisa M; Avila-Tang, Erika; Kim, Sungroul; Madsen, Camille; Ma, Jiemin; Samet, Jonathan M; Breysse, Patrick N

    2012-08-01

    In the United States, race/ethnicity is a strong determinant of tobacco use patterns, biomarkers of tobacco smoke components and metabolites, and likelihood of successful cessation. Although Black smokers tend to smoke fewer cigarettes than White smokers, they have higher cotinine levels and disease risk and lower cessation success. We examined racial differences in hair nicotine concentrations among daily tobacco smokers (n = 103) in Baltimore, Maryland. Participants completed a survey, and hair samples were collected and analyzed for nicotine concentration using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. After adjustment, hair nicotine concentrations among Black smokers were more than 5 times higher than among White smokers (95% CI 3.0, 10.5). Smokers reporting hair treatments other than coloring (bleaching, permanent, or straightening) in the past 12 months had 66% lower (95% CI 32%, 83%) hair nicotine concentrations. Smokers reporting smoking their first cigarette within 30 min of waking had twice the hair nicotine concentrations of those whose time to first cigarette was greater than 30 min after waking (95% CI 1.1, 4.2). For every additional cigarette smoked per day up to 20, mean hair nicotine concentration among all smokers increased by 4% (95% CI -1%, 9%). This study demonstrates that Black smokers have substantially higher hair nicotine levels than White smokers, after controlling for cigarettes smoked per day and other exposure sources. Time to first cigarette, cigarettes smoked per day, and use of hair treatments other than coloring were also associated with hair nicotine concentrations among smokers.

  13. Sex Effects on Smoking Cue Perception in Non-Smokers, Smokers, and Ex-Smokers: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Zanchi, Davide; Brody, Arthur; Borgwardt, Stefan; Haller, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Recent neuroimaging research suggests sex-related brain differences in smoking addiction. In the present pilot study, we assessed gender-related differences in brain activation in response to cigarette-related video cues, investigating non-smokers, smokers, and ex-smokers. Methods First, we compared 29 females (28.6 ± 5.3) vs. 23 males (31.5 ± 6.4), regardless of current smoking status to assess global gender-related effects. Second, we performed a post hoc analysis of...

  14. Lower hypoxic ventilatory response in smokers compared to non-smokers during abstinence from cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Wulf; Sauer, Roland; Koehler, Ulrich; Bärtsch, Peter; Kinscherf, Ralf

    2016-11-24

    Carotid body O 2 -chemosensitivity determines the hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) as part of crucial regulatory reflex within oxygen homeostasis. Nicotine has been suggested to attenuate HVR in neonates of smoking mothers. However, whether smoking affects HVR in adulthood has remained unclear and probably blurred by acute ventilatory stimulation through cigarette smoke. We hypothesized that HVR is substantially reduced in smokers when studied after an overnight abstinence from cigarettes i.e. after nicotine elimination. We therefore determined the isocapnic HVR of 23 healthy male smokers (age 33.9 ± 2.0 years, BMI 24.2 ± 0.5 kg m -2 , mean ± SEM) with a smoking history of >8 years after 12 h of abstinence and compared it to that of 23 healthy male non-smokers matched for age and BMI. Smokers and non-smokers were comparable with regard to factors known to affect isocapnic HVR such as plasma levels of glucose and thiols as well as intracellular levels of glutathione in blood mononuclear cells. As a new finding, abstinent smokers had a significantly lower isocapnic HVR (0.024 ± 0.002 vs. 0.037 ± 0.003 l min -1 % -1 BMI -1 , P = 0.002) compared to non-smokers. However, upon re-exposure to cigarettes the smokers' HVR increased immediately to the non-smokers' level. This is the first report of a substantial HVR reduction in abstinent adult smokers which appears to be masked by daily smoking routine and may therefore have been previously overlooked. A low HVR may be suggested as a novel link between smoking and aggravated hypoxemia during sleep especially in relevant clinical conditions such as COPD.

  15. Smoking topography and abstinence in adult female smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Erin A; Saladin, Michael E; Baker, Nathaniel L; Carpenter, Matthew J; Gray, Kevin M

    2013-12-01

    Preliminary evidence, within both adults and adolescents, suggests that the intensity with which cigarettes are smoked (i.e., smoking topography) is predictive of success during a cessation attempt. These reports have also shown topography to be superior compared to other variables, such as cigarettes per day, in the prediction of abstinence. The possibility that gender may influence this predictive relationship has not been evaluated but may be clinically useful in tailoring gender-specific interventions. Within the context of a clinical trial for smoking cessation among women, adult daily smokers completed a laboratory session that included a 1-hour ad libitum smoking period in which measures of topography were collected (N=135). Participants were then randomized to active medication (nicotine patch vs. varenicline) and abstinence was monitored for 4weeks. Among all smoking topography measures and all abstinence outcomes, a moderate association was found between longer puff duration and greater puff volume and continued smoking during the active 4-week treatment phase, but only within the nicotine patch group. Based on the weak topography-abstinence relationship among female smokers found in the current study, future studies should focus on explicit gender comparisons to examine if these associations are specific to or more robust in male smokers. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Exploring the Utility of Web-Based Social Media Advertising to Recruit Adult Heavy-Drinking Smokers for Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bold, Krysten W; Hanrahan, Tess H; O'Malley, Stephanie S; Fucito, Lisa M

    2016-05-18

    Identifying novel ways to recruit smokers for treatment studies is important. In particular, certain subgroups of adult smokers, such as heavy-drinking smokers, are at increased risk for serious medical problems and are less likely to try quitting smoking, so drawing this hard-to-reach population into treatment is important for improving health outcomes. This study examined the utility of Facebook advertisements to recruit smokers and heavy-drinking smokers for treatment research and evaluated smoking and alcohol use and current treatment goals among those who responded to the Web-based survey. Using Facebook's advertising program, 3 separate advertisements ran for 2 months targeting smokers who were thinking about quitting. Advertisements were shown to adult (at least 18 years of age), English-speaking Facebook users in the greater New Haven, Connecticut, area. Participants were invited to complete a Web-based survey to determine initial eligibility for a smoking cessation research study. Advertisements generated 1781 clicks and 272 valid, completed surveys in 2 months, with one advertisement generating the most interest. Facebook advertising was highly cost-effective, averaging $0.27 per click, $1.76 per completed survey, and $4.37 per participant meeting initial screening eligibility. On average, those who completed the Web-based survey were 36.8 (SD 10.4) years old, and 65.8% (179/272) were female. Advertisements were successful in reaching smokers; all respondents reported daily smoking (mean 16.2 [SD 7.0] cigarettes per day). The majority of smokers (254/272, 93.4%) were interested in changing their smoking behavior immediately. Many smokers (161/272, 59.2%) also reported heavy alcohol consumption at least once a month. Among smokers interested in reducing their alcohol use, more were heavy drinkers (45/56, 80.4%) compared to non-heavy drinkers (11/56, 19.6%; χ(2)[1,N=272]=13.0, Padvertisements designed to target smokers were cost-effective and successful

  17. Exploring the Utility of Web-Based Social Media Advertising to Recruit Adult Heavy-Drinking Smokers for Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanrahan, Tess H; O'Malley, Stephanie S; Fucito, Lisa M

    2016-01-01

    Background Identifying novel ways to recruit smokers for treatment studies is important. In particular, certain subgroups of adult smokers, such as heavy-drinking smokers, are at increased risk for serious medical problems and are less likely to try quitting smoking, so drawing this hard-to-reach population into treatment is important for improving health outcomes. Objective This study examined the utility of Facebook advertisements to recruit smokers and heavy-drinking smokers for treatment research and evaluated smoking and alcohol use and current treatment goals among those who responded to the Web-based survey. Methods Using Facebook’s advertising program, 3 separate advertisements ran for 2 months targeting smokers who were thinking about quitting. Advertisements were shown to adult (at least 18 years of age), English-speaking Facebook users in the greater New Haven, Connecticut, area. Participants were invited to complete a Web-based survey to determine initial eligibility for a smoking cessation research study. Results Advertisements generated 1781 clicks and 272 valid, completed surveys in 2 months, with one advertisement generating the most interest. Facebook advertising was highly cost-effective, averaging $0.27 per click, $1.76 per completed survey, and $4.37 per participant meeting initial screening eligibility. On average, those who completed the Web-based survey were 36.8 (SD 10.4) years old, and 65.8% (179/272) were female. Advertisements were successful in reaching smokers; all respondents reported daily smoking (mean 16.2 [SD 7.0] cigarettes per day). The majority of smokers (254/272, 93.4%) were interested in changing their smoking behavior immediately. Many smokers (161/272, 59.2%) also reported heavy alcohol consumption at least once a month. Among smokers interested in reducing their alcohol use, more were heavy drinkers (45/56, 80.4%) compared to non-heavy drinkers (11/56, 19.6%; χ2[1,N=272]=13.0, Padvertisements designed to target smokers

  18. The determination of polonium in urine of Filipino non-smokers and smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juan, N.B.; Ballelos, E.

    1976-03-01

    Po 210 , a decay product of Ra 226 , is a pure alpha emitter with an energy of 5.3 MeV decaying with a half-life of 138.4 days. It is a natural containment of tobacco and hence a health hazard to smokers. Previous study on Philippine cigarettes revealed that the average Po 210 activity of local brands is 0.0071 pCi/g. while that of foreign brands is 0.0129 pCi/g. Other studies indicate that approximately 0.13% of the total Po 210 in the body is excreted in the urine daily. Po urinalysis can serve as a rough index of the body burden of Po 210 and Ra 226 or anyone of its daughters absorbed in case of exposures. In this study, the Po 210 content in urine of smokers is compared with that of non-smokers. Twenty samples from non-smokers and twenty samples from smokers were analyzed for Po 210 activity. The average Po content of the urine of smokers, 0.2673+-0.1077 pCi/24h appears to be higher than the mean Po activity in urine of non-smokers, 0.1877+-0.1200. The t-value obtained from the comparison of the means was 2.205. This exceeds the t-value at the 0.05 significance level (degrees of freedom equal 19) which is 1.725. Therefore, there exists a significant difference in the Po content in the urine of non-smokers to that of smokers

  19. Distribution of emphysema in heavy smokers: impact on pulmonary function.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gietema, H.A.; Zanen, P.; Schilham, A.; Ginneken, B. van; Klaveren, R.J.J. van; Prokop, M.; Lammers, J.W.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate impact of distribution of computed tomography (CT) emphysema on severity of airflow limitation and gas exchange impairment in current and former heavy smokers participating in a lung cancer screening trial. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total 875 current and former heavy smokers

  20. Anxiety sensitivity explains associations between anxious arousal symptoms and smoking abstinence expectancies, perceived barriers to cessation, and problems experienced during past quit attempts among low-income smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Paulus, Daniel J; Langdon, Kirsten J; Robles, Zuzuky; Garey, Lorra; Norton, Peter J; Businelle, Michael S

    2017-05-01

    Disproportionately more smokers report low-income and mental health problems relative to non-smokers. Low-income smokers may use smoking to alleviate negative emotional states resulting from exposure to multiple stressors. Yet, little work has been devoted to elucidating mechanisms that may explain the association between negative emotional states and smoking-related processes among low-income smokers. The present study sought to address this gap by examining anxiety sensitivity, a transdiagnostic factor related to both anxiety and smoking, as a potential mediator for the influence of anxiety symptoms on smoking-related processes, including threat-related smoking abstinence expectancies (somatic symptoms and harmful consequences), perceived barriers for cessation, and problems experienced during past quit attempts. Participants included treatment-seeking daily cigarette smokers (n=101; 68.3% male; M age =47.1; SD=10.2). Results indicated that anxiety symptoms exerted a significant indirect effect through anxiety sensitivity for threat-related smoking abstinence expectancies (somatic symptoms and harmful consequences), perceived barriers for cessation, and problems experienced during past quit attempts. The present results provide empirical support that anxiety sensitivity may be an underlying mechanism that partially explains the relation between anxiety symptoms and smoking processes among low-income treatment-seeking smokers. Findings broaden current theoretical understanding of pathways through which anxiety symptoms contribute to maladaptive smoking processes and cognitions among socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Could a scheme for licensing smokers work in Australia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Roger S; Currow, David C

    2013-08-05

    In this article, we evaluate the possible advantages and disadvantages of a licensing scheme that would require adult smokers to verify their right to purchase tobacco products at point of sale using a smart-card licence. A survey of Australian secondary school students conducted in 2011 found that half of 17-2013-old smokers and one-fifth of 12-2013-old smokers believed it was "easy" or "very easy" to purchase cigarettes themselves. Reducing tobacco use by adolescents now is central to the future course of the current epidemic of tobacco-caused disease, since most current adult smokers began to smoke as adolescents--at a time when they were unable to purchase tobacco lawfully. The requirement for cigarette retailers to reconcile all stock purchased from wholesalers against a digital record of retail sales to licensed smokers would create a robust incentive for retailers to comply with laws that prohibit tobacco sales to children. Foreseeable objections to introducing a smokers licence need to be taken into account, but once we move beyond the "shock of the new", it is difficult to identify anything about a smokers licence that is particularly offensive or demeaning. A smoker licensing scheme deserves serious consideration for its potential to dramatically curtail retailers' violation of the law against selling tobacco to minors, to impose stricter accountability for sale of a uniquely harmful drug and to allow intelligent use of information about smokers' purchases to help smokers quit.

  2. Adolescent cigarette smokers' and non-cigarette smokers' use of alternative tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Charles; Geletko, Karen

    2012-08-01

    This study uses the most recent data from the nationally representative National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS) to examine the use of alternative tobacco products among U.S. cigarette smokers and non-cigarette smokers aged 14-17. Alternative tobacco product use is defined as use of one or more of the following products: smokeless tobacco, cigars, pipes, bidis, or kreteks. Using the results from the 2004, 2006, and 2009 NYTS, multivariate logistic regressions were used to investigate separately the extent of alternative tobacco product use in current cigarette smokers and in those who reported not smoking cigarettes controlling for demographic and other independent influences. The results indicate that for adolescent smokers and nonsmokers, the use of one type of alternative tobacco product made it much more likely the individual would use one or more of the other alternative tobacco products. Non-cigarette smokers using these tobacco products appeared to exhibit symptoms of nicotine dependence comparable to those of cigarette smokers. More information on adolescent use of alternative tobacco products is needed. Current cigarette use declined 3.4% annually over 2004-2009 for the NYTS 14- to 17-year-old population, but this cohort's use of alternative tobacco products was unchanged. The number of adolescents aged 14-17 who did not smoke cigarettes but used alternative tobacco products increased 5.9% per year over the same period. Current surveillance measures need to be expanded in order to gain a more comprehensive understanding of adolescent alternative tobacco use.

  3. Real-time craving differences between black and white smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Brian L; Paris, Megan M; Lam, Cho Y; Robinson, Jason D; Traylor, Amy C; Waters, Andrew J; Wetter, David W; Cinciripini, Paul M

    2010-01-01

    Black and White smokers may experience aspects of nicotine dependence, including craving, differently. This study used a naturalistic technique, ecological momentary assessment (EMA), to explore differences in craving, mood, expectancy, and smoking enjoyment between Black and White smokers. Participants carried personal digital assistants (PDAs) programmed to obtain multiple daily assessments. Black smokers reported higher craving after smoking and at random assessment times and higher cigarette enjoyment. No differences were found in mood or expectancy. Racial differences in psychological factors related to smoking are explored in the contexts of genetic, sociological, and psychophysiological distinctions. Implications for practice and research are discussed. (Am J Addict 2010;00:1-5).

  4. Tobacco Withdrawal Amongst African American, Hispanic, and White Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Mariel S; Pang, Raina D; Cropsey, Karen L; Zvolensky, Michael J; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Huh, Jimi; Leventhal, Adam M

    2016-06-01

    Persistent tobacco use among racial and ethnic minority populations in the United States is a critical public health concern. Yet, potential sources of racial/ethnic disparities in tobacco use remain unclear. The present study examined racial/ethnic differences in tobacco withdrawal-a clinically-relevant underpinning of tobacco use that has received sparse attention in the disparities literature-utilizing a controlled laboratory design. Daily smokers (non-Hispanic African American [n = 178], non-Hispanic white [n = 118], and Hispanic [n = 28]) attended two counterbalanced sessions (non-abstinent vs. 16-hour abstinent). At both sessions, self-report measures of urge, nicotine withdrawal, and affect were administered and performance on an objective behavioral task that assessed motivation to reinstate smoking was recorded. Abstinence-induced changes (abstinent scores vs. non-abstinent scores) were analyzed as a function of race/ethnicity. Non-Hispanic African American smokers reported greater abstinence-induced declines in several positive affect states in comparison to other racial/ethnic groups. Relative to Hispanic smokers, non-Hispanic African American and non-Hispanic white smokers displayed larger abstinence-provoked increases in urges to smoke. No racial/ethnic differences were detected for a composite measure of nicotine withdrawal symptomatology, negative affect states, and motivation to reinstate smoking behavior. These results suggest qualitative differences in the expression of some components of tobacco withdrawal across three racial/ethnic groups. This research helps shed light on bio-behavioral sources of tobacco-related health disparities, informs the application of smoking cessation interventions across racial/ethnic groups, and may ultimately aid the overall effort towards reducing the public health burden of tobacco addiction in minority populations. The current study provides some initial evidence that there may be qualitative differences in the

  5. Effects of honey supplementation on inflammatory markers among chronic smokers: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, Wan Syaheedah Wan; Romli, Aminah Che; Mohamed, Mahaneem

    2017-03-28

    Honey has been demonstrated to possess anti-inflammatory property. This is a randomized, controlled, open-label trial to determine the effects of 12-week honey oral supplementation on plasma inflammatory markers such as high sensitive C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α among chronic smokers. A total of 32 non-smokers and 64 chronic smokers from Quit Smoking Clinic and Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia participated in the study. Smokers were then randomized into 2 groups: smokers with honey group that received Malaysian Tualang honey (20 g/day daily for 12 weeks) and smokers without honey group. Blood was obtained from non-smokers and smokers at pre-intervention, and from smokers at post-intervention for measurement of the inflammatory markers. At pre-intervention, smokers had significantly higher high sensitive C-reactive protein than non-smokers. In smokers with honey group, tumor necrosis factor-α was significantly increased while high sensitive C-reactive protein was significantly reduced at post-intervention than at pre-intervention. This study suggests that honey supplementation has opposite effects on tumor necrosis factor-α and high sensitive C-reactive protein indicating the inconclusive effect of honey on inflammation among chronic smokers which needs further study on other inflammatory markers. The Trial has been registered in the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12615001236583 . Registered 11 November 2015 (Retrospectively Registered).

  6. Maternal bonding styles in smokers and non-smokers: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csala, Iren; Elemery, Monika; Martinovszky, Fruzsina; Dome, Peter; Dome, Balazs; Faludi, Gabor; Sandor, Imola; Gyorffy, Zsuzsa; Birkas, Emma; Lazary, Judit

    2016-01-01

    Parental bonding has been implicated in smoking behavior, and the quality of maternal bonding (MB) has been associated with poor mental health and substance use. However, little is known about the association of MB and the smoking of the offspring. In our study, 129 smokers and 610 non-smoker medical students completed the parental bonding instrument, which measures MB along two dimensions: care and overprotection. Four categories can be created by high and low scores on care and overprotection: optimal parenting (OP; high care/low overprotection); affectionless control (ALC; low care/high overprotection); affectionate constraint (AC; high care/high overprotection), and neglectful parenting (NP; low care/low overprotection). Nicotine dependence was assessed by the Fagerstrom Nicotine Dependence Test, exhaled CO level, and daily cigarette consumption (CPD). Higher CPD was significantly associated with lower overprotection ( p  = 0.016) and higher care ( p  = 0.023) scores. The odds for being a smoker were significantly higher in the neglectful maternal bonding style compared to the other rearing styles ( p  = 0.022). Besides, smokers showed significantly higher care and lower overprotection scores with the Mann-Whitney U-test than non-smokers, although these associations did not remain significant in multiple regression models. Our results indicate that focusing on early life relationship between patient and mother can be important in psychotherapeutic interventions for smoking. Registration trials retrospectively registered.

  7. Involuntary Smoking in Adolescents, Their Awareness of Its Harmfulness, and Attitudes towards Smoking in the Presence of Non-Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleta, Dorota; Polanska, Kinga; Wojtysiak, Piotr; Szatko, Franciszek

    2017-09-21

    The aim of the study was to examine involuntary smoking among young people, their awareness of its harmfulness and the factors associated with attitudes towards smoking in the presence of non-smokers. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 3552 students from a socially disadvantaged rural area in central Poland. Almost 40% of the participants were exposed to involuntary smoking at home and 60% outside of home on a daily or almost daily basis. More than 80% of the students felt that smoking should be banned around children at home, 59% thought it should be banned in vehicles, and 41% in the presence of non-smokers. The majority of the students were aware of the health consequences of active smoking, and 69% understood the threats of passive smoking. Females, never-smokers and current non-smokers, as well as those without smoking parents were more likely to claim that smoking should be banned at home and in vehicles ( p smoking was harmful to health, who discussed those issues with their parents and teachers, and who saw school tobacco control policies, were more likely to maintain that passive smoking should be banned ( p smoking among young people.

  8. Cigarette smokers' classification of tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casseus, M; Garmon, J; Hrywna, M; Delnevo, C D

    2016-11-01

    Cigarette consumption has declined in the USA. However, cigar consumption has increased. This may be due in part to some cigarette smokers switching to filtered cigars as a less expensive substitute for cigarettes. Additionally, some cigarette smokers may perceive and consume little filtered cigars as cigarettes. The purpose of this study was to determine how cigarette smokers classify tobacco products when presented with photographs of those products. An online survey was conducted with a sample of 344 self-identified cigarette smokers. Respondents were presented with pictures of various types of tobacco products, both with and without packaging, and then asked to categorise them as either a cigarette, little cigar, cigarillo, cigar or machine-injected roll-your-own cigarette (RYO). Respondents were also asked about their tobacco use and purchasing behaviour. Overall, respondents had difficulty distinguishing between cigarettes, little cigars, cigarillos and RYO. When presented with images of the products without packaging, 93% of respondents identified RYO as a cigarette, while 42% identified a little cigar as a cigarette. Additionally, respondents stated that they would consider purchasing little cigars as substitutes for cigarettes because of the price advantage. The results of this survey suggest that when presented with photographs of tobacco products, large proportions of current smokers were unable to differentiate between cigarettes, little cigars, cigarillos, RYO and cigars. Findings have implications for existing public health efforts targeting cigarette smokers, and underscore the need to review current definitions of tobacco products and federal excise taxes on such products. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. Study of the elemental composition of saliva of smokers and nonsmokers by X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poles, Antônio A.; 2 – Intelligent Biosensing and Biomolecule Stabilization Research Group, Technological Park of Sorocaba, 18078-005 Sorocaba/SP (Brazil); CEB – Centre of Biological Engineering, University of Minho, Braga (Portugal))" data-affiliation=" (LaBNUS – Laboratory of Biomaterials and Nanotechnology of the University of Sorocaba, i-bs2 – Intelligent Biosensing and Biomolecule Stabilization Research Group, Technological Park of Sorocaba, 18078-005 Sorocaba/SP (Brazil); CEB – Centre of Biological Engineering, University of Minho, Braga (Portugal))" >Balcão, Victor M.; 2 – Intelligent Biosensing and Biomolecule Stabilization Research Group, Technological Park of Sorocaba, 18078-005 Sorocaba/SP (Brazil))" data-affiliation=" (LaBNUS – Laboratory of Biomaterials and Nanotechnology of the University of Sorocaba, i-bs2 – Intelligent Biosensing and Biomolecule Stabilization Research Group, Technological Park of Sorocaba, 18078-005 Sorocaba/SP (Brazil))" >Chaud, Marco V.; 2 – Intelligent Biosensing and Biomolecule Stabilization Research Group, Technological Park of Sorocaba, 18078-005 Sorocaba/SP (Brazil))" data-affiliation=" (LaBNUS – Laboratory of Biomaterials and Nanotechnology of the University of Sorocaba, i-bs2 – Intelligent Biosensing and Biomolecule Stabilization Research Group, Technological Park of Sorocaba, 18078-005 Sorocaba/SP (Brazil))" >Vila, Marta M.D.C.; Aranha, Norberto; 2 – Intelligent Biosensing and Biomolecule Stabilization Research Group, Technological Park of Sorocaba, 18078-005 Sorocaba/SP (Brazil))" data-affiliation=" (LaBNUS – Laboratory of Biomaterials and Nanotechnology of the University of Sorocaba, i-bs2 – Intelligent Biosensing and Biomolecule Stabilization Research Group, Technological Park of Sorocaba, 18078-005 Sorocaba/SP (Brazil))" >Yoshida, Valquíria M.H.; Oliveira, José M.

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a serious public health problem. According to data from the World Health Organization, it is estimated that currently more than 1.2 billion people worldwide do tobacco use and that smoking-related diseases are responsible for about 6 million deaths each. With attention to this, it is necessary to seek preventive and prognostic of trying to reduce these numbers and alert the public in general about the danger and the harm caused by its use. Thus, the objective of the research work undertaken was to evaluate and compare the chemical composition of collected saliva samples of smokers and nonsmokers by X-ray Fluorescence analyses. 32 individuals were selected, 16 of which used cigarette on a daily basis and the other 16 had never smoked. Saliva was collected with the help of a (sterile) disposable Pasteur pipette and samples sent to the Applied Nuclear Physics Laboratory at UNISO (LAFINAU), where analyzes were carried out. Individuals who agreed to participate in the study answered a questionnaire to define their profile of inclusion and signed an informed consent form (CEP Protocol no. 831.753 of 09/10/2014). The results clearly showed that there are differences in the concentrations of chemical elements in the saliva of smokers and non-smokers. The biggest discrepancies were found at concentrations of the chemical elements Sulfur, Phosphorus, Chlorine and Potassium, and smaller differences in the concentration of the elements Calcium, Manganese, Iron, Copper, Titanium, Vanadium and Nickel. In only one saliva sample, and in quite low amounts, arsenic was detected. The results indicate that smoking produces more significant changes in the saliva of women than in men, increasing the concentration of some elements in the saliva of female smokers, much more than in the male smokers. The cigarette usage time also appears to exert a greater influence on the composition of the saliva of women than in men, indicating that the damage caused by cigarette

  10. Are quit attempts among U.S. female nurses who smoke different from female smokers in the general population? An analysis of the 2006/2007 tobacco use supplement to the current population survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarna Linda

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking is a significant women's health issue. Examining smoking behaviors among occupational groups with a high prevalence of women may reveal the culture of smoking behavior and quit efforts of female smokers. The purpose of this study was to examine how smoking and quitting characteristics (i.e., ever and recent quit attempts among females in the occupation of nursing are similar or different to those of women in the general population. Methods Cross-sectional data from the Tobacco Use Supplement of the Current Population Survey 2006/2007 were used to compare smoking behaviors of nurses (n = 2, 566 to those of non-healthcare professional women (n = 93, 717. Smoking characteristics included years of smoking, number of cigarettes, and time to first cigarette with smoking within the first 30 minutes as an indicator of nicotine dependence. Logistic regression models using replicate weights were used to determine correlates of ever and previous 12 months quit attempts. Results Nurses had a lower smoking prevalence than other women (12.1% vs 16.6%, p p = 0.0002; but not in the previous 12 months (42% vs 43%, p = 0.77. Among those who ever made a quit attempt, nurses who smoked within 30 minutes of waking, were more likely to have made a quit attempt compared to other women (OR = 3.1, 95% CI: 1.9, 5.1. When considering quit attempts within the last 12 months, nurses whose first cigarette was after 30 minutes of waking were less likely to have made a quit attempt compared to other females (OR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.49, 0.98. There were no other significant differences in ever/recent quitting. Conclusions Smoking prevalence among female nurses was lower than among women who were not in healthcare occupations, as expected. The lack of difference in recent quit efforts among female nurses as compared to other female smokers has not been previously reported. The link between lower level of nicotine dependence, as reflected by the longer

  11. Unique Relationships between Facets of Mindfulness and Eating Pathology among Female Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Claire E.; McVay, Megan Apperson; Kinsaul, Jessica; Benitez, Lindsay; Vinci, Christine; Stewart, Diana W.; Copeland, Amy L.

    2012-01-01

    Female smokers often have higher levels of eating disorder symptoms than non-smokers, and concerns about eating and weight might interfere with smoking cessation. Thus, it is critical to identify factors to promote healthier eating and body image in this population. Initial research suggests that specific aspects of trait mindfulness predict lower body dissatisfaction and eating disorder symptoms among non-smokers. However, these relationships are unknown among smokers. The current study exam...

  12. Cotinine and tobacco-specific carcinogen exposure among nondaily smokers in a multiethnic sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khariwala, Samir S; Scheuermann, Taneisha S; Berg, Carla J; Hayes, Rashelle B; Nollen, Nicole L; Thomas, Janet L; Guo, Hongfei; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Benowitz, Neal L

    2014-05-01

    Nondaily smoking has increased among current U.S. smokers during the past decade and is practiced by a significant percentage of smokers. Although research in nondaily smoking has grown, little is known about levels of exposure to tobacco toxicants among nondaily smokers and their variation across ethnic groups. We examined urinary levels of cotinine and a tobacco-specific nitrosamine (NNAL) in community participants. Associations between the biomarker data and smoking characteristics were evaluated with Spearman's correlation analysis. Participants included 28 Blacks, 4 Latinos, and 25 Whites who smoked at least 1 cigarette on 4-24 days in the past 30 days. Participants averaged 3.3 (SD = 2.1) cigarettes per day (cpd) on days smoked, they smoked an average of 13.0 (SD = 5.4) days in the past month, and they smoked nondaily for 10.5 (SD = 10.5) years. Median levels of creatinine-normalized cotinine and NNAL were 490.9 ng/mg and 140.7 pg/mg, respectively. NNAL and cotinine were highly correlated (r = .84); NNAL and cotinine were modestly correlated with cpd (r = .39 and r = .34; all p values smokers are, on average, exposed to significant levels of nicotine and carcinogenic nitrosamines, with exposures of 40%-50% of those seen in daily smokers. This level of exposure suggests a significant health risk. Nicotine and carcinogen exposure is most closely related to number of cigarettes smoked per day but not to number of days per month of smoking.

  13. Relationship between FTC 'tar' and urine mutagenicity in smokers of tobacco-burning or Eclipse cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Denise L; Smith, Carr J; Bombick, Betsy R; Avalos, Jerry T; Davis, Riley A; Morgan, Walter T; Doolittle, David J

    2002-11-26

    The US Federal Trade Commission (FTC) classifies domestic cigarettes into one of three 'tar' categories based on 'tar' and nicotine levels. The objective of the present study was to determine urine mutagenicity in groups of smokers of ultra-low 'tar' (ULT), full-flavor low 'tar' (FFLT) and full-flavor 'tar' (FF) filtered cigarettes after switching to primarily tobacco-heating Eclipse cigarettes. Sixty-seven smokers maintained a specified diet and consumed ad libitum their usual brands of cigarettes, switched to Eclipse, and switched back to their usual brands. Twenty-four hour urine samples were collected weekly, concentrated on XAD-2 resin, and tested in the Ames mutagenicity assay using bacterial strains TA98 and YG1024 with S9 metabolic activation. Daily consumption of cigarettes was not significantly different (at Pbrand smokers as measured by the more sensitive strain YG1024, although no significant differences (Pbrand FTC 'tar' categories as measured by strain TA98. The reduction in urinary mutagens in the more sensitive strain, YG1024, observed in ULT smokers as compared with higher 'tar' categories suggest reduced exposure to mutagens. Usual brand salivary cotinine in the ULT group was significantly lower (Pbrand. After switching to Eclipse, the following reductions in urinary mutagenicity were observed: ULT, 70.1+/-6.4% (TA98), 70.9+/-6.2% (YG1024); FFLT, 77.1+/-2.4% (TA98), 73.6+/-2.0% (YG1024); and FF, 76.1+/-3.5% (TA98), 71.4+/-4.0% (YG1024). Across all 'tar' categories, cigarette smokers experienced significant reductions (P<0.05) in urine mutagenicity, but not salivary cotinine, upon switching to Eclipse. The reduction in urine mutagenicity when smoking Eclipse provides supporting evidence that Eclipse may present less risk of cancer compared to cigarettes currently in the market.

  14. The taxes of sin. Do smokers and drinkers pay their way?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, W G; Keeler, E B; Newhouse, J P; Sloss, E M; Wasserman, J

    1989-03-17

    We estimate the lifetime, discounted costs that smokers and drinkers impose on others through collectively financed health insurance, pensions, disability insurance, group life insurance, fires, motor-vehicle accidents, and the criminal justice system. Although nonsmokers subsidize smokers' medical care and group life insurance, smokers subsidize nonsmokers' pensions and nursing home payments. On balance, smokers probably pay their way at the current level of excise taxes on cigarettes; but one may, nonetheless, wish to raise those taxes to reduce the number of adolescent smokers. In contrast, drinkers do not pay their way: current excise taxes on alcohol cover only about half the costs imposed on others.

  15. Exploratory study of once-daily transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) as a treatment for auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich, F; Burrello, T N; Mellin, J M; Cordle, A L; Lustenberger, C M; Gilmore, J H; Jarskog, L F

    2016-03-01

    Auditory hallucinations are resistant to pharmacotherapy in about 25% of adults with schizophrenia. Treatment with noninvasive brain stimulation would provide a welcomed additional tool for the clinical management of auditory hallucinations. A recent study found a significant reduction in auditory hallucinations in people with schizophrenia after five days of twice-daily transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) that simultaneously targeted left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and left temporo-parietal cortex. We hypothesized that once-daily tDCS with stimulation electrodes over left frontal and temporo-parietal areas reduces auditory hallucinations in patients with schizophrenia. We performed a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled study that evaluated five days of daily tDCS of the same cortical targets in 26 outpatients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder with auditory hallucinations. We found a significant reduction in auditory hallucinations measured by the Auditory Hallucination Rating Scale (F2,50=12.22, Phallucinations and the pronounced response in the sham-treated group in this study contrasts with the previous finding and demonstrates the need for further optimization and evaluation of noninvasive brain stimulation strategies. In particular, higher cumulative doses and higher treatment frequencies of tDCS together with strategies to reduce placebo responses should be investigated. Additionally, consideration of more targeted stimulation to engage specific deficits in temporal organization of brain activity in patients with auditory hallucinations may be warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of Intensity of Cigarette Smoking on Leukocytes among Adult Men and Women Smokers in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahena Shipa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smoking is one of the preventable causes of disease in middle and low-income countries. This study was conducted in smokers and non-smokers to observe the changes in total count of leukocytes in cigarette smokers in relation to body mass index (BMI and blood pressure (BP. Methods:The study populations were from different sources including diagnostic center and general hospital, and consisted of 58 smokers and 77 non-smokers, with a broad range of age groups. The variables considered for this study were the smoking status of current smokers and non-smokers, and blood samples of the subject, anthropometric data and also blood pressure data. Results: Total leukocytes in smokers were found to be higher than the non-smokers along with the increasing of lymphocytes. Leukocytes were also found to be increased with intensity of smoking in adult men and women. The BMI of the smokers showed decreasing trend compared to non-smokers. The relation between blood pressure and smoking was not well established, as there were only little changes on systolic blood pressure (SBP of smokers found according to smoking intensity. Conclusion: Cigarette smoking has negative effects on leukocytes both in men and women smokers in terms of certain anthropometric parameters.

  17. COPD: recognizing the susceptible smoker

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoonhorst, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Smoking is the main cause of COPD, a chronic non-curable lung disease. Not all smokers develop COPD and it is still unclear why COPD is only manifested in a small subset of smokers (15-20%). Probably their genetic background makes the difference. We investigated whether young individuals (18-40

  18. Epidemiological profile of non-daily smokers in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of tobacco products.5,6 In fact, compared to non-smoking, occasional smoking has been associated with a ..... reflective of an evolving innovation or new fashion in smoking being adopted from the trends in developed ... trend that may become ingrained, the introduction of graphic warning labels,21 which will reach both ...

  19. Smoking status and its relationship with exercise capacity, physical activity in daily life and quality of life in physically independent, elderly individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, R; Gonçalves, C G; Hayashi, D; Costa, V de S P; Teixeira, D de C; de Freitas, E R F S; Felcar, J M; Pitta, F; Molari, M; Probst, V S

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the relationship between smoking status and exercise capacity, physical activity in daily life and health-related quality of life in physically independent, elderly (≥60 years) individuals. Cross-sectional, observational study. Community-dwelling, elderly individuals. One hundred and fifty-four elderly individuals were categorised into four groups according to their smoking status: never smokers (n=57), passive smokers (n=30), ex-smokers (n=45) and current smokers (n=22). Exercise capacity [6-minute walk test (6MWT)], physical activity in daily life (step counting) and health-related quality of life [36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) questionnaire] were assessed. Current and ex-smokers had lower mean exercise capacity compared with never smokers: 90 [standard deviation (SD) 10] % predicted, 91 (SD 12) % predicted and 100 (SD 13) % predicted distance on 6MWT, respectively [mean differences -9.8%, 95% confidence intervals (CI) -17.8 to -1.8 and -9.1%, 95% CI -15.4 to -2.7, respectively; Pphysical activity did not differ between the groups, but was found to correlate negatively with the level of nicotine dependence in current smokers (r=-0.47, P=0.03). The median score for the mental health dimension of SF-36 was worse in passive {72 [interquartile range (IQR) 56 to 96] points} and current [76 (IQR 55 to 80) points] smokers compared with ex-smokers [88 (IQR 70 to 100) points] (median differences -16 points, 95% CI -22.2 to -3.0 and -12 points, 95% CI -22.8 to -2.4, respectively; Pelderly individuals, current smokers had lower exercise capacity than never smokers. Although the level of physical activity did not differ between the groups, an association was found with smoking. Tobacco exposure was associated with worse scores for the mental health dimension of SF-36 in physically independent, elderly individuals. Copyright © 2014 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Spirometry and health status worsen with weight gain in obese smokers but improve in normal-weight smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Akshay; Petersen, Hans; Meek, Paula; Tesfaigzi, Yohannes

    2014-02-01

    The literature on the effect of obesity and weight gain on respiratory outcomes in smokers is contradictory. To examine the cross-sectional effect of body mass index (BMI) and the longitudinal effect of change in BMI upon spirometry and health status among smokers at risk for and with milder chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Participants from the Lovelace Smokers' Cohort were followed for a median period of 6 years, 75% of whom were at risk and 25% of whom had COPD at baseline examination. BMI and gain in BMI were examined as continuous independent variables overall and after stratification into three categories (normal-weight, overweight, and obese) determined on the basis of baseline weight. Spirometry and health status (as assessed by St. George Respiratory Questionnaire total and subscale scores) were dependent variables. Covariates included age, sex, ethnicity, pack-years of smoking, and current smoking status. Cross-sectional analysis used linear and logistic regression; longitudinal analysis used a mixed model approach. In cross-sectional analyses, higher BMI was associated with worse health status among obese smokers but with better health status among normal-weight smokers. In longitudinal analyses, weight gain was associated with a decrease in FEV1 and health status among obese smokers and with an increase in these outcomes among normal-weight smokers. Weight gain affects respiratory outcomes differently between obese and normal-weight smokers. Whereas FEV1 and health status decrease with weight gain among obese smokers, they improve among normal-weight smokers. The nonlinear relationship between weight gain and respiratory outcomes suggests that this effect of excess weight is unlikely to be mechanical alone.

  1. Examining substance use and affective processes as multivariate risk factors associated with overweight body mass among treatment-seeking smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Samantha G; Zvolensky, Michael J; Robles, Zuzuky; Schmidt, Norman B

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette smoking and obesity are two major public health problems. However, factors related to the underlying risk for being overweight are not well established. Certain demographic, smoking, and psychological factors have been linked to overweight/obese body mass. The current study examined a multivariate risk model, stratified by gender, in order to better explicate the nature of overweight body mass among daily smokers. In a sample of treatment-seeking smokers (n = 395), among males and females, (1) older age, (2) stronger expectancies about the weight/appetite control effects of smoking, (3) greater smoking-based inflexibility/avoidance due to smoking-related sensations, and (4) less problematic alcohol use, were associated with being overweight. Additionally, among males, having a tobacco-related medical problem and higher tolerance for physical discomfort aided in the discriminant function model for classifying smokers as overweight. Together, numerous cognitive-affective vulnerabilities and smoking processes may be targetable and potentially inform weight-related prevention programs among smokers.

  2. Gender, Ethnicity, and their Intersectionality in the Prediction of Smoking Outcome Expectancies in Regular Cigarette Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Claudia G.; Bello, Mariel S.; Pang, Raina D.; Andrabi, Nafeesa; Hendricks, Peter S.; Bluthenthal, Ricky N.; Leventhal, Adam M.

    2016-01-01

    The current study utilized the intersectionality framework to explore whether smoking outcome expectancies (i.e., cognitions about the anticipated effects of smoking) were predicted by gender and ethnicity, and the gender-by-ethnicity interaction. In a cross-sectional design, daily smokers from the general community [32.2% women; Non-Hispanic African American (N=175), Non-Hispanic White (N=109), or Hispanic (N=26)] completed self-report measures on smoking expectancies and other co-factors. Results showed that women reported greater negative reinforcement (i.e., anticipated smoking-induced negative affect reduction) and weight control (i.e., anticipated smoking-induced appetite/weight suppression) expectancies than men. Hispanic (vs. African American or White) smokers endorsed greater negative reinforcement expectancies. A gender by ethnicity interaction was found for weight control expectancies, such that White women reported greater weight control expectancies than White men, but no gender differences among African American and Hispanic smokers were found. Ethnicity, gender, and their intersectionality should be considered in smoking cessation programs to target smoking-related cognitions. PMID:26438665

  3. Relationship between momentary affect states and self-efficacy in adolescent smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeppner, Bettina B; Kahler, Christopher W; Gwaltney, Chad J

    2014-12-01

    Relapse to smoking after making a quit attempt is both common and rapid in adolescent smokers. Momentary self-efficacy (SE)-that is, momentary shifts in one's confidence in the ability to abstain from smoking-predicts the occurrence and timing of relapse among adolescent smokers. Therefore, it is important to identify factors that are associated with changes in momentary SE early in a quit attempt. This study examined the relationship between affect states (including positive, negative, and nicotine withdrawal states) and momentary SE at various stages of a quit attempt. Adolescent daily smokers interested in making a quit attempt (n = 202) completed ecological momentary assessments (EMA) each day for 1 week leading up to and 2 weeks after a quit attempt. In each assessment, they reported current SE and affect state. RESULTS of linear mixed models indicated that most of the examined affect states were related to momentary SE. Contrary to expectation, they were related to momentary SE both immediately before and after the quit attempt. Moderation effects were observed for select affect states, where higher baseline SE was related to lower momentary SE in the presence of increasing negative high activation, boredom, and difficulty concentrating. Our findings suggest that both positive and negative affect states are related to SE, and that thereby positive affect enhancement may be a promising, underutilized treatment target.

  4. The Impact of Smokeless Tobacco Risk Information on Smokers' Risk Perceptions and Use Intentions: A News Media Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackowski, Olivia A; Manderski, Michelle T Bover; Lewis, M Jane; Delnevo, Cristine D

    2017-12-13

    Little research exists on the impact of risk information comparing smokeless tobacco (SLT) use, particularly snus, to cigarette smoking. This study explored this topic using a communication channel where smokers may be exposed to such information-the news media. We randomly assigned 1008 current smokers to read one of three constructed news stories or to a control group (no article). The "favorable" story framed snus as a "safer" smoking alternative while the "cautious" story described snus risks. The "mixed" version described potential risks and harm-reduction benefits. Participants completed a post-article survey with snus risk and harm perception and use intention measures. Article condition was significantly associated with perceived harm of daily snus use relative to smoking (1 = a lot less harmful - 5 = a lot more harmful; p media when communicating about tobacco risks.

  5. More than a belated Gutenberg Age: Daily Newspapers in India. An Overview of the Print Media Development since the 1980s, Key Issues and Current Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja-Christina Schneider

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available While TV may still be the dominant medium in India today, and the internet and mobile phone industry are currently growing at a tremendous speed, ‘old’ media such as the press don’t seem to be losing ground as yet. In times of a recurrent debate about the crisis of print media in Europe and the US, the Indian newspaper market still keeps growing and has attracted the interest of multinational corporations. One reason for this is that India is presently one of the largest markets for English-language newspapers and magazines in the world. Notwithstanding the continued growth of the English-language press, it is above all daily newspapers in the major Indian languages which form the motor of this unprecedented press boom. The article shows that in the wake of economic liberalization and the enforcement of the consumption-oriented market economy, the newspaper market in India can be said to be changing from a linguistically ‘split public’, which was characterized by many asymmetries for decades, to an integrated multilingual ‘consumer sphere’. It can thus be argued that in this new consumer sphere, the old existing and imaginary boundaries between ‘English-language’, ‘Indian-language’ or ‘regional newspapers’ are becoming increasingly fuzzy, whereas the new geographies of the ‘regional’ are now very important for the expansion and consolidation of daily newspapers. In order to de-westernize the current debate about the ‘newspaper crisis’, it would thus be important to look at different historical as well as contemporary trajectories of newspaper developments in the framework of changing media configurations in the so-called global South, which may differ significantly from the European or North American context.

  6. The risk of arrhythmias following coronary artery bypass surgery: do smokers have a paradox effect?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Al-Sarraf, Nael

    2010-11-01

    Smoking is reported to increase the risk of arrhythmias. However, there are limited data on its effects on arrhythmias following coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). This is a retrospective review of a prospective database of all CABG patients over an eight-year period. Our cohort (n=2813) was subdivided into: current (n=1169), former (n=837), and non-smokers (n=807). Predictors of arrhythmias following CABG in relation to smoking status were analysed. Atrial arrhythmias occurred in 942 patients (33%). Ventricular arrhythmias occurred in 48 patients (2%) and high-grade atrioventricular block occurred in five patients (0.2%). Arrhythmias were lower in current smokers than former and non-smokers (29% vs. 40% vs. 39%, respectively P<0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed 30% arrhythmia risk reduction in smokers compared to non-smokers [odds ratio (OR) 0.7, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.5-0.8] and this effect persisted after accounting for potential confounders while former smokers had the same risk as non-smokers (OR 1.04, CI 0.9-1.3). There were no significant differences in mortality. Smokers are less prone to develop arrhythmias following CABG. This paradox effect is lost in former smokers. This effect is possibly due to a lower state of hyper adrenergic stimulation observed in smokers than non-smokers following the stress of surgery.

  7. The impact of chronic bupropion on plasma cotinine and on the subjective effects of ad lib smoking: a randomized controlled trial in unmotivated smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Sarwar; Zawertailo, Laurie; Busto, Usoa; Zack, Martin; Farvolden, Peter; Selby, Peter

    2010-02-01

    Bupropion is an efficacious non-nicotine medication for smoking cessation; however, its cessation-mediating mechanism is unclear. This randomized, placebo-controlled trial examined the effect of bupropion SR (300 mg/day for 6 weeks) on plasma cotinine and on the subjective effects of smoking in 24 current daily smokers who were not trying to quit or reduce smoking. Subjective effects of smoking, as well as cue-elicited responses were assessed at bi-weekly experimental sessions using validated scales. Several indices of cigarette consumption were measured. Plasma cotinine decreased from 280 (+/-133) microg/l at baseline to 205 (+/-108) microg/l at end of treatment in the bupropion group (p=0.036), but no significant change was found in the placebo group. Daily cigarette count and puff topography did not significantly change in either group. In contrast to placebo, bupropion increased post-smoking satiety (p=0.045). Both groups reported higher craving (p=0.025) and withdrawal (p=0.014) after exposure to smoking-related pictures, compared to neutral pictures. This biased reactivity was not significantly affected by treatment condition (p>0.1). Therefore, bupropion does not appear to impact the smokers' response to conditioned smoking-related cues but influences the unconditioned subjective effects of smoking in unmotivated smokers. This study is among the first to systematically investigate the effect of chronic bupropion administration, free from the confounding effect of the smoker's motivation to quit smoking.

  8. The Self-Reported Oral Health Status and Dental Attendance of Smokers and Non-Smokers in England.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Csikar

    Full Text Available Smoking has been identified as the second greatest risk factor for global death and disability and has impacts on the oral cavity from aesthetic changes to fatal diseases such as oral cancer. The paper presents a secondary analysis of the National Adult Dental Health Survey (2009. The analysis used descriptive statistics, bivariate analyses and logistic regression models to report the self-reported oral health status and dental attendance of smokers and non-smokers in England. Of the 9,657 participants, 21% reported they were currently smoking. When compared with smokers; non-smokers were more likely to report 'good oral health' (75% versus 57% respectively, p<0.05. Smokers were twice as likely to attend the dentist symptomatically (OR = 2.27, CI = 2.02-2.55 compared with non-smoker regardless the deprivation status. Smokers were more likely to attend symptomatically in the most deprived quintiles (OR = 1.99, CI = 1.57-2.52 and perceive they had poorer oral health (OR = 1.77, CI = 1.42-2.20. The present research is consistent with earlier sub-national research and should be considered when planning early diagnosis and management strategies for smoking-related conditions, considering the potential impact dental teams might have on smoking rates.

  9. Carboxyhemoglobin Levels Induced by Cigarette Smoking Outdoors in Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmel, Jonathan; George, Naomi; Schwarz, John; Yousif, Sami; Suner, Selim; Hack, Jason B

    2018-03-01

    Non-invasive screening of carboxyhemoglobin saturation (SpCO) in the emergency department to detect occult exposure is increasingly common. The SpCO threshold to consider exposure in smokers is up to 9%. The literature supporting this cutoff is inadequate, and the impact of active smoking on SpCO saturation remains unclear. The primary objective was to characterize baseline SpCO in a cohort of smokers outdoors. Secondary objectives were to explore the impact of active smoking on SpCO and to compare SpCO between smokers and non-smokers. This was a prospective cohort pilot study in two outdoor urban public areas in the USA, in a convenience sample of adult smokers. SpCO saturations were assessed non-invasively before, during, and 2 min after cigarette smoking with pulse CO-oximetry. Analyses included descriptive statistics, correlations, and a generalized estimating equation model. Eighty-five smokers had mean baseline SpCO of 2.7% (SD 2.6) and peak of 3.1% (SD 2.9), while 15 controls had SpCO 1.3% (SD 1.3). This was a significant difference. Time since last cigarette was associated with baseline SpCO, and active smoking increased mean SpCO. There was correlation among individual smokers' SpCO levels before, during, and 2 min after smoking, indicating smokers tended to maintain their baseline SpCO level. This study is the first to measure SpCO during active smoking in an uncontrolled environment. It suggests 80% of smokers have SpCO ≤ 5%, but potentially lends support for the current 9% as a threshold, depending on clinical context.

  10. Periodontal tissue damage in smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutojo Djajakusuma

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Dental plaque is the primary etiological factor in periodontal diseases. However, there are many factors that can modify how an individual periodontal tissue will respond to the accumulation of dental plaque. Among such risk factors, there is increasing evidence that smoking tobacco products alters the expression and rate of progression of periodontal diseases. The aim of this study was to find out the loss of periodontal tissue adhesion in smokers by measuring pocket depth using probe, and by measuring alveolar bone damage using Bone Loss Score (BLS radiographic methods on teeth 12, 11, 21, 22, 32, 31, 41, 42. Based on T Test statistical analysis, there were significant differences in pocket depth damage of alveolar bone in smokers and non smokers. In conclusion there were increasing pocket depth and alveolar bone damage in smokers.

  11. Does the number of free nicotine patches given to smokers calling a quitline influence quit rates: results from a quasi-experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahoney Martin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The offer of free nicotine replacement therapy (NRT can be a cost-effective marketing strategy to induce smokers to call a telephone quitline for quitting assistance. However, the most cost-effective supply of free NRT to provide to smokers who call a quitline remains unknown. This study tests the hypothesis that smokers who call a telephone quitline and are given more free nicotine patches would report higher quit rates upon follow-up 12 months later. Methods A quasi-experimental design was used to assess nicotine patch usage patterns and quit rates among five groups of smokers who called the New York State Smokers' Quitline (NYSSQL between April 2003 and May 2006 and were mailed 2-, 4-, 6- or 8-week supplies of free nicotine patches. The study population included 2,442 adult (aged 18 years or older current daily smokers of 10 or more cigarettes per day, who were willing to make a quit attempt, and reported no contraindications for using the nicotine patch. Outcome variables assessed included the percentage of smokers who reported that they had not smoked for at least 7-days at the time of a 12 months telephone follow-up survey, sustained quitting, delayed quitting and nicotine patch use. Results Quit rates measured at 12 months were higher for smokers in the groups who received either 2, 6, or 8 weeks of free patches. The lowest quit rate was observed among the group of Medicaid/uninsured smokers who were eligible to receive up to six weeks of free patches. The quit rate for the 4-week supply group did not differ significantly from the 6-week or 8-week groups. These patterns remained similar in an intent-to-treat analysis of 12-month quit rates and in an analysis of sustained quitting. Conclusion No clear cut dose response relationship was observed between the number of free nicotine patches sent to smokers and smoking outcomes. Baseline diferences in the characteristics of the groups compared could account for the null

  12. Cigarette Purchasing Patterns, Readiness to Quit, and Quit Attempts Among Homeless Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrighting, Quentaxia; Businelle, Michael S; Kendzor, Darla E; LeBlanc, Hannah; Reitzel, Lorraine R

    2017-11-07

    Cigarette purchasing patterns may be linked with greater readiness to make a quit attempt and more quit attempts among domiciled samples. However, little is known about the cigarette purchasing patterns of homeless smokers or their potential relations to quitting intention and behaviors. This study redressed this gap among a convenience sample of homeless adult smokers from a large shelter in Dallas, Texas. Participants (N = 207; Mage = 43; 71.5% male) smoked ≥100 cigarettes over the lifetime and endorsed current daily smoking. Variables assessed included cigarette dependence (time to first cigarette of the day), monthly income, quantity of cigarettes most recently purchased, average money spent on cigarettes weekly, readiness/motivation to quit smoking, and the number intentional quit attempts lasting ≥24h in the past year. Regression analyses were conducted to characterize associations of cigarette purchasing patterns with readiness to quit and quit attempts controlling for sex, age, cigarette dependence, and income. Most participants purchased cigarettes by the pack (61.4%), and more than half the sample spent ≤$20 on cigarettes per week. Results indicated that spending less money per week on cigarettes was associated with greater readiness to quit (P = .016), even when controlling for income, cigarette dependence, and other covariates. Stratified analyses indicated that this association was significant only for homeless smokers reporting no regular monthly income. Homeless daily smokers with no reported income who spend little money on cigarettes may make particularly apt targets for cessation interventions due to potential associations with quitting motivation. Adults who are homeless smoke at greater rates and quit at lower rates than domiciled adults, leading to significant smoking-related health disparities among this group. Findings suggest that cigarette purchasing patterns are linked with readiness to quit smoking among smokers who are homeless

  13. Racial Differences in Serum Cotinine Levels of Smokers

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    Lisa B. Signorello

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to estimate black/white differences in cotinine levels for current smokers of both sexes, and to explore the potential contribution of mentholated cigarettes to these differences. Sera from 255 current smokers sampled from Southern Community Cohort Study participants (65 black men, 65 black women, 63 white men, 62 white women were analyzed for cotinine, and linear regression was used to model the effect of race on cotinine level, adjusting for the number of cigarettes smoked within the last 24 hours, use of menthol vs. non-menthol cigarettes, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, and age. Black smokers smoked fewer cigarettes than white smokers, yet had crude mean cotinine levels nearly as high or higher than white smokers. After multivariate adjustment, cotinine levels were an average of 50 ng/ml higher among black than white women (p=0.008 and non-significantly 12 ng/ml higher among black than white men (p=0.52. We observed no increase in cotinine levels associated with menthol cigarette use. We conclude that differences in cotinine levels among smokers suggest racial variation in exposure to and/or metabolism of tobacco smoke constituents, but our findings do not support a role for menthol preference in this disparity.

  14. Racial differences in serum cotinine levels of smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorello, Lisa B; Cai, Qiuyin; Tarone, Robert E; McLaughlin, Joseph K; Blot, William J

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate black/white differences in cotinine levels for current smokers of both sexes, and to explore the potential contribution of mentholated cigarettes to these differences. Sera from 255 current smokers sampled from Southern Community Cohort Study participants (65 black men, 65 black women, 63 white men, 62 white women) were analyzed for cotinine, and linear regression was used to model the effect of race on cotinine level, adjusting for the number of cigarettes smoked within the last 24 hours, use of menthol vs. non-menthol cigarettes, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, and age. Black smokers smoked fewer cigarettes than white smokers, yet had crude mean cotinine levels nearly as high or higher than white smokers. After multivariate adjustment, cotinine levels were an average of 50 ng/ml higher among black than white women (p=0.008) and non-significantly 12 ng/ml higher among black than white men (p=0.52). We observed no increase in cotinine levels associated with menthol cigarette use. We conclude that differences in cotinine levels among smokers suggest racial variation in exposure to and/or metabolism of tobacco smoke constituents, but our findings do not support a role for menthol preference in this disparity.

  15. Quitting smoking: The importance of non-smoker identity in predicting smoking behaviour and responses to a smoking ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Eline; Gebhardt, Winifred A; Dijkstra, Arie; Willemsen, Marc C; Van Laar, Colette

    2015-01-01

    We examined how 'smoker' and 'non-smoker' self- and group-identities and socio-economic status (SES) may predict smoking behaviour and responses to antismoking measures (i.e., the Dutch smoking ban in hospitality venues). We validated a measure of responses to the smoking ban. Longitudinal online survey study with one-year follow-up (N = 623 at T1 in 2011; N = 188 at T2 in 2012) among daily smokers. Intention to quit, quit attempts and 'rejecting', 'victimizing', 'socially conscious smoking' and 'active quitting' responses to the smoking ban. Non-smoker identities are more important than smoker identities in predicting intention to quit, quit attempts and responses to the smoking ban, even when controlling for other important predictors such as nicotine dependence. Smokers with stronger non-smoker identities had stronger intentions to quit, were more likely to attempt to quit between measurements, and showed less negative and more positive responses to the smoking ban. The association between non-smoker self-identity and intention to quit was stronger among smokers with lower than higher SES. Antismoking measures might be more effective if they would focus also on the identity of smokers, and help smokers to increase identification with non-smoking and non-smokers.

  16. Low-level smoking among Spanish-speaking Latino smokers: relationships with demographics, tobacco dependence, withdrawal, and cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitzel, Lorraine R; Costello, Tracy J; Mazas, Carlos A; Vidrine, Jennifer I; Businelle, Michael S; Kendzor, Darla E; Li, Yisheng; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila; Wetter, David W

    2009-02-01

    Although recent research indicates that many Latino smokers are nondaily smokers or daily smokers who smoke at a low level ( or =11 cigarettes/day; n = 100). Data were collected prior to the quit attempt and at 5 and 12 weeks postquit. Results yielded three key findings. First, smoking level was positively associated with the total score and 12 of 13 subscale scores on a comprehensive, multidimensional measure of tobacco dependence. Low-level smokers consistently reported the least dependence, and moderate/heavy smokers reported the most dependence on tobacco. Second, low-level smokers reported the least craving in pre- to postcessation longitudinal analyses. Third, despite significant differences on dependence and craving, low-level smoking was not associated with abstinence. Smoking level was not associated with demographic variables. This is a preliminary step in understanding factors influencing tobacco dependence and smoking cessation among low-level Spanish-speaking Latino smokers, a subgroup with high prevalence in the Latino population.

  17. Anxiety diagnoses in smokers seeking cessation treatment: relations with tobacco dependence, withdrawal, outcome and response to treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Megan E; Cook, Jessica W; Schlam, Tanya R; Jorenby, Douglas E; Baker, Timothy B

    2011-02-01

    To understand the relations among anxiety disorders and tobacco dependence, withdrawal symptoms, response to smoking cessation pharmacotherapy and ability to quit smoking. Randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial. Participants received six 10-minute individual counseling sessions and either: placebo, bupropion SR, nicotine patch, nicotine lozenge, bupropion SR + nicotine lozenge or nicotine patch + nicotine lozenge. Two urban research sites. Data were collected from 1504 daily smokers (>9 cigarettes per day) who were motivated to quit smoking and did not report current diagnoses of schizophrenia or psychosis or bupropion use. Participants completed baseline assessments, the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and ecological momentary assessments for 2 weeks. A structured clinical interview identified participants who ever met criteria for a panic attack (n = 455), social anxiety (n = 199) or generalized anxiety disorder (n = 99), and those who qualified for no anxiety diagnosis (n = 891). Smokers with anxiety disorders reported higher levels of nicotine dependence and pre-quit withdrawal symptoms. Those ever meeting criteria for panic attacks or social anxiety disorder showed greater quit-day negative affect. Smokers ever meeting criteria for anxiety disorders were less likely to be abstinent at 8 weeks and 6 months post-quit and showed no benefit from single-agent or combination-agent pharmacotherapies. Anxiety diagnoses were common among treatment-seeking smokers and were related to increased motivation to smoke, elevated withdrawal, lack of response to pharmacotherapy and impaired ability to quit smoking. These findings could guide treatment assignment algorithms and treatment development for smokers with anxiety diagnoses. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  18. Differences in Health-Related Quality of Life Between New Mexican Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Alejandro A; Petersen, Hans; Meek, Paula; Sood, Akshay; Celli, Bartolome; Tesfaigzi, Yohannes

    2016-10-01

    Smoking is associated with impaired health-related quality of life (HRQL) across all populations. Because decline in lung function and risk for COPD are lower in New Mexican Hispanic smokers compared with their non-Hispanic white (NHW) counterparts, the goal of this study was to ascertain whether HRQL differs between these two racial/ethnic groups and determine the factors that contribute to this difference. We compared the score results of the Medical Outcomes Short-Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) and St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) in 378 Hispanic subjects and 1,597 NHW subjects enrolled in the Lovelace Smokers' Cohort (LSC) from New Mexico. The associations of race/ethnicity with SGRQ and SF-36 were assessed by using multivariable regression. Physical functioning (difference, -4.5; P = .0008) but not mental health or role emotional domains of the SF-36 was worse in Hispanic smokers than in their NWH counterparts in multivariable analysis. SGRQ total score and its activity and impact subscores were worse in Hispanic (vs NHW) smokers after adjustment for education level, current smoking, pack-years smoked, BMI, number of comorbidities, and FEV 1 % predicted (difference range, 2.9-5.0; all comparisons, P ≤ .001). Although the difference in the SGRQ activity domain was above the clinically important difference of four units, the total score was not. New Mexican Hispanic smokers have clinically relevant, lower HRQL than their NHW counterparts. A perception of diminished physical functioning and impairment in daily life activities contribute to the poorer HRQL among Hispanic subjects. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The influence of smokers' degree of dependence on the effectiveness of message framing for capturing smokers for a Quitline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szklo, André Salem; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire

    2010-06-01

    Smoking is a worldwide public health problem, and various communication strategies aimed at its cessation have been used. The objective of this paper was to explore differences over time of two communication strategies (gain-framed versus loss-framed) in encouraging calls to a Quitline, according to smoker's degree of dependence. A study was conducted for four weeks among passengers of two selected subway stations in the city of Rio de Janeiro-Brazil (N(average) = 12,500 passengers a day per station). The interventions - large posters with images and text based on central theme "shortness-of-breath" - also contained the Quitline number. Call rate differences between the strategies, overall and specific per study week, were calculated. Light smokers exposed to the positive-content message called on average 2.2 times more often than those exposed to the negative-content message (p < 0.001). The absolute difference in call rates decreased after the first week of the study (p for the additive interaction between intervention and study week, 0.02). For heavy smokers, no differences between the two stations were observed. Additive interaction was found between type of smoker - light or heavy - and intervention (p = 0.02). The results suggest that short-term positive-content campaigns based on issues pertaining to individuals' daily routine could be effective in capturing light smokers. These results may have considerable public health impact, as the prevalence of less dependent smokers is much higher than that of heavier smokers. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Oral candidal species among smokers and non-smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasool, S.; Siar, C.H.; Ng, K.P.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine the various oral Candidal species among healthy Malaysian adults. Design: Case-control study. Place and Duration of Study: This study was collaborated between the Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine and Department of Oral Pathology, Oral Medicine and Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, between September 2002 till January 2004. Patients and Methods: One hundred adults (50 smokers and 50 non-smokers), aged between 40 and 70 years were studied. Swabs and carbohydrate assimilation (Saboraud Dextrose Agar, Corn Meal Agar, API 20C AUX System) were performed. Specimens were collected from dorsum of the tongue, buccal mucosa and commissures (right and left each). Colony forms were established by positive colony forming units, on SDA medium (24-48 hours). Germ tube test for (true/pseudohyphae) growth was done on Corn Meal Agar Medium, candida biotypes were evaluated by API 20C AUX system, which had a numerical 7 digit profile, added to evaluate a definite candida species. Results: Thirty-five percent of Malaysian adults harbored Candida intraorally. Candida species identified among 100 subjects had C. albicans (27) 77%, C. glabrata (3) 8%, C. famata, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. lusitaniae and C. guillermondii (1) 3% each. Thirty-three positive cases comprised of 35 species i.e. two cases had two species each. Fifty-seven percent of these were smokers and 43% non-smokers. These included 40% Chinese, 36% Malays and 24% Indians. Species were, however, not specified according to intra-oral sites i.e. buccal, commissural mucosa and sorsum of tongue. Conclusion: On this series C. albicans is the most common specie found in the oral cavity of Malaysian adults. It is equally frequent in smokers and non-smokers, but showed a prediliection for the ethnic Chinese group. (author)

  1. Association between menthol-flavoured cigarette smoking and flavoured little cigar and cigarillo use among African-American, Hispanic, and white young and middle-aged adult smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, K; Fryer, C; Pagano, I; Jones, D; Fagan, P

    2016-11-01

    Flavour additives in cigarettes and little cigars and cigarillos (LCCs), which influence smokers' risk perceptions, may reinforce dual flavoured tobacco use. We examined the association among mentholated cigarette use, risk perceptions for flavour additives in LCCs and flavoured LCC smoking behaviour. Data from a national probability sample of 964 young and middle-aged adult current cigarette smokers were analysed. Multinomial logistic regression models examined the relationship among mentholated cigarette smoking, risk perceptions and current flavoured LCC use for the analytic sample and gender and race/ethnicity. Daily menthol cigarette smokers, compared to occasional, non-menthol smokers, had increased odds of flavoured LCC smoking (OR=1.75, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.98). This relationship was found for males, blacks/African-Americans and Hispanics/Latinos (psmokers, specifically those from vulnerable populations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. Cigarette Smoking Practice and Attitudes, and Proposed Effective Smoking Cessation Measures among College Student Smokers in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yanping; Ying, Mao; Fan, Hongqi

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to investigate the average daily consumption of cigarettes and its correlates, attitudes toward smoking, and suggestions for anti-smoking measures in a sample of Chinese college student smokers. Design/methodology/approach: A sample of 150 college student cigarette smokers in Baoding, a city near Beijing, filled out a…

  3. The Self-Reported Oral Health Status and Dental Attendance of Smokers and Non-Smokers in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csikar, Julia; Kang, Jing; Wyborn, Ceri; Dyer, Tom A.; Marshman, Zoe; Godson, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Smoking has been identified as the second greatest risk factor for global death and disability and has impacts on the oral cavity from aesthetic changes to fatal diseases such as oral cancer. The paper presents a secondary analysis of the National Adult Dental Health Survey (2009). The analysis used descriptive statistics, bivariate analyses and logistic regression models to report the self-reported oral health status and dental attendance of smokers and non-smokers in England. Of the 9,657 participants, 21% reported they were currently smoking. When compared with smokers; non-smokers were more likely to report ‘good oral health’ (75% versus 57% respectively, pattend the dentist symptomatically (OR = 2.27, CI = 2.02–2.55) compared with non-smoker regardless the deprivation status. Smokers were more likely to attend symptomatically in the most deprived quintiles (OR = 1.99, CI = 1.57–2.52) and perceive they had poorer oral health (OR = 1.77, CI = 1.42–2.20). The present research is consistent with earlier sub-national research and should be considered when planning early diagnosis and management strategies for smoking-related conditions, considering the potential impact dental teams might have on smoking rates. PMID:26863107

  4. Cell recovery in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in smokers is dependent on cumulative smoking history.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Karimi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Smoking is a risk factor for various lung diseases in which BAL may be used as a part of a clinical investigation. Interpretation of BAL fluid cellularity is however difficult due to high variability, in particular among smokers. In this study we aimed to evaluate the effect of smoking on BAL cellular components in asymptomatic smokers. The effects of smoking cessation, age and gender were also investigated in groups of smokers and exsmokers. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of BAL findings, to our knowledge the largest single center investigation, in our department from 1999 to 2009. One hundred thirty two current smokers (48 males and 84 females and 44 ex-smokers (16 males and 28 females were included. A group of 295 (132 males and 163 females never-smokers served as reference. RESULT: The median [5-95 pctl] total number of cells and cell concentration in current smokers were 63.4 [28.6-132.1]×10(6 and 382.1 [189.7-864.3]×10(6/L respectively and correlated positively to the cumulative smoking history. Macrophages were the predominant cell type (96.7% [90.4-99.0] followed by lymphocytes (2% [0.8-7.7] and neutrophils (0.6% [0-2.9]. The concentration of all inflammatory cells was increased in smokers compared to never smokers and ex-smokers. BAL fluid recovery was negatively correlated with age (p<0.001. Smoking men had a lower BAL fluid recovery than smoking women. CONCLUSION: Smoking has a profound effect on BAL fluid cellularity, which is dependent on smoking history. Our results performed on a large group of current smokers and ex-smokers in a well standardized way, can contribute to better interpretation of BAL fluid cellularity in clinical context.

  5. Smoker Identity Development among Adolescents who Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertel, Andrew W.; Mermelstein, Robin J.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents who smoke are more likely to escalate their smoking frequency if they believe smoking is self-defining. Knowing factors that are associated with development of a smoker identity among adolescents who smoke may help to identify who will become a regular smoker. We investigated whether smoker identity development is associated with internal and external motives for smoking. For comparison, we also investigated whether social smoker identity development is associated with internal and external motives for smoking. Adolescents who smoke (n = 292) completed measures of smoker and social smoker identity, internal motives for smoking (negative affect coping, positive affect enhancement), and external motives for smoking (social fit) at baseline, 6-, 15-, and 24-month assessments of an ongoing longitudinal study of smoking patterns. We examined whether change in smoker and social smoker identity from 6 to 24 months was associated with change in motives at earlier assessment waves. We also explored whether gender moderated these relationships. Increases in negative affect coping motives were associated with smoker identity development among both males and females. Increases in social motives were associated with smoker identity development among males, and increases in negative affect coping motives were associated with social smoker identity development among females. Smoker and social smoker identities are signaled by negative affect coping as well as social motives for smoking. PMID:27136374

  6. Cigarette Smoking and Activities of Daily Living in Ocular Myasthenia Gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratton, Sean M; Herro, Angela M; Feuer, William J; Lam, Byron L

    2016-03-01

    Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disease of the neuromuscular junction, commonly affecting the ocular muscles. Cigarette smoking has been shown to influence many autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis, but its effect on myasthenia gravis has not been well studied. We sought to determine whether cigarette smoking influenced disease-related symptoms in ocular myasthenia gravis (OMG). We performed a prospective, clinic-based cross-sectional study in a single academic neuro-ophthalmology practice. All patients diagnosed with OMG between November 2006 and April 2014 were included. A prospective telephone survey was administered to determine smoking status and myasthenia gravis-related symptom severity. The main outcome measure was the myasthenia gravis-specific activities of daily living (MG-ADL) score, a well-validated marker of symptoms and quality of life in myasthenia gravis. Forty-four patients were included in the analysis. Comparison of MG-ADL ocular subscores between current smokers (3.4 ± 2.6), former smokers (1.8 ± 2.1), and never smokers (1.1 ± 1.5) revealed a statistically significant relationship (P = 0.031) where current smokers had the highest MG-ADL ocular subscores and never smokers the lowest. Comparison of MG-ADL total scores revealed the same relationship (current 5.6 ± 4.5, former 2.9 ± 3.1, never 1.4 ± 2.5, P = 0.003). There were borderline significant correlations of pack years with MG-ADL ocular subscore (r = 0.27, P = 0.074) and MG-ADL total score (r = 0.30, P = 0.051). Our findings indicate an association between cigarette smoking and symptom severity in OMG. This association suggests that smoking cessation in OMG patients may lead to improved symptom-related quality of life.

  7. "I Smoke Like This to Suppress These Issues That Are Flaws of My Character": Challenges and Facilitators of Cessation Among Smokers With Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffner, Jaimee L; Watson, Noreen L; McClure, Jennifer B; Anthenelli, Robert M; Hohl, Sarah; Bricker, Jonathan B

    2018-01-19

    Smokers with bipolar disorder (BD) have low rates of successful quitting, yet no prior studies have evaluated the process of quitting among these smokers in the context of a current quit attempt. To facilitate development of more effective interventions, we conducted a qualitative exploration of challenges and facilitators of quitting in an intervention study for smokers with BD. Participants were adult daily smokers with BD (n = 10) who completed a 10-week smoking cessation intervention consisting of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) and nicotine patch. We administered semistructured interviews focused on the quitting process at the end of treatment and used inductive content analysis to extract themes. Emergent themes representing challenges of quitting included social impediments, lack of awareness, avoidance, maladaptive beliefs, ambivalence, benefits of smoking, and difficulties with nicotine replacement. Themes representing change facilitators included positive treatment effects (ACT-specific, nonspecific, and nicotine patch-related), coping behaviors, reasons to quit, changes in self-perception, and social benefits. Results suggest a need for assistance with obtaining social support and handling social impediments, interrupting the automaticity of smoking, expanding the behavioral repertoire to handle aversive internal states that tend to be avoided by smoking, preventing maladaptive beliefs from interfering with quitting, taking meaningful action toward change while experiencing ambivalence, either replacing the benefits of smoking or accepting their loss, and troubleshooting difficulties with nicotine replacement. Findings regarding facilitators of quitting supported previous quantitative findings that the ACT intervention impacted theory-based targets and highlighted the importance of the counseling relationship.

  8. Recruiting Diverse Smokers: Enrollment Yields and Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaitlyn E. Brodar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To help tobacco control research better include vulnerable populations, we sought to identify effective ways to recruit diverse smokers. In 2014–2015, we recruited 2149 adult cigarette smokers in California and North Carolina, United States, to participate in a randomized trial of pictorial cigarette pack warnings. The most effective means of recruiting smokers were the classified advertising website Craigslist (28% of participants, word of mouth (23%, Facebook (16%, and flyers or postcards (14%. Low-income and African American smokers were more likely to respond to interpersonal contact (including staff in-person recruitment and word of mouth than were high-income and non-African American smokers (all p < 0.05. Hispanic and gay, lesbian, and bisexual smokers were more likely to be recruited by Craigslist than non-Hispanic and straight smokers (both p < 0.05. Of the recruitment methods requiring cost, the cheapest was Craigslist ($3–7 per smoker. The most expensive methods were newspaper ads in California ($375 per smoker and staff in-person recruiting in North Carolina ($180 per smoker. Successfully recruiting diverse smokers requires using multiple methods including interpersonal, online, and other media. Craigslist and word of mouth are especially useful and low-cost ways to recruit diverse smokers.

  9. Recruiting Diverse Smokers: Enrollment Yields and Cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodar, Kaitlyn E; Hall, Marissa G; Butler, Eboneé N; Parada, Humberto; Stein-Seroussi, Al; Hanley, Sean; Brewer, Noel T

    2016-12-16

    To help tobacco control research better include vulnerable populations, we sought to identify effective ways to recruit diverse smokers. In 2014-2015, we recruited 2149 adult cigarette smokers in California and North Carolina, United States, to participate in a randomized trial of pictorial cigarette pack warnings. The most effective means of recruiting smokers were the classified advertising website Craigslist (28% of participants), word of mouth (23%), Facebook (16%), and flyers or postcards (14%). Low-income and African American smokers were more likely to respond to interpersonal contact (including staff in-person recruitment and word of mouth) than were high-income and non-African American smokers (all p < 0.05). Hispanic and gay, lesbian, and bisexual smokers were more likely to be recruited by Craigslist than non-Hispanic and straight smokers (both p < 0.05). Of the recruitment methods requiring cost, the cheapest was Craigslist ($3-7 per smoker). The most expensive methods were newspaper ads in California ($375 per smoker) and staff in-person recruiting in North Carolina ($180 per smoker). Successfully recruiting diverse smokers requires using multiple methods including interpersonal, online, and other media. Craigslist and word of mouth are especially useful and low-cost ways to recruit diverse smokers.

  10. Decreased peak expiratory flow in pediatric passive smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitri Yanti

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Indonesia ranks fifth among countries with the highest aggregate levels of tobacco consumption in the world. Infants and children exposed to environmental tobacco smoke have increased rates of asthma, respiratory and ear infections, as well as reduced lung function. The effects of tobacco smoke exposure on lung function in children have been reported to be dependent on the source of smoke and the length and dose of exposure. Lung function may also be affected by a child’s gender and asthma status. Objective To compare peak expiratory flow (PEF in pediatric passive smokers to that of children not exposed to second hand smoke, and to define factors that may affect PEF in passive smokers. Methods In August 2009 we conducted a cross-sectional study at an elementary school in the Langkat district. Subjects were aged 6 to 12 years, and divided into two groups: passive smokers and those not exposed to secondhand smoke. Subjects’ PEFs were measured with a Mini-Wright peak flow meter. Measurements were performed in triplicate with the highest value recorded as the PEF. Demographic data including age, sex, weight, height, family income, parental education levels and occupations were obtained through questionnaires. Results Of the 170 participants, 100 were passive smokers and 70 were not exposed to secondhand smoke. Age distribution, weight and height were similar in both groups. We observed a significant difference in PEFs between the group of passive smokers and the group not exposed to secondhand smoke, 211.3 L/minute (SD 61.08 and 242.7 L/minute (SD 77.09, respectively (P < 0.005. The number of years of exposure to smoke (P = 0.079 and the number of cigarettes smoked daily in the household (P = 0.098 did not significantly influence PEF. Conclusion The PEF in pediatric passive smokers was significantly lower than that of children not exposed to secondhand smoke. PEF in passive smokers was not influenced by the number of years of smoke

  11. Behavior of Lung Health Parameters among Smokers and Secondhand Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Ghanem

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study on a pool of undergraduate smokers and nonsmokers (n=200 was randomly selected from Notre Dame University, Lebanon. The study design is based on a questionnaire about the students’ smoking record exposure, cotinine saliva levels, and ventilatory lung function parameters. Despite the nonsmoking policies that have been recently established by universities, diffused smoking stations in proximity to classes and offices still exist, at least in the MENA region. Such an environment still imposes a remarkable effect on certain lung health parameters of nonsmokers exhibiting similar exhaled air per second (FEV1 to smokers with a P value = 0.558 and normal flow of air (TV with a P value = 0.153. However, the maximum amount of air held in the lungs remained different with respect to sex and smoking status. These results imply a poor performance of nonsmokers mimicking partially the lung health parameters of smokers. It remains a pressing issue to increase awareness concerning the debilitating effects of secondhand smoking.

  12. Smoking and socioeconomic status in England: the rise of the never smoker and the disadvantaged smoker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiscock, Rosemary; Bauld, Linda; Amos, Amanda; Platt, Stephen

    2012-08-01

    Since 2000 various tobacco control measures have been implemented in the UK. Changes in the smoking status of low and high socioeconomic status (SES) groups in England during this period (2001-08) are explored. Secondary analysis of the Health Survey for England general population samples was undertaken. Over 88 000 adults, age 16 or over, living in England were included. Smoking status (current, ex or never) was reported. SES was assessed through a count of seven possible indicators of disadvantage: National Statistics Socio-Economic Classification (NSSEC), neighbourhood index of multiple deprivation, lone parenting, car availability, housing tenure, income and unemployment. Smoking rates were four times higher among the most disadvantaged [60.7% (95% CI: 58.2-63.3)] than the most affluent [15.3% (95% CI: 14.8-15.8)]. Smoking prevalence declined between 2001 and 2008 except among the multiply disadvantaged. This trend appeared to be due to an increase in never smoking rather than an increase in quitting. Disadvantage declined among non-smokers but not smokers. In general never smoking and affluence increased in England over this period. The disadvantaged, however, did not experience the decline in smoking and smokers missed out from the increase in affluence. Smoking and disadvantage may increasingly coexist.

  13. Temporomandibular disorders among smokers and nonsmokers: a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wänman, Anders

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate whether smoking influences the presence and/or development of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) among adults. A random sample of subjects 35, 50, and 65 years of age was drawn from the general population and examined with the aid of a questionnaire and a clinical examination. Within the sample, smokers were identified based on reported current smoking and nonsmokers were matched to the smokers based on age, gender, educational level, area of residence, and number of teeth. In total, 268 subjects were matched (134 pairs). Six years after the baseline examination, 122 matched pairs were re-examined. Mild symptoms of TMD were reported by approximately 30% of the sample both at baseline and at the follow-up examination 6 years later. Pain in the jaws and/or more severe symptoms of TMD were reported by approximately 15% on both occasions. No significant differences between smokers and nonsmokers were found regarding symptoms of TMD. In both examinations, mild signs (dysfunction index I) were found in approximately 40% of the sample and moderate to severe signs (dysfunction index II to III) in approximately 20%; no statistically significant differences were found between smokers and nonsmokers. No significant differences were found between smokers and nonsmokers regarding the course of symptoms or signs of TMD during the study period. Smoking is not a factor related to the presence or development of signs and symptoms of TMD.

  14. Lung cancer in never smokers: disease characteristics and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallis, Athanasios G; Syrigos, Konstantinos N

    2013-12-01

    It is estimated that approximately 25% of all lung cancer cases are observed in never-smokers and its incidence is expected to increase due to smoking prevention programs. Risk factors for the development of lung cancer described include second-hand smoking, radon exposure, occupational exposure to carcinogens and to cooking oil fumes and indoor coal burning. Other factors reported are infections (HPV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis), hormonal and diatery factors and diabetes mellitus. Having an affected relative also increases the risk for lung cancer while recent studies have identified several single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with increased risk for lung cancer development in never smokers. Distinct clinical, pathology and molecular characteristics are observed in lung cancer in never smokers; more frequently is observed in females and adenocarcinoma is the predominant histology while it has a different pattern of molecular alterations. The purpose of this review is to summarize our current knowledge of this disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Frequent marijuana use is associated with greater nicotine addiction in adolescent smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Mark L; Rait, Michelle A; Prochaska, Judith J

    2014-08-01

    Marijuana and tobacco are the substances used most commonly by adolescents and co-occurring use is common. Use of one substance may potentiate the addictive properties of the other. The current study examined the severity of nicotine addiction among teen smokers as a function of co-occurring marijuana use. Participants were 165 adolescents (13-17 years old) who reported smoking at least 1 cigarette per day (CPD) in the past 30 days. General linear models examined the association of marijuana use with multiple measures of nicotine addiction including the Modified Fagerström Tolerance Questionnaire (mFTQ), Hooked on Nicotine Checklist (HONC), ICD-10, and the Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale (NDSS). The adolescent sample (mean age=16.1 years, SD=0.95) averaged 3.0 CPD (SD=3.0) for 1.98 years (SD=1.5). Most (79.5%) also smoked marijuana in the past 30 days. In models controlling for age, daily smoking status, and years of tobacco smoking, frequency of marijuana use accounted for 25-44% of the variance for all four measures of adolescent nicotine dependence. Marijuana use was associated with greater reported nicotine addiction among adolescent smokers. The findings suggest a role of marijuana in potentiating nicotine addiction and underscore the need for treatments that address both smoked substances. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Abnormal brain white matter network in young smokers: a graph theory analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yajuan; Li, Min; Wang, Ruonan; Bi, Yanzhi; Li, Yangding; Yi, Zhang; Liu, Jixin; Yu, Dahua; Yuan, Kai

    2018-04-01

    Previous diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies had investigated the white matter (WM) integrity abnormalities in some specific fiber bundles in smokers. However, little is known about the changes in topological organization of WM structural network in young smokers. In current study, we acquired DTI datasets from 58 male young smokers and 51 matched nonsmokers and constructed the WM networks by the deterministic fiber tracking approach. Graph theoretical analysis was used to compare the topological parameters of WM network (global and nodal) and the inter-regional fractional anisotropy (FA) weighted WM connections between groups. The results demonstrated that both young smokers and nonsmokers had small-world topology in WM network. Further analysis revealed that the young smokers exhibited the abnormal topological organization, i.e., increased network strength, global efficiency, and decreased shortest path length. In addition, the increased nodal efficiency predominately was located in frontal cortex, striatum and anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG) in smokers. Moreover, based on network-based statistic (NBS) approach, the significant increased FA-weighted WM connections were mainly found in the PFC, ACG and supplementary motor area (SMA) regions. Meanwhile, the network parameters were correlated with the nicotine dependence severity (FTND) scores, and the nodal efficiency of orbitofrontal cortex was positive correlation with the cigarette per day (CPD) in young smokers. We revealed the abnormal topological organization of WM network in young smokers, which may improve our understanding of the neural mechanism of young smokers form WM topological organization level.

  17. Survival among Never-Smokers with Lung Cancer in the Cancer Care Outcomes Research and Surveillance Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément-Duchêne, Christelle; Stock, Shannon; Xu, Xiangyan; Chang, Ellen T; Gomez, Scarlett Lin; West, Dee W; Wakelee, Heather A; Gould, Michael K

    2016-01-01

    Differences in patient characteristics and outcomes have been observed among current, former, and never-smokers with lung cancer, but most prior studies included few never-smokers and were not prospective. We used data from a large, prospective study of lung cancer care and outcomes in the United States to compare characteristics of never-smokers and smokers with lung cancer and to examine survival among the never-smokers. Smoking status at diagnosis was determined by self-report and survival was determined from medical records and cancer registries, with follow-up through June 2010 or later. Cox regression was used to examine the association between smoking and survival, and to identify predictors of survival among never-smokers. Among 3,410 patients with lung cancer diagnosed between September 1, 2003 and October 14, 2005 who completed a baseline patient survey, there were 274 never-smokers (8%), 1,612 former smokers (47%), 1,496 current smokers or smokers who quit recently (44%), and 28 with missing information about smoking status (<1%). Never-smokers appeared more likely than former and current/recent smokers to be female and of Asian or Hispanic race/ethnicity, and to have adenocarcinoma histology, fewer comorbidities, private insurance, and higher income and education. Compared with never-smokers, the adjusted hazard of death from any cause was 29% higher among former smokers (hazard ratio, 1.29; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.55), and 39% higher among current/recent smokers (hazard ratio, 1.39; 95% confidence interval, 1.16-1.67). Factors predicting worse overall survival among never-smokers included Hispanic ethnicity, severe comorbidity, undifferentiated histology, and regional or distant stage. Never-smoking Hispanics appeared more likely to have regional or advanced disease at diagnosis and less likely to undergo surgical resection, although these differences were not statistically significant. Never-smokers with lung cancer are more likely than ever-smokers

  18. Characteristics of adult smokers presenting to a mind-body medicine clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luberto, Christina M; Chad-Friedman, Emma; Dossett, Michelle L; Perez, Giselle K; Park, Elyse R

    2018-05-01

    Mind-body interventions can improve vulnerabilities that underlie smoking behavior. The characteristics of smokers who use mind-body medicine have not been explored, preventing the development of targeted interventions. Patients ( N = 593) presenting to a mind-body medicine clinic completed self-report measures. Patients were 67 percent never smokers, 27 percent former smokers, and 6 percent current smokers. Current smokers were younger; more likely to be single, unemployed, or on disability; and report greater depression symptoms, greater pain, and lower social support ( ps mind-body medicine have unique psychosocial needs that should be targeted in mind-body smoking cessation interventions.

  19. Expiratory CT in cigarette smokers: correlation between areas of decreased lung attenuation, pulmonary function tests and smoking history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verschakelen, J.A.; Scheinbaum, K.; Bogaert, J.; Baert, A.L. [Department of Radiology, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium); Demedts, M.; Lacquet, L.L. [Department of Pneumology, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium)

    1998-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between cigarette-smoke-related bronchial disease and air trapping as assessed by expiratory high-resolution CT (HRCT) scans. Thirty healthy subjects (11 non-smokers, 7 ex-smokers for > 2 years, 12 current smokers; age range 35-55 years) with a smoking history between 0 and 28.5 pack-years underwent pulmonary function tests (PFT) and HRCT in inspiration and expiration in supine and prone position. The extent of air trapping was scored in ventral and dorsal aspects of the upper, middle and lower lung portions. In 24 subjects (7 non-smokers, 7 ex-smokers, 10 current smokers) areas of focal air trapping were found, and were present significantly more often in dependent lung portions (p < 0.05) compared with non-dependent portions. No significant differences were found between apical and basal lung zones. Scores of focal air trapping were not significantly different between smokers and ex-smokers, but were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in non-smokers and showed a significant (p < 0.0005) correlation with pack-years. The degree of air trapping was also associated with several lung function tests, especially RV, DLCO, FRC, FEV1 and FEV1/VC. Air trapping is seen in smokers with normal PFT and correlates with the severity of the smoking history, independently of current smoking status. (orig.) (orig.) With 4 figs., 4 tabs., 59 refs.

  20. Non-specific interstitial pneumonia in cigarette smokers: a CT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marten, Katharina; Milne, David; Antoniou, Katerina M.; Nicholson, Andrew G.; Tennant, Rachel C.; Wells, Athol U.; Hansel, Trevor T.; Hansell, David M.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to seek indirect evidence that smoking is an aetiological factor in some patients with non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP). Ten current and eight ex-smokers with NSIP were compared to controls including 137 current smokers with no known interstitial lung disease and 11 non-smokers with NSIP. Prevalence and extent of emphysema in 18 smokers with NSIP were compared with subjects meeting GOLD criteria for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; group A; n = 34) and healthy smokers (normal FEV 1 ; group B; n = 103), respectively. Emphysema was present in 14/18 (77.8%) smokers with NSIP. Emphysema did not differ in prevalence between NSIP patients and group A controls (25/34, 73.5%), but was strikingly more prevalent in NSIP patients than in group B controls (18/103, 17.5%, P < 0.0005). On multiple logistic regression, the likelihood of emphysema increased when NSIP was present (OR = 18.8; 95% CI = 5.3-66.3; P < 0.0005) and with increasing age (OR = 1.04; 95% CI = 0.99-1.11; P = 0.08). Emphysema is as prevalent in smokers with NSIP as in smokers with COPD, and is strikingly more prevalent in these two groups than in healthy smoking controls. The association between NSIP and emphysema provides indirect support for a smoking pathogenesis hypothesis in some NSIP patients. (orig.)

  1. Comparison of peak expiratory flow rate and lipid profile in asymptomatic smokers and non-smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatima, F.; Abbasi, M.A.; Jadoon, J.; Sohail, M.; Shah, J.; Afridi, U.; Noor, M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco is the major risk factor for chronic obstructive airway disease (COAD), other pulmonary diseases, cancer, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. The objective of study was to determine the mean Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) and serum lipid profile in apparently healthy male smokers and non-smokers. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad from 15th December, 2009 to 15th June, 2010. Apparently healthy smokers and non-smokers from population coming to Hospital as attendants of the patients or as employees of the hospital were inducted in the study. PEFR and lipid profile of all the subjects was accessed. Results: There were total of 300 male subjects, 150 smokers and 150 non-smokers. The mean age of study subjects was 26.60 ± 5.5 years. The mean PEFR of smokers was 450.62l/min and that of non-smokers was 494.81 L/min, the difference being statistically significant (p-value <0.05).The mean total cholesterol of smokers is 5.30 ± 0.86 mmol/l and it was 3.84 ± 0.54 mmol/l in non-smokers. Mean serum Triacyl Glycerols (TAGs) and Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL) cholesterol of smokers was 2.04 ± 0.38 and 3.5 ± 0.83 mmol/l whereas it was 1.44 ± 0.52 and 2.02 ± 0.66 mmol/l in non-smokers. Mean High Density Lipo-protein (HDL) of smokers was 0.86 ± 0.30 mmol/l and of non-smokers is 1.20 ± 0.41 mmo/l. There was statistically significant difference between serum lipid profile of smokers and non-smokers (p<0.05). the mean serum Total Cholesterol (TC), TAGs and LDL were significantly higher in smokers as compared to non-smokers. However HDL was significantly lower in smokers in comparison to non-smokers. Conclusion: There was statistically significant difference between PEFR of smokers and non-smokers. Higher and significant mean values of TC, TAG and LDL-C was observed in smokers as compared to non-smokers. (author)

  2. Comparisons of three nicotine dependence scales in a multiethnic sample of young adult menthol and non-menthol smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Pebbles; Pohkrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus; Pagano, Ian; Vallone, Donna; Trinidad, Dennis R; Sakuma, Kari-Lyn; Sterling, Kymberle; Fryer, Craig S; Moolchan, Eric

    2015-04-01

    Few studies have compared nicotine dependence among menthol and non-menthol cigarette smokers in a multiethnic sample of young adult daily cigarette smokers. This study examines differences in nicotine dependence among menthol and non-menthol daily smokers and the associations of nicotine dependence with quitting behaviors among Native Hawaiian, Filipino, and White cigarette smokers aged 18-35. Craigslist.org, newspaper advertisements, and peer-to-peer referrals were used to recruit daily smokers (n = 186) into a lab-based study. Nicotine dependence was assessed using the Fagerstrom Test of Nicotine Dependence (FTND), the Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale (NDSS), and the brief Wisconsin Inventory for Smoking Dependence Motives (WISDM). Multiple regression analyses were used to examine differences in nicotine dependence between menthol and non-menthol smokers and the relationship between each nicotine dependence scale with self-efficacy to quit, quit attempt in the past 12 months, and number of attempts. Menthol smokers were more likely to report difficulty refraining from smoking in places where forbidden (p = .04) and had higher scores on social/environmental goads subscale of the WISDM (p = .0005). Two-way interaction models of the FTND and menthol status showed that menthol smokers with higher levels of dependence were more likely to have tried to quit smoking in the past 12 months (p = .02), but were less likely to have had multiple quit attempts (p = .01). Components of the FTND and WISDM distinguish levels of dependence between menthol and non-menthol smokers. Higher FTND scores were associated with having a quit attempt, but fewer quit attempts among menthol smokers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Past quit attempts in a national sample of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Anna K; Borland, Ron; Davey, Maureen E; Stevens, Matthew; Thomas, David P

    2015-06-01

    To describe past attempts to quit smoking in a national sample of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, and to compare their quitting activity with that in the general Australian population. The Talking About The Smokes (TATS) project used a quota sampling design to recruit participants from communities served by 34 Aboriginal community-controlled health services and one community in the Torres Strait. We surveyed 1643 smokers and 78 recent quitters between April 2012 and October 2013. Baseline results for daily smokers (n = 1392) are compared with results for daily smokers (n = 1655) from Waves 5 to 8.5 (2006-2012) of the Australian International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project (ITC Project). Ever having tried to quit, tried to quit in the past year, sustained a quit attempt for 1 month or more. Compared with the general population, a smaller proportion of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander daily smokers had ever tried to quit (TATS, 69% v ITC, 81.4%), but attempts to quit within the past year were similar (TATS, 48% v ITC, 45.7%). More Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander daily smokers than those in the general population reported sustaining past quit attempts for short periods only. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smokers whose local health services had tobacco control resources were more likely to have tried to quit, whereas men and people who perceived they had experienced racism in the past year were less likely. Younger smokers, those who had gone without essentials due to money spent on smoking, and those who were often unable to afford cigarettes were more likely to have tried to quit in the past year, but less likely to have ever sustained an attempt for 1 month or more. Smokers who were unemployed, those who had not completed Year 12 and those from remote areas were also less likely to sustain a quit attempt. Existing comprehensive tobacco control programs appear to be motivating Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smokers

  4. Eating pathology among Black and White smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Johnsen, Lisa A P; Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Spring, Bonnie J

    2005-02-01

    Among White smokers, many females use smoking as a weight control strategy. Little is known about the relationship between eating pathology and smoking among Black females, and whether smokers who enroll in treatment differ in eating pathology from smokers who decline treatment. We examined eating pathology among Black and White smokers who enrolled in a smoking cessation treatment and those who declined treatment. Participants were 100 Black and 100 White female smokers (ages 18-65) who completed three measures of eating pathology. After controlling for BMI, Whites reported greater levels of overall eating pathology than Blacks [F(1,195)=4.1; pWhite than Black smokers. However, once females seek smoking cessation treatment, these ethnic differences are not apparent.

  5. Cessation Strategies Young Adult Smokers Use After Participating in a Facebook Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrul, Johannes; Ramo, Danielle E

    2017-01-28

    Young adults underutilize current evidence-based smoking cessation strategies; yet social media are widely used and accepted among this population. A better understanding of whether and how young adults try to quit smoking in the context of a social media smoking cessation intervention could inform future intervention improvements. We examined frequency, strategies used, and predictors of self-initiated 24-hour quit attempts among young adults participating in a Facebook intervention. A total of 79 young adult smokers (mean age = 20.8; 20.3% female) were recruited on Facebook for a feasibility trial. Participants joined motivationally tailored private Facebook groups and received daily posts over 12 weeks. Assessments were completed at baseline, 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up. In 12 months, 52 participants (65.5%) completed 215 quit attempts (mean = 4.1; median = 4; range 1-14); 75.4% of attempts were undertaken with the Facebook intervention alone, 17.7% used an electronic cigarette (e-cigarette), 7.4% used nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), and 3.7% used additional professional advice. Non-daily smokers, those who smoked fewer cigarettes, and those in an advanced stage of change at baseline were more likely to make a quit attempt. E-cigarette use to aide a quit attempt during the study period was associated with reporting a past year quit attempt at baseline. No baseline characteristics predicted NRT use. After participating in a Facebook smoking cessation intervention, young adults predominantly tried to quit without additional assistance. E-cigarettes are used more frequently as cessation aid than NRT. The use of evidence-based smoking cessation strategies should be improved in this population.

  6. Can you please put it out? Predicting non-smokers' assertiveness intentions at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspropoulos, Eleftherios; Lazuras, Lambros; Rodafinos, Angelos; Eiser, J Richard

    2010-04-01

    The present study aimed to identify the psychosocial predictors of non-smoker employee intentions to ask smokers not to smoke at work. The predictive effects of past behaviour, anticipated regret, social norms, attitudinal, outcome expectancy and behavioural control beliefs were investigated in relation to the Attitudes-Social influence-self-Efficacy (ASE) model. Data were collected from Greek non-smoker employees (n=137, mean age=33.5, SD=10.5, 54.7% female) in 15 companies. The main outcome measure was assertiveness intention. Data on participants' past smoking, age, gender and on current smoking policy in the company were also collected. The majority of employees (77.4%) reported being annoyed by exposure to passive smoking at work, but only 37% reported having asked a smoker colleague not to smoke in the last 30 days. Regression analysis showed that the strongest predictor of non-smokers' assertiveness intentions was how often they believed that other non-smokers were assertive. Perceived control over being assertive, annoyance with secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure at work and past assertive behaviour also significantly predicted assertiveness intentions. Assertiveness by non-smoker employees seems to be guided mainly by normative and behavioural control beliefs, annoyance with SHS exposure at work, and past behaviour. Interventions to promote assertiveness in non-smokers might benefit from efficacy training combined with conveying the messages that the majority of other non-smokers are frequently annoyed by exposure to SHS, and that nearly half of all non-smokers are assertive towards smokers.

  7. The social support and social network characteristics of smokers in methadone maintenance treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Dios, Marcel Alejandro; Stanton, Cassandra A; Caviness, Celeste M; Niaura, Raymond; Stein, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown social support and social network variables to be important factors in smoking cessation treatment. Tobacco use is highly prevalent among individuals in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). However, smoking cessation treatment outcomes in this vulnerable subpopulation have been poor and social support and social network variables may contribute. The current study examined the social support and social network characteristics of 151 MMT smokers involved in a randomized clinical trial of smoking cessation treatments. Participants were 50% women and 78% Caucasian. A high proportion (57%) of MMT smokers had spouses or partners who smoke and over two-thirds of households (68.5%) included at least one smoker. Our sample was characterized by relatively small social networks, but high levels of general social support and quitting support. The number of cigarettes per day was found to be positively associated with the number of smokers in the social network (r = .239, p social support and social networks of smokers in MMT.

  8. The power of product innovation: Smokers' perceptions of capsule cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodie, Crawford; Ford, Allison; Dobbie, Fiona; Thrasher, James F; McKell, Jennifer; Purves, Richard

    2017-08-30

    Since being brought to market in 2007, cigarettes with capsules in the filter that can be burst to change the flavour have had remarkable global success, highlighting the importance of product innovation for tobacco companies. Very few studies have explored how these products are perceived by smokers however. This paper sought to address this gap by exploring smokers' awareness of cigarettes with one or two flavour-changing capsules in the filter and the appeal of these products. Twenty focus groups were conducted in Glasgow and Edinburgh in 2015 with current smokers (N=120), segmented by age (16-17, 18-24, 25-35, 36-50, >50), gender and social grade. Awareness, use and appeal of capsule cigarettes was greater among younger adults (16-35 years), who showed most interest in these products. Those who perceived capsules positively mentioned multiple benefits: the ability to burst the capsule, convenience of being able to share cigarettes among menthol and non-menthol smokers, better taste, fresher breath, reduced smell and greater discretion. It was suggested that capsule cigarettes, particularly the double capsule cigarette (which had two differently flavoured capsules in the filter), would encourage non-smokers to experiment with smoking and discourage smokers from quitting. The findings offer some reasons behind the global growth of the capsule cigarette segment. Cigarettes with flavour-changing capsules in the filter have been one of the most successful product innovations of the last decade for tobacco companies. They have received very little academic attention however. Employing focus groups with 120 smokers aged 16 and over, we found that capsule cigarettes held most appeal to, and were considered to be targeted at, younger people, with it suggested that these products would encourage initiation and discourage cessation. This study provides some understanding of how these products are viewed by smokers. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press

  9. Combined varenicline and naltrexone treatment reduces smoking topography intensity in heavy-drinking smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Daniel J O; Bujarski, Spencer; Hartwell, Emily; Green, ReJoyce; Ray, Lara A

    2015-07-01

    Heavy drinking smokers constitute a distinct sub-population of smokers for whom traditional smoking cessation therapies may not be effective. Recent evidence suggested that combined varenicline (VAR) and naltrexone (NTX) therapy may be more efficacious than either monotherapy alone in reducing smoking and drinking-related behavior in this population. The manner in which individuals smoke a cigarette (i.e., smoking topography) may be predictive of smoking cessation outcomes, yet the effects of smoking pharmacotherapies on puffing behavior have not been thoroughly examined. Therefore, the current double-blind medication study examined the effects of VAR alone (1mg BID), low dose NTX alone (25mg QD), the combination of VAR+NTX, and placebo on smoking topography measures in heavy drinking, non-treatment seeking daily smokers (n=120). After a 9-day titration period, participants completed a laboratory session in which they smoked their first cigarette of the day using a smoking topography device following 12h of nicotine abstinence and consumption of an alcoholic beverage (BrAC=0.06g/dl). The primary measures were puff count, volume, duration, and velocity and inter-puff interval (IPI). Independent of medication group, puff velocity and IPI increased, while puff volume and duration decreased, over the course of the cigarette. The active medication groups, vs. the placebo group, had significantly blunted puff duration and velocity slopes over the course of the cigarette, and this effect was particularly evident in the VAR+NTX group. Additionally, the VAR+NTX group demonstrated lower average IPI than the monotherapy groups and lower average puff volume than all other groups. These results suggest that smoking pharmacotherapies, particularly the combination of VAR+NTX, alter smoking topography in heavy drinking smokers, producing a pattern of less intense puffing behavior. As smoking topography has been predictive of the ability to quit smoking, future studies should

  10. Clinical and Radiologic Disease in Smokers With Normal Spirometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Elizabeth A; Lynch, David A; Curran-Everett, Douglas; Curtis, Jeffrey L; Austin, John H M; Grenier, Philippe A; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Bailey, William C; DeMeo, Dawn L; Casaburi, Richard H; Friedman, Paul; Van Beek, Edwin J R; Hokanson, John E; Bowler, Russell P; Beaty, Terri H; Washko, George R; Han, MeiLan K; Kim, Victor; Kim, Song Soo; Yagihashi, Kunihiro; Washington, Lacey; McEvoy, Charlene E; Tanner, Clint; Mannino, David M; Make, Barry J; Silverman, Edwin K; Crapo, James D

    2015-09-01

    Airflow obstruction on spirometry is universally used to define chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and current or former smokers without airflow obstruction may assume that they are disease free. To identify clinical and radiologic evidence of smoking-related disease in a cohort of current and former smokers who did not meet spirometric criteria for COPD, for whom we adopted the discarded label of Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) 0. Individuals from the Genetic Epidemiology of COPD (COPDGene) cross-sectional observational study completed spirometry, chest computed tomography (CT) scans, a 6-minute walk, and questionnaires. Participants were recruited from local communities at 21 sites across the United States. The GOLD 0 group (n = 4388) (ratio of forced expiratory volume in the first second of expiration [FEV1] to forced vital capacity >0.7 and FEV1 ≥80% predicted) from the COPDGene study was compared with a GOLD 1 group (n = 794), COPD groups (n = 3690), and a group of never smokers (n = 108). Recruitment began in January 2008 and ended in July 2011. Physical function impairments, respiratory symptoms, CT abnormalities, use of respiratory medications, and reduced respiratory-specific quality of life. One or more respiratory-related impairments were found in 54.1% (2375 of 4388) of the GOLD 0 group. The GOLD 0 group had worse quality of life (mean [SD] St George's Respiratory Questionnaire total score, 17.0 [18.0] vs 3.8 [6.8] for the never smokers; P smokers had greater emphysema and gas trapping. Advancing age was associated with smoking cessation and with more CT findings of disease. Individuals with respiratory impairments were more likely to use respiratory medications, and the use of these medications was associated with worse disease. Lung disease and impairments were common in smokers without spirometric COPD. Based on these results, we project that there are 35 million current and former smokers older

  11. Female Smokers Are at Greater Risk of Airflow Obstruction Than Male Smokers. UK Biobank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, André F S; Strachan, David P; Burney, Peter G J; Jarvis, Deborah L

    2017-05-01

    The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is increasing faster among women than among men. To examine sex differences in the risk of airflow obstruction (a COPD hallmark) in relation to smoking history. We analyzed 149,075 women and 100,252 men taking part in the UK Biobank who had provided spirometry measurements and information on smoking. The association of airflow obstruction with smoking characteristics was assessed by sex using regression analysis. The shape of this relationship was examined using restricted cubic splines. The association of airflow obstruction with smoking status was stronger in women (odds ratio for ex-smokers [OR ex ], 1.44; OR current , 3.45) than in men (OR ex , 1.25; OR current , 3.06) (P for interaction = 5.6 × 10 -4 ). In both sexes, the association of airflow obstruction with cigarettes per day, smoking duration, and pack-years did not follow a linear pattern, with the increase in risk at lower doses being steeper among women. For equal doses of exposure, sex differences were present in both ex-smokers and current smokers for cigarettes per day (P for interaction ex  = 6.0 × 10 -8 ; P for interaction current  = 1.1 × 10 -5 ), smoking duration (P for interaction ex  = 7.9 × 10 -4 ; P for interaction current  = 0.004), and pack-years (P for interaction ex  = 6.6 × 10 -18 ; P for interaction current  = 1.3 × 10 -6 ). Overall, those who started smoking before age 18 years were more likely to have airflow obstruction, but a sex difference in this association was not clear. For equal time since quitting, the reduction in risk among women seemed less marked than among men. Exposed to the same dose of smoking, women showed a higher risk of airflow obstruction than men. This could partly explain the increasingly smaller sex difference in the prevalence of COPD, especially in countries where smoking patterns have become similar between women and men.

  12. Unpacking smokers' beliefs about addiction and nicotine: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sarah E; Coleman, Blair; Tessman, Greta K; Dickinson, Denise M

    2017-11-01

    Evidence suggests that consumers correctly identify nicotine as addictive; however, many may also harbor misconceptions about its harmfulness. The majority of this evidence is based on survey data, however, which may be prone to some limitations. In the current study, we employed qualitative methods to examine, in their own words, smokers' beliefs about nicotine and addiction. Twelve 1-hr focus groups were conducted in 3 cities in the United States (Columbus, OH; New Orleans, LA; and Washington, DC) from October to November, 2014. Adult cigarette smokers (N = 108), defined as those who reported smoking cigarettes on every day or some days, were segmented by age group (18-25 years and ≥26 years) and tobacco-use behavior. Thematic, in-depth analysis of focus-group discussion transcripts was conducted. Participant demographic information was recorded. Results showed that smokers identify nicotine as a cause of addiction to cigarettes; however, they also attribute their addiction to other factors. When asked about nicotine's effects on the body, immediate physiological effects of smoking (e.g., stimulation, relaxation) were top of mind. Opinions varied in terms of whether nicotine itself was harmful or harmless; many were unsure and/or had not considered this question. Discussions revealed heterogeneity in smokers' beliefs as well as recognition of their own uncertainty and lack of knowledge. The current findings provide insight that smokers may not be as misinformed regarding the relative harms of nicotine and tobacco, as has been suggested by quantitative evidence. Implications for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Serum cotinine levels and diabetes mellitus in never smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshaarawy, Omayma; Elbaz, Hosam A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study is to examine the association of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure evident by serum cotinine level, and diabetes mellitus in never smokers. Previous studies suggest that active tobacco cigarette smoking is associated with diabetes mellitus risk. However it is not clear if the low-level "background" ETS exposure is associated with diabetes among never smokers. We present evidence from five independent replications based on the US nationally representative National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) conducted 2003-12. Our exposure of interest is ETS exposure among never smokers, measured by serum cotinine levels (ng/mL), and our main outcome is diabetes mellitus assessed via self-reported physician-diagnosis, current use of insulin and/or oral hypoglycemic medications, plasma fasting glucose levels ≥126mg/dL or glycohemoglobin levels ≥6.5%. The conceptual model encompassed age, sex, ethnic self-identification, education, poverty-income ratio, alcohol drinking, total cholesterol and body mass index. In never smokers, higher serum cotinine levels were positively associated with diabetes mellitus (the meta-analytic summary estimate is 1.2, 95% CI=1.1, 1.2). This association was not evident among never smokers with cotinine levels below 3ng/mL. These replications help sustain evidence of ETS-diabetes mellitus association, which might be explained by shared psychosocial characteristics. Prospective studies with appropriate biomarkers are needed to further investigate this association. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of clinical periodontal conditions in smokers and non-smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinara Ignez Tavares Luzzi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Given that tobacco smoking habit is a risk factor for periodontal diseases, the aim of this study was to compare clinical periodontal aspects between smokers and non-smokers. The clinical status were assessed in 55 patients, 29 smokers and 26 non-smokers, aged 30 to 50 years, with mean age of 40. The clinical parameters used were: probing depth (PD, plaque index (PI, gingival index (GI, clinical attachment level (CAL, gingival recession (GR and gingival bleeding index (GBI for arches (upper and lower and teeth (anterior and posterior. Tooth loss was also evaluated in both groups. Multiple regression analysis showed: tendency of greater probing depth and clinical attachment level means for smokers; greater amount of plaque in smokers in all regions; greater gingival index means for non-smokers with clinical significance (p<0.05 in all regions. Although, without statistical significance, the analysis showed greater gingival bleeding index means almost always for non-smokers; similar gingival recession means in both groups and tendency of upper tooth loss in smokers and lower tooth loss in non-smokers. The findings of this study showed that clinical periodontal parameters may be different in smokers when compared to non-smokers and that masking of some periodontal signs can be a result of nicotine's vasoconstrictor effect.

  15. Adolescents' perceptions about smokers in Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Devadasan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevalence of tobacco use among adolescents in India is very high. Despite many epidemiological studies exploring tobacco use among youth, there is no published data on adolescents' perceptions about smokers in Indian society and its implications on tobacco control. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a stratified random sampling with probability proportional to school-type (government or private owned. Data was collected using a pretested, self-administered, anonymous questionnaire with a mix of close and open-ended questions from a sample of 1087 students. Chi-square test was used to measure associations. Qualitative data was analysed through inductive coding. Results The response rate for the study was 82.5% and the sample population had a mean age of 16.9 years (SD = 1.9 with 57.8% male students. Majority of respondents (84.6% reported negative perceptions about smokers while 20.4% of respondents reported positive perceptions. Female students reported significantly higher disapproval rate (negative perceptions for smoking compared to male students (89.7% Vs 71.6% in case of male smoker; 81.2% Vs 67.3% in case of female smoker. Dominant themes defining perceptions about smokers included 'hatred/hostility/Intolerance', 'against family values/norms', 'not aware of tobacco harms' and 'under stress/emotional trauma'. Themes like 'culture', 'character' and 'power' specifically described negative social image of female smoker but projected a neutral or sometimes even a positive image of male smoker. There was a significant association between adolescents' positive perceptions of smokers and tobacco use by themselves as well as their close associates. Conclusions Adolescents' stereotypes of smokers, especially female smokers are largely negative. We suggest that tobacco control interventions targeting adolescents should be gender specific, should also involve their peers, family and school personnel, and should go

  16. Self-efficacy modulates the neural correlates of craving in male smokers and ex-smokers: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Miki; Kochiyama, Takanori; Fujino, Junya; Sozu, Takashi; Kawada, Ryosaku; Yokoyama, Naoto; Sugihara, Genichi; Murai, Toshiya; Takahashi, Hidehiko

    2017-09-07

    The regulation of cue-induced craving for cigarettes is a key factor in smoking cessation. Outcomes of smoking cessation have been linked to self-efficacy, faith in one's own ability, in smokers. However, no study has examined the neural basis of self-efficacy during the control of craving. We examined whether self-efficacy can affect the neural response to smoking cues in smokers and ex-smokers using functional magnetic resonance imaging. During scanning, participants were instructed (1) to view smoking-related images passively, (2) to view the smoking-related images with a strategy focused on self-efficacy to control cue-induced craving or (3) to view neutral images. In smokers, the self-efficacy strategy significantly reduced self-reported craving. This strategy was related to increased activation in the rostral medial prefrontal cortex (rmPFC) and the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex in smokers compared with ex-smokers. Furthermore, smokers showed increased effective connectivity between rmPFC and hippocampus and between pregenual anterior cingulate cortex and parahippocampus gyrus when employing the self-efficacy strategy compared with ex-smokers. The magnitude of the rmPFC-hippocampus connectivity was positively correlated with self-reported self-efficacy. Our findings suggest that in smokers, self-efficacy is related to activation and connectivity in brain regions involved in regulating craving and self-assessment. The current study provides evidence for understanding the vunderlying cognitive and neurobiological mechanisms involved in the control of craving to smoke cigarettes. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  17. Medicaid expenditures for children living with smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levy Douglas E

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children's exposure to secondhand smoke is associated with increased morbidity. We estimated Medicaid expenditures for children living with smokers compared to those living with no smokers in the United States. Methods Data were overall and service-specific (i.e., inpatient, ambulatory, emergency department, prescription drug, and dental annual Medicaid expenditures for children 0-11 years old from the 2000-2007 Medical Expenditures Panel Surveys. Smokers' presence in households was determined by adult respondents' self reports. There were 25,835 person-years of observation. We used multivariate analyses to adjust for child, parent, and geographic characteristics. Results Children with Medicaid expenditures were nearly twice as likely to live with a smoker as other children in the U.S. population. Adjusted analyses revealed no detectable differences in children's overall Medicaid expenditures by presence of smokers in the household. Medicaid children who lived with smokers on average had $10 (95% CI $3, $18 higher emergency department expenditures per year than those living with no smokers. Conclusions Living with at least one smoker (a proxy for secondhand smoke exposure is unrelated to children's overall short-term Medicaid expenditures, but has a modest impact on emergency department expenditures. Additional research is necessary to understand the relationship between secondhand smoke exposure and long-term health and economic outcomes.

  18. Correlation of Cadmium and Magnesium in the Blood and Serum Samples of Smokers and Non-Smokers Chronic Leukemia Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Noman; Afridi, Hasan Imran; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Arain, Muhammad Balal; Bilal, Muhammad; Akhtar, Asma; Khan, Mustafa

    2017-03-01

    It was studied that cancer-causing processes are related with the disproportions of essential and toxic elements in body tissues and fluid. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the levels of magnesium (Mg) and cadmium (Cd) in serum and blood samples of smokers and nonsmokers who have chronic myeloid (CML) and lymphocytic (CLL) leukemia, age ranged 31-50 years. For comparative study, age-matched smokers and nonsmoker males were chosen as controls/referents. The levels of elements in patient were analyzed before any treatment by atomic absorption spectrophotometer, after microwave assisted acid digestion. The validation of the method was done by using certified reference materials of serum and blood samples. The resulted data indicated that the adult male smokers and nonsmokers have two- to fourfold higher levels of Cd in the blood and sera samples as compared to the referents (p blood and serum samples of both types of leukemia patients as related to referent values. The resulted data indicates significant negative correlation among Mg and Cd in leukemia patients and smoker referents. Further studies are needed to clarify the role of these elements in pathogenesis of chronic leukemia.

  19. The French Observational Cohort of Usual Smokers (FOCUS) cohort: French smokers perceptions and attitudes towards smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubin, Henri-Jean; Peiffer, Gérard; Stoebner-Delbarre, Anne; Vicaut, Eric; Jeanpetit, Yasmine; Solesse, Anne; Bonnelye, Geneviève; Thomas, Daniel

    2010-02-26

    Despite increasing governmental anti-smoking measures, smoking prevalence remains at a high level in France. The objectives of this panel study were (1) to estimate smoking prevalence in France, (2) to identify smokers' profiles according to their perceptions, attitudes and behaviour in relation to smoking cessation, (3) to determine predictive factors of quit attempts, and (4) to assess tobacco-related behaviours and their evolutions according to the changes in the smokers' environments. A representative sample of French population was defined using the quota method. The identified cohort of smokers was assessed, in terms of smoking behaviour, previous quit attempts, and intention to quit smoking. A response rate of 66% for the screening enabled to identify a representative sample of the French population (N = 3 889) comprising 809 current smokers (21%). A majority of current smokers (63%) had made an attempt to quit smoking. Main reasons for having made the last attempt were cost (44%), social pressure (39%), wish to improve physical fitness (36%), fear of a future smoking-related disease (24%), and weariness of smoking (21%). Few attempts (16%) were encouraged by a physician. In those who used some kind of support (38%), NRT was the mostly used. Relapse was triggered by craving (45%), anxiety/stress (34%), a significant life event (21), weight gain (18%), and irritability (16%). Depression was rarely quoted (5%). Forty percent of smokers declared they intended to quit smoking permanently. Main reasons were cost (65%), physical fitness improvement (53%), fear of a future smoking-related disease (43%), weariness of tobacco (34%), and social pressure (30%). Using a smoking cessation treatment was considered by 43% of smokers that intended to quit. Barriers to smoking cessation were mainly fear of increased stress (62%), irritability (51%), and anxiety (42%), enjoying smoking (41%), and weight concerns (33%). Smoking prevalence and smoking cessation attempts rate

  20. The effect of social anxiety on urge and craving among smokers with and without anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbrel, Nathan A; Morissette, Sandra B; Gulliver, Suzy B; Langdon, Kirsten J; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2014-02-01

    Despite the often social nature of smoking, relatively little research has been conducted on the relationship between smoking and social anxiety disorder (SAD). Participants (N=99) included 34 smokers without current mental health disorders, 37 smokers with SAD, and 28 smokers who met criteria for other anxiety disorder diagnoses (e.g., panic disorder or generalized anxiety disorder, but not SAD). Nicotine and placebo patches were administered to participants in a counterbalanced manner across two assessment days. Urge and craving were assessed before and after a 5-h nicotine absorption/deprivation period. Compared to smokers without current mental health disorders, smokers with SAD did not report greater nicotine dependence, but did endorse greater motivation to use nicotine to avoid negative outcomes. In addition, after controlling for demographic variables, smoking characteristics, pre-deprivation urge and craving, and other anxiety/depression symptoms, social anxiety symptoms uniquely predicted urge and craving in the placebo patch condition; however, social anxiety had no influence on urge and craving in the nicotine patch condition. These findings suggest that one potential reason that smokers with SAD may have worse cessation outcomes is that they may experience higher levels of craving and urge to smoke during quit attempts. Thus, during a quit attempt, particularly in the absence of nicotine replacement therapy, smokers with SAD are likely to benefit from additional treatment aimed at managing or reducing their social anxiety symptoms. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  1. Chronic daily headaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayyaz Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic Daily Headache is a descriptive term that includes disorders with headaches on more days than not and affects 4% of the general population. The condition has a debilitating effect on individuals and society through direct cost to healthcare and indirectly to the economy in general. To successfully manage chronic daily headache syndromes it is important to exclude secondary causes with comprehensive history and relevant investigations; identify risk factors that predict its development and recognise its sub-types to appropriately manage the condition. Chronic migraine, chronic tension-type headache, new daily persistent headache and medication overuse headache accounts for the vast majority of chronic daily headaches. The scope of this article is to review the primary headache disorders. Secondary headaches are not discussed except medication overuse headache that often accompanies primary headache disorders. The article critically reviews the literature on the current understanding of daily headache disorders focusing in particular on recent developments in the treatment of frequent headaches.

  2. Predictors of COPD in symptomatic smokers and ex-smokers seen in primary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tupper, Oliver Djurhuus; Kjeldgaard, Peter; Løkke, Anders

    2018-01-01

    Even in subjects at high risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the diagnosis is often missed due to lack of awareness of symptoms and risk factors. The objective of this study was to identify predictors of a diagnosis of COPD in symptomatic current and ex-smokers seen in a primary....... Information on age, smoking status, body mass index (BMI) and dyspnoea (Medical Research Council (MRC) dyspnoea scale) was obtained. Individuals with airway obstruction (i.e. forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity ratio (FVC) spirometry had a diagnostic spirometry....... Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that increasing age 50-59 years (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.8-3.3), 60-69 years (OR 4.1, 95% CI 3.1-5.5), ≥70 years (OR 5.7, 95% CI 4.2-7.8), BMI smoker (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.01-1.5), self-reported dyspnoea (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1...

  3. Health education pamphlets about smoking-their benefit to smokers and non-smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meillier, Lucette Kirsten; Osler, M; Sabroe, Svend

    1999-01-01

    in 1994. Of these 71% also participated in a telephone interview enquiring about the use of health education material, smoking status and socio-demographic variables, 39% of readers of household-delivered anti-smoking pamphlets reported having gained information from them and 22% reported having made...... health education materials from other places. Non-smokers received (3 49%) and read pamphlets about smoking as frequently as did smokers who did not intend to quit. In conclusion, written health education material was well received by readers, but, when distributed in a more open setting it needs...... to be targeted towards smokers who are considering stopping smoking. In general practice, smokers not thinking of stopping were open to health education, and pamphlets used in this setting should also target this group. Non-smokers contribute indirectly to smokers quitting by providing support to smokers...

  4. Trauma-Focused Smoking Cessation for Smokers Exposed to the World Trade Center Disaster: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Adam; Friedberg, Fred; Li, Xiaotong; Zvolensky, Michael J; Bromet, Evelyn J; Mahaffey, Brittain L; Vujanovic, Anka A; Luft, Benjamin J; Kotov, Roman

    2017-08-01

    The main objective was to evaluate the efficacy of an 8-session, group-based comprehensive smoking cessation and trauma management (CSC-T) treatment among daily smokers (≥5 cigarettes/day) exposed to the World Trade Center (WTC) disaster with elevated WTC-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Participants (N = 90) were randomly assigned to CSC-T (N = 44; 63.6% white; 27.3% female; mean age = 51.32 ± 7.87) or comprehensive smoking cessation (CSC) alone (N = 46; 71.7% white; 28.3% female; mean age = 48.74 ± 10.66), which was comparable in length and time. Assessments included a diagnostic clinical interview and self-report measures of PTSD and respiratory symptoms, and smoking behavior, and biologically confirmed smoking abstinence. Evaluations occurred at a baseline visit, each treatment session, and at 1-, 2-, 4-, 12-, and 26-weeks post-treatment. The two treatments did not differ in regard to PTSD symptom improvement. After quit day (week 6), the two groups had similar 7-day (~15%) and 6-month (~20%) abstinence rates as well as average number of cigarettes smoked, and PTSD and respiratory symptoms. It is possible that the Cognitive Behavioral Therapy skills specific to quitting smoking, group-based support, and degree of therapist contact, that were available in both treatments may have played a role in equalizing the abstinence rates between the two conditions. Although the current study found no evidence that the CSC-T was superior to the CSC alone treatment, the abstinence rates observed were high relative to previous trials of smokers with diagnosed PTSD. Further development of smoking cessation programs tailored to the needs of smokers with PTSD symptoms continues to be needed. This study suggests that a CSC program aids in smoking abstinence for smokers with PTSD symptoms and that incorporating trauma management skills, may not add additional benefits for abstinence and PTSD and respiratory symptom relief. Further work is needed to

  5. Protective effects of Haematococcus astaxanthin on oxidative stress in healthy smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Hae; Chang, Min Jung; Choi, Hye Duck; Youn, Yeo-Kyu; Kim, Jung Tae; Oh, Jung Mi; Shin, Wan Gyoon

    2011-11-01

    Free radicals induced by cigarette smoking have been strongly linked to increased oxidative stress in vivo, contributing to the pathobiology of various diseases. This study was performed to investigate the effects of Haematococcus astaxanthin (ASX), which has been known to be a potent antioxidant, on oxidative stress in smokers. Thirty-nine heavy smokers (≥20 cigarettes/day) and 39 non-smokers were enrolled in this study. Smokers were randomly divided into three dosage groups to receive ASX at doses of 5, 20, or 40 mg (n=13, each) once daily for 3 weeks. Oxidative stress biomarkers such as malondialdehyde, isoprostane, superoxide dismutase, and total antioxidant capacity, and ASX levels in plasma were measured at baseline and after 1, 2, and 3 weeks of treatment. Compared with baseline, the plasma malondialdehyde and isoprostane levels decreased, whereas superoxide dismutase level and total antioxidant capacity increased in all ASX intervention groups over the 3-week period. In particular, isoprostane levels showed a significant dose-dependent decrease after ASX intake. The results suggest that ASX supplementation might prevent oxidative damage in smokers by suppressing lipid peroxidation and stimulating the activity of the antioxidant system in smokers.

  6. Assessing the importance of spatio-temporal RCM resolution when estimating sub-daily extreme precipitation under current and future climate conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunyer Pinya, Maria Antonia; Luchner, J.; Onof, C.

    2017-01-01

    . The performance of the RCM simulations in current climate as well as projected changes for 2081-2100 is evaluated for non-central moments of order 1-3 and for the 2- and 10-year events. The comparison of the RCM simulations and observations shows that the higher spatial resolution simulations (8 and 12km......) are more consistent across all temporal aggregations in the representation of high-order moments and extreme precipitation. The biases in the spatial pattern of extreme precipitation change across temporal and spatial resolution. The hourly extreme value distributions of the HIRHAM-ECEARTH simulations...... are more skewed than the observational dataset, which leads to an overestimation by the higher spatial resolution simulations. Nevertheless, in general, under current conditions RCM simulations at high spatial resolution represent extreme events and high-order moments better. The changes projected...

  7. Unplanned quitting in a triethnic sample of U.S. smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnicow, Ken; Zhou, Yan; Scheuermann, Taneisha S; Nollen, Nicole L; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S

    2014-06-01

    Smokers who report quitting without prior planning have been shown to report longer abstinence compared with those who planned. Little is known about unplanned quitting (UQ) among U.S. smokers, minorities, or nondaily and light smokers. Using an online panel, we recruited equal numbers of Black, White, and Latino nondaily, light daily, and moderate/heavy daily smokers. Of the 1,127 who reported a past-year quit attempt, we queried whether it was planned and the maximum number of days abstinent. Overall, 38% reported that their last quit attempt was unplanned. The impact of planned versus unplanned quitting interacted with smoking level and race. Among White moderate/heavy smokers, mean days abstinent was 99 for those who reported an unplanned quit attempt compared with 60 days for those who reported a planned attempt (p = .02). Among Black moderate/heavy smokers, the mean days abstinent was higher among those whose last attempt was planned, 92 days, compared with 56 days among those whose last attempt was unplanned (p = .09). The pattern among Latinos resembled Whites but was not significant. Results remained after adjusting for confounds such as age, gender, education, income, time to first cigarette, and menthol use. There were no significant differences in abstinence by quit type for light or nondaily smokers. Future studies are needed to elucidate why UQ appears to have differential effectiveness across racial/ethnic groups and different levels of cigarette use. Research examining the impact of UQ on long-term quitting, which is not addressed here, is needed.

  8. Positive smoking cessation-related interactions with HIV care providers increase the likelihood of interest in cessation among HIV-positive cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacek, Lauren R; Rass, Olga; Johnson, Matthew W

    2017-10-01

    Smoking cessation has proven to be a challenge for HIV-positive smokers. Patient and provider characteristics may provide barriers to smoking cessation. We aimed to identify characteristics associated with interest in cessation as well as characterize use of, current interest in, and provider recommendations for smoking cessation modalities. Data came from 275 HIV-positive smokers recruited online. Half (49.1%) of the sample was interested in quitting; daily smoking was associated with decreased likelihood of interest in cessation, whereas making a lifetime quit attempt, receiving encouragement to quit from an HIV care provider, and greater frequency of discussions regarding cessation with HIV care providers were associated with increased likelihood of interest in cessation. Nicotine replacement therapy was the most commonly used (42.9%), generated the most interest (59.1%), and was the most commonly clinician-recommended (70.7%) cessation modality. Findings emphasize the importance of the healthcare provider-patient relationship for smoking cessation promotion in HIV-positive smokers.

  9. Difference in airflow obstruction between Hispanic and non-Hispanic White female smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Akshay; Stidley, Christine A; Picchi, Maria A; Celedón, Juan C; Gilliland, Frank; Crowell, Richard E; Belinsky, Steven A; Tesfaigzi, Yohannes

    2008-10-01

    Smoking-related respiratory diseases are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. However, the relationship between smoking and respiratory disease has not been well-studied among ethnic minorities in general and among women in particular. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the risk of airflow obstruction and to assess lung function among Hispanic and non-Hispanic White (NHW) female smokers in a New Mexico cohort. Participants completed a questionnaire detailing smoking history and underwent spirometry testing. Outcomes studied included airflow obstruction, selected lung function parameters, and chronic mucus hyper-secretion. Chi square, logistic, and linear regression techniques were utilized. Of the 1,433 eligible women participants, 248 (17.3%) were Hispanic; and 319 had airflow obstruction (22.3%). Hispanic smokers were more likely to be current smokers, and report lower pack-years of smoking, compared to NHW smokers (p smokers were at a reduced risk of airflow obstruction compared to NHW smokers, with an O.R. of 0.51, 95% C.I. 0.34, 0.78 (p = 0.002) after adjustment for age, BMI, pack-years and duration of smoking, and current smoking status. Following adjustment for covariates, Hispanic smokers also had a higher mean absolute and percent predicted post-bronchodilator FEV(1)/FVC ratio, as well as higher mean percent predicted FEV(1) (p smokers in this New Mexico-based cohort had lower risk of airflow obstruction and better lung function than NHW female smokers. Further, smoking history did not completely explain these associations.

  10. The Association between Cannabis Use and Motivation and Intentions to Quit Tobacco within a Sample of Australian Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twyman, Laura; Bonevski, Billie; Paul, Christine; Kay-Lambkin, Frances J.; Bryant, Jamie; Oldmeadow, C.; Palazzi, K.; Guillaumier, A.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to (i) describe concurrent and simultaneous tobacco and cannabis use and (ii) investigate the association between cannabis use and motivation and intentions to quit tobacco in a sample of socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2013 and 2014 with current tobacco smokers receiving aid from…

  11. A Japanese cross-sectional multicentre study of biomarkers associated with cardiovascular disease in smokers and non-smokers

    OpenAIRE

    L?dicke, Frank; Magnette, John; Baker, Gizelle; Weitkunat, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We performed a cross-sectional, multicentre study in Japan to detect the differences in biomarkers of exposure and cardiovascular biomarkers between smokers and non-smokers. Several clinically relevant cardiovascular biomarkers differed significantly between smokers and non-smokers, including lipid metabolism (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations ? lower in smokers), inflammation (fibrinogen and white blood cell count ? both higher in smokers), oxidative stress (8-epi-...

  12. Primary health care utilisation and its costs among middle-aged smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keto, Jaana; Ventola, Hanna; Jokelainen, Jari; Timonen, Markku; Linden, Kari; Ylisaukko-Oja, Tero; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Auvinen, Juha

    2017-04-01

    To study and compare the utilisation of primary health care services among 46-year-old current smokers, ex-smokers and never-smokers, and to estimate the corresponding costs. This population-based cohort study is based on the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966, which is a longitudinal research program in Finland's two northernmost provinces. The study is based on data collected at the 46-year follow-up, during which a total of 4997 individuals completed questionnaires on their primary health care service utilisation. Primary health care covered visits to both occupational and public health care (typically community health centres). Current smokers visited primary health care professionals more often per year than never-smokers, regardless of gender (RR 1.24, 95 % confidence interval 1.10-1.43 for men; RR 1.10, 1.01-1.22 for women). When primary health care services were categorised based on the type of service provided, current smokers of both genders were more likely to visit a dentist (RR 1.56, 1.32-1.84 for men; RR 1.34, 1.15-1.55 for women) or a physician (RR 1.20, 1. 03-1.40 for men; RR 1.15, 1.02-1.30 for women) than their never-smoking counterparts (BMI adjusted for). For men, the total annual costs of primary health care visits were 28 % higher for current smokers versus never-smokers (P primary health care professionals more often already at the age of 46, before the expected diagnosis of fatal smoking-related illnesses. This phenomenon not only predicts an elevated incidence of serious illnesses in later life (such as cardiovascular disease), but also causes an economic burden on the health care system.

  13. The approach of smokers to the new tobacco law and the change in their behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atilla, Nurhan; Köksal, Nurhan; Özer, Ali; Kahraman, Hasan; Ekerbiçer, Hasan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of our study is; to assess the approach of smokers to tobacco law, examine changes in their smoking related behaviors after the new law and determine the factors associated with these changes. Data collected by questionnaire including 30 question. We applied the questionnaire to 1509 current smokers, and ex-smokers who quitted smoking after the law. SPSS packet programme was used for analyses. Participants consisted of 419 (28.0%) female, 1090 (72.0%) male with an average age of 33.6 ± 10.5 years. Although 80% of them knew that passive smoking is harmful to non-smokers, rate of smoking at home and in the car were very high. 869 (58.0%) of participants supported the law. 87 (5.8%) smokers quitted smoking after the law, 316 (20.9%) reduced. While health problems (37.3%) were the most frequent reason for quitting, restriction of smoking area had the most effect to reduce (54.2%). We satisfied that; the new tobacco law encouraged smokers to quit smoking. In addition, the majority of smokers supported the law.

  14. Unique relationships between facets of mindfulness and eating pathology among female smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Claire E; Apperson McVay, Megan; Kinsaul, Jessica; Benitez, Lindsay; Vinci, Christine; Stewart, Diana W; Copeland, Amy L

    2012-12-01

    Female smokers often have higher levels of eating disorder symptoms than non-smokers, and concerns about eating and weight might interfere with smoking cessation. Thus, it is critical to identify factors to promote healthier eating and body image in this population. Initial research suggests that specific aspects of trait mindfulness predict lower body dissatisfaction and eating disorder symptoms among non-smokers. However, these relationships are unknown among smokers. The current study examined associations between facets of trait mindfulness and eating disorder symptoms in 112 college female smokers (83% Caucasian; mean age 20 years, SD=1.69). After controlling for relevant sociodemographic variables, Describing and Nonjudging facets of mindfulness predicted lower bulimic symptoms and body dissatisfaction (psmindfulness facets are related to lower eating disorder symptoms among smokers, whereas other facets are not associated or have a positive relationship with these symptoms. Mindfulness-based interventions focusing on Describing, Nonjudging, and Acting with Awareness may help to reduce eating pathology among female smokers, which could potentially improve smoking cessation rates in this population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Allegheny County Jail Daily Census

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — A daily census of the inmates at the Allegheny County Jail (ACJ). Includes gender, race, age at booking, and current age. The records for each month contain a...

  16. Smoking processes, panic, and depressive symptoms among treatment-seeking smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Dawn W; Langdon, Kirsten J; Schmidt, Norman B; Zvolensky, Michael

    2015-02-01

    The present study evaluated the relative contribution of panic and depressive symptoms in relation to past cessation difficulties and smoking motives among treatment-seeking daily smokers. The sample included 392 treatment-seeking daily smokers (47.07% female; Mage = 35.48; SD = 13.56), who reported smoking an average of 10 or more cigarettes daily for at least one year. Findings indicated that panic and depressive symptoms were significantly associated with quit problems as well as addictive and negative affect motives for smoking. However, depressive symptoms were not associated with habitual smoking motives. Differential patterns of associations with smoking-based processes imply that although panic and depression are related, there are important distinctions. Such data highlight the need for additional research to examine the putative role of panic and depressive symptoms in relation to smoking behaviors to further elucidate the mechanisms through which panic, depression, and smoking impact one another.

  17. Long-term daily vibration exposure alters current perception threshold (CPT) sensitivity and myelinated axons in a rat-tail model of vibration-induced injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajnak, Kristine; Raju, Sandya G; Miller, G Roger; Johnson, Claud; Waugh, Stacey; Kashon, Michael L; Riley, Danny A

    2016-01-01

    Repeated exposure to hand-transmitted vibration through the use of powered hand tools may result in pain and progressive reductions in tactile sensitivity. The goal of the present study was to use an established animal model of vibration-induced injury to characterize changes in sensory nerve function and cellular mechanisms associated with these alterations. Sensory nerve function was assessed weekly using the current perception threshold test and tail-flick analgesia test in male Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to 28 d of tail vibration. After 28 d of exposure, Aβ fiber sensitivity was reduced. This reduction in sensitivity was partly attributed to structural disruption of myelin. In addition, the decrease in sensitivity was also associated with a reduction in myelin basic protein and 2',3'- cyclic nucleotide phosphodiasterase (CNPase) staining in tail nerves, and an increase in circulating calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) concentrations. Changes in Aβ fiber sensitivity and CGRP concentrations may serve as early markers of vibration-induced injury in peripheral nerves. It is conceivable that these markers may be utilized to monitor sensorineural alterations in workers exposed to vibration to potentially prevent additional injury.

  18. Nurses' knowledge, attitudes, and current practice of daily oral hygiene care to patients on acute aged care wards in two Australian hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibney, J; Wright, C; Sharma, A; Naganathan, V

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to identify nurses' knowledge, attitudes, and current practice in relation to oral hygiene (OH) by means of a questionnaire. It was conducted on the aged care wards of two acute tertiary referral hospitals in New South Wales, Australia. We found that 74% of nurses have a set OH practice. Fifty-four percent of nurses learn their OH practice at university or TAFE. The main nurse qualification is a registered nurse (72%). Denture cleaning, toothbrushing, and swabbing the mouth with a toothette are the main OH practices. Nurses (99%) considered OH to be important. The main barriers to conducting OH practices were patient behaviors, lack of time and staff, and patient physical difficulties. Nurses considered OH important however patient behaviors impact on their ability to undertake the task. Education institutions and hospitals should consider the joint development of a formal OH procedure and training package that can be used on acute geriatric care wards. © 2015 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Channels to Meet Foreign Partners and the Daily Life Adaptation in the Current Society of the Southern Thai Families Whose Members are married to Foreigners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jirawitt Phannarat

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative research study used a phenomenological approach by studying from 20 families in southern Thailand whose members are married to foreigners (Western and Asian and live in various provinces in the south, including Songkhla, Surat Thani, Krabi, Trang, Phuket, Trang, and Chumphon. The data was analyzed by using an interpreting method. The inductive reasoning was performed and the results then were presented in a descriptive analysis. The study results reveal that the channels to meet foreign partners are through working in similar or the same occupations and working in the fields that are likely to meet the foreigners, such as teaching English language in high schools, teaching foreign languages, and studying abroad. The adaptation started early since when they began dating. The results also find that these days the society began to open wide about marriages between Thais and foreigners than in the past. For economic adaptation, most families are moderate to good standing. Due to current economic conditions, higher cost of living affect the family economic condition, they then agree to resolve the problem by reducing unnecessary costs within the family and maintain austerity budget to reduce unnecessary costs in order to have sufficient income for the family. For the cultural adaptation, Thai families whose members are married to foreigners uniquely have positive attitude and openness to ideas and able to exchange ideas with each other when they see things differently. The foreign spouses are also able to accept and learn the southern Thai culture, and at the same time the families are also open to learn the foreign culture.

  20. Feasibility of a group cessation program for co-smokers of cannabis and tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Julia; Haug, Severin; Kraemer, Thomas; Schaub, Michael P

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to evaluate the feasibility and effects of a group cessation program for cannabis and tobacco co-smokers. Using a repeated-measures design with pre-, post- and six months follow-up assessments, feasibility (intervention utilisation, safety and acceptability) and changes in substance use behaviour and mental health were evaluated. The intervention consisted of five to six group sessions and was based on current treatment techniques (e.g. motivational interviewing, cognitive-behavioural therapy, and self-control training). In total, 77 adults who used cannabis at least once weekly and cigarettes or similar products at least once daily participated in the study. Within nine months, the target sample size was reached. Treatment retention was 62.3%, and only three participants discontinued treatment due to severe problems (concentration problems, sleeping problems, depressive symptoms, and/or distorted perceptions). In total, 41.5% and 23.4% reported abstinence from cigarettes, cannabis or both at the end of treatment and the follow-up, respectively. The individual abstinence rates for cigarettes and cannabis were 32.5% and 23.4% (end of treatment) and 10.4% and 19.5% (follow-up), and 13% (end of treatment) and 5.2% (follow-up) achieved dual abstinence validated for tobacco abstinence. Over the study period, significant decreases in tobacco and cannabis use frequencies and significant improvements in additional outcomes (drinking problems, symptoms of cannabis use disorder, nicotine dependence, depression and anxiety) were achieved. The evaluated intervention for co-smokers is feasible regarding recruitment, intervention retention and safety. The promising results regarding substance use and mental health support a randomised controlled trial to evaluate effectiveness. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  1. Are smokers adequately informed about the health risks of smoking and medicinal nicotine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, K Michael; Hyland, Andrew; Giovino, Gary A; Hastrup, Janice L; Bauer, Joseph E; Bansal, Maansi A

    2004-12-01

    The present study assessed smokers' beliefs about the health risks of smoking and the benefits of smoking filtered and low-tar cigarettes, and their awareness of and interest in trying so-called reduced-risk tobacco products. Results were based on a nationally representative random-digit-dialed telephone survey of 1,046 adult (aged 18 years or older) current cigarette smokers. Data were gathered on demographic characteristics, tobacco use behaviors, awareness and use of nicotine medications, beliefs about the health risks of smoking, content of smoke and design features of cigarettes, and the safety and efficacy of nicotine medications. In addition, respondents were asked about their interest in and perceived ability to stop smoking and about their desire for more information about the health risks of smoking. Smokers were least knowledgeable about low-tar and filter cigarettes (65% of responses were incorrect or "don't know") and most knowledgeable about the health risks of smoking (39% of responses were incorrect or "don't know"). The smokers' characteristics most commonly associated with misinformation when all six indices were combined into a summary index were as follows: those aged 45 years or older, smokers of ultralight cigarettes, smokers who believe they will stop smoking before they experience a serious health problem caused by smoking, smokers who have never used a stop-smoking medication, and smokers with a lower education level. Those who believed they would stop smoking in the next year were more knowledgeable about smoking. Some 77% of respondents reported a desire for additional information from tobacco companies on the health dangers of smoking. The present findings demonstrate that smokers are misinformed about many aspects of the cigarettes they smoke and stop-smoking medications and that they want more information about ways to reduce their health risks.

  2. Social Representations of Smokers among Smoking Youth

    OpenAIRE

    O V Maslova; V S Tarkhova

    2014-01-01

    The article presents the results of the empirical research of social representations of smoking abuse among smoking young people. The authors reveal gender differences in the representations of smokers and show the role of psychological factors in smoking abuse.

  3. The Case against a Smoker's License

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, Simon

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND TO THE DEBATE: Tobacco continues to kill millions of people around the world each year and its use is increasing in some countries, which makes the need for new, creative, and radical efforts to achieve the tobacco control endgame vitally important. One such effort is discussed in this PLOS Medicine Debate, where Simon Chapman presents his proposal for a "smoker's license" and Jeff Collin argues against. Chapman sets out a case for introducing a smart card license for smokers desig...

  4. The Case against a Smoker's License

    OpenAIRE

    Collin, J.

    2012-01-01

    Background to the debate: Tobacco continues to kill millions of people around the world each year and its use is increasing in some countries, which makes the need for new, creative, and radical efforts to achieve the tobacco control endgame vitally important. One such effort is discussed in this PLOS Medicine Debate, where Simon Chapman presents his proposal for a "smoker's license" and Jeff Collin argues against. Chapman sets out a case for introducing a smart card license for smokers desig...

  5. Smokers Show Lower Levels of Psychological Well-Being and Mindfulness than Non-Smokers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víviam Vargas Barros

    Full Text Available Mindfulness is defined as "paying attention in a particular way, on purpose, in the present moment, and nonjudgmentally". Mindfulness is associated with positive affect, life satisfaction, self-esteem, lower negative affect and rumination. Conversely, evidence suggests a relationship between nicotine dependence and psychiatric disorders. This study aimed to compare the levels of Mindfulness and Subjective Well-Being (SWB between smokers and non-smokers. Ninety seven smokers and eighty four non-smokers participated in the study (n = 181. The Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ-BR and the Subjective Well-Being Scale (SWBS were used. In all the factors of SWBS, the total scores in the FFMQ-BR and in the facets of Observing and Non-Reactivity, the non-smokers scored higher than the smokers. This study suggests that smokers present lower levels of Mindfulness and SWB than non-smokers. Consequently, we propose that Mindfulness-Based Interventions (MBI may help smokers deal with treatment and abstinence by increasing their level of SWB.

  6. Smokers Show Lower Levels of Psychological Well-Being and Mindfulness than Non-Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Víviam Vargas; Kozasa, Elisa Harumi; Formagini, Taynara Dutra Batista; Pereira, Laís Helena; Ronzani, Telmo Mota

    2015-01-01

    Mindfulness is defined as "paying attention in a particular way, on purpose, in the present moment, and nonjudgmentally". Mindfulness is associated with positive affect, life satisfaction, self-esteem, lower negative affect and rumination. Conversely, evidence suggests a relationship between nicotine dependence and psychiatric disorders. This study aimed to compare the levels of Mindfulness and Subjective Well-Being (SWB) between smokers and non-smokers. Ninety seven smokers and eighty four non-smokers participated in the study (n = 181). The Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ-BR) and the Subjective Well-Being Scale (SWBS) were used. In all the factors of SWBS, the total scores in the FFMQ-BR and in the facets of Observing and Non-Reactivity, the non-smokers scored higher than the smokers. This study suggests that smokers present lower levels of Mindfulness and SWB than non-smokers. Consequently, we propose that Mindfulness-Based Interventions (MBI) may help smokers deal with treatment and abstinence by increasing their level of SWB.

  7. Periodontal disease in habitual cigarette smokers and nonsmokers with and without prediabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Fawad; Al-Askar, Mansour; Samaranayake, Lakshman P; Al-Hezaimi, Khalid

    2013-02-01

    : Prediabetes and habitual cigarette smoking are significant risk factors contributing to periodontal disease. The aim was to assess the clinical and radiological markers of periodontal disease in habitual cigarette smokers and nonsmokers with and without prediabetes. Sixty-eight individuals with prediabetes (test group; 34 smokers and 34 nonsmokers) and 68 medically healthy individuals (control group; 34 smokers and 34 nonsmokers) were included. Sociodemographic information, duration of smoking habit and number of cigarettes smoked daily were recorded through a questionnaire. Fasting blood glucose levels and periodontal inflammatory conditions (plaque index [PI], bleeding on probing [BOP] and probing pocket depth [PPD] of 4 to periodontal disease than nonsmokers. In subjects with prediabetes, the severity of periodontal disease seems to be over shadowed by the hyperglycemic state, obscuring the effect of habitual smoking.

  8. Peak Expiratory Flow Rate In Cigarette Smokers | Ukoli | Highland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To compare lung function between smokers and non-smokers using Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR). Methods: This study examines the peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) of three hundred and forty cigarette smokers, age and sex-matched with PEFR of equal number of non-smokers. Results: The mean PEFR of ...

  9. A Randomized Trial of Motivational Interviewing: Cessation Induction Among Smokers With Low Desire to Quit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catley, Delwyn; Goggin, Kathy; Harris, Kari Jo; Richter, Kimber P; Williams, Karen; Patten, Christi; Resnicow, Ken; Ellerbeck, Edward F; Bradley-Ewing, Andrea; Lee, Hyoung S; Moreno, Jose L; Grobe, James E

    2016-05-01

    Despite limitations in evidence, the current Clinical Practice Guideline advocates Motivational Interviewing for smokers not ready to quit. This study evaluated the efficacy of Motivational Interviewing for inducing cessation-related behaviors among smokers with low motivation to quit. Randomized clinical trial. Two-hundred fifty-five daily smokers reporting low desire to quit smoking were recruited from an urban community during 2010-2011 and randomly assigned to Motivational Interviewing, health education, or brief advice using a 2:2:1 allocation. Data were analyzed from 2012 to 2014. Four sessions of Motivational Interviewing utilized a patient-centered communication style that explored patients' own reasons for change. Four sessions of health education provided education related to smoking cessation while excluding elements characteristic of Motivational Interviewing. A single session of brief advice consisted of brief, personalized advice to quit. Self-reported quit attempts; smoking abstinence (biochemically verified); use of cessation pharmacotherapies; motivation; and confidence to quit were assessed at baseline and 3- and 6-month follow-ups. Unexpectedly, no significant differences emerged between groups in the proportion who made a quit attempt by 6-month follow-up (Motivational Interviewing, 52.0%; health education, 60.8%; brief advice, 45.1%; p=0.157). Health education had significantly higher biochemically verified abstinence rates at 6 months (7.8%) than brief advice (0.0%) (8% risk difference, 95% CI=3%, 13%, p=0.003), with the Motivational Interviewing group falling in between (2.9% abstinent, 3% risk difference, 95% CI=0%, 6%, p=0.079). Both Motivational Interviewing and health education groups showed greater increases in cessation medication use, motivation, and confidence to quit relative to brief advice (all pmotivation relative to Motivational Interviewing (Cohen's d=0.36, 95% CI=0.12, 0.60). Although Motivational Interviewing was generally

  10. Examining of Thallium in Cigarette Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaderi, Amir; NasehGhafoori, Payam; Rasouli-Azad, Morad; Sehat, Mojtaba; Mehrzad, Fateme; Nekuei, Mina; Aaseth, Jan; Banafshe, Hamid Reza; Mehrpour, Omid

    2018-04-01

    Smoking is one of the sources of thallium which is considered as a toxic heavy metal. The aim of this study was to determine urinary thallium levels and related variables in smokers, compared to a control group. The study was conducted on 56 participants who had smoked continuously during the year before they were referred to Kashan Smoking Cessation Clinic. Fifty-three nonsmokers who were family members or friends of the smokers were selected as the control group. Urinary thallium was measured in both groups (n = 109) using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The mean value (with SD) for urinary thallium in the smokers (10.16 ± 1.82 μg/L) was significantly higher than in the control group (2.39 ± 0.63 μg/L). There was a significant relationship between smoking duration and urinary thallium levels (P = 0.003). In a subgroup of smokers who was addicted to opium and opium residues (n = 9), the mean level of thallium (37.5 ± 13.09 μg/L) was significantly higher than in the other smokers (4.93 ± 4.45; P = 0.001). Multiple regression analysis showed opioid abuse, insomnia, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), together were strong predictors of urinary thallium levels in smokers. There was no significant difference in thallium level in hookah smokers (P = 0.299) or in those with COPD compared to other smokers (P = 0.375). Urinary thallium levels of smokers with clinical signs of depression, sleep disorders, memory loss, and sweating were higher than those of smokers without these signs. Since thallium, as other toxic metals is accumulated in the body, and cigarette smoking also involves carcinogenic exposures and health hazards for passively exposed people, the need for cigarette control policies is emphasized.

  11. Smokers' sources of e-cigarette awareness and risk information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackowski, Olivia A; Bover Manderski, Michelle T; Delnevo, Cristine D

    Few studies have explored sources of e-cigarette awareness and peoples' e-cigarette information needs, interests or behaviors. This study contributes to both domains of e-cigarette research. Results are based on a 2014 e-cigarette focused survey of 519 current smokers from a nationally representative research panel. Smokers most frequently reported seeing e-cigarettes in stores (86.4%) and used in person (83%). Many (73%) had also heard about e-cigarettes from known users, broadcast media ads (68%), other (print, online) advertisements (71.5%), and/or from the news (60.9%); sources of awareness varied by e-cigarette experience. Most smokers (59.9%) believed e-cigarettes are less harmful than regular cigarettes, a belief attributed to "common sense" (76.4%), the news (39.2%) and advertisements (37.2%). However, 79.5% felt e-cigarette safety information was important. Over one-third said they would turn to a doctor first for e-cigarette safety information, though almost a quarter said they would turn to the Internet or product packaging first. Most (59.6%) ranked doctors as the most trustworthy risk source, and 6.8% had asked a health professional about e-cigarettes. Future research should explore the content of e-cigarette information sources, their potential impact, and ways they might be strengthened or changed through regulatory and/or educational efforts.

  12. Stressful Life Events and Psychosomatic Symptoms among Students Smokers and Non-smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodaj, Arta; Simic, Natasa

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the rate of stressful life events and psychosomatic symptoms among students smokers and non-smokers and examine the predictive contribution of stress and smoking to subjective health status. Methods were conducted on a convenience sample of 200 students from the University of Mostar, with a median age of…

  13. The role of impulse oscillometry in assessment of airway obstruction in smokers and ex-smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taher El-Naggar

    2012-10-01

    Conclusion: IOS is an effective, easy to perform, and a non invasive method for the assessment of airway obstruction in obstructive pulmonary disorders. Although, there is no significant difference between impulse oscillometry and spirometry parameters in early detection of airway obstruction in smokers and ex-smokers groups.

  14. Characteristics of airflow and particle deposition in COPD current smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Chunrui; Choi, Jiwoong; Haghighi, Babak; Choi, Sanghun; Hoffman, Eric A.; Lin, Ching-Long

    2017-11-01

    A recent imaging-based cluster analysis of computed tomography (CT) lung images in a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) cohort identified four clusters, viz. disease sub-populations. Cluster 1 had relatively normal airway structures; Cluster 2 had wall thickening; Cluster 3 exhibited decreased wall thickness and luminal narrowing; Cluster 4 had a significant decrease of luminal diameter and a significant reduction of lung deformation, thus having relatively low pulmonary functions. To better understand the characteristics of airflow and particle deposition in these clusters, we performed computational fluid and particle dynamics analyses on representative cluster patients and healthy controls using CT-based airway models and subject-specific 3D-1D coupled boundary conditions. The results show that particle deposition in central airways of cluster 4 patients was noticeably increased especially with increasing particle size despite reduced vital capacity as compared to other clusters and healthy controls. This may be attributable in part to significant airway constriction in cluster 4. This study demonstrates the potential application of cluster-guided CFD analysis in disease populations. NIH Grants U01HL114494 and S10-RR022421, and FDA Grant U01FD005837.

  15. The consequences of high cigarette excise taxes for low-income smokers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew C Farrelly

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To illustrate the burden of high cigarette excise taxes on low-income smokers. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using data from the New York and national Adult Tobacco Surveys from 2010-2011, we estimated how smoking prevalence, daily cigarette consumption, and share of annual income spent on cigarettes vary by annual income (less than $30,000; $30,000-$59,999; and more than $60,000. The 2010-2011 sample includes 7,536 adults and 1,294 smokers from New York and 3,777 adults and 748 smokers nationally. Overall, smoking prevalence is lower in New York (16.1% than nationally (22.2% and is strongly associated with income in New York and nationally (P<.001. Smoking prevalence ranges from 12.2% to 33.7% nationally and from 10.1% to 24.3% from the highest to lowest income group. In 2010-2011, the lowest income group spent 23.6% of annual household income on cigarettes in New York (up from 11.6% in 2003-2004 and 14.2% nationally. Daily cigarette consumption is not related to income. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although high cigarette taxes are an effective method for reducing cigarette smoking, they can impose a significant financial burden on low-income smokers.

  16. Repeated administration of an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor attenuates nicotine taking in rats and smoking behavior in human smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashare, R L; Kimmey, B A; Rupprecht, L E; Bowers, M E; Hayes, M R; Schmidt, H D

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco smoking remains the leading cause of preventable death worldwide and current smoking cessation medications have limited efficacy. Thus, there is a clear need for translational research focused on identifying novel pharmacotherapies for nicotine addiction. Our previous studies demonstrated that acute administration of an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AChEI) attenuates nicotine taking and seeking in rats and suggest that AChEIs could be repurposed for smoking cessation. Here, we expand upon these findings with experiments designed to determine the effects of repeated AChEI administration on voluntary nicotine taking in rats as well as smoking behavior in human smokers. Rats were trained to self-administer intravenous infusions of nicotine (0.03 mg kg−1 per 0.59 ml) on a fixed-ratio-5 schedule of reinforcement. Once rats maintained stable nicotine taking, galantamine or donepezil was administered before 10 consecutive daily nicotine self-administration sessions. Repeated administration of 5.0 mg kg−1 galantamine and 3.0 mg kg−1 donepezil attenuated nicotine self-administration in rats. These effects were reinforcer-specific and not due to adverse malaise-like effects of drug treatment as repeated galantamine and donepezil administration had no effects on sucrose self-administration, ad libitum food intake and pica. The effects of repeated galantamine (versus placebo) on cigarette smoking were also tested in human treatment-seeking smokers. Two weeks of daily galantamine treatment (8.0 mg (week 1) and 16.0 mg (week 2)) significantly reduced smoking rate as well as smoking satisfaction and reward compared with placebo. This translational study indicates that repeated AChEI administration reduces nicotine reinforcement in rats and smoking behavior in humans at doses not associated with tolerance and/or adverse effects. PMID:26784967

  17. Cross-Sectional Survey on Quitting Attempts among Adolescent Smokers in Dharan, Eastern Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranil Man Singh Pradhan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Adolescents frequently attempt smoking cessation but are unable to maintain long term abstinence because they are dependent on nicotine and experience withdrawal symptoms. Objectives. This study aimed to explore the quitting attempts among adolescent smokers in Dharan Municipality of Eastern Nepal. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted using pretested self-administered questionnaire adapted from Global Youth Tobacco Survey to assess current smokers and quitting attempts among 1312 adolescent students in middle (14-15 years and late adolescence (16–19 years. Chi square test was used for association of various factors with quitting attempts. Results. The prevalence of current smoking was 13.7%. Among the current smokers, 66.5% had attempted to quit in the past because they believed smoking was harmful to health (35.5%. The median duration of quitting was 150 days. Nearly 8% of the current smokers were unwilling to quit in the future because they thought it is already a habit (60%. Smokers who are willing to quit smoking in the future were more likely to have made quitting attempts (OR = 1.36, 95% CI = 0.40–4.45. Conclusion. Relapse often occurs even after multiple quitting attempts. Tobacco focused interventions to support abstinence are important during adolescence to prevent habituation.

  18. Comparison of salivary calcium level in smokers and non-smokers with chronic periodontitis, aggressive periodontitis, and healthy controls

    OpenAIRE

    Kambalyal, Preeti; Kambalyal, Prabhuraj; Hungund, Shital

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare salivary calcium (Ca) level in smokers and non-smokers with chronic periodontitis, aggressive periodontitis, and healthy controls. Materials and Methods: 56 subjects were included in the study and were grouped as follows: 12 subjects who were periodontally healthy (Group I), 12 subjects having chronic periodontitis who were non-smokers (Group II), 12 non-smokers having aggressive periodontitis (Group III), 12 smokers with chronic periodontit...

  19. The use of assistive technology for cognition to support the performance of daily activities for individuals with cognitive disabilities due to traumatic brain injury: The current state of the research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Anne; Lourie, Anna; Petras, Hanno; Elias, Eileen

    2015-01-01

    Many individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) are young and could have many years of productivity ahead of them. However, cognitive impairments may hinder individuals' ability to perform daily tasks. Assistive technology for cognition (ATC) can be effective in helping compensate for cognitive impairments. This study examined the current state of the research on using ATCs to support daily activities for individuals with cognitive disabilities that are due to TBI. A comprehensive systematic literature search was performed to identify peer-reviewed articles published between 2000 and 2015. To evaluate the nature of the research, qualitative data were extracted pertaining to recruitment, participant characteristics, intervention design, type of ATCs and their functions, matching individuals with ATCs, training for using the ATC, and outcomes. Research examining the effectiveness of ATCs as everyday compensatory tools for cognitive impairments that are due to TBI is limited. The majority of studies were case studies or quasi-experimental studies with small sample sizes. Studies showed positive associations between use of ATCs and individuals' abilities to perform tasks regardless of age, TBI severity, and time since injury. Future research should assess the match between the individual and the technology, study the impact of training on using ATCs, and analyze the usability of ATCs.

  20. Activities of Daily Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... With Parkinson's › Managing Parkinson's › Activities of Daily Living Activities of Daily Living Sometimes Parkinson’s disease (PD) can complicate the basic daily activities a person with living with Parkinson’s once did ...

  1. Enhanced prolactin levels in opium smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshtaghi-Kashanian, Ghollam-Reza; Esmaeeli, Farzaneh; Dabiri, Shahriar

    2005-12-01

    In Iran, opium is smoked for pleasure or as a medication by some people. It is a complex mixture of 40 different alkaloids, including morphine and codeine along with many impurities. Although it is well established that opioids or tobacco affect many physiological functions in humans, to our knowledge there has been no specific study looking at these effects in opium smokers. To assess that, we investigated the circulating levels of prolactin, TSH, LH, FSH and testosterone in male opium smokers who also smoke cigarettes (n=23, aged 28.4+/- 4.1 years), and comparing this with the corresponding values for nicotine abusers (n=12, 15-25 cigarettes/day) or a healthy control group (n=20) of the same age. Our results showed that 86.96% of the opium-dependent and 41.67 % of the nicotine-dependent group displayed high prolactin values (popium and the plasma prolactin level of opium dependents (p=0.748, popium smokers and 50% of the cigarette smokers (popium smokers was also lower than that of the other two groups (popium and cigarette smoking may synergistically influence pituitary hormone production through the effects on neuropeptides produced either locally or systemic.

  2. [Smoker teenagers in colleges of Zaghouan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelkafi Koubaa, Afifa; Chibani, Moncef; Bel Abed, Najet; Dahmen, Hayet; Ouerfelli, Nabil; Taher Maabouj, Mohamed; Hasni, Khadija; Askri, Moncef; Sellami, Lotfi

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the rate of smoker adolescents in Zaghouan, to seek for the smoking reasons, the used arguments, recording to them, to stop, and show their knowledge about prevention. A prospective study included 266 teenagers scolarised: 194 boys and 72 girls (aged from 12 to 16 years) from 3 colleges located in Zaghouan during 2006. A questionnaire was drawn up on these adolescents. It contains three parts: tabagic habits of smoking teenagers, the reasons of smoking and information about prevention. Twenty six percents of students are smokers, this percentage increases with the scholar level. They have parents' authorization in 18% of cases and have at least one smoker in their environment in 74% of cases. From whose who have tried tobacco, 65% became smokers. The most invoked causes are calming character of cigarettes and the pleasure to smoke. The first cigarette is smoked just for curiosity. The middle age of smoking initiation is 12 years. Twenty three percents of smoking students have tried to stop. The reasons are the dangerous character for health and the cost of tobacco. Adolescents prefer to use shocking pictures to self-sensitize (66%). Some pupils suggest calling smoker persons who are victims of tobacco to talk about their experiences. Adolescents' smoking is a Public Health priority in Tunisia. The rate of smoking, its cost and its bad health risks encourage us to make preventions, especially the education and information for children and help adolescents to stop smoking.

  3. How does increasingly plainer cigarette packaging influence adult smokers' perceptions about brand image? An experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, M A; Germain, D; Durkin, S J

    2008-12-01

    Cigarette packaging is a key marketing strategy for promoting brand image. Plain packaging has been proposed to limit brand image, but tobacco companies would resist removal of branding design elements. A 3 (brand types) x 4 (degree of plain packaging) between-subject experimental design was used, using an internet online method, to expose 813 adult Australian smokers to one randomly selected cigarette pack, after which respondents completed ratings of the pack. Compared with current cigarette packs with full branding, cigarette packs that displayed progressively fewer branding design elements were perceived increasingly unfavourably in terms of smokers' appraisals of the packs, the smokers who might smoke such packs, and the inferred experience of smoking a cigarette from these packs. For example, cardboard brown packs with the number of enclosed cigarettes displayed on the front of the pack and featuring only the brand name in small standard font at the bottom of the pack face were rated as significantly less attractive and popular than original branded packs. Smokers of these plain packs were rated as significantly less trendy/stylish, less sociable/outgoing and less mature than smokers of the original pack. Compared with original packs, smokers inferred that cigarettes from these plain packs would be less rich in tobacco, less satisfying and of lower quality tobacco. Plain packaging policies that remove most brand design elements are likely to be most successful in removing cigarette brand image associations.

  4. Predictors of cessation pharmacotherapy use among black and non-Hispanic white smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Katherine K; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth; Alberg, Anthony J; Cartmell, Kathleen B; Carpenter, Matthew J

    2011-08-01

    Use of pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation improves quit rates, but these treatments are underutilized, particularly among Black smokers. Attitudes toward pharmacotherapy may differ between racial/ethnic minorities and Caucasian smokers. It was hypothesized that Black and non-Hispanic White smokers would differ in their attitudes toward pharmacotherapy and that the association between attitudes toward and actual use of pharmacotherapy would differ by race. The study consisted of a single, cross-sectional telephone-based survey of current smokers (N = 697), which examined the relationship between race, attitudes toward pharmacotherapy, and pharmacotherapy usage in a representative bi-racial sample (39% Black). Black smokers were significantly less likely to report ever use of pharmacotherapy (23%) than Caucasians (39%; odds ratio [OR] = 0.46; 95% CI: 0.33-0.66). Compared with Caucasians, Blacks had significantly less favorable attitudes toward pharmacotherapy, including disbelief about efficacy (p = .03), addiction concerns (p = .03), harmfulness of pharmacotherapy (p = .008), and need for treatment of any kind to quit smoking (p = .004). In a multiple logistic regression, racial group (Caucasian is referent: OR = 0.55, p = .003), addiction concerns (OR = 0.80, p smokers. Regardless of racial group, misconceptions about pharmacotherapy are related to lower rates of use. Efforts to improve understanding about the efficacy and safety of these products are needed to boost utilization and impact cessation rates.

  5. What characterises smokers who quit without using help?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Stine Schou; Dalum, Peter; Skov-Ettrup, Lise Skrubbeltrang

    2015-01-01

    -2008. In all, 6445 persons reporting quitting successfully within the last 5 years were included in analyses. Users and non-users of cessation aid (medical or behavioural support) were compared with regards to age, education, years smoked, tobacco amount, tobacco type and smoking-related disease using logistic......, those who had smoked for 15 years or more also had lower odds of quitting unaided. Smoking 15 or more grams of tobacco daily was inversely associated with quitting unaided (eg, OR among men were 0.38, 95% CI 0.31 to 0.46). CONCLUSIONS: Quitting smoking without the use of formalised aid was the most...... common cessation approach. Quitting unaided was more likely among men, younger age groups, those with a shorter history of smoking and those who were light smokers. These results indicate that awareness of unaided cessation in general and to those for whom it is especially relevant should be increased...

  6. Implicit associations and compensatory health beliefs in smokers: exploring their role for behaviour and their change through warning labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glock, Sabine; Müller, Barbara C N; Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine

    2013-11-01

    Smokers might think that the negative effects of smoking can be compensated for by other behaviours, such as doing exercise or eating healthily. This phenomenon is known as compensatory health beliefs (CHBs). Graphic warning labels on cigarette packets emphasize the negative effects of smoking, which may impact CHBs. Research so far has assessed CHBs explicitly only via questionnaires, although implicit cognition might be an important factor in continuing to smoke. This study investigated the impact of graphic warning labels on CHBs, by testing CHBs both implicitly and explicitly. The study had a three-group experimental design. ANOVAs and multiple regression analyses were run on the results. We assessed explicit CHBs among non-smokers, smokers, and smokers confronted with graphic warning labels (N = 107; 47 females, 23.89 years old, 78 daily smokers). Implicit associations between smoking and CHB-specific behaviours (e.g., eating healthy food) were measured using a Single-Target Implicit Association Test. After the experiment, participants were able to choose between a healthy and unhealthy food reward. Non-smokers and smokers differed in explicit CHBs but not in implicit cognitions. Warning labels influenced implicit associations among smokers but did not affect explicit CHBs. Most interestingly, implicit associations and explicit CHBs predicted food choice and smoking among smokers not confronted with warning labels. Graphic warning labels could be used in interventions to inhibit automatic associations between smoking and healthy behaviours. Unlearning implicit cognitions might in turn affect explicit CHBs, thus decreasing their role in reducing the negative feelings caused by smoking. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  7. Prevalence and progression of combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema in asymptomatic smokers: A case-control study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Kum Ju; Jin, Gong Yong; Han, Young Min; Kim, Yong Seek; Chon, Su Bin; Lee, Young Sun [Chonbuk National University Medical School and Hospital, Department of Radiology, Institute of Medical Science, Research Institute of Clinical Medicine, Jeonju, Jeonbuk (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Keun Sang [Chonbuk National University Medical School, Department of Preventive Medicine, Research Institute of Clinical Medicine, Jeonju, Jeonbuk (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hye Mi [Chonbuk National University, Department of Statistics and Institute of Applied Statistics, Jeonju, Jeonbuk (Korea, Republic of); Lynch, David [National Jewish Health, Department of Radiology, Denver, CO (United States)

    2015-08-15

    We aimed to estimate the prevalence of combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) and describe the follow-up CT results of CPFE in asymptomatic smokers. This study was retrospective, and approved by an institutional review board. CT images of 2,016 current or previous male smokers who underwent low-dose chest CT at our healthcare centre were reviewed. Quantitative CT analysis was used to assess the extent of emphysema, and two radiologists visually analyzed the extent of fibrosis. Changes in fibrosis (no change, improvement, or progression) were evaluated on follow-up CT imaging (n = 42). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, multivariate logistic regression and its ROC curve were used for survival and progression analysis. The prevalence of CPFE among asymptomatic male smokers was 3.1 % (63/2,016). The median follow-up period was 50.4 months, and 72.7 % (16/22) of continued smoker had progressing fibrosis on follow-up CT. CPFE progressed more rapidly in continuous smokers than in former smokers (p = 0.002). The 3.5-year follow-up period after initial CPFE diagnosis maximized the sum of sensitivity and specificity of CPFE progression prediction in continuous smokers. The prevalence of CPFE turned out not to be inconsiderable in asymptomatic male smokers, but serial CT follow-up would be helpful in recognizing disease progression. (orig.)

  8. Can an index of smokers' emotional status predict the chances of success in attempts to quit smoking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddini-Martinez, José; de Padua, Adriana Ignácio

    2013-06-01

    Smoking cessation still is a great challenge for smokers and health care professionals. Most subjects try cigarettes in adolescence under predominant environmental influences, and some psychological features are clearly associated with the establishment of continuous cigarette use. As a result, it is acceptable to assume that the risk of becoming regular smokers should be higher for subjects exhibiting imperfect psychological well-being. Since nicotine exhibits recognized psychopharmacological actions, an important reason for smoking would be the comfort of smokers' emotional afflictions. In this scenario, cigarettes might be seen as effective coping instruments for smokers. We hypothesize that a simple measure covering major emotional features of smokers might become a useful instrument for predicting the chances of success in attempts to quit smoking. The development of this new test aimed to measure the degree of smokers' emotional imbalance has the potential to predict the chances of success in response to standard therapy, as well as the need for introduction of intensive individualized psychological or psychiatric interventions. Preliminary analyses of a new test called Smokers' Emotional Index (SEI) support such a hypothesis. The SEI scores showed significant correlations with the values of the Fagerström test of nicotine dependence (FTND) for adult smokers. More numerous and better correlation coefficients were also observed between aspects of smoking history with SEI punctuations than with FTND scores. A clinical trial is proposed to test this hypothesis that could help to improve the results of current approaches to smoking cessation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Basement membrane and vascular remodelling in smokers and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muller H Konrad

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about airway remodelling in bronchial biopsies (BB in smokers and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. We conducted an initial pilot study comparing BB from COPD patients with nonsmoking controls. This pilot study suggested the presence of reticular basement membrane (Rbm fragmentation and altered vessel distribution in COPD. Methods To determine whether Rbm fragmentation and altered vessel distribution in BB were specific for COPD we designed a cross-sectional study and stained BB from 19 current smokers and 14 ex-smokers with mild to moderate COPD and compared these to 15 current smokers with normal lung function and 17 healthy and nonsmoking subjects. Results Thickness of the Rbm was not significantly different between groups; although in COPD this parameter was quite variable. The Rbm showed fragmentation and splitting in both current smoking groups and ex-smoker COPD compared with healthy nonsmokers (p Conclusions Airway remodelling in smokers and mild to moderate COPD is associated with fragmentation of the Rbm and altered distribution of vessels in the airway wall. Rbm fragmentation was also present to as great an extent in ex-smokers with COPD. These characteristics may have potential physiological consequences.

  10. Do symptoms predict COPD in smokers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohar, Jill A; Sadeghnejad, Alireza; Meyers, Deborah A; Donohue, James F; Bleecker, Eugene R

    2010-06-01

    The US Preventive Services Task Force recommends against spirometry in the absence of symptoms. However, as much as 50% of COPD cases in the United States remain undiagnosed. Report of symptoms, smoking history, and spirometric data were collected from subjects screened for a work-related medical evaluation (N = 3,955). Prevalence of airflow obstruction and respiratory symptoms were assessed. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and relative risks of predicting symptoms and smoking history for COPD were calculated. Forty-four percent of smokers in our sample had airways obstruction (AO). Of these, 36% reported a diagnosis of or treatment for COPD. Odds ratio (95% CI) for AO with smoking (> or = 20 pack-years) was 3.73 (3.12- 4.45), 1.98 (1.73-2.27) for cough, 1.79 (1.55-2.08) for dyspnea, 1.95 (1.70-2.34) for sputum, and 2.59 (2.26-2.97) for wheeze. Respiratory symptoms were reported by 92% of smokers with AO, 86% smokers with restriction, 76% smokers with normal spirometry, and 73% of nonsmokers. Sensitivity (92% vs 90%), specificity (19% vs 22%), positive (47% vs 40%) and negative (75% vs 80%) predictive values for the presence of one or more symptoms were similar between smokers and all subjects. COPD is underdiagnosed in the United States. Symptoms are frequent in subjects with AO and increase their risk for COPD, but add little beyond age and smoking history to the predictive value of spirometry. In view of the high prevalence of symptoms and their poor predictive value, a simpler and more effective approach would be to screen older smokers.

  11. [Smoking cessation among HIV smokers: Experience of a French hospital-based smoking cessation service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choulika, S; Le Faou, A-L

    2017-04-01

    There is a particular need among HIV-infected patients to stop smoking because of the risk of smoking-related complications and the high prevalence of cigarette smoking among them. Only a few studies have focused on this population in real-world settings. Investigate the effectiveness of a smoking cessation support for HIV-infected patients at the Georges Pompidou University hospital (HEGP) smoking cessation service during the 2011-2012 period. A retrospective study of smoking cessation medical records was performed for 39 smokers who had visited for the first time the HEGP smoking cessation service during the 2011-2012 period and declared to be infected by the HIV on their smoking cessation self-questionnaire. The study has described smokers' characteristics and follow-up to measure the abstinence rate, validated by the patient declaration, the registration of the number of days without cigarettes between each visit and a measure of expired carbon monoxide ≤ 5ppm at each visit. We examined smokers lost to follow-up and they have been considered as smokers. Maintained abstinence rates at 3 month-follow-up and at 9 months/one year were registered. The 39 HIV-infected smokers registered in the study were mainly male (30/39), were heavy smokers with a consumption mean of nearly 23 cigarettes per day. One third presented high nicotine dependence with a Fagerström test ≥ 7. A depression history was reported among one third of them. Symptoms of anxiety and depression were declared by 20% and 33% respectively among them. Thirteen percent of them received opioid replacement therapies, 41% were cannabis users (one out of four were daily users) and 10 % declared alcohol abuse. 85% of patients received nicotine replacement therapy (patch and/or oral forms) and 15% varenicline ® , along with behavioral support techniques. At 3 month-follow-up, smoking cessation was validated for 20.5% of patients and at 9 months/1 year, smoking cessation rate decreased at 13%. When

  12. What would menthol smokers do if menthol in cigarettes were banned? Behavioral intentions and simulated demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Richard J; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Carter, Lawrence P; Cummings, K Michael

    2012-07-01

      The US Food and Drug Administration must consider whether to ban the use of menthol in cigarettes. This study examines how current smokers might respond to such a ban on menthol cigarettes.   Convenience sample of adolescent and adult smokers recruited from an online survey panel.   United States, 2010.   A total of 471 adolescent and adult current cigarette smokers.   Respondents were asked a series of questions about how they might react if menthol cigarettes were banned. In addition, participants completed a simulation purchase task to estimate the demand for menthol and non-menthol cigarettes across a range of prices.   Overall, 36.1% of respondents said they always (18.9%) or usually (17.2%) smoked menthol cigarettes. When asked how they might respond to a ban on menthol cigarettes, 35% of current menthol smokers said they would stop smoking, and 25% said they would 'find a way to buy a menthol brand'. Those who reported they might quit tended to have greater current intentions to quit [odds ratio (OR) = 4.47], while those who reported that they might seek illicit menthol cigarettes were far less likely to report current intentions to quit (OR = 0.06). Estimates for demand elasticity for preferred cigarette type were similar for menthol (α = 0.0051) and non-menthol (α = 0.0049) smokers. Demand elasticity and peak consumption were related to usual cigarette type and cigarettes smoked per day, but did not appear to differ by race, gender or age.   Preliminary evidence suggests that a significant minority of smokers of menthol cigarettes in the United States would try to stop smoking altogether if such cigarettes were banned. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  13. On polar daily geomagnetic variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola De Michelis

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to investigate the nature of the daily magnetic field perturbations produced by ionospheric and magnetospheric currents at high latitudes. We analyse the hourly means of the X and Y geomagnetic field components recorded by a meridian chain of permanent geomagnetic observatories in the polar region of the Northern Hemisphere during a period of four years (1995-1998 around the solar minimum. We apply a mathematical method, known as natural orthogonal component (NOC, which is capable of characterizing the dominant modes of the geomagnetic field daily variability through a set of empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs. Using the first two modes we reconstruct a two-dimensional equivalent current representation of the ionospheric electric currents, which contribute substantially to the geomagnetic daily variations. The obtained current structures resemble the equivalent current patterns of DP2 and DP1. We characterize these currents by studying their evolution with the geomagnetic activity level and by analysing their dependence on the interplanetary magnetic field. The obtained results support the idea of a coexistence of two main processes during all analysed period although one of them, the directly driven process, represents the dominant component of the geomagnetic daily variation.

  14. Smokers Who Try E-Cigarettes to Quit Smoking: Findings From a Multiethnic Study in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Pebbles; Little, Melissa A.; Kawamoto, Crissy T.; Herzog, Thaddeus A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We characterized smokers who are likely to use electronic or “e-”cigarettes to quit smoking. Methods. We obtained cross-sectional data in 2010–2012 from 1567 adult daily smokers in Hawaii using a paper-and-pencil survey. Analyses were conducted using logistic regression. Results. Of the participants, 13% reported having ever used e-cigarettes to quit smoking. Smokers who had used them reported higher motivation to quit, higher quitting self-efficacy, and longer recent quit duration than did other smokers. Age (odds ratio [OR] = 0.98; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.97, 0.99) and Native Hawaiian ethnicity (OR = 0.68; 95% CI = 0.45, 0.99) were inversely associated with increased likelihood of ever using e-cigarettes for cessation. Other significant correlates were higher motivation to quit (OR = 1.14; 95% CI = 1.08, 1.21), quitting self-efficacy (OR = 1.18; 95% CI = 1.06, 1.36), and ever using US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)–approved cessation aids such as nicotine gum (OR = 3.72; 95% CI = 2.67, 5.19). Conclusions. Smokers who try e-cigarettes to quit smoking appear to be serious about wanting to quit. Despite lack of evidence regarding efficacy, smokers treat e-cigarettes as valid alternatives to FDA-approved cessation aids. Research is needed to test the safety and efficacy of e-cigarettes as cessation aids. PMID:23865700

  15. Smoker reactions to a "radio message" that Light cigarettes are as dangerous as Regular cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, L T; Goldberg, M E; Sweeney, C T; Palmer, R F; Pillitteri, J L; Yost, B A; White, E L; Stine, M M

    1999-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine in a systematic, controlled fashion the reactions of smokers to scientifically correct information about the risks of smoking Light cigarettes (about 6-15 mg tar by the FTC method). Random-digit dialing, computer-assisted telephone interviews were used to locate daily smokers of Light cigarettes. In an experimental design, smokers were randomly assigned to listen (n = 293) or not (n = 275) to a persuasive simulated radio message on the risks of Light cigarettes; 108 of those who did not listen to the message in the first part of the interview were played the message in the second part, to evaluate some repeated-measures effects. Those who heard the message were more likely to report that one Light cigarette could give a smoker the same amount of tar as one Regular cigarette and that Light cigarettes were more dangerous: 55% said the message made them think more about quitting and 46% said the message increased the amount they wanted to quit; 42% said that after hearing the message they thought Light cigarettes were more dangerous. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior, structural equation modeling analysis indicated that the message acted to increase intention to quit smoking by increasing the desire to quit smoking. Seventy-three per cent of the smokers agreed that it was important to play such messages widely on the radio; 77% agreed that there should be a warning on packs that vent blocking increases tar; 61% agreed that the location of filter vents should be marked. The majority of smokers of Light cigarettes seem to value being informed that Light cigarettes are as dangerous for them as Regular cigarettes, and this information increases their intentions to quit smoking.

  16. Poly-tobacco use among HIV-positive smokers: implications for smoking cessation efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamí-Maury, Irene; Vidrine, Damon J; Fletcher, Faith E; Danysh, Heather; Arduino, Roberto; Gritz, Ellen R

    2013-12-01

    Poly-tobacco use is defined as cigarette and other tobacco consumption with either product used daily or nondaily. While concurrent use of different types of tobacco has been documented within the general population, less is known about poly-tobacco use among HIV-positive smokers and its impact on smoking cessation efforts. To characterize the profile of poly-tobacco users (PTU) in a sample of HIV-positive smokers participating in a cessation program. The study sample consisted of 474 HIV-positive smokers enrolled in a 2-group randomized controlled trial of cigarette smoking cessation comparing a cell phone-based intervention to usual care. Prevalence was determined, and risk factors for poly-tobacco use were evaluated using logistic regression. In this cohort of HIV-positive cigarette smokers, 21.6% of participants were PTU, with cigars (73.4%) the most common tobacco product consumed. Among PTU, 73.5% used other form(s) of tobacco some days, and 26.5% use them every day. Perceived discrimination and unemployment were significantly associated with poly-tobacco use after adjusting for other demographic, behavioral, and psychosocial factors. Analysis showed that participants in the cell phone group (vs. usual care) were more likely to report 24-hr abstinence, both among monocigarette users (16.6% vs. 6.3%, p < .001) and PTU (18.5% vs. 0%, p < .001). Poly-tobacco use prevalence among adult HIV-positive smokers was considerably higher than in the general population. Special attention must be placed on concurrent use of cigarettes and cigars among HIV-positive smokers. Because PTU are a unique population less likely to succeed in brief smoking cessation interventions, effective cessation programs are needed.

  17. Prevalence characteristics of COPD in never smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadan M. Bakr

    2012-07-01

    Conclusions: This study revealed that never smokers constitute a significant proportion of the Egyptian COPD patients. When dealing with COPD management, clinicians must be oriented with the different risk factors, other than tobacco smoke, that play a key role in the development and pathogenesis of COPD, because despite smoking is the most important risk factor, its absence doesn’t exclude COPD diagnosis.

  18. Distinctive Regulatory T Cells and Altered Cytokine Profile Locally in the Airways of Young Smokers with Normal Lung Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostadkarampour, Mahyar; Müller, Malin; Öckinger, Johan; Kullberg, Susanna; Lindén, Anders; Eklund, Anders; Grunewald, Johan; Wahlström, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Smoking influences the immune system in different ways and, hypothetically, effects on pulmonary effector and regulatory T cells emerge as potentially detrimental. Therefore, we characterized the frequencies and characteristics of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets in the blood and lungs of young tobacco smokers. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and peripheral blood were obtained from healthy moderate smokers (n = 18; 2-24 pack-years) and never-smokers (n = 15), all with normal lung function. Cells were stimulated ex vivo and key intracellular cytokines (IFNγ, IL-17, IL-10 and TNFα) and transcription factors (Foxp3, T-bet and Helios) were analyzed using flow cytometry. Our results indicate that smoking is associated with a decline in lung IL-17+ CD4+ T cells, increased IFNγ+ CD8+ T cells and these alterations relate to the history of daily cigarette consumption. There is an increased fraction of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells being Helios- in the lungs of smokers. Cytokine production is mainly confined to the Helios- T cells, both in regulatory and effector subsets. Moreover, we detected a decline of Helios+Foxp3- postulated regulatory CD8+ T cells in smokers. These alterations in the immune system are likely to increase risk for infection and may have implications for autoimmune processes initiated in the lungs among tobacco smokers.

  19. Maternal bonding styles in smokers and non-smokers: a comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Csala, Iren; Elemery, Monika; Martinovszky, Fruzsina; Dome, Peter; Dome, Balazs; Faludi, Gabor; Sandor, Imola; Gyorffy, Zsuzsa; Birkas, Emma; Lazary, Judit

    2016-01-01

    Background Parental bonding has been implicated in smoking behavior, and the quality of maternal bonding (MB) has been associated with poor mental health and substance use. However, little is known about the association of MB and the smoking of the offspring. Methods In our study, 129 smokers and 610 non-smoker medical students completed the parental bonding instrument, which measures MB along two dimensions: care and overprotection. Four categories can be created by high and low scores on ca...

  20. ALPHA – 1 ANTITRYPSIN IN SMOKERS AND NON SMOKERS CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panchal Mittal A, Shaikh Sahema M, Sadariya Bhavesh R, Bhoi Bharat K, Sharma Hariom M

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study is to correlate and compare alpha-1 antitrypsin level in smoker and non smoker chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. Material and Methods: A comparative study was carried out in 200 subjects, more than 40 years of age and having chronic obstructive pulmonary disease for more than 1 year with a history of smoking at least 20 cigarettes per day (Group A and without a history of smoking (Group B. Pulmonary function tests were used to diagnose the disease as per the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD classification. Alpha-1 antitrypsin level was done by turbidimetry method on fully auto analyzer I-Lab 650 (Instrumentation Laboratory, USA at Clinical Biochemistry Section, Laboratory Services Sir Takhtsinhji Hospital, Bhavnagar. Statistical analysis was done by using unpaired t-test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Results: Results of present study shows that alpha-1 antitrypsin level was decreased in smoker chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients (150.83±18.853 when compared to non smokers (183.97±29.383. There was statistically significant difference in alpha-1 antitrypsin level between the two groups with ‘p’ value of <0.0001. Pearson’s correlation test show negative correlation between smoker and non-smoker chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. Conclusion: The values of serum alpha-1 antitrypsin levels were more significantly decreased in smokers indicating an important role of smoking in pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Alpha-1 antitrypsin can act as a predictor for future development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in smokers and in nonsmokers.

  1. Effects of Exercise on Hemorheological Parameters of Young Nigerian Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    AWODU, Omolade Augustina; FAMODU, Ademola Adekunle

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Regular physical exercise is associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases. In this study, the hypothesis that acute submaximal exercise has similar effects on rheological parameters of smokers and non-smokers was tested. Materials and Methods: Thirty-three male university undergraduates comprised of 18 smokers and 15 non-smokers were studied. All the subjects underwent submaximal exercise on cycloergometer for 30 minutes. Blood for hemorheological parameters was collected 30...

  2. Inspiratory Muscle Performance of Former Smokers and Nonsmokers Using the Test of Incremental Respiratory Endurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formiga, Magno F; Campos, Michael A; Cahalin, Lawrence P

    2018-01-01

    Smoking has potential deleterious effects on respiratory muscle function. Smokers may present with reduced inspiratory muscle strength and endurance. We compared inspiratory muscle performance of nonsmokers with that of former smokers without overt respiratory problems via the Test of Incremental Respiratory Endurance. This study was performed on 42 healthy subjects between the ages of 30 and 79 y (mean ± SD of 56.5 ± 14.4 y). Fourteen male and 7 female former smokers were matched to nonsmokers based on sex, age, height, and weight. Subjects completed a questionnaire about their health and current smoking status. Testing included the best of 3 or more consistent trials. The Test of Incremental Respiratory Endurance measurements included maximal inspiratory pressure measured from residual volume as well as sustained maximal inspiratory pressure and inspiratory duration measured from residual volume to total lung capacity during a maximal sustained inhalation. No significant difference in inspiratory performance of the entire group of former smokers compared with nonsmokers was found. However, separate sex analyses found a significant difference in sustained maximal inspiratory pressure between male former smokers and nonsmokers (518.7 ± 205.0 pressure time units vs 676.5 ± 255.2 pressure time units, P = .041). We found similar maximal inspiratory pressure between former smokers and nonsmokers via the Test of Incremental Respiratory Endurance, but the significant difference in sustained maximal inspiratory pressure between male former smokers and nonsmokers suggests that the sustained maximal inspiratory pressure may have greater discriminatory ability in assessing the effects of smoking on inspiratory muscle performance. Further investigation of the effects of smoking on inspiratory performance via the Test of Incremental Respiratory Endurance is warranted. Copyright © 2018 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  3. A brief measure of Smokers' knowledge of lung cancer screening with low-dose computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M. Lowenstein

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe the development and psychometric properties of a new, brief measure of smokers' knowledge of lung cancer screening with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT. Content experts identified key facts smokers should know in making an informed decision about lung cancer screening. Sample questions were drafted and iteratively refined based on feedback from content experts and cognitive testing with ten smokers. The resulting 16-item knowledge measure was completed by 108 heavy smokers in Houston, Texas, recruited from 12/2014 to 09/2015. Item difficulty, item discrimination, internal consistency and test-retest reliability were assessed. Group differences based upon education levels and smoking history were explored. Several items were dropped due to ceiling effects or overlapping constructs, resulting in a 12-item knowledge measure. Additional items with high item uncertainty were retained because of their importance in informed decision making about lung cancer screening. Internal consistency reliability of the final scale was acceptable (KR-20 = 0.66 and test-retest reliability of the overall scale was 0.84 (intraclass correlation. Knowledge scores differed across education levels (F = 3.36, p = 0.04, while no differences were observed between current and former smokers (F = 1.43, p = 0.24 or among participants who met or did not meet the 30-pack-year screening eligibility criterion (F = 0.57, p = 0.45. The new measure provides a brief, valid and reliable indicator of smokers' knowledge of key concepts central to making an informed decision about lung cancer screening with LDCT, and can be part of a broader assessment of the quality of smokers' decision making about lung cancer screening.

  4. Transdermal Nicotine During Cue Reactivity in Adult Smokers With and Without Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morissette, Sandra B.; Gulliver, Suzy Bird; Kamholz, Barbara W.; Spiegel, David A.; Tiffany, Stephen T.; Barlow, David H.

    2012-01-01

    Transdermal nicotine almost doubles tobacco cessation rates; however little is known about what happens to smokers during the quit process when they are wearing the nicotine patch and confronted with high-risk smoking triggers. This is particularly important for smokers with psychological disorders who disproportionately represent today’s smokers and have more trouble quitting. Using a mixed between- and within-subjects design, smokers with anxiety disorders (n = 61) and smokers without any current Axis I disorders (n = 38) received transdermal nicotine (21 mg) or a placebo patch over two assessment days separated by 48 hours. Urge to smoke was evaluated during a 5-hour patch absorption period (reflecting general smoking deprivation) and during imaginal exposure to theoretically high-risk triggers containing smoking cues, anxiety cues, both, or neutral cues. No differences were observed between smokers with and without anxiety disorders. Significant Patch X Time and Patch X Cue Content interactions were found. Both patch conditions experienced an increase in urge during the deprivation period, but post-absorption urge was significantly higher in the placebo condition, suggesting that transdermal nicotine attenuated the degree to which urge to smoke increased over time. During the cue reactivity trials, when participants received the nicotine patch, they experienced significantly lower urge in response to both smoking-only and neutral cues, but not when anxiety cues were present (alone or in combination with smoking cues). These data suggest that transdermal nicotine alleviates urge only under certain circumstances, and that adjunctive interventions are likely necessary to address smoking urges in response to spikes in distress among smokers trying to quit. PMID:22686966

  5. [Tooth decay and its complication prognosis in smokers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orekhova, L Iu; Osipova, M V

    2014-01-01

    The study focuses on complicated and non-complicated tooth decay course and prognosis in smokers. Oral status, prevention and treatment effectiveness was assessed in 330 non-smokers and 345 smoking patients. The results allowed concluding with guidelines for tooth decay prevention and treatment in smokers.

  6. Oral hygiene compliance and gingivitis expression in cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, J

    1990-12-01

    The compliance with an oral hygiene intervention program and its effect on oral cleanliness and gingivitis was studied in smokers and non-smokers. The study group represented patients with regular dental attendance. It comprised 68 patients 21-60 yr of age, including 28 habitual smokers. The program included toothbrushing with an electric toothbrush for 12 months. Oral cleanliness was evaluated according to a percentage plaque index and gingivitis according to the percentage of bleeding sites. The compliance with the oral hygiene program was very high among smokers and non-smokers. Plaque index at baseline was very similar in smokers and non-smokers and remained so during the course of the investigation. Following the introduction of the oral hygiene program, plaque index decreased in both groups, and there were no statistically significant differences between the two groups. In spite of the similarity in plaque index, gingival bleeding was significantly lower in smokers than non-smokers. The results suggest that smokers and non-smokers do not differ with respect to habitual oral hygiene or compliance with hygiene programs. In smokers, however, the clinical gingivitis expression in response to plaque is suppressed.

  7. A Critical Evaluation of Nicotine Replacement Therapy for Teenage Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Christi A.

    2000-01-01

    Evaluates the appropriateness and feasibility of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in teenage smokers. Available forms of NRT, theoretical rationale and efficacy of NRT, ethical considerations, and the feasibility of NRT in teenage smokers are addressed. Several characteristics similar to adult nicotine dependent smokers have been found in teen…

  8. Knowledge, attitudes and preferences regarding genetic testing for smoking cessation. A cross-sectional survey among Dutch smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaak, Marieke; Smerecnik, Chris; van Schooten, Frederik J; de Vries, Hein; van Schayck, Constant P

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Recent research strongly suggests that genetic variation influences smokers' ability to stop. Therefore, the use of (pharmaco) genetic testing may increase cessation rates. This study aims to assess the intention of smokers concerning undergoing genetic testing for smoking cessation and their knowledge, attitudes and preferences about this subject. Design Online cross-sectional survey. Setting Database internet research company of which every inhabitant of the Netherlands of ≥12 years with an email address and capable of understanding Dutch can become a member. Participants 587 of 711 Dutch smokers aged ≥18 years, daily smokers for ≥5 years and smoke on average ≥10 cigarettes/day (response rate=83%). Primary and secondary outcome measures Smokers' knowledge, attitudes and preferences and their intention to undergo genetic testing for smoking cessation. Results Knowledge on the influence of genetic factors in smoking addiction and cessation was found to be low. Smokers underestimated their chances of having a genetic predisposition and the influence of this on smoking cessation. Participants perceived few disadvantages, some advantages and showed moderate self-efficacy towards undergoing a genetic test and dealing with the results. Smokers were mildly interested in receiving information and participating in genetic testing, especially when offered by their general practitioner (GP). Conclusions For successful implementation of genetic testing for smoking in general practice, several issues should be addressed, such as the knowledge on smoking cessation, genetics and genetic testing (including advantages and disadvantages) and the influence of genetics on smoking addiction and cessation. Furthermore, smokers allocate their GPs a crucial role in the provision of information and the delivery of a genetic test for smoking; however, it is unclear whether GPs will be able and willing to take on this role.

  9. Intolerance for smoking abstinence among nicotine-deprived, treatment-seeking smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germeroth, Lisa J; Baker, Nathaniel L; Saladin, Michael E

    2018-03-20

    The Intolerance for Smoking Abstinence Discomfort Questionnaire (IDQ-S) assesses distress tolerance specific to nicotine withdrawal. Though developed to assess withdrawal-related distress, the IDQ-S has not been validated among nicotine-deprived, treatment-seeking smokers. The present study extended previous research by examining the predictive utility of the IDQ-S among abstinent, motivated-to-quit smokers. Abstinent, treatment-seeking smokers completed the IDQ-S Withdrawal Intolerance and Lack of Cognitive Coping scales, assessments of nicotine dependence and reinforcement, and smoking history at baseline. At baseline and at 24-h, 2-week, and 1-month follow-up, participants completed a smoking cue-reactivity task (collection of cue-elicited craving and negative affect), and assessments of cigarettes per day (CPD; daily diaries at follow-up), carbon monoxide (CO), and cotinine. Greater IDQ-S Withdrawal Intolerance was associated with younger age, higher nicotine dependence and reinforcement, and less smoking years (ps  .10). Withdrawal intolerance and lack of cognitive coping did not predict smoking outcomes among nicotine-deprived, treatment-seeking smokers, but were associated with smoking characteristics, including nicotine dependence and reinforcement. Withdrawal intolerance and lack of cognitive coping may not be especially useful in predicting craving and smoking behavior, but future studies should replicate the present study's findings and assess the stability of the IDQ-S before forming firm conclusions about its predictive utility. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Characteristics of smokers and their knowledge about smoking at a teaching hospital in Karachi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qidwai, W.; Zahid, N.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the characteristics of smokers and their knowledge about smoking, among Family Practice Patients, at a teaching hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. Main outcome measures: Age at starting smoking, duration and number of cigarettes smoked, started smoking under influence of friends, colleagues, family members or self motivation, number of friends and colleagues who smoked, whether smoking is unhealthy, and actual chance of harm to an individual due to smoking is very rare or not. Results: One hundred patients who visited Family Practice Center were interviewed. Sixty one percent were young married men, well educated and either student, in private service, self employed or unemployed. Eighty-four (84%) smokers started smoking between 16-25 years of age, and smoked 6-20 cigarettes daily for two to twenty five years. Sixty-nine (69%) of them started smoking under the influence of friends and had 3-5 friends and colleagues who smoked. 91% of smokers believed that smoking is unhealthy and were aware that it causes lung cancer and heart disease. Majority of them (69%) believed that the actual harm of smoking to an individual is not very rare. Conclusion: We have documented the characteristics of smokers and their knowledge about smoking among Family Practice patients. Majority of the respondents started smoking at a young age under the influence of friends though they were aware of its harmful effects. Though the sample size is small but it does give an indication about the responsible factors to plan interventional preventive strategies. (author)

  11. Tobacco industry direct mail receipt and coupon use among young adult smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jane Lewis, M; Bover Manderski, Michelle T; Delnevo, Cristine D

    2015-02-01

    To examine young adult smokers' receipt of tobacco industry direct mail and use of coupons to purchase cigarettes. A total of 699 young adults from a 2011 national survey who reported smoking every day/some days provided self-report data on past-six month receipt of direct mail and past-six month use of coupons to purchase cigarettes. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to calculate adjusted odds of direct mail receipt and coupon use. Overall, 25.1% of young adult smokers reported receiving direct mail from a tobacco company and 24.2% had used a coupon to buy cigarettes in the past 6 months. Direct mail receipt and coupon use to purchase cigarettes were significantly higher among females, daily smokers, and whites. Nearly 70% of smokers who received direct mail had also used a coupon to purchase cigarettes in the preceding 6 months. Brand websites were the most commonly reported means of joining a direct mailing list. This study adds to limited research showing receipt of direct mail and use of price reducing coupons by young adults. Also, higher rates of direct mail receipt and coupon use among females suggest that these strategies may be especially effective in encouraging smoking in females. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Daily Weather Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These daily weather records were compiled from a subset of stations in the Global Historical Climatological Network (GHCN)-Daily dataset. A weather record is...

  13. Managing Daily Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Duchenne / Managing Daily Life Print Email Managing Daily Life Environmental accessibility As the person with Duchenne starts ... such as wider doorways and ramps, can make life easier once the person with Duchenne cannot climb ...

  14. The Effects of 8-Weeks Aerobic Exercise Program on Blood Lipids and Cholesterol Profile of Smokers vs. Non Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taifour, Akef; AL-Shishani, Ahmad; Khasawneh, Aman; AL-Nawaiseh, Ali; Bakeer, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 8-week aerobic exercise program on blood lipids and cholesterol profile of smoker's vs. non-smokers. A total of 34 male subjects (18 non-smokers and 16 smokers) took part in this study. Both groups were pre- and post tested in their blood-lipids and cholesterol profile before and after the 8-week…

  15. Impact of the New Malaysian Cigarette Pack Warnings on Smokers? Awareness of Health Risks and Interest in Quitting Smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Fathelrahman, Ahmed I.; Omar, Maizurah; Awang, Rahmat; Cummings, K. Michael; Borland, Ron; Samin, Ahmad Shalihin Bin Mohd

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this research was to compare the response of adult smokers in Malaysia to newly proposed pictorial cigarette warnings against the current text-only warnings. The study population included 140 adult male smokers who were enrolled in a randomized trial to view either the new pictorial warnings (intervention) or the old text-only warnings (control). Participants completed pre-exposure and post-exposure questionnaires that assessed their awareness of the health risks of smoking, ...

  16. Disparity and Trends in Secondhand Smoke Exposure among Japanese Employees, Particularly Smokers vs. Non-Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabuchi, Takahiro; Colwell, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring disparities in secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is important for tailoring smoke-free policies to the needs of different groups. We examined disparity and trends in SHS exposure among both nonsmokers and smokers at Japanese workplaces between 2002 and 2012. A total of 32,940 employees in nationally representative, population-based, repeated cross-sectional surveys in 2002, 2007 and 2012 in Japan was analyzed. Adjusted rate ratios for workplace SHS exposure from other people ("everyday" and "everyday or sometimes") were calculated according to covariates, using log-binomial regression models with survey weights. In this survey, employees who do not smoke at workplace are defined as workplace-nonsmokers; and those smoke at workplace are used as workplace-smokers. SHS exposure for smokers does not involve their own SHS. While everyday SHS exposure prevalence in workplace-nonsmokers decreased markedly (33.2% to 11.4%), that in workplace-smokers decreased only slightly (63.3% to 55.6%). Workplace-smokers were significantly more likely to report everyday SHS exposure than workplace-nonsmokers, and the degree of association increased over time: compared with the nonsmokers (reference), covariates-adjusted rate ratio (95% confidence interval) for the smokers increased from 1.70 (1.62-1.77) in 2002 to 4.16 (3.79-4.56) in 2012. Similar results were observed for everyday or sometimes SHS exposure. Compared with complete workplace smoking bans, partial and no bans were consistently and significantly associated with high SHS exposure among both nonsmokers and smokers. We also observed disparities in SHS exposure by employee characteristics, such as age group and worksite scale. Although overall SHS exposure decreased among Japanese employees between 2002 and 2012, the SHS exposure disparity between nonsmokers and smokers widened. Because smokers reported more frequent SHS exposure than nonsmokers, subsequent mortality due to SHS exposure may be higher in smokers than

  17. An exploration of the Facebook social networks of smokers and non-smokers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luella Fu

    Full Text Available Social networks influence health behavior, including tobacco use and cessation. To date, little is known about whether and how the networks of online smokers and non-smokers may differ, or the potential implications of such differences with regards to intervention efforts. Understanding how social networks vary by smoking status could inform public health efforts to accelerate cessation or slow the adoption of tobacco use.These secondary analyses explore the structure of ego networks of both smokers and non-smokers collected as part of a randomized control trial conducted within Facebook.During the trial, a total of 14,010 individuals installed a Facebook smoking cessation app: 9,042 smokers who were randomized in the trial, an additional 2,881 smokers who did not meet full eligibility criteria, and 2,087 non-smokers. The ego network for all individuals was constructed out to second-degree connections. Four kinds of networks were constructed: friendship, family, photo, and group networks. From these networks we measured edges, isolates, density, mean betweenness, transitivity, and mean closeness. We also measured diameter, clustering, and modularity without ego and isolates. Logistic regressions were performed with smoking status as the response and network metrics as the primary independent variables and demographics and Facebook utilization metrics as covariates.The four networks had different characteristics, indicated by different multicollinearity issues and by logistic regression output. Among Friendship networks, the odds of smoking were higher in networks with lower betweenness (p = 0.00, lower transitivity (p = 0.00, and larger diameter (p = 0.00. Among Family networks, the odds of smoking were higher in networks with more vertices (p = .01, less transitivity (p = .04, and fewer isolates (p = .01. Among Photo networks, none of the network metrics were predictive of smoking status. Among Group networks, the odds of smoking were higher

  18. An exploration of the Facebook social networks of smokers and non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Luella; Jacobs, Megan A; Brookover, Jody; Valente, Thomas W; Cobb, Nathan K; Graham, Amanda L

    2017-01-01

    Social networks influence health behavior, including tobacco use and cessation. To date, little is known about whether and how the networks of online smokers and non-smokers may differ, or the potential implications of such differences with regards to intervention efforts. Understanding how social networks vary by smoking status could inform public health efforts to accelerate cessation or slow the adoption of tobacco use. These secondary analyses explore the structure of ego networks of both smokers and non-smokers collected as part of a randomized control trial conducted within Facebook. During the trial, a total of 14,010 individuals installed a Facebook smoking cessation app: 9,042 smokers who were randomized in the trial, an additional 2,881 smokers who did not meet full eligibility criteria, and 2,087 non-smokers. The ego network for all individuals was constructed out to second-degree connections. Four kinds of networks were constructed: friendship, family, photo, and group networks. From these networks we measured edges, isolates, density, mean betweenness, transitivity, and mean closeness. We also measured diameter, clustering, and modularity without ego and isolates. Logistic regressions were performed with smoking status as the response and network metrics as the primary independent variables and demographics and Facebook utilization metrics as covariates. The four networks had different characteristics, indicated by different multicollinearity issues and by logistic regression output. Among Friendship networks, the odds of smoking were higher in networks with lower betweenness (p = 0.00), lower transitivity (p = 0.00), and larger diameter (p = 0.00). Among Family networks, the odds of smoking were higher in networks with more vertices (p = .01), less transitivity (p = .04), and fewer isolates (p = .01). Among Photo networks, none of the network metrics were predictive of smoking status. Among Group networks, the odds of smoking were higher when diameter

  19. An exploration of the Facebook social networks of smokers and non-smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Background Social networks influence health behavior, including tobacco use and cessation. To date, little is known about whether and how the networks of online smokers and non-smokers may differ, or the potential implications of such differences with regards to intervention efforts. Understanding how social networks vary by smoking status could inform public health efforts to accelerate cessation or slow the adoption of tobacco use. Objectives These secondary analyses explore the structure of ego networks of both smokers and non-smokers collected as part of a randomized control trial conducted within Facebook. Methods During the trial, a total of 14,010 individuals installed a Facebook smoking cessation app: 9,042 smokers who were randomized in the trial, an additional 2,881 smokers who did not meet full eligibility criteria, and 2,087 non-smokers. The ego network for all individuals was constructed out to second-degree connections. Four kinds of networks were constructed: friendship, family, photo, and group networks. From these networks we measured edges, isolates, density, mean betweenness, transitivity, and mean closeness. We also measured diameter, clustering, and modularity without ego and isolates. Logistic regressions were performed with smoking status as the response and network metrics as the primary independent variables and demographics and Facebook utilization metrics as covariates. Results The four networks had different characteristics, indicated by different multicollinearity issues and by logistic regression output. Among Friendship networks, the odds of smoking were higher in networks with lower betweenness (p = 0.00), lower transitivity (p = 0.00), and larger diameter (p = 0.00). Among Family networks, the odds of smoking were higher in networks with more vertices (p = .01), less transitivity (p = .04), and fewer isolates (p = .01). Among Photo networks, none of the network metrics were predictive of smoking status. Among Group networks, the

  20. Smokers' sensory beliefs mediate the relation between smoking a light/low tar cigarette and perceptions of harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elton-Marshall, Tara; Fong, Geoffrey T; Yong, Hua-Hie; Borland, Ron; Xu, Steve Shaowei; Quah, Anne C K; Feng, Guoze; Jiang, Yuan

    2015-11-01

    The sensory belief that 'light/low tar' cigarettes are smoother can also influence the belief that 'light/low tar' cigarettes are less harmful. However, the 'light' concept is one of several factors influencing beliefs. No studies have examined the impact of the sensory belief about one's own brand of cigarettes on perceptions of harm. The current study examines whether a smoker's sensory belief that their brand is smoother is associated with the belief that their brand is less harmful and whether sensory beliefs mediate the relation between smoking a 'light/low tar' cigarette and relative perceptions of harm among smokers in China. Data are from 5209 smokers who were recruited using a stratified multistage sampling design and participated in Wave 3 of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) China Survey, a face-to-face survey of adult smokers and non-smokers in seven cities. Smokers who agreed that their brand of cigarettes was smoother were significantly more likely to say that their brand of cigarettes was less harmful (pimportance of implementing tobacco control policies that address the impact that cigarette design and marketing can have in capitalising on the smoker's natural associations between smoother sensations and lowered perceptions of harm. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. Paying the price: a cross-sectional survey of Australian socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers' responses to hypothetical cigarette price rises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaumier, Ashleigh; Bonevski, Billie; Paul, Christine; D'Este, Catherine; Doran, Christopher; Siahpush, Mohammad

    2014-03-01

    Increases in tobacco taxation can lead to reductions in tobacco consumption and prevalence of use across social groups. However, use of price-minimisation strategies to manage current and future tobacco use and the role of financial stress is less understood. This study aimed to measure the effect of cigarette price increases on price-minimisation strategy endorsement and financial stress among socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers. Community service organisation welfare recipients in NSW, Australia completed a touchscreen survey. Smoking history, financial stress, highest price to quit and responses to hypothetical cigarette price increases were assessed. Participants were 354 smokers (response rate = 79%). Most participants received income from a government pension (95%), earned price rises, significantly more participants endorsed trying to quit in response to the larger increase scenario (P price-minimisation strategies (e.g. switching to cheaper brands/products) were endorsed, but remained constant across hypothetical scenarios; level of financial stress appeared to have little influence. Smokers indicating they would not change their smoking in response to price rises had higher levels of nicotine dependence. Socially disadvantaged smokers endorsed numerous price-minimising strategies to maintain smoking at hypothetically increased costs. Larger cigarette price rises motivated more smokers to consider quitting, while price-resistant smokers appeared to have a more entrenched smoker status. © 2013 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  2. Nasal mucociliary transportability of male and female smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzeloto, Juliana Souza; Ramos, Dionei; C F Freire, Ana Paula; G D Christofaro, Diego; M C Ramos, Ercy

    2017-04-08

    Female smoker's present increased susceptibility to several diseases when compared to the opposite gender. However, there are no studies showing differences in nasal mucociliary transport behavior between male and female smokers. To compare the nasal mucociliary transportability in male and female smokers and non-smokers, taking into consideration age, anthropometric data, smoking load and pulmonary function. The analysis included 139 individuals (33 men and 37 women smokers and 32 men and 37 women non-smokers). All participants answered an initial interview to obtain personal data and smoking load. Anthropometric data and carbon monoxide in the exhaled air were assessed. Individuals also performed pulmonary function test and Saccharin Transit Time test. To compare saccharin transit time values between men and women, smokers and non-smokers, stratification of all independent variables was performed (sociodemographic, smoking and respiratory variables) into two categories: below and above the median values. There was no difference between men and women, smokers and non-smokers, regarding nasal mucociliary transportability. Significant differences were only observed between non-smokers. Among those with less forced vital capacity values (transport faster than men. Moreover, it was observed influence of BMI and COex (women smokers), FCV and FEV1 (men non-smokers) and FEF 25-75% (women non-smokers) on saccharin transit time values. Based on the findings of this study, nasal mucociliary transport in male and female adult smokers, apparently healthy, are similar. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Association between salivary sialic acid and periodontal health status among smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jwan Ibrahim Jawzali

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion: Salivary free sialic acid may be used as a diagnostic oxidative stress biomarker for periodontal diseases among young current smokers. Cumulative destructive effect of long duration of smoking on the periodontum can be controlled by smoking cessation, good oral hygiene and diet habit in early old ages.

  4. Anxiety sensitivity risk reduction in smokers: A randomized control trial examining effects on panic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Norman B; Raines, Amanda M; Allan, Nicholas P; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2016-02-01

    Empirical evidence has identified several risk factors for panic psychopathology, including smoking and anxiety sensitivity (AS; the fear of anxiety-related sensations). Smokers with elevated AS are therefore a particularly vulnerable population for panic. Yet, there is little knowledge about how to reduce risk of panic among high AS smokers. The present study prospectively evaluated panic outcomes within the context of a controlled randomized risk reduction program for smokers. Participants (N = 526) included current smokers who all received a state-of-the-art smoking cessation intervention with approximately half randomized to the AS reduction intervention termed Panic-smoking Program (PSP). The primary hypotheses focus on examining the effects of a PSP on panic symptoms in the context of this vulnerable population. Consistent with prediction, there was a significant effect of treatment condition on AS, such that individuals in the PSP condition, compared to those in the control condition, demonstrated greater decreases in AS throughout treatment and the follow-up period. In addition, PSP treatment resulted in lower rates of panic-related symptomatology. Moreover, mediation analyses indicated that reductions in AS resulted in lower panic symptoms. The present study provides the first empirical evidence that brief, targeted psychoeducational interventions can mitigate panic risk among smokers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Determining Smoking Cessation Related Information, Motivation, and Behavioral Skills among Opiate Dependent Smokers in Methadone Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooperman, Nina A.; Richter, Kimber P.; Bernstein, Steven L.; Steinberg, Marc L.; Williams, Jill M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Over 80% of people in methadone treatment smoke cigarettes, and existing smoking cessation interventions have been minimally effective. Objective To develop an Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) Model of behavior change based smoking cessation intervention for methadone maintained smokers, we examined smoking cessation related information, motivation, and behavioral skills in this population. Methods Current or former smokers in methadone treatment (n=35) participated in focus groups. Ten methadone clinic counselors participated in an individual interview. A content analysis was conducted using deductive and inductive approaches. Results Commonly known information, motivation, and behavioral skills factors related to smoking cessation were described. These factors included: the health effects of smoking and treatment options for quitting (information); pregnancy and cost of cigarettes (motivators); and coping with emotions, finding social support, and pharmacotherapy adherence (behavioral skills). Information, motivation, and behavioral skills factors specific to methadone maintained smokers were also described. These factors included: the relationship between quitting smoking and drug relapse (information), the belief that smoking is the same as using drugs (motivator); and coping with methadone clinic culture and applying skills used to quit drugs to quitting smoking (behavioral skills). Information, motivation, and behavioral skills strengths and deficits varied by individual. Conclusions Methadone maintained smokers could benefit from research on an IMB Model based smoking cessation intervention that is individualized, addresses IMB factors common among all smokers, and also addresses IMB factors unique to this population. PMID:25559697

  6. Assessment of tissue oxygenation of periodontal inflammation in smokers using optical spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kan-Zhi; Duarte, Poliana Mendes; Santos, Vanessa Renata; Xiang, Xiaoming; Xu, Minqi; Miranda, Tamires Szeremeske; Fermiano, Daiane; Gonçalves, Tiago Eduardo Dias; Sowa, Micheal G

    2014-04-01

    We have recently developed a periodontal diagnostic tool that was validated in non-smokers with periodontitis. Tobacco smoking is a recognized risk factor for periodontal diseases that can mask gingival bleeding and lead to a false negative diagnosis. Therefore, the purpose of current study is to further validate this instrument in smokers with periodontal diseases. Using a portable optical near-infrared spectrometer, optical spectra were obtained, processed and evaluated from healthy (n = 108), gingivitis (n = 100), and periodontitis (n = 79) sites of 54 systemically healthy smokers. A modified Beer-Lambert unmixing model that incorporates a non-parametric scattering loss function was used to determine the relative contribution of deoxygenated haemoglobin (Hb) and oxygenated haemoglobin (HbO2 ) to the overall spectrum. The balance between tissue oxygen delivery and utilization in periodontal tissues was then assessed. Tissue oxygen saturation was significantly decreased in the gingivitis (p = 0.016) and periodontitis (p = 0.007) sites, compared to the healthy sites. There was a trend towards increased concentration of Hb and decreased concentration of HbO2 from healthy to diseased sites, without statistical significance (p > 0.05). Optical spectroscopy can determine tissue oxygenation profiles of healthy and diseased sites in smokers. The spectral profile of periodontal sites in smokers generally resembles those from non-smoking patients. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The social support and social network characteristics of smokers in methadone-maintenance treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Dios, Marcel A.; Stanton, Cassandra A.; Caviness, Celeste M.; Niaura, Raymond; Stein, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown social support and social network variables to be important factors in smoking cessation treatment. Tobacco use is highly prevalent among individuals in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). However, smoking cessation treatment outcomes in this vulnerable subpopulation have been poor and social support and social network variables may contribute. The current study examined the social support and social network characteristics of 151 MMT smokers involved in a randomized clinical trial of smoking cessation treatments. Participants were 50% women and 78% Caucasian. A high proportion (57%) of MMT smokers had spouses or partners who smoke and over two-thirds of households (68.5%) included at least one smoker. Our sample was characterized by relatively small social networks, but high levels of general social support and quitting support. The number of cigarettes per day was found to be positively associated with the number of smokers in the social network (r = .239, p < .05) and quitting self-efficacy was negatively associated with partner smoking (r = −.217, p < .001). Findings are discussed in the context of developing smoking cessation interventions that address the influential role of social support and social networks of smokers in MMT. PMID:22571553

  8. Is secondhand smoke associated with stress in smokers and non-smokers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung Ju; Han, Kyu-Tae; Lee, Seo Yoon; Chun, Sung-Youn; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2015-12-17

    Secondhand Smoking (SHS) has been suggested as a major health problem in the world and is known to cause various negative health effects that have in turn caused the deaths of almost 600,000 people per year. Evidence has suggested that SHS may have an effect on health problems and such findings have influenced the implementation of smoking-free areas. However, few studies have investigated the effects of SHS on stress which is considered major risk factor for mental health. Thus, the purpose of our study was to investigate the association between exposure to SHS and stress. We performed a cross-sectional study using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007-2012). In our study, a total of 33,728 participants were included to evaluate the association between SHS exposure and stress based on smoking status. Association between SHS exposure and stress was examined using logistic regression models. A total of 12,441 participants (42.9 %) were exposed to SHS in the workplace or at home. In our study, exposure to SHS was significantly associated with higher stress compared to non-exposure, regardless of smoking status (smoker odds ratio [OR]: 1.22; ex-smoker OR: 1.25; never-smoker OR: 1.42). Our results showed that the effect of SHS on stress was greater when exposure took place both at home and in the workplace in smokers and never-smokers. Exposure to SHS in the workplace and at home is considered to be a risk factor for high stress in both smokers and never-smoker. Therefore, strict regulations banning smoke which can smoking ban reduce SHS exposure are recommended in order to improve the populations' health.

  9. Black smokers and the Tree of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linich, Michael

    The molecular biology revolution has turned the classification of life on its head. Is Whittaker's five-kingdom scheme for the classification of living things no longer relevant to life science education? Coupled with this is the discovery that most microscopic life cannot yet be brought into culture. One of the key organisms making this knowledge possible is Methanococcus jannishi a microorganism found in black smokers. This workshop presents the development of the Universal Tree of Life in a historical context and then links together major concepts in the New South Wales senior science programs of Earth and Environmental Science and Biology by examining the biological and geological aspects of changes to black smokers over geological time.

  10. Adult Cigarette Smokers at Highest Risk for Concurrent Alternative Tobacco Product Use Among a Racially/Ethnically and Socioeconomically Diverse Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nollen, Nicole L; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Lei, Yang; Yu, Qing; Scheuermann, Taneisha S; Mayo, Matthew S

    2016-04-01

    Rates of alternative tobacco product use (ATPs; eg, cigars, cigarillos, pipes) among cigarette smokers are on the rise but little is known about the subgroups at highest risk. This study explored interactions between demographic, tobacco, and psychosocial factors to identify cigarette smokers at highest risk for ATP use from a racially/ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of adult smokers across the full smoking spectrum (nondaily, daily light, daily heavy). Two-thousand three-hundred seventy-six adult cigarette smokers participated in an online cross-sectional survey. Quotas ensured equal recruitment of African American (AA), white (W), Hispanic/Latino (H) as well as daily and nondaily smokers. Classification and Regression Tree modeling was used to identify subgroups of cigarette smokers at highest risk for ATP use. 51.3% were Cig+ATP smokers. Alcohol for men and age, race/ethnicity, and discrimination for women increased the probability of ATP use. Strikingly, 73.5% of men screening positive for moderate to heavy drinking and 62.2% of younger (≤45 years) African American/Hispanic/Latino women who experienced regular discrimination were Cig+ATP smokers. Screening for concurrent ATP use is necessary for the continued success of tobacco cessation efforts especially among male alcohol users and racial/ethnic minority women who are at greatest risk for ATP use. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. [Clinical and radiological characteristics of pulmonary tuberculosis in tobacco smokers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kombila, U D; Mbaye, F B R; Dia Kane, Y; Ka, W; Toure Badiane, N O

    2018-01-27

    Tobacco smoke alters lung defense mechanisms against infections and so increases the risk of mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. To determine the particular clinical features of tuberculosis in smokers and identify risk factors. We conducted a prospective, cross-sectional study over a period of nine months in Dakar, Senegal. The Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression were used to identify differences between smokers and non-smokers and to identify factors associated with clinical outcomes. We included 165 patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis (59 smokers versus 106 never-smokers). The average age of smokers was 43.8±12.7 versus 32.1±13.1 years (P<0.0001). Smokers were overwhelmingly male (98.3% versus 1.8%, P<0.0001). The average delay to consultation was longer among smokers (90 days [30-120] versus 60 days [30-90] ; P<0.0001). In multivariate analysis, alcohol abuse, increasing age, male sex, and an unknown retroviral status were independent risk factors for pulmonary tuberculosis. Haemoptysis was observed more frequently in smokers (49.1% versus 31.1%, P=0.017). With regards to chest X-ray features, smokers presented with more advanced, bilateral and cavitating lung lesions. Diagnostic delay and haemoptysis are important characteristics of the pulmonary tuberculosis in tobacco smokers. Copyright © 2017 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Hospitalized smokers' expectancies for electronic cigarettes versus tobacco cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Peter S; Cases, Mallory G; Thorne, Christopher B; Cheong, JeeWon; Harrington, Kathleen F; Kohler, Connie L; Bailey, William C

    2015-02-01

    The objectives of the current study were to compare hospitalized smokers' expectancies for electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) against their expectancies for tobacco cigarettes and evaluate relationships between e-cigarette expectancies and intention to use e-cigarettes. Analysis of baseline data from a one-year longitudinal observational study. The setting was a tertiary care academic center hospital in the Southeastern U.S. Participants were 958 hospitalized tobacco cigarette smokers. A questionnaire of e-cigarette expectancies based on the Brief Smoking Consequences Questionnaire-Adult (BSCQ-A) was developed and administered along with the original, tobacco-specific, BSCQ-A. Intention to use e-cigarettes was assessed with a single 10-point Likert scale item. Participants reported significantly weaker expectancies for e-cigarettes relative to tobacco cigarettes on all 10 BSCQ-A scales. Participants held sizably weaker expectancies that e-cigarettes pose health risks (pcigarettes were greater expectancies that e-cigarettes taste pleasant (pcigarettes versus tobacco cigarettes. This suggests that e-cigarettes might be viable though imperfect substitutes for tobacco cigarettes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. US smokers' reactions to a brief trial of oral nicotine products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahoney Martin C

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been suggested that cigarette smokers will switch to alternative oral nicotine delivery products to reduce their health risks if informed of the relative risk difference. However, it is important to assess how smokers are likely to use cigarette alternatives before making predictions about their potential to promote individual or population harm reduction. Objectives This study examines smokers' interest in using a smokeless tobacco or a nicotine replacement product as a substitute for their cigarettes. Methods The study included 67 adult cigarette smokers, not currently interested in quitting, who were given an opportunity to sample four alternative oral nicotine products: 1 Camel Snus, 2 Marlboro Snus, 3 Stonewall dissolvable tobacco tablets, and 4 Commit nicotine lozenges. At visit 1, subjects were presented information about the relative benefits/risks of oral nicotine delivery compared to cigarettes. At visit 2, subjects were given a supply of each of the four products to sample at home for a week. At visit 3, subjects received a one-week supply of their preferred product to see if using such products reduced or eliminated cigarette use. Results After multiple product sampling, participants preferred the Commit lozenges over the three smokeless tobacco products (p = 0.011. Following the one week single-product trial experience, GEE models controlling for gender, age, level of education, baseline cigarettes use, and alternative product chosen, indicated a significant decline in cigarettes smoked per day across one week of single-product sampling (p Conclusions Findings from this study show that smokers, who are currently unwilling to make a quit attempt, may be willing to use alternative products in the short term as a temporary substitute for smoking. However, this use is more likely to be for partial substitution (i.e. they will continue to smoke, albeit at a lower rate rather than complete substitution. Of the

  14. Adult smokers' receptivity to a television advert for electronic nicotine delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Annice E; Lee, Youn Ok; Shafer, Paul; Nonnemaker, James; Makarenko, Olga

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the present work was to examine adult smokers' awareness of and receptivity to an electronic nicotine delivery system (ENDS) television advert, and whether viewing the advert influenced urge to smoke and intention to try ENDS. A television advert for ENDS brand blu eCigs was shown to an online convenience sample of 519 Florida adult smokers. We measured current smokers' awareness of and receptivity to the advert, and whether seeing the advert influenced their thoughts about smoking or quitting, urge to smoke and intention to try ENDS. Results were stratified by prior ENDS use. Approximately 62.3% of current smokers were aware of the advert. Smokers found the advert informative (73.8%), attention grabbing (67.5%) and innovative (64.5%), with prior ENDS users rating the advert more favourably than non-users. Seeing the advert elicited an urge to smoke (mean 42.1, SD=1.9) and thoughts about smoking cigarettes (75.8%) as well as quitting (74.6%). Prior END users were significantly more likely than non-users to report thinking about smoking cigarettes after seeing the advert (Padverts and report intention to try ENDS after viewing the advert. Future studies should monitor ENDS advertising and examine how exposure to ENDS adverts influences smokers' use of ENDS, dual use with cigarettes and cessation behaviour. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Simultaneous vitality and DNA-fragmentation measurement in spermatozoa of smokers and non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bantel, A; Fleury-Feith, J; Poirot, C; Berthaut, I; Garcin, C; Landais, P; Ravel, C

    2015-03-01

    Because cigarette smoke is a powerful ROS producer, we hypothesized that the spermatozoa of smokers would be more at risk of having increased DNA fragmentation than spermatozoa of non-smoking men. A cross-sectional study was performed on consenting smokers and non-smokers, consulting in an infertility clinic for routine sperm analysis. The application of a novel TUNEL assay coupled to a vitality marker, LIVE/DEAD®, allowed both DNA fragmentation and viability measurement within spermatozoa of participants to be analyzed by flow cytometry. The coupled vitality-DNA fragmentation analysis revealed that non-smokers and smokers, respectively presented medians of 3.6% [0.6-36.8] and 3.3% [0.9-9.6] DNA fragmented spermatozoa among the living spermatozoa population (P > 0.05). No deleterious effect of smoking on spermatozoa was found in our study. More studies concerning potential mutagenic capacities of cigarette smoke on spermatozoa are necessary. In addition, the coupled vitality-DNA fragmentation analysis may orient Assisted Reproductive Technology teams when confronted with patients having a high percentage of DNA-fragmented living spermatozoa. © 2014 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  16. Determination of the polonium-210 content in the urine of Filipino smokers and non-smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juan, N.B.; Ballelos, E.; Bartolome, Z.M.

    1975-01-01

    Presence of polonium in tobacco poses a health hazard to smokers. Polonium is a pure alpha emitter with an energy of 5.3 MeV decaying with a half-life 138.4 days to a stable isotope of lead. The polonium content in the urine of Filipino smokers was compared with that of non-smokers. The polonium was recovered from urine by centrifugation and deposition into silver discs. Quantitative results were obtained by counting the silver discs using a silicon surface-barrier detector. The average value obtained for smokers which was 0.5003+-0.2988 pCi/24h sample was significantly higher than the value obtained for non-smokers which was 0.2313+-0.1664 pCi/24h sample. The efficiency of the procedure employed encourages the use of urinalysis as a measure of the polonium body burden and also as a rough index of the dose absorbed from radium or any of its daughters

  17. Quantitative assessment of elemental carbon in the lungs of never smokers, cigarette smokers, and coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxena, R.K.; McClure, M.E.; Hays, M.D.; Green, F.H.Y.; McPhee, L.J.; Vallyathan, V.; Gilmour, M.I. [US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Inhalation exposure to particulates such as cigarette smoke and coal dust is known to contribute to the development of chronic lung disease. The purpose of this study was to estimate the amount of elemental carbon (EC) deposits from autopsied lung samples from cigarette smokers, miners, and control subjects and explore the relationship between EC level, exposure history, and the extent of chronic lung disease. The samples comprised three subgroups representing never smokers (8), chronic cigarette smokers (26), and coal miners (6). Following the dissolution of lung tissue, the extracted EC residue was quantified using a thermal-optical transmission (TOT) carbon analyzer. Mean EC levels in the lungs of the control group were 56.68 +/- 24.86 (SD) g/g dry lung weight. Respective mean EC values in lung samples from the smokers and coal miners were 449.56 +/- 320.3 g/g and 6678.2 +/- 6162 g/g. These values were significantly higher than those obtained from the never-smoker group. EC levels in the lung and pack-years of cigarette smoking correlated significantly, as did EC levels and the severity of small airway disease. This study provides one of the first quantitative assessments of EC in human lungs from populations at high relative risk for the development of chronic lung disease.

  18. Physical activity moderates the association between nicotine dependence and depression among U.S. smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Walker, Jerome F; Kane, Christy; Cardinal, Bradley J

    2014-01-01

    Research demonstrates that nicotine dependence and depression are associated and that physical activity is effective in reducing depression symptoms. However, our understanding of the potential beneficial effects of physical activity on depression in current smokers is more limited. The purpose of this study was to examine whether physical activity moderates the association between nicotine dependence and depression in U.S. smokers. Cross-sectional. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006. Four hundred forty-one current adult smokers. Participants wore an accelerometer for at least 4 days and completed questionnaires to assess nicotine dependence and depression. Effect modification and statistical interaction models were used. Both models were significant. With regard to the statistical interaction model, and after controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, comorbidity index, homocysteine, cotinine, total cholesterol, sedentary behavior, and vitamins C, D, and E, objectively measured physical activity moderated the association between nicotine dependence and depression (interaction variable: odds ratio = 3.43; 95% confidence interval: 1.02-11.51; p = .04). In this national sample of current smokers, physical activity moderated the association between nicotine dependence and depression. These results suggest that those individuals with nicotine dependence and who are less physically active are more likely to be depressed than what would be expected on the basis of the individual effects of nicotine and physical inactivity separately.

  19. Association between salivary sialic acid and periodontal health status among smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawzali, Jwan Ibrahim

    2016-07-01

    Smoking is an environmental risk factor causing poor dental health. Sialic acid is a salivary marker of oxidative stress for research of periodontal diseases. To identify diagnostic sialic acid fraction and its scavenger effect for periodontal diseases among smokers and periodental health status. This study carried out in the Khanzad specialized dental center - Erbil city. The study population is composed of 62 convenient samples. A structured interview questionnaire form was used to collect data about socio-demographic properties and smoking history. Clinical measurements were carried out to measure periodontal health status. Un-stimulated whole saliva samples were collected for measuring sialic acid fractions. Statistical package for social science (SPSS, version 18), was used for analysis and odds ratio. Risk of smoking increased significantly in young to mid ages, which included most of the current smokers, with periodontal diseases, and high total free sialic acid. Risk of periodontitis and teeth missing increased significantly by long duration of smoking, bad tooth brushing, and poor eating habits. Risk of teeth mobility and loss decreased significantly by early smoking cessation and low income. High levels of free sialic acid correlated significantly in current smokers with medium and deep pocket depth. Salivary free sialic acid may be used as a diagnostic oxidative stress biomarker for periodontal diseases among young current smokers. Cumulative destructive effect of long duration of smoking on the periodontum can be controlled by smoking cessation, good oral hygiene and diet habit in early old ages.

  20. Reliability and Validity of Measures of Impulsive Choice and Impulsive Action in Smokers Trying to Quit

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Danielle E.; Bold, Krysten W.; Minami, Haruka; Yeh, Vivian M.; Rutten, Emily; Nadkarni, Shruti G.; Chapman, Gretchen B.

    2016-01-01

    Cross-sectional research suggests that smokers are more impulsive than are non-smokers, but few studies have examined relations between impulsiveness and later success in quitting smoking. The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability and predictive validity of facets of impulsiveness in adult smokers trying to quit. Baseline behavioral measures of impulsive choice (assessed with a delay discounting task) and impulsive action (assessed with a measure of behavioral disinhibition) were used as predictors of smoking cessation success over 12 weeks. The sample included 116 adult (18 years old or older) daily smokers from central New Jersey. Impulsive choice, impulsive action, and self-reported impulsiveness were not significantly related to one another at baseline. Impulsive choice had high test-retest reliability from pre- to post-quit, whereas impulsive action was less stable. Test-retest reliability from pre-quit to three weeks post-quit was moderated by achievement of seven-day abstinence. Baseline impulsive action was significantly negatively related to quitting for at least one day in the first two weeks of a quit attempt and of prolonged abstinence (no relapse over the next 10 weeks). Baseline impulsive choice was robustly associated with biochemically verified seven-day point-prevalence abstinence 12 weeks post-quit, such that those with lower delay discounting were more likely to achieve abstinence. Facets of impulsiveness appear to function largely independently in adult smokers, as indicated by their lack of inter-correlation, differential stability, and differential relations with abstinence. Impulsive action may impede initial quitting, whereas impulsive choice may be an obstacle to maintaining lasting abstinence. PMID:26751623

  1. Smoking characteristics and comorbidities in the power to quit randomized clinical trial for homeless smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuyemi, Kolawole S; Goldade, Kate; Whembolua, Guy-Lucien; Thomas, Janet L; Eischen, Sara; Guo, Hongfei; Connett, John E; Grant, Jon; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Resnicow, Ken; Owen, Greg; Gelberg, Lillian; Jarlais, Don Des

    2013-01-01

    Smoking prevalence in homeless populations is strikingly high (∼70%); yet, little is known about effective smoking cessation interventions for this population. We conducted a community-based clinical trial, Power To Quit (PTQ), to assess the effects of motivational interviewing (MI) and nicotine patch (nicotine replacement therapy [NRT]) on smoking cessation among homeless smokers. This paper describes the smoking characteristics and comorbidities of smokers in the study. Four hundred and thirty homeless adult smokers were randomized to either the intervention arm (NRT + MI) or the control arm (NRT + Brief Advice). Baseline assessment included demographic information, shelter status, smoking history, motivation to quit smoking, alcohol/other substance abuse, and psychiatric comorbidities. Of the 849 individuals who completed the eligibility survey, 578 (68.1%) were eligible and 430 (74.4% of eligibles) were enrolled. Participants were predominantly Black, male, and had mean age of 44.4 years (S D = 9.9), and the majority were unemployed (90.5%). Most participants reported sleeping in emergency shelters; nearly half had been homeless for more than a year. Nearly all the participants were daily smokers who smoked an average of 20 cigarettes/day. Nearly 40% had patient health questionnaire-9 depression scores in the moderate or worse range, and more than 80% screened positive for lifetime history of drug abuse or dependence. This study demonstrates the feasibility of enrolling a diverse sample of homeless smokers into a smoking cessation clinical trial. The uniqueness of the study sample enables investigators to examine the influence of nicotine dependence as well as psychiatric and substance abuse comorbidities on smoking cessation outcomes.

  2. Health for smokers with schizophrenia - a struggle to maintain a dignified life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundgren, Elisabet; Hallqvist, Johan; Fredriksson, Lennart

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the health and lifestyle habits of smokers with schizophrenia and describe their experience of smoking in relation to health. Semi-structured interviews with 10 smokers with schizophrenia were conducted in Sweden from May to October 2013. A hermeneutic phenomenological approach was used to describe and interpret respondents' experiences. Good health for a person with schizophrenia was defined as accepting their mental illness, having strategies to gain control over psychotic symptoms, and engaging in activities and good relationships. Lifestyle habits were described as structures in the respondents' daily life: arising in the morning, taking a cigarette, reading the newspaper, eating breakfast and doing the things planned for the day. The meaning of health for smokers with schizophrenia is not the same as being well or ill. Rather, health is an experience of a struggle to maintain a dignified life, including self-acceptance of the mental illness and control over the psychotic symptoms. People with schizophrenia have high willingness but low motivation to stop smoking because they fear that cigarette withdrawal will increase their psychotic symptoms. Therefore, they find it difficult to stop smoking. To succeed with health care intervention, health care providers must understand the life style habits and experiences specific to smokers with schizophrenia and the unique experience of health and life style habits that people with schizophrenia experience. Smokers with schizophrenia experience health as a struggle to maintain a dignified life and to maintain control over their psychotic symptoms. In smoking cessation programmes, health care providers must pay attention to the fear that people with schizophrenia have of losing control over their psychotic symptoms, if they stop smoking, and support them to find activities to replace smoking. This study suggests that to provide good support in health prevention for people with schizophrenia, it is vital

  3. Comparative study of smokers, ex-smokers, and nonsmokers who have experienced myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nozawa Diogo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of smoking on in-hospital morbidity and mortality in patients who have experienced acute myocardial infarction and to assess the association between smoking and other cardiovascular risk factors and clinical data. METHODS: A prospective cohort study analyzed 121 patients, including 54 smokers, 35 ex-smokers, and 32 nonsmokers. RESULTS: Using the chi-square test (P<0.05, an association between smoking and the risk factors sex, age, and diabetes was documented. Among the morbidity and mortality variables, only acute pulmonary edema showed a statistically significant difference (OR=9.5; 95% CI, which was greater in the ex-smoker group than in the nonsmoker group. CONCLUSION: An association between smoking and some cardiovascular risk factors was observed, but no statistical difference in morbidity and mortality was observed in the groups studied, except for the variable acute pulmonary edema.

  4. Comparison of the validity of periodontal probing measurements in smokers and non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, A J; Palmer, R M; Wilson, R F; Watts, T L

    2001-08-01

    To determine whether the reduced inflammation and bleeding and increased fibrosis reported in tobacco smokers affect the validity of clinical probing measurements by altering probe tip penetration. A constant force probe was used to measure probing depths and sound bone levels at six sites on 64 molar teeth (384 sites) in 20 smoking and 20 non-smoking patients from grooves made with a bur at the gingival margin prior to extraction. Connective tissue attachment levels were measured from the grooves with a dissecting microscope following extraction. Data were analysed using robust regression with sites clustered within subjects. Sites in smokers showed more calculus but less bleeding than sites in non-smokers (pperiodontal patients who smoke.

  5. Concurrent associations between anxiety sensitivity and perceived health and health disability among young adult daily smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McLeish, A.C.; Zvolensky, M.J.; Smits, J.A.J.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the incremental validity of anxiety sensitivity (fear of arousal-related physical and psychological sensations) relative to health factors (smoking variables, alcohol use and exercise level), in predicting perceived health and disability among a sample

  6. E-Cigarette Awareness, Perceptions and Use among Community-Recruited Smokers in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Man Ping; Li, William Ho Cheung; Jiang, Nan; Chu, Lai Yan; Kwong, Antonio; Lai, Vienna; Lam, Tai Hing

    2015-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are being increasingly used. We examined the correlates associated with e-cigarette awareness, use and perceived effectiveness in smoking cessation among Chinese daily smokers in Hong Kong. Daily smokers (N = 1,307) were recruited to a community-based randomised controlled trial ('Quit to Win') in 2014. Socio-demographic characteristics, conventional cigarette smoking status, nicotine addiction level, quit attempts, quit intention, e-cigarette awareness, use and perceived effectiveness on quitting were reported at baseline and 1-week follow-up. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with e-cigarette awareness, use and perceived effectiveness in quitting. Most smokers (82.6%, 95% CI 80.2%-84.9%) had heard about e-cigarettes, and 13.3% (11.3%-15.5%) ever used e-cigarettes. Most users (74.1%) and non-users (91.2%) did not perceive e-cigarettes as effective in quitting. Being younger and having a larger family income were associated with e-cigarette awareness. Being younger, a tertiary education and a stronger addiction to nicotine were associated with e-cigarette use, which was itself associated with lower levels of intention to quit and had no association with attempts to quit (P for trend 0.45). E-cigarette use, the last quit attempt being a month earlier, having made a quit attempt lasting 24 hours or longer and perceiving quitting as important were all associated with the perceived effectiveness of e-cigarettes in quitting (all P <0.05). Among community-recruited smokers who intended to quit, awareness of e-cigarettes was high, but most did not perceive e-cigarettes as effective in quitting. Correlates concerning e-cigarette perceptions and use will help to inform prospective studies, public education and policy on controlling e-cigarettes.

  7. E-Cigarette Awareness, Perceptions and Use among Community-Recruited Smokers in Hong Kong.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Ping Wang

    Full Text Available Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes are being increasingly used. We examined the correlates associated with e-cigarette awareness, use and perceived effectiveness in smoking cessation among Chinese daily smokers in Hong Kong.Daily smokers (N = 1,307 were recruited to a community-based randomised controlled trial ('Quit to Win' in 2014. Socio-demographic characteristics, conventional cigarette smoking status, nicotine addiction level, quit attempts, quit intention, e-cigarette awareness, use and perceived effectiveness on quitting were reported at baseline and 1-week follow-up. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with e-cigarette awareness, use and perceived effectiveness in quitting.Most smokers (82.6%, 95% CI 80.2%-84.9% had heard about e-cigarettes, and 13.3% (11.3%-15.5% ever used e-cigarettes. Most users (74.1% and non-users (91.2% did not perceive e-cigarettes as effective in quitting. Being younger and having a larger family income were associated with e-cigarette awareness. Being younger, a tertiary education and a stronger addiction to nicotine were associated with e-cigarette use, which was itself associated with lower levels of intention to quit and had no association with attempts to quit (P for trend 0.45. E-cigarette use, the last quit attempt being a month earlier, having made a quit attempt lasting 24 hours or longer and perceiving quitting as important were all associated with the perceived effectiveness of e-cigarettes in quitting (all P <0.05.Among community-recruited smokers who intended to quit, awareness of e-cigarettes was high, but most did not perceive e-cigarettes as effective in quitting. Correlates concerning e-cigarette perceptions and use will help to inform prospective studies, public education and policy on controlling e-cigarettes.

  8. Poor symptom control is associated with reduced CT scan segmental airway lumen area in smokers with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Neil C; Chaudhuri, Rekha; Spears, Mark; Messow, Claudia-Martina; MacNee, William; Connell, Martin; Murchison, John T; Sproule, Michael; McSharry, Charles

    2015-03-01

    Cigarette smoking is associated with worse symptoms in asthma and abnormal segmental airways in healthy subjects. We tested the hypothesis that current symptom control in smokers with asthma is associated with altered segmental airway dimensions measured by CT scan. In 93 subjects with mild, moderate, and severe asthma (smokers and never smokers), we recorded Asthma Control Questionnaire-6 (ACQ-6) score, spirometry (FEV1; forced expiratory flow rate, midexpiratory phase [FEF(25%-75%)]), residual volume (RV), total lung capacity (TLC), and CT scan measures of the right bronchial (RB) and left bronchial (LB) segmental airway dimensions (wall thickness, mm; lumen area, mm²) in the RB3/LB3, RB6/LB6, and RB10/LB10 (smaller) airways. The CT scan segmental airway (RB10 and LB10) lumen area was reduced in smokers with asthma compared with never smokers with asthma; RB10, 16.6 mm² (interquartile range, 12.4-19.2 mm²) vs 19.6 mm² (14.7-24.2 mm²) (P = .01); LB10, 14.8 mm² (12.1-19.0 mm²) vs 19.9 mm² (14.5-25.0 mm²) (P = .003), particularly in severe disease, with no differences in wall thickness or in larger airway (RB3 and LB3) dimensions. In smokers with asthma, a reduced lumen area in fifth-generation airways (RB10 or LB10) was associated with poor symptom control (higher ACQ-6 score) (-0.463 [-0.666 to -0.196], P = .001, and -0.401 [-0.619 to -0.126], P = .007, respectively) and reduced postbronchodilator FEF(25%-75%) (0.521 [0.292-0.694], P smokers with asthma compared with never smokers with asthma, particularly in severe disease, and is associated with worse current symptom control and small airway dysfunction.

  9. Do smokers want to know more about the cigarettes they smoke? Results from the EDUCATE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Maansi A; Cummings, K Michael; Hyland, Andrew; Bauer, Joseph E; Hastrup, Janice L; Steger, Craig

    2004-12-01

    The present study (a) assessed smokers' receptivity to receiving information about the product features of their cigarette brand, (b) tested whether the use of targeted (personalized), brand-specific information affected participants' attention to the information, and (c) tested whether attention to the targeted information affected participants' beliefs about the product features and their smoking behavior. The study population included current cigarette smokers who called the New York State Smokers' Quit Line seeking assistance to stop smoking in February and March 2003. Subjects were randomized to one of three experimental groups. Group 1 received telephone counseling and the quit line's stop-smoking booklet, which included information on ingredients found in cigarettes. Group 2 received the same intervention as Group 1 plus a basic brochure with a generic cover. Group 3 received the same intervention as Group 2 except that the cover to the brochure was targeted to individual cigarette brand and type. All smokers who called the quit line were receptive to receiving information about their cigarette brand. In a 6-week follow-up interview, 60% of those who received the targeted product information brochure recalled receiving it vs. 51% of those who received the identical guide with the nontargeted cover. Recall of the material discussed in the brochure was slightly higher (not statistically significant) among subjects who received the brochure with the targeted cover compared with the same brochure with a basic cover. Regardless of whether the brochure was targeted, smokers' beliefs about different product features or their smoking behavior were not affected measurably, although those who reported reading some or all of the brochure had higher levels of awareness regarding low-tar, filtered, and no-additive cigarettes. Smokers are receptive to receiving information about their cigarette brand, but either persistent efforts or possibly more potent interventions to

  10. Variation of serum and urine cotinine in passive and active smokers and applicability in preconceptional smoking cessation counseling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weerd, Sabina de; Thomas, Chris M.G.; Kuster, Josien E.T.G.; Cikot, Rolf J.L.M.; Steegers, Eric A.P.

    2002-01-01

    This study assessed the applicability of serum and urine cotinine as a biochemical marker of self-reported smoking habits for use in a preconception smoking cessation program. The variation of serum and urine cotinine over the course of the day was investigated in a sample of 21 smokers and 8 passive smokers who reported their smoking habits and exposure to smoke daily in a questionnaire for 10 consecutive days. Blood and urine samples were collected on two sampling days, 1 week apart. Both serum and urine cotinine assay could distinguish between passive and active smokers, but not between higher categories of smokers (1019 and ≥20 cigarettes per ay) due to significant intersubject overlap. In serum, no significant differences were found between morning and afternoon cotinine concentrations in either day, in contrast to urine cotinine (with lower excretions observed n the morning). An overall coefficient of variation of 22- was observed for both specimens in smokers. Because serum cotinine is subject to lower variability over the course of the day, it is more practical for use in a clinical setting where appointments are scheduled throughout the day in order o confirm smoking status

  11. Which group of smokers is more vulnerable to the economic crisis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallus, S; Asciutto, R; Muttarak, R; Pacifici, R; La Vecchia, C; Lugo, A

    2016-05-01

    Studies investigating whether smoking increases or decreases during economic downturn provided contrasting results. For the first time, we used direct questions to analyse changes in smoking behaviour due to the 2008 financial crisis, comparing socio-economic characteristics of smokers who changed with those who kept their smoking intensity. Cross-sectional survey. We used data from three annual surveys conducted in Italy in 2012-2014 on representative samples of the Italian general population aged ≥15 years. A total of 1919 current smokers were asked specific questions on the influence of the economic crisis that started in 2008 on their smoking behaviour. Overall, 77.4% of 1919 current smokers reported not to have changed their smoking behaviour, 19.1% to have reduced, and 3.5% to have increased their smoking intensity as a consequence of the economic crisis. The reduction in cigarette smoking increased with age: compared to the respondents aged economic crisis. However, there are specific vulnerable subgroups of smokers, constituted by the young and subjects with low socio-economic status, that were reactive to the global economic crisis. These groups are more prone to change their smoking behaviours, either for better or -, in a smaller proportion -, for worse. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Tobacco radioactivity and cancer in smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martell, E.A.

    1975-01-01

    The recent finding that 210 Pb, which also is present in inhaled mainstream smoke, is highly concentrated in a small number of insoluble smoke particles changes the whole complexion of the problem of possible health effects of the inhaled radioactivity in cigarette smoke. Because 210 Pb has a radioactive half-life of 22 years, the body burden of the radioactive 210 Pb and its radioactive daughter products 210 Bi and 210 Po can continue to build up throughout the period of smoking. Alpha interactions with chromosomes of cells surrounding these insoluble radioactive smoke particles may cause cancer and contribute to early atherosclerosis development in cigarette smokers. (U.S.)

  13. Diverging effects of nicotine on motor learning performance: Improvement in deprived smokers and attenuation in non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundey, J; Amu, R; Batsikadze, G; Paulus, W; Nitsche, M A

    2017-11-01

    Nicotine modulates cognition and neuroplasticity in smokers and non-smokers. A possible mechanism for its effect on learning and memory performance is its impact on long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). As neuroplasticity is closely connected to learning processes, we aimed to explore the effect of nicotine in healthy, young smokers and non-smokers on performance of the serial reaction time task (SRTT), a sequential motor learning paradigm. 20 nicotine-deprived smokers and 20 non-smokers participated in the study and were exposed to nicotine or placebo medication. Deprived smokers under placebo medication displayed reduced performance in terms of reaction time and error rates compared to the non-smoking group. After application of nicotine, performance in smokers improved while it deteriorated in non-smokers. These results indicate a restituting effect of nicotine in smokers in terms of cognitive parameters. This sheds further light on the proposed mechanism of nicotine on learning processes, which might be linked to the addictive component of nicotine, the probability of relapse and thus needs also be addressed in cessation treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of salivary calcium level in smokers and non-smokers with chronic periodontitis, aggressive periodontitis, and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambalyal, Preeti; Kambalyal, Prabhuraj; Hungund, Shital

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare salivary calcium (Ca) level in smokers and non-smokers with chronic periodontitis, aggressive periodontitis, and healthy controls. 56 subjects were included in the study and were grouped as follows: 12 subjects who were periodontally healthy (Group I), 12 subjects having chronic periodontitis who were non-smokers (Group II), 12 non-smokers having aggressive periodontitis (Group III), 12 smokers with chronic periodontitis (Group IV), and 8 smokers with aggressive periodontitis (Group V). Clinical measurements and non-stimulated whole saliva samples were obtained and analyzed for Ca levels by ion-selective electrolyte analyzer. When salivary Ca values were compared between the groups, they showed statistically significant values (P periodontitis and smokers with aggressive periodontitis, respectively, than in other groups. Between groups II and III also, the mean salivary Ca level was statistically significant (P periodontitis than in non-smokers having aggressive periodontitis. The present study showed that smokers having chronic periodontitis as well as smokers having aggressive periodontitis have higher salivary calcium levels. Also, patients with aggressive periodontitis were found to have lesser salivary calcium level than chronic periodontitis patients by ion-selective electrolyte analyzer.

  15. Fundamental frequency and voice perturbation measures in smokers and non-smokers: An acoustic and perceptual study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Allison

    This research examined the fundamental frequency and perturbation (jitter % and shimmer %) measures in young adult (20-30 year-old) and middle-aged adult (40-55 year-old) smokers and non-smokers; there were 36 smokers and 36 non-smokers. Acoustic analysis was carried out utilizing one task: production of sustained /a/. These voice samples were analyzed utilizing Multi-Dimensional Voice Program (MDVP) software, which provided values for fundamental frequency, jitter %, and shimmer %.These values were analyzed for trends regarding smoking status, age, and gender. Statistical significance was found regarding the fundamental frequency, jitter %, and shimmer % for smokers as compared to non-smokers; smokers were found to have significantly lower fundamental frequency values, and significantly higher jitter % and shimmer % values. Statistical significance was not found regarding fundamental frequency, jitter %, and shimmer % for age group comparisons. With regard to gender, statistical significance was found regarding fundamental frequency; females were found to have statistically higher fundamental frequencies as compared to males. However, the relationships between gender and jitter % and shimmer % lacked statistical significance. These results indicate that smoking negatively affects voice quality. This study also examined the ability of untrained listeners to identify smokers and non-smokers based on their voices. Results of this voice perception task suggest that listeners are not accurately able to identify smokers and non-smokers, as statistical significance was not reached. However, despite a lack of significance, trends in data suggest that listeners are able to utilize voice quality to identify smokers and non-smokers.

  16. Low virulent oral Candida albicans strains isolated from smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azevedo Izidoro, Ana Claudia Santos; Semprebom, Andressa Marafon; Baboni, Fernanda Brasil; Rosa, Rosimeire Takaki; Machado, Maria Angela Naval; Samaranayake, Lakshman Perera; Rosa, Edvaldo Antonio Ribeiro

    2012-02-01

    It is widely accepted that tabagism is a predisposing factor to oral candidosis and cumulate data suggest that cigarette compounds may increase candidal virulence. To verify if enhanced virulence occurs in Candida albicans from chronic smokers, a cohort of 42 non-smokers and other of 58 smokers (all with excellent oral conditions and without signs of candidosis) were swabbed on tong dorsum and jugal mucosa. Results showed that oral candidal loads do not differ between smoker and non-smokers. Activities of secreted aspartyl-protease (Sap), phospholipase, chondroitinase, esterase-lipase, and haemolysin secretions were screened for thirty-two C. albicans isolates. There were detected significant increments in phospholipasic and chondroitinasic activities in isolates from non-smokers. For other virulence factors, no differences between both cohorts were achieved. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Self-esteem, psychological distress, and coping styles in pregnant smokers and non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varescon, Isabelle; Leignel, Shirley; Gérard, Caroline; Aubourg, Frédérique; Detilleux, Michel

    2013-12-01

    The literature underscores that psychological factors could play an important role in smoking behavior, which is considered a coping mechanism. To study relations among measures of self-esteem, psychological distress, anxiety, depressive symptoms, and coping styles in pregnant smokers, a cross-sectional study was conducted. These factors were assessed in two groups of pregnant women (Smokers, n = 40; Non-smokers, n = 40) contacted at one University Hospital in Paris. All participants filled out the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, the General Health Questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale, and the Brief Cope Scale. Comparisons, correlations, and regression models were used to analyze the data. The results showed that the group of pregnant women who smoked had significantly lower mean self-esteem, elevated psychological distress and anxiety scores, and reported using more emotion-focused coping than the group of pregnant non-smokers. Self-esteem significantly predicted problem-focused coping. This study confirms the importance of assessing these psychological variables to offer women more specific support to quit smoking.

  18. Quantitative assessment of elemental carbon in the lungs of never smokers, cigarette smokers and coal miners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhalation exposure to particulates such as cigarette smoke and coal dust is known to contribute to the development of chronic lung disease. The purpose of this study was to estimate the amount of elemental carbon (EC) deposits from autopsied lung samples from cigarette smokers, ...

  19. Monoamine Oxidase and Sensory Gating: Psychophysiological Vulnerabilities among Teenage Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Wan, Li

    2006-01-01

    Smoking is one of the leading causes of death in the world. About 80% of smokers start smoking before the age of 18. In the Appalachian area and the South in the United States, smoking percentages among adults and adolescents are higher than in other regions. Female smoking shows a variety of different trends from male smoking, and smoking brings particular health problems related to production to female smokers. These findings highlighted the importance of studying female teenage smokers in ...

  20. Young adult smokers' neural response to graphic cigarette warning labels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam E. Green

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: In this sample of young adult smokers, GWLs promoted neural activation in brain regions involved in cognitive and affective decision-making and memory formation and the effects of GWLs did not differ on branded or plain cigarette packaging. These findings complement other recent neuroimaging GWL studies conducted with older adult smokers and with adolescents by demonstrating similar patterns of neural activation in response to GWLs among young adult smokers.

  1. Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in asymptomatic smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansores, Raúl H; Velázquez-Uncal, Mónica; Pérez-Bautista, Oliver; Villalba-Caloca, Jaime; Falfán-Valencia, Ramcés; Ramírez-Venegas, Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    Physicians do not routinely recommend smokers to undergo spirometry unless they are symptomatic. To test the hypothesis that there are a significant number of asymptomatic smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), we estimated the prevalence of COPD in a group of asymptomatic smokers. Two thousand nine hundred and sixty-one smokers with a cumulative consumption history of at least 10 pack-years, either smokers with symptoms or smokers without symptoms (WOS) were invited to perform a spirometry and complete a symptom questionnaire. Six hundred and thirty-seven (21.5%) smokers had no symptoms, whereas 2,324 (78.5%) had at least one symptom. The prevalence of COPD in subjects WOS was 1.5% when considering the whole group of smokers (45/2,961) and 7% when considering only the group WOS (45/637). From 329 smokers with COPD, 13.7% were WOS. Subjects WOS were younger, had better lung function and lower cumulative consumption of cigarettes, estimated as both cigarettes per day and pack-years. According to severity of airflow limitation, 69% vs 87% of subjects were classified as Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stages I-II in the WOS and smokers with symptoms groups, respectively (Psmokers. Prevalence of COPD in asymptomatic smokers is 1.5%. This number of asymptomatic smokers may be excluded from the benefit of an "early" intervention, not just pharmacological but also from smoking cessation counseling. The higher forced expiratory volume in 1 second may contribute to prevent early diagnosis.

  2. Targeting hardcore smokers: The effects of an online tailored intervention, based on motivational interviewing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bommelé, Jeroen; Schoenmakers, Tim M; Kleinjan, Marloes; Peters, Gjalt-Jorn Ygram; Dijkstra, Arie; van de Mheen, Dike

    2017-09-01

    Hardcore smokers have smoked for many years and do not intend to quit. They also seem unreceptive to information about smoking cessation. We developed a 30-min, tailored web-based intervention that includes motivational interviewing principles. It aims to increase hardcore smokers' intention to quit and their receptivity to information about smoking cessation. In a two-arm experiment, we compared outcome scores of the experimental intervention (n = 346) with those of a control intervention (n = 411). Our main outcomes were receptivity to information about quitting, intention to quit, quitting self-efficacy, and interest in a subsequent online intervention. Our secondary outcomes were cigarettes smoked per day and quit attempts. All outcomes were measured directly post-experiment (t 1 ), after 2 weeks (t 2 ), and after 2 months (t 3 ). At t 1 , hardcore smokers in the intervention condition were more receptive to information about quitting than controls. At both t 2 and t 3 , those in the experimental group had reduced the number of cigarettes more than those in the control group. At t 2 , but not t 3 , more participants in the experimental group had reduced their cigarette consumption by at least 50% than among controls. We found no significant differences in intention to quit, quitting self-efficacy, interest in a subsequent online quitting intervention, and number of quit attempts. The intervention increased hardcore smokers' receptivity to information about smoking cessation and decreased their cigarette consumption by about 1 cigarette per day. Although the results are positive, the clinical relevance may be limited. We recommend further developing this intervention for practical use in health care settings. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Hardcore smokers have smoked for many years and do not intend to quit. There are currently no online interventions for hardcore smokers. What does this study add? This study tested an

  3. Cigarette constituent health communications for smokers: impact of chemical, imagery, and source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowitt, Sarah; Sheeran, Paschal; Jarman, Kristen L; Ranney, Leah M; Schmidt, Allison M; Noar, Seth M; Huang, Li-Ling; Goldstein, Adam O

    2017-10-03

    Communication campaigns are incorporating tobacco constituent messaging to reach smokers, yet there is a dearth of research on how such messages should be constructed or will be received by smokers. In a 2x2x2 experiment, we manipulated three cigarette constituent message components: (1) the toxic constituent of tobacco (arsenic vs. lead) with a corresponding health effect, (2) the presence or absence of an evocative image, and (3) the source of the message (FDA vs. no source). We recruited smokers (N = 1,669, 55.4% women) via an online platform and randomized them to 1 of the 8 message conditions. Participants viewed the message and rated its believability and perceived effectiveness, the credibility of the message source, and action expectancies (i.e., likelihood of seeking additional information and help with quitting as a result of seeing the message). We found significant main effects of image, constituent, and source on outcomes. The use of arsenic as the constituent, the presence of an evocative image, and the FDA as the source increased the believability, source credibility, and perceived effectiveness of the tobacco constituent health message. Multiple elements of a constituent message, including type of constituent, imagery, and message source, impact their reception among smokers. Specifically, communication campaigns targeting smokers that utilize arsenic as the tobacco constituent, visual imagery, and the FDA logo may be particularly effective in changing key outcomes that are associated with subsequent attitude and behavioral changes. This paper describes how components of communication campaigns about cigarette constituents are perceived. Multiple elements of a tobacco constituent message, including type of constituent, image, and message source may influence the reception of messages among current smokers. Communication campaigns targeting smokers that utilize arsenic as the tobacco constituent, visual imagery, and the FDA logo may be particularly

  4. Dependence on the nicotine gum in former smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etter, Jean-François

    2009-03-01

    We conducted an Internet survey in 2004-2007 in 526 daily users of the nicotine gum, to assess use of, and dependence on the nicotine gum in former smokers. We used modified versions of the Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale (NDSS-G), the Cigarette Dependence Scale (CDS-G) and the Fagerström Test (FTND-G). After 30 days, 155 participants (29%) indicated their gum use. Higher dependence on the gum predicted a lower chance of stopping using it at follow-up (odds ratio=0.36 for each standard deviation unit on CDS-G, p=0.001). More long-term (>3 months) than short-term (dependence on the gum than short-term users, as assessed with NDSS-Gum, CDS-Gum and FTND-Gum (all pdependence on the nicotine gum. Lower levels of dependence on the gum predicted cessation of gum use. However, long term use of the nicotine gum has no known serious adverse consequence, and may be beneficial if it prevents late relapse.

  5. Cytokine profiles in long-term smokers of opium (Taryak).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazavi, Ali; Solhi, Hassan; Moazzeni, Seyed Mohammad; Rafiei, Mohammad; Mosayebi, Ghasem

    2013-01-01

    There are few studies with conflicting results on the effects of in vivo administration of opioids on immune function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum levels of interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, IL-17, and hs-C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in opium smokers. The study was conducted between 44 male opium addicts and 44 controls aged 20 to 40 years. The control group was healthy individuals with no lifetime history of substance abuse. All the opium abusers were selected from those who had a history of use of opium, as a regular habit, at least for 1 year, with a daily opium dosage of not less than 2 g. Addicts known to abuse alcohol or other drugs were excluded. Serum samples were collected from all participants and tested for the cytokine and hs-CRP levels by ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) method. Statistical analysis was performed using the Student t test. The mean serum levels of IFN-γ, IL-10, and IL-17 in the opium addicts were significantly higher than those observed in the control group. The mean concentration of serum IL-4 in opium addicts did not differ from that in the control group. Systemic IL-10 levels correlated positively and significantly with CRP in opium addicts. Long-term, daily use of opium is associated with higher Th1 (IFN-γ), Tr1 (IL-10), and Th17 (IL-17) cytokines concentration in serum. Interferon-γ and IL-17 are involved in inducing and mediating proinflammatory responses. Our data suggest that an immunoregulatory response is occurring with the upregulation of IL-10.

  6. Is all risk bad? Young adult cigarette smokers fail to take adaptive risk in a laboratory decision-making test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Andy C; Sugar, Catherine A; Hellemann, Gerhard; London, Edythe D

    2011-06-01

    Cigarette smoking has been linked to real-world risky behavior, but this association has been based largely on retrospective self-reports. Limitations of self-report data can be avoided by using laboratory, performance-based measures, such as the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART; Lejuez et al., J Exp Psychol Appl 8:75-84, 2002). Initial studies have suggested that smokers display greater risk-taking on this task than nonsmokers, but these studies did not account for drug abuse and psychiatric comorbidities, which are commonplace among smokers. We sought to examine the performance of smokers and nonsmokers on the BART after excluding drug abuse and psychiatric comorbidities. We conducted a study of late adolescent/young adult (age 18 to 21) smokers (n = 26) and nonsmokers (n = 38) performing the BART and excluded individuals with positive drug or alcohol toxicology screens, substance abuse or dependence diagnoses, and/or current psychiatric conditions. Contrary to previous findings, smokers did not display greater risk-taking on the BART than nonsmokers. In fact, when performance was examined trial-by-trial, the nonsmokers displayed progressively greater pumping relative to smokers over time (p adaptive.

  7. Impact of smoking on aerobic capacity in young adult smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdelmoniem Ibrahim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking is a worldwide public health challenge, ,Cigarette smoking is also a strong risk factor for musculoskeletal and cardiovascular disease, It is also well known that low and declining muscle strength is linked to increased smoking .[23]Aims of this study was to examine the chronic effects of smoking on cardiovascular fitness in young and healthy male smokers[13]. This study was carried out in university of hail ,physiotherapy lab, ,30male participant was recruited from university students of hail divided into two group 15 smoker (A ,15 nonsmoker (B .All subjects underwent a sub maximal Bruce treadmill test and their HR was recorded during, at peak, and after termination of exercise. Our study revealed that the resting HR was 5.3 bpm higher in smoker than in non smoker (P:0.0001., data indicated that there was a significant difference found between young smokers and non-smokers regarding their sub-maximal HR values (P:0.0063., where smokers had significantly higher HR values. also there was no difference between both groups regarding to recovery heart rate (P:0.56. Smoking was found to affect young smokers’ increasing HR at rest, slowing of HR increase during exercise, and impairing their ability to reach the age predicted HRmax., Also smoking was associated with an attenuated HR. . also Smokers had a higher resting HR and showed a higher HR response during sub-maximal exercise compared to Non smokers .

  8. The acute tobacco withdrawal syndrome among black smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Cendrine D; Pickworth, Wallace B; Heishman, Stephen J; Waters, Andrew J

    2014-03-01

    Black smokers have greater difficulty quitting tobacco than White smokers, but the mechanisms underlying between-race differences in smoking cessation are not clear. One possibility is that Black smokers experience greater acute withdrawal than Whites. We investigated whether Black (n = 104) and White smokers (n = 99) differed in abstinence-induced changes in self-report, physiological, and cognitive performance measures. Smokers not wishing to quit completed two counterbalanced experimental sessions. Before one session, they abstained from smoking for at least 12 hr. They smoked normally before the other session. Black smokers reported smaller abstinence-induced changes on a number of subjective measures including the total score of the 10-item Questionnaire for Smoking Urges (QSU) and the total score of the Wisconsin Smoking Withdrawal Scale (WSWS). However, on most subjective measures, and on all objective measures, there were no between-race differences in abstinence-induced change scores. Moreover, Black participants did not report lower QSU and WSWS ratings at the abstinent session, but they did experience significantly higher QSU and WSWS ratings at the nonabstinent session. Abstinence-induced changes in subjective, physiological, and cognitive measures in White smokers were similar for smokers of nonflavored and menthol-flavored cigarettes. There was no evidence that Black smokers experienced greater acute tobacco withdrawal than Whites. To the contrary, Black participants experienced smaller abstinence-induced changes in self-reported craving and withdrawal on some measures. Racial differences in smoking cessation are unlikely to be explained by acute withdrawal.

  9. Community-acquired pneumonia among smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almirall, Jordi; Blanquer, José; Bello, Salvador

    2014-06-01

    Recent studies have left absolutely no doubt that tobacco increases susceptibility to bacterial lung infection, even in passive smokers. This relationship also shows a dose-response effect, since the risk reduces spectacularly 10 years after giving up smoking, returning to the level of non-smokers. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the causative microorganism responsible for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) most frequently associated with smoking, particularly in invasive pneumococcal disease and septic shock. It is not clear how it acts on the progress of pneumonia, but there is evidence to suggest that the prognosis for pneumococcal pneumonia is worse. In CAP caused by Legionella pneumophila, it has also been observed that smoking is the most important risk factor, with the risk rising 121% for each pack of cigarettes smoked a day. Tobacco use may also favor diseases that are also known risk factors for CAP, such as periodontal disease and upper respiratory viral infections. By way of prevention, while giving up smoking should always be proposed, the use of the pneumococcal vaccine is also recommended, regardless of the presence of other comorbidities. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. COMPARISON OF MICRONUCLEATED CELL IN BUCCAL SMEARS AMONG SMOKERS AND NON-SMOKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vani Dayanand

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The health complexities caused due to tobacco smoking has not been restricted to any geographic region and has spread worldwide. As the oral mucosal cells, which line the oral cavity are the first barrier, they represent the preferred target site for the early genotoxic events. Tobacco use is one of the most important aetiological factors in initiation of oral cancer as it increases the risk of cancer by exposing the buccal mucosal to the carcinogenic chemicals either through inhalation or by ingestion. Micronuclei are round to oval cytoplasmic chromatin mass, which occurs as a result of segregation defects due to chromosomal instability causing chromatin to be excluded from the reformed nucleus. Micronuclei assay in exfoliated buccal cells is a useful and less invasive method for monitoring genetic damage. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 100 male subjects (50 smokers, 50 non-smokers were examined. Buccal smears were wet fixed and stained with pap stain. 100 cells per slide were counted and assessed for micronuclei count. T-test and Pearson correlation was used as a statistical tool for analysis. RESULTS Significantly, smokers had higher percentage of micronucleated cells (T-5.865; P (0.000, total number of micronuclei (T- 6.713; P (0.000 and mean micronuclei count (T-5.865; P (0.000 than non-smokers. Pack years correlated significantly and positively with mean micronuclei count. However, pack year did not have significant relation with percentage of micronucleated cells and total number of micronuclei. CONCLUSION The genotoxic effects of tobacco smoke cause chromosomal damage in the epithelial cells of buccal mucosa and are reflected in the increased micronuclei in smokers. Micronuclei assay can be used as a simple and reliable marker for genotoxic evaluation.

  11. Observational study of safety and efficacy of varenicline for smoking cessation among Filipino smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Peter W; Casiano, Errol M; Escoto, Laarni; Claveria, Angelica M

    2011-10-01

    Varenicline, an α4β2 receptor nicotinic receptor partial agonist, is known to be an effective aid for smoking cessation. To date, few observational studies of varenicline have been conducted. This prospective, non-interventional, post-marketing surveillance study (NCT00794365) was designed to monitor the efficacy and safety of varenicline for 12 weeks in Filipino smokers who were motivated to quit. This study was conducted between July 2, 2008, and November 23, 2009, in 70 centers throughout the Philippines. Participants were adult smokers who were prescribed varenicline (0.5 mg orally once daily, days 1 to 3; 0.5 mg twice daily, days 4 to 7; 1 mg twice daily for the remainder of a 12-week treatment period) for the first time. Participants made five clinic visits (weeks 0, 1, 4, 8, and 12). Adverse events (AEs) were recorded at each clinic visit and up to 28 days after administration of the last study treatment. Seven-day point prevalence of smoking cessation was measured at weeks 4, 8, and 12. A total of 330 participants were enrolled into the study, of whom 251 (76.1%) completed the study. At the end of week 12, 57.6% (95% confidence interval, 52.0, 63.0) of participants had been abstinent for the previous 7 days. The most frequently reported AEs were headache (5.5%), dizziness (3.9%), and nausea (3.6%). Ten participants (3.0%) permanently discontinued varenicline treatment due to AEs, and 13 (3.9%) reduced their varenicline dose or discontinued treatment temporarily due to AEs. There were no reports of any serious AEs, deaths, suicidal ideation, or behavior. The results of this study in adult Filipino smokers prescribed varenicline for the first time during routine clinical practice demonstrate that varenicline was well tolerated and efficacious as an aid for smoking cessation.

  12. Quit Attempt Correlates among Smokers by Race/Ethnicity

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    Anna Teplinskaya

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cigarette smoking is the leading preventable cause of premature deaths in the U.S., accounting for approximately 443,000 deaths annually. Although smoking prevalence in recent decades has declined substantially among all racial/ethnic groups, disparities in smoking-related behaviors among racial/ethnic groups continue to exist. Two of the goals of Healthy People 2020 are to reduce smoking prevalence among adults to 12% or less and to increase smoking cessation attempts by adult smokers from 41% to 80%. Our study assesses whether correlates of quit attempts vary by race/ethnicity among adult (≥18 years smokers in the U.S. Understanding racial/ethnic differences in how both internal and external factors affect quit attempts is important for targeting smoking-cessation interventions to decrease tobacco-use disparities. Methods: We used 2003 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (CPS data from 16,213 adults to examine whether the relationship between demographic characteristics, smoking behaviors, smoking policies and having made a quit attempt in the past year varied by race/ethnicity. Results: Hispanics and persons of multiple races were more likely to have made a quit attempt than whites. Overall, younger individuals and those with >high school education, who smoked fewer cigarettes per day and had smoked for fewer years were more likely to have made a quit attempt. Having a smoke-free home, receiving a doctor’s advice to quit, smoking menthol cigarettes and having a greater time to when you smoked your first cigarette of the day were also associated with having made a quit attempt. The relationship between these four variables and quit attempts varied by race/ethnicity; most notably receiving a doctor’s advice was not related to quit attempts among Asian American/Pacific Islanders and menthol use among whites was associated with a lower prevalence of quit attempts while black menthol users were more likely

  13. Long-term smoking causes more advanced coronary endothelial dysfunction in middle-aged smokers compared to young smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naya, Masanao; Goto, Daisuke; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki; Morita, Koichi; Manabe, Osamu; Hirata, Kenji; Tamaki, Nagara; Yoshinaga, Keiichiro; Katoh, Chietsugu

    2011-01-01

    Smoking cessation has been shown to normalize the coronary endothelial dysfunction in healthy young smokers. However, its effect has not been explored in middle-aged smokers with a longer history of smoking. Therefore, we compared the effects of smoking cessation on coronary vasomotor response between both young and middle-aged smokers and identified the predictor for its improvement. This study investigated 14 young healthy smokers (age 25.2 ± 2.3 years), 13 middle-aged smokers (age 42.0 ± 6.5 years) and 10 non-smokers. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was measured by using 15 O-water positron emission tomography (PET). At baseline, the ratio of MBF during the cold pressor test (CPT) to that at rest (MBF CPT/rest ), the index of coronary endothelial function, was significantly decreased in both young and middle-aged smokers compared to non-smokers (1.24 ± 0.20 and 1.10 ± 0.39 vs 1.53 ± 0.18, p CPT/rest at 1 month after smoking cessation significantly increased in young smokers, but not in middle-aged smokers. By multivariate analysis, baseline serum malondialdehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein (MDA-LDL) was an independent predictor for the changes in MBF CPT/rest after smoking cessation (β = -0.45, p < 0.05). Coronary endothelial dysfunction was reversible by short-term smoking cessation in young smokers, but not in middle-aged smokers, which was associated with serum MDA-LDL levels. Long-term smoking exposure could lead to more advanced coronary endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis possibly via oxidative stress. (orig.)

  14. Association between anxiety, obesity and periodontal disease in smokers and non-smokers: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhay P. Kolte

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Psychological stress is known to be a relevant risk factor for many inflammatory conditions, including periodontal disease. A few studies have probed the relationship between obesity and periodontal disease. Therefore this cross-sectional study was aimed to examine the relationship between psychological stress and obesity and periodontal disease in smokers and non-smokers. Methods. The participants included 90 patients, equally divided into three groups of non-smokers and periodontally healthy, non-smokers and smokers with untreated moderate-to-severe chronic periodontitis. Socioeconomic data, psychosocial measurements, physical parameters and clinical findings of PPD, CAL, PI and GI were recorded. Results. The clinical parameters were assessed for three groups in three different anxiety levels of mild, moderate and se-vere. Intra-group comparison of PPD and CAL in the three anxiety levels showed increased periodontal destruction with an increase in anxiety levels, the results being statistically highly significant for PPD differences in smokers (P < 0.0001. The mean differences in PPD and CAL in severe anxiety levels between smokers and non-smokers were 0.68 mm and 0.70 mm and both the findings were statistically significant. The mean PPD and CAL in smoker and non-smoker groups in obese patients was higher as compared to non-obese patients and the differences were highly significant (P < 0.001. Conclusion. The results of our study indicated a positive and strong correlation between anxiety, obesity and periodontal disease in smokers and non-smokers. Smoking appears to further attenuate this association.

  15. “It’s my business, it’s my body, it’s my money”: Experiences of smokers who are not planning to quit in the next 30 days and their views about treatment options

    OpenAIRE

    Bartlett, Kiera; Gartland, Nicola; Wearden, Alison; Armitage, C J; Borrelli, Belinda

    2016-01-01

    Background: Current evidence-based smoking cessation treatments in the UK are only offered to smokers ready to quit within 30 days. This study reports the experiences of smokers who are not ready to quit and explores the types of intervention approaches that might engage them. Methods: Five focus groups were conducted with smokers who had no plans to quit within 30 days (n = 32, 44% female). Verbatim transcripts were analyzed thematically using Nvivo 10 software. Results: Participants were am...

  16. Increased long-term recreational physical activity is associated with older age at natural menopause among heavy smokers: the California Teachers Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emaus, Aina; Dieli-Conwright, Christina; Xu, Xinxin; Lacey, James V; Ingles, Sue A; Reynolds, Peggy; Bernstein, Leslie; Henderson, Katherine D

    2013-03-01

    Although physical activity modulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, the few studies that have investigated whether physical activity is associated with age at natural menopause have yielded mixed results. We set out to determine whether physical activity is associated with the timing of natural menopause in a large cohort of California women overall and by smoking history. We investigated the association between long-term physical activity (h/wk/y) and age at natural menopause among 97,945 women in the California Teachers Study. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression methods were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The impact of cigarette smoking (never smoker, former light smoker, former heavy smoker, current light smoker, and current heavy smoker) as an effect modifier was evaluated. In a multivariable model adjusted for body mass index at age 18 years, age at menarche, race/ethnicity, and age at first full-term pregnancy, increased physical activity was statistically significantly associated with older age at natural menopause (P(trend) = 0.005). Higher body mass index at age 18 years (P(trend) = 0.0003) and older age at menarche (P(trend) = 0.0003) were also associated with older age at natural menopause. Hispanic ethnicity (vs non-Hispanic whites; HR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.09-1.26), current smokers (vs never smokers; HR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.60-1.75 for current light smokers; HR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.33-1.44 for current heavy smokers), and older age at first full-term pregnancy (HR(≥29, 2+ full-term pregnancies) vs HR(menopause. Upon stratification by smoking history, increased physical activity was statistically significantly associated with older age at natural menopause among heavy smokers only (HR(highest quartile) vs HR(lowest quartile), 0.88; 95% CI, 0.81-0.97; P(trend) = 0.02 for former heavy smokers; HR(highest quartile) vs HR(lowest quartile), 0.89; 95% CI, 0.80-0.99; P(trend) = 0.04 for current heavy

  17. Abnormal white matter integrity in the corpus callosum among smokers: tract-based spatial statistics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakako Umene-Nakano

    Full Text Available In the present study, we aimed to investigate the difference in white matter between smokers and nonsmokers. In addition, we examined relationships between white matter integrity and nicotine dependence parameters in smoking subjects. Nineteen male smokers were enrolled in this study. Eighteen age-matched non-smokers with no current or past psychiatric history were included as controls. Diffusion tensor imaging scans were performed, and the analysis was conducted using a tract-based special statistics approach. Compared with nonsmokers, smokers exhibited a significant decrease in fractional anisotropy (FA throughout the whole corpus callosum. There were no significant differences in radial diffusivity or axial diffusivity between the two groups. There was a significant negative correlation between FA in the whole corpus callosum and the amount of tobacco use (cigarettes/day; R = - 0.580, p = 0.023. These results suggest that the corpus callosum may be one of the key areas influenced by chronic smoking.

  18. Daily bowel care program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000133.htm Daily bowel care program To use the sharing features on this page, ... Work with your health care provider. Basic Bowel Program Keeping active helps prevent constipation. Try to walk, ...

  19. Lightship Daily Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observations taken on board lightships along the United States coasts from 1936 - 1983. Generally 4-6 observations daily. Also includes deck logs, which give...

  20. Tips for Daily Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tips and Gadgets for Daily Activities Dressing Tips Shopping Tips Modifying the Bathroom Driving After Stroke Medication ... and resources. Find a group in your area . Online Support If there is not a support group ...

  1. Daily Weather Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Several different government offices have published the Daily weather maps over its history. The publication has also gone by different names over time. The U.S....

  2. Tips for Daily Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chapter Join our online community Tips for Daily Life Coping skills will help you handle day-to- ... challenges, maximize your independence and live a meaningful life with your diagnosis. Accepting changes Creating a coping ...

  3. DailyMed

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — DailyMed provides high quality information about marketed drugs. This information includes FDA labels (package inserts). This Web site provides health information...

  4. Cigarette litter: smokers' attitudes and behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Jessica M; Rubenstein, Rebecca A; Curry, Laurel E; Shank, Sarah E; Cartwright, Julia C

    2012-06-01

    Cigarette butts are consistently the most collected items in litter clean-up efforts, which are a costly burden to local economies. In addition, tobacco waste may be detrimental to our natural environment. The tobacco industry has conducted or funded numerous studies on smokers' littering knowledge and behavior, however, non-industry sponsored research is rare. We sought to examine whether demographics and smokers' knowledge and beliefs toward cigarette waste as litter predicts littering behavior. Smokers aged 18 and older (n = 1,000) were interviewed about their knowledge and beliefs towards cigarette waste as litter. Respondents were members of the Research Now panel, an online panel of over three million respondents in the United States. Multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to determine factors significantly predictive of ever having littered cigarette butts or having littered cigarette butts within the past month (p-value littered cigarette butts at least once in their life, by disposing of them on the ground or throwing them out of a car window. Over half (55.7%) reported disposing of cigarette butts on the ground, in a sewer/gutter, or down a drain in the past month. Those who did not consider cigarette butts to be litter were over three and half times as likely to report having ever littered cigarette butts (OR = 3.68, 95%CI = 2.04, 6.66) and four times as likely to have littered cigarette butts in the past month (OR = 4.00, 95%CI = 2.53, 6.32). Males were significantly more likely to have littered cigarette butts in the past month compared to females (OR = 1.49, 95%CI = 1.14, 1.94). Holding the belief that cigarette butts are not litter was the only belief in this study that predicted ever or past-month littering of cigarette waste. Messages in anti-cigarette-litter campaigns should emphasize that cigarette butts are not just litter but are toxic waste and are harmful when disposed of improperly.

  5. Smokers' attitudes and support for e-cigarette policies and regulation in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackowski, Olivia A; Delnevo, Cristine D

    2015-11-01

    In April 2014, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) proposed a rule to extend its tobacco regulatory authority to e-cigarettes, which have been unregulated and growing in use since their 2006-2007 US introduction. The FDA will issue a final rule based on comments and data received from researchers, tobacco companies and the public. We aimed to present data about current smokers' awareness of and attitudes towards potential e-cigarette regulation and various policies in the USA. We conducted a cross-sectional online e-cigarette focused survey of 519 adult current smokers in April 2014, before the FDA's proposed rule was announced. Participants were recruited from a private research panel (GFK's Knowledge Networks) designed to be representative of the US population. The majority of respondents (62.5%) did not know that e-cigarettes are unregulated by the FDA but agreed that e-cigarettes should be regulated by the FDA for safety and quality (83.5%), carry warning labels about their potential risks (86.6%) and have the same legal age of sale as other tobacco (87.7%). Support was similarly high among current e-cigarette users. Support was substantial though lower overall for policies to restrict e-cigarette indoor use (41.2%), flavouring (44.3%) and advertising (55.5%), and was negatively associated with current e-cigarette use. Support for many e-cigarette regulatory policies is strong among smokers, including for policies that the FDA has recently proposed and potential future regulations. States considering indoor e-cigarette restrictions should know that a substantial number of current smokers support such regulations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  6. Contribution of occupational factors to current smoking among active-duty U.S. Navy careerists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunradi, Carol B; Moore, Roland S; Ames, Genevieve

    2008-03-01

    Rates of cigarette smoking among active-duty U.S. military personnel remain elevated, ranging from 23% among Air Force personnel to 38% among Army personnel. The purpose of this study was to estimate the contribution of occupational factors to current smoking and heavy smoking among a sample of Navy careerists (those with at least 7 years of military service), and to determine if gender moderates these associations. Participants in the study (n = 2,922) were randomly recruited within over-sampled strata of women and racial/ethnic minorities, and voluntarily completed confidential self-administered questionnaires on drinking, smoking, demographic, and occupational factors during 2001-2002. Approximately 23% of study participants reported current smoking; 9% reported heavy smoking. Multivariate logistic regression models were developed to estimate the contribution of occupational factors to current smoking and heavy smoking. The results indicated that careerists in the enlisted ranks were significantly more likely to be current smokers and heavy smokers compared with careerist officers. In addition, those who were deployed at sea were significantly more likely to report current smoking compared with those not currently deployed at sea. Mean daily ounces of alcohol were also significantly associated with likelihood of current and heavy smoking. Gender did not modify the association between occupational factors and smoking. Because aspects of the work environment are potentially modifiable, understanding the role of occupational factors vis-à-vis smoking can aid in smoking prevention and cessation efforts within the military.

  7. Automatic Smoker Detection from Telephone Speech Signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alavijeh, Amir Hossein Poorjam; Hesaraki, Soheila; Safavi, Saeid

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes an automatic smoking habit detection from spontaneous telephone speech signals. In this method, each utterance is modeled using i-vector and non-negative factor analysis (NFA) frameworks, which yield low-dimensional representation of utterances by applying factor analysis...... on Gaussian mixture model means and weights respectively. Each framework is evaluated using different classification algorithms to detect the smoker speakers. Finally, score-level fusion of the i-vector-based and the NFA-based recognizers is considered to improve the classification accuracy. The proposed...... method is evaluated on telephone speech signals of speakers whose smoking habits are known drawn from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) 2008 and 2010 Speaker Recognition Evaluation databases. Experimental results over 1194 utterances show the effectiveness of the proposed approach...

  8. Recruiting women smokers: the engineering of consent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, A M

    1996-01-01

    A range of social forces contributed to the effective recruitment of women to cigarette smoking in the crucial period between 1900 and 1940. Cigarette advertisers and public relations experts recognized the significance of women's changing roles and the rising culture of consumption, and worked to create specific meanings for the cigarette to make it appeal to women. The cigarette was a flexible symbol, with a remarkably elastic set of meanings; for women, it represented rebellious independence, glamour, seduction, and sexual allure, and served as a symbol for both feminists and flappers. The industry, with the help of advertisers and public relations experts, effectively engineered consent for women as smokers. The "engineering of consent" has a role to play in smoking cessation, since negative meanings for the cigarette can be engineered as well.

  9. A motivational intervention for adolescent smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawendowski, L A

    1998-01-01

    Motivational interviewing (MI) is a brief psychotherapeutic intervention to increase the likelihood of a client's considering, initiating, and maintaining specific change strategies to reduce harmful behavior. MI is founded on principles of motivational psychology, client-centered therapy, and stages of change in natural recovery from addiction. Motivational Enhancement Therapy (MET) embeds MI within a structured format of standardized intake assessment, personalized feedback of testing results, and follow-up interview to facilitate treatment outcome evaluation. This paper presents research evidence for the efficacy of MET, a description of the methods and goals of MI counseling approach, and the rationale for MET as an appropriate brief intervention for adolescents. Specific recommendations for application of MI to adolescent smokers are offered. Copyright 1998 American Health Foundation and Academic Press.

  10. Smokers' Willingness to Protect Children from Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.; Creighton, Stephanie; Vogel, Stephanie

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the effectiveness of a secondhand smoke media campaign on adult smokers' willingness to protect children from secondhand smoke. Methods: Following a series of community awareness ads, a random sample of 390 adult smokers was surveyed via telephone regarding their perceptions of secondhand smoke. Results: Seeing or hearing…

  11. Treating Depressed and Anxious Smokers in Smoking Cessation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, C. Steven; Cohen, Lee M.; Morrell, Holly E. R.; Watson, Noreen L.; Low, Blakely E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States. In addition, smoking rates among depressed and anxious smokers are higher than in the population at large. Furthermore, treating depressed and anxious smokers effectively is particularly challenging because of their significant negative affect,…

  12. Spontaneous Action Representation in Smokers when Watching Movie Characters Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Dylan D.; Cin, Sonya Dal; Sargent, James D.; Kelley, William M.; Heatherton, Todd F.

    2013-01-01

    Do smokers simulate smoking when they see someone else smoke? For regular smokers, smoking is such a highly practiced motor skill that it often occurs automatically, without conscious awareness. Research on the brain basis of action observation has delineated a frontopareital network that is commonly recruited when people observe, plan or imitate actions. Here, we investigated whether this action observation network would be preferentially recruited in smokers when viewing complex smoking cues, such as those occurring in motion pictures. Seventeen right-handed smokers and seventeen non-smokers watched a popular movie while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. Using a natural stimulus, such as a movie, allowd us to keep both smoking and non-smoking participants naïve to the goals of the experiment. Brain activity evoked by scenes of movie smoking was contrasted with non-smoking control scenes which were matched for frequency and duration. Compared to non-smokers, smokers showed greater activity in left anterior intraparietal sulcus and inferior frontal gyrus, both regions involved in the simulation of contralateral hand-based gestures, when viewing smoking vs. control scenes. These results demonstrate that smokers spontaneously represent the action of smoking when viewing others smoke, the consequence of which may make it more difficult to abstain from smoking. PMID:21248113

  13. Respiratory effects of biomass fuel combustion on rural fish smokers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Respiratory effects of biomass fuel combustion on rural fish smokers in a Nigerian fishing settlement: a case control study. Paul Dienye, Alex Akani, Ita Okokon. Abstract. Backgroud: The aim was to study the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and assess the lung function of fish smokers in Nigeria. Methods: A case control ...

  14. Long-term smoking causes more advanced coronary endothelial dysfunction in middle-aged smokers compared to young smokers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naya, Masanao; Goto, Daisuke; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Morita, Koichi; Manabe, Osamu; Hirata, Kenji; Tamaki, Nagara [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Yoshinaga, Keiichiro [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Molecular Imaging, Sapporo (Japan); Katoh, Chietsugu [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Health Science, Sapporo (Japan)

    2011-03-15

    Smoking cessation has been shown to normalize the coronary endothelial dysfunction in healthy young smokers. However, its effect has not been explored in middle-aged smokers with a longer history of smoking. Therefore, we compared the effects of smoking cessation on coronary vasomotor response between both young and middle-aged smokers and identified the predictor for its improvement. This study investigated 14 young healthy smokers (age 25.2 {+-} 2.3 years), 13 middle-aged smokers (age 42.0 {+-} 6.5 years) and 10 non-smokers. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was measured by using {sup 15}O-water positron emission tomography (PET). At baseline, the ratio of MBF during the cold pressor test (CPT) to that at rest (MBF{sub CPT/rest}), the index of coronary endothelial function, was significantly decreased in both young and middle-aged smokers compared to non-smokers (1.24 {+-} 0.20 and 1.10 {+-} 0.39 vs 1.53 {+-} 0.18, p < 0.05 and p < 0.001, respectively). The ratio of MBF during adenosine triphosphate infusion to that at rest was significantly decreased in middle-aged smokers compared to young smokers and non-smokers (3.34 {+-} 1.52 vs 4.43 {+-} 0.92 and 4.69 {+-} 1.25, p < 0.05, respectively). MBF{sub CPT/rest} at 1 month after smoking cessation significantly increased in young smokers, but not in middle-aged smokers. By multivariate analysis, baseline serum malondialdehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein (MDA-LDL) was an independent predictor for the changes in MBF{sub CPT/rest} after smoking cessation ({beta} = -0.45, p < 0.05). Coronary endothelial dysfunction was reversible by short-term smoking cessation in young smokers, but not in middle-aged smokers, which was associated with serum MDA-LDL levels. Long-term smoking exposure could lead to more advanced coronary endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis possibly via oxidative stress. (orig.)

  15. Impact of supragingival therapy on subgingival microbial profile in smokers versus non-smokers with severe chronic periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Meulman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess subgingival microbiological changes in smokers versus non-smokers presenting severe chronic periodontitis after supragingival periodontal therapy (ST.Non-smokers (n=10 and smokers (n=10 presenting at least nine teeth with probing pocket depth (PPD (≥5 mm, bleeding on probing (BoP, and no history of periodontal treatment in the last 6 months were selected. Clinical parameters assessed were plaque index (PI, BoP, PPD, relative gingival margin position (rGMP and relative clinical attachment level (rCAL. Subgingival biofilm was collected before and 21 days after ST. DNA was extracted and the 16S rRNA gene was amplified with the universal primer pair, 27F and 1492R. Amplified genes were cloned, sequenced, and identified by comparison with known 16S rRNA sequences. Statistical analysis was performed by Student's t and Chi-Square tests (α=5%.Clinically, ST promoted a significant reduction in PI and PPD, and gain of rCAL for both groups, with no significant intergroup difference. Microbiologically, at baseline, data analysis demonstrated that smokers harbored a higher proportion of Porphyromonas endodontalis, Bacteroidetes sp., Fusobacterium sp. and Tannerella forsythia and a lower number of cultivated phylotypes (p<0.05. Furthermore, non-smokers featured significant reductions in key phylotypes associated with periodontitis, whereas smokers presented more modest changes.Within the limits of the present study, ST promoted comparable clinical improvements in smokers and non-smokers with severe chronic periodontitis. However, in smokers, ST only slightly affected the subgingival biofilm biodiversity, as compared with non-smokers.

  16. Nicotine metabolism and addiction among adolescent smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Mark L; Shiffman, Saul; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara; Rait, Michelle A; Sen, Saunak; Benowitz, Neal L

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the association between the nicotine metabolic rate and smoking behavior, including addiction, in adolescent smokers. Baseline data from a prospective study of adolescent smoking behaviors and nicotine metabolism. The setting was an out-patient university hospital in San Francisco. Adolescent smokers (n = 164) aged 13-17 years old. Participants completed self-report measures of smoking behavior and nicotine dependence (modified Fagerström Tolerance Questionnaire: mFTQ). The nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR), a phenotypic marker of the rate of nicotine metabolism, was calculated using the ratio of concentrations of deuterium-labeled 3'-hydroxycotinine to cotinine-d(4) . Participants reported smoking a mean of 2.86 cigarettes per day (CPD) [median = 1.78, standard deviation (SD) = 3.35] for 1.37 years (median = 1.0, SD = 1.36). Results from multivariate analyses accounting for age, race/ethnicity, gender and duration of smoking indicated that slower metabolizers smoked more CPD than faster metabolizers (the NMR was inversely related to CPD; P = 0.02). Slower metabolizers also showed greater dependence on the mFTQ (NMR was negatively associated with the mFTQ; P = 0.02). In adolescence, slower clearance of nicotine may be associated with greater levels of addiction, perhaps mediated by a greater number of cigarettes smoked. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  17. Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in asymptomatic smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sansores RH

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Raúl H Sansores, Mónica Velázquez-Uncal, Oliver Pérez-Bautista, Jaime Villalba-Caloca, Ramcés Falfán-Valencia, Alejandra Ramírez-VenegasTobacco Smoking and COPD Research Department, National Institute of Respiratory Diseases, Ismael Cosio Villegas, Mexico City, MexicoBackground: Physicians do not routinely recommend smokers to undergo spirometry unless they are symptomatic.Objective: To test the hypothesis that there are a significant number of asymptomatic smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, we estimated the prevalence of COPD in a group of asymptomatic smokers.Methods: Two thousand nine hundred and sixty-one smokers with a cumulative consumption history of at least 10 pack-years, either smokers with symptoms or smokers without symptoms (WOS were invited to perform a spirometry and complete a symptom questionnaire.Results: Six hundred and thirty-seven (21.5% smokers had no symptoms, whereas 2,324 (78.5% had at least one symptom. The prevalence of COPD in subjects WOS was 1.5% when considering the whole group of smokers (45/2,961 and 7% when considering only the group WOS (45/637. From 329 smokers with COPD, 13.7% were WOS. Subjects WOS were younger, had better lung function and lower cumulative consumption of cigarettes, estimated as both cigarettes per day and pack-years. According to severity of airflow limitation, 69% vs 87% of subjects were classified as Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stages I–II in the WOS and smokers with symptoms groups, respectively (P<0.001. A multivariate analysis showed that forced expiratory volume in 1 second (mL was the only predictive factor for COPD in asymptomatic smokers.Conclusion: Prevalence of COPD in asymptomatic smokers is 1.5%. This number of asymptomatic smokers may be excluded from the benefit of an “early” intervention, not just pharmacological but also from smoking cessation counseling. The higher forced expiratory volume in 1 second may

  18. "A cigarette a day keeps the goodies away": smokers show automatic approach tendencies for smoking--but not for food-related stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla Machulska

    tendencies in smokers. Nevertheless, our findings are of special importance for current etiological models and smoking cessation programs aimed at modifying nicotine-related approach tendencies in the context of a nicotine addiction.

  19. Cannabis withdrawal in chronic, frequent cannabis smokers during sustained abstinence within a closed residential environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dayong; Schroeder, Jennifer R; Karschner, Erin L; Goodwin, Robert S; Hirvonen, Jussi; Gorelick, David A; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2014-01-01

    Chronic, frequent cannabis smokers may experience residual and offset effects, withdrawal, and craving when abstaining from the drug. We characterized the prevalence, duration, and intensity of these effects in chronic frequent cannabis smokers during abstinence on a closed research unit. Non-treatment-seeking participants (N = 29 on admission, 66% and 34% remaining after 2 and 4 weeks) provided subjective effects data. A battery of five instruments was computer-administered daily to measure psychological, sensory, and physical symptoms associated with cannabinoid intoxication and withdrawal. Plasma and oral fluid specimens were concurrently collected and analyzed for cannabinoids. Outcome variables were evaluated as change from admission (Day 0) with regression models. Most abstinence effects, including irritability and anxiety were greatest on Days 0-3 and decreased thereafter. Cannabis craving significantly decreased over time, whereas decreased appetite began to normalize on Day 4. Strange dreams and difficulty getting to sleep increased over time, suggesting intrinsic sleep problems in chronic cannabis smokers. Symptoms likely induced by residual drug effects were at maximum intensity on admission and positively correlated with plasma and oral fluid cannabinoid concentrations on admission but not afterward; these symptoms showed overall prevalence higher than cannabis withdrawal symptoms. The combined influence of residual/offset drug effects, withdrawal, and craving was observed in chronic cannabis smokers during monitored abstinence. Abstinence symptoms were generally more intense in the initial phase, implying importance of early intervention in cannabis quit attempts. Sleep disturbance persisting for an extended period suggests that hypnotic medications could be beneficial in treating cannabis dependence. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  20. Blood Pressure Control in Smokers with Arterial Hypertension Who Switched to Electronic Cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Polosa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Electronic cigarettes (ECs are battery-operated devices designed to vaporise nicotine, which may help smokers with quitting or reducing their tobacco consumption. No data is available regarding the health effects of ECs use among smokers with arterial hypertension and whether regular use results in blood pressure (BP changes. We investigated long-term changes in resting BP and level of BP control in hypertensive smokers who quit or reduced substantially their tobacco consumption by switching to ECs. A medical records review of patients with hypertension was conducted to identify patients reporting regular daily use of ECs on at least two consecutive follow-up visits. Regularly smoking hypertensive patients were included as a reference group. A marked reduction in cigarette consumption was observed in ECs users (n = 43 though consumption remained unchanged in the control group (n = 46. Compared to baseline, at 12 months (follow-up visit 2 decline in cigarette consumption was associated with significant reductions in median (25th-, 75th-centile systolic BP (140 (134.5, 144 to 130 (123.5, 138.5 mmHg; p < 0.001 and diastolic BP (86 (78, 90 to 80 (74.5, 90 mmHg; p = 0.006. No significant changes were observed in the control group. As expected, decline in cigarette consumption in the ECs users was also associated with improved BP control. The study concludes that regular ECs use may aid smokers with arterial hypertension reduce or abstain from cigarette smoking, with only trivial post-cessation weight gain. This resulted in improvements in systolic and diastolic BP as well as better BP control.

  1. Comparison of patterns of use, beliefs, and attitudes related to waterpipe between beginning and established smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfar, Taghrid; Ward, Kenneth D; Eissenberg, Thomas; Maziak, Wasim

    2005-02-25

    To compare patterns of use, beliefs, and attitudes related to waterpipe smoking between university students (beginning smokers) and cafe customers (established smokers) in Aleppo Syria, in order to explore the evolution of this smoking method. Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted among representative samples of university students (total 587, 48.4% men, mean age 22 years), and waterpipe users among cafe' customers (total 268, 60% men, mean age 30 years) in Aleppo, Syria. We used interviewer-administered questionnaire inquiring about pattern of waterpipe smoking (initiation, frequency), situational characteristics of use (partner, place, sharing), beliefs related to waterpipe smoking (harmful/addictive properties of waterpipe), attitudes related to waterpipe smoking (confidence in quitting, will to quit, motivation for quitting, past year quit attempt), and cigarette smoking. Daily and regular patterns of smoking become more prevalent with increased duration of smoking, but intermittent smoking remains the predominant pattern of waterpipe use. Women seem to be drawn later to the habit, which seem to escape the usual taboo against women's cigarette smoking. Patterns and context of waterpipe use tend to change with progress of the practice affecting frequency, setting, and sharing of waterpipe. Unlike beginners, established waterpipe smokers seem more smoking-method oriented, more hooked on the habit, less willing to quit, and less likely to foresee challenges to quitting. Use patterns and attitudes related to waterpipe smoking evolve to accommodate the change in dependence and life circumstances of the smoker. Most of use features, beliefs, attitudes, as well as time-course seem unique to this smoking method requiring novel approach to intervention.

  2. Serum markers of inflammation and oxidative stress in chronic opium (Taryak) smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazavi, Ali; Mosayebi, Ghasem; Solhi, Hassan; Rafiei, Mohammad; Moazzeni, Seyed Mohammad

    2013-06-01

    A relationship between the expression of inflammation markers, oxidative stress and opium use has not been clearly established. This study was done to determine serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), quantity of C3 and C4 complement factors, immunoglobulins, nitric oxide (NO) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in opium smokers and non-drug-using control participants. The present study was done on 44 male opium smokers and 44 controls of the same sex and age (20-40 years). The control group was healthy individuals with no lifetime history of drug abuse or dependence. All of the opium abusers were selected from those who had a history of opium use, for at least one year, with a daily opium dosage not less than 2g. Addicts known to abuse alcohol or other drugs were excluded. Serum hs-CRP concentration was measured using ELISA method and serum C3, C4 and immunoglobulins concentration were determined by Single Radial Immunodiffusion (SRID) method. NO production was estimated through Griess reaction and TAC was assessed by Ferric Reducing/Antioxidant Power (FRAP) test. Serum hs-CRP, complement factors (C3 and C4) and FRAP levels were significantly higher in the opium smokers (8.93 ± 1.93; 138.47 ± 13.39; 68.79 ± 7.02 and 972.75 ± 11.55, respectively) relative to the control group (0.72 ± 0.09; 93.36 ± 8.73; 33.08 ± 7.39 and 761.95 ± 18.61, respectively). These results permit us to conclude that opium smokers indeed present with a low to moderate grade inflammation, which is defined by an increase in acute phase proteins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Tempol improves cutaneous thermal hyperemia through increasing nitric oxide bioavailability in young smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Naoto; Brunt, Vienna E.

    2014-01-01

    We recently found that young cigarette smokers display cutaneous vascular dysfunction relative to nonsmokers, which is partially due to reduced nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS)-dependent vasodilation. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that reducing oxidative stress improves NO bioavailability, enhancing cutaneous vascular function in young smokers. Ten healthy young male smokers, who had smoked for 6.3 ± 0.7 yr with an average daily consumption of 9.1 ± 0.7 cigarettes, were tested. Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) during local heating to 42°C at a rate of 0.1°C/s was evaluated as laser-Doppler flux divided by mean arterial blood pressure and normalized to maximal CVC, induced by local heating to 44°C plus sodium nitroprusside administration. We evaluated plateau CVC during local heating, which is known to be highly dependent on NO, at four intradermal microdialysis sites with 1) Ringer solution (control); 2) 10 μM 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (tempol), a superoxide dismutase mimetic; 3) 10 mM Nω-nitro-l-arginine (l-NNA), a nonspecific NOS inhibitor; and 4) a combination of 10 μM tempol and 10 mM l-NNA. Tempol increased plateau CVC compared with the Ringer solution site (90.0 ± 2.3 vs. 77.6 ± 3.9%maximum, P = 0.028). Plateau CVC at the combination site (56.8 ± 4.5%maximum) was lower than the Ringer solution site (P tempol effect was exclusively NO dependent. These data suggest that in young smokers, reducing oxidative stress improves cutaneous thermal hyperemia to local heating by enhancing NO production. PMID:24682395

  4. Should Employers Be Permitted not to Hire Smokers? A Review of US Legal Provisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishi R. Patel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Increasingly, healthcare and non-healthcare employers prohibit or penalize the use of tobacco products among current and new employees in the United States. Despite this trend, and for a range of different reasons, around half of states currently legally protect employees from being denied positions, or having employment contracts terminated, due to tobacco use. Methods We undertook a conceptual analysis of legal provisions in all 50 states. Results We found ethically relevant variations in terms of how tobacco is defined, which employee populations are protected, and to what extent they are protected. Furthermore, the underlying ethical rationales for smoker protection differ, and can be grouped into two main categories: prevention of discrimination and protection of privacy. Conclusion We critically discuss these rationales and the role of their advocates and argue that enabling equality of opportunity is a more adequate overarching concept for preventing employers from disadvantaging smokers.

  5. Similar Squamous Cell Carcinoma Epithelium microRNA Expression in Never Smokers and Ever Smokers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Kolokythas

    Full Text Available The incidence of oral tumors in patients who never used mutagenic agents such as tobacco is increasing. In an effort to better understand these tumors we studied microRNA (miRNA expression in tumor epithelium of never tobacco users, tumor epithelium of ever tobacco users, and nonpathological control oral epithelium. A comparison of levels among 372 miRNAs in 12 never tobacco users with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC versus 10 healthy controls was made using the reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. A similar analysis was done with 8 ever tobacco users with OSCC. These comparisons revealed miR-10b-5p, miR-196a-5p, and miR-31-5p as enriched in the tumor epithelium in OSCC of both never and ever tobacco users. Examination of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA project miRNA data on 305 OSCCs and 30 controls revealed 100% of those miRNAs enriched in never smoker OSCCs in this patient group were also enriched in ever smoker OSCCs. Nonsupervised clustering of TCGA OSCCs was suggestive of two or four subgroups of tumors based on miRNA levels with limited evidence for differences in tobacco exposure among the groups. Results from both patient groups together stress the importance of miR196a-5p in OSCC malignancy in both never and ever smokers, and emphasize the overall similarity of miRNA expression in OSCCs in these two risk groups. It implies that there may be great similarity in etiology of OSCC in never and ever smokers and that classifying OSCC based on tobacco exposure may not be helpful in the clinic.

  6. Black Cigarette Smokers Report More Attention to Smoking Cues Than White Smokers: Implications for Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Cendrine D; Pickworth, Wallace B; Heishman, Stephen J; Wetter, David W; Cinciripini, Paul M; Li, Yisheng; Rowell, Brigid; Waters, Andrew J

    2015-08-01

    Black cigarette smokers have lower rates of smoking cessation compared with Whites. However, the mechanisms underlying these differences are not clear. Many Blacks live in communities saturated by tobacco advertisements. These cue-rich environments may undermine cessation attempts by provoking smoking. Moreover, attentional bias to smoking cues (attention capture by smoking cues) has been linked to lower cessation outcomes. Cessation attempts among Blacks may be compromised by attentional bias to smoking cues and a cue-rich environment. Attention to smoking cues in Black and White smokers was examined in 2 studies. In both studies, assessments were completed during 2 laboratory visits: a nonabstinent session and an abstinent session. In study 1, nontreatment-seeking smokers (99 Whites, 104 Blacks) completed the Subjective Attentional Bias Questionnaire (SABQ; a self-report measure of attention to cues) and the Smoking Stroop task (a reaction time measure of attentional bias to smoking cues). In study 2, 110 White and 74 Black treatment-seeking smokers completed these assessments and attempted to quit. In study 1, Blacks reported higher ratings than Whites on the SABQ (p = .005). In study 2, Blacks also reported higher ratings than Whites on the SABQ (p = .003). In study 2, Blacks had lower biochemical-verified point prevalence abstinence than Whites, and the between-race difference in outcome was partially mediated by SABQ ratings. Blacks reported greater attention to smoking cues than Whites, possibly due to between-race differences in environments. Greater attention to smoking cues may undermine cessation attempts. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Screening of oral premalignant lesions in smokers using toluidine blue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanti Leosari

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: A smoker is associated with the risk of developing oral premalignant lesions due to the cacinogenic contents in cigarette. Toluidine blue is a basic chromatic dye used in screening the presence of premalignant lesions due to its ability to detect acidic components in cells and tissues. Purpose: This study was purposed to observe the outcomes of toluidine blue staining on oral mucosa of smokers and non smokers and to find out whether quantity and duration of smoking affect the final results of toluidine blue staining. Methods: Forty male subjects, aged 20-60 years old were involved in this study, consisted of 10 heavy smokers, 10 moderate smokers, 10 light smokers and 10 non smokers. Subjects were instructed to rinse their mouths with mineral water for 20 seconds followed by acetic acid 1% for another 20 seconds. Toluidine blue stain was applied in excess and left on site for 1 minute. Subjects were instructed to rinse with acetic acid 1% and sufficient water consecutively for 20 seconds each. The areas of oral mucosa that stained blue were captured with intraoral camera and transferred to the computer unit. The staining procedure was repeated after 14 days. Results: Chi-square test showed that toluidine blue positive staining dominates the smokers group. Regression and correlation test indicate that Toluidine blue staining is more obvious in subjects who consume more cigarettes. Conclusion: It was concluded that oral mucosa of smokers absorbed more toluidine blue than that of non smokers and retention of toluidine blue is affected by quantity and duration of smoking.

  8. "I Smoke but I Am Not a Smoker": Phantom Smokers and the Discrepancy between Self-Identity and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Youjin; Choi, Sejung Marina; Rifon, Nora

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This article presents the development of a new smoking status, the "phantom smokers," who do not view themselves as smokers but report smoking cigarettes. Participants: Students from 2 universities in Michigan (N = 899; October 2005) and Florida (N = 1,517; May 2006) participated in surveys. Methods: Respondents in Michigan…

  9. Determination of a saliva cotinine cut-off to distinguish pregnant smokers from pregnant non-smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F

    2007-01-01

    Objective validation of smoking status is necessary. Earlier studies have used saliva cotinine concentrations between 14.2 and 30 ng/ml as cut-off values to distinguish pregnant smokers from non-smokers. However, these cut-offs derive from studies including men and non-pregnant women. This consti...

  10. Smartphone Ownership Among US Adult Cigarette Smokers: 2014 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffner, Jaimee L; Mull, Kristin E

    2017-08-31

    Despite increasing interest in smartphone apps as a platform for delivery of tobacco cessation interventions, no previous studies have evaluated the prevalence and characteristics of smokers who can access smartphone-delivered interventions. To guide treatment development in this new platform and to evaluate disparities in access to smartphone-delivered interventions, we examined associations of smartphone ownership with demographics, tobacco use and thoughts about quitting, other health behaviors, physical and mental health, health care access, and Internet and technology utilization using a nationally representative sample of US adult smokers. Data were from the National Cancer Institute's 2014 Health Information National Trends Survey 4 (HINTS 4), Cycle 4. This mailed survey targeted noninstitutionalized individuals aged 18 years or older using two-stage stratified random sampling. For this analysis, we restricted the sample to current smokers with complete data on smartphone ownership (n=479). Nearly two-thirds (weighted percent=63.8%, 248/479) of smokers reported owning a smartphone. Those who were younger (PSmartphone owners did not differ from nonowners on frequency of smoking, recent quit attempts, or future plans to quit smoking, although they reported greater belief in the benefits of quitting (P=.04). Despite being equally likely to be overweight or obese, smartphone owners reported greater fruit and vegetable consumption (P=.03) and were more likely to report past-year efforts to increase exercise (P=.001) and to lose weight (P=.02). No differences in health care access and utilization were found. Smartphone owners reported better physical and mental health in several domains and higher access to and utilization of technology and the Internet, including for health reasons. Smartphone ownership among smokers mirrors many trends in the general population, including the overall rate of ownership and the association with younger age and higher socioeconomic

  11. Global Historical Climatology Network - Daily (GHCN-Daily), Version 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Historical Climatology Network - Daily (GHCN-Daily) dataset integrates daily climate observations from approximately 30 different data sources. Version 3...

  12. A Comparison of Oral Sensory Effects of Three TRPA1 Agonists in Young Adult Smokers and Non-smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Ø. Hansen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study profiled intra-oral somatosensory and vasomotor responses to three different transient receptor potential (TRP channels, subfamily A, member 1 (TRPA1 agonists (menthol, nicotine, and cinnamaldehyde in smoking and non-smoking young adults. Healthy non-smokers (N = 30 and otherwise healthy smokers (N = 25 participated in a randomized, double-blinded, cross-over study consisting of three experimental sessions in which they received menthol (30 mg, nicotine (4 mg, or cinnamaldehyde (25 mg chewing gum. Throughout a standardized 10 min chewing regime, burning, cooling, and irritation intensities, and location were recorded. In addition, blood pressure, heart rate and intra-oral temperature were assessed before, during, and after chewing. Basal intra-oral temperature was lower in smokers (35.2°C ± 1.58 as compared to non-smokers (35.9°C ± 1.61 [F(1, 52 = 8.5, P = 0.005, post hoc, p = 0.005]. However, the increase in temperature, heart rate, and blood pressure in response to chewing menthol, nicotine, and cinnamaldehyde gums were similar between smokers and non-smokers. Although smoking status did not influence the intensity of burning, cooling, and irritation, smokers did report nicotine burn more often (92% than non-smokers (63% [χ(1, N=552 = 6.208, P = 0.013]. Reports of nicotine burn consistently occurred at the back of the throat and cinnamaldehyde burn on the tongue. The cooling sensation of menthol was more widely distributed in the mouth of non-smokers as compared to smokers. Smoking alters thermoregulation, somatosensory, and possibly TRPA1 receptor responsiveness and suggests that accumulated exposure of nicotine by way of cigarette smoke alters oral sensory and vasomotor sensitivity.

  13. Steroid resistance in COPD? Overlap and differential anti-inflammatory effects in smokers and ex-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoonhorst, Susan J M; ten Hacken, Nick H T; Vonk, Judith M; Timens, Wim; Hiemstra, Pieter S; Lapperre, Thérèse S; Sterk, Peter J; Postma, Dirkje S

    2014-01-01

    Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) reduce exacerbation rates and improve health status but can increase the risk of pneumonia in COPD. The GLUCOLD study, investigating patients with mild-to-moderate COPD, has shown that long-term (2.5-year) ICS therapy induces anti-inflammatory effects. The literature suggests that cigarette smoking causes ICS insensitivity. The aim of this study is to compare anti-inflammatory effects of ICS in persistent smokers and persistent ex-smokers in a post-hoc analysis of the GLUCOLD study. Persistent smokers (n = 41) and persistent ex-smokers (n = 31) from the GLUCOLD cohort were investigated. Effects of ICS treatment compared with placebo were estimated by analysing changes in lung function, hyperresponsiveness, and inflammatory cells in sputum and bronchial biopsies during short-term (0-6 months) and long-term (6-30 months) treatment using multiple regression analyses. Bronchial mast cells were reduced by short-term and long-term ICS treatment in both smokers and ex-smokers. In contrast, CD3⁺, CD4⁺, and CD8⁺ cells were reduced by short-term ICS treatment in smokers only. In addition, sputum neutrophils and lymphocytes, and bronchial CD8⁺ cells were reduced after long-term treatment in ex-smokers only. No significant interactions existed between smoking and ICS treatment. Even in the presence of smoking, long-term ICS treatment may lead to anti-inflammatory effects in the lung. Some anti-inflammatory ICS effects are comparable in smokers and ex-smokers with COPD, other effects are cell-specific. The clinical relevance of these findings, however, are uncertain.

  14. Levels of caffeine and its metabolites among U.S. smokers and nonsmokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ram B

    2015-03-01

    Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the years 2009-2010 were used to estimate the levels of caffeine and 14 of its metabolite among U.S. smokers and nonsmokers after adjustments were made for other factors that affect observed caffeine levels. In this study, when adjusted for daily caffeine intake, adjusted levels (AGM) of caffeine and its metabolites were not found to be statistically significantly different between smokers and nonsmokers. AGMs for caffeine and all of its metabolites were found to be statistically significantly higher (p whites > Hispanics > non-Hispanic blacks and most of the differences were statistically significant, at least between non-Hispanic whites and non-Hispanic blacks (p < 0.01). In general, there was a statistically significant positive association between the levels of caffeine and its metabolites and body mass index as well as daily caffeine intake. However, the levels of 7-methylxanthine were negatively associated with body mass index. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The intersection of gender and race/ethnicity in smoking behaviors among menthol and non-menthol smokers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubbin, Catherine; Soobader, Mah-Jabeen; LeClere, Felicia B

    2010-12-01

    To determine whether menthol is related to initiation, quantity or quitting, we examined differences in smoking behaviors among menthol and non-menthol smokers, stratified by gender and race/ethnicity, and adjusting for age, income and educational attainment. Cross-sectional, using data from the 2005 National Health Interview Survey and Cancer Control Supplement. United States. Black, Hispanic and white women and men aged 25-64 years. For each group, we examined (i) proportion of menthol smokers (comparing current and former smokers); (ii) age of initiation, cigarettes smoked per day and quit attempt in the past year (comparing menthol and non-menthol current smokers); and (iii) time since quitting (comparing menthol and non-menthol former smokers). We calculated predicted values for each demographic group, adjusting for age, income and educational attainment. After adjusting for age, income and education, black (compared with Hispanic and white) and female (compared with male) smokers were more likely to choose menthol cigarettes. There was only one statistically significant difference in age of initiation, cigarettes smoked per day, quit attempts or time since quitting between menthol and non-menthol smokers: white women who smoked menthol cigarettes reported longer cessation compared with those who smoked non-menthol cigarettes. The results do not support the hypothesis that menthol smokers initiate earlier, smoke more or have a harder time quitting compared with non-menthol smokers. A menthol additive and the marketing of it, given the clear demographic preferences demonstrated here, however, may be responsible for enticing the groups least likely to smoke into this addictive behavior. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  16. Health professionals' views of overweight people and smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, E L; Hill, A J

    2001-08-01

    To examine health professionals' views of overweight people, to compare these to their views of smokers, and to explore the role of level of severity on these perceptions. A postal survey of health professionals employing a two by two, independent factorial design. The health category (overweight or smoker) was divided by level of severity (moderate or extreme), so that respondents received questionnaires about either: (i) moderately overweight people; (ii) extremely overweight people; (iii) moderate smokers; or (iv) heavy smokers. Two-hundred and fifty-five general medical practitioners and clinical psychologists in the north of England. A questionnaire was designed to explore beliefs about the causes, attitudes towards, and perceptions of responsibility of overweight people and smokers. Moderately and extremely overweight people were perceived as having reduced self-esteem, sexual attractiveness and health, and to be moderately responsible for changing their situation (but less so than smokers). There were clear level effects in the perceptions of overweight, but not so for smokers. Of the four groups, moderately overweight people were viewed most positively and extremely overweight (obese) people were viewed least positively. Overall, health professionals' attitudes to overweight people were neutral to negative rather than entirely negative. However, where apparent negative attitudes were more likely to be directed at obese people than moderately overweight people. As obesity is a risk to health, the practice implications of health professionals' negative attitudes or patients' reticence to visit professionals who treat them with disregard must be addressed.

  17. Comparison of Periodontal Parameters and Self-Perceived Oral Symptoms Among Cigarette Smokers, Individuals Vaping Electronic Cigarettes, and Never-Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Fawad; Abduljabbar, Tariq; Vohra, Fahim; Malmstrom, Hans; Rahman, Irfan; Romanos, Georgios E

    2017-10-01

    To the authors' knowledge, there are no studies that have compared periodontal parameters and self-perceived oral symptoms (OSs) among cigarette smokers (CSs) (group 1), individuals exclusively vaping electronic cigarettes (group 2), and never-smokers (NSs) (group 3). The aim of this study is to assess periodontal parameters and self-perceived OSs among vaping individuals, CSs, and NSs. Ninety-four male participants (groups 1, 2, and 3: 33, 31, and 30 individuals, respectively) were included. Demographic data, self-perceived OSs, and duration and daily frequency of vaping and smoking were gathered using a questionnaire. Full-mouth plaque index (PI), bleeding on probing (BOP), probing depth (PD) ≥4 mm, and clinical attachment loss (AL) were measured; marginal bone loss (MBL) around all teeth was measured on digital radiographs. Numbers of missing teeth (MT) were also recorded. Odds ratios were calculated for OSs, and periodontal parameters were assessed using analysis of variance and Bonferroni post hoc tests. P vaping individuals and NSs.

  18. Toothbrushing: Do It Daily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Child Care, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Offers a practical guide for promoting daily toothbrushing in young children. Discusses the importance of proper dental care, explains the causes of tooth decay, describes proper dental care for infants and young children, recommends materials and teaching methods, and discusses visits to the dentist and the benefits of fluoride for dental health.…

  19. Personality and sexual behavior of the adolescent smoker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, S; Shephard, R J

    1978-01-01

    The adolescent smoker (aged 14 to 17 years) shows little difference from the non-smoker in terms of scores on the Cattell 16 personality factor inventory. In particular, there is no evidence of tension, extroversion, or reversal of sexually-biased personality characteristics. The sexual promiscuity of the adolescent smoker is probably related more to liberal attitudes and a propensity for risk-taking behavior than to uncertainty regarding sexuality. In this age group the decision to start smoking regularly may depend more on the influence of parents and friends than on an inherent personality structure.

  20. Alternate tobacco product and drug use among adolescents who use electronic cigarettes, cigarettes only, and never smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camenga, Deepa R; Kong, Grace; Cavallo, Dana A; Liss, Amanda; Hyland, Andrew; Delmerico, Jennifer; Cummings, K Michael; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2014-10-01

    To determine whether use of alternative tobacco products (i.e., cigars, blunts, hookah, smokeless tobacco), alcohol, and marijuana differs among adolescents who currently use (1) electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes); (2) cigarettes only; and (3) never smokers. Analysis of a self-reported survey from four high schools in 2010-2011 (n = 3,102) with a subsample (n = 1,556) surveyed on alcohol and marijuana. Analyses were conducted with multinomial logistic regression models accounting for clustering by schools. The sample contained 2.4% (n = 76) e-cigarette users, 12.4% (n = 386) cigarette smokers, and 85.1% (n = 3,197) never smokers. E-cigarette users were more likely than cigarette-only smokers to report blunt (adjusted odds ratio, 1.81; 95% confidence interval, 1.21-2.71) and hookah use (adjusted odds ratio, 3.12; 95% confidence interval, 1.90-5.13), but not cigar, smokeless tobacco, alcohol, or marijuana use. E-cigarette users are more likely than cigarette smokers to use hookah and blunts. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of salivary catalase, vitamin C, and alpha-amylase in smokers and non-smokers: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi-Motamayel, Fatemeh; Falsafi, Parisa; Goodarzi, Mohammad Taghi; Poorolajal, Jalal

    2017-05-01

    Saliva and its defence systems such as antioxidants and minerals are very important in the pathogenesis of different diseases. Cigarette smoking has many destructive effects. Oxidative stresses play an important role in the side effects of smoking. This study assessed the effect of cigarette smoking on salivary levels of catalase, vitamin C, and α-amylase. This retrospective cohort study was carried out in Hamadan, Iran, on 510 subjects; 259 subjects were smokers (the exposed group) and 251 were non-smokers (the unexposed group). Five microliters of unstimulated saliva was collected by spitting method. Catalase, vitamin C, and α-amylase salivary levels were determined by spectrophotometric assay. Data were analyzed with t-test using STATA 12. Vitamin C level in smokers was significantly lower than that in non-smokers. The salivary catalase levels were lower and α-amylase levels were higher in smokers, but the differences were not statistically significant (P = 0.416 and P = 0.265, respectively). Smokers were younger than non-smokers. Smoking resulted in a change in salivary antioxidant levels. Changes in antioxidant levels can influence the deleterious effects of smoking on oral mucosa; it might also indicate systemic changes and changes in the serum levels of oxidative agents. Further studies are necessary to understand the mechanisms and real effects of smoking, to determine the benefits of supplementary antioxidants for treatment and to reduce the dangerous side effects of smoking. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Delay and probability discounting of multiple commodities in smokers and never-smokers using multiple-choice tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poltavski, Dmitri V; Weatherly, Jeffrey N

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate temporal and probabilistic discounting in smokers and never-smokers, across a number of commodities, using a multiple-choice method. One hundred and eighty-two undergraduate university students, of whom 90 had never smoked, 73 were self-reported light smokers (commodities and administered in a multiple-choice format. In addition to cigarettes, monetary rewards, and health outcomes, the tasks included novel commodities such as ideal dating partner and retirement income. The results showed that heavy smokers probability discounted commodities at a significantly shallower rate than never-smokers, suggesting greater risk-taking. No effect of smoking status was observed for delay discounting questions. The only commodity that was probability discounted significantly less than others was 'finding an ideal dating partner'. The results suggest that probability discounting tasks using the multiple-choice format can discriminate between non-abstaining smokers and never-smokers and could be further explored in the context of behavioral and drug addictions.

  3. Does menopause start earlier in smokers? Evidence from the Pro-Saude Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula de Holanda Mendes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: cigarette smoking has been the modifiable risk factor most consistently associated with earlier menopause. This preliminary study based on cross-sectional data aimed to analyze the association between smoking status and age of onset of menopause in a Brazilian population. METHODS: a cross-sectional study was carried out with 1,222 female employees of Rio de Janeiro university campuses aged over 35 years who were at risk of natural menopause. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to investigate the association between smoking status and age at the onset of menopause, adjusting for education, parity and alcohol consumption. RESULTS: current smokers showed a 56% increase in the risk of menopause, being 1.8 years younger at menopause onset compared with women who had never smoked. However, no differences were observed between former smokers and women who had never smoked. The adjusted median age at menopause was 49.5 years for current smokers and 51.3 years for women who had never smoked (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: the results suggest a deleterious but potentially reversible effect of smoking on the age of onset of menopause, which should receive greater attention in tobacco control efforts. Longitudinal analyses of this association will be carried out in the future in a follow-up study of this population.

  4. Prevalence and incidence of COPD in smokers and non-smokers: the Rotterdam Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzikhan, Natalie; Verhamme, Katia M C; Hofman, Albert; Stricker, Bruno H; Brusselle, Guy G; Lahousse, Lies

    2016-08-01

    COPD is the third leading cause of death in the world and its global burden is predicted to increase further. Even though the prevalence of COPD is well studied, only few studies examined the incidence of COPD in a prospective and standardized manner. In a prospective population-based cohort study (Rotterdam Study) enrolling subjects aged ≥45, COPD was diagnosed based on a pre-bronchodilator obstructive spirometry (FEV1/FVC spirometry within the Rotterdam Study, cases were defined as having COPD diagnosed by a physician on the basis of clinical presentation and obstructive lung function measured by the general practitioner or respiratory physician. Incidence rates were calculated by dividing the number of incident cases by the total number of person years of subjects at risk. In this cohort of 14,619 participants, 1993 subjects with COPD were identified of whom 689 as prevalent ones and 1304 cases as incident ones. The overall incidence rate (IR) of COPD was 8.9/1000 person-years (PY); 95 % Confidence Interval (CI) 8.4-9.4. The IR was higher in males and in smokers. The proportion of female COPD participants without a history of smoking was 27.2 %, while this proportion was 7.3 % in males. The prevalence of COPD in the Rotterdam Study is 4.7 % and the overall incidence is approximately 9/1000 PY, with a higher incidence in males and in smokers. The proportion of never-smokers among female COPD cases is substantial.

  5. Impact of the new Malaysian cigarette pack warnings on smokers' awareness of health risks and interest in quitting smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathelrahman, Ahmed I; Omar, Maizurah; Awang, Rahmat; Cummings, K Michael; Borland, Ron; Bin Mohd Samin, Ahmad Shalihin

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this research was to compare the response of adult smokers in Malaysia to newly proposed pictorial cigarette warnings against the current text-only warnings. The study population included 140 adult male smokers who were enrolled in a randomized trial to view either the new pictorial warnings (intervention) or the old text-only warnings (control). Participants completed pre-exposure and post-exposure questionnaires that assessed their awareness of the health risks of smoking, response to the package warnings, and interest in quitting smoking. Exposure to the pictorial warnings resulted in increased awareness of the risks of smoking, stronger behavioral response to the warnings and increased interest in quitting smoking. The new warnings in Malaysia will increase smokers' knowledge of the adverse health effects of smoking and have a positive effect on interest in quitting.

  6. Genetic polymorphisms in antioxidative enzymes are associated to FEV(1) in smokers independently of asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malling, T H; Sigsgaard, Torben; Andersen, Charlotte Brasch

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we hypothesized that the genotypes coding for low antioxidative enzyme activity are associated with asthma and reduced lung function. Using the ECRHS protocol, we enlisted 1,091 Danish subjects in this cross-sectional study. Asthma phenotypes were defined as asthma symptoms......), GSTT1 (gene copy number), and GSTM1 (gene copy number). We found no associations between these genotypes and the asthma phenotypes. For the 201 subjects identified as current smokers and recruited via random sampling, an association was seen between increasing number of genotypes coding for high...... of genotypes coding for low antioxidative enzyme activity. The present study does not support the hypothesis that asthma is associated with genotypes of these major antioxidative enzymes. However, we speculate that since we see an impact of these genotypes on lung function in young adult smokers, polymorphisms...

  7. Lung cancer risks from residential radon among smokers and non-smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enflo, Anita

    2002-01-01

    Primary lung cancer occurs mainly among elderly smokers. Smoking and radon are generally considered to be the main causes of lung cancer. By simply studying the age dependence of all primary lung cancer incidences it seems plausible to suggest that the risk for obtaining lung cancer from domestic radon is low for children. In addition, as there are few non-smoking primary lung cancer cases at older ages, it seems plausible to suggest that most of the radon-induced lung cancer cases are to be found among the smoking population. Reduction of smoking habits would appear to be the most cost effective method to reduce lung cancer cases. (author)

  8. Harm Perceptions of Menthol and Nonmenthol Cigarettes Differ by Brand, Race/Ethnicity, and Gender in US Adult Smokers: Results from PATH Wave 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Amy M; Rose, Shyanika W; Ilakkuvan, Vinu; Gray, Tiffany; Curry, Laurel; Villanti, Andrea C; Mays, Darren; Lindblom, Eric; Tercyak, Kenneth; Debnam, Charles; Mayo, Ashley; Perreras, Lexie

    2018-01-27

    Harm perceptions of menthol cigarettes may contribute to their appeal and use. African-Americans, women, and younger smokers disproportionately use menthol cigarettes, and may misperceive harm of menthol cigarettes. Data were from Wave 1 of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study. Weighted analyses of current adult smokers (18 and older) were used to estimate the correlates of menthol smoking among all cigarette brands and separately for the top three cigarette brands (Newport, Camel, and Marlboro). Adjusted models examined the main effect of menthol smoking on harm perceptions of one's own brand of cigarette and interactions with race/ethnicity, age, and gender. Menthol cigarettes were used by nearly 40% of current smokers, although the prevalence of menthol smoking differed across the top three brands (94% Newport, 46% Camel, and 18% Marlboro). Among menthol smokers, 80% perceived their cigarette as equally harmful, 14% perceived their brand as more harmful, and 7% perceived their brand as less harmful. In adjusted models, menthol smokers were more likely than nonmenthol smokers to misperceive their own brand as more harmful than other brands (compared to no difference in harm). Race and gender emerged as moderators of the association between menthol brand preference and harm perceptions. In adjusted analyses, menthol smokers were more likely than nonmenthol smokers to perceive their brand as more harmful than other brands, with differences by sub-groups who disproportionately use menthol. Menthol cigarettes have been historically marketed with messages conveying lower harm than other cigarettes. Little is known about how contemporary adult menthol smokers perceive the harm of their usual brand, and potential differences by race, gender, and young adult versus older adult age group. After adjusting for other factors, menthol smokers were more likely than nonmenthol smokers to perceive their cigarette brand as more harmful than other brands

  9. The Daily Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjold, Else

    2015-01-01

    In this PhD thesis, The Daily Selection, I will be addressing the overall question of how research on wardrobes can contribute to a more effective connection between the production and the consumption of dress objects. The thesis builds on exemplary studies of people in their wardrobes, with the ......In this PhD thesis, The Daily Selection, I will be addressing the overall question of how research on wardrobes can contribute to a more effective connection between the production and the consumption of dress objects. The thesis builds on exemplary studies of people in their wardrobes...... are appropriated and used in the wardrobes of informants. In this way, I point to discrepancies between the production and the dissemination of dress objects that take place in the fashion industry, and to the ways that people use and experience these objects in their everyday lives. In Part III, I conduct...

  10. Testing messages to reduce smokers' openness to using novel smokeless tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Lucy; Neilands, Torsten B; Ling, Pamela M

    2014-07-01

    Tobacco manufacturers' aggressive promotion of new smokeless tobacco products such as snus warrants a timely and effective public health response. This study tested potential countermarketing messages to discourage current and former smokers from becoming dual users of smokeless tobacco and cigarettes. In a pretest-post-test experiment, 1836 adult current and recently former smokers from a national sample were randomised to view one of six antismokeless tobacco ads followed by a snus ad, to view a control ad followed by a snus ad; or to view two control ads. Perceived effectiveness of ads and actual changes in attitudes and openness to snus were compared across groups using analyses of variance. Some ads that were perceived as most effective did not change attitudes or openness to trying snus, and conversely, some ads not perceived as effective changed attitudes and openness to snus. Ads portraying the negative health effects of smokeless tobacco were perceived as most effective, but ads with antitobacco industry themes significantly decreased favourable attitudes toward snus. Responses to ads were different for smokers who had ever used smokeless tobacco: for this group health effects and humorous/testimonial ads were effective. Measures of perceived effectiveness of antitobacco ads need to be augmented with measures of actual effectiveness to assess countermarketing messages. Some of the developed ads, such as ads with anti-industry themes, were effective for the overall population of smokers whereas humorous/testimonial and health effects ads were particularly effective in changing attitudes of past users of smokeless tobacco. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. Effects of the nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine on ad-lib smoking behavior, topography, and nicotine levels in smokers with and without schizophrenia: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Sherry A; Weinberger, Andrea H; Harrison, Emily L R; Coppola, Sabrina; George, Tony P

    2009-12-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia have higher plasma nicotine levels in comparison to non-psychiatric smokers, even when differences in smoking are equated. This difference may be related to how intensely cigarettes are smoked but this has not been well studied. Mecamylamine (MEC), a non-competitive nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) antagonist, which has been shown to increase ad-lib smoking and to affect smoking topography, was used in the current study as a pharmacological probe to increase our understanding of smoking behavior, smoking topography, and resulting nicotine levels in smokers with schizophrenia. This preliminary study used a within-subject, placebo-controlled design in smokers with schizophrenia (n=6) and healthy control smokers (n=8) to examine the effects of MEC (10mg/day) on ad-lib smoking behavior, topography, nicotine levels, and tobacco craving across two smoking deprivation conditions (no deprivation and 12-h deprivation). MEC, compared to placebo, increased the number of cigarettes smoked and plasma nicotine levels. MEC increased smoking intensity and resulted in greater plasma nicotine levels in smokers with schizophrenia compared to controls, although these results were not consistent across deprivation conditions. MEC also increased tobacco craving in smokers with schizophrenia but not in control smokers. Our results suggest that antagonism of high-affinity nAChRs in smokers with schizophrenia may prompt compensatory smoking, increasing the intensity of smoking and nicotine exposure without alleviating craving. Further work is needed to assess whether nicotine levels are directly mediated by how intensely the cigarettes are smoked, and to confirm whether this effect is more pronounced in smokers with schizophrenia.

  12. Pulmonary functions of narghile smokers compared to cigarette ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ENS) are few, have some methodological limits, and present contradictory conclusions. The present study aimed to compare the plethysmographic profiles of ENS with age- and height-matched exclusive cigarette smokers (ECS). Methods: ...

  13. Cytogenetical analysis in blood lymphocytes of cigarette smokers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cytogenetical analysis in blood lymphocytes of cigarette smokers in Tiruchirappalli district, Tamil Nadu, India. S. Christobher, M. Periyasamy, H.E. Syed Mohamed, A. Sadiq Bukhari, Alagamuthu Karthickkumar, Vellingiri Balachandar ...

  14. Attentional Bias in Nicotine Dependent and Non-Dependent Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Bartlett, James

    2016-01-01

    This is a poster from the BPS Psychobiology Section Annual Scientific Meeting (2015). It explains my third year dissertation project investigating attentional bias, smoking habits, and smoking motives in nicotine dependent and non-dependent smokers.

  15. Bronchodilator responsiveness of peripheral airways in smokers with normal spirometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetmalani, Kanika; Chapman, David G; Thamrin, Cindy; Farah, Claude S; Berend, Norbert; Salome, Cheryl M; King, Gregory G

    2016-10-01

    Cigarette smoke exposure increases airway smooth muscle (ASM) contractility. Abnormalities in peripheral airway function in smokers with normal spirometry could be due to the effects of ASM tone. We aimed to determine the contribution of ASM tone to peripheral airway function in smokers with normal spirometry from the response to bronchodilator (BD). Ventilation heterogeneity in peripheral conductive (Scond) and acinar (Sacin) airways were measured in 50 asymptomatic smokers and 20 never-smokers using multiple breath nitrogen washout, before and 20 min after inhalation of 200 µg salbutamol and 80 µg ipratropium bromide. Z-scores were calculated to define abnormality in Sacin and Scond. Nineteen smokers had abnormal Sacin, and 12 had abnormal Scond; 7 had abnormalities in both. After BD, Sacin improved in smokers with normal Sacin (6.5 ± 15.9%, P = 0.02), smokers with abnormal Sacin (9.2 ± 16.9%, P = 0.03) and in control subjects (11.7 ± 18.2%, P = 0.01), with no differences in improvements between groups. Sacin remained abnormal in 15/19 smokers and their post-BD values correlated with smoking exposure (r = 0.53, P = 0.02). After BD, Scond improved in smokers with abnormal Scond (28.3 ± 15.9%, P = 0.002) and normalized in 9/12 subjects, but not in those with normal Scond (0.25 ± 32.7%, P = 0.44) or control subjects (-1.7 ± 21.2%, P = 0.64). In smokers with normal spirometry, abnormal conductive airway function could be attributed to increased bronchomotor tone. In contrast, bronchomotor tone in acinar airways is unaffected by smoking and functional abnormality. There may be different causal mechanisms underlying acinar and conductive airway abnormalities in smokers with normal spirometry. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  16. Little Cigars and Cigarillos Use Among Young Adult Cigarette Smokers in the United States: Understanding Risk of Concomitant Use Subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, Craig S.; Pagano, Ian; Fagan, Pebbles

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: In 2016, the Food and Drug Administration announced that it would regulate little cigars and cigarillos (LCCs) and expressed concern about the concomitant use of combustible tobacco products. To understand LCC use among socially-disadvantaged cigarette smokers, we assessed (1) the prevalence of concomitant use of subtypes of LCCs: LCC-tobacco, LCC-blunt, and LCC- poly use, which includes use of both LCC-tobacco and LCC-blunt and (2) and its association with sociodemographic factors and substance use behaviors using race/ethnicity and gender stratified models. Methods: In 2015, a web-based survey was administered to a national probability sample of black/African American, Hispanic/Latino, and white cigarette smokers aged 18–44 (n = 1018). Weighted estimates were used to assess current LCC-tobacco, LCC-blunt, and LCC-poly use. Multinomial regression models assessed sociodemographic, other tobacco and substance use correlates associated with LCC user subtypes. Results: Of cigarette smokers, 63% did not smoke LCCs; 15.1% were LCC-tobacco users; 11.1% were LCC-blunt users; and 10.5% were LCC-poly users. Black/African American and Hispanic/Latino cigarette smokers had higher odds of LCC-tobacco, LCC-blunt, and LCC-poly use compared to white cigarette smokers. Blacks/African Americans who initiated cigarette smoking before age 18 and smoked other tobacco products had greater odds of LCC-tobacco use than whites. Male cigarette smokers who smoked other tobacco products and females who had early onset of cigarette use also had greater odds of LCC-tobacco use. Conclusions: Over 30% of cigarette smokers concomitantly used LCCs, which may prolong smoking. Accurate estimates of diverse LCC use behaviors may increase our understanding of the potential harms of concomitant use. Implications: Aggregate measures of LCC smoking do not distinguish subtypes of use among socially-disadvantaged cigarette smokers (ie, young adults, blacks/African Americans, Hispanics

  17. What price quitting? The price of cigarettes at which smokers say they would seriously consider trying to quit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scollo, Michelle; Hayes, Linda; Wakefield, Melanie

    2013-07-13

    Deciding on an appropriate level for taxes on tobacco products is a critical issue in tobacco control. The aim of the present study was to describe the critical price points for packs for smokers of each pack size, to calculate what this would equate to in terms of price per stick, and to ascertain whether price points varied by age, socio-economic status and heaviness of smoking. In November 2011, 586 Victorian smokers of factory-made cigarettes were asked during a telephone survey about their usual brand, including the size and cost of their usual pack. They were also asked about use of illicit tobacco. Smokers estimated what price their preferred pack would need to reach before they would seriously consider quitting. Three-quarters of regular smokers of manufactured cigarettes could envisage their usual brand reaching a price at which they would seriously consider quitting. Analyses revealed that answers clustered around whole numbers, (AUD$15, $20, $25 and $30), with a median nominated price point of AUD$20 per pack. The median price point at which regular smokers would consider quitting was calculated to be 80 cents per stick, compared to the current median reported stick price of 60 cents.Of the smokers who nominated a price point, 60.1% indicated they would seriously consider quitting if the cost of their usual brand equated to 80 cents per stick or less; 87.5% would seriously consider quitting if sticks reached one dollar each. These results do suggest a potentially useful approach to setting taxes in Australia. If taxes can be set high enough to ensure that the cost of the smokers' preferred packs exceeds critical price points, then it seems likely that more people would seriously attempt to quit than if the price increased to a level even slightly below the price points. Our study suggests that a tax increase large enough to ensure that a typical pack of 25 cigarettes in Australia cost at least AUD$20 would prompt more than 60% of smokers able to nominate

  18. Effects of smoking cues on caffeine urges in heavy smokers and caffeine consumers with and without schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolfo, Amy B; AhnAllen, Christopher G; Tidey, Jennifer W

    2009-02-01

    Cigarette smoking and caffeine use are established and problematic drug-use behaviors in people with schizophrenia. Associative links between drugs of abuse may occur but the relationship between caffeine use and cigarette smoking has received little attention in schizophrenia. In this cross-cue reactivity laboratory study, we examined the effects of neutral and smoking cues on craving for caffeinated beverages in participants with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (SS; n=15) and non-psychiatric controls (CS; n=18) all of whom were heavy smokers and daily caffeine users. Participants were tested under non-abstinent and 5-hour abstinent conditions. SS tended to report greater daily levels of caffeine use than CS. Although this difference was not significant, that may be due to the small sample sizes as the size of this effect was large. Daily caffeine intake was significantly correlated with daily smoking rate in SS but not CS. A significant interaction between group and cue type after controlling for caffeine intake indicated that exposure to smoking cues increased urge for caffeinated beverages in SS but not CS. These results indicate support for associative connections between cigarette smoking cues and craving for caffeine in smokers with schizophrenia.

  19. Are smokers at greater risk from radiation exposure than nonsmokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bair, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    Current information suggests that, if cigarette smoking interacts with radiation in the induction of lung cancer, it is probably as a promoting agent. There is some evidence of such an interaction in miners who were exposed to relatively high levels of radon and its decay products over extended periods, and there is evidence from experimental rats that were exposed to cigarette smoke after exposures to radon had been completed. Other data from both humans and experimental animals suggest that concomitant exposures may actually diminish the interaction of cigarette smoke with alpha radiation from radon decay products; however, the possibility of a multiplicative effect for other exposure regimes has not been dismissed. In recent experimental animal studies cigarette smoking depressed clearance of insoluble particles, e.g., 239 PuO 2 , from the pulmonary regions of the lungs. However, this effect depended upon exposure to cigarette smoke both before and after inhalation of insoluble plutonium. Whether the effect on clearance actually increased the lung cancer risk is unknown. It is still unclear whether cigarette smokers are at greater risk than nonsmokers to radiation-induced lung cancer at relatively high radiation doses and even more uncertain at low radiation doses. (orig./HP)

  20. Lung Function Abnormalities in Smokers with Ischemic Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franssen, Frits M E; Soriano, Joan B; Roche, Nicolas; Bloomfield, Paul H; Brusselle, Guy; Fabbri, Leonardo M; García-Rio, Francisco; Kearney, Mark T; Kwon, Namhee; Lundbäck, Bo; Rabe, Klaus F; Raillard, Alice; Muellerova, Hana; Cockcroft, John R

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the ALICE (Airflow Limitation in Cardiac Diseases in Europe) study was to investigate the prevalence of airflow limitation in patients with ischemic heart disease and the effects on quality of life, healthcare use, and future health risk. To examine prebronchodilator and post-bronchodilator spirometry in outpatients aged greater than or equal to 40 years with clinically documented ischemic heart disease who were current or former smokers. This multicenter, cross-sectional study was conducted in 15 cardiovascular outpatient clinics in nine European countries. Airflow limitation was defined as post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC less than 0.70. Among the 3,103 patients with ischemic heart disease who were recruited, lung function was defined for 2,730 patients. Airflow limitation was observed in 30.5% of patients with ischemic heart disease: 11.3% had mild airflow limitation, 15.8% moderate airflow limitation, 3.3% severe airflow limitation, and 0.1% very severe airflow limitation. Most patients with airflow limitation (70.6%) had no previous spirometry testing or diagnosed pulmonary disease. Airflow limitation was associated with greater respiratory symptomatology, impaired health status, and more frequent emergency room visits (P < 0.05). Airflow limitation compatible with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease affects almost one-third of patients with ischemic heart disease. Although airflow limitation is associated with additional morbidity and societal burden, it is largely undiagnosed and untreated. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 01485159).

  1. Social relations and smoking abstinence among ever-smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross, Lone; Thomsen, Birthe Lykke Riegels; Boesen, Sidsel Helle

    2013-01-01

    Relational strain may be a risk factor for relapse after smoking cessation whereas social support may be protective. This study aimed to assess which aspects of social relations were associated with smoking abstinence among ever-smokers.......Relational strain may be a risk factor for relapse after smoking cessation whereas social support may be protective. This study aimed to assess which aspects of social relations were associated with smoking abstinence among ever-smokers....

  2. Characteristic Comparison of CHD for Active Smoker by Smoking Characteristic

    OpenAIRE

    Diastutik, Desy

    2016-01-01

    Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) is a type of cardiovascular disease that has highest level of morbidity and mortality among non communicable disease group. One of the factor that contribute for coronary heart disease is smoking characteristic. The research was aimed to analyze characteristic comparison of coronary heart disease for active smoker by smoking characteristic. The research was observational study using cross sectional design. Thirty eight active smokers were involved as research samp...

  3. Development and Validation of Risk Models to Select Ever-Smokers for CT Lung Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katki, Hormuzd A; Kovalchik, Stephanie A; Berg, Christine D; Cheung, Li C; Chaturvedi, Anil K

    2016-06-07

    The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends computed tomography (CT) lung cancer screening for ever-smokers aged 55 to 80 years who have smoked at least 30 pack-years with no more than 15 years since quitting. However, selecting ever-smokers for screening using individualized lung cancer risk calculations may be more effective and efficient than current USPSTF recommendations. Comparison of modeled outcomes from risk-based CT lung-screening strategies vs USPSTF recommendations. Empirical risk models for lung cancer incidence and death in the absence of CT screening using data on ever-smokers from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO; 1993-2009) control group. Covariates included age; education; sex; race; smoking intensity, duration, and quit-years; body mass index; family history of lung cancer; and self-reported emphysema. Model validation in the chest radiography groups of the PLCO and the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST; 2002-2009), with additional validation of the death model in the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS; 1997-2001), a representative sample of the United States. Models were applied to US ever-smokers aged 50 to 80 years (NHIS 2010-2012) to estimate outcomes of risk-based selection for CT lung screening, assuming screening for all ever-smokers, yield the percent changes in lung cancer detection and death observed in the NLST. Annual CT lung screening for 3 years beginning at age 50 years. For model validity: calibration (number of model-predicted cases divided by number of observed cases [estimated/observed]) and discrimination (area under curve [AUC]). For modeled screening outcomes: estimated number of screen-avertable lung cancer deaths and estimated screening effectiveness (number needed to screen [NNS] to prevent 1 lung cancer death). Lung cancer incidence and death risk models were well calibrated in PLCO and NLST. The lung cancer death model calibrated and discriminated well for US

  4. School absenteeism among children living with smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Douglas E; Winickoff, Jonathan P; Rigotti, Nancy A

    2011-10-01

    Involuntary tobacco smoke exposure causes substantial morbidity in children. We hypothesized that children exposed to tobacco smoke in the home would have increased school absenteeism with associated costs due to lost caregiver wages/time. We analyzed data on health and absenteeism among schoolchildren aged 6 to 11 years identified in the 2005 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). We used multivariate models to assess the relationships between adult-reported household smoking and child health and school absenteeism. Analyses were adjusted for children's and parents' demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. The value of lost caregiver time was estimated by using self-reported employment and earnings data in the NHIS and publicly available time-use data. Children living with 1 or ≥ 2 adults who smoked in the home had 1.06 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.54-1.55) and 1.54 (95% CI: 0.95-2.12) more days absent from school per year, respectively, than children living with 0 smokers in the home. Living with ≥ 2 adults who smoked in the home was associated with increased reports of having ≥ 3 ear infections in the previous 12 months (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 2.65 [95% CI: 1.36-5.16]) and having a chest cold in the 2 weeks before interview (aOR: 1.77 [95% CI: 1.03-3.03]) but not with having vomiting/diarrhea in the previous 2 weeks (aOR: 0.93 [95% CI: 0.45-1.89]). Caregivers' time tending children absent from school was valued at $227 million per year. Tobacco smoke exposure has significant consequences for children and families above and beyond child morbidity, including academic disadvantage and financial burden.

  5. Symptoms in smokers trying to quit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helgason Asgeir R

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims To describe the prevalence and intensity of different symptoms in relation to tobacco abstinence. To explore latent dimensions between symptoms in smokers trying to quit. Design A cross sectional study using a questionnaire to retrospectively assess symptoms over a period of 12 months. Setting Swedish telephone quitline, a nationwide free of charge service. Participants All 741 individuals who had called the quitline and signed up for smoking cessation treatment between February 2000 to November 2001 and reported to have been smoke free for at least 24 hours during the previous 12 month period from first contact. Measurements Assessments were made by self-report, and abstinence was defined as "not a single puff of smoke during the last week". A factor analysis approach where individual items aggregate into factors was used to explore the relationship between the different symptoms. Findings High intensity of symptoms related to unsuccessful quitting attempts and included craving, irritability, apprehension/anxiety, difficulties concentrating, restlessness, depression/depressed mood, and insomnia. The factor loadings of all 17 symptoms resulted in three factors with factor 1, psychological being the most important. High scores on this factor relates to unsuccessful quitting attempts. Using Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT for 5 weeks or longer, reduced symptoms included in factor 1. The other two factors were factor 2 physiological and factor 3 neurological. Conclusion Symptoms that are psychological and/or neurological in nature are interrelated and appear to be the most significant obstacles for successful quitting attempts in a population-based setting. These symptoms may be successfully treated with NRT.

  6. School Absenteeism Among Children Living With Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winickoff, Jonathan P.; Rigotti, Nancy A.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Involuntary tobacco smoke exposure causes substantial morbidity in children. We hypothesized that children exposed to tobacco smoke in the home would have increased school absenteeism with associated costs due to lost caregiver wages/time. METHODS: We analyzed data on health and absenteeism among schoolchildren aged 6 to 11 years identified in the 2005 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). We used multivariate models to assess the relationships between adult-reported household smoking and child health and school absenteeism. Analyses were adjusted for children's and parents' demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. The value of lost caregiver time was estimated by using self-reported employment and earnings data in the NHIS and publicly available time-use data. RESULTS: Children living with 1 or ≥2 adults who smoked in the home had 1.06 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.54–1.55) and 1.54 (95% CI: 0.95–2.12) more days absent from school per year, respectively, than children living with 0 smokers in the home. Living with ≥2 adults who smoked in the home was associated with increased reports of having ≥3 ear infections in the previous 12 months (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 2.65 [95% CI: 1.36–5.16]) and having a chest cold in the 2 weeks before interview (aOR: 1.77 [95% CI: 1.03–3.03]) but not with having vomiting/diarrhea in the previous 2 weeks (aOR: 0.93 [95% CI: 0.45–1.89]). Caregivers' time tending children absent from school was valued at $227 million per year. CONCLUSIONS: Tobacco smoke exposure has significant consequences for children and families above and beyond child morbidity, including academic disadvantage and financial burden. PMID:21890826

  7. Tobacco Consumption and Toxicant Exposure of Cigarette Smokers Using Electronic Cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulvers, Kim; Emami, Ashley S; Nollen, Nicole L; Romero, Devan R; Strong, David R; Benowitz, Neal L; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S

    2018-01-05

    There is considerable debate about the benefits and risks of electronic cigarettes (ECs). To better understand the risk-benefit ratio of ECs, more information is needed about net nicotine consumption and toxicant exposure of cigarette smokers switching to ECs. Forty cigarette smokers (≥1 year of smoking) interested in switching to ECs but not necessarily quitting smoking were enrolled in a 4-week observational study and provided an e-Go C non-variable battery and refillable atomizers and choice of eight flavors in 12 or 24 mg nicotine dosage. Measurement of urinary cotinine (metabolite of nicotine), 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL; a pulmonary carcinogen), and eight volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are toxic tobacco smoke constituents was conducted at baseline and week 4. All participants with follow-up data (92.5%) reported using the study EC. Of the 40 smokers, 16 reported no cigarettes at week 2 (40%) and six continued to report no cigarettes at week 4 (15%). Change in nicotine intake over the 4 weeks was non-significant (p = .90). Carbon monoxide (p < .001), NNAL (p < .01) and metabolites of benzene (p < .01) and acrylonitrile (p = .001) were significantly decreased in the study sample. Smokers switching exclusively to ECs for at least half of the study period demonstrated significant reductions in metabolites of ethylene oxide (p = .03) and acrylamide (p < .01). Smokers using ECs over 4 weeks maintained cotinine levels and experienced significant reductions in carbon monoxide, NNAL, and two out of eight measured VOC metabolites. Those who switched exclusively to ECs for at least half of the study period significantly reduced two additional VOCs. This study extends current literature by measuring change in smoking dependence and disease-associated biomarkers, NNAL and a panel of eight common VOCs that are toxic tobacco smoke constituents in smokers who switch to ECs. The findings support the idea of harm reduction, however some

  8. Influence of tobacco marketing and exposure to smokers on adolescent susceptibility to smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, N; Farkas, A; Gilpin, E; Berry, C; Pierce, J P

    1995-10-18

    Marketing (n = 361) were 3.91 (95% CI = 2.38-6.42) times as likely to be susceptible as those who scored 0. Even adolescents who scored 2 (n = 1090) were 2.03 (95% CI = 1.31-3.15) times as likely to be susceptible. There was no interaction effect between score on the Index of Receptivity to Tobacco Marketing and exposure to smokers. Our results support the hypothesis that tobacco marketing may be a stronger current influence in encouraging adolescents to initiate the smoking uptake process than exposure to peer or family smokers or sociodemographic variables including perceived school performance.

  9. Neural reward and punishment sensitivity in cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, Geoffrey F; Bloom, Erika L; Evans, David E; Drobes, David J

    2014-11-01

    Nicotine addiction remains a major public health problem but the neural substrates of addictive behavior remain unknown. One characteristic of smoking behavior is impulsive choice, selecting the immediate reward of smoking despite the potential long-term negative consequences. This suggests that drug users, including cigarette smokers, may be more sensitive to rewards and less sensitive to punishment. We used event-related potentials (ERPs) to test the hypothesis that smokers are more responsive to reward signals and less responsive to punishment, potentially predisposing them to risky behavior. We conducted two experiments, one using a reward prediction design to elicit a Medial Frontal Negativity (MFN) and one using a reward- and punishment-motivated flanker task to elicit an Error Related Negativity (ERN), ERP components thought to index activity in the cortical projection of the dopaminergic reward system. The smokers had a greater MFN response to unpredicted rewards, and non-smokers, but not smokers, had a larger ERN on punishment motivated trials indicating that smokers are more reward sensitive and less punishment sensitive than nonsmokers, overestimating the appetitive value and underestimating aversive outcomes of stimuli and actions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Relationship between compliance and periodontal treatment outcome in smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Leif E; Hagström, Karin E

    2002-06-01

    Smoking is an established risk factor of periodontal disease and smokers are regarded as patients with a high risk of periodontitis recurrence during the maintenance phase. Lack of compliance and smoking constitute significant factors for the risk of further periodontitis progression. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between periodontal status and the tendency to interrupt periodontal treatment and determine if this relationship differs significantly between smokers and non-smokers. The investigation was conducted as a retrospective study on a sample of 325 patients referred for treatment. The patients had been offered full periodontal treatment and a full-mouth oral radiographic examination. In order to investigate any correlations between periodontal status and smoking or interrupted periodontal treatments, stepwise multiple regression analyses were adopted. The mean age of the sample was 49.7 years (range 25 to 83) and a majority were females (57%). The relative frequency of smoking was 52%. The relative frequency of interruption of periodontal treatment was 26% for non-smokers and 31% for smokers. Smokers who interrupted periodontal treatment after the reevaluation were found to have significantly deeper periodontal probing depths at the reevaluation compared to those who did not interrupt the treatment irrespective of smoking habits (Pperiodontitis even if they had completed the treatment plan. An important task in the future will be to find ways to reduce the frequency of non-compliance and thus improve the prognosis.

  11. Noticing cigarette health warnings and support for new health warnings among non-smokers in China: findings from the International Tobacco Control project (ITC China survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zejun Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health warnings labels (HWLs have the potential to effectively communicate the health risks of smoking to smokers and non-smokers, and encourage smokers to quit. This study sought to examine whether non-smokers in China notice the current text-only HWLs and whether they support adding more health information and including pictures on HWLs. Methods Adult non-smokers (n = 1324 were drawn from Wave 4 (September 2011–November 2012 of the International Tobacco Control (ITC China Survey. The proportion of non-smokers who noticed the HWLs, and supported adding more health information and pictures to the HWLs was examined. Additionally, the relation between non-smokers’ demographic characteristics, including whether they had a smoking partner, their number of smoking friends, and noticing the HWLs and support for adding health information and pictures was examined. Because the HWLs changed during the survey period (April 2012, differences between non-smokers who completed the survey before and after the change were examined. Results 12.2% reported they noticed the HWLs often in the last month. The multivariate model, adjusting for demographics showed that respondents with a smoking partner (OR = 2.41, 95% CI 1.42–4.13, p = 0.001 noticed the HWLs more often. 64.8% of respondents agreed that the HWLs should have more information, and 80.2% supported including pictures. The multivariate model showed that non-smokers who completed the survey after the HWLs were implemented (OR = 0.63, 95% CI 0.40–0.99, p = 0.04 were less likely to support adding more health information. The multivariate model showed a significant relation between having a smoking partner and supporting pictorial HWLs (OR = 2.03, 95% CI 1.24–3.33, p = 0.005. Conclusions The findings indicate that the Chinese HWLs are noticed by a minority of non-smokers and that non-smokers strongly support strengthening the Chinese warning labels with more health

  12. Radiation in daily life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora Rodriguez, P.

    1999-01-01

    The medical community benefits on a daily basis from the ionizing radiations used in the diagnosis and treatment of disease. The doses received in the medical field are only a small fraction of the total radiation received in a year. This bibliographic review has several objectives. The first one is to present the different components of natural radiation (background radiation). Secondly, it will introduce many consumer products that contain radioactive sources and expose our bodies. Third, arguments to diminish the radiation phobia will be presented and finally an easy to understand dosimetric magnitude will be introduced for the physician, the technologist and the patient. (author) [es

  13. Anti-p-benzoquinone antibody level as a prospective biomarker to identify smokers at risk for COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banerjee S

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Santanu Banerjee,1 Parthasarathi Bhattacharyya,2 Subhra Mitra,3 Somenath Kundu,4 Samiran Panda,5 Indu B Chatterjee1 1Department of Biotechnology and Dr B C Guha Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, University College of Science and Technology, University of Calcutta, 2Institute of Pulmocare and Research, 3Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Calcutta National Medical College, 4Department of Chest Medicine, Institute of Post Graduate Medical Education and Research, 5National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases, Kolkata, India Background and objective: Identification of smokers having predisposition to COPD is important for early intervention to reduce the huge global burden of the disease. Using a guinea pig model, we have shown that p-benzoquinone (p-BQ derived from cigarette smoke (CS in the lung is a causative factor for CS-induced emphysema. p-BQ is also derived from CS in smokers and it elicits the production of anti-p-BQ antibody in humans. We therefore hypothesized that anti-p-BQ antibody might have a protective role against COPD and could be used as a predictive biomarker for COPD in smokers. The objective of this study was to compare the serum anti-p-BQ antibody level between smokers with and without COPD for the evaluation of the hypothesis. Methods: Serum anti-p-BQ antibody concentrations of current male smokers with (n=227 or without (n=308 COPD were measured by an indirect enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA developed in our laboratory. COPD was diagnosed by spirometry according to Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD guidelines.Results and discussion: A significant difference was observed in the serum anti-p-BQ antibody level between smokers with and without COPD (Mann–Whitney U-test =4,632.5, P=0.000. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis indicated that the ELISA had significant precision (area under the curve [AUC] =0.934, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.913–0

  14. Self-reported price of cigarettes, consumption and compensatory behaviours in a cohort of Mexican smokers before and after a cigarette tax increase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenz-de-Miera, Belen; Chaloupka, Frank J; Waters, Hugh R; Hernandez-Avila, Mauricio; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact of a 2007 cigarette tax increase from 110% to 140% of the price to the retailer on cigarette price and consumption among Mexican smokers, including efforts to offset price increases. Methods Data were analysed from the 2006 and 2007 administrations of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Policy Evaluation Survey in Mexico, which is a population-based cohort of adult smokers. Self-reported price of last cigarette purchase, place of last purchase, preferred brand, daily consumption and quit behaviour were assessed at baseline and follow-up. Results Self-reported cigarette prices increased by 12.7% after the tax increase, with prices for international brands increasing more than for national brands (13.5% vs 8.7%, respectively). Although the tax increases were not fully passed onto consumers particularly on national brands, no evidence was found for smokers changing behaviour to offset price increases. Consistent declines in consumption across groups defined by sociodemographic and smoking-related psychosocial variables suggest a relatively uniform impact of the tax increase across subpopulations. However, decreased consumption appeared limited to people who smoked relatively more cigarettes a day (>5 cigarettes/day). Average daily consumption among lighter smokers did not significantly decline. A total of 13% (n=98) of the sample reported being quit for a month or more at follow-up. In multivariate models, lighter smokers were more likely than heavier smokers to be quit. Conclusions Results suggest that the 2007 tax increase was passed on to consumers, whose consumption generally declined. Since no other tobacco control policies or programmes were implemented during the period analysed, the tax increase appears likely to have decreased consumption. PMID:20870740

  15. Other tobacco product and electronic cigarette use among homeless cigarette smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggett, Travis P.; Campbell, Eric G.; Chang, Yuchiao; Rigotti, Nancy A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective We determined the prevalence and correlates of other tobacco product and electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use in a clinic-based sample of homeless cigarette smokers. Methods In April-July 2014, we used time-location sampling to conduct a cross-sectional, in-person survey of 306 currently homeless adult cigarette smokers recruited from 5 clinical sites at Boston Health Care for the Homeless Program. We assessed past-month use of large cigars, little cigars, smokeless tobacco, and e-cigarettes. Among those who had used e-cigarettes, we assessed the reasons for doing so. We used logistic regression analysis to identify the participant characteristics associated with the use of each product. Results Eighty-six percent of eligible individuals participated in the survey. In the past month, 37% of respondents used large cigars, 44% used little cigars, 8% used smokeless tobacco, 24% used an e-cigarette, and 68% used any of these products. Reasons for e-cigarette use included curiosity (85%) and to help quit conventional cigarettes (69%). In multivariable regression analyses, homeless smokers with greater subsistence difficulties were more likely to use little cigars (p=0.01) and less likely to use e-cigarettes (p=0.001). Non-Hispanic black (p=0.01), Hispanic (phomeless people should consider routine screening for the use of other tobacco products and e-cigarettes to help guide smoking cessation discussions and tobacco treatment planning. PMID:27128808

  16. Correlation of alkaline phosphatase activity to clinical parameters of inflammation in smokers suffering from chronic periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishakha Grover

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Current clinical periodontal diagnostic techniques emphasize the assessment of clinical and radiographic signs of periodontal diseases which can provide a measure of history of disease. Hence, new methodologies for early identification and determination of periodontal disease activity need to be explored which will eventually result in expedited treatment. Aim: To evaluate the correlation of alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF to clinical parameters of periodontal inflammation in smokers with chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: Study population included 15 smoker male patients in the age group of 35–55 years suffering from moderate generalized chronic periodontitis with history of smoking present. Following parameters were evaluated at baseline, 1 month and 3 months after scaling and root planing: plaque index, bleeding index, probing pocket depth (PD, relative attachment level (RAL, and GCF ALP activity. Statistical Analysis Used: Independent variables for measurements over time were analyzed by using Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results: A statistically significant reduction in all the clinical parameters and GCF ALP activity was observed from baseline to 1 month and 3 months. A correlation was observed between change in GCF ALP activity and PD reduction as well as gain in RAL at 3 months. Conclusion: The present study emphasizes that total ALP activity could be used as a marker for periodontal disease activity in smokers. Estimation of changes in the levels of this enzyme has a potential to aid in the detection of progression of periodontal disease and monitoring the response to periodontal therapy.

  17. Relationship between negative affect and smoking topography in heavy drinking smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, ReJoyce; Bujarski, Spencer; Roche, Daniel J O; Ray, Lara A

    2016-10-01

    Heavy drinking smokers represent a sizeable subgroup of smokers for whom nicotine deprivation and alcohol use increases the urge to smoke in the laboratory and predicts lapses during smoking cessation. The manner in which individuals smoke a cigarette (i.e. smoking topography) provides a reliable index of smoking intensity and reinforcement, yet the effects of affect on smoking topography have not been thoroughly examined in heavy drinking smokers. The current study examined how affect and nicotine deprivation predict smoking behavior as participants (N=27) smoked one cigarette using a smoking topography device after 12-h of nicotine abstinence and after a priming dose of alcohol (target BrAC=0.06g/dl). Primary smoking topography measures were puff volume, velocity, duration, and inter-puff interval (IPI). The effect of nicotine deprivation was measured by the Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale (MNWS) and the Profile of Mood States (POMS). Measures were obtained at baseline (i.e. 12-h of nicotine abstinence and pre-alcohol) and 30-minutes after alcohol administration (i.e. peak BrAC). Results revealed post-priming negative affect significantly moderated the trajectories of puff volume, puff duration and IPI (p'saffect had flatter slopes for volume and duration and increasingly infrequent puffs. Our results suggest that baseline and post-priming negative affect following nicotine deprivation alters smoking patterns and increases nicotine exposure throughout a single cigarette. Future studies need to examine differential amounts of nicotine deprivation on response to alcohol and smoking in heavy drinking smokers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevalence of behaviors related to cigarette-caused fires: a survey of Ontario smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, R J; Bauer, J E; Giovino, G A; Hammond, D; Hyland, A; Fong, G T; Cummings, K M

    2007-08-01

    To identify the prevalence and correlates of behaviors related to the risk of cigarette-caused fires. Random-digit-dialed telephone survey in Ontario, Canada, July-September, 2005. 596 current cigarette smokers. Prevalence of fire-risk events and behaviors such as burning clothing or objects in the home, leaving lit cigarettes unattended, dozing while smoking, and smoking in bed and correlates of these behaviors. Respondents were also asked if they ever worry about cigarette-caused fires. One in four smokers admitted to leaving lit cigarettes unattended in the last 30 days, while 15% admitted to smoking while in bed. Leaving lit cigarettes unattended was independent of demographic, socioeconomic or nicotine dependence indicators, but was related to worry about burning other persons with a cigarette (OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.04 to 2.85) and smoking inside the home (OR 2.98, 95% CI 1.66 to 5.35). Persons who were not white (OR 3.97, 95% CI 1.80 to 8.80), aged 18-24 years (OR 3.75, 95% CI 1.41 to 9.96), who had high nicotine dependence (OR 9.13, 95% CI 2.22 to 37.52) and worried about burning objects in their home (OR 2.43, 95% CI 1.31 to 4.52) were more likely to smoke in bed. 10 (1.7%) smokers reported having ever had a fire in their home started by a cigarette. Smokers engage in behaviors such as smoking in bed and leaving lit cigarettes unattended that may place them at an increased risk of cigarette-caused fires. As governments move to regulate cigarette ignition propensity, it is important to establish surveillance for behaviors related to fire risk.

  19. Does Electronic Cigarette Use Predict Abstinence from Conventional Cigarettes among Smokers in Hong Kong?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Socrates Yong-da Wu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the effects of ever use of electronic cigarettes (ECs, many of which lack nicotine, on abstinence from convention cigarettes among Hong Kong adult smokers. Methods: We collected data from 956 daily smokers in 2014–2015 regarding ever EC use and smoking behaviors at baseline, any and past 30-day EC use at the 3-month follow-up. Outcomes measured at 6 months included past 7-day point prevalence abstinence (PPA, biochemically validated quitting, smoking reduction (≥50% from baseline and cessation attempt. Logistic regression yielded adjusted odds ratios (AOR for quitting in relation to EC use, adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics and smoking profile. Complete case, missing observation as smoking and propensity score analyses were conducted. Results: By complete case, ever EC use at baseline did not predict self-reported PPA (AOR 0.99, 95% CI 0.57–1.73, biochemically validated quitting (AOR 1.22, 95% CI 0.64–2.34, cessation attempt (AOR 0.74, 95% CI 0.48–1.14, or smoking reduction (AOR 0.89, 95% CI 0.54–1.47. EC use during the first 3 months did not predict quitting (AOR 1.02, 95% CI 0.22–4.71. Similar results were observed for missing observations as smoking and propensity score analyses. Conclusions: Any use of ECs, many of which lack nicotine, did not predict smoking abstinence among Hong Kong adult smokers.

  20. [Efficiency of two motivational interventions for adolescent smokers (brief and intensive) conducted in high schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Milena, Alejandro; Navarreteguillén, Ana Belén; Mesa-Gallardo, María Inmaculada; Martínez Pérez, Rocío; Leal-Helmling, Francisco Javier; Pérez-Fuentes, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    We set out to determine the efficiency of two motivational interventions (brief and intensive) in adolescent smokers, based on obtaining cognitive dissonance and seeking to help them stop smoking. A multicenter randomized experimental study was carried out at five high schools. Individual anti-smoking interventions were applied at the schools, the participants being adolescent smokers (≤ 20 years) who wished to quit smoking. Exclusion criteria were use of anti-smoking drugs, severe psychiatric illness and pregnancy. Informed consent was obtained and a questionnaire recorded demographic variables and alcohol/tobacco/other drug use. Two motivational interventions were carried out at each school by GP, in accordance with a stratified randomization procedure: intensive (four sessions, progressive reduction of smoking) and brief (single session, immediate cessation of smoking). Smoking abstinence was confirmed by co-oximetry at 1, 6 and 12 months after the intervention, with analysis by intention to treat. A total of 92 adolescents participated, with a mean age of 15.4 ± 1.0 years; no differences at the beginning of the interventions: daily smokers accounted for 82% of the sample, with low dependence (62%) and moderate-high motivation to quit smoking (88%). Seventy-eight per cent used alcohol and 21% other drugs. Family functioning and social support were normal in the majority. 47% received the intensive intervention. Abstinence was achieved by 64% ± 5.0 by the first month (20% better in intensive intervention), 42% ± 5.2 by the sixth month and 27% ± 4.6 by the twelfth month (without differences). The brief intervention appears to be more efficient, while more research is needed to determine the profile of those adolescents who would benefit from intensive intervention.

  1. Tobacco use trajectories among a large cohort of treated smokers with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malte, Carol A; Dennis, Paul A; Saxon, Andrew J; McFall, Miles; Carmody, Timothy P; Unger, William; Beckham, Jean C

    2015-02-01

    This study identified distinct tobacco use trajectories across 18months in 943 veteran smokers with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in order to describe quit and relapse patterns, examine associations between trajectory groups on baseline characteristics and cessation service utilization, and explore group differences in mental health outcomes. Veterans who participated in a multisite, randomized trial of integrated smoking cessation care were grouped using k-means clustering based on reported daily tobacco use between baseline and 18months. Four trajectory clusters were identified: no reduction (62%), temporary reduction (11%), late sustained reduction (9%) and early sustained reduction (18%). Median quit times in the early, late, temporary, and no reduction groups were 451, 141.5, 97, and 2days, respectively. Compared to the early reduction group, the temporary reduction group exhibited higher baseline depression (p<0.01) and anxiety (p<0.01), but did not differ in treatment received, with both groups attending significantly more cessation visits (p<0.001) and more likely to receive recommended pharmacotherapy (p<0.001) than the no reduction group between baseline and 6months. The early reduction group exhibited lower depression relative to the no reduction (p<0.01) and temporary reduction (p<0.01) groups across all assessments between baseline and 18months. Differences were not observed between groups in depressive or PTSD symptom change over time between baseline and 18months. Tobacco use trajectories among treated smokers with PTSD vary distinctly. Characteristics of identified subgroups may lead to targeted interventions among smokers with PTSD and potentially other psychiatric disorders. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Developing a Nicotine Patch Adherence Intervention for HIV-positive Latino Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadel, William G.; Galvan, Frank H.; Tucker, Joan S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes two phases of formative research that were undertaken to develop a smoking cessation treatment module that has the goal of improving adherence with the nicotine patch in HIV-positive Latino smokers. Each research phase (Phase I and II) was conducted independent of the other and used different methods to inform the development of the intervention. Phase I interviewed n=14 smokers who had previous experience using the nicotine patch to gain detailed understanding of how, when, and why they used it; their perceived barriers to using it; and their perspective on ways to improve adherence to it. Phase II provided n=35 smokers with brief smoking cessation treatment and nicotine patches, then interviewed them in “near real time” over a two month period about their use of the patch during a quit attempt (e.g., perceived barriers and facilitators). Authors of the paper conducted a qualitative analysis of the themes emerging from the interview transcripts across these two phases. Results indicated that consistent use of the nicotine patch was associated with maintaining high motivation for use (i.e., not necessarily motivation to quit, but motivation to continue patch use); linking its use with established daily routines (e.g., with taking other medications, with brushing teeth); and maintaining realistic expectations for patch efficacy (e.g., that users may still experience some level of craving and/or withdrawal). This information will used to develop and pilot test a brief treatment module that focuses on improving nicotine patch adherence. PMID:27070097

  3. Behavioural and psychological responses of lower educated smokers to the smoke-free legislation in Dutch hospitality venues: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Heiden, Sander; Gebhardt, Winifred A; Willemsen, Marc C; Nagelhout, Gera E; Dijkstra, Arie

    2013-01-01

    In 2008, smoke-free legislation was implemented in hospitality venues (HV) in the Netherlands. We investigated how continuing smokers with a lower educational background respond behaviourally and psychologically to the legislation and the norm it communicates. In 2010, 18 lower-educated daily smokers were interviewed. Transcripts were analysed with MAXQDA software. Theories of self-awareness and social in- and exclusion were applied to interpret findings. Smokers had become more self-aware and the experience of a more negative norm surrounding smoking had made them reevaluate their smoking. Smokers had also become more self-aware of their own smoking, both in HV and in general. Feelings of increased social exclusion were reported. Participants dealt with the increased awareness and feelings of social exclusion in different ways depending on their evaluation of the smoking ban, changes in attitude towards own smoking, changes in HV patronage and changes in smoking behaviour. Theories of self-awareness and social in- and exclusion were useful in understanding consequences of a HV smoking ban on continuing smokers. Four different types of responses were identified, i.e. (1) actively trying to quit, (2) socially conscious smoking, (3) feeling victimised and (4) rejecting the norm. Implications for future smoke-free legislation are discussed.

  4. INFLUENCE OF ACUTE EXERCISE ON OXIDATIVE STRESS IN CHRONIC SMOKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra Serdar

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The relative oxidative insult caused by exercise and smoking on biological systems are well documented, however, their cumulative influence needs to be clarified. In order to examine the collective effects of exercise and smoking on oxidant and antioxidant parameters, young male smokers (n=10 and non-smokers (n=10 made to perform a negative slope (10% cycling exercise for 30 minutes at individual load equivalent to 60% maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max. Pre- and post-exercise (post-ex haematocrit, haemoglobin, white blood cells, plasma malondialdehyde (MDA levels, protein carbonyl formation and non-HDL oxidation, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPX activities, serum ceruloplasmin (CER and urinary cotinine concentrations were evaluated. Pre-ex CER and urinary cotinine concentrations of smokers were significantly higher (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively compared to that of non-smokers and pre-ex CER concentrations were significantly correlated with cotinine levels in all subjects (p<0.05. Significant (p<0.01 increases were observed in non-HDL oxidation following the exercise in both groups and the elevations were more pronounced in smokers. Pre-ex SOD and GPX activities were not different between the two groups, however post-ex enzyme activities were significantly reduced in smokers (p<0.05. MDA and protein carbonyl concentrations were not different between the two groups and there were not any significant changes due to exercise.In conclusion, according to the results of the present study, we suggest that erythrocyte antioxidants SOD and GPX and plasma non-HDL are more prone to the possible oxidant damage of acute physical exercise in chronic smokers.

  5. It's complicated: Examining smokers' relationships with their cigarette brands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sarah E; Coleman, Blair N; Schmitt, Carol L

    2016-12-01

    Despite increased restrictions and taxes, decreased social acceptability, and widespread awareness of the harms of tobacco use, many in the U.S. continue to smoke cigarettes. Thus, understanding smokers' attitudes and motivations remains an important goal. This study adopts the consumer psychology concept of brand relationship to provide a new lens through which to examine smokers' attitudes about their cigarette use. Twelve focus groups (N = 143) were conducted with adult cigarette smokers from September to November, 2013. Using a semistructured moderator guide and "top of mind" worksheets, the discussion examined participants' attitudes toward (a) their own cigarette brand and (b) tobacco companies in general. Data were coded and analyzed following principles of thematic analysis. Adult smokers reported positive attitudes toward their cigarette brand, as their brand was strongly associated with the positive experience of smoking (e.g., satisfying craving and relief from withdrawal). In contrast, thinking about tobacco companies in general evoked negative reactions, revealing overwhelmingly negative attitudes toward the industry. Findings reveal a complicated relationship between smokers and their cigarette brand: simultaneously embracing their cigarettes and rejecting the industry that makes them. Taken together, these data suggest smokers maintain largely positive brand relationships, diverting negative feelings about smoking toward the tobacco industry. Finally, they highlight the synergy between branding and the subjective smoking experience, whereby positive brand attitudes are reinforced through withdrawal relief. Ultimately, this information could inform a more complete understanding of how smokers interpret and respond to tobacco communications, including marketing from their brand. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Radon-induced lung cancer in smokers and non-smokers: risk implications using a two-mutation carcinogenesis model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leenhouts, H.P.

    1999-01-01

    Three sets of data (population statistics in non-smokers, data from an investigation of the smoking habits of British doctors and a study of Colorado uranium miners) were used to analyse lung cancer in humans as a function of exposure to radon and smoking. One of the aims was to derive implications for radon risk estimates. The data were analysed using a two-mutation radiation carcinogenesis model and a stepwise determination of the model parameters. The basic model parameters for lung cancer were derived from the age dependence fit of the spontaneous lung cancer incidence in non-smokers. The effect of smoking was described by two additional parameters and, subsequently, the effect of radon by three other parameters; these five parameters define the dependence of the two mutation steps on smoking and exposure to radon. Using this approach, a consistent fit and comprehensive description of the three sets of data have been achieved, and the parameters could, at least partly, be related to cellular radiobiological data. The model results explain the different effect of radon on non-smokers and smokers as seen in epidemiological data. Although the analysis was only applied to a limited number of populations, lung cancer incidence as a result of radon exposure is estimated to be about ten times higher for people exposed at the age of about 15 than at about 50, although this effect is masked (especially for smokers) by the high lung cancer incidence from smoking. Using the model to calculate the lung cancer risks from lifetime exposure to radon, as is the case for indoor radon, higher risks were estimated than previously derived from epidemiological studies of the miners' data. The excess absolute risk per unit exposure of radon is about 1.7 times higher for smokers of 30 cigarettes per day than for non-smokers, even though, as a result of the low spontaneous tumour incidence in the non-smokers, the excess relative risk per unit exposure for the smokers is about 20 times

  7. Differentiation of chronic and aggressive forms of periodontitis and of smokers and non-smokers by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihal Simsek Ozek

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine if Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR could distinguish chronic periodontitis (CP and aggressive periodontitis (AgP patients by cross-sectional salivary spectral analyses and to assess the potential confounding influence of smoking on discriminating spectral signatures. Methods: FTIR analysis of saliva collected from patients with CP (n = 18, 7 smokers, AgP (n = 23, 9 smokers was performed. Smoking status was confirmed by salivary cotinine analysis. Spectral band area analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis was performed. Results: Spectral analyses indicated significantly lower lipid, phospholipid, protein, amino acid, lactic acid, nucleic acid contents in smoker than non-smoker AgP group. Amino acid, phospholipid, lactic acid contents were significantly lower in smoker than non-smoker CP group. Thiocyanate levels successfully differentiated smokers from non-smokers, irrespective of periodontal status. Cluster analysis to discriminate smokers from non-smokers and CP from AgP was highly promising. Conclusions: FTIR can be employed to discriminate smokers from non-smokers and CP from AgP.

  8. Daily sperm production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyjovska, Zdenka Orabi; Boisen, Anne Mette Zenner; Jackson, Petra

    2013-01-01

    instillation with Printex90. Body and testicle weight, sperm content per g testicular parenchyma and daily sperm production (DSP) were assessed. The protocol for assessment of DSP was optimized for application in mice (C57BL/6J) and the influence of different parameters was studied. Maternal particulate...... exposure did not affect DSP statistically significantly in the F1 generation, although TiO2 tended to reduce sperm counts. Overall, time-to-first F2 litter increased with decreasing sperm production. There was no effect on sperm production in the F2 generation originating after TiO2 exposure. F2 offspring......, whose fathers were prenatally exposed to Printex90, showed lowered sperm production. Furthermore, we report statistically significant differences in sperm production between mouse strains....

  9. Physics in daily life

    CERN Document Server

    Hermans, Jo

    2012-01-01

    This book provides answers to everyday questions that any curious mind would ask, like : Why is water blue ? What makes ice so slippery ? How do we localize sound ? How do we keep our body temperature so nice and constant ? How do we survive the sauna at 90 C ? Why do large raindrops fall faster than small ones, and what exactly is their speed ? The answers are given in an accessible and playful way, and are illustrated with funny cartoons. In this book forty "Physics in Daily Life" columns, which appeared earlier in Europhysics News, are brought together in one inspiring volume. As well as being a source of enjoyment and satisfying insights for anyone with some physics background, it also serves as a very good teaching tool for science students. This booklet is a feast of erudition and humour.

  10. Making Daily Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Wind, Simon

    In 2012 the average daily transportation distance for every Dane were 40 km (TU Data). Realising how much of life is spend thinking about, planning and performing mobility practices it becomes evident that it is much more than an instrumental physical phenomenon – it has great repercussions on life......, social networks, understanding of places and ultimately ourselves and others. To successfully accomplish everyday life, households have to cope with large number of different activities and mobility in relation to their children, work, social life, obligations, expectations, needs and wishes. Drawing...... on mobilities theory (Urry 2007; Larsen et al. 2006) and practice theory (Schatzki 2001; Reckwitz 2002; Shove et al. 2012) this paper seeks to unfold a theoretical framework for understanding of the household’s mobility coping strategies and how these strategies are actualised and materialised into mobility...

  11. Characteristics of Participants Enrolled in a Brief Motivational Enhancement for Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy L Copeland

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Daily smoking is associated with elevated blood pressure, CO toxicity, and impaired pulmonary lung functioning. The benefits of successful smoking cessation are readily apparent, given the health improvements associated with cessation, as well as the reduction of secondhand smoke to which nonsmoking coworkers and family members are exposed. Previous literature indicates that providing personalized information to smokers (versus general base rates without engaging in confrontational pressure to quit smoking, leads to increased interest in quitting smoking and willingness to enter smoking cessation programs. The goal of this study was to examine the pre-treatment characteristics of the smokers entering a brief motivational enhancement intervention based on personally tailored health feedback. Participants (N = 28 were 88.2% Caucasian, 59% male, and were an average of 23.0 years of age. On average, they smoked 20.08 cigarettes per day (CPD, for a mean of 6.6 years, a mean Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND score of 4.7, and obtained a mean breath carbon monoxide (CO reading of 19.1 ppm. Smoking related adverse health outcomes were predictive of stages of change (SOC motivation to quit smoking. Implication for cessation programs are discussed.

  12. E-cigarette use among smokers with serious mental illness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith J Prochaska

    Full Text Available We examined electronic cigarette (EC use, correlates of use, and associated changes in smoking behavior among smokers with serious mental illness in a clinical trial.Adult smokers were recruited during acute psychiatric hospitalization (N = 956, 73% enrollment among approached smokers in the San Francisco Bay Area between 2009-2013. At baseline, participants averaged 17 (SD = 10 cigarettes per day for 19 (SD = 14 years; 24% intended to quit smoking in the next month. Analyses examined frequency and correlates of EC use reported over the 18-month trial and changes in smoking behavior by EC use status.EC use was 11% overall, and by year of enrollment, increased from 0% in 2009 to 25% in 2013. In multiple logistic regression, the likelihood of EC use was significantly greater with each additional year of recruitment, for those aged 18-26, and for those in the preparation versus precontemplation stage of change, and unlikely among Hispanic participants. EC use was unrelated to gender, psychiatric diagnosis, and measures of tobacco dependence at baseline. Further, over the 18-month trial, EC use was not associated with changes in smoking status or, among continued smokers, with reductions in cigarettes per day.Within a clinical trial with smokers with serious mental illness, EC use increased over time, particularly among younger adults and those intending to quit tobacco. EC use was unrelated to changes in smoking. The findings are of clinical interest and warrant further study.

  13. Health care institutions should not exclude smokers from employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddle, Thomas S; Kertesz, Stefan G; Nash, Ryan R

    2014-06-01

    Some health care institutions, including academic health centers, have adopted policies excluding smokers from employment. Claims advanced on behalf of these policies include financial savings from reduced health costs and absenteeism as well as advantages consonant with their message of healthy living. The authors suggest that the institutional savings from these policies are speculative and unproven. Also, in settings where large medical schools operate, it is likely to be the poor, including members of minority groups, who, under an employee smoker ban, will lose the opportunity to work for an employer that offers health insurance and other benefits. In response to the incentives created by such bans, some will quit smoking, but most will not. Thus, at the community level, employee smoker bans are more likely to be harmful than beneficial.Although private businesses may rightly choose not to hire smokers in the 19 states where such policies are legal, health care institutions, including academic health centers, should consider hiring choices in light of the values they profess. The traditional values of medicine include service to all persons in need, even when illness results from addiction or unsafe behavior. Secular academic communities require a shared dedication to discovery without requiring strict conformity of private behavior or belief. The authors conclude that for health care institutions, policies of hiring smokers and helping them to quit are both prudent and expressive of the norms of medical care, such as inclusion, compassion, and fellowship, that academic health professionals seek to honor.

  14. Race, gender, and nicotine metabolism in adolescent smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Mark L; Shiffman, Saul; Rait, Michelle A; Benowitz, Neal L

    2013-07-01

    Differences in the rate of nicotine metabolism between genders and different races have been hypothesized to contribute to disparities in smoking rate, susceptibility to addiction, and ability to quit smoking. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of race and gender on the rate of nicotine metabolism as indicated by the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR) in adolescent smokers. One hundred and fifty-nine adolescent smokers aged 13-17 were given 2mg of deuterium-labeled cotinine (cotinine-d4). The NMR was calculated as the ratio of concentrations of deuterium-labeled 3'-hydroxycotinine (ng/ml) to cotinine-d4 (ng/ml) in saliva and is a validated biomarker of the rate of nicotine metabolism. The sample was 67.3% female and racially mixed. On average, Whites had the fastest rates of metabolism compared with both Blacks/African Americans (p smokers, racial variations in rates of nicotine metabolism were similar to those that have been reported in adult smokers. In contrast to findings in adult smokers, the NMR did not vary significantly by gender or self-reported hormone use.

  15. Bronchial diverticula in smokers on thin-section CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sverzellati, Nicola; Ingegnoli, Anna [University of Parma, Department of Clinical Sciences, Division of Radiology, Parma (Italy); Calabro, Elisa; Pastorino, Ugo [National Cancer Institute, Division of Thoracic Surgery, Milan (Italy); Randi, Giorgia; La Vecchia, Carlo [Mario Negri Institute, Department of Epidemiology, Milan (Italy); University of Milano, Institute of Medical Statistics and Biometry ' ' G. A. Maccacaro' ' , Milan (Italy); Marchiano, Alfonso [National Cancer Institute, Division of Radiology, Milan (Italy); Kuhnigk, Jan-Martin [Fraunhofer MEVIS - Institute for Medical Image Computing, Bremen (Germany); Hansell, David M. [Royal Brompton Hospital, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Zompatori, Maurizio [S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bologna (Italy)

    2010-01-15

    The objective was to determine the prevalence of bronchial diverticula in smokers on thin-section CT and the relationship to clinical and other morphological features on CT. Thin-section CT images of 503 cigarette smokers were assessed for the profusion and location of diverticula in the major airways. The extent of the bronchial diverticula was recorded as follows: grade 0, none; grade 1, one to three diverticula; grade 2, more than three diverticula. The extent of emphysema, bronchial wall thickness, clinical features, and pulmonary function were compared in the sub-groups stratified according to the extent of bronchial diverticula. A total of 229/503 (45.5%) smokers had bronchial diverticula, with 168/503 (33.3%) and 61/503 (12.2%) having grade 1 and 2 bronchial diverticula respectively. Subjects with grade 2 bronchial diverticula were heavier smokers, reported a history of coughing more frequently, and showed more severe functional impairment, greater extent of emphysema and more severe bronchial wall thickening compared with subjects with grade 1 and those individuals without bronchial diverticula (P<0.05). Multivariate regression analysis revealed that only bronchial wall thickness predicted the extent of the bronchial diverticula (P<0.0001). Bronchial diverticula are a frequent finding in the major airways of smokers, and they are associated with other markers of smoking-related damage. (orig.)

  16. Correctional Facility Average Daily Population

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset contains Accumulated monthly with details from Pre-Trial Average daily caseload * Detention Services, Average daily population for MCCF, MCDC, PRRS and...

  17. Functional Connectivity During Exposure to Favorite-Food, Stress, and Neutral-Relaxing Imagery Differs Between Smokers and Nonsmokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Kathleen A; Sinha, Rajita; Lacadie, Cheryl M; Scheinost, Dustin; Jastreboff, Ania M; Constable, R Todd; Potenza, Marc N

    2016-09-01

    Tobacco-use disorder is a complex condition involving multiple brain networks and presenting with multiple behavioral correlates including changes in diet and stress. In a previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study of neural responses to favorite-food, stress, and neutral-relaxing imagery, smokers versus nonsmokers demonstrated blunted corticostriatal-limbic responses to favorite-food cues. Based on other recent reports of alterations in functional brain networks in smokers, the current study examined functional connectivity during exposure to favorite-food, stress, and neutral-relaxing imagery in smokers and nonsmokers, using the same dataset. The intrinsic connectivity distribution was measured to identify brain regions that differed in degree of functional connectivity between groups during each imagery condition. Resulting clusters were evaluated for seed-to-voxel connectivity to identify the specific connections that differed between groups during each imagery condition. During exposure to favorite-food imagery, smokers versus nonsmokers showed lower connectivity in the supramarginal gyrus, and differences in connectivity between the supramarginal gyrus and the corticostriatal-limbic system. During exposure to neutral-relaxing imagery, smokers versus nonsmokers showed greater connectivity in the precuneus, and greater connectivity between the precuneus and the posterior insula and rolandic operculum. During exposure to stress imagery, smokers versus nonsmokers showed lower connectivity in the cerebellum. These findings provide data-driven insights into smoking-related alterations in brain functional connectivity patterns related to appetitive, relaxing, and stressful states. This study uses a data-driven approach to demonstrate that smokers and nonsmokers show differential patterns of functional connectivity during guided imagery related to personalized favorite-food, stress, and neutral-relaxing cues, in brain regions implicated in attention

  18. Nicotine yield from machine-smoked cigarettes and nicotine intakes in smokers: evidence from a representative population survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, M J; Boreham, R; Primatesta, P; Feyerabend, C; Bryant, A

    2001-01-17

    The relevance of nicotine yields from machine-smoked cigarettes for quantifying smokers' nicotine intakes and exposure to cigarette toxins has been called into question. However, most studies of the relationship between nicotine yield and nicotine intake have been on relatively small and unrepresentative samples and have included few smokers of "ultra-low" brands (i.e., those yielding around 1 mg of tar and 0.1 mg of nicotine). We examined the relationship between salivary cotinine (a major metabolite of nicotine) concentrations and nicotine yields of machine-smoked cigarettes in a nationally representative sample of 2031 adult smokers of manufactured cigarettes surveyed in the 1998 Health Survey for England. We used standard linear regression techniques to examine associations and two-sided tests of statistical significance. Cotinine concentrations varied widely between smokers at any level of nominal brand nicotine yield. On average, cotinine levels were slightly lower in smokers of lower nicotine-yielding brands, but these smokers differed in terms of sex, socioeconomic profile, and cigarette consumption. After we controlled for potential confounders, nicotine yield from the brand smoked accounted for only 0.79% of the variation in saliva cotinine concentrations. Nicotine intake per cigarette smoked, as estimated from salivary cotinine level, did not correspond with machine-smoked yields at any level of nicotine yield. Nicotine intake per cigarette was about eight times greater than machine-smoked yields at the lowest deliveries (1.17 mg estimated nicotine intake per cigarette from brands averaging 0.14-mg delivery from machine smoking) and 1.4 times greater for the highest yield cigarettes (1.31-mg estimated nicotine intake per cigarette from brands averaging 0.91 mg from machine smoking). Smokers' tendency to regulate nicotine intake vitiates potential health gains from lower tar and nicotine cigarettes. Current approaches to characterizing tar and nicotine

  19. Adapting, Pilot Testing and Evaluating the Kick.it App to Support Smoking Cessation for Smokers with Severe Mental Illness: A Study Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Lawn

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: While the prevalence of tobacco smoking in the general population has declined, it remains exceptionally high for smokers with severe mental illness (SMI, despite significant public health measures. This project aims to adapt, pilot test and evaluate a novel e-health smoking cessation intervention to assist relapse prevention and encourage sustained smoking cessation for young adults (aged 18–29 years with SMI. (2 Methods: Using co-design principles, the researchers will adapt the Kick.it smartphone App in collaboration with a small sample of current and ex-smokers with SMI. In-depth interviews with smokers with SMI who have attempted to quit in the past 12 months and ex-smokers (i.e., those having not smoked in the past seven days will explore their perceptions of smoking cessation support options that have been of value to them. Focus group participants will then give their feedback on the existing Kick.it App and any adaptations needed. The adapted App will then be pilot-tested with a small sample of young adult smokers with SMI interested in attempting to cut down or quit smoking, measuring utility, feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary outcomes in supporting their quit efforts. (3 Conclusions: This pilot work will inform a larger definitive trial. Dependent on recruitment success, the project may extend to also include smokers with SMI who are aged 30 years or more.

  20. Alcohol consumption as a predictor of reactivity to smoking and stress cues presented in the natural environment of smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomko, Rachel L; Saladin, Michael E; McClure, Erin A; Squeglia, Lindsay M; Carpenter, Matthew J; Tiffany, Stephen T; Baker, Nathaniel L; Gray, Kevin M

    2017-02-01

    The high prevalence of co-occurring alcohol and tobacco use underscores the importance of understanding the influence of alcohol consumption on risk factors for smoking and relapse. Alcohol has been shown to impact reactivity to smoking and stress-related cues, both of which are common antecedents to smoking and smoking relapse. The objective of the current study is to examine associations between alcohol use, cigarette craving, and stress reactivity following exposure to smoking and stress cues delivered in participants' daily lives. Using cue-reactivity ecological momentary assessment (CREMA), adult smokers (n = 138) reported cigarette craving, stress, and past hour alcohol use on a mobile device four times per day for 2 weeks, resulting in a range of 4493-5983 data points per analysis. Questions were followed by exposure to pictorial neutral, stressful, or smoking cues delivered via the mobile device. Craving and affect were re-assessed following cue exposure. Results showed that recent (past hour) alcohol use was significantly associated with increases in the following: (a) tonic (non-cue-elicited) cigarette craving, (b) stress cue-elicited cigarette craving, and (c) stress cue-elicited stress reactivity, in the context of high-baseline stress. There was no significant association between alcohol use and smoking cue-elicited craving. Alcohol use may increase risk for smoking and relapse to smoking by increasing cigarette craving and, in certain contexts, stress following stress cue exposure. Though alcohol is known for its anxiolytic properties, under some conditions, it may increase reactivity to stress cues.

  1. Didanosine once daily: potential for expanded use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, R B

    2000-11-10

    Factors affecting patient adherence to therapy, such as frequent daily dosing and complex dosing schedules, are widely understood to be key obstacles to the durability of effective anti-HIV therapy. Didanosine, a nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) that is a core component of combination antiretroviral regimens, is currently indicated for twice-daily dosing. However, the active metabolite of didanosine (2',3'-dideoxyadenosine-5'-triphosphate) has a long intracellular half-life that supports the use of didanosine in a more patient-friendly, once-daily dosing schedule. Clinical studies in which didanosine was administered either once or twice daily, as monotherapy or in combination with another NRTI, have demonstrated the equivalence of both dosing schedules, with respect to safety and tolerability, virologic and immunologic endpoints, and short-term clinical effects (e.g., weight gain). Preliminary results from recent studies support the clinical efficacy and utility of once-daily didanosine in combination antiretroviral regimens that provide maximal drug exposure, while allowing for once- or twice-daily dosing of all component drugs.

  2. Smoker Reactivity to Cues: Effects on Craving and on Smoking behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, Saul; Dunbar, Michael; Kirchner, Thomas; Li, Xiaoxue; Tindle, Hilary; Anderson, Stewart; Scholl, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    We assessed craving and smoking in response to smoking-relevant cues. 207 daily smokers viewed images related to one of six cue sets (cigarettes, positive and negative affect, alcohol, smoking prohibitions, and neutral cues) in separate sessions. Compared to neutral cues, cigarette cues significantly increased craving, and positive affect cues significantly decreased craving. When subjects were then allowed to smoke during continuing cue exposure, cues did not affect the likelihood of smoking or the amount smoked (number of cigarettes, number of puffs, puff time, or increased carbon monoxide). However, craving intensity predicted likelihood of smoking, latency to smoke, and amount smoked, with craving increases after cue exposure making significant independent contributions. Some craving effects were curvilinear, suggesting that they are subject to thresholds and might not be observed under some circumstances. PMID:22708884

  3. Patterns and predictors of current cigarette smoking in women and men of reproductive age-Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Van T; Turcios-Ruiz, Reina M; Dietz, Patricia M; England, Lucinda J

    2011-09-01

    To estimate smoking prevalence by gender, describe patterns of cigarette use, and identify predictors of current smoking in reproductive-age adults in four Latin American countries. Self-reported smoking was examined using data from Reproductive Health Surveys of women aged 15-49 years in Ecuador (2004), El Salvador (2002-2003), Guatemala (2002), and Honduras (2001), and of men aged 15-59 years in El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras for the same years. Current smoking was assessed by demographic characteristics, and independent associations were examined using logistic regression. Data were weighted to be nationally representative of households with reproductive-age women and men. Current smoking prevalence ranged from 2.6% (Guatemala) to 13.1% (Ecuador) for women and from 23.1% (Guatemala) to 34.9% (El Salvador) for men. In Ecuador, 67.6% of female smokers were non-daily users; in other countries, daily use was more prevalent than non-daily use for both men and women. In daily users, the median number of cigarettes smoked per day ranged from 1.9 (Ecuador, Honduras) to 2.3 (Guatemala) for women and from 2.1 (Guatemala) to 3.6 (Honduras) for men. In bivariate analysis, smoking prevalence in all countries was highest in women who lived in urban areas, were previously married, and/or had high socioeconomic status. Risk factors for smoking varied by country and gender. National tobacco control programs in these countries should aggressively target high-risk populations (reproductive-age men) and maintain low prevalence in low-risk populations (reproductive-age women). More research is needed to understand addiction patterns in non-daily smokers.

  4. Tobacco outlet density and converted versus native non-daily cigarette use in a national US sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Thomas R; Anesetti-Rothermel, Andrew; Bennett, Morgane; Gao, Hong; Carlos, Heather; Scheuermann, Taneisha S; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S

    2017-01-01

    Investigate whether non-daily smokers' (NDS) cigarette price and purchase preferences, recent cessation attempts, and current intentions to quit are associated with the density of the retail cigarette product landscape surrounding their residential address. Cross-sectional assessment of N=904 converted NDS (CNDS). who previously smoked every day, and N=297 native NDS (NNDS) who only smoked non-daily, drawn from a national panel. Kernel density estimation was used to generate a nationwide probability surface of tobacco outlets linked to participants' residential ZIP code. Hierarchically nested log-linear models were compared to evaluate associations between outlet density, non-daily use patterns, price sensitivity and quit intentions. Overall, NDS in ZIP codes with greater outlet density were less likely than NDS in ZIP codes with lower outlet density to hold 6-month quit intentions when they also reported that price affected use patterns (G 2 =66.1, poutlet density (G 2 =322.0, poutlet density, CNDS in high-density ZIP codes were more likely to report that price influenced the amount they smoke (G 2 =43.9, p<0.001), and were more likely to look for better prices (G 2 =59.3, p<0.001). NDS residing in high-density ZIP codes were not more likely to report that price affected their cigarette brand choice compared with those in ZIP codes with lower density. This paper provides initial evidence that the point-of-sale cigarette environment may be differentially associated with the maintenance of CNDS versus NNDS patterns. Future research should investigate how tobacco control efforts can be optimised to both promote cessation and curb the rising tide of non-daily smoking in the USA. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. Spirometry screening for airway obstruction in asymptomatic smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisnivesky, Juan; Skloot, Gwen; Rundle, Andrew; Revenson, Tracey A; Neugut, Alfred

    2014-07-01

    Screening spirometry might help identify patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) at an earlier stage. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of airway obstruction in a cohort of asymptomatic smokers who underwent spirometry as part of a routine health maintenance examination. The study cohort consisted of a consecutive sample of 386 asymptomatic smokers (≥5 pack-years) without a history of COPD or asthma, who completed spirometry testing as part of a routine health maintenance examination. Overall, 9 study subjects (2.3%, 95% confidence interval: 1.1-4.4%) had evidence of airway obstruction on spirometry. Univariate and multiple regression analyses showed that the risk of airway obstruction was not significantly associated with age, sex, race, smoking history or past history of respiratory symptoms. Spirometry screening of asymptomatic smokers may help detect a small number of patients with airway obstruction who are at high risk for COPD.

  6. Mechanisms linking socioeconomic disadvantage and BMI in smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendzor, Darla E; Businelle, Michael S; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila M; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Castro, Yessenia; Vidrine, Jennifer I; Mazas, Carlos A; Cinciripini, Paul M; Wetter, David W

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate a conceptual model of the psychosocial pathways linking socioeconomic status and body mass index (BMI) among smokers. A latent variable modeling approach was used to evaluate the interrelationships among socioeconomic status, perceived neighborhood disadvantage, social support, negative affect, and BMI among smokers recruited from the Houston metropolitan area (N = 424). A total of 42.4% of participants were obese, with the highest prevalence of obesity among Latinos followed by African Americans. Across all racial/ethnic groups, perceived neighborhood disadvantage, social support, and negative affect functioned as pathways linking socioeconomic status and BMI. Findings indicate the need for interventions that target obesity among socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers and provide potential intervention targets for the prevention and treatment of obesity.

  7. Direct Observations of Parenting and Real-time Negative Affect among Adolescent Smokers and Non-Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Melanie J.; Mermelstein, Robin J.; Wakschlag, Lauren S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective This longitudinal study examined how observations of parental general communication style and control with their adolescents predicted changes in negative affect over time for adolescent smokers and non-smokers. Method Participants were 9th and 10th grade adolescents (N = 111; 56.8% female) who had all experimented with cigarettes and were thus at risk for continued smoking and escalation; 36% of these adolescents (n = 40) had smoked in the past month at baseline and were considered smokers in the present analyses. Adolescents participated separately with mothers and fathers in observed parent-adolescent problem-solving discussions to assess parenting at baseline. Adolescent negative affect was assessed at baseline, 6- and 24-months via ecological momentary assessment. Results Among both smoking and non-smoking adolescents, escalating negative affect significantly increased risk for future smoking. Higher quality maternal and paternal communication predicted a decline in negative affect over 1.5 years for adolescent smokers but was not related to negative affect for non-smokers. Controlling maternal, but not paternal, parenting predicted escalation in negative affect for all adolescents. Conclusions Findings suggest that reducing negative affect among experimenting youth can reduce risk for smoking escalation. Therefore, family-based prevention efforts for adolescent smoking escalation might consider parental general communication style and control as intervention targets. However, adolescent smoking status and parent gender may moderate these effects. PMID:23153193

  8. A preliminary experimental investigation of peer influence on risk-taking among adolescent smokers and non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalca, Eleonora; Kong, Grace; Liss, Thomas; Reynolds, Elizabeth K; Schep