Sample records for current cancer research

  1. Rethinking cancer: current challenges and opportunities in cancer research (United States)

    Cagan, Ross; Meyer, Pablo


    ABSTRACT Cancer therapeutics currently have the lowest clinical trial success rate of all major diseases. Partly as a result of the paucity of successful anti-cancer drugs, cancer will soon be the leading cause of mortality in developed countries. As a disease embedded in the fundamentals of our biology, cancer presents difficult challenges that would benefit from uniting experts from a broad cross-section of related and unrelated fields. Combining extant approaches with novel ones could help in tackling this challenging health problem, enabling the development of therapeutics to stop disease progression and prolong patient lives. This goal provided the inspiration for a recent workshop titled ‘Rethinking Cancer’, which brought together a group of cancer scientists who work in the academic and pharmaceutical sectors of Europe, America and Asia. In this Editorial, we discuss the main themes emerging from the workshop, with the aim of providing a snapshot of key challenges faced by the cancer research community today. We also outline potential strategies for addressing some of these challenges, from understanding the basic evolution of cancer and improving its early detection to streamlining the thorny process of moving promising drug targets into clinical trials. PMID:28381596

  2. Cancer Disparities - Cancer Currents Blog (United States)

    Blog posts on cancer health disparities research—including factors that influence disparities, disparities-related research efforts, and diversity in the cancer research workforce—from NCI Cancer Currents.

  3. Cancer Technology - Cancer Currents Blog (United States)

    Blog posts on technologies that affect cancer research and care—including new technologies for detecting cancer, testing treatments, storing/analyzing data, and improving patient care—from NCI Cancer Currents.

  4. Current research into novel therapeutic vaccines against cervical cancer. (United States)

    Cordeiro, Marcelo Nazário; De Lima, Rita de Cássia Pereira; Paolini, Francesca; Melo, Alanne Rayssa da Silva; Campos, Ana Paula Ferreira; Venuti, Aldo; De Freitas, Antonio Carlos


    Cervical cancer and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) are well-known outcomes of a human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Viral oncogenes expressions like E6, E7, and, recently recognized E5, lead to HPV-related malignant progression. Although HPV prevention by powerful vaccines against most frequent and oncogenic genotypes is feasible, current treatment against cervical neoplasia is distant from an ideal one. In addition, late diagnosis is commonly associated with a poor prognosis. On top of that, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or surgery are less effective in high-grade lesions. Areas covered: Due to their peculiarities, HPV oncogenes represent an excellent target for cancer immunotherapy. Safety, efficacy, and potential immunogenicity are features achieved by DNA vaccines targeting HPV. The literature search has indicated that genetic immunotherapy is becoming a pharmacological tool and therapeutic option against cervical disease, as more and more DNA vaccines are reaching clinical trial phases. Expert commentary: Among some of the promising results, a phase II randomized trial showed a clinical activity of a nucleic acid-based vaccine in HPV16 or HPV18 positive CIN patients. The concept of a synergic combination of anti-HPV DNA vaccines with radiotherapy, chemotherapy, sophisticated delivery methods, immunomodulators or immune adjuvants opens a new and interesting perspective in cervical malignancy treatment.

  5. [Toxoplasmosis and cancer: Current knowledge and research perspectives]. (United States)

    Vittecoq, M; Thomas, F


    Toxoplasmosis, caused by Toxoplasma gondii, is one of the most prevalent parasitic diseases; it is estimated to affect a third of the world's human population. Many studies showed that latent toxoplasmosis may cause in some patients significant adverse effects including schizophrenia and bipolar disorders. In addition, two recent studies highlighted a positive correlation between the prevalence of brain tumors and that of T. gondii at national and international scale. These studies are correlative, thus they do not demonstrate a causal link between T. gondii and brain tumors. Yet, they call for further research that could shed light on the possible mechanisms underlying this association.

  6. Cancer Research (United States)

    NCI is the nation's leader in cancer research. Learn more about NCI's cancer research areas, key initiatives, progress made in cancer research, and resources for researchers like research tools, specimens and data.

  7. Current Research Studies (United States)

    ... Success Home > Explore Research > Current Research Studies Current Research Studies Email Print + Share The Crohn’s & Colitis Foundation ... conducted online. Learn more about IBD Partners. Clinical Research Alliance The Clinical Research Alliance is a network ...

  8. Updates and current challenges in microRNA research for personalized medicine in ovarian cancer. (United States)

    Mandilaras, Victoria; Vernon, Mégane; Meryet-Figuière, Matthieu; Karakasis, Katherine; Lambert, Bernard; Poulain, Laurent; Oza, Amit; Denoyelle, Christophe; Lheureux, Stephanie


    Ovarian cancer (OC) is the second most common and the most lethal of the gynecological malignancies. Currently, there exists no effective screening tool for OC. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous 18-23 nucleotide non-coding RNAs that refine gene expression. MiRNAs have been found to be aberrantly expressed in OC tumor tissue as well as detectable in biological fluids such as the blood, urine, and ascites and have been proposed as biomarkers and therapeutic targets for OC. Areas covered: This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding the application of miRNAs as diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive biomarkers in OC. It describes the various tissues allowing for the analysis of miRNAs such as tumor tissue, blood, ascites and urine. It also highlights the potential of miRNAs as a therapy in other cancers and how these therapies may be applied to ovarian cancer. Expert opinion: The study of miRNAs is an innovative and promising field for the diagnosis and treatment of ovarian cancer. Methodological issues surrounding their detection and application therapeutically remain, such as the study of various OC histotypes within the same cohort, the choice of 'normal tissue' for comparison and the difficulties surrounding the choice of a normalization miRNA.

  9. Computer Aided-Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer on Multiparametric MRI: A Technical Review of Current Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijun Wang


    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PCa is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among men in the United States. In this paper, we survey computer aided-diagnosis (CADx systems that use multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MP-MRI for detection and diagnosis of prostate cancer. We review and list mainstream techniques that are commonly utilized in image segmentation, registration, feature extraction, and classification. The performances of 15 state-of-the-art prostate CADx systems are compared through the area under their receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC. Challenges and potential directions to further the research of prostate CADx are discussed in this paper. Further improvements should be investigated to make prostate CADx systems useful in clinical practice.

  10. Oral mucosal injury caused by cancer therapies: current management and new frontiers in research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Siri Beier; Peterson, Douglas E.


    and treatment of oral mucositis are presented. In addition, studies addressing oral mucositis as published in the Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicine 2008-2013 are specifically highlighted in this context. Key research directions in basic and translational science associated with mucosal toxicity caused...... by cancer therapies are also delineated as a basis for identifying pathobiologic and pharmacogenomic targets for interventions. This collective portfolio of research and its ongoing incorporation into clinical practice is setting the stage for the clinician in the future to predict mucosal toxicity risk...

  11. Gastrostomy in head and neck cancer: current literature, controversies and research. (United States)

    Bradley, Paula T; Brown, Teresa; Paleri, Vinidh


    This article explores the literature on the role of gastrostomy tube feeding use in the management of head and neck cancer, with special attention to its indications, timing of insertion, advantages, complications and quality of life issues. The current guidelines in place across different countries and two ongoing randomized controlled trials are discussed in detail, and placed in the context of current evidence. There remains a lack of consensus about when and which enteral feeding routes (gastrostomy or nasogastric tube) should be used and controversy about the long-term effects on swallowing function as well as quality of life for patients. Local guidelines should be used or generated to guide practice or patients enrolled into existing trials until higher level evidence is generated.

  12. Quantum Dots for Cancer Research: Current Status, Remaining Issues, and Future Perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Min; Peng, Chun-wei; Pang, Dai-Wen; Li, Yan


    Cancer is a major threat to public health in the 21st century because it is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. The mechanisms of carcinogenesis, cancer invasion, and metastasis remain unclear. Thus, the development of a novel approach for cancer detection is urgent, and real-time monitoring is crucial in revealing its underlying biological mechanisms. With the optical and chemical advantages of quantum dots (QDs), QD-based nanotechnology is helpful in constructing a biomedical imaging platform for cancer behavior study. This review mainly focuses on the application of QD-based nanotechnology in cancer cell imaging and tumor microenvironment studies both in vivo and in vitro, as well as the remaining issues and future perspectives

  13. Cancer Currents Now Available in Spanish (United States)

    As part of our effort to more effectively reach patients, health care providers, and researchers with timely, authoritative, and scientifically accurate cancer information, we are now offering selected Cancer Currents blog posts in Spanish.

  14. Types of Cancer Research (United States)

    An infographic from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) describing the four broad categories of cancer research: basic research, clinical research, population-based research, and translational research.

  15. Radiotherapy in the curative treatment of breast cancer: current status and future trends. An opinion sample of radiation oncologists active in breast cancer research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurtz, J.M.


    A questionnaire regarding the current practice of breast cancer radiotherapy and possible future trends in this field was filled out by 13 radiation oncologists active in breast cancer research. In the opinion of this small group, radiotherapy is presently included in the initial treatment of the large majority of early breast cancers, particularly in the framework of breast-conserving therapy, which is currently used in >50% of these patients. Indications for post-mastectomy irradiation vary greatly among respondents, as do attitudes toward the potentially negative aspects of adjuvant radiotherapy. Most respondents feel that their future practices will be significantly influenced by an increase in screen-detected cancers, the aging of the population, the increasing influence of medical oncologists, participation in clinical trials, and increased patient participation in treatment decisions. An increase is foreseen in the use of breast-conserving approaches, radiotherapy, and systemic therapies, and a decrease in the use of both total mastectomy and axillary dissection. Most respondents feel that there will be a modest decrease in the percentage of conservatively operated patients receiving radiotherapy. A future role is seen for neo-adjuvant chemotherapy, at least in well-defined subgroups, increasing the number of patients offered breast-conserving approaches. Most respondents expect that irradiation of lymph nodal areas will gain new credibility and be used more often. No majority opinion could be elicited regarding ways of improving the therapeutic ratio in breast cancer radiotherapy. (author)

  16. Current status of research on transcatheter arterial chemoembolization in treatment of colorectal cancer liver metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIAN Qianhong


    Full Text Available It is widely acknowledged that the liver is the most common organ for colorectal cancer metastasis, and radical resection is thought to be the only therapeutic method to cure colorectal cancer liver metastasis (CRLM. Unfortunately, only about 20% of all patients are eligible for surgical resection. In patients who cannot be treated with surgery, transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE has been widely used as the preferred therapeutic method by scholars at home and abroad. This article introduces the application basis, indications, contraindications, therapeutic effect, chemotherapeutic agents, and embolic agents of TACE in the treatment of CRLM, and points out that TACE is a palliative treatment regimen with a clear therapeutic effect, minimal invasion, and few side effects and can be used as the preferred therapeutic regimen for patients with unresectable CRLM.

  17. Natural killer (NK cells and their involvement in different types of cancer. Current status of clinical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isadora Zaharescu


    Full Text Available Natural killer cells are the main agents of innate immunity. Since 1970, various studies have repeatedly confirmed their involvement in decreasing local tumor growth and also decreasing the risk of metastasis, due to their cytotoxic effects and also through the release of immunostimulatory cytokines such as IFN-gamma. In the 1990s, several studies demonstrated the existence of certain inhibiting and stimulating receptors of these cells, leading to the concept of “induced self”, thus explaining why tumors with MHC-1 are destroyed and autologous cells without it are saved out. Recognition and destruction of tumor cells by the NK cells are the result of complex interactions between inhibiting and activating factors. This paper, based on extensive research of currently available studies, summarizes the mechanisms employed by the NK cells to destroy the cancer cells, thus highlighting their role in the risk of tumor recurrence as well as their use and handling in certain types of immunotherapy

  18. FDA Approvals - Cancer Currents Blog (United States)

    Blog posts on cancer drugs and devices approved by the Food and Drug Administration—including summaries of the evidence to support the approvals and what they mean for patients—from NCI Cancer Currents.

  19. Current HPM Source Research (United States)

    Spencer, T. A.


    Advanced research continues in the field of High Power Microwaves (HPM), which have potential applications ranging from long distance communications, radar, environmental waste clean up, bio-toxin neutralization, fusion heating, as well as a host of others. Current HPM sources being studied are the Magnetically Insulated Line Oscillator, Relativistic Klystron Oscillator, and Relativistic Magnetron, and experimental and computational comparisons will be presented. Relevant components to be discussed are recent cathode results, recent antenna results, as well as the discussion of a HPM air breakdown experiment to be conducted in the near future.

  20. Pancreas 3D Organoids: Current and Future Aspects as a Research Platform for Personalized Medicine in Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Moreira


    Full Text Available Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is one of the most aggressive forms of cancer, and the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the United States. Although important advances have been made in the last decade, the mortality rate of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma has not changed appreciably. This review summarizes a rapidly emerging model of pancreatic cancer research, focusing on 3-dimensional organoids as a powerful tool for several applications, but above all, representing a step toward personalized medicine.

  1. Cell Phones: Current Research Results (United States)

    ... Potential Biological or Adverse Health Effects of Wireless Communication Devices World Health Organization: Electromagnetic Fields and Public Health: Mobile Phones International Agency for Research on Cancer Press Release ...

  2. Prostate cancer chemoprevention in men of African descent: current state of the art and opportunities for future research. (United States)

    Chornokur, Ganna; Kumar, Nagi B


    Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy in men. However, African American/Black men are 60 % more likely to be diagnosed with and 2.4 times more likely to die from prostate cancer, compared to Non-Hispanic White men. Despite the increased burden of this malignancy, no evidence-based recommendation regarding prostate cancer screening exists for the high-risk population. Moreover, in addition to screening and detection, African American men may constitute a prime population for chemoprevention. Early detection and chemoprevention may thus represent an integral part of prostate cancer control in this population. Importantly, recent research has elucidated biological differences in the prostate tumors of African American compared to European American men. The latter may enable a more favorable response in African American men to specific chemopreventive agents that target relevant signal transduction pathways. Based on this evolving evidence, the aims of this review are threefold. First, we aim to summarize the biological differences that were reported in the prostate tumors of African American and European American men. Second, we will review the single- and multi-target chemopreventive agents placing specific emphasis on the pathways implicated in prostate carcinogenesis. And lastly, we will discuss the most promising nutraceutical chemopreventive compounds. Our review underscores the promise of chemoprevention in prostate cancer control, as well as provides justification for further investment in this filed to ultimately reduce prostate cancer morbidity and mortality in this high-risk population of African American men.

  3. Current Solid Mechanics Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo


    About thirty years ago James Lighthill wrote an essay on “What is Mechanics?” With that he also included some examples of the applications of mechanics. While his emphasis was on fluid mechanics, his own research area, he also included examples from research activities in solid mechanics....

  4. Current Research Activities. (United States)


    Morrison, Douglas R. Collias, Gene Morse, Betty- Ann Darnall, Clark Pearman, Charles Dugdale, Jane Peterson, Michael Dworski, J. George Peterson, Willis...generated.I ..._ IX /k 15 km0 2 Vsc - I5 Figure 1. A baroclinic eddy in the Arctic Ocean Two-hour averages of true 150 mn currents (center of pycnocline

  5. Peralta Cancer Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    The investigators in the cell biology program at PCRI have pioneered in the development of techniques for culturing human epithelial cells. The cancer diagnosis program has been concerned with researching new techniques for early diagnosis of breast cancer in women. The cancer treatment program has been concerned with applying cell biology and biochemistry advances to improve cancer management

  6. Cancer research and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzawa, Taiju


    An actual condition of cancer, and the basis and a future view of radiotherapy were described by adding generally established biological and biochemical knowledge to the author's research. It was described that the relapse of cancer after irradiation was induced from outside of cancerous mass, and the nature of relapsed cancerous cells group was also stated. The histological structure of cancer from a view of cell movement and radioresistant cancerous cells group were described. The differentiation of cancerous cells were described, and a study of inhibition of cancer by redifferentiation was considered. It is important to grasp characteristics and a limit of radiotherapy for cancer, to systematize and materialize reasonable therapy which uses drug and immunotherapy together with surgery, and to use radiotherapy reasonably together with redifferentiation therapy of cancerous cells by extracting characteristics and a limit of radiationtherapy from an actual condition of cancer. (Serizawa, K.)

  7. Quantum dots-based tissue and in vivo imaging in breast cancer researches: current status and future perspectives. (United States)

    Wang, Lin-Wei; Peng, Chun-Wei; Chen, Chuang; Li, Yan


    As the most common malignant tumor for females, breast cancer (BC) is a highly heterogeneous disease regarding biological behaviors. Precisely targeted imaging on BC masses and biomarkers is critical to BC detection, treatment, monitoring, and prognostic evaluation. As an important imaging technique, quantum dots (QDs)-based imaging has emerged as a promising tool in BC researches owe to its outstanding optical properties. However, few reviews have been specifically devoted to discussing applications of QDs-based imaging in BC researches. This review summarized recent promising works in QDs-based tissue and in vivo imaging for BC studies. Physicochemical and optical properties of QDs and its potential applications were briefly described first. Then QDs-based imaging studies in BC were systematically reviewed, including tissue imaging for studying biomarkers interactions, and evaluating prognostic biomarkers, in vivo imaging for mapping axillary lymphatic system, showing BC xenograft tumor, and detecting BC metastases. At last, the future perspectives with special emphasis on the potential clinical applications have also been discussed. Potential applications of QDs-based imaging on clinical BC in the future are mainly focused on tissue study, especially in BC molecular pathology due to its optimal optical properties and quantitative information capabilities on multiple biomarkers.

  8. Are plant-based functional foods better choice against cancer than single phytochemicals? A critical review of current breast cancer research. (United States)

    Kapinova, Andrea; Stefanicka, Patrik; Kubatka, Peter; Zubor, Pavol; Uramova, Sona; Kello, Martin; Mojzis, Jan; Blahutova, Dana; Qaradakhi, Tawar; Zulli, Anthony; Caprnda, Martin; Danko, Jan; Lasabova, Zora; Busselberg, Dietrich; Kruzliak, Peter


    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women worldwide. Over 90% of all breast cancer cases are of different 'sporadic' cell types, thus placing emphasis on the need for breast cancer prevention and new effective treatment strategies. In recent years, pre-clinical research provides growing evidence regarding the beneficial action of bioactive plant-derived substances - phytochemicals, on multiple cancer-related biological pathways. The important natural source of various phytochemicals with anti-oncogenic properties are plant-based functional foods. It is hypothesized that a significant anti-tumour activity of plant-based functional foods are the result of a combination of various phytochemicals rather than an isolated agent. The mixture of phytochemicals with various biological activities present in whole foods could have additive or synergistic effects against carcinogenesis. Clinically, it is very important to compare the effect of the isolated phytochemicals against the mixture of phytochemicals present in specific plant-based functional foods. Therefore, the purpose of this review article is to compare anticancer activities of isolated phytochemicals and plant-based functional foods for the prevention and therapy of breast carcinoma. Our conclusion supports the hypothesis that a mixture of wide range of phytochemicals with a plethora of biological activities present in whole plant-derived foods could have additive or synergistic effects against breast cancer. Although, the lack of parallel comparative studies between whole natural foods versus isolated plant compounds limits our conclusion, future pre-clinical and clinical studies evaluating this issue is required. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Exercise after breast cancer treatment: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieli-Conwright CM


    Full Text Available Christina M Dieli-Conwright, Breanna Z Orozco Division of Biokinesiology and Physical Therapy, Women's Health and Exercise Laboratory, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: Over the past 2 decades, great strides have been made in the field of exercise-oncology research, particularly with breast cancer. This area of research is particularly important since there are >2.8 million breast cancer survivors who are in need of an intervention that can offset treatment-related side effects. Noticeable reductions in physical fitness (ie, cardiopulmonary fitness and muscular strength, negative changes in body composition (ie, increase in body mass, decrease in lean body mass, and increase in fat mass, increased fatigue, depression, or anxiety are some of the common side effects of cancer treatments that negatively impact overall quality of life and increase the risk for the development of comorbidities. Exercise plays a vital role in improving cardiopulmonary function, psychological events, muscular strength, and endurance in breast cancer survivors, and thus should be considered as a key factor of lifestyle intervention to reverse negative treatment-related side effects. The purpose of this review is to address current perspectives on the benefits of aerobic and resistance exercise after breast cancer treatments. This review is focused on the well-established benefits of exercise on physical and emotional well-being, bone health, lymphedema management, and the postulated benefits of exercise on risk reduction for recurrence of breast cancer. Keywords: breast cancer, exercise, physical well-being

  10. Nanotechnology in Cancer Research (United States)

    The NCI Office of Cancer Nanotechnology Research has had a major impact on bringing novel nano-enabled solutions through the pre-clinical space. The strategic framework of this effort is presented here.

  11. Current Research in Learning Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koper, Rob


    This is a preprint of the introductory paper of the special issue of the journal Educational Technology & Society that will be published at the end of 2005. Please cite the original publication: Koper, R. (2005). Current Research in Learning Design. Educational Technology & Society, 9 (1), 13-22.

  12. Social networks user: current research


    Agadullina E.R.


    The purpose of this article is to review current research studies focusing on the users of Facebook and their behaviors in social networks. This review is organized into two sections: 1) social-demographic characteristics (Age, Gender, Nationality); 2) personality characteristics (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness-to-Experience, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Narcissism, Self-esteem). The results showed that the information in the personal profile and online behavior are strongly connect...

  13. Social networks user: current research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agadullina E.R.


    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to review current research studies focusing on the users of Facebook and their behaviors in social networks. This review is organized into two sections: 1 social-demographic characteristics (Age, Gender, Nationality; 2 personality characteristics (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness-to-Experience, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Narcissism, Self-esteem. The results showed that the information in the personal profile and online behavior are strongly connected with socio-demographic and personality characteristics

  14. Awareness and current knowledge of breast cancer


    Akram, Muhammad; Iqbal, Mehwish; Daniyal, Muhammad; Khan, Asmat Ullah


    Breast cancer remains a worldwide public health dilemma and is currently the most common tumour in the globe. Awareness of breast cancer, public attentiveness, and advancement in breast imaging has made a positive impact on recognition and screening of breast cancer. Breast cancer is life-threatening disease in females and the leading cause of mortality among women population. For the previous two decades, studies related to the breast cancer has guided to astonishing advancement in our under...

  15. Awareness and current knowledge of breast cancer


    Muhammad Akram; Mehwish Iqbal; Muhammad Daniyal; Asmat Ullah Khan


    Abstract Breast cancer remains a worldwide public health dilemma and is currently the most common tumour in the globe. Awareness of breast cancer, public attentiveness, and advancement in breast imaging has made a positive impact on recognition and screening of breast cancer. Breast cancer is life-threatening disease in females and the leading cause of mortality among women population. For the previous two decades, studies related to the breast cancer has guided to astonishing advancement in ...

  16. Cancer clinical research in Latin America: current situation and opportunities. Expert opinion from the first ESMO workshop on clinical trials, Lima, 2015 (United States)

    Rolfo, Christian; Caglevic, Christian; Bretel, Denisse; Hong, David; Raez, Luis E; Cardona, Andres F; Oton, Ana B; Gomez, Henry; Dafni, Urania; Vallejos, Carlos; Zielinski, Christoph


    Latin America and the Caribbean have not yet developed strong clinical cancer research programmes. In order to improve this situation two international cancer organisations, the Latin American Society of Clinical Oncology (SLACOM) and the European Society of Medical Oncology (ESMO) worked closely with the Peruvian Cooperative Oncology Group (GECOPERU) and organised a clinical cancer research workshop held in Lima, Peru, in October 2015. Many oncologists from different Latin American countries participated in this gathering. The opportunities for and strengths of clinical oncology research in Latin American and Caribbean countries were identified as the widespread use of the Spanish language, the high cancer burden, growing access to information, improving patient education, access to new drugs for research centres, regional networks and human resources. However, there are still many weaknesses and problems including the long timeline for regulatory approval, lack of economic investment, lack of training and lack of personnel participating in clinical research, lack of cancer registries, insufficient technology and insufficient supplies for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer, few cancer specialists, low general levels of education and the negative attitude of government authorities towards clinical research. PMID:27843620

  17. Topics in current aerosol research

    CERN Document Server

    Hidy, G M


    Topics in Current Aerosol Research deals with the fundamental aspects of aerosol science, with emphasis on experiment and theory describing highly dispersed aerosols (HDAs) as well as the dynamics of charged suspensions. Topics covered range from the basic properties of HDAs to their formation and methods of generation; sources of electric charges; interactions between fluid and aerosol particles; and one-dimensional motion of charged cloud of particles. This volume is comprised of 13 chapters and begins with an introduction to the basic properties of HDAs, followed by a discussion on the form

  18. Cancer Research UK | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cancer Research UK. Cancer Research UK. The Economics of Tobacco Control Research Initiative. The Economics of Tobacco Control Research Initiative funds innovative fiscal policy research supporting tobacco control in low and middle-income countries. View more. The Economics ...

  19. Current directions in radiopharmaceutical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mather, S.J.


    Much of current radiopharmaceutical research is directed towards the development of receptor-binding tracers which are targeted towards biochemical processes. These may be extra or intracellular in nature and hold promise for an imaging approach to tissue characterisation in-vivo. Many of these products are based on proteins which range in size from large monoclonal antibodies to small neuropeptides and share a radiolabelling chemistry based on the use of bifunctional chelating agents. Although developed initially for use with indium-111, considerations of cost and isotope availability have continued to direct the efforts of many researchers towards the use of technetium-99m. While polypeptide-based radiopharmaceuticals may be useful for imaging peripheral cell-surface receptors, access to sites of interest within the cell, or in the brain, requires the development of small lipophilic molecules with retained ability to interact with intracellular targets. The design and synthesis of these compounds presents a particular challenge to the radiopharmaceutical chemist which is being met through either a pendant or integrated approach to the use of technetium coordination with particular emphasis on technetium (v) cores. Progress continues to be made in the application of targeted radionuclide therapy particularly in the development of radiopharmaceuticals for the treatment of malignant bone disease. methods for labelling antibodies with a great variety of cytotoxic radionuclides have now been refined and their use for radioimmunotherapy in the treatment of haematological malignancies shows great promise. The major medical areas for application of these new radiopharmaceuticals will be in oncology, neurology and inflammation but the increasingly difficult regulatory climate in which drug development and health-care now operate will make it essential for researchers to direct their products toward specific clinical problems as well as biological targets. (author)

  20. [Constipation and cancer: Current strategies]. (United States)

    Gervais, Claire; Ducrotté, Philippe; Piche, Thierry; Di Palma, Mario; Jovenin, Nicolas; Scotté, Florian


    Digestive disorders, in particular constipation, are symptoms very often reported by cancer patients as having a major impact on their quality of life. An accurate diagnosis of bowel delayed transit and defecation disorders is required to best adapt therapeutic management. Constipation associated with cancer may be related to several causes, which can be placed in three nosological categories that sometimes overlap: chronic constipation prior to cancer and having its own evolution; constipation related to the cancer condition, in particular the occlusive syndrome, and constipation induced by cancer therapies. The stricter application of diet and lifestyle measures is often necessary and sometimes sufficient. Laxative drug treatments come under various galenic forms and administration routes and must be selected according to the clinical features of constipation. Surgical management can be indicated in case of ileus or pelvic static disorders. In the case of refractory constipation induced by opioids and within the framework of palliative care to treat an advanced pathology, a peripheral morphinic antagonist can offer fast symptom relief. A way forward to improve the patients' quality of life could be to identify the contributing factors (in particular, genetic factors) to determine which patients are the more at risk and anticipate their management. Copyright © 2016 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Training the Cancer Research Workforce (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) builds up the nation's cancer research workforce through training and career development grants, as well as intramural research experiences at the NIH Clinical Center and NCI offices and laboratories in Maryland.

  2. Workshop on Cancer Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermorken, A.; Durieux, L.


    On April, 22-24 April 1991, the Hungarian National Institute of Oncology and the Commission of the European Communities have organized a workshop on Cancer Research. The aim of the meeting was to provide the participants information on the ongoing research in Hungary and in Member States. The topic is of importance for Hungary and it was also considered that the meeting could contribute to identify subjects of possible collaboration between Hungarian and Member State laboratories in the case financial support would become available. Three papers about new therapies under development were presented proton therapy and Boron neutron capture therapy

  3. Integrated Cancer Repository for Cancer Research (United States)


    Pancreatic Cancer; Thyroid Cancer; Lung Cancer; Esophageal Cancer; Thymus Cancer; Colon Cancer; Rectal Cancer; GIST; Anal Cancer; Bile Duct Cancer; Duodenal Cancer; Gallbladder Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Liver Cancer; Small Intestine Cancer; Peritoneal Surface Malignancies; Familial Adenomatous Polyposis; Lynch Syndrome; Bladder Cancer; Kidney Cancer; Penile Cancer; Prostate Cancer; Testicular Cancer; Ureter Cancer; Urethral Cancer; Hypopharyngeal Cancer; Laryngeal Cancer; Lip Cancer; Oral Cavity Cancer; Nasopharyngeal Cancer; Oropharyngeal Cancer; Paranasal Sinus Cancer; Nasal Cavity Cancer; Salivary Gland Cancer; Skin Cancer; CNS Tumor; CNS Cancer; Mesothelioma; Breastcancer; Leukemia; Melanoma; Sarcoma; Unknown Primary Tumor; Multiple Myeloma; Ovarian Cancer; Endometrial Cancer; Vaginal Cancer

  4. Understanding acceptability of and engagement with Web-based interventions aiming to improve quality of life in cancer survivors: A synthesis of current research. (United States)

    Corbett, Teresa; Singh, Karmpaul; Payne, Liz; Bradbury, Katherine; Foster, Claire; Watson, Eila; Richardson, Alison; Little, Paul; Yardley, Lucy


    This review sought to summarize existing knowledge to inform the development of an online intervention that aims to improve quality of life after cancer treatment. To inform our intervention, we searched for studies relating to Web-based interventions designed to improve quality of life in adults who have completed primary treatment for breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer (as these are 3 of the most common cancers and impact a large number of cancer survivors). We included a variety of study designs (qualitative research, feasibility/pilot trials, randomized trials, and process evaluations) and extracted all available information regarding intervention characteristics, experiences, and outcomes. Data were synthesized as textual (qualitative) data and analyzed by using thematic analysis. Fifty-seven full text articles were assessed for eligibility, and 16 papers describing 9 interventions were analyzed. Our findings suggest that cancer survivors value interventions that offer content specific to their changing needs and are delivered at the right stage of the cancer trajectory. Social networking features do not always provide added benefit, and behavior change techniques need to be implemented carefully to avoid potential negative consequences for some users. Future work should aim to identify appropriate strategies for promoting health behavior change, as well as the optimal stage of cancer survivorship to facilitate intervention delivery. The development of Web-based interventions for cancer survivors requires further exploration to better understand how interventions can be carefully designed to match this group's unique needs and capabilities. User involvement during development may help to ensure that interventions are accessible, perceived as useful, and appropriate for challenges faced at different stages of the cancer survivorship trajectory. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Cancer pain management-current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Thapa


    Full Text Available Cancer pain is still one of the most feared entities in cancer and about 75% of these patients require treatment with opioids for severe pain. The cancer pain relief is difficult to manage in patients with episodic or incidental pain, neuropathic pain, substance abuse and with impaired cognitive or communication skills. This non-systematic review article aims to discuss reasons for under treatment, tools of pain assessment, cancer pain and anxiety and possibly carve new approaches for cancer pain management in future. The current status of World Health Organization analgesic ladder has also been reviewed. A thorough literature search was carried out from 1998 to 2010 for current status in cancer pain management in MEDLINE, WHO guidelines and published literature and relevant articles have been included.

  6. Thyroid Cancer: Current Molecular Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Giusti


    Full Text Available The thyroid cancer is a rare oncological entity, representing no more than 1% of all human malignant neoplasms. Recently, it has been demonstrated a sharp increase in incidence of differentiated thyroid carcinoma, equally occurring in both sexes. So far, multiple genetic alterations have been identified in differentiated thyroid carcinoma, leading to investigate the clinical utility of genetic studies. In particular, molecular genetic approaches searching for gene mutations in the material collected by fine needle ago-biopsy may have a particular utility in small nodules and in those specimens with an indeterminate cytology. The expansion of knowledge about genetic mutations occurring in different thyroid tumors has characterized recent years, allowing the identification of a correlation between specific mutations and phenotypic characteristics of thyroid cancers, essential for their prognosis. This review will briefly report on the histological features and the new entity represented by thyroid microcarcinoma and will focus on both environmental and genetic aspects associated with the occurrence of thyroid cancer.

  7. Awareness and current knowledge of breast cancer. (United States)

    Akram, Muhammad; Iqbal, Mehwish; Daniyal, Muhammad; Khan, Asmat Ullah


    Breast cancer remains a worldwide public health dilemma and is currently the most common tumour in the globe. Awareness of breast cancer, public attentiveness, and advancement in breast imaging has made a positive impact on recognition and screening of breast cancer. Breast cancer is life-threatening disease in females and the leading cause of mortality among women population. For the previous two decades, studies related to the breast cancer has guided to astonishing advancement in our understanding of the breast cancer, resulting in further proficient treatments. Amongst all the malignant diseases, breast cancer is considered as one of the leading cause of death in post menopausal women accounting for 23% of all cancer deaths. It is a global issue now, but still it is diagnosed in their advanced stages due to the negligence of women regarding the self inspection and clinical examination of the breast. This review addresses anatomy of the breast, risk factors, epidemiology of breast cancer, pathogenesis of breast cancer, stages of breast cancer, diagnostic investigations and treatment including chemotherapy, surgery, targeted therapies, hormone replacement therapy, radiation therapy, complementary therapies, gene therapy and stem-cell therapy etc for breast cancer.

  8. Awareness and current knowledge of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Akram


    Full Text Available Abstract Breast cancer remains a worldwide public health dilemma and is currently the most common tumour in the globe. Awareness of breast cancer, public attentiveness, and advancement in breast imaging has made a positive impact on recognition and screening of breast cancer. Breast cancer is life-threatening disease in females and the leading cause of mortality among women population. For the previous two decades, studies related to the breast cancer has guided to astonishing advancement in our understanding of the breast cancer, resulting in further proficient treatments. Amongst all the malignant diseases, breast cancer is considered as one of the leading cause of death in post menopausal women accounting for 23% of all cancer deaths. It is a global issue now, but still it is diagnosed in their advanced stages due to the negligence of women regarding the self inspection and clinical examination of the breast. This review addresses anatomy of the breast, risk factors, epidemiology of breast cancer, pathogenesis of breast cancer, stages of breast cancer, diagnostic investigations and treatment including chemotherapy, surgery, targeted therapies, hormone replacement therapy, radiation therapy, complementary therapies, gene therapy and stem-cell therapy etc for breast cancer.

  9. Cancer Prevention Research in China. (United States)

    Yu, Siwang; Yang, Chung S; Li, Junyao; You, Weicheng; Chen, Jianguo; Cao, Ya; Dong, Zigang; Qiao, Youlin


    Although cancer incidence and mortality rates in the United States and some European countries have started to decrease, those in developing countries are increasing. China, the most populous developing country, is facing a serious challenge from cancer. Cancer incidence has been increasing for decades, and cancer is the leading cause of death in China. In 2012, the cancer incidence was 174.0 per 100,000, and the cancer mortality was 122.2 per 100,000 in China. In addition to the still-prevalent traditional Chinese cancers of the stomach, liver, esophagus, cervix, and nasopharynx, the incidence of "Western" cancers such those of the lung, breast, and colorectum has increased alarmingly in recent years. These increases are likely due to the lifestyle and environmental changes associated with rapid economic development and population aging. More importantly, a large portion of these cancers are preventable. Researchers in China have made important contributions to cancer prevention research, especially in the traditional Chinese cancers. More cancer prevention research and measures, especially on the major emerging cancers, are urgently needed. This review article highlights some of the past achievements and present needs in cancer prevention research in China and suggests important areas for future studies. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  10. Pathogenesis of ovarian cancer: current perspectives | Chesang ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To present a review of current knowledge of the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer and its clinical implications. Data Source: Extensive literature search was conducted to identify relevant studies. Study Selection: Studies in the English language about or related to pathogenesis of ovarian cancer were selected.

  11. Current approaches to norms research (United States)

    John L. Heywood


    The dialogue session was a continuation of a debate about norms and the application of normative standards to wilderness management that has taken place throughout the 1990s at national meetings and in the research literature. Researchers who have made significant contributions to the normative approach to wilderness recreation management presented three approaches to...

  12. Cancer Research in the Media (United States)

    Cancer Research in the Media (CRiM) is a two-day seminar designed for international journalists to increase their understanding of complex scientific findings, improving their ability to communicate accurate cancer-related information to the public.

  13. Erlotinib resistance in Lung Cancer: Current Progress and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy eTang


    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the most common cancer in the world. Despite modern advancements in surgeries, chemotherapies and radiotherapies over the past few years, lung cancer still remains a very difficult disease to treat. This has left the death rate from lung cancer victims largely unchanged throughout the past few decades. A key cause for the high mortality rate is the drug resistance that builds up for patients being currently treated with the chemotherapeutic agents. Although certain chemotherapeutic agents may initially effectively treat lung cancer patients, there is a high probability that there will be a reoccurrence of the cancer after the patient develops resistance to the drug. Erlotinib, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR-targeting tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has been approved for localized as well as metastatic non-small cell lung cancer where it seems to be more effective in patients with EGFR mutations. Resistance to erlotinib is a common observation in clinics and this review details our current knowledge on the subject. We discuss the causes of such resistance as well as innovative research to overcome it. Evidently, new chemotherapy strategies are desperately needed in order to better treat lung cancer patients. Current research is investigating alternative treatment plans to enhance the chemotherapy that is already offered. Better insight into the molecular mechanisms behind combination therapy pathways and even single molecular pathways may help improve the efficacy of the current treatment options.

  14. Why I Do Cancer Research (United States)

    World Cancer Research Day is recognized on September 24, 2017. This day presents an opportunity for all of us to remind the world of the critically important roles research and cancer researchers play in reducing the global burden of cancer. Together with ten other global partners, NCI participated in the planning and launch of this initiative, highlighting the amplified impact of international cooperation in the clinical research arena.

  15. Nanomedicines as cancer therapeutics: Current status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akhter, S.; Ahmad, M; Ramzani, F.; Singh, A.; Ahmad, I.; Rahman, Z.; Ahmad, F.J.; Storm, Gerrit; Kok, R.J.


    As of 21st century, cancer is arguably the most complex and challenging disease known to mankind and an inevitable public health concern of this millennium. Nanotechnology, suitably amalgamated with cancer research, has ushered an era of highly personalized and safer medicines which can improve

  16. Current Research in Southeast Asia. (United States)

    Beh, Yolanda


    Summaries of five language-related research projects are presented from Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand. Topics include teaching/learning Bahasa Malaysia; English-language programs in Malaysian teacher education colleges; interlanguage variability in verbs; reading/writing theories; and cross-cultural strategies and English in written business…

  17. Cyberbullying Research: The Current State (United States)

    Hanewald, Ria


    This paper contributes to the understanding of cyberbullying by summarising the key themes in an up-to-date review of the academic research literature. The misuse of, and abuse in, online environments is ever-increasing and becoming a growing concern for educators, families and authorities around the world. It needs investigation to be understood…

  18. Current Research in Southeast Asia. (United States)

    Beh, Yolanda


    Summaries of eight language-related research projects are presented from Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand. Topics include a sociolinguistic profile, teacher and learner views of language lessons, Malay-accented English and employability, reading difficulties, language culture disjunction, placement interviews, and…

  19. Review of current best practice and priorities for research in radiation oncology for elderly patients with cancer: the International Society of Geriatric Oncology (SIOG) task force. (United States)

    Kunkler, I H; Audisio, R; Belkacemi, Y; Betz, M; Gore, E; Hoffe, S; Kirova, Y; Koper, P; Lagrange, J-L; Markouizou, A; Pfeffer, R; Villa, S


    Radiotherapy (RT) is a key component of the management of older cancer patients. Level I evidence in older patients is limited. The International Society of Geriatric Oncology (SIOG) established a task force to make recommendations for curative RT in older patients and to identify future research priorities. Evidence-based guidelines are provided for breast, lung, endometrial, prostate, rectal, pancreatic, oesophageal, head and neck, central nervous system malignancies and lymphomas. Patient selection should include comorbidity and geriatric evaluation. Advances in radiation planning and delivery improve target coverage, reduce toxicity and widen eligibility for treatment. Shorter courses of hypofractionated whole breast RT are safe and effective. Conformal RT and involved-field techniques without elective nodal irradiation have improved outcomes in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) without increasing toxicity. Where comorbidities preclude surgery, stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is an option for early-stage NSCLC and pancreatic cancer. Modern involved-field RT for lymphoma based on pre-treatment positron emission tomography data has reduced toxicity. Significant comorbidity is a relative contraindication to aggressive treatment in low-risk prostate cancer (PC). For intermediate-risk disease, 4-6 months of hormones are combined with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). For high-risk PC, combined modality therapy (CMT) is advised. For high-intermediate risk, endometrial cancer vaginal brachytherapy is recommended. Short-course EBRT is an alternative to CMT in older patients with rectal cancer without significant comorbidities. Endorectal RT may be an option for early disease. For primary brain tumours, shorter courses of postoperative RT following maximal debulking provide equivalent survival to longer schedules. MGMT methylation status may help select older patients for temozolomide alone. Stereotactic RT provides an alternative to whole-brain RT in patients

  20. The Current Status of STEM Education Research (United States)

    Brown, Josh


    This paper explores the current Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) education research base through an analysis of articles from eight journals focused on the STEM disciplines. Analyzed are both practitioner and research publications to determine the current scope of STEM education research, where current STEM education…

  1. Current Research Status of Allelopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The term of allelopathy refers to chemical interactions (inhibitory or stimulatory between plants, between plants and microorganisms, and between microorganisms. The wealth of information on the processes, procedures, and practices of allelopathy has contributed to understanding this field of science. Recently, researches of allelopathy have been conducted in laboratory, greenhouse, and field with multifaceted standpoint in some concerning area: (i allelochemicals identifications and screening test; (ii ecological and physiological aspects of allelopathy; (iii genetic studies and the possibilities of using plant breeding or genetic manipulation to enhance allelopathic varieties; (iv the use of allelopathic potential in the biological control, including as natural pesticide, of weeds and plant diseases as eco-friendly approach for sustainable agriculture scheme.

  2. Research Associate | Center for Cancer Research (United States)

    PROGRAM DESCRIPTION The Cancer Research Technology Program (CRTP) develops and implements emerging technology, cancer biology expertise and research capabilities to accomplish NCI research objectives.  The CRTP is an outward-facing, multi-disciplinary hub purposed to enable the external cancer research community and provides dedicated support to NCI’s intramural Center for Cancer Research (CCR).  The dedicated units provide electron microscopy, protein characterization, protein expression, optical microscopy and nextGen sequencing. These research efforts are an integral part of CCR at the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research.  CRTP scientists also work collaboratively with intramural NCI investigators to provide research technologies and expertise. KEY ROLES/RESPONSIBILITIES We are seeking a highly motivated Research Associate II to join the newly established Single Cell Analysis Facility (SCAF) of the CCR at NCI.  The SCAF will house state of the art single cell sequencing technologies including 10xGenomics Chromium, BD Genomics Rhapsody, DEPPArray, and other emerging single cell technologies. This person will work under the guidance of SCAF senior staff to carry out single cell sequencing experiments.

  3. [Cellular phones and cancer: current status]. (United States)

    Colonna, Anne


    Evaluation of the impact of new technologies on the human body is essential in order to impose regulations to limit health risks. The appearance and evolution of cellular phones have been one of the fastest in the history of innovation. Research reported worldwide has tried to evaluate any potential link between adverse health effects and the mobile phone and its broadcasting stations. This article gives an overview of current research knowledge on the impact of radiofrequency waves on health. Epidemiologic, cellular and animal studies have been carried out, but none of them have reached definitive conclusions. Although some biological effects on cell culture have been observed, their link with human cancer development is far from established. Most of the animal studies show negative results. Epidemiologic studies lack a sufficient perspective to be able to evaluate the effect of evolving technologies used today. High levels of concern by the public have urged mobile phone operators, manufacturers and governmental authorities to finance a number of scientific projects aimed at defining adapted and effective regulations.

  4. Navy Telemedicine: Current Research and Future Directions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reed, Cheryl


    .... This report reviews military and civilian models for evaluating telemedicine systems in order to determine future directions for Navy telemedicine research within the current funding environment...

  5. Sexting: Current Research Gaps and Legislative Issues


    Ngo, Fawn; Jaishankar, K; Agustina, Jose R.


    'Sexting, the portmanteau of Sex and Texting, has become a hot topic of debate between the legislators, researchers, educators, parents and teens' (Jaishankar, 2009, para 1). In spite of the considerable and growing body of literature on sexting, there are significant gaps in the current research. A review of research to date also reveals a dearth of cross-national and cross-cultural research on the topic of sexting. Notably, legal and ethical issues abound with the current method for punishi...

  6. Biliary tract cancers: current concepts and controversies. (United States)

    Leonard, Gregory D; O'Reilly, Eileen M


    Biliary tract cancer, which consists of gall bladder cancer and cholangio-carcinoma, presents many challenges to practising physicians. It is a relatively rare cancer that often causes a diagnostic dilemma, as its presentation may be similar to that of non-malignant conditions. In many cases, histological or cytological confirmation of a cancer diagnosis is not possible preoperatively. The management of this disease is also complex due to a morbid patient population and limited data on the optimal therapeutic approach. Surgery remains the mainstay of treatment, although the extent of resection required is still debated. The role of adjuvant therapy is also controversial, but a combined modality approach appears to be beneficial in patients with a high risk of recurrence, such as those with node positive tumors or positive resection margins. When surgery is not possible, the prognosis of patients with biliary tract cancer is very poor. In unresectable patients, the combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy can result in a prolonged survival for some patients. In the palliative setting, biliary stenting and other supportive measures can alleviate symptoms and improve survival. Gemcitabine-based combination chemotherapy may also provide successful palliation and has achieved response rates of approximately 30% and a median survival of > 15 months in one study. Ultimately, treatment decisions should be individualised and participation in clinical trials is encouraged. Further progress in the management of biliary tract cancer is anticipated using biological therapies and continued research is essential to discover the optimal treatment for this challenging disease.

  7. Current and Emerging Bladder Cancer Urinary Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Parker


    Full Text Available Bladder cancer continues to be one of the most common malignancies. Those who have been already diagnosed are at high risk for recurrence, especially if the pathology demonstrates high-grade disease. Diagnosis and surveillance is reliant on invasive evaluation with cystoscopy. Urinary cytology has been used to aid in diagnosis, but its use is limited. Other assays have been developed that may aid in clinical decision making. The ultimate goal will be the development of a highly sensitive and specific urinary marker for bladder cancer. This would provide a noninvasive means of diagnosing the disease and limit the number of unnecessary cystoscopies. This article will review the currently available urinary bladder cancer markers. It will also review new and investigational urinary markers that have shown promise for future clinical use.

  8. Current and Emerging Bladder Cancer Urinary Biomarkers (United States)

    Parker, Justin; Spiess, Philippe E.


    Bladder cancer continues to be one of the most common malignancies. Those who have been already diagnosed are at high risk for recurrence, especially if the pathology demonstrates high-grade disease. Diagnosis and surveillance is reliant on invasive evaluation with cystoscopy. Urinary cytology has been used to aid in diagnosis, but its use is limited. Other assays have been developed that may aid in clinical decision making. The ultimate goal will be the development of a highly sensitive and specific urinary marker for bladder cancer. This would provide a noninvasive means of diagnosing the disease and limit the number of unnecessary cystoscopies. This article will review the currently available urinary bladder cancer markers. It will also review new and investigational urinary markers that have shown promise for future clinical use. PMID:21623456

  9. Genetic cancer vaccines: current status and perspectives. (United States)

    Aurisicchio, Luigi; Ciliberto, Gennaro


    The recent approval of the first therapeutic cancer vaccine by the US Regulatory Agency represents a breakthrough event in the history of cancer treatment. The past scepticism towards this type of therapeutic intervention is now replaced by great expectations. The field is now moving towards the development of alternative vaccination technologies, which are capable of generating stronger, more durable and efficient immune responses against specific tumour-associated antigens (TAAs) in combination with cheaper and more standardised manufacturing. In this context, genetic vaccines are emerging among the most promising methodologies. Several evidences point to combinations of different genetic immunisation modalities (heterologous prime/boost) as a powerful approach to induce superior immune responses and achieve greater clinical efficacy. In this review, we provide an overview of the current status of development of genetic cancer vaccines with particular emphasis on adenoviral vector prime/DNA boost vaccination schedules. We believe that therapeutic genetic cancer vaccines have the strong potential to become an established therapeutic modality for cancer in next coming years, in a manner similar to what have now become monoclonal antibodies.

  10. Research Associate | Center for Cancer Research (United States)

    PROGRAM DESCRIPTION The Basic Science Program (BSP) pursues independent, multidisciplinary research in basic and applied molecular biology, immunology, retrovirology, cancer biology, and human genetics. Research efforts and support are an integral part of the Center for Cancer Research (CCR) at the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research (FNLCR). KEY ROLES/RESPONSIBILITIES - Research Associate III Dr. Zbigniew Dauter is the head investigator of the Synchrotron Radiation Research Section (SRRS) of CCR’s Macromolecular Crystallography Laboratory. The Synchrotron Radiation Research Section is located at Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois; this is the site of the largest U.S. synchrotron facility. The SRRS uses X-ray diffraction technique to solve crystal structures of various proteins and nucleic acids of biological and medical relevance. The section is also specializing in analyzing crystal structures at extremely high resolution and accuracy and in developing methods of effective diffraction data collection and in using weak anomalous dispersion effects to solve structures of macromolecules. The areas of expertise are: Structural and molecular biology Macromolecular crystallography Diffraction data collection Dr. Dauter requires research support in these areas, and the individual will engage in the purification and preparation of samples, crystallize proteins using various techniques, and derivatize them with heavy atoms/anomalous scatterers, and establish conditions for cryogenic freezing. Individual will also participate in diffraction data collection at the Advanced Photon Source. In addition, the candidate will perform spectroscopic and chromatographic analyses of protein and nucleic acid samples in the context of their purity, oligomeric state and photophysical properties.

  11. Impact of proteomics on bladder cancer research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celis, Julio E; Gromova, Irina; Moreira, José Manuel Alfonso


    Detecting bladder cancer at an early stage and predicting how a tumor will behave and act in response to therapy, as well as the identification of new targets for therapeutic intervention, are among the main areas of research that will benefit from the current explosion in the number of powerful...

  12. Breast cancer stem cells: current advances and clinical implications. (United States)

    Luo, Ming; Clouthier, Shawn G; Deol, Yadwinder; Liu, Suling; Nagrath, Sunitha; Azizi, Ebrahim; Wicha, Max S


    There is substantial evidence that many cancers, including breast cancer, are driven by a population of cells that display stem cell properties. These cells, termed cancer stem cells (CSCs) or tumor initiating cells, not only drive tumor initiation and growth but also mediate tumor metastasis and therapeutic resistance. In this chapter, we summarize current advances in CSC research with a major focus on breast CSCs (BCSCs). We review the prevailing methods to isolate and characterize BCSCs and recent evidence documenting their cellular origins and phenotypic plasticity that enables them to transition between mesenchymal and epithelial-like states. We describe in vitro and clinical evidence that these cells mediate metastasis and treatment resistance in breast cancer, the development of novel strategies to isolate circulating tumor cells (CTCs) that contain CSCs and the use of patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models in preclinical breast cancer research. Lastly, we highlight several signaling pathways that regulate BCSC self-renewal and describe clinical implications of targeting these cells for breast cancer treatment. The development of strategies to effectively target BCSCs has the potential to significantly improve the outcomes for patients with breast cancer.

  13. Cancer metabolism: current perspectives and future directions (United States)

    Muñoz-Pinedo, C; El Mjiyad, N; Ricci, J-E


    Cellular metabolism influences life and death decisions. An emerging theme in cancer biology is that metabolic regulation is intricately linked to cancer progression. In part, this is due to the fact that proliferation is tightly regulated by availability of nutrients. Mitogenic signals promote nutrient uptake and synthesis of DNA, RNA, proteins and lipids. Therefore, it seems straight-forward that oncogenes, that often promote proliferation, also promote metabolic changes. In this review we summarize our current understanding of how ‘metabolic transformation' is linked to oncogenic transformation, and why inhibition of metabolism may prove a cancer′s ‘Achilles' heel'. On one hand, mutation of metabolic enzymes and metabolic stress sensors confers synthetic lethality with inhibitors of metabolism. On the other hand, hyperactivation of oncogenic pathways makes tumors more susceptible to metabolic inhibition. Conversely, an adequate nutrient supply and active metabolism regulates Bcl-2 family proteins and inhibits susceptibility to apoptosis. Here, we provide an overview of the metabolic pathways that represent anti-cancer targets and the cell death pathways engaged by metabolic inhibitors. Additionally, we will detail the similarities between metabolism of cancer cells and metabolism of proliferating cells. PMID:22237205

  14. Current trends in research on gas sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Mustamam A, Karim; John Ojur Dennis; Md Rahim Sahar; Mohd Khairi Saidin


    This paper reviews the current trends in researches on gas sensors by considering the techniques and methods for improvement of the performance of semiconductor gas sensors and reporting the newly emerging researches on the detection of gases at the part per million (ppb) levels and photoconduction (author)

  15. Accountability Research in Education: Current Developments. (United States)

    Macpherson, R. J. S.; And Others


    The seven chapters of this theme issue explore current developments in research into educational accountability. State educational performance reporting policies, resource allocation for accountability, and educational reforms in Canada, Hong Kong, and Malaysia are discussed. The final chapters consider accountability policy research. (SLD)

  16. Prostate Cancer Research Training Program (United States)


    the research program by each mentor will certainly produce important research findings, aided in part by the summer research of...our "translational" research in the form of clinical trials of our adenovirus vaccine in men with prostate cancer. Important in these trials is the ...epidemiology, and treatment. Living in Iowa City for the Summer Housing and Meals - All students will be housed in the one of the residence halls on the

  17. Current early diagnostic biomarkers of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Qu


    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PCa has become to have the highest incidence and the second mortality rate in western countries, affecting men's health to a large extent. Although prostate-specific antigen (PSA was discovered to help diagnose the cancer in an early stage for decades, its specificity is relative low, resulting in unnecessary biopsy for healthy people and over-treatment for patients. Thus, it is imperative to identify more and more effective biomarkers for early diagnosis of PCa in order to distinguish patients from healthy populations, which helps guide an early treatment to lower disease-related mortality by noninvasive or minimal invasive approaches. This review generally describes the current early diagnostic biomarkers of PCa in addition to PSA and summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of these biomarkers.

  18. Cancer Trends: Influencing Care and Research Priorities (United States)

    Many of the trends being seen in cancer are changing how we view cancer and how we address it, from prompting research to identify the underlying causes of cancers increasing in incidence to informing research on treatment and prevention.

  19. Cancer research meets evolutionary biology. (United States)

    Pepper, John W; Scott Findlay, C; Kassen, Rees; Spencer, Sabrina L; Maley, Carlo C


    There is increasing evidence that Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection provides insights into the etiology and treatment of cancer. On a microscopic scale, neoplastic cells meet the conditions for evolution by Darwinian selection: cell reproduction with heritable variability that affects cell survival and replication. This suggests that, like other areas of biological and biomedical research, Darwinian theory can provide a general framework for understanding many aspects of cancer, including problems of great clinical importance. With the availability of raw molecular data increasing rapidly, this theory may provide guidance in translating data into understanding and progress. Several conceptual and analytical tools from evolutionary biology can be applied to cancer biology. Two clinical problems may benefit most from the application of Darwinian theory: neoplastic progression and acquired therapeutic resistance. The Darwinian theory of cancer has especially profound implications for drug development, both in terms of explaining past difficulties, and pointing the way toward new approaches. Because cancer involves complex evolutionary processes, research should incorporate both tractable (simplified) experimental systems, and also longitudinal observational studies of the evolutionary dynamics of cancer in laboratory animals and in human patients. Cancer biology will require new tools to control the evolution of neoplastic cells.

  20. Current understanding of mdig/MINA in human cancers. (United States)

    Thakur, Chitra; Chen, Fei


    Mineral dust-induced gene, mdig has recently been identified and is known to be overexpressed in a majority of human cancers and holds predictive power in the poor prognosis of the disease. Mdig is an environmentally expressed gene that is involved in cell proliferation, neoplastic transformation and immune regulation. With the advancement in deciphering the prognostic role of mdig in human cancers, our understanding on how mdig renders a normal cell to undergo malignant transformation is still very limited. This article reviews the current knowledge of the mdig gene in context to human neoplasias and its relation to the clinico-pathologic factors predicting the outcome of the disease in patients. It also emphasizes on the promising role of mdig that can serve as a potential candidate for biomarker discovery and as a therapeutic target in inflammation and cancers. Considering the recent advances in understanding the underlying mechanisms of tumor formation, more preclinical and clinical research is required to validate the potential of using mdig as a novel biological target of therapeutic and diagnostic value. Expression level of mdig influences the prognosis of several human cancers especially cancers of the breast and lung. Evaluation of mdig in cancers can offer novel biomarker with potential therapeutic interventions for the early assessment of cancer development in patients.

  1. Cancer Core Europe: a consortium to address the cancer care-cancer research continuum challenge. (United States)

    Eggermont, Alexander M M; Caldas, Carlos; Ringborg, Ulrik; Medema, René; Tabernero, Josep; Wiestler, Otmar


    European cancer research for a transformative initiative by creating a consortium of six leading excellent comprehensive cancer centres that will work together to address the cancer care-cancer research continuum. Prerequisites for joint translational and clinical research programs are very demanding. These require the creation of a virtual single 'e-hospital' and a powerful translational platform, inter-compatible clinical molecular profiling laboratories with a robust underlying computational biology pipeline, standardised functional and molecular imaging, commonly agreed Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for liquid and tissue biopsy procurement, storage and processing, for molecular diagnostics, 'omics', functional genetics, immune-monitoring and other assessments. Importantly also it requires a culture of data collection and data storage that provides complete longitudinal data sets to allow for: effective data sharing and common database building, and to achieve a level of completeness of data that is required for conducting outcome research, taking into account our current understanding of cancers as communities of evolving clones. Cutting edge basic research and technology development serve as an important driving force for innovative translational and clinical studies. Given the excellent track records of the six participants in these areas, Cancer Core Europe will be able to support the full spectrum of research required to address the cancer research- cancer care continuum. Cancer Core Europe also constitutes a unique environment to train the next generation of talents in innovative translational and clinical oncology. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Nebraska Prostate Cancer Research Program (United States)


    Khan then phoned Dr. Lin regarding the conclusion of meeting with students’ evaluation and expressed students’ positive attitude toward research...nitrocellulose membrane, membranes were blocked with 5% non-fat milk Novel Imidazopyridines in Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer PLOS ONE | DOI

  3. Current Status and Recommendations for the Future of Research, Teaching, and Testing in the Biological Sciences of Radiation Oncology: Report of the American Society for Radiation Oncology Cancer Biology/Radiation Biology Task Force, Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallner, Paul E., E-mail: [21st Century Oncology, LLC, and the American Board of Radiology, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Anscher, Mitchell S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia (United States); Barker, Christopher A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Bassetti, Michael [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Bristow, Robert G. [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Medical Biophysics, Princess Margaret Cancer Center/University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Cha, Yong I. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Norton Cancer Center, Louisville, Kentucky (United States); Dicker, Adam P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Formenti, Silvia C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University, New York, New York (United States); Graves, Edward E. [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Hahn, Stephen M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania (United States); Hei, Tom K. [Center for Radiation Research, Columbia University, New York, New York (United States); Kimmelman, Alec C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Kirsch, David G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Kozak, Kevin R. [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin (United States); Lawrence, Theodore S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan (United States); Marples, Brian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Oakland University, Oakland, California (United States); and others


    In early 2011, a dialogue was initiated within the Board of Directors (BOD) of the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) regarding the future of the basic sciences of the specialty, primarily focused on the current state and potential future direction of basic research within radiation oncology. After consideration of the complexity of the issues involved and the precise nature of the undertaking, in August 2011, the BOD empanelled a Cancer Biology/Radiation Biology Task Force (TF). The TF was charged with developing an accurate snapshot of the current state of basic (preclinical) research in radiation oncology from the perspective of relevance to the modern clinical practice of radiation oncology as well as the education of our trainees and attending physicians in the biological sciences. The TF was further charged with making suggestions as to critical areas of biological basic research investigation that might be most likely to maintain and build further the scientific foundation and vitality of radiation oncology as an independent and vibrant medical specialty. It was not within the scope of service of the TF to consider the quality of ongoing research efforts within the broader radiation oncology space, to presume to consider their future potential, or to discourage in any way the investigators committed to areas of interest other than those targeted. The TF charge specifically precluded consideration of research issues related to technology, physics, or clinical investigations. This document represents an Executive Summary of the Task Force report.

  4. Current status and recommendations for the future of research, teaching, and testing in the biological sciences of radiation oncology: report of the American Society for Radiation Oncology Cancer Biology/Radiation Biology Task Force, executive summary. (United States)

    Wallner, Paul E; Anscher, Mitchell S; Barker, Christopher A; Bassetti, Michael; Bristow, Robert G; Cha, Yong I; Dicker, Adam P; Formenti, Silvia C; Graves, Edward E; Hahn, Stephen M; Hei, Tom K; Kimmelman, Alec C; Kirsch, David G; Kozak, Kevin R; Lawrence, Theodore S; Marples, Brian; McBride, William H; Mikkelsen, Ross B; Park, Catherine C; Weidhaas, Joanne B; Zietman, Anthony L; Steinberg, Michael


    In early 2011, a dialogue was initiated within the Board of Directors (BOD) of the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) regarding the future of the basic sciences of the specialty, primarily focused on the current state and potential future direction of basic research within radiation oncology. After consideration of the complexity of the issues involved and the precise nature of the undertaking, in August 2011, the BOD empanelled a Cancer Biology/Radiation Biology Task Force (TF). The TF was charged with developing an accurate snapshot of the current state of basic (preclinical) research in radiation oncology from the perspective of relevance to the modern clinical practice of radiation oncology as well as the education of our trainees and attending physicians in the biological sciences. The TF was further charged with making suggestions as to critical areas of biological basic research investigation that might be most likely to maintain and build further the scientific foundation and vitality of radiation oncology as an independent and vibrant medical specialty. It was not within the scope of service of the TF to consider the quality of ongoing research efforts within the broader radiation oncology space, to presume to consider their future potential, or to discourage in any way the investigators committed to areas of interest other than those targeted. The TF charge specifically precluded consideration of research issues related to technology, physics, or clinical investigations. This document represents an Executive Summary of the Task Force report. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Animal Research on Nicotine Reduction: Current Evidence and Research Gaps. (United States)

    Smith, Tracy T; Rupprecht, Laura E; Denlinger-Apte, Rachel L; Weeks, Jillian J; Panas, Rachel S; Donny, Eric C; Sved, Alan F


    A mandated reduction in the nicotine content of cigarettes may improve public health by reducing the prevalence of smoking. Animal self-administration research is an important complement to clinical research on nicotine reduction. It can fill research gaps that may be difficult to address with clinical research, guide clinical researchers about variables that are likely to be important in their own research, and provide policy makers with converging evidence between clinical and preclinical studies about the potential impact of a nicotine reduction policy. Convergence between clinical and preclinical research is important, given the ease with which clinical trial participants can access nonstudy tobacco products in the current marketplace. Herein, we review contributions of preclinical animal research, with a focus on rodent self-administration, to the science of nicotine reduction. Throughout this review, we highlight areas where clinical and preclinical research converge and areas where the two differ. Preclinical research has provided data on many important topics such as the threshold for nicotine reinforcement, the likelihood of compensation, moderators of the impact of nicotine reduction, the impact of environmental stimuli on nicotine reduction, the impact of nonnicotine cigarette smoke constituents on nicotine reduction, and the impact of nicotine reduction on vulnerable populations. Special attention is paid to current research gaps including the dramatic rise in alternative tobacco products, including electronic nicotine delivery systems (ie, e-cigarettes). The evidence reviewed here will be critical for policy makers as well as clinical researchers interested in nicotine reduction. This review will provide policy makers and clinical researchers interested in nicotine reduction with an overview of the preclinical animal research conducted on nicotine reduction and the regulatory implications of that research. The review also highlights the utility of

  6. Current activities at the MIT Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Linwen; Bernard, John A.; Harling, Otto K.; Kohse, Gordon E.; Ames, Michael; Olmez, Ilhan


    The MIT Research Reactor (MITR) is a MW nuclear research reactor that is owned and operated by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology to further its educational and research goals at both the undergraduate and graduate level. The reactor first achieved criticality in 1958. It was largely rebuilt in 1973/1974 by MIT staff and students, and its current license expires in August 1999. The current facility, which is designated as the MITR-H, uses a compact core with finned, aluminum-clad, plate-type fuel that is cooled and moderated by light water and reflected by heavy water. The reactor core can hold twenty-seven fuel elements. However, the normal configuration is twenty-four elements. A maximum of four fuel elements can be replaced with in-core experimental facilities. A unique feature of the MITR-II's design is that fixed absorber plates can be inserted in the upper half of the core. These cause the flux to peak in the lower half which benefits experimenters and also facilitates a fuel strategy that involves inversion of fuel elements midway through their life cycle. The MITR-II currently operates continuously for four weeks followed by shutdown of a few days for maintenance. This paper provides an overview of current activities at the MITR including preparations for re-licensing. The status of an on-going Phase-I clinical trial of boron neutron capture therapy for both glioblastoma multiforme and metastatic melanoma is described as well as the design of a fission converter facility for BNCT. Environmental research using neutron activation analysis is summarized as well as in-pile research focussed on LWR water chemistry and structural materials. (author)

  7. [Current Status of Translational Research on Constipation]. (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Jik; Park, Kyung Sik


    Constipation is one of the most common gastrointestinal disorders with a prevalence up to 16.5% in the general population. It is frequently multifactorial and the pathophysiologic mechanism of constipation is not fully understood. Many preclinical studies of constipation have used animal models. Translational research using these animal models is essential to the investigation of neurogenic and myogenic mechanisms of colon, and to the estimation of the clinical efficacy of new drugs. In this review, we discuss some of the current translational research projects on constipation using animal models.

  8. Breast Cancer Research at NASA (United States)


    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunourous tissues. Here, two High-Aspect Ratio Vessels turn at about 12 rmp to keep breast tissue constructs suspended inside the culture media. Syringes allow scientists to pull for analysis during growth sequences. The tube in the center is a water bubbler that dehumidifies the air to prevent evaporation of the media and thus the appearance of destructive bubbles in the bioreactor.

  9. Current status of research on power-frequency electric and magnetic fields of research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Recent scientific literature has suggested a number of possible human health effects which might be associated with exposure to power frequency electric and magnetic fields. Several authoritative reviews of this subject have been published. currently, the major uncertainty and the major research effort is directed to the issue of these fields and cancer. Therefore, this review will be limited to examining the evidence relating prolonged power-frequency electric and magnetic field exposure to cancer in human populations. This paper reports that the CIGRE expert Group has assessed the research literature in the following areas: epidemiological evidence, animal studies, cellular effects, knowledge of mechanisms

  10. Cervical cancer: current knowledge, perception and associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Objective: Cervical cancer is a major public health problem and one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality amongst the gynaecological cancers worldwide, especially in developing countries. Cervical cancer continues to persist in Nigeria like other developing countries despite the existence of ...

  11. The Health Services Research Workforce: Current Stock (United States)

    McGinnis, Sandra; Moore, Jean


    Objective To examine the size and characteristics of the health services research (HSR) workforce; the job satisfaction, job security, and future plans reported by the workforce; and the future of the HSR workforce supply. Data Sources (1) AcademyHealth active and lapsed members since 2000 and annual research meeting presenters and interest group participants; (2) principal investigators of research projects listed in the HSRProj database; and (3) authors of articles published in two HSR journals. Study Design Data on investigators conducting HSR in selected venues were collected and compared in order to identify the percentage of the HSR workforce represented in the “core” versus related disciplines and to investigate the extent to which the “core” researchers publish, present, or participate in disciplinary venues. Principal Findings The field appears to have grown dramatically since 1995, from an estimated 5,000 health services researchers to an estimated 11,596 in 2007. This is a broad workforce characterized by various levels of involvement in the field. Some researchers self-identify with the field of HSR, while others are associated primarily with venues related to specific disciplines. Many researchers who identify with HSR also publish in venues related to multiple other disciplines. Conclusions The field may face future challenges related to demographic change, such as an aging workforce and an increased need for diversity. International collaboration appears common, and in the future the field may need to be defined internationally rather than nationally. At the same time, there are also many indications that HSR is a good field to work in. Health services researchers reported high levels of satisfaction with their profession and current employer, as well as little desire to change jobs and little concern about job security. PMID:20459584

  12. The health services research workforce: current stock. (United States)

    McGinnis, Sandra; Moore, Jean


    To examine the size and characteristics of the health services research (HSR) workforce; the job satisfaction, job security, and future plans reported by the workforce; and the future of the HSR workforce supply. (1) AcademyHealth active and lapsed members since 2000 and annual research meeting presenters and interest group participants; (2) principal investigators of research projects listed in the HSRProj database; and (3) authors of articles published in two HSR journals. Data on investigators conducting HSR in selected venues were collected and compared in order to identify the percentage of the HSR workforce represented in the "core" versus related disciplines and to investigate the extent to which the "core" researchers publish, present, or participate in disciplinary venues. The field appears to have grown dramatically since 1995, from an estimated 5,000 health services researchers to an estimated 11,596 in 2007. This is a broad workforce characterized by various levels of involvement in the field. Some researchers self-identify with the field of HSR, while others are associated primarily with venues related to specific disciplines. Many researchers who identify with HSR also publish in venues related to multiple other disciplines. The field may face future challenges related to demographic change, such as an aging workforce and an increased need for diversity. International collaboration appears common, and in the future the field may need to be defined internationally rather than nationally. At the same time, there are also many indications that HSR is a good field to work in. Health services researchers reported high levels of satisfaction with their profession and current employer, as well as little desire to change jobs and little concern about job security.

  13. Current trends in translational research in leptospirosis. (United States)

    Ricaldi, Jessica N; Swancutt, Mark A; Matthias, Michael A


    In the past years, the importance of studying leptospirosis in a translational context has become more evident. This review addresses recent findings in the study of leptospirosis infection, focusing on those applicable to public health, or that will affect management and diagnosis of cases of leptospirosis. We review here recent findings regarding translational aspects of leptospirosis research. Briefly, PCR or a combination of serology and PCR seem to have a higher sensitivity than the current gold standard (microagglutination test). More clinical trials are needed to determine the best treatment for mild and severe leptospirosis. Dendritic cells and γδ T cells seem to have an important role in the immune response to leptospirosis. Environmental assessment is emerging as a very useful tool. In order to understand leptospirosis, multiple aspects need to be considered, including host, pathogen and environment. In this review, we will address newer diagnostics, current advances in immunology and treatment and the growing role of environmental assessment.

  14. Media | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research (United States)

    The Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research (OCCPR) is committed to providing the media with timely and accurate information.  This section offers key resources for patients, cancer researchers, physicians, and media professionals.

  15. Strengthening the Cancer Research Enterprise - Annual Plan (United States)

    NCI's expanding infrastructure, support for scientists at every career stage, and funding of small business innovation enables discoveries that advance cancer research. Read more about how NCI is strenghtening the cancer research enterprise.

  16. Radiotherapy in prostate cancer. Innovative techniques and current controversies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geinitz, Hans [Krankenhaus der Barmherzigen Schwestern, Linz (Austria). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Linz Univ. (Austria). Medical Faculty; Roach, Mack III [California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Van As, Nicholas (ed.) [The Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton Surrey (United Kingdom)


    Examines in detail the role of innovative radiation techniques in the management of prostate cancer, including IMRT, IGRT, BART, and modern brachytherapy. Explores a range of current controversies in patient treatment. Intended for both radiation oncologists and urologists. Radiation treatment is rapidly evolving owing to the coordinated research of physicists, engineers, computer and imaging specialists, and physicians. Today, the arsenal of ''high-precision'' or ''targeted'' radiotherapy includes multimodal imaging, in vivo dosimetry, Monte Carlo techniques for dose planning, patient immobilization techniques, intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT), biologically adapted radiotherapy (BART), quality assurance methods, novel methods of brachytherapy, and, at the far end of the scale, particle beam radiotherapy using protons and carbon ions. These approaches are like pieces of a puzzle that need to be put together to provide the prostate cancer patient with high-level optimized radiation treatment. This book examines in detail the role of the above-mentioned innovative radiation techniques in the management of prostate cancer. In addition, a variety of current controversies regarding treatment are carefully explored, including whether prophylactic treatment of the pelvic lymphatics is essential, the magnitude of the effect of dose escalation, whether a benefit accrues from hypofractionation, and what evidence exists for the superiority of protons or heavy ions. Radiotherapy in Prostate Cancer: Innovative Techniques and Current Controversies is intended for both radiation oncologists and urologists with an interest in the up-to-date capabilities of modern radiation oncology for the treatment of prostate cancer.

  17. Reprogramming cancer cells: overview & current progress. (United States)

    Lim, Kian Lam; Teoh, Hoon Koon; Choong, Pei Feng; Teh, Hui Xin; Cheong, Soon Keng; Kamarul, Tunku


    Cancer is a disease with genetic and epigenetic origins, and the possible effects of reprogramming cancer cells using the defined sets of transcription factors remain largely uninvestigated. In the handful of publications available so far, findings have shown that reprogramming cancer cells changed the characteristics of the cells to differ from the parental cancer cells. These findings indicated the possibility of utilizing reprogramming technology to create a disease model in the laboratory to be used in studying the molecular pathogenesis or for drug screening of a particular cancer model. Despite numerous methods employed in generating induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from cancer cells only a few studies have successfully reprogrammed malignant human cells. In this review we will provide an overview on i) methods to reprogram cancer cells, ii) characterization of the reprogrammed cancer cells, and iii) the differential effects of reprogramming on malignancy, epigenetics and response of the cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents. Continued technical progress in cancer cell reprogramming technology will be instrumental for more refined in vitro disease models and ultimately for the development of directed and personalized therapy for cancer patients in the future.

  18. Medical Robots: Current Systems and Research Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan A. Beasley


    Full Text Available First used medically in 1985, robots now make an impact in laparoscopy, neurosurgery, orthopedic surgery, emergency response, and various other medical disciplines. This paper provides a review of medical robot history and surveys the capabilities of current medical robot systems, primarily focusing on commercially available systems while covering a few prominent research projects. By examining robotic systems across time and disciplines, trends are discernible that imply future capabilities of medical robots, for example, increased usage of intraoperative images, improved robot arm design, and haptic feedback to guide the surgeon.

  19. Topics in current aerosol research (part2)

    CERN Document Server

    Hidy, G M


    Topics in Current Aerosol Research, Part 2 contains some selected articles in the field of aerosol study. The chosen topics deal extensively with the theory of diffusiophoresis and thermophoresis. Also covered in the book is the mathematical treatment of integrodifferential equations originating from the theory of aerosol coagulation. The book is the third volume of the series entitled International Reviews in Aerosol Physics and Chemistry. The text offers significant understanding of the methods employed to develop a theory for thermophoretic and diffusiophoretic forces acting on spheres in t

  20. Current status of nuclear safety research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Efforts at nuclear safety research have expanded year by year in Japan, in term of money and technical achievement. The Atomic Energy Commission set last year the five year nuclear safety research program, a guideline by which various research institutes will be able to develop their own efforts in a concerted manner. From the results of the nuclear safety research which cover very wide areas ranging from reactor engineering safety, safety of nuclear fuel cycle facilities, prevention of radiation hazards to the adequate treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes, AIJ hereafter focuses of LWR engineering safety and prevents two articles, one introducing the current results of the NSSR program developed by JAERI and the other reporting the LWR reliability demonstration testing projects being promoted by MITI. The outline of these demonstration tests was reported in this report. The tests consist of earthquake resistance reliability test of nuclear power plants, steam generator reliability tests, valve integrity tests, fuel assembly reliability tests, reliability tests of heat affected zones and reliability tests of pumps. (Kobatake, H.)

  1. Current opinions on chemotherapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luptak, J.


    Prostate cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancer among men. Because of the long latency period of prostate cancer, and the economic burden and morbidity associated with its treatment, there is a strong rationale for interventions to reduce the risk of developing this malignancy. The terms „prevention“ or „chemo prevention“ refers to efforts to prevent or delay the development of cancer by taking medicines, vitamins or other agents. There are many agents that may decrease the risk of prostate cancer. It requires careful study of the agents in specific populations to determine whether risk is reduced, magnitude of the risk reduction and the spectrum of side effects associated with the agent. The ideal preventive agent will not significantly alter quality of life, is inexpensive, safe, well tolerated, and effective. The purpose of this article is to review recent developments in the field of prostate cancer prevention. (author)

  2. Research progress in applying proteomics technology to explore early diagnosis biomarkers of breast cancer, lung cancer and ovarian cancer. (United States)

    Luo, Lu; Dong, Li-You; Yan, Qi-Gui; Cao, San-Jie; Wen, Xin-Tian; Huang, Yong; Huang, Xiao-Bo; Wu, Rui; Ma, Xiao-Ping


    According to the China tumor registry 2013 annual report , breast cancer, lung cancer, and ovarian cancer are three common cancers in China nowadays, with high mortality due to the absence of early diagnosis technology. However, proteomics has been widespreadly implanted into every field of life science and medicine as an important part of post-genomics era research. The development of theory and technology in proteomics has provided new ideas and research fields for cancer research. Proteomics can be used not only for elucidating the mechanisms of carcinogenesis focussing on whole proteins of the tissue or cell, but also seeking the biomarkers for diagnosis and therapy of cancer. In this review, we introduce proteomics principles, covering current technology used in exploring early diagnosis biomarkers of breast cancer, lung cancer and ovarian cancer.

  3. Current management of gynecologic cancer in pregnancy. (United States)

    Iavazzo, Christos; Minis, Evelyn Eleni; Gkegkes, Ioannis D


    Cancer during pregnancy is a particularly challenging complication. The incidence has increased in recent years due to childbering at an advanced maternal age due to career choices and/or the development of reproductive technology. Approximately two thirds of cancer cases during pregnancy are comprised of invasive cervical cancers and breast cancer. Cancer during gestation is characterized by a need for specialized treatment due to major changes in the hormonal profile (estrogen-progesterone), metabolism (enhancement of anabolism), hemodynamic changes (hyperdynamic circulation), immunologic changes (cell mediated and humoral immunity), increased angiogenesis (increased blood flow towards the uterus). Moreover, the management of such patients is based on the trimester of pregnancy, type and stage of cancer and informed consent of the mother based on her wishes. The optimal treatment of cancer during pregnancy remains elusive, as there are limited data from retrospective studies with small samples. As a result, it is crucial that data regarding survival of the women and long-term follow up of the children from different cancer centres and registries be shared. This need is dictated by the fact that the incidence of cancer during pregnancy will continue to rise as child-bearing age continues to increase.

  4. Current vaccination strategies for prostate cancer. (United States)

    Joniau, Steven; Abrahamsson, Per-Anders; Bellmunt, Joaquim; Figdor, Carl; Hamdy, Freddie; Verhagen, Paul; Vogelzang, Nicholas J; Wirth, Manfred; Van Poppel, Hendrik; Osanto, Susanne


    based on futility and increased deaths. Other phase 2 vaccination trials testing different types of vaccines in castration-resistant PCa patients have been reported with variable outcomes. Notably, a controlled, double-blind, randomised phase 2 vaccine trial of PROSTVAC-VF, a recombinant viral vector containing complementary DNA encoding PSA, in 125 patients with chemotherapy-naïve, minimally symptomatic mCRPC also demonstrated safety but no significant effect on the time to disease progression. In comparison with controls (n=40), PROSTVAC-VF-treated patients (n=82) experienced longer median survival of 8.5 mo (25.1 vs 16.6 mo; HR: 0.56; 95% CI, 0.37-0.85; p=0.0061) and extended 3-yr survival (30% vs 17%). In general, PCa vaccines are perceived to have less toxicity compared with current cytotoxic or targeted therapies. Evaluation of clinical efficacy of different vaccination strategies (eg, protein-, peptide- and DNA-based vaccines) in the context of properly designed and controlled phase 3 studies is warranted. Cancer vaccines represent a new paradigm in the treatment of PCa. The IMPACT trial showed improved survival but no difference in time to disease progression in mCRPC patients with minimal tumour burden. Observations in phase 2 and 3 trials pave the way for other vaccination approaches for this disease, raise questions regarding the most appropriate clinical trial designs, and underscore the importance of identifying biomarkers for antitumour effect to better implement such therapies. Copyright © 2011 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Cancer fear and fatalism: how African American participants construct the role of research subject in relation to clinical cancer research. (United States)

    Somayaji, Darryl; Cloyes, Kristin Gates


    Lack of African American participation in cancer clinical trials has been identified as a critical problem. Historical interactions related to race, identity, and power may contribute to continued inequity in healthcare and research participation. The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions of African Americans regarding cancer and research and how these perceptions shape their beliefs about participating as cancer research subjects. Three African American focus groups were conducted including people who had never participated in cancer research, those who had, and those who were asked but refused (n = 16). Discussion focused on their perceptions of cancer research and actual or potential participation as research subjects. Data were coded using both structured and inductive coding methods. Fear and fatalism emerged in relation to research, race, power, and identity and were related to larger historical and social issues rather than only individual thoughts or feelings. Participants described fears of the unknown, death, mistrust, conspiracy, and discrimination together with positive/negative tensions between self, family, and community responsibilities. Complex identities linked perceptions of cancer and cancer research with broader historical and cultural issues. Fear, fatalism, and current and historical relationships influence how people perceive themselves as research subjects and may influence their decisions to participate in cancer research. Acknowledging how complex factors including race and racism contribute to health disparities may give nurses and other healthcare providers a better appreciation of how historical, social, and cultural dynamics at individual, community, and organizational levels influence access to and participation in cancer research.

  6. Current status and prospects of research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabaraev, A.B.; Cherepnin, Yu.S.; Tretyakov, I.T.; Khmelshikov, V.V.; Dollezhal, N.A.


    Full text: The first nuclear research reactors (RR) appeared in the 1940s. Their initial purpose was to provide knowledge of the main processes associated with neutron-induced nuclear reactions. Later, the rang of problems addressed expanded substantially. Besides fundamental research in the properties of matter, such reactors are successfully used for dealing with problems in the fields of materials science, nuclear engineering, medicine, isotope production, education, etc. Over the whole period of RR fleet growth, more than six hundred nuclear research facilities were built in 70 countries of the world. As of the end of 2008, the number of Russian research reactors in service was about 20% of the globally operating RR fleet. This paper discusses the current status of the world's RR fleet and describes the capabilities of the experimental reactor facilities existing in Russia. In the 21st century, research reactors will remain in demand to solve scientific and technological problems for innovative development of society. The emerging renaissance of nuclear power, the expanding RR uses for production of isotopes and other applications, the increase in the number of countries willing to use nuclear technologies in energy production, industry and science - all contribute to a rebirth of interest in research reactors. One of the ways to improve the experimental capabilities lies in radical upgrading of the reactor facilities with qualitative changes in the main neutronic characteristics of the core. The associated design approaches are illustrated with the example of the IBR-2M reactor at the JNRI in Dubna. The imperative need restricting the spread of nuclear threat leads us to give up using highly enriched uranium in most research reactors. Development of RR fuel with reduced enrichment in uranium has been one of the priority objectives of NIKIET for many years. This paper presents the latest results obtained along these lines, as applied to pool-type research

  7. Current treatment of metastatic endometrial cancer. (United States)

    Temkin, Sarah M; Fleming, Gini


    Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy. The majority of patients have disease confined to the uterus and have an excellent overall prognosis. However, subgroups of patients have advanced primary disease or recurrences following primary treatment. The management of metastatic disease is variable, depending on factors such as comorbidities, tumor grade, performance status, and prior treatments. Management options include hormonal therapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy, as well as targeted therapies that inhibit angiogenesis and the cellular signaling pathways involved in cell growth and proliferation. A comprehensive review of these treatments for metastatic endometrial cancer was conducted and is discussed. Hormonal therapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy have traditionally been used in the treatment of metastatic endometrial cancer. Advances in molecular biology have led to multiple potential targeted therapies to be used in the treatment of metastatic endometrial cancer. While several treatment modalities are now available to treat patients who present with metastatic endometrial cancer, overall prognosis remains poor.

  8. Current status of research on school refusal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cándido J. Inglés


    Full Text Available School refusal behavior refers to the avoidance of a child attending school and/or persistent difficulty staying in the classroom throughout the school day. Based on a review of the scientific literature, the aim of this study is to describe the current state of research on school refusal, differentiating between the findings and progress made in Spain from those achieved in the international field. For this purpose, the significance of this phenomenon, in addition to associated risk factors and variables, will be reviewed in the child and youth population. In turn, the commonly used assessment methods and most recommended treatment proposals, mainly based on cognitive behavioral therapy, are discussed. The results reveal several gaps and subjects for debate in some areas of knowledge about school refusal behavior, with differences being found between Spanish and international studies. In conclusion, future studies and challenges in this field are required.

  9. Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research Practicum | Division of Cancer Prevention (United States)

    The Nutritional Science Research Group in the Division of Cancer Prevention at the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health and the Department of Nutrition at the Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health are offering a one week educational opportunity in "Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research" for individuals with a sustained commitment to nutrition

  10. Current and Future Research at DANCE (United States)

    Jandel, M.; Baramsai, B.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Hayes, A.; Kawano, T.; Mosby, S.; Rusev, G.; Stetcu, I.; Taddeucci, T. N.; Talou, P.; Ullmann, J. L.; Walker, C. L.; Wilhelmy, J. B.


    An overview of the current experimental program on measurements of neutron capture and neutron induced fission at the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) is presented. Three major projects are currently under way: 1) high precision measurements of neutron capture cross sections on Uranium isotopes, 2) research aimed at studies of the short-lived actinide isomer production in neutron capture on 235U and 3) measurements of correlated data of fission observables. New projects include developments of auxiliary detectors to improve the capability of DANCE. We are building a compact, segmented NEUtron detector Array at DANCE (NEUANCE), which will be installed in the central cavity of the DANCE array. It will provide experimental information on prompt fission neutrons in coincidence with the prompt fission gamma-rays measured by 160 BaF2 crystals of DANCE. Unique correlated data will be obtained for neutron capture and neutron-induced fission using the DANCE-NEUANCE experimental set up in the future.

  11. Current and Future Research at DANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jandel M.


    Full Text Available An overview of the current experimental program on measurements of neutron capture and neutron induced fission at the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE is presented. Three major projects are currently under way: 1 high precision measurements of neutron capture cross sections on Uranium isotopes, 2 research aimed at studies of the short-lived actinide isomer production in neutron capture on 235U and 3 measurements of correlated data of fission observables. New projects include developments of auxiliary detectors to improve the capability of DANCE. We are building a compact, segmented NEUtron detector Array at DANCE (NEUANCE, which will be installed in the central cavity of the DANCE array. It will provide experimental information on prompt fission neutrons in coincidence with the prompt fission gamma-rays measured by 160 BaF2 crystals of DANCE. Unique correlated data will be obtained for neutron capture and neutron-induced fission using the DANCE-NEUANCE experimental set up in the future.

  12. Molecular Cancer Prevention: Current Status & Future Directions (United States)

    Maresso, Karen Colbert; Tsai, Kenneth Y.; Brown, Powel H.; Szabo, Eva; Lippman, Scott; Hawk, Ernest


    The heterogeneity and complexity of advanced cancers strongly supports the rationale for an enhanced focus on molecular prevention as a priority strategy to reduce the burden of cancer. Molecular prevention encompasses traditional chemopreventive agents as well as vaccinations and therapeutic approaches to cancer-predisposing conditions. Despite challenges to the field, we now have refined insights into cancer etiology and early pathogenesis; successful risk assessment and new risk models; agents with broad preventive efficacy (e.g., aspirin) in common chronic diseases, including cancer; and a successful track record of more than 10 agents approved by the FDA for the treatment of precancerous lesions or cancer risk reduction. The development of molecular preventive agents does not differ significantly from the development of therapies for advanced cancers, yet has unique challenges and special considerations given that it most often involves healthy or asymptomatic individuals. Agents, biomarkers, cohorts, overall design, and endpoints are key determinants of molecular preventive trials, as with therapeutic trials, although distinctions exist for each within the preventive setting. Progress in the development and evolution of molecular preventive agents has been steadier in some organ systems, such as breast and skin, than in others. In order for molecular prevention to be fully realized as an effective strategy, a number of challenges to the field must be addressed. Here we provide a brief overview of the context for and special considerations of molecular prevention along with a discussion of the results of major randomized controlled trials. PMID:26284997

  13. Erlotinib Resistance in Lung Cancer: Current Progress and Future Perspectives


    Tang, Joy; Salama, Rasha; Gadgeel, Shirish M.; Sarkar, Fazlul H.; Ahmad, Aamir


    Lung cancer is the most common cancer in the world. Despite modern advancements in surgeries, chemotherapies, and radiotherapies over the past few years, lung cancer still remains a very difficult disease to treat. This has left the death rate from lung cancer victims largely unchanged throughout the past few decades. A key cause for the high mortality rate is the drug resistance that builds up for patients being currently treated with the chemotherapeutic agents. Although certain chemotherap...

  14. Researching experiences of cancer: the importance of methodology. (United States)

    Entwistle, V; Tritter, J Q; Calnan, M


    This paper draws on contributions to and discussions at a recent MRC HSRC-sponsored workshop 'Researching users' experiences of health care: the case of cancer'. We focus on the methodological and ethical challenges that currently face researchers who use self-report methods to investigate experiences of cancer and cancer care. These challenges relate to: the theoretical and conceptual underpinnings of research; participation rates and participant profiles; data collection methods (the retrospective nature of accounts, description and measurement, and data collection as intervention); social desirability considerations; relationship considerations; the experiences of contributing to research; and the synthesis and presentation of findings. We suggest that methodological research to tackle these challenges should be integrated into substantive research projects to promote the development of a strong knowledge base about experiences of cancer and cancer care.

  15. The current research status of enhancer RNAs. (United States)

    Cheng, Xiao; Yang, Qiong; Tan, Zhen-Dong; Tan, Ya; Pu, Hongzhou; Zhao, Xue; Zhang, Shun-Hua; Zhu, Li


    Enhancers are key cis-acting gene regulatory elements in eukaryotes, which can effectively promote the expression of target genes. Emerging evidence showed that enhancers in activation state could be transcribed to enhancer RNAs (eRNAs), the processes of which are regulated by various signaling systems and actions of signal-dependent transcription factors. Compared with the other transcripts (e.g. lncRNA, mRNA), eRNAs have shorter sequences, lower stability, and higher tissue specificity. eRNAs play roles in the initiation or stabilization of enhancer-promoter looping, and promote the expression of target genes. Recent studies have further showed that eRNAs have crucial roles in biological processes, such as development and disease initiation and progression. However, functional studies of eRNAs are currently lacking, and the regulatory mechanisms of eRNAs are still uncertain. Herein, we focus on the features, research methods and functional properties of eRNAs, and discusse the possibility of using eRNAs as therapeutic targets. We hope this discussion might provide some insights for further research on eRNAs.

  16. Current immunotherapeutic strategies in colon cancer. (United States)

    Morse, Michael; Langer, Lee; Starodub, Alexander; Hobeika, Amy; Clay, Timothy; Lyerly, H Kim


    Because chemotherapy is standard in the treatment of colorectal cancer, it is important to demonstrate whether immunizations may be given to patients receiving systemic chemotherapy. Although some studies have demonstrated immune responses in patients with metastatic colorectal carcinoma who failed standard chemotherapy, the setting of minimal residual disease may be the preferred setting for cancer vaccines. It may be important to choose antigens that have functions important to the cancer cell. The best adjuvant is not well established and may depend on the type of immune response desired. The immune system is "programmed" to down-regulate immune responses once they have become activated to avoid the development of autoimmune disease.

  17. American Institute for Cancer Research (United States)

    INFOGRAPHICS RECIPES FOODS THAT FIGHT CANCER SHOP Donate Now Planned Giving Memorial Gifts Car Donations Home Reduce Your Cancer Risk Diet How healthy is your diet? A cancer-protective diet Healthy recipes Nutrition facts Phytochemicals in ...

  18. Viewpoint on the current status of researches on sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng-guo WANG


    Full Text Available Sepsis is a common complication after severe trauma and burn, and also one of the main causes of death. Recently, although some new progresses were seen in antibiotic therapy, the mortality of sepsis is still on the rise, and the death rate as a result of sepsis is higher than a total of that of prostate cancer, breast cancer and AIDS. Therefore, sepsis has obviously become one of the serious ailments threatening human health. The present paper introduced the international definition of sepsis, severe sepsis and septic shock, the current researches on diagnosis and therapy, and proposed that we should not only pay attention to pathogenesis and treatment, but also to sepsis prevention in sepsis researches, and we should try to find out the breakthrough in the interaction and dynamic balance between human being and pathogenic factors. Researches on the strategies to revert strong toxicity of infectious agents to non-toxic or weak pathogenic factors, and to conduct further research concerning biological characteristics of microorganisms and mechanism of drug resistance in order to render them to lose the drug resistance ability, or to increase its sensitivity to the drugs. The above suggested approaches might form the future strategies for preventing and controlling sepsis.

  19. Gastric cancer: current and evolving treatment landscape. (United States)

    Sun, Weijing; Yan, Li


    Gastric (including gastroesophageal junction) cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related death in the world. In China, an estimated 420,000 patients were diagnosed with gastric cancer in 2011, ranking this malignancy the second most prevalent cancer type and resulting in near 300,000 deaths. The treatment landscape of gastric cancer has evolved in recent years. Although systemic chemotherapy is still the mainstay treatment of metastatic disease, the introduction of agents targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 and vascular endothelial growth factor/vascular endothelia growth factor receptor has brought this disease into the molecular and personalized medicine era. The preliminary yet encouraging clinical efficacy observed with immune checkpoint inhibitors, e.g., anti-programmed cell death protein 1/programmed death-ligand 1, will further shape the treatment landscape for gastric cancer. Molecular characterization of patients will play a critical role in developing new agents, as well as in implementing new treatment options for this disease.

  20. Dr. Ted Trimble: Why I Do Cancer Research (United States)

    In a video, Dr. Ted Trimble talks about the importance of cancer research. World Cancer Research Day commemorates the important role research and cancer researchers play in reducing the global burden of cancer.

  1. The Future of Prostate Cancer Research and Treatment (United States)

    On January 12, 2017 prostate cancer experts William Dahut, M.D. of the National Cancer Institute and Dr. Heather Cheng, M.D. of the University of Washington had a vibrant discussion about current and future research areas and treatment options for prostate cancer. The panel was moderated by Ana Fadich, MPH, CHES Vice President at Men’s Health of the Men's Health Network.

  2. Research in Danish cancer rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høybye, Mette Terp; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Christensen, Jane


    Worldwide, the number of cancer survivors is increasing, owing to improvements in cancer therapy, resulting in an increased need to address the physical and mental sequelae of cancer. This paper introduces a Danish psychosocial cancer intervention and presents the baseline characteristics...

  3. Current management of locally recurrent rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Bak; Laurberg, Søren; Holm, Thorbjörn


    ABSTRACT Objective: A review of the literature was undertaken to provide an overview of the surgical management of locally recurrent rectal cancer (LRRC) after the introduction of total mesorectal excision (TME). Method: A systematic literature search was undertaken using PubMed, Embase, Web...

  4. Current status and progress of pancreatic cancer in China. (United States)

    Lin, Quan-Jun; Yang, Feng; Jin, Chen; Fu, De-Liang


    Cancer is currently one of the most important public health problems in the world. Pancreatic cancer is a fatal disease with poor prognosis. As in most other countries, the health burden of pancreatic cancer in China is increasing, with annual mortality rates almost equal to incidence rates. The increasing trend of pancreatic cancer incidence is more significant in the rural areas than in the urban areas. Annual diagnoses and deaths of pancreatic cancer in China are now beyond the number of cases in the United States. GLOBOCAN 2012 estimates that cases in China account for 19.45% (65727/337872) of all newly diagnosed pancreatic cancer and 19.27% (63662/330391) of all deaths from pancreatic cancer worldwide. The population's growing socioeconomic status contributes to the rapid increase of China's proportional contribution to global rates. Here, we present an overview of control programs for pancreatic cancer in China focusing on prevention, early diagnosis and treatment. In addition, we describe key epidemiological, demographic, and socioeconomic differences between China and developed countries. Facts including no nationwide screening program for pancreatic cancer, delay in early detection resulting in a late stage at presentation, lack of awareness of pancreatic cancer in the Chinese population, and low investment compared with other cancer types by government have led to backwardness in China's pancreatic cancer diagnosis and treatment. Finally, we suggest measures to improve health outcomes of pancreatic cancer patients in China.

  5. Basic research on cancer related to radiation associated medical researches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong In; Hwang, Dae Yong; Bang, Ho Yoon [and others


    Basic Research on Cancer related to Radiation Associated Medical Researches including 1. Establishment of animal model of colorectal cancer liver metastasis and measurement of angiogenesis, 2. Tissue expression of Tie-1 and Tie-2 in human colorectal cancer, 3. Enhancement of G2/Mphase Cell Fraction by Adenovirus-mediated p53 Gene Transfer in Ovarian Cancer Cell Lines, 4. Clinical Characteristics of the patients with Non-B Non-C Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Frequency of HBV, HCV and TTV Viremia in these Patients, 5. Significance of serum iron and ferritin in patients with stomach cancer, 6. Telomerase assay for early detection of lung cancer, 7. Study on the Usefulness of Aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 Genotyping for Risk Group of Alcohol-related Cancer Screening, 8. Gene therapy using hepatoma specific promoter, 9. Study on the Influence of DNA repair gene, XRCC1 Genotypes on the Risk of Head and Neck Cancer were performed.

  6. Basic research on cancer related to radiation associated medical researches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong In; Hwang, Dae Yong; Bang, Ho Yoon


    Basic Research on Cancer related to Radiation Associated Medical Researches including 1. Establishment of animal model of colorectal cancer liver metastasis and measurement of angiogenesis, 2. Tissue expression of Tie-1 and Tie-2 in human colorectal cancer, 3. Enhancement of G2/Mphase Cell Fraction by Adenovirus-mediated p53 Gene Transfer in Ovarian Cancer Cell Lines, 4. Clinical Characteristics of the patients with Non-B Non-C Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Frequency of HBV, HCV and TTV Viremia in these Patients, 5. Significance of serum iron and ferritin in patients with stomach cancer, 6. Telomerase assay for early detection of lung cancer, 7. Study on the Usefulness of Aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 Genotyping for Risk Group of Alcohol-related Cancer Screening, 8. Gene therapy using hepatoma specific promoter, 9. Study on the Influence of DNA repair gene, XRCC1 Genotypes on the Risk of Head and Neck Cancer were performed

  7. Nanomedicine applications in the treatment of breast cancer: current state of the art. (United States)

    Wu, Di; Si, Mengjie; Xue, Hui-Yi; Wong, Ho-Lun


    Breast cancer is the most common malignant disease in women worldwide, but the current drug therapy is far from optimal as indicated by the high death rate of breast cancer patients. Nanomedicine is a promising alternative for breast cancer treatment. Nanomedicine products such as Doxil ® and Abraxane ® have already been extensively used for breast cancer adjuvant therapy with favorable clinical outcomes. However, these products were originally designed for generic anticancer purpose and not specifically for breast cancer treatment. With better understanding of the molecular biology of breast cancer, a number of novel promising nanotherapeutic strategies and devices have been developed in recent years. In this review, we will first give an overview of the current breast cancer treatment and the updated status of nanomedicine use in clinical setting, then discuss the latest important trends in designing breast cancer nanomedicine, including passive and active cancer cell targeting, breast cancer stem cell targeting, tumor microenvironment-based nanotherapy and combination nanotherapy of drug-resistant breast cancer. Researchers may get insight from these strategies to design and develop nanomedicine that is more tailored for breast cancer to achieve further improvements in cancer specificity, antitumorigenic effect, antimetastasis effect and drug resistance reversal effect.

  8. Prostate Cancer Research Training Program (United States)


    how chromatin structure participates in the transcriptional regulation of cancer related genes including oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes...signaling pathways related to cancer progression to various approaches for therapeutic intervention in these pathways including large molecule...diseases, focused on molecular epidemiology, HPV effects on the development of genital and other cancers ; hormones and risk of HPV detection and

  9. Lysyl oxidase in cancer research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perryman, Lara; Erler, Janine Terra


    Metastasis is the main reason for cancer-associated deaths and therapies are desperately needed to target the progression of cancer. Lysyl oxidase (LOX) plays a pivotal role in cancer progression, including metastasis, and is therefore is an attractive therapeutic target. In this review we...

  10. Cancer pain and current theory for pain control. (United States)

    Kahan, Brian


    This article discusses current trends in managing cancer pain, with specific regard to opioid transmission, descending pathway inhabitation, and ways to facilitate the endogenous antinociceptive chemicals in the human body. Various techniques for opioid and nonopioid control of potential pain situations of patients with cancer are discussed. The benefits of using pharmacogenetics to assess the appropriate medications are addressed. Finally, specific treatment of abdominal cancer pain using radiofrequency lesioning is discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Current status of nuclear physics research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertulani, Carlos A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University-Commerce (United States); Hussein, Mahir S., E-mail: [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica


    In this review, we discuss the current status of research in nuclear physics which is being carried out in different centers in the world. For this purpose, we supply a short account of the development in the area which evolved over the last nine decades, since the discovery of the neutron. The evolution of the physics of the atomic nucleus went through many stages as more data became available. We briefly discuss models introduced to discern the physics behind the experimental discoveries, such as the shell model, the collective model, the statistical model, the interacting boson model, etc., some of these models may be seemingly in conflict with each other, but this was shown to be only apparent. The richness of the ideas and abundance of theoretical models attests to the important fact that the nucleus is a really singular system in the sense that it evolves from two-body bound states such as the deuteron, to few-body bound states, such as {sup 4}He, {sup 7}Li, {sup 9}Be, etc. and up the ladder to heavier bound nuclei containing up to more than 200 nucleons. Clearly, statistical mechanics, usually employed in systems with very large number of particles, would seemingly not work for such finite systems as the nuclei, neither do other theories which are applicable to condensed matter. The richness of nuclear physics stems from these restrictions. New theories and models are presently being developed. Theories of the structure and reactions of neutron-rich and proton-rich nuclei, called exotic nuclei, halo nuclei, or Borromean nuclei, deal with the wealth of experimental data that became available in the last 35 years. Furthermore, nuclear astrophysics and stellar and Big Bang nucleosynthesis have become a more mature subject. Due to limited space, this review only covers a few selected topics, mainly those with which the authors have worked on. Our aimed potential readers of this review are nuclear physicists and physicists in other areas, as well as graduate

  12. [Research progression of translational medicine in gastric cancer]. (United States)

    Li, Maoran; Zhao, Gang; Zhu, Chunchao


    Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors which is a great threat to human health. In recent years, the reform of surgical mordalities and the optimization of radiation and chemotherapy is still far from reducing morbidity and mortality of gastric cancer. As a new research pattern, translational medicine has emerged in various clinical subjects, which leads to remarkable effects. In this paper, the definition and development of translational medicine, molecular markers and drug treatment of gastric cancer will be discussed and the feasibility of translational medicine in the treatment of gastric cancer will be explained. In our opinion, the intervention of translational medicine could change the current situation that scientific researches is severely disconnected with clinical practice and increase the detection rate of gastric cancer and the effective rate of adjuvant therapy after surgery to improve the prognosis of patients with gastric cancer.

  13. Biomedical text mining and its applications in cancer research. (United States)

    Zhu, Fei; Patumcharoenpol, Preecha; Zhang, Cheng; Yang, Yang; Chan, Jonathan; Meechai, Asawin; Vongsangnak, Wanwipa; Shen, Bairong


    Cancer is a malignant disease that has caused millions of human deaths. Its study has a long history of well over 100years. There have been an enormous number of publications on cancer research. This integrated but unstructured biomedical text is of great value for cancer diagnostics, treatment, and prevention. The immense body and rapid growth of biomedical text on cancer has led to the appearance of a large number of text mining techniques aimed at extracting novel knowledge from scientific text. Biomedical text mining on cancer research is computationally automatic and high-throughput in nature. However, it is error-prone due to the complexity of natural language processing. In this review, we introduce the basic concepts underlying text mining and examine some frequently used algorithms, tools, and data sets, as well as assessing how much these algorithms have been utilized. We then discuss the current state-of-the-art text mining applications in cancer research and we also provide some resources for cancer text mining. With the development of systems biology, researchers tend to understand complex biomedical systems from a systems biology viewpoint. Thus, the full utilization of text mining to facilitate cancer systems biology research is fast becoming a major concern. To address this issue, we describe the general workflow of text mining in cancer systems biology and each phase of the workflow. We hope that this review can (i) provide a useful overview of the current work of this field; (ii) help researchers to choose text mining tools and datasets; and (iii) highlight how to apply text mining to assist cancer systems biology research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Postdoctoral Fellow | Center for Cancer Research (United States)

    A postdoctoral fellowship is currently available for productive, highly-motivated, and energetic individuals in the Inflammation and Tumorigenesis Section of Dr. Yinling Hu at the NCI-Frederick campus.  A dynamic research environment and outstanding resources are available for enthusiastic individuals.  Requirements include a Ph.D., M.D., or equivalent degree and experience in Immunology, Molecular Biology, and/or Signaling Research. Candidate must have excellent verbal, written communication and organizational skills, and the ability to handle multiple projects simultaneously. The project will be to investigate mechanisms of IKK/NF-B-involved auto-immunity, infection, innate immunity in mouse models of carcinogenesis/cancer biology, tumor initiating cells, and lymphoid organ development.

  15. Current Educational Technology Research Trends in Japan (United States)

    Nakayama, Minoru; Ueno, Maomi


    To examine trends in educational practice research, this article conducted a survey and analysis of factors affecting the review of research papers in the field of the educational technology in Japan. Two factors, namely, practical orientation and theoretical orientation, were extracted from 63 survey responses, and scores from members of a…

  16. Marine Radioecology. Current Research and Future Scope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This report consists of answers submitted by various laboratory directors or individual investigators who responded to an International Atomic Energy Agency questionnaire concerning their present research programme, future scope of that programme, the investigators' ideas and opinions on marine radioecology research. Information on the possibility of co-operation with other laboratories is also included

  17. Neuroimaging for psychotherapy research: current trends. (United States)

    Weingarten, Carol P; Strauman, Timothy J


    This article reviews neuroimaging studies that inform psychotherapy research. An introduction to neuroimaging methods is provided as background for the increasingly sophisticated breadth of methods and findings appearing in psychotherapy research. We compiled and assessed a comprehensive list of neuroimaging studies of psychotherapy outcome, along with selected examples of other types of studies that also are relevant to psychotherapy research. We emphasized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) since it is the dominant neuroimaging modality in psychological research. We summarize findings from neuroimaging studies of psychotherapy outcome, including treatment for depression, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and schizophrenia. The increasing use of neuroimaging methods in the study of psychotherapy continues to refine our understanding of both outcome and process. We suggest possible directions for future neuroimaging studies in psychotherapy research.

  18. Breast cancer treatment: historical review and current approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulakowski, A.


    The evolution and development of opinions on the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer since Galen to present time is presented. The concept of breast cancer as a local disease has been replaced by the understanding of its systemic character. On this background described are the methods of surgical treatment beginning from early - supraradical, to present -conservative approaches. The ''milestones'' in diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer of the last 40 years are presented. Current methods of breast cancer management include correct diagnosis (clinical examination, mammography, ultrasound, fine needle aspiration biopsy), TNM staging, adequate loco-regional therapy, systemic therapy, rehabilitation, reconstruction and careful follow-up. (author)

  19. Predoctoral Training Program in Breast Cancer Research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stern, David F


    .... This means that research on breast cancer has finally advanced to the stage where a concentrated effort in translational research will yield great strides in detection, diagnosis, and treatment...

  20. Loyalty Programmes : Current Knowledge and Research Directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorotic, Matilda; Bijmolt, Tammo H. A.; Verhoef, Peter C.

    Loyalty programmes (LPs) have increased in number and popularity, but their effects on customer behaviour remain equivocal, due to a lack of understanding of the drivers of LP effectiveness and insufficient generalizable conclusions across prior studies. This paper synthesizes current knowledge

  1. Staging Lung Cancer: Current Controversies and Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riyad Karmy-Jones


    Full Text Available A consistent approach to staging is required for the rational management of lung cancer. This paper was prepared at the request of the Standards Committee of the Canadian Thoracic Society, and reviews and discusses the relative merits of the available methods of staging. Whichever methods are chosen by a particular institution, the following points must be stressed. No patient can be considered automatically "unresectable" when chest radiography and/ or computed tomography demonstrate adenopathy or only suggest local invasion. Clinical and/or radiographical evidence suggesting extensive local or metastatic disease should be evaluated as completely as possible before subjecting the patient to a possible "nontherapeutic" thoracotomy. Finally, in some cases thoracotomy is required to decide whether the lesion is "completely" resectable.

  2. Current therapy of small cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, M; Lassen, U; Hansen, H H


    This article reviews the most important recent clinical trials on the treatment of small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Two randomized studies addressing the timing of thoracic radiotherapy in limited stage SCLC are discussed. In the smaller of the two studies (n = 103), a survival benefit was associated...... with initial versus delayed radiotherapy. No survival differences in the larger study of the two studies were detected, which compared alternating with sequential delivery of radiotherapy (n = 335). The optimal way to deliver radiotherapy still must be defined. Two small, randomized studies on dose intensity......-agent etoposide compared with intravenous multiagent treatment. Thus, oral etoposide has a very limited role as single-agent treatment in the palliative setting. Convincing data have emerged regarding the camptothecins. Randomized studies of both the camptothecins and the taxanes in combination with established...

  3. The Spanish inquisition. Current research in perspective


    Dedieu, Jean-Pierre


    International audience; An historiographical global overview of the research on the Spanish Inquisition from 1998 to 2008. The paper laments the fact that the Spanish research failed to take into account the groundbreaking conclusions of recent Italian historiography.; Vue d'ensemble de l'historiographie espagnole concernant l'Inquisition de 1998 à 2008. Le texte regrette l'incapacité qu'a montré la recherche espagnole à prendre en compte les conclusions innovantes de l'historiographie italie...

  4. Cancer Biotechnology | Center for Cancer Research (United States)

    Biotechnology advances continue to underscore the need to educate NCI fellows in new methodologies. The Cancer Biotechnology course will be held on the NCI-Frederick campus on January 29, 2016 (Bldg. 549, Main Auditorium) and the course will be repeated on the Bethesda campus on February 9, 2016 (Natcher Balcony C). The latest advances in DNA, protein and image analysis will be presented. Clinical and postdoctoral fellows who want to learn about new biotechnology advances are encouraged to attend this course.

  5. Consumer involvement in cancer research: example from a Cancer Network. (United States)

    Arain, Mubashir; Pyne, Sarah; Thornton, Nigel; Palmer, Susan; Sharma, Ricky A


    The involvement of consumers and the general public in improving cancer services is an important component of health services. However, consumer involvement in cancer research is relatively unexplored. The objective of this study was to explore different ways of involving consumers in cancer research in one regional network. Thames Valley Cancer Network Consumer Research Partnership (CRP) group was formed in 2009. The group consists of consumers and professionals to help in promoting consumer involvement in Cancer Research in the Thames Valley. This study evaluated the project of consumer involvement in cancer research in the Thames Valley from March 2010 to March 2011. We used different indices to judge the level of consumer involvement: number of projects involving consumers through the group, types of projects, level of involvement (ranged from consultation on research documents to collaborating in preparing grant applications) and the methods of involving consumers in cancer research. Fifteen projects were submitted to the CRP group during the 12-month period studied. Of these, eight projects were clinical trials, three were qualitative research projects, two were patients' surveys and two were non-randomized interventional studies. Seven projects requested consumer involvement on patient information sheets for clinical trials. Of these seven applications, three also requested consumers' help in designing research questionnaires and another three requested that consumers should be involved in their project management group. In addition, four projects involved consumers in the proposal development phase and another four projects asked for advice on how to increase trial recruitment, conduct patient interviews or help with grant applications. The creation of the CRP and this audit of its activity have documented consumer involvement in cancer research in the Thames Valley. We have clearly shown that consumers can be involved in designing and managing cancer

  6. Review of current researches on internet addiction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Yanni; Tian Mei; Zhang Hong


    Internet addiction (IA) is a mental illness emerged in recent years with increasing use of computer and internet. The serious consequences such as mental and physical illness and social function impairment caused by IA have attracted extensive attention of the whole society. IA affects human beings at a high prevalence all over the world which has highlighted the importance of prevention and treatment of IA. Although there is still debate about definition of IA, increasing evidences including the result from genetic research,neurobiology study and clinical manifestation show that IA may share the same mechanisms with substance addiction, and be probably classified as behavioral addiction which is represented by pathological gambling. However, since the study on IA is yet on the initial stage and neuro biological research on IA is still limited, more reliable investigations especially neuro biological research remains uppermost in this area. (authors)

  7. Overcoming the current deadlock in antibiotic research. (United States)

    Schäberle, Till F; Hack, Ingrid M


    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are on the rise, making it harder to treat bacterial infections. The situation is aggravated by the shrinking of the antibiotic development pipeline. To finance urgently needed incentives for antibiotic research, creative financing solutions are needed. Public-private partnerships (PPPs) are a successful model for moving forward. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Biosynthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoates: Current research and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) as an attractive biopolymer with a wide range of applications have been extensively studied. Many new strategies have been employed to effectively and economically produce PHAs. This mini-review mainly focuses on the research and development of new PHAs-producing strains, utilization ...

  9. The Current State of Research on Motivation (United States)

    Geering, Adrian D.

    The literature on motivation theory is growing rapidly due to increased interest by leaders in all types of organizations in social-psychology variables such as internal commitment and motivation to work. This paper presents an overview of motivational research, covering early behavior theories such as scientific management and human relations,…

  10. Current status of IMS plasma wave research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R.R.


    Much progress has been made in plasma wave research as a result of the International Magnetospheric Study (IMS) in all areas from ground-based studies to multiple-satellite observations. Studies in all the areas have contributed to better understanding of the propagation and generation of magnetospheric plasma waves and the impact the waves have on other magnetospheric phenomena. Plasma wave measurements have been used as both local and remote sensing determinations of plasma parameters. The role of plasma waves at the various magnetospheric boundaries has been extensively studied using the IMS sources. Plamsa wave observations during the IMS have tested many existing theories and led to the foundation of many new theories. Several suggestions for future directions of plamsa wave research are offered.

  11. Current clinical research in orthodontics: a perspective. (United States)

    Baumrind, Sheldon


    This essay explores briefly the approach of the Craniofacial Research Instrumentation Laboratory to the systematic and rigorous investigation of the usual outcome of orthodontic treatment in the practices of experienced clinicians. CRIL's goal is to produce a shareable electronic database of reliable, valid, and representative data on clinical practice as an aid in the production of an improved environment for truly evidence-based orthodontic treatment.

  12. Researching the experience of kidney cancer patients. (United States)

    Taylor, K


    The author's personal experience as a kidney cancer patient, researcher and founder of a kidney cancer support group forms the basis for consideration of the challenges involved in researching patients' experiences. The researcher needs to understand the variability of those experiences in both clinical and psychological-emotional terms, and in relation to the personal, familial and social contexts of the patient. It is also essential to define the purpose of the research and to show how an understanding of personal experiences of cancer can be used to enhance the quality of care for cancer patients. The research encounter with a patient is also in some respects a therapeutic encounter requiring a considerable degree of sensitivity on the part of the researcher. The person-centred approach of Carl Rogers is of value in supporting such an encounter.

  13. A current global view of environmental and occupational cancers. (United States)

    Yang, Mihi


    This review is focused on current information of avoidable environmental pollution and occupational exposure as causes of cancer. Approximately 2% to 8% of all cancers are thought to be due to occupation. In addition, occupational and environmental cancers have their own characteristics, e.g., specific chemicals and cancers, multiple factors, multiple causation and interaction, or latency period. Concerning carcinogens, asbestos/silica/wood dust, soot/polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [benzo(a) pyrene], heavy metals (arsenic, chromium, nickel), aromatic amines (4-aminobiphenyl, benzidine), organic solvents (benzene or vinyl chloride), radiation/radon, or indoor pollutants (formaldehyde, tobacco smoking) are mentioned with their specific cancers, e.g., lung, skin, and bladder cancers, mesothelioma or leukemia, and exposure routes, rubber or pigment manufacturing, textile, painting, insulation, mining, and so on. In addition, nanoparticles, electromagnetic waves, and climate changes are suspected as future carcinogenic sources. Moreover, the aspects of environmental and occupational cancers are quite different between developing and developed countries. The recent follow-up of occupational cancers in Nordic countries shows a good example for developed countries. On the other hand, newly industrializing countries face an increased burden of occupational and environmental cancers. Developing countries are particularly suffering from preventable cancers in mining, agriculture, or industries without proper implication of safety regulations. Therefore, industrialized countries are expected to educate and provide support for developing countries. In addition, citizens can encounter new environmental and occupational carcinogen nominators such as nanomaterials, electromagnetic wave, and climate exchanges. As their carcinogenicity or involvement in carcinogenesis is not clearly unknown, proper consideration for them should be taken into account. For these purposes, new

  14. Intelligent multimedia surveillance current trends and research

    CERN Document Server

    Atrey, Pradeep K; Cavallaro, Andrea


    Intelligent multimedia surveillance concerns the analysis of multiple sensing inputs including video and audio streams, radio-frequency identification (RFID), and depth data. These data are processed for the automated detection and tracking of people, vehicles, and other objects. The goal is to locate moving targets, to understand their behavior, and to detect suspicious or abnormal activities for crime prevention. Despite its benefits, there is societal apprehension regarding the use of such technology, so an important challenge in this research area is to balance public safety and privacy.

  15. The current status of Kartini research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tri Wulan Tjiptono; Syarip


    The Kartini reactor reached the first criticality on January 25, 1979. In the first three years, the reactor power is limited up to 50 kW thermal power and on July 1, 1982 has been increased to 100 kW. It has been used as experiments facility by researcher of Atomic Energy National Agency and students of the Universities. Three beam tubes used as experiments facilities, the first, is used as a neutron source for H{sub 2}O-Natural Uranium Subcritical Assembly, the second, is developed for neutron radiography facility and the third, is used for gamma radiography facility. The other facilities are rotary rack and two pneumatic transfer systems, one for delayed neutron counting system and the other for the new Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) facility. The rotary rack used for isotope production for NAA purpose (for long time irradiation), the delayed neutron counting system used for analysis the Uranium contents of the ores and the new NAA is provided for short live elements analysis. In the last three years the Reactor Division has a joint use program with the Nuclear Component and Engineering Center in research reactor instrumentation and control development. (author)

  16. NCI Cancer Research Data Ecosystem (United States)

    An infographic explaining NCI’s present and future efforts to promote a culture of sharing data—clinical, genomic, proteomic, imaging, patient histories, and outcomes data—among stakeholders to impact cancer care.

  17. Surge in Philanthropy Fuels Cancer Research. (United States)


    Philanthropy could lead to faster cures by funding riskier research-projects more likely to fail but with potentially high impact-and promoting better teamwork among researchers. However, researchers and fundraisers say that it should augment, not replace, government funding. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  18. Gastric cancer research in Mexico: a public health priority. (United States)

    Sampieri, Clara Luz; Mora, Mauricio


    This study aimed review studies conducted on Mexican patients diagnosed with gastric cancer and/or diseases associated with its development, in which at least one Mexican institute has participated, and to assess their contributions to the primary and secondary prevention of this disease. A search of the Medline database was conducted using the following keywords: gastric/stomach cancer, Mexico. Studies of the Mexican population were selected in which at least one Mexican Institute had participated and where the findings could support public policy proposals directed towards the primary or secondary prevention of gastric cancer. Of the 148 studies found in the Medline database, 100 were discarded and 48 were reviewed. According to the analysis presented, these studies were classified as: epidemiology of gastric cancer (5/48); risk factors and protectors relating to gastric cancer (9/48); relationship between Helicobacter pylori and pathologies associated with gastric cancer and the development of the disease (16/48); relationship between the Epstein-Barr virus and pathologies associated with gastric cancer and the development of the disease (3/48); molecular markers for the development of diseases associated with gastric cancer and gastric cancer (15/48). Mexico requires a program for the prevention and control of gastric cancer based on national health indicators. This should be produced by a multidisciplinary committee of experts who can propose actions that are relevant in the current national context. The few studies of gastric cancer conducted on the Mexican population in national institutes highlight the poor connection that currently exists between the scientific community and the health sector in terms of resolving this health issue. Public policies for health research should support projects with findings that can be translated into benefits for the population. This review serves to identify national research groups studying gastric cancer in the Mexican

  19. Advanced radiation chemistry research: Current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Radiation chemistry is a branch of chemistry that studies chemical transformations in materials exposed to high-energy radiations. It is based on the use of ionizing radiation as the initiator or catalyst in chemical reactions. The most significant advantage of radiation chemistry lies in its ability to be used in the production and study of almost any reactive atomic and molecular species playing a part in chemical reaction, synthesis, industrial processes, or in biological systems. Over the the last few years a number of meetings have taken place, under the auspices of the IAEA, in order to evaluate recent developments in radiation chemistry as well as the trends indicated by the results obtained. Radiation chemists from different countries have participated at these meetings. The present publication, a companion to the previous publication - New Trends and Development in Radiation Chemistry, IAEA-TECDOC-527 (1989) - includes some of the important contributions presented at these meetings. It is hoped that it will provide a useful overview of current activities and of emerging trends in this field, thus promoting better understanding of potential contributions of radiation chemistry to other fields of knowledge as well as to practical applications in industry, medicine and agriculture. Refs, figs and tabs

  20. Current state of nuclear fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naraghi, M.


    During the past quarter century, plasma physics and nuclear fusion research have gone through impressive development. Tokamak, is realized to be the number one candidate for nuclear fusion reactor. Two large experiments, one called Joint European Torus (JET) at Culham, England, and the other JT-60 project in Japan have been completed and have reported preliminary results. In JET an average electron density of 4x10 13 pcls/ cm 3 , ion temperatures of 3Kev and energy confinement of 0.8 sec have been achieved. However, the Zeff has been even equal to 10 which unfortunately is a source of plasma energy loss. JT-60 has not offered any appreciable results yet, however, the objectives and initial tests promise long pulse duration, with very high ion and plasma densities. Both experiments have promised to achieve conditions approaching those needed in a fusion reactor. Other important experiments will be discussed and the role of third world countries will be emphasized. (Author)

  1. Intuitive Physics: Current Research and Controversies. (United States)

    Kubricht, James R; Holyoak, Keith J; Lu, Hongjing


    Early research in the field of intuitive physics provided extensive evidence that humans succumb to common misconceptions and biases when predicting, judging, and explaining activity in the physical world. Recent work has demonstrated that, across a diverse range of situations, some biases can be explained by the application of normative physical principles to noisy perceptual inputs. However, it remains unclear how knowledge of physical principles is learned, represented, and applied to novel situations. In this review we discuss theoretical advances from heuristic models to knowledge-based, probabilistic simulation models, as well as recent deep-learning models. We also consider how recent work may be reconciled with earlier findings that favored heuristic models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Nanofluid Technology: Current Status and Future Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Stephen U.-S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Technology Division


    Downscaling or miniaturization has been a recent major trend in modern science and technology. Engineers now fabricate microscale devices such as microchannel heat exchangers, and micropumps that are the size of dust specks. Further major advances would be obtained if the coolant flowing in the microchannels were to contain nanoscale particles to enhance heat transfer. Nanofluid technology will thus be an emerging and exciting technology of the 21st century. This paper gives a brief history of the Advanced Fluids Program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), discusses the concept of nanofluids, and provides an overview of the R&D program at ANL on the production, property characterization, and performance of nanofluids. It also describes examples of potential applications and benefits of nanofluids. Finally, future research on the fundamentals and applications of nanofluids is addressed.

  3. Otto Warburg's contributions to current concepts of cancer metabolism. (United States)

    Koppenol, Willem H; Bounds, Patricia L; Dang, Chi V


    Otto Warburg pioneered quantitative investigations of cancer cell metabolism, as well as photosynthesis and respiration. Warburg and co-workers showed in the 1920s that, under aerobic conditions, tumour tissues metabolize approximately tenfold more glucose to lactate in a given time than normal tissues, a phenomenon known as the Warburg effect. However, this increase in aerobic glycolysis in cancer cells is often erroneously thought to occur instead of mitochondrial respiration and has been misinterpreted as evidence for damage to respiration instead of damage to the regulation of glycolysis. In fact, many cancers exhibit the Warburg effect while retaining mitochondrial respiration. We re-examine Warburg's observations in relation to the current concepts of cancer metabolism as being intimately linked to alterations of mitochondrial DNA, oncogenes and tumour suppressors, and thus readily exploitable for cancer therapy.

  4. Behavioral Research in Cancer Prevention and Control (United States)

    Klein, William M. P.; Bloch, Michele; Hesse, Bradford W.; McDonald, Paige G.; Nebeling, Linda; O’Connell, Mary E.; Riley, William T.; Taplin, Stephen H.; Tesauro, Gina


    Human behavior is central to the etiology and management of cancer outcomes and presents several avenues for targeted and sustained intervention. Psychosocial experiences such as stress and health behaviors including tobacco use, sun exposure, poor diet, and a sedentary lifestyle increase the risk of some cancers yet are often quite resistant to change. Cancer screening and other health services are misunderstood and over-utilized, and vaccination underutilized, in part because of the avalanche of information about cancer prevention. Coordination of cancer care is suboptimal, and only a small fraction of cancer patients enroll in clinical trials essential to the development of new cancer treatments. A growing population of cancer survivors has necessitated a fresh view of cancer as a chronic rather than acute disease. Fortunately, behavioral research can address a wide variety of key processes and outcomes across the cancer controbiol continuum from prevention to end-of-life care. Here we consider effects at the biobehavioral and psychological, social and organizational, and environmental levels. We challenge the research community to address key behavioral targets across all levels of influence, while taking into account the many new methodological tools that can facilitate this important work. PMID:24512871

  5. Current state of molecular imaging research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimm, J.; Wunder, A.


    The recent years have seen significant advances in both molecular biology, allowing the identification of genes and pathways related to disease, and imaging technologies that allow for improved spatial and temporal resolution, enhanced sensitivity, better depth penetration, improved image processing, and beneficial combinations of different imaging modalities. These advances have led to a paradigm shift in the scope of diagnostic imaging. The traditional role of radiological diagnostic imaging is to define gross anatomy and structure in order to detect pathological abnormalities. Available contrast agents are mostly non-specific and can be used to image physiological processes such as changes in blood volume, flow, and perfusion but not to demonstrate pathological alterations at molecular levels. However, alterations at the anatomical-morphological level are relatively late manifestations of underlying molecular changes. Using molecular probes or markers that bind specifically to molecular targets allows for the non-invasive visualization and quantitation of biological processes such as gene expression, apoptosis, or angiogenesis at the molecular level within intact living organisms. This rapidly evolving, multidisciplinary approach, referred to as molecular imaging, promises to enable early diagnosis, can provide improved classification of stage and severity of disease, an objective assessment of treatment efficacy, and a reliable prognosis. Furthermore, molecular imaging is an important tool for the evaluation of physiological and pathophysiological processes, and for the development of new therapies. This article comprises a review of current technologies of molecular imaging, describes the development of contrast agents and various imaging modalities, new applications in specific disease models, and potential future developments. (orig.)

  6. Databases and QSAR for Cancer Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeel Malik


    Full Text Available In this review, we take a survey of bioinformatics databases and quantitative structure-activity relationship studies reported in published literature. Databases from the most general to special cancer-related ones have been included. Most commonly used methods of structure-based analysis of molecules have been reviewed, along with some case studies where they have been used in cancer research. This article is expected to be of use for general bioinformatics researchers interested in cancer and will also provide an update to those who have been actively pursuing this field of research.

  7. Current status of knowledge about suicide in people with cancer


    Palacios-Espinosa, Ximena; Ocampo-Palacio, Juan-Gabriel


    Aim: To review the current knowledge about suicide in cancer patients. Method: We searchedspecialized databases using keywords for articles published in the last two decades (1990-2010),and compiled and reviewed them in order to: indicate the prevalence of suicide in cancer patientsworldwide and in Colombia, differentiating the data by sex and age; establish the types of cancerthat are associated with suicide, identify risk factors for committing or considering suicide andpresent the strategi...

  8. Current practices in fertility preservation in male cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Charles Osterberg


    Full Text Available The incidence of a cancer diagnosis in children and young adolescents is increasing. With better treatments, the number of young cancer survivors living through reproductive age is increasing. Fertility preservation of these men and women has become essential and needs to be discussed prior to the start of cancer treatment. Here we review the current guidelines for male oncofertility patients and highlight some of the important gonadotoxic effects of chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery. Options for fertility preservation are also discussed along with resources that should be made available to all patients.

  9. Administrative Assistant | Center for Cancer Research (United States)

    An administrative assistant position is available immediately in the Laboratory of Genome Integrity (LGI) within the Center for Cancer Research (CCR) in the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The LGI is actively looking for someone with administrative skills who will facilitate personnel, travel and related demands that support the laboratory chief, all principal investigators and postdoctoral fellows and laboratory support staff. 

  10. Researchers studying alternative to bladder removal for bladder cancer patients | Center for Cancer Research (United States)

    A new phase I clinical trial conducted by researchers at the Center for Cancer Research (CCR) is evaluating the safety and tolerability, or the degree to which any side effects can be tolerated by patients, of a two-drug combination as a potential alternative to bladder removal for bladder cancer patients. The trial targets patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) whose cancers have stopped responding to traditional therapies. Read more...

  11. Current research and development at the Nuclear Research Center Karlsruhe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuesters, H.


    The Nuclear Research Center Karlsruhe (KfK) is funded to 90% by the Federal Republic of Germany and to 10% by the State of Baden-Wuerttemberg. Since its foundation in 1956 the main objective of the Center is research and development (R and D) in the aera of the nuclear technology and about 2/3 of the research capacity is now devoted to this field. Since 1960 a major activity of KfK is R and D work for the design of fast breeder reactors, including material research, physics, and safety investigations; a prototype of 300 MWe is under construction now in the lower Rhine Valley. For enrichment of 235 U fissile material KfK developed the separation nozzle process; its technical application is realized within an international contract between the Federal Republic of Germany and Brazil. Within the frame of the European Programme on fusion technology KfK develops and tests superconducting magnets for toroidal fusion systems; a smaller activity deals with research on inertial confinement fusion. A broad research programme is carried through for safety investigations of nuclear installations, especially for PWRs; this activity is supplemented by research and development in the field of nuclear materials' safeguards. Development of fast reactors has to initiate research for the reprocessing of spent fuel and waste disposal. In the pilot plant WAK spent fuel from LKWs is reprocessed; research especially tries e.g. to improve the PUREX-process by electrochemical means, vitrification of high active waste is another main activity. First studies are being performed now to clarify the necessary development for reprocessing fast reactor fuel. About 1/3 of the research capacity of KfK deals with fundamental research in nuclear physics, solid state physics, biology and studies on the impact of technology on environment. Promising new technologies as e.g. the replacement of gasoline by hydrogen cells as vehicle propulsion are investigated. (orig.)

  12. Current role of research ethics committees in health research in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    May 1, 2014 ... to regulate health research until 2007, when a national regulatory body, the National Health Research Ethics Committee (NHREC), was ... responsibility to submit enough hard copies of their proposals for all members of the ... Most HREC members understood the concepts of autonomy and consent in ...

  13. Nebraska Prostate Cancer Research Program (United States)


    2010). Therapeutic Potential of Curcumin : Inhibition of MIC-1/GDF-15 Expression in Prostate Cancer Cells Exposed to Heavy Metal Carcinogen. monitor "What effect do Curcumin , NiCl2, and CoCl2 has on PC3M, LnCap, RWPE1, and PC3 cell lines." She plans on using the knowledge gained during...of Curcumin : Inhibition of MIC-1/GDF-15 Expression in Prostate Cancer Cells Exposed to Heavy Metal Carcinogen Brittany T. Jones, Poomy Pandey

  14. DCB - Cancer Immunology, Hematology, and Etiology Research (United States)

    Part of NCI’s Division of Cancer Biology’s research portfolio, studies supported include the characterization of basic mechanisms relevant to anti-tumor immune responses and hematologic malignancies.

  15. NIH Research Leads to Cervical Cancer Vaccine (United States)

    ... Transmitted Diseases NIH Research Leads to Cervical Cancer Vaccine Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... Douglas Lowy (left) and John Schiller developed the vaccine to prevent HPV infection in women, the cause ...

  16. The HPV Vaccine | Center for Cancer Research (United States)

    Two researchers leveraged CCR’s unique environment of investigator-driven inquiry to pursue studies of two cancer-causing genes that eventually led to the development of a vaccine against two forms of human papillomavirus.

  17. CCR Interns | Center for Cancer Research (United States)

    The Cancer Research Interns (CRI) Summer Program was inaugurated in 2004 to increase the diversity of trainee applicants to the Center for Cancer Research (CCR). We have placed 339 students from 2004 to 2017, in labs and branches across the CCR. The Division provides the training dollars, some Service & Supply funds, and travel support for those students who meet the financial eligibility criteria (View and/or print the 2018 flier).

  18. Globus | Informatics Technology for Cancer Research (ITCR) (United States)

    Globus software services provide secure cancer research data transfer, synchronization, and sharing in distributed environments at large scale. These services can be integrated into applications and research data gateways, leveraging Globus identity management, single sign-on, search, and authorization capabilities. Globus Genomics integrates Globus with the Galaxy genomics workflow engine and Amazon Web Services to enable cancer genomics analysis that can elastically scale compute resources with demand.

  19. Cancer and Radiation Therapy: Current Advances and Future Directions (United States)

    Baskar, Rajamanickam; Lee, Kuo Ann; Yeo, Richard; Yeoh, Kheng-Wei


    In recent years remarkable progress has been made towards the understanding of proposed hallmarks of cancer development and treatment. However with its increasing incidence, the clinical management of cancer continues to be a challenge for the 21st century. Treatment modalities comprise of radiation therapy, surgery, chemotherapy, immunotherapy and hormonal therapy. Radiation therapy remains an important component of cancer treatment with approximately 50% of all cancer patients receiving radiation therapy during their course of illness; it contributes towards 40% of curative treatment for cancer. The main goal of radiation therapy is to deprive cancer cells of their multiplication (cell division) potential. Celebrating a century of advances since Marie Curie won her second Nobel Prize for her research into radium, 2011 has been designated the Year of Radiation therapy in the UK. Over the last 100 years, ongoing advances in the techniques of radiation treatment and progress made in understanding the biology of cancer cell responses to radiation will endeavor to increase the survival and reduce treatment side effects for cancer patients. In this review, principles, application and advances in radiation therapy with their biological end points are discussed. PMID:22408567

  20. CCR Interns | Center for Cancer Research (United States)

    The Cancer Research Interns (CRI) Summer Program was inaugurated in 2004 to provide an open door for students looking for an initial training opportunity. The goal is to enhance diversity within the CCR (Center for Cancer Research) training program and we have placed 338 students from 2004 to 2017, in labs and branches across the division.  The CCR and the Center for Cancer Training’s Office of Training and Education provide stipend support, some Service & Supply funds, and travel support for those students who meet the financial eligibility criteria (

  1. Learning from Cancer Precursors | Center for Cancer Research (United States)

    Cancers that are preceded by distinct nonmalignant lesions provide an opportunity to study cancer progression and develop early detection and intervention strategies. Multiple myeloma—a cancer of the bone marrow that originates in a type of white blood cell called plasma cells—is consistently preceded by one of two nonmalignant precursor diseases: monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) or smoldering myeloma. Ola Landgren, M.D., Ph.D., and Adam Waxman, B.A., of the CCR Medical Oncology Branch recently published a case presentation and review in JAMA that discusses current understanding of myeloma precursor diseases and future opportunities for improving personalized management of patients with these conditions.

  2. Radiation related basic cancer research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Hoon; Yoo, Young Do; Hong, Seok Il [and others


    We studied the mechanism of radiation-induced apoptosis, the factors involved signaling, and the establishment of radiation-resistant cell lines in this study. During the TGF beta-stimulated epithelial mesenchymal transition(EMT), actin rearrangement occurred first and fibronectin matrix assembly followed. These two events were considered independent since cytochalasin-D did not inhibit TGF stimulated matrix assembly and fibronectin supplementation did not induce EMT. During EMT, alpha 5 beta 1 integrin and alpha v integrin have increased but MMP activation was not accompanied, which suggest that induction of extracellular matrix and activation of integrins may be main contributor for the EMT. Serum depriving induced apoptosis of HUVECs was prevented by vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) and PMA. The apoptosis prevention by VEGF and PMA were conformed by DNA fragmentation assay. The p53 expression level was down regulated by VEGF and PMA compared with serum deprived HUVECs. However, VEGF and PMA induces c-Myc expression level on these cells. We made the 5 radiation-resistant clones from breast, lung and cervical cancer cells. More than 70%, 100% and 50% increased resistance was detected in breast cancer cells, lung cancer cells, and cervical cells, respectively. We carried out differential display-PCR to clone the radiation-resistant genes. 9 out of 10 genes were analyzed their sequence.

  3. Radiation related basic cancer research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Hoon; Yoo, Young Do; Hong, Seok Il


    We studied the mechanism of radiation-induced apoptosis, the factors involved signaling, and the establishment of radiation-resistant cell lines in this study. During the TGF beta-stimulated epithelial mesenchymal transition(EMT), actin rearrangement occurred first and fibronectin matrix assembly followed. These two events were considered independent since cytochalasin-D did not inhibit TGF stimulated matrix assembly and fibronectin supplementation did not induce EMT. During EMT, alpha 5 beta 1 integrin and alpha v integrin have increased but MMP activation was not accompanied, which suggest that induction of extracellular matrix and activation of integrins may be main contributor for the EMT. Serum depriving induced apoptosis of HUVECs was prevented by vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) and PMA. The apoptosis prevention by VEGF and PMA were conformed by DNA fragmentation assay. The p53 expression level was down regulated by VEGF and PMA compared with serum deprived HUVECs. However, VEGF and PMA induces c-Myc expression level on these cells. We made the 5 radiation-resistant clones from breast, lung and cervical cancer cells. More than 70%, 100% and 50% increased resistance was detected in breast cancer cells, lung cancer cells, and cervical cells, respectively. We carried out differential display-PCR to clone the radiation-resistant genes. 9 out of 10 genes were analyzed their sequence

  4. Adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research lifestyle recommendations in colorectal cancer survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkels, Renate M.; Lee, van Linde; Beijer, Sandra; Bours, Martijn J.; Duijnhoven, van Fränzel J.B.; Geelen, Anouk; Hoedjes, Meeke; Mols, Floortje; Vries, de Jeanne; Weijenberg, Matty P.; Kampman, Ellen


    We examined adherence to the eight The World Cancer Research Foundation/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) recommendations on diet, physical activity, and body weight among colorectal cancer survivors, and whether adherence was associated with intention to eat healthy and with the

  5. Current treatment for colorectal cancer metastatic to the liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cromheecke, M; de Jong, KP; Hoekstra, HJ


    Surgery is currently the only available treatment option which offers the potential for cure for patients with liver metastases from colorectal cancer. Of those who undergo a potentially curative operation for their primary tumour but subsequently recur, almost 80% will develop evidence of

  6. Current status of transrectal ultrasound techniques in prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeenge, Martijn; de La Rosette, Jean J. M. C. H.; Wijkstra, Hessel


    Purpose of review Present the current status of transrectal ultrasound imaging in prostate cancer (PCa) and discuss the latest techniques now under preclinical evaluation. Recent findings Three-dimensional ultrasound and quantification techniques are superior to two-dimensional ultrasound in

  7. Cancer systems biology: signal processing for cancer research (United States)

    Yli-Harja, Olli; Ylipää, Antti; Nykter, Matti; Zhang, Wei


    In this editorial we introduce the research paradigms of signal processing in the era of systems biology. Signal processing is a field of science traditionally focused on modeling electronic and communications systems, but recently it has turned to biological applications with astounding results. The essence of signal processing is to describe the natural world by mathematical models and then, based on these models, develop efficient computational tools for solving engineering problems. Here, we underline, with examples, the endless possibilities which arise when the battle-hardened tools of engineering are applied to solve the problems that have tormented cancer researchers. Based on this approach, a new field has emerged, called cancer systems biology. Despite its short history, cancer systems biology has already produced several success stories tackling previously impracticable problems. Perhaps most importantly, it has been accepted as an integral part of the major endeavors of cancer research, such as analyzing the genomic and epigenomic data produced by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project. Finally, we show that signal processing and cancer research, two fields that are seemingly distant from each other, have merged into a field that is indeed more than the sum of its parts. PMID:21439242

  8. Prostate Cancer Stem-Like Cells | Center for Cancer Research (United States)

    Prostate cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related death among men, killing an estimated 27,000 men each year in the United States. Men with advanced prostate cancer often become resistant to conventional therapies. Many researchers speculate that the emergence of resistance is due to the presence of cancer stem cells, which are believed to be a small subpopulation of tumor cells that can self-renew and give rise to more differentiated tumor cells. It is thought that these stem cells survive initial therapies (such as chemotherapy and hormone therapy) and then generate new tumor cells that are resistant to these standard treatments. If prostate cancer stem cells could be identified and characterized, it might be possible to design treatments that prevent resistance.

  9. Immunotherapy for Non-small-cell Lung Cancer: Current Status and Future Obstacles. (United States)

    Cho, Ju Hwan


    Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. There are 2 major subtypes of lung cancer, non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). Studies show that NSCLC is the more prevalent type of lung cancer that accounts for approximately 80%-85% of cases. Although, various treatment methods, such as chemotherapy, surgery, and radiation therapy have been used to treat lung cancer patients, there is an emergent need to develop more effective approaches to deal with advanced stages of tumors. Recently, immunotherapy has emerged as a new approach to combat with such tumors. The development and success of programmed cell death 1 (PD-1)/program death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitors and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) blockades in treating metastatic cancers opens a new pavement for the future research. The current mini review discusses the significance of immune checkpoint inhibitors in promoting the death of tumor cells. Additionally, this review also addresses the importance of tumor-specific antigens (neoantigens) in the development of cancer vaccines and major challenges associated with this therapy. Immunotherapy can be a promising approach to treat NSCLC because it stimulates host's own immune system to recognize cancer cells. Therefore, future research should focus on the development of new methodologies to identify novel checkpoint inhibitors and potential neoantigens.

  10. Current concepts of pain management for cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-Hsun Feng


    Full Text Available Pain management is one of the most important issues confronted when treating patients with malignant diseases. Since its release/publication in 1986, the World Health Organization’s three-step analgesic ladder has helped to greatly improve pain management in cancer patients. However, many questions about this three-step analgesic ladder have been raised and its application in the clinical setting remains a controversial subject. This review article explores the frontline treatment of cancer pain with morphine and the different routes of fentanyl administration used in cancer pain management. The combination of multiple opiates/opioids has been shown to result in more effective cancer pain management; however, the exact benefits of such opiate/opioid combinations have yet to be established. This article also discusses recent advances in the topical application of morphine and in the combination of ketamine and morphine. It explores the updated treatment principles of neuropathic pain in advanced-stage cancer patients, which incorporate the use of anti-depressants, anti-convulsants, and opioids. Finally, this article reviews the available data and clarifies the general principles for using opioids in cancer patients with renal insufficiency. We hope that this information will be helpful in improving pain management in cancer patients and in facilitating further research.

  11. Therapeutic potential of snake venom in cancer therapy: current perspectives (United States)

    Vyas, Vivek Kumar; Brahmbhatt, Keyur; Bhatt, Hardik; Parmar, Utsav


    Many active secretions produced by animals have been employed in the development of new drugs to treat diseases such as hypertension and cancer. Snake venom toxins contributed significantly to the treatment of many medical conditions. There are many published studies describing and elucidating the anti-cancer potential of snake venom. Cancer therapy is one of the main areas for the use of protein peptides and enzymes originating from animals of different species. Some of these proteins or peptides and enzymes from snake venom when isolated and evaluated may bind specifically to cancer cell membranes, affecting the migration and proliferation of these cells. Some of substances found in the snake venom present a great potential as anti-tumor agent. In this review, we presented the main results of recent years of research involving the active compounds of snake venom that have anticancer activity. PMID:23593597

  12. TCGA researchers identify 4 subtypes of stomach cancer (United States)

    Stomach cancers fall into four distinct molecular subtypes, researchers with The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Network have found. Scientists report that this discovery could change how researchers think about developing treatments for stomach cancer, also c

  13. Antiproton radiation found effective in cancer research

    CERN Multimedia


    "An international collaboration of scientists has completed the first ever antiproton beam experiments designed to reveal the biological effectiveness of antiproton radiation in terminating cells used for cancer research...PBar Labs assembled the collaboration at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research in Geneva) to perform the measurements" (1 page).

  14. Sustainability in facilities management: an overview of current research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Sarasoja, Anna-Liisa; Ramskov Galamba, Kirsten


    the emerging sub-discipline of sustainable facilities management (SFM) on research, an overview of current studies is needed. The purpose of this literature review is to provide exactly this overview. Design/methodology/approach: This article identifies and examines current research studies on SFM through...... a comprehensive and systematic literature review. The literature review included screening of 85 identified scientific journals and almost 20,000 articles from the period of 2007-2012. Of the articles reviewed, 151 were identified as key articles and categorised according to topic. Findings: The literature review...... indicated that the current research varies in focus, methodology and application of theory, and it was concluded that the current research primary addresses environmental sustainability, whereas the current research which takes an integrated strategic approach to SFM is limited. The article includes lists...

  15. Protocol Coordinator | Center for Cancer Research (United States)

    PROGRAM DESCRIPTION Within the Leidos Biomedical Research Inc.’s Clinical Research Directorate, the Clinical Monitoring Research Program (CMRP) provides high-quality comprehensive and strategic operational support to the high-profile domestic and international clinical research initiatives of the National Cancer Institute (NCI), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), Clinical Center (CC), National Institute of Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI), National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS), National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS), National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), and the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). Since its inception in 2001, CMRP’s ability to provide rapid responses, high-quality solutions, and to recruit and retain experts with a variety of backgrounds to meet the growing research portfolios of NCI, NIAID, CC, NHLBI, NIAMS, NCATS, NINDS, and NIMH has led to the consid erable expansion of the program and its repertoire of support services. CMRP’s support services are strategically aligned with the program’s mission to provide comprehensive, dedicated support to assist National Institutes of Health researchers in providing the highest quality of clinical research in compliance with applicable regulations and guidelines, maintaining data integrity, and protecting human subjects. For the scientific advancement of clinical research, CMRP services include comprehensive clinical trials, regulatory, pharmacovigilance, protocol navigation and development, and programmatic and project management support for facilitating the conduct of 400+ Phase I, II, and III domestic and international trials on a yearly basis. These trials investigate the prevention, diagnosis, treatment of, and therapies for cancer, influenza, HIV, and other infectious diseases and viruses such as hepatitis C, tuberculosis, malaria, and Ebola virus; heart, lung, and


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. I. Tamrazov


    Full Text Available The article describes the main stages of the development of sphincter-saving surgery for rectal cancer. An historical look at this issue from the standpoint of research of past years in our country and abroad, as well as analysis of current sphincter-preserving surgery and future directions in this area.

  17. Research on Immunotherapy: Using the Immune System to Treat Cancer (United States)

    ... Home Research Key Initiatives Immunotherapy NCI’s Role in Immunotherapy Research An oral squamous cancer cell (white) being ... immunotherapy to more patients with cancer. NCI-Supported Immunotherapy Research Immunotherapy research funded by or conducted at ...

  18. The Future of LGBT Cancer Care: Practice and Research Implications. (United States)

    Rice, David; Schabath, Matthew B


    To synthesize state of the knowledge collected in this volume and propose future directions for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) cancer practice, education, research, and advocacy. Current and extant literature. Health care disparities that are known but not yet fully elucidated in the LGBT population carry into the cancer arena. Substantially more effort is required in the domains of patient care, nursing practice, nursing and patient-facing services provider education, patient education, nursing and interprofessional research, governmental commitment, professional organization action, and patient advocacy. Professional nurses are committed to the uniqueness of each individual and respect and value the health and well-being of each individual. To that commitment, oncology nurses are positioned to advance the research in the field, which will help to clarify the issues and concerns related to LGBT cancer, address the health care inequities in this important population, and lead to improved outcomes for all. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Prostate Cancer Research Training Program (United States)


    brief description of research in the la boratories of each University of Iowa mentor. At this point in time the program is 8 weeks gymds/luo.html A major research project in our la boratory is to develop a novel therapeutic...wright.shtml?menu =1&tab=facultyTab The Wright Labo ratory is focuse d on defining the composition, activity, and overall cellul ar function of

  20. Optimal breast cancer screening strategies for older women: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braithwaite D


    Full Text Available Dejana Braithwaite,1 Joshua Demb,1 Louise M Henderson2 1Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, CA, 2Department of Radiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA Abstract: Breast cancer is a major cause of cancer-related deaths among older women, aged 65 years or older. Screening mammography has been shown to be effective in reducing breast cancer mortality in women aged 50–74 years but not among those aged 75 years or older. Given the large heterogeneity in comorbidity status and life expectancy among older women, controversy remains over screening mammography in this population. Diminished life expectancy with aging may decrease the potential screening benefit and increase the risk of harms. In this review, we summarize the evidence on screening mammography utilization, performance, and outcomes and highlight evidence gaps. Optimizing the screening strategy will involve separating older women who will benefit from screening from those who will not benefit by using information on comorbidity status and life expectancy. This review has identified areas related to screening mammography in older women that warrant additional research, including the need to evaluate emerging screening technologies, such as tomosynthesis among older women and precision cancer screening. In the absence of randomized controlled trials, the benefits and harms of continued screening mammography in older women need to be estimated using both population-based cohort data and simulation models. Keywords: aging, breast cancer, precision cancer screening

  1. Implementation of proteomics for cancer research: past, present, and future. (United States)

    Karimi, Parisa; Shahrokni, Armin; Ranjbar, Mohammad R Nezami


    Cancer is the leading cause of the death, accounts for about 13% of all annual deaths worldwide. Many different fields of science are collaborating together studying cancer to improve our knowledge of this lethal disease, and find better solutions for diagnosis and treatment. Proteomics is one of the most recent and rapidly growing areas in molecular biology that helps understanding cancer from an omics data analysis point of view. The human proteome project was officially initiated in 2008. Proteomics enables the scientists to interrogate a variety of biospecimens for their protein contents and measure the concentrations of these proteins. Current necessary equipment and technologies for cancer proteomics are mass spectrometry, protein microarrays, nanotechnology and bioinformatics. In this paper, we provide a brief review on proteomics and its application in cancer research. After a brief introduction including its definition, we summarize the history of major previous work conducted by researchers, followed by an overview on the role of proteomics in cancer studies. We also provide a list of different utilities in cancer proteomics and investigate their advantages and shortcomings from theoretical and practical angles. Finally, we explore some of the main challenges and conclude the paper with future directions in this field.

  2. Brain Cancer Stem Cells: Current Status on Glioblastoma Multiforme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facchino, Sabrina; Abdouh, Mohamed; Bernier, Gilbert


    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), an aggressive brain tumor of astrocytic/neural stem cell origin, represents one of the most incurable cancers. GBM tumors are highly heterogeneous. However, most tumors contain a subpopulation of cells that display neural stem cell characteristics in vitro and that can generate a new brain tumor upon transplantation in mice. Hence, previously identified molecular pathways regulating neural stem cell biology were found to represent the cornerstone of GBM stem cell self-renewal mechanism. GBM tumors are also notorious for their resistance to radiation therapy. Notably, GBM “cancer stem cells” were also found to be responsible for this radioresistance. Herein, we will analyze the data supporting or not the cancer stem cell model in GBM, overview the current knowledge regarding GBM stem cell self-renewal and radioresistance molecular mechanisms, and discuss the potential therapeutic application of these findings

  3. Honey and Cancer: Current Status and Future Directions (United States)

    Porcza, Laura M.; Simms, Claire; Chopra, Mridula


    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide and poses a challenge to treatment. With overwhelming evidence of the role played by diet and lifestyle in cancer risk and prevention, there is a growing interest into the search for chemopreventative or chemotherapeutic agents derived from natural products. Honey is an important source of bioactive compounds derived from plants and recent years have seen an increased interest in its anticancer properties. This review examines the role of honey in targeting key hallmarks of carcinogenesis, including uncontrolled proliferation, apoptosis evasion, angiogenesis, growth factor signalling, invasion, and inflammation. The evidence for honey as an adjunct to conventional cancer therapy is also presented. The review also highlights gaps in the current understanding and concludes that, before translation of evidence from cell culture and animal studies into the clinical setting, further studies are warranted to examine the effects of honey at a molecular level, as well as on cells in the tumour environment. PMID:28933410

  4. Postdoctoral Fellows | Center for Cancer Research (United States)

    The Oncogenomics section of the Genetics Branch is a multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary translational research programmatic effort with the goal of utilizing genomics to develop novel immunotherapies for cancer. Our group is applying high throughput applied genomics methods including single cell RNAseq, single cell TCR sequencing, DNA sequencing, CRISPR/Cas9, bioinformatics combined with T cell based therapeutics to identify and develop novel immunotherapeutics for human cancer. We work with other investigators within the intramural program as well as industrial and pharmaceutical partners to rapidly translate our findings to the clinic. The program takes advantage of the uniqueness of the National Cancer Institute, (NCI), Center for Cancer Research (CCR) intramural program in that it spans high-risk basic discovery research in immunology, genomics and tumor biology, through preclinical translational research, to paradigm-shifting clinical trials. The position is available immediately. The appointment duration is up to 5 years. Stipends are commensurate with education and experience. Additional information can be found on Dr. Khan’s profile page:

  5. Automation of Technology for Cancer Research. (United States)

    van der Ent, Wietske; Veneman, Wouter J; Groenewoud, Arwin; Chen, Lanpeng; Tulotta, Claudia; Hogendoorn, Pancras C W; Spaink, Herman P; Snaar-Jagalska, B Ewa


    Zebrafish embryos can be obtained for research purposes in large numbers at low cost and embryos develop externally in limited space, making them highly suitable for high-throughput cancer studies and drug screens. Non-invasive live imaging of various processes within the larvae is possible due to their transparency during development, and a multitude of available fluorescent transgenic reporter lines.To perform high-throughput studies, handling large amounts of embryos and larvae is required. With such high number of individuals, even minute tasks may become time-consuming and arduous. In this chapter, an overview is given of the developments in the automation of various steps of large scale zebrafish cancer research for discovering important cancer pathways and drugs for the treatment of human disease. The focus lies on various tools developed for cancer cell implantation, embryo handling and sorting, microfluidic systems for imaging and drug treatment, and image acquisition and analysis. Examples will be given of employment of these technologies within the fields of toxicology research and cancer research.

  6. Summer Prostate Cancer Research Training Program (United States)


    the research program by each mentor will certainly produce important research findings, aided in part by the summer research of the ...adenovirus vaccine in men with prostate cancer. Important in these trials is the safety of the vaccine and its ability to induce anti-tumor immunity... Living in Iowa City for the Summer Housing and Meals - All students will be housed in the Mayflower Residence Hall on the Campus of the University

  7. African medicinal plants and their derivatives: Current efforts towards potential anti-cancer drugs. (United States)

    Mbele, Mzwandile; Hull, Rodney; Dlamini, Zodwa


    Cancer is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide and second only to cardiovascular diseases. Cancer is a challenge in African countries because generally there is limited funding available to deal with the cancer epidemic and awareness and this should be prioritised and all possible resources should be utilized to prevent and treat cancer. The current review reports on the role of African medicinal plants in the treatment of cancer, and also outlines methodologies that can also be used to achieve better outcomes for cancer treatment. This review outlines African medicinal plants, isolated compounds and technologies that can be used to advance cancer research. Chemical structures of isolated compounds have an important role in anti-cancer treatments; new technologies and methods may assist to identify more properties of African medicinal plants and the treatment of cancer. In conclusion, African medicinal plants have shown their potential as enormous resources for novel cytotoxicity compounds. Finally it has been noted that the cytotoxicity depends on the chemical structural arrangements of African medicinal plants compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Oligometastatic non-small-cell lung cancer: current treatment strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard PJ


    Full Text Available Patrick J Richard, Ramesh Rengan Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA Abstract: The oligometastatic disease theory was initially described in 1995 by Hellman and Weichselbaum. Since then, much work has been performed to investigate its existence in many solid tumors. This has led to subclassifications of stage IV cancer, which could redefine our treatment approaches and the therapeutic outcomes for this historically “incurable” entity. With a high incidence of stage IV disease, non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC remains a difficult cancer to treat and cure. Recent work has proven the existence of an oligometastatic state in NSCLC in terms of properly selecting patients who may benefit from aggressive therapy and experience long-term overall survival. This review discusses the current treatment approaches used in oligometastatic NSCLC and provides the evidence and rationale for each approach. The prognostic factors of many trials are discussed, which can be used to properly select patients for aggressive treatment regimens. Future advances in both molecular profiling of NSCLC to find targetable mutations and investigating patient selection may increase the number of patients diagnosed with oligometastatic NSCLC. As this disease entity increases, it is of utmost importance for oncologists treating NSCLC to be aware of the current treatment strategies that exist and the potential advantages/disadvantages of each. Keywords: oligometastatic, non-small-cell lung cancer, oligoprogressive, treatment

  9. About the Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention (United States)

    The Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group conducts and fosters the development of research on the prevention and early detection of breast cancer, cervix and human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers, endometrial cancers, ovarian cancers, and precursor conditions related to these cancers. |

  10. Current evidence for histone deacetylase inhibitors in pancreatic cancer. (United States)

    Koutsounas, Ioannis; Giaginis, Constantinos; Patsouris, Efstratios; Theocharis, Stamatios


    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most aggressive human cancers, with more than 200 000 deaths worldwide every year. Despite recent efforts, conventional treatment approaches, such as surgery and classic chemotherapy, have only slightly improved patient outcomes. More effective and well-tolerated therapies are required to reverse the current poor prognosis of this type of neoplasm. Among new agents, histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) are now being tested. HDACIs have multiple biological effects related to acetylation of histones and many non-histone proteins that are involved in regulation of gene expression, apoptosis, cell cycle progression and angiogenesis. HDACIs induce cell cycle arrest and can activate the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of apoptosis in different cancer cell lines. In the present review, the main mechanisms by which HDACIs act in pancreatic cancer cells in vitro, as well as their antiproliferative effects in animal models are presented. HDACIs constitute a promising treatment for pancreatic cancer with encouraging anti-tumor effects, at well-tolerated doses.

  11. Religion, spirituality and cancer: current status and methodological challenges. (United States)

    Stefanek, Michael; McDonald, Paige Green; Hess, Stephanie A


    The role of religion and spirituality in health has received increasing attention in the scientific and lay literature. While the scientific attention to this issue has expanded, there continue to be methodological and measurement concerns that often prevent firm conclusions about health and adjustment benefits. Limited attention has been provided to the role of spirituality and religion in cancer. This is true when both disease outcome and adjustment are considered. A recent 'levels of evidence' review examining the link between physical health and religion or spirituality found little overall support for the hypotheses that religion or spirituality impact cancer progression or mortality. Studies examining their impact on quality of life and adjustment are decidedly mixed. In sum, research specifically focusing on the role of religion or spirituality on cancer outcomes has been surprisingly sparse. Such research presents a number of methodological and measurement challenges. Due to these unmet challenges in the literature to date, it is premature to determine what role religion and spirituality play in disease, adjustment, or quality of life outcomes in cancer. A number of suggestions are made for continued research in this area.

  12. Next generation distributed computing for cancer research. (United States)

    Agarwal, Pankaj; Owzar, Kouros


    Advances in next generation sequencing (NGS) and mass spectrometry (MS) technologies have provided many new opportunities and angles for extending the scope of translational cancer research while creating tremendous challenges in data management and analysis. The resulting informatics challenge is invariably not amenable to the use of traditional computing models. Recent advances in scalable computing and associated infrastructure, particularly distributed computing for Big Data, can provide solutions for addressing these challenges. In this review, the next generation of distributed computing technologies that can address these informatics problems is described from the perspective of three key components of a computational platform, namely computing, data storage and management, and networking. A broad overview of scalable computing is provided to set the context for a detailed description of Hadoop, a technology that is being rapidly adopted for large-scale distributed computing. A proof-of-concept Hadoop cluster, set up for performance benchmarking of NGS read alignment, is described as an example of how to work with Hadoop. Finally, Hadoop is compared with a number of other current technologies for distributed computing.

  13. Dedicated researcher brings cancer care to rural communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharan Bhuller


    Full Text Available As an ardent cancer researcher, Dr. Smita Asthana has a vision to create wider awareness on cancer and its prevention, and aims to work on translational research to benefit the general public through the implementation of evidence-based research. “I have been associated with the National Institute of Cancer Prevention and Research (NICPR and Institute of Cytology and Preventive Oncology (ICPO since November 2004 and have progressed over a period of time from being a staff scientist to the current role of a senior scientist,” says Dr. Asthana, who is presently with NICPR’s Biostatistics and Epidemiology division.“I have been working in various positions that deal with the design, execution, and evaluation of medical projects. Recently, we have concluded two major cervical cancer screening projects and conducted a screening of 10,000 women in rural areas,” she tells AMOR. One project, funded by the Indian Council of Medical Research, was carried out 100 km west of New Delhi in the rural town of Dadri “as part of an operational research to see the implementation of VIA (visual inspection with acetic acid and VILI (visual inspection with Lugol's iodine screenings with the help of existing healthcare infrastructure,” she explains.As a leading researcher in cervical cancer screening, she completed an Indo-US collaborative project on the clinical performance of a human papillomavirus (HPV test, used as a strategy for screening cervical cancer in rural communities, with funding from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation via the international non-profit global health organization PATH. “The primary objective of the project was to observe the performance of careHPV, a new diagnostic kit, in a rural setup,” she says.CareHPV is a highly sensitive DNA test, which detects 14 different types of the human papillomavirus that cause cervical cancer, providing results more rapidly than other DNA tests and is designed especially for use in clinics

  14. Prostate Cancer Research Trial Helps John Spencer Treat His Cancer | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Research Trial Helps John Spencer Treat His Cancer ... because of timely detection and treatment of his prostate cancer. He participated in an NIH-sponsored clinical trial. ...

  15. Breast Cancer Research Training Grant (United States)


    Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics Program in Research on Women-s Health Female Reproductive Aging : A Window into the Aging Brain Phyllis M. Wise...of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone neuronal function. - PLEASE POST Phone: 638-4500 Department of B0Si PATHOLOGYI and Laboratory Medicine Boston...AT 1:00 SEPTEMBER 26 Jacob Sloane Brain inflammation in pathologic aging . Department of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine OCTOBER 3 Dr. Sun Tam The

  16. Flow Cytometry Scientist | Center for Cancer Research (United States)

    The Basic Science Program (BSP) pursues independent, multidisciplinary research in basic and applied molecular biology, immunology, retrovirology, cancer biology, and human genetics. Research efforts and support are an integral part of the Center for Cancer Research (CCR) at the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research (FNLCR). KEY ROLES/RESPONSIBILITIES The Flow Cytometry Core (Flow Core) in the Cancer and Inflammation Program (CIP) is a service core which supports the research efforts of the CCR by providing expertise in the field of flow cytometry (fluorescence cell sorting) with the goal of gaining a more thorough understanding of the biology of the immune system, cancer, and inflammation processes. The Flow Core provides service to 12-15 CIP laboratories and more than 22 non-CIP laboratories. Flow core staff provide technical advice on the experimental design of applications, which include immunological phenotyping, cell function assays, and cell cycle analysis. Work is performed per customer requirements, and no independent research is involved. Flow Cytometry Scientist - The individual will be responsible for: Daily management of the Flow Cytometry Core, to include the supervision and guidance of technical staff members Monitor performance of and maintain high-dimensional flow cytometer analyzers and cell sorters Operate high-dimensional flow cytometer analyzers and cell sorters Provide scientific expertise to the user community and facilitate the development of cutting-edge technologies Interact with Flow Core users and customers, and provide technical and scientific advice, and guidance regarding their experiments, including possible collaborations Train staff and scientific end users on the use of flow cytometry in their research, as well as teach them how to operate and troubleshoot the bench-top analyzer instruments Prepare and deliver lectures, as well as one-on-one training sessions, with customers/users Ensure that protocols are up

  17. Current and Future Research Directions in Requirements Engineering (United States)

    Cheng, Betty H. C.; Atlee, Joanne M.

    In this paper, we review current requirements engineering (RE) research and identify future research directions suggested by emerging software needs. First, we overview the state of the art in RE research. The research is considered with respect to technologies developed to address specific requirements tasks, such as elicitation, modeling, and analysis. Such a review enables us to identify mature areas of research, as well as areas that warrant further investigation. Next, we review several strategies for performing and extending RE research results, to help delineate the scope of future research directions. Finally, we highlight what we consider to be the “hot” current and future research topics, which aim to address RE needs for emerging systems of the future.

  18. Book Review: International terrorism. Current research and future ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Book Title: International terrorism. Current research and future directions. Book Author: Alan D. Buckley & Daniel D. Olson (Eds.) Wayne Avery Publishing Group, 1980. 113pp., Illustrations ...

  19. Current Research on the Relative Effectiveness of Selected Media Characteristics. (United States)

    Gulliford, Nancy L.

    The literature of research and theory on media, the psychology of learning, and the technology of instruction is reviewed. The focus is on discovering what is currently known about the intersection of these fields. Current thoughts and discoveries about brain structure and processing are discussed. The management of learning as a system is another…

  20. Childhood cancer survivorship research in minority populations: A position paper from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. (United States)

    Bhatia, Smita; Gibson, Todd M; Ness, Kirsten K; Liu, Qi; Oeffinger, Kevin C; Krull, Kevin R; Nathan, Paul C; Neglia, Joseph P; Leisenring, Wendy; Yasui, Yutaka; Robison, Leslie L; Armstrong, Gregory T


    By the middle of this century, racial/ethnic minority populations will collectively constitute 50% of the US population. This temporal shift in the racial/ethnic composition of the US population demands a close look at the race/ethnicity-specific burden of morbidity and premature mortality among survivors of childhood cancer. To optimize targeted long-term follow-up care, it is essential to understand whether the burden of morbidity borne by survivors of childhood cancer differs by race/ethnicity. This is challenging because the number of minority participants is often limited in current childhood cancer survivorship research, resulting in a paucity of race/ethnicity-specific recommendations and/or interventions. Although the overall childhood cancer incidence increased between 1973 and 2003, the mortality rate declined; however, these changes did not differ appreciably by race/ethnicity. The authors speculated that any racial/ethnic differences in outcome are likely to be multifactorial, and drew on data from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study to illustrate the various contributors (socioeconomic characteristics, health behaviors, and comorbidities) that could explain any observed differences in key treatment-related complications. Finally, the authors outlined challenges in conducting race/ethnicity-specific childhood cancer survivorship research, demonstrating that there are limited absolute numbers of children who are diagnosed and survive cancer in any one racial/ethnic minority population, thereby precluding a rigorous evaluation of adverse events among specific primary cancer diagnoses and treatment exposure groups. Cancer 2016;122:2426-2439. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  1. New targets for immunotherapy-based treatment of HPV-related cancers | Center for Cancer Research (United States)

    Scientists at the Center for Cancer Research and three other cancer research institutions show that immunotherapy treatments that resulted in complete regression of metastatic cervical cancer largely targeted two non-viral antigens. Read more…  

  2. Testicular Cancer Survivorship: Research Strategies and Recommendations (United States)

    Beard, Clair; Allan, James M.; Dahl, Alv A.; Feldman, Darren R.; Oldenburg, Jan; Daugaard, Gedske; Kelly, Jennifer L.; Dolan, M. Eileen; Hannigan, Robyn; Constine, Louis S.; Oeffinger, Kevin C.; Okunieff, Paul; Armstrong, Greg; Wiljer, David; Miller, Robert C.; Gietema, Jourik A.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Williams, Jacqueline P.; Nichols, Craig R.; Einhorn, Lawrence H.; Fossa, Sophie D.


    Testicular cancer represents the most curable solid tumor, with a 10-year survival rate of more than 95%. Given the young average age at diagnosis, it is estimated that effective treatment approaches, in particular, platinum-based chemotherapy, have resulted in an average gain of several decades of life. This success, however, is offset by the emergence of considerable long-term morbidity, including second malignant neoplasms, cardiovascular disease, neurotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, pulmonary toxicity, hypogonadism, decreased fertility, and psychosocial problems. Data on underlying genetic or molecular factors that might identify those patients at highest risk for late sequelae are sparse. Genome-wide association studies and other translational molecular approaches now provide opportunities to identify testicular cancer survivors at greatest risk for therapy-related complications to develop evidence-based long-term follow-up guidelines and interventional strategies. We review research priorities identified during an international workshop devoted to testicular cancer survivors. Recommendations include 1) institution of lifelong follow-up of testicular cancer survivors within a large cohort setting to ascertain risks of emerging toxicities and the evolution of known late sequelae, 2) development of comprehensive risk prediction models that include treatment factors and genetic modifiers of late sequelae, 3) elucidation of the effect(s) of decades-long exposure to low serum levels of platinum, 4) assessment of the overall burden of medical and psychosocial morbidity, and 5) the eventual formulation of evidence-based long-term follow-up guidelines and interventions. Just as testicular cancer once served as the paradigm of a curable malignancy, comprehensive follow-up studies of testicular cancer survivors can pioneer new methodologies in survivorship research for all adult-onset cancer. PMID:20585105

  3. Current research projects on traffic conflicts technique studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hondel, M. van den & and Kraay, J.H.


    A review of current research concerning the development, evaluation and use of the traffic conflicts technique is presented. The 32 studies, selected from the IRRD data base, are listed alphabetically by names of countries and under countries by names of research organizations. The IRRD descriptions

  4. Postdoctoral Fellow | Center for Cancer Research (United States)

    Highly motivated postdoctoral fellows sought to work on tumor immunology with a strong background in biology preferentially cellular immunology. The tumor immunology group in the laboratory is exploring mechanisms of improving vaccines and immunotherapy for cancer, especially by discovering new principles to enhance and steer T cell immune responses. The group is focusing on negative immunoregulatory mechanisms used for immune evasion by cancer cells. The postdoctoral fellow will work on a project to understand the negative regulatory mechanisms of tumor immunity especially the mechanisms initiated by NKT cells. Group members also have an opportunity to gain knowledge of HIV/mucosal immunology by interacting with the HIV research group in the lab.

  5. Pain experiences among a population-based cohort of current, former, and never regular smokers with lung and colorectal cancer. (United States)

    Gonzalez, Adam; Japuntich, Sandra; Keating, Nancy L; Wallace, Robert; He, Yulei; Streck, Joanna M; Park, Elyse R


    Smoking and pain are prevalent and comorbid among patients with cancer. Limited work has compared pain experiences among current, former, and never (regular) smokers with lung and colorectal cancer. We studied pain experiences of patients with lung (n = 2390) and colorectal (n = 2993) cancer participating in the multi-regional Cancer Care Outcomes Research and Surveillance study. We examined reports of pain, pain treatment, pain severity, and pain-related interference within each cancer group by smoking status, adjusting for demographic, psychosocial, and cancer characteristics. Among lung cancer patients, current smokers reported pain and receiving pain treatment more often than former smokers. Never smokers did not differ from current and former smokers on endorsement of pain; however, they reported pain treatment less often than their counterparts. Current smokers reported greater pain severity than former smokers after adjusting for other contributing factors; however, no differences were detected between current and never smokers. There were no differences in pain-related interference. Among colorectal cancer patients, current smokers reported pain and pain treatment more often than former and never smokers; however, the latter 2 groups did not differ. Current smokers also reported greater pain severity than never smokers after adjustments; however, no differences were detected between current and former smokers. An identical pattern of findings was observed for pain-related interference. Many smokers with lung and colorectal cancer experience pain following a cancer diagnosis. Future work should assess if comprehensive smoking cessation treatments that address pain can reduce pain and facilitate smoking cessation among patients with cancer. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  6. Statistical Analysis of Research Data | Center for Cancer Research (United States)

    Recent advances in cancer biology have resulted in the need for increased statistical analysis of research data. The Statistical Analysis of Research Data (SARD) course will be held on April 5-6, 2018 from 9 a.m.-5 p.m. at the National Institutes of Health's Natcher Conference Center, Balcony C on the Bethesda Campus. SARD is designed to provide an overview on the general principles of statistical analysis of research data.  The first day will feature univariate data analysis, including descriptive statistics, probability distributions, one- and two-sample inferential statistics.

  7. Current status of lectin-based cancer diagnosis and therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fohona S. Coulibaly


    Full Text Available Lectins are carbohydrate recognizing proteins originating from diverse origins in nature, including animals, plants, viruses, bacteria and fungus. Due to their exceptional glycan recognition property, they have found many applications in analytical chemistry, biotechnology and surface chemistry. This manuscript explores the current use of lectins for cancer diagnosis and therapy. Moreover, novel drug delivery strategies aiming at improving lectin’s stability, reducing their undesired toxicity and controlling their non-specific binding interactions are discussed. We also explore the nanotechnology application of lectins for cancer targeting and imaging. Although many investigations are being conducted in the field of lectinology, there is still a limited clinical translation of the major findings reported due to lectins stability and toxicity concerns. Therefore, new investigations of safe and effective drug delivery system strategies for lectins are warranted in order to take full advantage of these proteins.

  8. Senior Clinician | Center for Cancer Research (United States)

    The Center for Cancer Research (CCR), NCI, NIH, HHS is seeking to fill several Senior Clinician positions with outstanding oncologists with research experience and expertise in one of the following areas:  1) genitourinary malignancies, 2) thoracic malignancies; 3) gastrointestinal malignancies; 4) lymphomas; 5) pediatric cancers; or 6) genetic tumor predisposition syndromes. These positions are located at the NIH campus in Bethesda, Maryland. The NIH Clinical Center is the world’s largest research hospital which offers state-of-the-art facilities, collaborative opportunities, and core facilities for advanced technologies.  The Senior Clinician will have available resources including funding for clinical trials, nurse practitioners, research nurses, and patient care coordinators.  In addition, the senior clinician will have access to a robust clinical trials infrastructure including data management, training, protocol support office, regulatory support, information systems and technology, and data safety monitoring.  The CCR’s collaborative culture also offers research staff access to a wide array of intellectual and technological assets, including high-quality technology cores dedicated to pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics, protein chemistry, natural products chemistry, biophysics, mass spectrometry, imaging, microscopy, proteomics and genomics, bioinformatics/biostatistics, and flow cytometry.  For an overview of CCR, please visit  For more information contact Lori Holliday at

  9. In silico cancer research towards 3R. (United States)

    Jean-Quartier, Claire; Jeanquartier, Fleur; Jurisica, Igor; Holzinger, Andreas


    Improving our understanding of cancer and other complex diseases requires integrating diverse data sets and algorithms. Intertwining in vivo and in vitro data and in silico models are paramount to overcome intrinsic difficulties given by data complexity. Importantly, this approach also helps to uncover underlying molecular mechanisms. Over the years, research has introduced multiple biochemical and computational methods to study the disease, many of which require animal experiments. However, modeling systems and the comparison of cellular processes in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes help to understand specific aspects of uncontrolled cell growth, eventually leading to improved planning of future experiments. According to the principles for humane techniques milestones in alternative animal testing involve in vitro methods such as cell-based models and microfluidic chips, as well as clinical tests of microdosing and imaging. Up-to-date, the range of alternative methods has expanded towards computational approaches, based on the use of information from past in vitro and in vivo experiments. In fact, in silico techniques are often underrated but can be vital to understanding fundamental processes in cancer. They can rival accuracy of biological assays, and they can provide essential focus and direction to reduce experimental cost. We give an overview on in vivo, in vitro and in silico methods used in cancer research. Common models as cell-lines, xenografts, or genetically modified rodents reflect relevant pathological processes to a different degree, but can not replicate the full spectrum of human disease. There is an increasing importance of computational biology, advancing from the task of assisting biological analysis with network biology approaches as the basis for understanding a cell's functional organization up to model building for predictive systems. Underlining and extending the in silico approach with respect to the 3Rs for replacement, reduction and

  10. Contralateral testicular biopsy in testis cancer: current concepts and controversies. (United States)

    Heidenreich, Axel


    Of all patients with unilateral testis cancer, approximately 5% harbour testicular intraepithelial neoplasia (TIN) in their contralateral testicle that will progress into an invasive germ cell tumour over time. The accurate diagnosis of TIN by a random two-site surgical testis biopsy and effective therapy by local radiation has led to the concept of a contralateral screening biopsy in all patients with testis cancer. However, screening and preventive treatment are only indicated if the therapeutic outcome of the screened population is improved, and the physiological function of the affected organ is not impaired. Based on a critical review of previous reports, some drawbacks of this policy have to be considered and question the routine indication for contralateral testis biopsy: (i) all TIN-negative patients still have to undergo meticulous follow-up for metachronous testis cancer due to a false negative biopsy rate of 0.5-1.0%; (ii) local radiation of TIN results in irreversible infertility due to eradication of spermatogenesis; (iii) local radiation of TIN results in an impairment of endocrine Leydig cell function in 25% of the patients; (iv) therapeutic outcome and prognosis will not be improved in irradiated patients as compared to patients on surveillance; (v) local tumour resection for the management of metachronous testicular cancer represents an effective and viable option. Current reports do not support the strategy of contralateral testis biopsy in all patients with unilateral testicular germ cell tumours. According to the recommendations of the European Germ Cell Cancer Consensus Group, a testis biopsy might be offered to high-risk patients for contralateral TIN (testicular volume <12 mL, history of cryptorchidism, age <30 years).

  11. Nanometric gold in cancer nanotechnology: current status and future prospect. (United States)

    Ahmad, Mohammad Zaki; Akhter, Sohail; Rahman, Ziyaur; Akhter, Shabib; Anwar, Mohammed; Mallik, Neha; Ahmad, Farhan Jalees


    This review elaborate on modified gold nanoparticulate concept in oncology, provides an overview of the use of gold nanoparticles in cancer treatment and discusses their potential applications and clinical benefits. Modified gold nanoparticles (e.g. rod, multipod and star or a hollow structure such as shell, box and cage) have promising applications in the fields of drug delivery and photothermal therapy in oncology due to their unique optical and photothermal properties and their ability to modify the surface and conjugate drugs/molecules with gold nanomaterial. Modified gold nanoparticles exhibit strong light absorption in the near-infrared region in which light can penetrate deeply into soft tissue. Moreover, recent advances have opened the way to site-specific delivery by gold nanoparticle. Recent research and development in cancer-targeted gold nanovectors shows promise for maximizing the efficacy of anti-cancer drugs while decreasing their harmful systemic effects in chemotherapy. Moreover, gold nanoparticles can also serve as cancer therapeutic. © 2012 The Authors. JPP © 2012. Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  12. Alliance Against Cancer, the network of Italian cancer centers bridging research and care. (United States)

    De Paoli, Paolo; Ciliberto, Gennaro; Ferrarini, Manlio; Pelicci, PierGiuseppe; Dellabona, Paolo; De Lorenzo, Francesco; Mantovani, Alberto; Musto, Pellegrino; Opocher, Giuseppe; Picci, Piero; Ricciardi, Walter; De Maria, Ruggero


    Alliance Against Cancer (ACC) was established in Rome in 2002 as a consortium of six Italian comprehensive cancer centers (Founders). The aims of ACC were to promote a network among Italian oncologic institutions in order to develop specific, advanced projects in clinical and translational research. During the following years, many additional full and associate members joined ACC, that presently includes the National Institute of Health, 17 research-oriented hospitals, scientific and patient organizations. Furthermore, in the last three years ACC underwent a reorganization process that redesigned the structure, governance and major activities. The present goal of ACC is to achieve high standards of care across Italy, to implement and harmonize principles of modern personalized and precision medicine, by developing cost effective processes and to provide tailored information to cancer patients. We herein summarize some of the major initiatives that ACC is currently developing to reach its goal, including tumor genetic screening programs, establishment of clinical trial programs for cancer patients treated in Italian cancer centers, facilitate their access to innovative drugs under development, improve quality through an European accreditation process (European Organization of Cancer Institutes), and develop international partnerships. In conclusion, ACC is a growing organization, trying to respond to the need of networking in Italy and may contribute significantly to improve the way we face cancer in Europe.

  13. Proposed Special Issue: Progress of cancer research in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Jong


    % growth in the same period, with two consecutive years of decline between 2012 and 2014. This steady upward trend of publication output from developing countries shows that researchers are becoming increasingly aware of the values of evidence-based research, without which would limit funding opportunities and restrict international collaborations, as well as partnerships.Advances in Modern Oncology Research is an Open Access journal aimed at increasing the accessibility of peer-reviewed information among researchers worldwide. The journal emphasizes on equal opportunity in scientific publishing, and is committed towards bridging the existing knowledge gap in cancer research between developed and developing countries. AMOR is keen to highlight the current challenges and opportunities of cancer research in developing countries, and the creation of a special issue dedicated to this subject is especially relevant and urgent to the broad community of cancer researchers because:(i It provides a much-needed platform to clinicians and researchers from developing countries to share important region-specific data, statistics, observations, and findings with the international community. This will not only improve the visibility of researchers from developing countries, but also enrich existing medical literature with updated information on the progress of cancer research in the developing world.(ii It gives clinicians, researchers, and policy makers from developed nations the opportunity to assess the existing and projected capability of developing countries in coping with the disease burden of cancer. Moreover, it is expected to equip stakeholders with key data and information to better manage vital resources, i.e. the allocation of funding and creation of knowledge transfer programs, moving forward.It takes collective efforts to address the escalating threat of cancer mortality and morbidity in the developing world. In order to introduce effective long-term solutions, it is

  14. Translating basic research in cancer patient care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Maugeri-Saccà


    Full Text Available With the advent of molecular targeted therapies and the development of high-throughput biotechnologies, it has become evident that progress in cancer research is largely due to the creation of multidisciplinary teams able to plan clinical trials supported by appropriate molecular hypotheses. These efforts have culminated in the identification and validation of biomarkers predictive of response, as well as in the generation of more accurate prognostic tools. The identification of cancer stem cells has provided further insights into mechanisms of cancer, and many studies have tried to translate this biological notion into prognostic and predictive information. In this regard, new agents targeting key stemness-related pathways have entered the clinical development, and preliminary data suggested an encouraging antitumor activity.

  15. A Systematic Review of Wearable Systems for Cancer Detection: Current State and Challenges. (United States)

    Ray, Partha Pratim; Dash, Dinesh; De, Debashis


    Rapid growth of sensor and computing platforms have introduced the wearable systems. In recent years, wearable systems have led to new applications across all medical fields. The aim of this review is to present current state-of-the-art approach in the field of wearable system based cancer detection and identify key challenges that resist it from clinical adoption. A total of 472 records were screened and 11 were finally included in this study. Two types of records were studied in this context that includes 45% research articles and 55% manufactured products. The review was performed per PRISMA guidelines where considerations was given to records that were published or reported between 2009 and 2017. The identified records included 4 cancer detecting wearable systems such as breast cancer (36.3%), skin cancer (36.3%), prostate cancer (18.1%), and multi-type cancer (9%). Most works involved sensor based smart systems comprising of microcontroller, Bluetooth module, and smart phone. Few demonstrated Ultra-Wide Band (i.e. UWB) antenna based wearable systems. Skin cancer detecting wearable systems were most comprehensible ones. The current works are gradually progressing with seamless integration of sensory units along with smart networking. However, they lack in cloud computing and long-range communication paradigms. Artificial intelligence and machine learning are key ports that need to be attached with current wearable systems. Further, clinical inertia, lack of awareness, and high cost are altogether pulling back the actual growth of such system. It is well comprehended that upon sincere orientation of all identified challenges, wearable systems would emerge as vital alternative to futuristic cancer detection.

  16. Current Research and Development of Chemotherapeutic Agents for Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyaw Minn Hsan


    Full Text Available Cutaneous malignant melanoma is the most lethal form of skin cancer and an increasingly common disease worldwide. It remains one of the most treatment-refractory malignancies. The current treatment options for patients with metastatic melanoma are limited and in most cases non-curative. This review focuses on conventional chemotherapeutic drugs for melanoma treatment, by a single or combinational agent approach, but also summarizes some potential novel phytoagents discovered from dietary vegetables or traditional herbal medicines as alternative options or future medicine for melanoma prevention. We explore the mode of actions of these natural phytoagents against metastatic melanoma.

  17. The current status of oncolytic viral therapy for head and neck cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew O. Old


    Full Text Available Objective: Cancer affects the head and neck region frequently and leads to significant morbidity and mortality. Oncolytic viral therapy has the potential to make a big impact in cancers that affect the head and neck. We intend to review the current state of oncolytic viruses in the treatment of cancers that affect the head and neck region. Method: Data sources are from National clinical trials database, literature, and current research. Results: There are many past and active trials for oncolytic viruses that show promise for treating cancers of the head and neck. The first oncolytic virus was approved by the FDA October 2015 (T-VEC, Amgen for the treatment of melanoma. Active translational research continues for this and many other oncolytic viruses. Conclusion: The evolving field of oncolytic viruses is impacting the treatment of head and neck cancer and further trials and agents are moving forward in the coming years. Keywords: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, Oncolytic viruses, Clinical trials, Novel therapeutics

  18. Advancing Global Cancer Research @ AACR 2015 (United States)

    Research Priorities for NCI’s Center for Global Health' and included presentations on our mission, objectives, currently funded programs, and future programs given by Dr. Lisa Stevens and Paul Pearlman, as well as three special presentations by NCI grantees.

  19. Agriculture for improved nutrition: the current research landscape. (United States)

    Turner, Rachel; Hawkes, Corinna; Jeff, Waage; Ferguson, Elaine; Haseen, Farhana; Homans, Hilary; Hussein, Julia; Johnston, Deborah; Marais, Debbi; McNeill, Geraldine; Shankar, Bhavani


    Concern about food security and its effect on persistent undernutrition has increased interest in how agriculture could be used to improve nutritional outcomes in developing countries. Yet the evidence base for the impact of agricultural interventions targeted at improved nutrition is currently poor. To map the extent and nature of current and planned research on agriculture for improved nutrition in order to identify gaps where more research might be useful. The research, which was conducted from April to August 2012, involved developing a conceptual framework linking agriculture and nutrition, identifying relevant research projects and programs, devising and populating a "template" with details of the research projects in relation to the conceptual framework, classifying the projects, and conducting a gap analysis. The study identified a large number of research projects covering a broad range of themes and topics. There was a strong geographic focus on sub-Saharan Africa, and many studies were explicitly concerned with nutritional impacts on women and children. Although the study revealed a diverse and growing body of research, it also identified research gaps. Few projects consider the entire evidence chain linking agricultural input or practice to nutritional outcomes. There is comparatively little current research on indirect effects of agriculture on nutrition, or the effect of policies or governance, rather than technical interventions. Most research is focused on undernutrition and small farmer households, and few studies target consumers generally, urban populations, or nutrition-related non-communicable diseases. There is very little work on the cost-effectiveness of agricultural interventions. On the basis of these findings, we make suggestions for research investment and for broader engagement of researchers and disciplines in developing approaches to design and evaluate agricultural programs for improved nutrition.

  20. Animal models of human colorectal cancer: Current status, uses and limitations. (United States)

    Mittal, Vijay K; Bhullar, Jasneet Singh; Jayant, Kumar


    To make orthotopic colon cancer murine models a more clearly understood subject. The orthotopic tumor models have been found to be more relevant in replicating the human disease process as compared to heterotopic models, many techniques for making orthotopic colorectal murine models have been reported. We evaluated the current literature for various reported orthotopic colon cancer models to understand their techniques, advantages and limitations. An extensive literature review was performed by searching the National Library of Medicine Database (PubMed) using MeSH terms animal model; colon cancer; orthotopic model; murine model. Twenty studies related to colon cancer orthotopic xenograft model were evaluated in detail and discussed here. The detailed analysis of all relevant reports on orthotopic model showed tumor take rate between 42%-100%. While models using the enema technique and minimally invasive technique have reported development of tumor from mucosa with tumor take rate between 87%-100% with metastasis in 76%-90%. Over the years, the increased understanding of the murine models of human colon cancer has resulted in the development of various models. Each reported model has some limitations. These latest models have opened up new doors for continuing cancer research for not only understanding the colon cancer pathogenesis but also aid in the development of newer chemotherapeutic drugs as they mimic the human disease closely.

  1. Current pharmacotherapy options for cancer anorexia and cachexia. (United States)

    Macciò, Antonio; Madeddu, Clelia; Mantovani, Giovanni


    Anorexia and cachexia syndrome represents a complex clinical picture that occurs in the late stage of several chronic inflammatory diseases, including cancer. Unless counteracted cancer-related anorexia and cachexia syndrome affects quality of life (QL) and survival. However, to date a standard effective treatment is lacking. The aim of this review is to describe the current pharmacological approaches for anorexia and cachexia syndrome, focusing on cancer-related syndrome. The several pharmacological agents tested so far are discussed, distinguishing them in unproven drugs, effective drugs, and drugs under investigation. Moreover, a section is devoted to the promising use of nutritional supplements and nutraceuticals. The emerging role of a multitargeted combined treatment approach is exhaustively reviewed. Considering the complex clinical picture and the multifactorial pathogenesis of anorexia and cachexia syndrome, we believe that its clinical management requires a multidisciplinary and multipharmacological approach. In our opinion the anorexia and cachexia syndrome treatment should include drugs that target the following conditions: inflammatory status, oxidative stress, nutritional disorders, muscle catabolism, anemia, immunosuppression, and fatigue. The multidimensional therapies for anorexia and cachexia syndrome should ideally be introduced within a context of the "best supportive care," which includes optimal symptom management and careful psychosocial counseling.

  2. Immunotherapy: A breakthrough in cancer research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Office


    test the effectiveness of the tuberculosis vaccine Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG in treating superficial bladder cancer. The BCG treatment, in which BCG bacilli are inserted directly into a patient’s bladder via a catheter, proved to be an effective form of immunotherapy and the groundbreaking technique is still used today. In general, studies on immunotherapy have presented researchers with two important conclusions: First and foremost, researchers were finally able to prove that the immune system is indeed capable of recognizing cancer cells as a ‘foreign entity’ although they originate from the body’s own tissues. Secondly, by boosting the immune response, researchers are able to enhance other cancer-killing agents at the same time, thus increasing the chances of a successful treatment via immunotherapy. Based on these conclusions, researchers all over the world now face the challenge of figuring out which therapy works best for a specific type of cancer and why some cancer patients respond better than others to the prescribed treatments.At the ESMO Asia 2016 congress, lead author Dr. Makoto Tahara presented his paper ‘Asian head and neck cancer patients live longer with immunotherapy than mixed race group’, in which his team of researchers reported the sub-analysis results on the safety and efficacy of pembrolizumab in 26 patients (of Asian Pacific origin who received a fixed dose of the humanized antibody for 24 months until the detection of disease progression or adverse events. They observed that both the median overall survival and the disease control rate were better in Asians than the overall population, i.e. 11.5 versus 8.4 months and 50.5% versus 37.9%, respectively.According to Dr. Tahara, “The fixed dose of pembrolizumab was well-tolerated in Asian Pacific patients with recurrent/metastatic head and neck cancer. Although the Asian population was small, our findings suggest that they have better median overall survival with pembrolizumab than

  3. Current state of mTOR targeting in human breast cancer. (United States)

    Wazir, Umar; Wazir, Ali; Khanzada, Zubair S; Jiang, Wen G; Sharma, Anup K; Mokbel, Kefah


    The mammalian, or mechanistic, target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway has been implicated in several models of human oncogenesis. Research in the role of mTOR in human oncogenesis remains a field of intense activity. In this mini-review, we intend to recount our current understanding of the mTOR pathway, its interactions, and its role in human carcinogenesis in general, and breast cancer in particular. We herein outline the discrete components of the two complexes of mTOR, and attempt to define their distinct roles and interactions. Furthermore, we review current developments in the therapeutic targeting of mTOR in human breast cancer. Our understanding of the organisation and interactions of the mTOR pathway continues to evolve. There has been significant incremental, albeit slow, progress in the therapeutic targeting of the mTOR pathway in human breast cancer. Continued progress in the field would require a better understanding of the role of the mTOR pathway in human breast cancer. By summarizing the current literature, this review will provide useful information on the topic. Copyright© 2014, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  4. Research Experience in Psychiatry Residency Programs Across Canada: Current Status (United States)

    Shanmugalingam, Arany; Ferreria, Sharon G; Norman, Ross M G; Vasudev, Kamini


    Objective: To determine the current status of research experience in psychiatry residency programs across Canada. Method: Coordinators of Psychiatric Education (COPE) resident representatives from all 17 psychiatry residency programs in Canada were asked to complete a survey regarding research training requirements in their programs. Results: Among the 17 COPE representatives, 15 completed the survey, representing 88% of the Canadian medical schools that have a psychiatry residency program. Among the 15 programs, 11 (73%) require residents to conduct a scholarly activity to complete residency. Some of these programs incorporated such a requirement in the past 5 years. Ten respondents (67%) reported availability of official policy and (or) guidelines on resident research requirements. Among the 11 programs that have a research requirement, 10 (91%) require residents to complete 1 scholarly activity; 1 requires completion of 2 scholarly activities. Eight (53%) residency programs reported having a separate research track. All of the programs have a research coordinator and 14 (93%) programs provide protected time to residents for conducting research. The 3 most common types of scholarly activities that qualify for the mandatory research requirement are a full independent project (10 programs), a quality improvement project (8 programs), and assisting in a faculty project (8 programs). Six programs expect their residents to present their final work in a departmental forum. None of the residency programs require publication of residents’ final work. Conclusions: The current status of the research experience during psychiatry residency in Canada is encouraging but there is heterogeneity across the programs. PMID:25565474

  5. Three decades of research on the greater Agulhas Current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. E. Lutjeharms


    Full Text Available The greater Agulhas Current has been shown to be a key link in the global thermohaline circulation and an increased understanding of this current system is therefore of more than just local interest. Knowledge on the Agulhas Current system has in fact increased enormously over the past 30 years. This review covers some aspects of what has been learnt on the northern and the southern parts of the Agulhas Current proper and their influence on the waters and circulation of the adjoining continental shelf. It also discusses the Natal Pulse and new information that has been gained on how it is triggered and what influence it has. It deals with the Agulhas retroflection, the shedding of Agulhas rings and the movement and characteristics of these rings that contributes to the meridional overturning circulation of the global ocean. The Agulhas Return Current forms part of the final outflow of the system and current knowledge on that current is appraised. The sources of the Agulhas Current have been a controversial subject for many years and this dispute continues. This is described and discussed, based on what information has been gained from research over the past three decades. Building on what is currently known, some suggestions are given on the most important remaining knowledge gaps and how these could most efficaciously be filled.

  6. A Partnership Training Program in Breast Cancer Research Using Molecular Imaging Techniques (United States)


    tiny calcium deposits that 82 indicate changes within the breast possibly point- 83 ing to cancer . Microcalcifications especially are 84 usually...NUMBER A Partnership Training Program in Breast Cancer Research Using Molecular Imaging Techniques 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-05-1-0291 5c. PROGRAM...assistant were further trained in molecular imaging of breast cancer through seminars and workshops, and are currently conducting two research projects

  7. Interdisciplinary Research Training in Breast Cancer (United States)


    O’Sullivan’s background in surgical nursing has been valuable in facilitating improvements related to wound healing and infection after ovarian cancer surgery...Scientific Sessions of the Eastern Nursing Research Society, Boston, MA. Presentations "* Presenter, "Reiki for Self- Healing ," New Beginnings... Alzheimers Care Quarterly. (in press) "* Cherlin, E., Johnson-Hurzeler, R., Fried, T., Prigerson, H., Schulman-Green, D., Bradley, E.H. Communication between

  8. Systemic Immunotherapy for Urothelial Cancer: Current Trends and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa Gupta


    Full Text Available Urothelial cancer of the bladder, renal pelvis, ureter, and other urinary organs is the fifth most common cancer in the United States, and systemic platinum-based chemotherapy remains the standard of care for first-line treatment of advanced/metastatic urothelial carcinoma (UC. Until recently, there were very limited options for patients who are refractory to chemotherapy, or do not tolerate chemotherapy due to toxicities and overall outcomes have remained very poor. While the role of immunotherapy was first established in non-muscle invasive bladder cancer in the 1970s, no systemic immunotherapy was approved for advanced disease until the recent approval of a programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1 inhibitor, atezolizumab, in patients with advanced/metastatic UC who have progressed on platinum-containing regimens. This represents a significant milestone in this disease after a void of over 30 years. In addition to atezolizumab, a variety of checkpoint inhibitors have shown a significant activity in advanced/metastatic urothelial carcinoma and are expected to gain Food and Drug Administration (FDA approval in the near future. The introduction of novel immunotherapy agents has led to rapid changes in the field of urothelial carcinoma. Numerous checkpoint inhibitors are being tested alone or in combination in the first and subsequent-line therapies of metastatic disease, as well as neoadjuvant and adjuvant settings. They are also being studied in combination with radiation therapy and for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer refractory to BCG. Furthermore, immunotherapy is being utilized for those ineligible for firstline platinum-based chemotherapy. This review outlines the novel immunotherapy agents which have either been approved, or are currently being investigated in clinical trials in UC.

  9. Current status of palliative care--clinical implementation, education, and research. (United States)

    Grant, Marcia; Elk, Ronit; Ferrell, Betty; Morrison, R Sean; von Gunten, Charles F


    Palliative and end-of-life care is changing in the United States. This dynamic field is improving care for patients with serious and life-threatening cancer through creation of national guidelines for quality care, multidisciplinary educational offerings, research endeavors, and resources made available to clinicians. Barriers to implementing quality palliative care across cancer populations include a rapidly expanding population of older adults who will need cancer care and a decrease in the workforce available to give care. Methods of integrating current palliative care knowledge into care of patients include multidisciplinary national education and research endeavors, and clinician resources. Acceptance of palliative care as a recognized medical specialty provides a valuable resource for improvement of care. Although compilation of evidence for the importance of palliative care specialities is in its initial stages, national research grants have provided support to build the knowledge necessary for appropriate palliative care. Opportunities are available to clinicians for understanding and applying appropriate palliative and end-of-life care to patients with serious and life-threatening cancers. (c) 2009 American Cancer Society, Inc.

  10. Curating research data a handbook of current practice

    CERN Document Server

    Johnston, Lisa R


    Curating Research Data, Volume Two: A Handbook of Current Practice guides you across the data lifecycle through the practical strategies and techniques for curating research data in a digital repository setting. The data curation steps for receiving, appraising, selecting, ingesting, transforming, describing, contextualizing, disseminating, and preserving digital research data are each explored, and then supplemented with detailed case studies written by more than forty international practitioners from national, disciplinary, and institutional data repositories. The steps in this volume detail the sequential actions that you might take to curate a data set from receiving the data (Step 1) to eventual reuse (Step 8). Data curators, archivists, research data management specialists, subject librarians, institutional repository managers, and digital library staff will benefit from these current and practical approaches to data curation.

  11. Basic and technical research on lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Tadaaki


    In association with clinical study of carbon beam therapy for lung cancer, the basic research for lung cancer and the patients with this disease has been carried out for the past 10 years. With regard to lung damage by the carbon beams, firstly pulmonary function was measured and analyzed for the patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer. Force expiratory volume in 1 second (FVE 1.0) and TLC (total lung capacity) was found to be reduced significantly at 6 and 12 months after therapy but the reduction rate was a little, which can support the safety of this treatment modality. Secondly, the regional lung damage by the beams was investigated by using correct fusion of CT images with carbon beam dose distribution, diagnostic follow-up CT images and blood flow and ventilation spect images. It demonstrated the graded decrease blood flow by dose and the compensatory increase of blood flow in the adjacent lobe of lung unexposed to irradiation. On the other hand, the biological study of carbon beam effects on lung cancer cells and tumors line was conducted. Firstly, by using 7 or 4 human lung cancer cell line, the radiosensitivity of carbon beams was compared with that of photons by different histological patterns. It was found that there was no essential difference in the sensitivity pattern for lung cancer histology between the carbon beams and photons though the former doubled the later in power. Secondly, by using IA cell lines among them, the dynamic of clonogenic cells (clonogen) in a nude tumor and the changes in its morphology following irradiation was investigated, clarifying that the clonogen proliferating under anoxic or hypoxic conditions played a pivotal role for tumor regrowth and stemmed from the different clone which had been genetically selected and developed under these conditions. The finding of clonogen becomes one of the evidence supporting the superiority of a single-dose radiotherapy to fractionated radiotherapy. (author)

  12. Chemoradiotherapy for esophageal cancer. Current status and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtsu, Atsushi


    The optimal role of chemoradiotherapy in the multimodality treatment of esophageal cancer is still controversial. According to a series of clinical trials, definitive chemoradiotherapy is considered the standard of care for patients with medically inoperable or surgically unresectable esophageal cancer. This modality provides survivals comparable to those in Western series of surgery alone and is one of the standards of care even for resectable-stage disease. Recent reports of primary chemoradiotherapy from Japan suggest survival comparable to that of surgery in Japanese patients with stage I disease, but radical surgery is still the standard treatment for T2-3NanyM0 disease in Japan. However, it is clear that this approach has limitations in treatment outcomes. Trimodality therapy, i.e., preoperative chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery, is more favored than surgery alone in clinical practice, particularly in patients with adenocarcinoma, although current data from randomized trials are insufficient to support this approach. To improve the local control rate of chemoradiotherapy, intensification of the radiation dose has been attempted, but this has failed to demonstrate any superiority in terms of local control or survival. The addition of new agents, including molecular targeting agents, to the current standard chemoradiotherapy has shown more promising results and warrants further investigations in future studies. Salvage treatment for patients who do not achieve a complete response (CR) is necessary to improve the overall treatment results. Salvage surgery, as well as endoscopic resection, in selected patients, may provide an improvement in survival. Until high rates of local control can be consistently achieved with chemoradiotherapy alone, these salvage treatments will be an integral component of multimodality treatment for esophageal cancer, and should be active areas for clinical investigations. (author)

  13. [Physiotherapeutic care marketing research: current state-of-the art]. (United States)

    Babaskin, D V


    Successful introduction of modern technologies into the national health care systems strongly depends on the current pharmaceutical market situation. The present article is focused on the peculiarities of marketing research with special reference to physiotherapeutic services and commodities. Analysis of the structure and sequence of marketing research processes is described along with the methods applied for the purpose including their support by the use of Internet resources and technologies.

  14. Major clinical research advances in gynecologic cancer in 2013


    Suh, Dong Hoon; Kim, Jae-Weon; Kang, Sokbom; Kim, Hak Jae; Lee, Kyung-Hun


    In 2013, 10 topics were selected for major clinical research advances in gynecologic oncology; these included three topics regarding cervical cancer, three regarding ovarian cancer, two regarding endometrial cancer, and one each regarding breast cancer and radiation oncology. For cervical cancer, bevacizumab was first demonstrated to exhibit outstanding clinical efficacy in a recurrent, metastatic setting. Regarding cervical cancer screening, visual inspections with acetic acid in low-resourc...

  15. Plant cell engineering: current research, application and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xunqing; Liu Luxiang


    This paper reviewed the current status of basic research in plant cell engineering, highlighted the application of embryo culture, double haploid (DH) technology, protoplast culture and somatic hybridization, somaclonal variation, rapid propagation, and bio-products production of plant-origin, and t he prospects. (authors)

  16. Research on Current Trends and Developments in Library Automation Systems. (United States)

    Clyde, Laurel A.

    A research project was undertaken in 1992 in order to identify, describe, and analyze current trends and developments in library automation systems and library software. The starting point is work conducted in 1988/1989 that formed the foundation of the book "Computer Software for School Libraries: A Directory." A 1992 survey of software…

  17. ICPC Pilots International Student Training, Paving a Path for Tomorrow’s Cancer Researchers | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research (United States)

    The Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research at the National Cancer Institute, part of the United States National Institutes of Health, is spearheading the preparationand training of the proteogenomic research workforce on an international scale.

  18. Adolescent suicide prevention. Current research and social policy implications. (United States)

    Garland, A F; Zigler, E


    The rate of adolescent suicide has increased dramatically in the past few decades, prompting several interventions to curb the increase. Unfortunately, many of the intervention efforts have not benefited from current research findings because the communication between researchers and those who develop the interventions is inadequate. Of specific concern are the increasingly popular curriculum-based suicide prevention programs, which have not demonstrated effectiveness and may contain potentially deleterious components. This article reviews the current epidemiological research in adolescent suicide and suggests how this knowledge could be used more effectively to reduce the rate of adolescent suicide. Recommendations include support for integrated primary prevention efforts; suicide prevention education for professionals; education and policies on firearm management; education for the media about adolescent suicide; more efficient identification and treatment of at-risk youth, including those exposed to suicidal behavior; crisis intervention; and treatment for suicide attempters.

  19. Quantitative Image Informatics for Cancer Research (QIICR) | Informatics Technology for Cancer Research (ITCR) (United States)

    Imaging has enormous untapped potential to improve cancer research through software to extract and process morphometric and functional biomarkers. In the era of non-cytotoxic treatment agents, multi- modality image-guided ablative therapies and rapidly evolving computational resources, quantitative imaging software can be transformative in enabling minimally invasive, objective and reproducible evaluation of cancer treatment response. Post-processing algorithms are integral to high-throughput analysis and fine- grained differentiation of multiple molecular targets.

  20. Physicians' current practices and opportunities for DNA banking of dying patients with cancer. (United States)

    Quillin, John M; Bodurtha, Joann N; Siminoff, Laura A; Smith, Thomas J


    The availability of genetic tests for cancer susceptibility is increasing. Current tests, however, have limited clinical sensitivity. Even when clinically valid tests are available, the genetic counseling and informed consent process might not be feasible for dying patients with cancer. DNA banking preserves the opportunity for future research or clinical testing and may provide critical opportunities for surviving relatives. This study explored the current practices and potential for DNA banking for cancer susceptibility among oncologists specializing in palliative care. Palliative care oncologists actively providing clinical care for dying patients with cancer were recruited for an online survey. Descriptive statistics for DNA banking practices, perceived qualification to recommend banking, and potential predictors were assessed. Data were collected from 49 physicians (37% recruitment rate). Eighty percent reported assessing at least some patients for genetic cancer susceptibility in the past 12 months. No participants reported banking DNA for patients in the past 12 months. Only 5% reported feeling at least somewhat qualified to order DNA banking. A Web-based risk assessment tool and genetic counselor on staff were perceived as the most helpful potential resources. Despite its potential, DNA banking is not being used by palliative care oncologists.

  1. Current concepts of chemotherapy and radiotherapy for small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, T.J.; Bunn, P.A. Jr.


    Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) was projected to account for 20%-25% of the greater than 140,000 newly diagnosed lung cancers in 1985. If considered a separate disease entity, it would be the fourth leading cause of death by cancer. Previous studies have demonstrated distinct clinical and biologic features of small cell lung cancer, and early therapeutic trial results have demonstrated a high sensitivity to both chemotherapy and radiotherapy. More recent results demonstrated a marked survival improvement with the use of combination chemotherapy, which potentially cured a small minority of patients. Unfortunately, in most patients, drug resistance usually develops, as do chronic, often debilitating toxicities in the few long-term survivors. Although therapeutic advances have plateaued, new and important insights into the basic biology of the disease made the last several years offer the possibility of exciting new treatment approaches within the next decade. This chapter addresses our current understanding of therapy for small cell lung cancer, the current therapy questions under investigation, and potential future directions in clinical research

  2. Physicians' Current Practices and Opportunities for DNA Banking of Dying Patients With Cancer (United States)

    Quillin, John M.; Bodurtha, Joann N.; Siminoff, Laura A.; Smith, Thomas J.


    Purpose: The availability of genetic tests for cancer susceptibility is increasing. Current tests, however, have limited clinical sensitivity. Even when clinically valid tests are available, the genetic counseling and informed consent process might not be feasible for dying patients with cancer. DNA banking preserves the opportunity for future research or clinical testing and may provide critical opportunities for surviving relatives. This study explored the current practices and potential for DNA banking for cancer susceptibility among oncologists specializing in palliative care. Methods: Palliative care oncologists actively providing clinical care for dying patients with cancer were recruited for an online survey. Descriptive statistics for DNA banking practices, perceived qualification to recommend banking, and potential predictors were assessed. Results: Data were collected from 49 physicians (37% recruitment rate). Eighty percent reported assessing at least some patients for genetic cancer susceptibility in the past 12 months. No participants reported banking DNA for patients in the past 12 months. Only 5% reported feeling at least somewhat qualified to order DNA banking. A Web-based risk assessment tool and genetic counselor on staff were perceived as the most helpful potential resources. Conclusion: Despite its potential, DNA banking is not being used by palliative care oncologists. PMID:21886501

  3. Current research in Canada on biological effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marko, A.M.


    A survey of current research in Canada on the biological effects of ionizing radiation has been compiled. The list of projects has been classified according to structure (organizational state of the test system) as well as according to the type of effects. Using several assumptions, ballpark estimates of expenditures on these activities have been made. Agencies funding these research activities have been tabulated and the break-down of research in government laboratories and in academic institutions has been designated. Wherever possible, comparisons have been made outlining differences or similarities that exist between the United States and Canada concerning biological radiation research. It has been concluded that relevant research in this area in Canada is inadequate. Wherever possible, strengths and weaknesses in radiation biology programs have been indicated. The most promising course for Canada to follow is to support adequately fundamental studies of the biological effects of radiation. (auth)

  4. A Milestone in Cancer Research and Treatment in India (United States)

    Tata Memorial Center is celebrating 75 years of leadership service towards cancer control and research in India. In honor of this anniversary, TMC is hosting A Conference of New Ideas in Cancer – Challenging Dogmas on February 26-28th, 2016 as part of its platinum jubilee events. CGH Director, Dr. Ted Trimble, will give a plenary talk: "Thinking Outside the Box in Cancer Research - Perspectives from the US NCI” in the session titled: Future of Cancer Research: US and European perspectives.

  5. Some current challenges in research on air pollution and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan M Samet


    Full Text Available his commentary addresses some of the diverse questions of current interest with regard to the health effects of air pollution, including exposure-response relationships, toxicity of inhaled particles and risks to health, multipollutant mixtures, traffic-related pollution, accountability research, and issues with susceptibility and vulnerability. It considers the challenges posed to researchers as they attempt to provide useful evidence for policy-makers relevant to these issues. This commentary accompanies papers giving the results from the ESCALA project, a multi-city study in Latin America that has an overall goal of providing policy-relevant results. While progress has been made in improving air quality, driven by epidemiological evidence that air pollution is adversely affecting public health, the research questions have become more subtle and challenging as levels of air pollution dropped. More research is still needed, but also novel methods and approaches to address these new questions.

  6. Research in nuclear chemistry: current status and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, A.V.R.


    Research in nuclear chemistry has seen a huge growth over the last few decades. The large umbrella of nuclear chemistry includes several research areas such as nuclear fission, reactions, spectroscopy, nuclear probes and nuclear analytical techniques. Currently, nuclear chemistry research has extended its horizon into various applications like nuclear medicine, isotopes for understanding physico chemical processes, and addressing environmental and biomedical problems. Tremendous efforts are going on for synthesizing new elements (isotopes), isolating physically or chemically wherever possible and investigating their properties. Theses studies are useful to understand nuclear and chemical properties at extreme ends of instability. In addition, nuclear chemists are making substantial contribution to astrophysics and other related areas. During this talk, a few of the contributions made by nuclear chemistry group of BARC will be discussed and possible future areas of research will be enumerated. (author)

  7. Low-carbohydrate diets: an update on current research. (United States)

    Wylie-Rosett, Judith; Davis, Nichola J


    The diabetes and obesity epidemics have stimulated research to assess the benefits and potential risks of low-carbohydrate diets. Carbohydrate comprises less than 45% of calories in carbohydrate-restricted diets, but very low carbohydrate ketogenic diets may restrict carbohydrate to 20 g initially with variability in the carbohydrate level subsequently. Some research suggests that low-carbohydrate diets may achieve better early weight loss than comparison diets higher in carbohydrate. Studies of up to 1 year suggest that weight loss on low-carbohydrate diet is comparable with fat-restricted diets with higher carbohydrate content. Limited research has been conducted to evaluate low-carbohydrate diets in managing type 2 diabetes. Although science continues to advance in this field, current research suggests that low-carbohydrate diets can be a viable option for achieving weight loss and may have beneficial effects on glycemic control, triglyceride levels, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in some patients.

  8. Water management: Current and future challenges and research directions (United States)

    Cosgrove, William J.; Loucks, Daniel P.


    Water distinguishes our planet compared to all the others we know about. While the global supply of available freshwater is more than adequate to meet all current and foreseeable water demands, its spatial and temporal distributions are not. There are many regions where our freshwater resources are inadequate to meet domestic, economic development and environmental needs. In such regions, the lack of adequate clean water to meet human drinking water and sanitation needs is indeed a constraint on human health and productivity and hence on economic development as well as on the maintenance of a clean environment and healthy ecosystems. All of us involved in research must find ways to remove these constraints. We face multiple challenges in doing that, especially given a changing and uncertain future climate, and a rapidly growing population that is driving increased social and economic development, globalization, and urbanization. How best to meet these challenges requires research in all aspects of water management. Since 1965, the journal Water Resources Research has played an important role in reporting and disseminating current research related to managing the quantity and quality and cost of this resource. This paper identifies the issues facing water managers today and future research needed to better inform those who strive to create a more sustainable and desirable future.

  9. Current research and case work activities of criminalistics in Japan. (United States)

    Seta, S


    The current research and case work activities of criminalistics in Japan are described. The selected forensic science disciplines are forensic osteology including specialized technology of skull identification, forensic serology, forensic DNA analysis of poisonous materials, forensic hair and fiber analysis, trace evidence analysis, document analysis, forensic psychology mainly concerned with the so-called lie-detector, forensic image analysis, voice print analysis, fire and explosion analysis, forensic engineering, firearm and toolmark analysis. The current activity of the Training Institute of Forensic Science at the National Research Institute of Police Science is also briefly described with special regard to the education and training course of forensic DNA typing analysis. Instruments for analytical and methodological use are listed according to the availability in evidence sample analyses.

  10. [Current Status of Translational Research on Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease]. (United States)

    Jeong, In Du; Park, Moo In


    The prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and the incidence of some of its complications have risen strikingly over the last few decades. With the increase in our understanding of the pathophysiology of GERD along with the development of proton pump inhibitors, the diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to GERD have changed dramatically over the past decade. However, GERD still poses a problem to many clinicians since the spectrum of the disease has evolved to encompass more challenging presentations such as refractory GERD and extra-esophageal manifestations. The aim of this article is to provide a review of available current translational research on GERD. This review includes acid pocket, ambulatory pH monitoring, impedance pH monitoring, mucosa impedance, and high resolution manometry. This article discusses current translational research on GERD.

  11. Aquatic invasive species: Lessons from cancer research (United States)

    Sepulveda, Adam; Ray, Andrew; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Gresswell, Robert E.; Gross, Jackson A.; Kershner, Jeffrey L.


    Aquatic invasive species are disrupting ecosystems with increasing frequency. Successful control of these invasions has been rare: Biologists and managers have few tools for fighting aquatic invaders. In contrast, the medical community has long worked to develop tools for preventing and fighting cancer. Its successes are marked by a coordinated research approach with multiple steps: prevention, early detection, diagnosis, treatment options and rehabilitation. The authors discuss how these steps can be applied to aquatic invasive species, such as the American bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus), in the Northern Rocky Mountain region of the United States, to expedite tool development and implementation along with achievement of biodiversity conservation goals.

  12. Translational Partnership Development Lead | Center for Cancer Research (United States)

    PROGRAM DESCRIPTION The Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research (FNLCR) is a Federally Funded Research and Development Center operated by Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc on behalf of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The staff of FNLCR support the NCI’s mission in the fight against cancer and HIV/AIDS. Currently we are seeking a Translational Partnership Development Lead (TPDL) who will work closely with the Office of Translational Resources (OTR) within the Office of the Director (OD) of NCI’s Center for Cancer Research (CCR) to facilitate the successful translation of CCR’s basic and preclinical research advances into new therapeutics and diagnostics. The TPDL with be strategically aligned within FNLCR’s Partnership Development Office (PDO), to maximally leverage the critical mass of expertise available within the PDO. CCR comprises the basic and clinical components of the NCI’s Intramural Research Program (IRP) and consists of ~230 basic and clinical Investigators located at either the NIH main campus in Bethesda or the NCI-Frederick campus. CCR Investigators are focused primarily on cancer and HIV/AIDS, with special emphasis on the most challenging and important high-risk/high-reward problems driving the fields. (See for a full delineation of CCR Investigators and their research activities.) The process of developing research findings into new clinical applications is high risk, complex, variable, and requires multiple areas of expertise seldom available within the confines of a single Investigator’s laboratory. To accelerate this process, OTR serves as a unifying force within CCR for all aspects of translational activities required to achieve success and maintain timely progress. A key aspect of OTR’s function is to develop and strengthen essential communications and collaborations within NIH, with extramural partners and with industry to bring together experts in chemistry, human subjects research

  13. Cancer vaccines: from research to clinical practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bot, Adrian; Obrocea, Mihail; Marincola, Francesco M


    ..., for both solid and blood borne cancers. Cancer Vaccines: Challenges and Opportunities in Translation is the first text in the field to bring immunotherapy treatments from the laboratory trial to the bedside for the practicing oncologist. Cancer Vaccines...

  14. Summer Student Breast Cancer Research Training Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zaloga, Gary P


    ... projects addressed the effects of omega-3 lipids upon breast cancer cells. 0mega-3 lipids were found to decrease breast cancer-induced muscle cell proteolysis and to induce apoptosis in cancer cells...

  15. An overview of cancer research in South African academic and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    [1] Based on the most recent. South African National Cancer Registry data, 1 in 9 women and .... Research activity in the five most commonly diagnosed male and female cancers in SA was assessed. .... that there were no costing or costeffectiveness cancer research projects. However, it is possible that deskbased economic ...

  16. Returning individual research results for genome sequences of pancreatic cancer (United States)


    Background Disclosure of individual results to participants in genomic research is a complex and contentious issue. There are many existing commentaries and opinion pieces on the topic, but little empirical data concerning actual cases describing how individual results have been returned. Thus, the real life risks and benefits of disclosing individual research results to participants are rarely if ever presented as part of this debate. Methods The Australian Pancreatic Cancer Genome Initiative (APGI) is an Australian contribution to the International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC), that involves prospective sequencing of tumor and normal genomes of study participants with pancreatic cancer in Australia. We present three examples that illustrate different facets of how research results may arise, and how they may be returned to individuals within an ethically defensible and clinically practical framework. This framework includes the necessary elements identified by others including consent, determination of the significance of results and which to return, delineation of the responsibility for communication and the clinical pathway for managing the consequences of returning results. Results Of 285 recruited patients, we returned results to a total of 25 with no adverse events to date. These included four that were classified as medically actionable, nine as clinically significant and eight that were returned at the request of the treating clinician. Case studies presented depict instances where research results impacted on cancer susceptibility, current treatment and diagnosis, and illustrate key practical challenges of developing an effective framework. Conclusions We suggest that return of individual results is both feasible and ethically defensible but only within the context of a robust framework that involves a close relationship between researchers and clinicians. PMID:24963353

  17. Current status of patient-controlled analgesia in cancer patients. (United States)

    Ripamonti, C; Bruera, E


    Patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) is a relatively new technique in which patients are able to self-administer small doses of opioid analgesics when needed. Many different devices are available for opioid infusion, including a syringe pump, disposable plastic cylinder, and battery-operated computer-driven pump. These devices allow patients to choose an intermittent (demand) bolus, continuous infusion, or both modes of administration. Parameters, such as route, drug concentration dose, frequency, and maximum daily or hourly dose, are programmed by the physician. The patient decides whether or not to take a dose. Devices can be used to deliver the drug into a running intravenous infusion, the epidural space, or subcutaneously. Controlled trials indicate that PCA is probably superior to regular opioid administration in postoperative pain. Reported advantages include greater patient satisfaction, decreased sedation and anxiety, and reduced nursing time and hospitalization. Preliminary experience suggests that PCA is also useful and safe for cancer pain, but further research is greatly needed.

  18. Research Summaries: The 11th Biennial Rivkin Center Ovarian Cancer Research Symposium. (United States)

    Armstrong, Deborah K


    In September 2016, the 11th biennial ovarian cancer research symposium was presented by the Rivkin Center for Ovarian Cancer and the American Association for Cancer Research. The 2016 symposium focused on 4 broad areas of research: Mechanisms of Initiation and Progression of Ovarian Cancer, Tumor Microenvironment and Models of Ovarian Cancer, Detection and Prevention of Ovarian Cancer, and Novel Therapeutics for Ovarian Cancer. The presentations and abstracts from each of these areas are reviewed in this supplement to the International Journal of Gynecologic Oncology.

  19. Selected National Cancer Institute Breast Cancer Research Topics | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine (United States)

    ... Cancer and Environment Research Centers (BCERCs) to conduct interdisciplinary research on the effects of early environmental exposures ... more than 20 cancers using state-of-the art genomic analysis technologies. Recent findings suggest that there ...

  20. Physician Assistant | Center for Cancer Research (United States)

    PROGRAM DESCRIPTION Within the Leidos Biomedical Research Inc.’s Clinical Research Directorate, the Clinical Monitoring Research Program (CMRP) provides high-quality comprehensive and strategic operational support to the high-profile domestic and international clinical research initiatives of the National Cancer Institute (NCI), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), Clinical Center (CC), National Institute of Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI), National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS), National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS), National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), and the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). Since its inception in 2001, CMRP’s ability to provide rapid responses, high-quality solutions, and to recruit and retain experts with a variety of backgrounds to meet the growing research portfolios of NCI, NIAID, CC, NHLBI, NIAMS, NCATS, NINDS, and NIMH has led to the considerable expansion of the program and its repertoire of support services. CMRP’s support services are strategically aligned with the program’s mission to provide comprehensive, dedicated support to assist National Institutes of Health researchers in providing the highest quality of clinical research in compliance with applicable regulations and guidelines, maintaining data integrity, and protecting human subjects. For the scientific advancement of clinical research, CMRP services include comprehensive clinical trials, regulatory, pharmacovigilance, protocol navigation and development, and programmatic and project management support for facilitating the conduct of 400+ Phase I, II, and III domestic and international trials on a yearly basis. These trials investigate the prevention, diagnosis, treatment of, and therapies for cancer, influenza, HIV, and other infectious diseases and viruses such as hepatitis C, tuberculosis, malaria, and Ebola virus; heart, lung, and

  1. Published Research - NCI Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer (United States)

    The NCI Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer has published much exciting and impactful research over the years. Find here a list of all of these listed in PubMed and others across the field of Cancer Nanotechnology.

  2. Oral cancer: Current role of radiotherapy and chemotherapy. (United States)

    Huang, Shao-Hui; O'Sullivan, Brian


    The term oral cavity cancer (OSCC) constitutes cancers of the mucosal surfaces of the lips, floor of mouth, oral tongue, buccal mucosa, lower and upper gingiva, hard palate and retromolar trigone. Treatment approaches for OSCC include single management with surgery, radiotherapy [external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and/or brachytherapy], as well as adjuvant systemic therapy (chemotherapy and/or target agents); various combinations of these modalities may also be used depending on the disease presentation and pathological findings. The selection of sole or combined modality is based on various considerations that include disease control probability, the anticipated functional and cosmetic outcomes, tumor resectability, patient general condition, and availability of resources and expertise. For resectable OSCC, the mainstay of treatment is surgery, though same practitioners may advocate for the use of radiotherapy alone in selected "early" disease presentations or combined with chemotherapy in more locally advanced stage disease. In general, the latter is more commonly reserved for cases where surgery may be problematic. Thus, primary radiotherapy ± chemotherapy is usually reserved for patients unable to tolerate or who are otherwise unsuited for surgery. On the other hand, brachytherapy may be considered as a sole modality for early small primary tumor. It also has a role as an adjuvant to surgery in the setting of inadequate pathologically assessed resection margins, as does postoperative external beam radiotherapy ± chemotherapy, which is usually reserved for those with unfavorable pathological features. Brachytherapy can also be especially useful in the re-irradiation setting for persistent or recurrent disease or for a second primary arising within a previous radiation field. Biological agents targeting the epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) have emerged as a potential modality in combination with radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy and are currently under

  3. Terahertz endoscopic imaging for colorectal cancer detection: Current status and future perspectives (United States)

    Doradla, Pallavi; Joseph, Cecil; Giles, Robert H


    Terahertz (THz) imaging is progressing as a robust platform for myriad applications in the field of security, health, and material science. The THz regime, which comprises wavelengths spanning from microns to millimeters, is non-ionizing and has very low photon energy: Making it inherently safe for biological imaging. Colorectal cancer is one of the most common causes of death in the world, while the conventional screening and standard of care yet relies exclusively on the physician’s experience. Researchers have been working on the development of a flexible THz endoscope, as a potential tool to aid in colorectal cancer screening. This involves building a single-channel THz endoscope, and profiling the THz response from colorectal tissue, and demonstrating endogenous contrast levels between normal and diseased tissue when imaging in reflection modality. The current level of contrast provided by the prototype THz endoscopic system represents a significant step towards clinical endoscopic application of THz technology for in-vivo colorectal cancer screening. The aim of this paper is to provide a short review of the recent advances in THz endoscopic technology and cancer imaging. In particular, the potential of single-channel THz endoscopic imaging for colonic cancer screening will be highlighted. PMID:28874955

  4. Symptom Signatures and Diagnostic Timeliness in Cancer Patients: A Review of Current Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minjoung M. Koo


    Full Text Available Early diagnosis is an important aspect of contemporary cancer prevention and control strategies, as the majority of patients are diagnosed following symptomatic presentation. The nature of presenting symptoms can critically influence the length of the diagnostic intervals from symptom onset to presentation (the patient interval, and from first presentation to specialist referral (the primary care interval. Understanding which symptoms are associated with longer diagnostic intervals to help the targeting of early diagnosis initiatives is an area of emerging research. In this Review, we consider the methodological challenges in studying the presenting symptoms and intervals to diagnosis of cancer patients, and summarize current evidence on presenting symptoms associated with a range of common and rarer cancer sites. We propose a taxonomy of cancer sites considering their symptom signature and the predictive value of common presenting symptoms. Finally, we consider evidence on associations between symptomatic presentations and intervals to diagnosis before discussing implications for the design, implementation, and evaluation of public health or health system interventions to achieve the earlier detection of cancer.

  5. Current nutrition promotion, beliefs and barriers among cancer nurses in Australia and New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra G. Puhringer


    Full Text Available Rationale. Many cancer patients and survivors do not meet nutritional and physical activity guidelines, thus healthier eating and greater levels of physical activity could have considerable benefits for these individuals. While research has investigated cancer survivors’ perspective on their challenges in meeting the nutrition and physical guidelines, little research has examined how health professionals may assist their patients meet these guidelines. Cancer nurses are ideally placed to promote healthy behaviours to their patients, especially if access to dieticians or dietary resources is limited. However, little is known about cancer nurses’ healthy eating promotion practices to their patients. The primary aim of this study was to examine current healthy eating promotion practices, beliefs and barriers of cancer nurses in Australia and New Zealand. A secondary aim was to gain insight into whether these practices, beliefs and barriers were influenced by the nurses’ hospital or years of work experience.Patients and Methods. An online questionnaire was used to obtain data. Sub-group cancer nurse comparisons were performed on hospital location (metropolitan vs regional and rural and years of experience (<25 or ≥25 years using ANOVA and chi square analysis for continuous and categorical data respectively.Results. A total of 123 Australasian cancer nurses responded to the survey. Cancer nurses believed they were often the major provider of nutritional advice to their cancer patients (32.5%, a value marginally less than dieticians (35.9% but substantially higher than oncologists (3.3%. The majority promoted healthy eating prior (62.6%, during (74.8% and post treatment (64.2%. Most cancer nurses felt that healthy eating had positive effects on the cancer patients’ quality of life (85.4%, weight management (82.9%, mental health (80.5%, activities of daily living (79.7% and risk of other chronic diseases (79.7%, although only 75.5% agreed or

  6. Survey of biomass gasification. Volume III. Current technology and research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This survey of biomass gasification was written to aid the Department of Energy and the Solar Energy Research Institute Biological and Chemical Conversion Branch in determining the areas of gasification that are ready for commercialization now and those areas in which further research and development will be most productive. Chapter 8 is a survey of gasifier types. Chapter 9 consists of a directory of current manufacturers of gasifiers and gasifier development programs. Chapter 10 is a sampling of current gasification R and D programs and their unique features. Chapter 11 compares air gasification for the conversion of existing gas/oil boiler systems to biomass feedstocks with the price of installing new biomass combustion equipment. Chapter 12 treats gas conditioning as a necessary adjunct to all but close-coupled gasifiers, in which the product is promptly burned. Chapter 13 evaluates, technically and economically, synthesis-gas processes for conversion to methanol, ammonia, gasoline, or methane. Chapter 14 compiles a number of comments that have been assembled from various members of the gasifier community as to possible roles of the government in accelerating the development of gasifier technology and commercialization. Chapter 15 includes recommendations for future gasification research and development.

  7. Soil ecotoxicology in Latin America: Current research and perspectives. (United States)

    Niemeyer, Júlia Carina; Chelinho, Sónia; Sousa, José Paulo


    Soils from some Latin American countries support the highest biodiversity levels on the planet and simultaneously have some of the most serious environmental impacts attributed to both historical and current agricultural practices and industrial activities. Soil contamination has resulted from intensive use of pesticides, extensive mining and other industrial activities, and uncontrolled management of waste within inappropriate regulatory frameworks. The present study presents an overview of the scientific research on soil ecotoxicology conducted in Latin America, summarizing the recent advances and highlighting the needs for further refinements in this research field. Most of the contributions to the scientific literature have been from Brazil. The most investigated issue is the ecotoxicity of pesticides and earthworms, which were the organisms most frequently used as test species. Needs identified by Latin American researchers include methods and procedures for: 1) identifying and collecting natural soils to be used as reference test-substrates in tests, 2) identifying and discerning the range of sensitivities of native test species to soil contaminants, 3) developing environmental guidelines applicable to tropical/subtropical conditions, and 4) developing methods and procedures for higher tier testing for full development and implementation of environmental risk assessment schemes. The protection of Latin American soils, including provision of goods and services, is currently framed in legislation and other regulations, but implementation requires significant improvement and additional training programs. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1795-1810. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  8. Gaps in nutritional research among older adults with cancer. (United States)

    Presley, Carolyn J; Dotan, Efrat; Soto-Perez-de-Celis, Enrique; Jatoi, Aminah; Mohile, Supriya G; Won, Elizabeth; Alibhai, Shabbir; Kilari, Deepak; Harrison, Robert; Klepin, Heidi D; Wildes, Tanya M; Mustian, Karen; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy


    Nutritional issues among older adults with cancer are an understudied area of research despite significant prognostic implications for treatment side effects, cancer-specific mortality, and overall survival. In May of 2015, the National Cancer Institute and the National Institute on Aging co-sponsored a conference focused on future directions in geriatric oncology research. Nutritional research among older adults with cancer was highlighted as a major area of concern as most nutritional cancer research has been conducted among younger adults, with limited evidence to guide the care of nutritional issues among older adults with cancer. Cancer diagnoses among older adults are increasing, and the care of the older adult with cancer is complicated due to multimorbidity, heterogeneous functional status, polypharmacy, deficits in cognitive and mental health, and several other non-cancer factors. Due to this complexity, nutritional needs are dynamic, multifaceted, and dependent on the clinical scenario. This manuscript outlines the proceedings of this conference including knowledge gaps and recommendations for future nutritional research among older adults with cancer. Three common clinical scenarios encountered by oncologists include (1) weight loss during anti-cancer therapy, (2) malnutrition during advanced disease, and (3) obesity during survivorship. In this manuscript, we provide a brief overview of relevant cancer literature within these three areas, knowledge gaps that exist, and recommendations for future research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Current frontiers and future directions of telecoupling research (United States)

    Liu, J.


    The world has been increasingly interconnected over long distances though processes such as international trade, migration, telecommunication, and disease spread. However, previous studies often focused on socioeconomic or environmental issues of distant processes. While these studies have generated useful information for individual disciplines, integrating socioeconomic and environmental information is essential for holistic understanding of complex global challenges and unbiased decision making to address the challenges. To advance integrated research, the framework of telecoupling (socioeconomic and environmental interactions over distances) has been developed to explicitly address both socioeconomic and environmental issues simultaneously. Although the framework is relatively new, it has already been applied to tackle a variety of globally important issues, such as food security, water resources, energy sustainability, land use, international trade (e.g., food, forest products, energy, wildlife, industrial products), species invasion, investment, ecosystem services, conservation, information dissemination, and tourism. These applications have identified many important research gaps (e.g. spillover systems) and hidden linkages (e.g. feedbacks) among distant areas of the world with profound implications for sustainable development, ecosystem health, and human well-being. While working with telecoupling presents more challenges than focusing only on disciplinary issues, support from funding agencies has helped accelerate research on telecoupling and more efforts are being aimed at framework quantification and operationalization. The presenter will provide an overview of the current frontiers, discuss future research directions, and highlight emerging opportunities and challenges in telecoupling research and governance.

  10. Current safety practices in nano-research laboratories in China. (United States)

    Zhang, Can; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Guoyu


    China has become a key player in the global nanotechnology field, however, no surveys have specifically examined safety practices in the Chinese nano-laboratories in depth. This study reports results of a survey of 300 professionals who work in research laboratories that handle nanomaterials in China. We recruited participants at three major nano-research laboratories (which carry out research in diverse fields such as chemistry, material science, and biology) and the nano-chemistry session of the national meeting of the Chinese Chemical Society. Results show that almost all nano-research laboratories surveyed had general safety regulations, whereas less than one third of respondents reported having nanospecific safety rules. General safety measures were in place in most surveyed nano-research laboratories, while nanospecific protective measures existed or were implemented less frequently. Several factors reported from the scientific literature including nanotoxicology knowledge gaps, technical limitations on estimating nano-exposure, and the lack of nano-occupational safety legislation may contribute to the current state of affairs. With these factors in mind and embracing the precautionary principle, we suggest strengthening or providing nanosafety training (including raising risk awareness) and establishing nanosafety guidelines in China, to better protect personnel in the nano-workplace.

  11. Current Sandia programs and laboratory facilities for tritium research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swansiger, W.A.; West, L.A.


    Currently envisioned fusion reactor systems will contain substantial quantities of tritium. Strict control of the overall tritium inventory and environmental safety considerations require an accurate knowledge of the behavior of this isotope in the presence of Controlled Thermonuclear Reactor (CTR) materials. A 14,000 ft 2 laboratory for tritium research is currently under construction at Sandia Laboratories in Livermore. Details about the laboratory in general are provided. Results from studies of hydrogen isotope diffusion in surface-characterized metals will be presented. Details of two permeation systems (one for hydrogen and deuterium, the other for tritium) will be discussed. Data will also be presented concerning the gettering of hydrogen isotopes and application to CTR collector designs. (auth)

  12. Current advances in T-cell-based cancer immunotherapy (United States)

    Wang, Mingjun; Yin, Bingnan; Wang, Helen Y; Wang, Rong-Fu


    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide; due to the lack of ideal cancer biomarkers for early detection or diagnosis, most patients present with late-stage disease at the time of diagnosis, thus limiting the potential for successful treatment. Traditional cancer treatments, including surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy, have demonstrated very limited efficacy for patients with late-stage disease. Therefore, innovative and effective cancer treatments are urgently needed for cancer patients with late-stage and refractory disease. Cancer immunotherapy, particularly adoptive cell transfer, has shown great promise in the treatment of patients with late-stage disease, including those who are refractory to standard therapies. In this review, we will highlight recent advances and discuss future directions in adoptive cell transfer based cancer immunotherapy. PMID:25524383

  13. Call for a Computer-Aided Cancer Detection and Classification Research Initiative in Oman. (United States)

    Mirzal, Andri; Chaudhry, Shafique Ahmad


    Cancer is a major health problem in Oman. It is reported that cancer incidence in Oman is the second highest after Saudi Arabia among Gulf Cooperation Council countries. Based on GLOBOCAN estimates, Oman is predicted to face an almost two-fold increase in cancer incidence in the period 2008-2020. However, cancer research in Oman is still in its infancy. This is due to the fact that medical institutions and infrastructure that play central roles in data collection and analysis are relatively new developments in Oman. We believe the country requires an organized plan and efforts to promote local cancer research. In this paper, we discuss current research progress in cancer diagnosis using machine learning techniques to optimize computer aided cancer detection and classification (CAD). We specifically discuss CAD using two major medical data, i.e., medical imaging and microarray gene expression profiling, because medical imaging like mammography, MRI, and PET have been widely used in Oman for assisting radiologists in early cancer diagnosis and microarray data have been proven to be a reliable source for differential diagnosis. We also discuss future cancer research directions and benefits to Oman economy for entering the cancer research and treatment business as it is a multi-billion dollar industry worldwide.

  14. Current Stem Cell Biomarkers and Their Functional Mechanisms in Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaile Zhang


    Full Text Available Currently there is little effective treatment available for castration resistant prostate cancer, which is responsible for the majority of prostate cancer related deaths. Emerging evidence suggested that cancer stem cells might play an important role in resistance to traditional cancer therapies, and the studies of cancer stem cells (including specific isolation and targeting on those cells might benefit the discovery of novel treatment of prostate cancer, especially castration resistant disease. In this review, we summarized major biomarkers for prostate cancer stem cells, as well as their functional mechanisms and potential application in clinical diagnosis and treatment of patients.

  15. Research of long pulse high current diode radial insulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Jie; Chang Anbi; Hu Kesong; Liu Qingxiang; Ma Qiaosheng; Liu Zhong


    A radial insulation structure which is used in long pulse high current diode is introduced. The theory of vacuum flashover and the idea of design are briefly introduced. In the research, cone-shaped insulator was used. The geometry structure parameters were optimized by simulating the static electrical field distribution. Experiment was done on a pulse power source with 200 ns pulse width. The maximum voltage 750 kV was obtained, and the average stand-off electrical field of insulator is about 50 kV/cm

  16. Research of Ve current charge interactions in the NOMAD experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manola-Poggioli, E.


    Written during the two first years of the NOMAD experiment working, this thesis is divided into two parts. In the first part, a partly equipped detector gives the 1994's results. It allows to identify and to select the NOMAD main interactions (muon neutrino charging current (CC) interactions) in the target. Thank to a events selection, the origin of the produced electrons is studied to better understand simulation's programs. In the second part, neutrino-electron CC interactions represent the main background noise to the oscillations research in the electronic mode. Electrons identification's algorithms are developed and inelastic interactions kinematic properties of electron neutrinos are discussed. (TEC). 57 refs., 72 figs., 18 tabs

  17. Current status of research and related activities in NAA application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ab Khalik bin Haji Wood


    Current activities of Analytical Chemistry Group of MINT (Malaysia Institute for Nuclear Technology Research) laboratory for elemental analysis of trace amounts in environmental samples such as air particulate matter (on air filter), soils/sediments, water, flora/fauna, oil sludge/waste sludge, and tailing/blasting slag and others, utilizing particularly NAA (Neutron Activation Analysis) method are reviewed. The laboratory participates in the IAEA-organized Interlaboratory Comparison Studies to ensure the analytical system. Other activities include analytical chemistry services with ICP-mass spectrometry and GC/GCMS to compliment the NAA and, moreover, air and marine pollution studies with participation in the UNDP/RCA/IAEA project. (S. Ohno)

  18. Research on High Current Pulse Discharges at IPP ASci CR

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koláček, Karel; Schmidt, Jiří; Prukner, Václav; Štraus, Jaroslav; Frolov, Oleksandr; Martínková, M.


    Roč. 56, suppl. B (2006), s. 259-266 ISSN 0011-4626. [Symposium on Plasma Physics and Technology/22nd./. Praha, 26.6.2006-29.6.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/06/1324; GA MŠk 1P04LA235 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Pulsed high current capillary discharge * amplified spontaneous emission * soft X-ray laser Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.568, year: 2006

  19. A review of current weight management: research and recommendations. (United States)

    Davis, R B; Turner, L W


    To review current research and recommendations on weight loss and weight control and provide suggestions for health care providers who furnish weight management counseling. Scientific publications, clinical guidelines, and government sources. Research reaffirms the long-held understanding that weight loss can be accomplished only through a reduction in the number of calories consumed and an increase in exercise. Weight maintenance requires life-long behavioral change combining moderate exercise, lower fat intake, increased fruit and vegetable consumption, as well as social support. Fad diets and medications are not the answer to long-term weight maintenance. The essential components of a weight loss or weight management program include: calorie reduction of 300-500 calories per day, appropriate exercise, variety in food choices, increased consumption of grains, fruits, and vegetables, and reduction of fat to no more than 30% of daily calories. Clients should be referred to dietitian and exercise consultants as needed.

  20. Food reward system: current perspectives and future research needs. (United States)

    Alonso-Alonso, Miguel; Woods, Stephen C; Pelchat, Marcia; Grigson, Patricia Sue; Stice, Eric; Farooqi, Sadaf; Khoo, Chor San; Mattes, Richard D; Beauchamp, Gary K


    This article reviews current research and cross-disciplinary perspectives on the neuroscience of food reward in animals and humans, examines the scientific hypothesis of food addiction, discusses methodological and terminology challenges, and identifies knowledge gaps and future research needs. Topics addressed herein include the role of reward and hedonic aspects in the regulation of food intake, neuroanatomy and neurobiology of the reward system in animals and humans, responsivity of the brain reward system to palatable foods and drugs, translation of craving versus addiction, and cognitive control of food reward. The content is based on a workshop held in 2013 by the North American Branch of the International Life Sciences Institute. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute.

  1. Astrobites: Engaging Undergraduate Science Majors with Current Astrophysical Research (United States)

    Zevin, Michael; Astrobites


    Astrobites is a graduate-student organization that publishes an online astrophysical literature blog ( The purpose of the site is to make current astrophysical research accessible to and exciting for undergraduate physical science majors and astronomy enthusiasts, and the site now hosts an archive of over 1300 posts summarizing recent astrophysical research. In addition, Astrobites presents posts on career guidance, practical 'how-to' articles, conference summaries, and astronomy news. Astrobites has an average of more than 1000 pageviews per day and reaches not only its target audience of undergraduates, but also graduate students and professionals within astronomy, astronomy enthusiasts, and educators. As we enter our seventh year of successful blogging, we share here the most up-to-date summary of our organization, readership, and growth.

  2. Current utilization of research reactor on radioisotopes production in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yishu


    The main technical parameters of the four research reactors and their current utilization status in radioisotope manufacture and labeling compounds preparation are described. The radioisotopes, such as Co-60 sealed source, Ir-192 sealed source, γ-knife source, I-131, I-125, Sm-153, P-32 series products, In-113m generator, Tc-99m gel generator, Re-188 gel generator, C-14, Ba-131, Sr-89, 90 Y, etc., and their labeling compounds prepared from the reactor produced radionuclides, such as I-131-MIBG, I-131-Hippure, I-131-capsul, Sm-153-EDTMP, Re-186-HEDP, Re-186-HA, C-14-urea, and radioimmunoassay kits etc. are presented as well. Future development plan of radioisotopes and labeling compounds in China is also given. Simultaneously, the possibility and methods of bilateral or multilateral co-operation in utilization of research reactor, personnel and technology exchange of radioisotope production and labeling compounds is also discussed. (author)

  3. The International Permafrost Association: current initiatives for cryospheric research (United States)

    Schollaen, Karina; Lewkowicz, Antoni G.; Christiansen, Hanne H.; Romanovsky, Vladimir E.; Lantuit, Hugues; Schrott, Lothar; Sergeev, Dimitry; Wei, Ma


    The International Permafrost Association (IPA), founded in 1983, has as its objectives to foster the dissemination of knowledge concerning permafrost and to promote cooperation among persons and national or international organizations engaged in scientific investigation and engineering work on permafrost. The IPA's primary responsibilities are convening International Permafrost Conferences, undertaking special projects such as preparing databases, maps, bibliographies, and glossaries, and coordinating international field programs and networks. Membership is through adhering national or multinational organizations or as individuals in countries where no Adhering Body exists. The IPA is governed by its Executive Committee and a Council consisting of representatives from 26 Adhering Bodies having interests in some aspect of theoretical, basic and applied frozen ground research, including permafrost, seasonal frost, artificial freezing and periglacial phenomena. This presentation details the IPA core products, achievements and activities as well as current projects in cryospheric research. One of the most important core products is the circumpolar permafrost map. The IPA also fosters and supports the activities of the Global Terrestrial Network on Permafrost (GTN-P) sponsored by the Global Terrestrial Observing System, GTOS, and the Global Climate Observing System, GCOS, whose long-term goal is to obtain a comprehensive view of the spatial structure, trends, and variability of changes in the active layer thickness and permafrost temperature. A further important initiative of the IPA are the biannually competitively-funded Action Groups which work towards the production of well-defined products over a period of two years. Current IPA Action Groups are working on highly topical and interdisciplinary issues, such as the development of a regional Palaeo-map of Permafrost in Eurasia, the integration of multidisciplinary knowledge about the use of thermokarst and permafrost

  4. Aespoe hard rock laboratory. Current research projects 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    In 1986 SKB decided to construct the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) in order to provide an opportunity for research, development and demonstration in a realistic and undisturbed underground rock environment down to the depth planned for the future deep repository. The focus of current and future work is on development and testing of site characterization methods, verification of models describing the function of the natural and engineered barriers and development, testing, and demonstration of repository technology. The program has been organised so that all important steps in the development of a repository are covered, in other words the Aespoe HRL constitutes a `dress rehearsal` for the Swedish deep geological repository for spent fuel and other long-lived waste. Geoscientific investigations on Aespoe and nearby islands began in 1986. Aespoe was selected as the site for the laboratory in 1988. Construction of the facility, which reaches a depth of 460 m below the surface, began in 1990 and was completed in 1995. A major milestone had been reached in 1996 with the completion of the pre-investigation and construction phases of the Aespoe HRL. The comprehensive research conducted has permitted valuable development and verification of site characterization methods applied from the ground surface, boreholes, and underground excavations. The results of this research are summarised in the book `Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory - 10 years of Research` published by SKB in 1996. The Operating Phase of the Aespoe HRL began in 1995 and is expected to continue for 15-20 years, that is until the first stage of the development of the Swedish deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel is expected to be completed. A number of research projects were initiated at the start of the Operating Phase. Most of these projects have made substantial progress since then and important results have been obtained. The purpose of this brochure is to provide a brief presentation of the

  5. [Sentinel node in melanoma and breast cancer. Current considerations]. (United States)

    Vidal-Sicart, S; Vilalta Solsona, A; Alonso Vargas, M I


    The main objectives of sentinel node (SN) biopsy is to avoid unnecessary lymphadenectomies and to identify the 20-25% of patients with occult regional metastatic involvement. This technique reduces the associated morbidity from lymphadenectomy and increases the occult lymphatic metastases identification rate by offering the pathologist the or those lymph nodes with the highest probability of containing metastatic cells. Pre-surgical lymphoscintigraphy is considered a "road map" to guide the surgeon towards the sentinel nodes and to localize unpredictable lymphatic drainage patterns. The SPECT/CT advantages include a better SN detection rate than planar images, the ability to detect SNs in difficult to interpret studies, better SN depiction, especially in sites closer to the injection site and better anatomic localization. These advantages may result in a change in the patient's clinical management both in melanoma and breast cancer. The correct SN evaluation by pathology implies a tumoral load stratification and further prognostic implication. The use of intraoperative imaging devices allows the surgeon a better surgical approach and precise SN localization. Several studies reports the added value of such devices for more sentinel nodes excision and a complete monitoring of the whole procedure. New techniques, by using fluorescent or hybrid tracers, are currently being developed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  6. Juvenile fibromyalgia: current status of research and future developments (United States)

    Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita; Ting, Tracy V.


    Juvenile-onset fibromyalgia (JFM) is a poorly understood chronic pain condition most commonly affecting adolescent girls. The condition is characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain and other associated symptoms, including fatigue, nonrestorative sleep, headaches, irritable bowel symptoms, dysautonomia and mood disorders such as anxiety and/or depression. In the past few years, there has been a greater focus on understanding JFM in adolescents. Research studies have provided insight into the clinical characteristics of this condition and its effect on both short-term and long-term psychosocial and physical functioning. The importance of early and effective intervention is being recognized, as research has shown that symptoms of JFM tend to persist and do not resolve over time as was previously believed. Efforts to improve treatments for JFM are underway, and new evidence strongly points to the potential benefits of cognitive–behavioural therapy on improving mood and daily functioning. Research into pharmacotherapy and other nonpharmacological options is in progress. Advancements in the understanding of adult fibromyalgia have paved the way for future studies on diagnosis, assessment and management of JFM. This Review focuses on our current knowledge of the condition, provides an update of the latest research advances, and highlights areas for further study. PMID:24275966

  7. Current safety issues related to research reactor operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcala-Ruiz, F.


    The Agency has included activities on research reactor safety in its Programme and Budget (P and B) since its inception in 1957. Since then, these activities have traditionally been oriented to fulfil the Agency's functions and obligations. At the end of the decade of the eighties, the Agency's Research Reactor Safety Programme (RRSP) consisted of a limited number of tasks related to the preparation of safety related publications and the conduct of safety missions to research reactor facilities. It was at the beginning of the nineties when the RRSP was upgraded and expanded as a subprogramme of the Agency's P and B. This subprogramme continued including activities related to the above subjects and started addressing an increasing number of issues related to the current situation of research reactors (in operation and shut down) around the world such as reactor ageing, modifications and decommissioning. The present paper discusses some of the above issues as recognised by various external review or advisory groups (e.g., Peer Review Groups under the Agency's Performance Programme Appraisal System (PPAS) or the standing International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG)) and the impact of their recommendations on the preparation and implementation of the part of the Agency's P and B relating to the above subject. (author)

  8. Patient Care Coordinator | Center for Cancer Research (United States)

    PROGRAM DESCRIPTION Within the Leidos Biomedical Research Inc.’s Clinical Research Directorate, the Clinical Monitoring Research Program (CMRP) provides high-quality comprehensive and strategic operational support to the high-profile domestic and international clinical research initiatives of the National Cancer Institute (NCI), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), Clinical Center (CC), National Institute of Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI), National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS), National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS), National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), and the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). Since its inception in 2001, CMRP’s ability to provide rapid responses, high-quality solutions, and to recruit and retain experts with a variety of backgrounds to meet the growing research portfolios of NCI, NIAID, CC, NHLBI, NIAMS, NCATS, NINDS, and NIMH has led to the considerable expansion of the program and its repertoire of support services. CMRP’s support services are strategically aligned with the program’s mission to provide comprehensive, dedicated support to assist National Institutes of Health researchers in providing the highest quality of clinical research in compliance with applicable regulations and guidelines, maintaining data integrity, and protecting human subjects. For the scientific advancement of clinical research, CMRP services include comprehensive clinical trials, regulatory, pharmacovigilance, protocol navigation and development, and programmatic and project management support for facilitating the conduct of 400+ Phase I, II, and III domestic and international trials on a yearly basis. These trials investigate the prevention, diagnosis, treatment of, and therapies for cancer, influenza, HIV, and other infectious diseases and viruses such as hepatitis C, tuberculosis, malaria, and Ebola virus; heart, lung, and

  9. The Ninth Annual American Association for Cancer Research International Conference on Frontiers in Cancer Prevention Research (United States)

    Xu, Li; Wang, Sophia S.; Healey, Megan A.; Faupel-Badger, Jessica M.; Wilken, Jason A.; Battaglia, Tracy; Szabo, Eva; Mao, Jenny T.; Bergan, Raymond C.


    The Ninth Annual AACR Frontiers in Cancer Prevention Research conference was held in Philadelphia in November 7–10, 2010. Its thematic focus was “Prevention: From Basic Science to Public Health Benefit.” Telomere plasticity, the microenvironment, inflammation, transformation to the metastatic phenotype, and pathways to obesity were highlighted as important elements of carcinogenesis amenable to intervention. The integration of information from novel technologies related to physical biology, molecular and genetic profiles, and imaging along with behavioral and clinical parameters have advanced risk stratification and early detection. Cancer prevention represents a powerful testing ground for the development of individually tailored intervention and for increasing the efficiency of drug discovery. Advances in clinical trials relate to more efficient design strategies, have shown first-in-human targeting capabilities, and have developed powerful strategies to overcome accrual barriers. Tailored intervention strategies now show high efficacy on large cohorts across several cancer types. These successes are expected to increase. PMID:21464034

  10. Administrative Assistant | Center for Cancer Research (United States)

    We are looking for a pleasant, organized, dependable person to serve as an administrative assistant at the National Cancer Institute on the campus of the National Institutes of Health (NIH).  Work supports a busy clinical program in the world’s largest dedicated research hospital patients call the “House of Hope.”  Tasks involve calendar management, arranging travel, scheduling conferences and meetings, drafting and handling correspondence, timekeeping, placing purchase requests, office property management, greeting visitors, and office work, such as copying, filing, and scanning.  Ability to work with basic computer office software (such as Word, Excel, and PowerPoint) required. Some administrative experience, including calendar management preferred.  Full-time position, business hours. NIH is metro accessible.

  11. X ray imaging microscope for cancer research (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.; Shealy, David L.; Brinkley, B. R.; Baker, Phillip C.; Barbee, Troy W., Jr.; Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr.


    The NASA technology employed during the Stanford MSFC LLNL Rocket X Ray Spectroheliograph flight established that doubly reflecting, normal incidence multilayer optics can be designed, fabricated, and used for high resolution x ray imaging of the Sun. Technology developed as part of the MSFC X Ray Microscope program, showed that high quality, high resolution multilayer x ray imaging microscopes are feasible. Using technology developed at Stanford University and at the DOE Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Troy W. Barbee, Jr. has fabricated multilayer coatings with near theoretical reflectivities and perfect bandpass matching for a new rocket borne solar observatory, the Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array (MSSTA). Advanced Flow Polishing has provided multilayer mirror substrates with sub-angstrom (rms) smoothnesss for the astronomical x ray telescopes and x ray microscopes. The combination of these important technological advancements has paved the way for the development of a Water Window Imaging X Ray Microscope for cancer research.

  12. [Transcranial direct current stimulation: new clinical roadmaps for psychiatric research]. (United States)

    Heeren, Alexandre; Coussement, Charlotte; Colon, Élisabeth

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a neuromodulatory technique that has undergone intensive research over the past decade with promising results. tDCS is based on the application of weak, direct current over the scalp, leading to cortical hypo- or hyperpolarization according to the specified parameters. Recent studies have shown that tDCS is able to induce potent changes in cortical excitability as well as to elicit long-lasting modifications in brain activity. Over the last decade, tDCS physiological mechanisms of action have been intensively investigated. This research has given support for the investigation of tDCS applications in a wide range of clinical populations, including patients with post-stroke motor and language deficits, chronic pain, and tinnitus. Recently, its efficacy to treat psychiatric conditions has been explored increasingly. In this review, we will gather clinical studies involving tDCS to ameliorate psychiatric symptoms and discuss reasonable next steps in this direction. © 2016 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  13. ["Good dying"--definition and current state of research]. (United States)

    Hutter, Nico; Stößel, Ulrich; Meffert, Cornelia; Körner, Mirjam; Bozzaro, Claudia; Becker, Gerhild; Baumeister, Harald


    The advances of modern medicine did not only result in prolongation of life expectancy, but also led to a shift from dying at home to dying in public institutions. In western countries most people die at advanced age in medical facilities. Hence, the question regarding the conditions, which should be provided by society and especially medicine, to allow terminally ill people to experience "good dying" is substantial. For this purpose, an examination of patients', family members' and health care providers' understanding of the term " good dying" is required. The present paper aims at shedding light on the term "good dying" and to summarize the current state of research. Therefore, the attributes of "good dying" will be described from the perspectives of patients, family members and health care providers, which are discussed and examined in current medical-sociological research. These attributes can be illustrated on three dimensions: Quality of life at the end of life (e. g. pain relief, mental well-being), quality of dying (e. g. avoiding prolonged dying, autonomy, presence of relatives) and quality of health care at the end of life (e. g. patient-oriented health care, positive communication between health care providers and patients, availability of guidelines). Although the attributes of "good dying" are described in detail in the existing literature, further studies have to clarify the relevance and impact of these attributes as predictors of "good dying". © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Differential network analysis in human cancer research. (United States)

    Gill, Ryan; Datta, Somnath; Datta, Susmita


    A complex disease like cancer is hardly caused by one gene or one protein singly. It is usually caused by the perturbation of the network formed by several genes or proteins. In the last decade several research teams have attempted to construct interaction maps of genes and proteins either experimentally or reverse engineer interaction maps using computational techniques. These networks were usually created under a certain condition such as an environmental condition, a particular disease, or a specific tissue type. Lately, however, there has been greater emphasis on finding the differential structure of the existing network topology under a novel condition or disease status to elucidate the perturbation in a biological system. In this review/tutorial article we briefly mention some of the research done in this area; we mainly illustrate the computational/statistical methods developed by our team in recent years for differential network analysis using publicly available gene expression data collected from a well known cancer study. This data includes a group of patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and a group with acute myeloid leukemia. In particular, we describe the statistical tests to detect the change in the network topology based on connectivity scores which measure the association or interaction between pairs of genes. The tests under various scores are applied to this data set to perform a differential network analysis on gene expression for human leukemia. We believe that, in the future, differential network analysis will be a standard way to view the changes in gene expression and protein expression data globally and these types of tests could be useful in analyzing the complex differential signatures.

  15. Programmer Analyst | Center for Cancer Research (United States)

    PROGRAM DESCRIPTION The Advanced Biomedical Computing Center (ABCC) provides technology development, scientific consultation, collaboration, data analysis and training to the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and National Institutes of Health (NIH) scientists and staff. The Core Infrastructure and Systems Biology (CISB) group in ABCC strives to streamline and provide innovative solutions for the NCI/NIH community to access and use biological information collected across different sources and formats. Integrating diverse data sources to enable disease agnostic access and analysis, variant impact annotation, identifier conversions across species, and merging clinical and research data enables translation from basic to the goal of precision medicine. CISB is looking for an experienced analyst to support the database and application management efforts at the NCI’s Molecular Targets Program (MTP). KEY ROLES/RESPONSIBILITIES Provide data management and analysis support Maintain scientific applications and databases on single-user personal computer through the multi-user, multi-processor large memory mainframe Communicate with the experts in the MTP, gather requirements and provide support Provide training to researchers on a variety of platforms and applications Evaluate and develop methodologies to allow utilization of new software tools and generate the information required by MTP researchers Determine methods and procedures on new assignments Document approaches and mechanisms clearly and comprehensively

  16. Developmental Scientist | Center for Cancer Research (United States)

    PROGRAM DESCRIPTION Within the Leidos Biomedical Research Inc.’s Clinical Research Directorate, the Clinical Monitoring Research Program (CMRP) provides high-quality comprehensive and strategic operational support to the high-profile domestic and international clinical research initiatives of the National Cancer Institute (NCI), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), Clinical Center (CC), National Institute of Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI), National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS), National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS), National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), and the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). Since its inception in 2001, CMRP’s ability to provide rapid responses, high-quality solutions, and to recruit and retain experts with a variety of backgrounds to meet the growing research portfolios of NCI, NIAID, CC, NHLBI, NIAMS, NCATS, NINDS, and NIMH has led to the considerable expansion of the program and its repertoire of support services. CMRP’s support services are strategically aligned with the program’s mission to provide comprehensive, dedicated support to assist National Institutes of Health researchers in providing the highest quality of clinical research in compliance with applicable regulations and guidelines, maintaining data integrity, and protecting human subjects. For the scientific advancement of clinical research, CMRP services include comprehensive clinical trials, regulatory, pharmacovigilance, protocol navigation and development, and programmatic and project management support for facilitating the conduct of 400+ Phase I, II, and III domestic and international trials on a yearly basis. These trials investigate the prevention, diagnosis, treatment of, and therapies for cancer, influenza, HIV, and other infectious diseases and viruses such as hepatitis C, tuberculosis, malaria, and Ebola virus; heart, lung, and

  17. A Comprehensive Infrastructure for Big Data in Cancer Research: Accelerating Cancer Research and Precision Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izumi V. Hinkson


    Full Text Available Advancements in next-generation sequencing and other -omics technologies are accelerating the detailed molecular characterization of individual patient tumors, and driving the evolution of precision medicine. Cancer is no longer considered a single disease, but rather, a diverse array of diseases wherein each patient has a unique collection of germline variants and somatic mutations. Molecular profiling of patient-derived samples has led to a data explosion that could help us understand the contributions of environment and germline to risk, therapeutic response, and outcome. To maximize the value of these data, an interdisciplinary approach is paramount. The National Cancer Institute (NCI has initiated multiple projects to characterize tumor samples using multi-omic approaches. These projects harness the expertise of clinicians, biologists, computer scientists, and software engineers to investigate cancer biology and therapeutic response in multidisciplinary teams. Petabytes of cancer genomic, transcriptomic, epigenomic, proteomic, and imaging data have been generated by these projects. To address the data analysis challenges associated with these large datasets, the NCI has sponsored the development of the Genomic Data Commons (GDC and three Cloud Resources. The GDC ensures data and metadata quality, ingests and harmonizes genomic data, and securely redistributes the data. During its pilot phase, the Cloud Resources tested multiple cloud-based approaches for enhancing data access, collaboration, computational scalability, resource democratization, and reproducibility. These NCI-led efforts are continuously being refined to better support open data practices and precision oncology, and to serve as building blocks of the NCI Cancer Research Data Commons.

  18. An overview of the Japan Breast Cancer Research Group (JBCRG) activities. (United States)

    Ohno, Shinji; Kuroi, Katsumasa; Toi, Masakazu


    The purpose of this article is to describe the current status and future perspectives of the Japan Breast Cancer Research Group (JBCRG). The JBCRG was organized in 2002, with the following purpose: to plan and promote clinical trials and basic research in breast cancer domestically and multilaterally; to conduct research and surveys on domestic and foreign information on medical care for breast cancer and to diffuse and highlight such information; to improve and promote clinical technologies for breast cancer; to act as an intermediary to liaise and strengthen alliances with affiliated organizations; and, to contribute to the public welfare by improving outcomes in breast cancer. The clinical trials are led by doctors/investigators in the JBCRG. And the purpose is to establish standard treatment for patients and provide substantial evidence. The JBCRG implements international collaboration in some researches/studies. As of January 2012, fourteen trials have been closed and nine are open to recruitment.

  19. Plasma medicine—current state of research and medical application (United States)

    Weltmann, K.-D.; von Woedtke, Th


    Plasma medicine means the direct application of cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) on or in the human body for therapeutic purposes. Further, the field interacts strongly with results gained for biological decontamination. Experimental research as well as first practical application is realized using two basic principles of CAP sources: dielectric barrier discharges (DBD) and atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJ). Originating from the fundamental insights that the biological effects of CAP are most probably caused by changes of the liquid environment of cells, and are dominated by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS, RNS), basic mechanisms of biological plasma activity are identified. It was demonstrated that there is no increased risk of cold plasma application and, above all, there are no indications for genotoxic effects. The most important biological effects of cold atmospheric pressure plasma were identified: (1) inactivation of a broad spectrum of microorganisms including multidrug resistant ones; (2) stimulation of cell proliferation and tissue regeneration with lower plasma treatment intensity (treatment time); (3) inactivation of cells by initialization of programmed cell death (apoptosis) with higher plasma treatment intensity (treatment time). In recent years, the main focus of clinical applications was in the field of wound healing and treatment of infective skin diseases. First CAP sources are CE-certified as medical devices now which is the main precondition to start the introduction of plasma medicine into clinical reality. Plasma application in dentistry and, above all, CAP use for cancer treatment are becoming more and more important research fields in plasma medicine. A further in-depth knowledge of control and adaptation of plasma parameters and plasma geometries is needed to obtain suitable and reliable plasma sources for the different therapeutic indications and to open up new fields of medical application.

  20. Partnering Research Involving Mentoring and Education (PRIME) in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Price, Marva M


    Partnering Research Involving Mentoring and Education in Prostate Cancer (PRIME) was a partnership between two nursing schools, Duke University School of Nursing and North Carolina Central University (NCCU...

  1. Partnering Research Involving Mentoring and Education (PRIME) in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Price, Marva M


    Partnering Research Involving Mentoring and Education in Prostate Cancer (PRIME) is a partnership between two nursing schools, Duke University School of Nursing and North Carolina Central University (NCCU...

  2. Partnering Research Involving Mentoring and Education (PRIME) in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Price, Marva M


    Partnering Research Involving Mentoring and Education in Prostate Cancer (PRIME) is a partnership between two nursing schools, Duke University School of Nursing and North Carolina Central University (NCCU...

  3. Canine cancer patients are included in translational research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børresen, Betina; Clausen, Malene Martini; Hansen, Anders Elias


    Cancer bearing dogs represent a unique clinical cancer model with a direct potential for accelerating translation into human patients. A research collaboration between the veterinary and human medical facilities at Copenhagen University and Rigshospitalet has taken offset in this. Canine cancer...

  4. Precision viticulture in Brazil: Current research status on wine grape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miele Alberto


    Full Text Available Technologies associated to precision viticulture (PV are not currently used by Brazilian growers. To overcome this situation, a research is being carried out since 2011 in a vineyard of Merlot using a wide range of PV technologies. During this period, several PV research activities were performed which will be concluded in a couple of years. Therefore, final results depend on further variable evaluation which should be done by means of geostatistic, Geographic Information Systems and Principal Component Analysis. This paper briefly presents a series of methodological procedures used in different ways to attain the objective of this research project. In the sequence, it describes one final result and nine partial ones. Morphological and physicochemical analyses of soil showed that the vineyards are established on three taxonomic classes of soil – Argissolo, Cambissolo and Neossolo −, which are formed by ten mapping units. The partial results are mainly related to the utilization of GIS, modeling and must and wine composition of five mapping units; however they show results of only one year. With the complete set of analyses, data should be spatialized and maps prepared. Then, it will be possible to recommend different practices to each soil type and to aid oenologists to direct wines to a specific quality pattern.

  5. Collaborative Research: Dynamics of Electrostatic Solitary Waves on Current Layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickett, Jolene S.


    The research carried out under the subject grant has provided insight into the generation of Electrostatic Solitary Waves (ESWs), which are nonlinear structures observed in space plasma data. These ESWs, appearing as pulses in the electric field time series data, represent the presence of several hundred meters to kilometer size positive potential structures, similar to champagne bubbles, where the electrons have been depleted, and which travel along Earth's magnetic field lines. The laboratory experiments carried out at the UCLA LAPD under the grant allowed us the opportunity to change various plasma and field conditions within the plasma device, and experiment with injection of suprathermal electron beams, in order to create ESWs. This then allowed us to determine the most likely method of generation of the ESWs. By comparing the properties of the ESWs observed in the LAPD to those observed in space and the plasma and field conditions under which those ESWs were observed in both locations, we were able to evaluate various ESW generation mechanisms. The findings of the laboratory experiments are that ESWs are generated through a lower hybrid instability. The ESWs observed in Earth's auroral current regions have similar characteristics to those generated by the laboratory when referenced to basic plasma and field characteristics, leading us to the conclusion that the lower hybrid drift instability is certainly a possibility for generation of the ESWs, at least in the auroral (northern/southern lights) regions. Due to space instrumentation insufficiencies and the limitations on telemetry, and thus poor time resolution, it is not possible to determine absolutely what generates these bubbles in space, but the laboratory experiments and supporting simulations have helped us to further our understanding of the processes under which they are generated. The public benefits from the findings of this research because the research is focused on current layers

  6. Advanced and Recurrent Endometrial Cancer; current concepts of treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.H. van Wijk (Heidy)


    textabstractEndometrial cancer is the most common gynecological malignancy in Western Countries. In the United States approximately 39,000 cases will be diagnosed in 2007 and 7,400 deaths will occur. Women have a 2.6% lifetime risk of developing endometrial cancer and it accounts for 6% of all

  7. Cervical Cancer Screening: A Survey of Current Practice Amongst ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To study the attitude toward and practice of cervical cancer screening amongst Nigerian gynaecologists, on whom the burden of treating cervical cancer rests. Study Design, Setting and Subjects: A self-administered, questionnaire survey of 113 Nigerian gynaecologists who attended the Annual General Meeting ...

  8. Transvaginal ultrasonography in ovarian cancer screening: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Nagell Jr JR


    Full Text Available John R van Nagell Jr, John T HoffDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Kentucky Chandler Medical Center/Markey Cancer Center, Lexington, KY, USAAbstract: Transvaginal ultrasonography (TVS is an integral part of all major ovarian cancer screening trials. TVS is accurate in detecting abnormalities in ovarian volume and morphology, but is less reliable in differentiating benign from malignant ovarian tumors. When used as the only screening test, TVS is sensitive, but has a low positive predictive value. Therefore, serum biomarkers and tumor morphology indexing are used together with TVS to identify ovarian tumors at high risk for malignancy. This allows preoperative triage of high-risk cases to major cancer centers for therapy while decreasing unnecessary surgery for benign disease. Ovarian cancer screening has been associated with a decrease in stage at detection in most trials, thereby allowing treatment to be initiated when the disease is most curable.Keywords: ovarian cancer, ultrasound, screening, serum Ca-125

  9. Anticancer activities of Withania somnifera: Current research, formulations, and future perspectives. (United States)

    Rai, Mahendra; Jogee, Priti S; Agarkar, Gauravi; dos Santos, Carolina Alves


    Cancer, being a cause of death for major fraction of population worldwide, is one of the most studied diseases and is being investigated for the development of new technologies and more accurate therapies. Still the currently available therapies for cancer have many lacunae which affect the patient's health severely in the form of side effects. The natural drugs obtained from the medicinal plants provide a better alternative to fight against this devastating disease. Withania somnifera L. Dunal (Solanaceae), a well-known Ayurvedic medicinal plant, has been traditionally used to cure various ailments for centuries. Considering the immense potential of W. somnifera, this review provides a detail account of its vital phytoconstituents and summarizes the present status of the research carried out on its anticancerous activities, giving future directions. The sources of scientific literature were accessed from various electronic databases such as PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, and library search. Various parts of W. somnifera especially the roots with its unique contents have been proved effective against different kinds of cancers. The most active components withanolides and withaferins along with a few other metabolites including withanone (WN) and withanosides have been reported effective against different types of cancer cell lines. This herb holds an important place among various anticancer medicinal plants. It is very essential to further screen and to investigate different formulations for anticancer therapy in vitro as well as in vivo in combination with established chemotherapy.

  10. A Training Program in Breast Cancer Research Using NMR Techniques (United States)


    mortality. Breast cancer can exist not only in the form of masses, but also in the forms of microcalcifications , asymmetric density, and architectural...treatment of breast cancer calls for early detection of cancerous lesions (e.g., clustered microcalcifications and masses associated with malignant...DAMD17-00-1-0291 TITLE: A Training Program in Breast Cancer Research Using NMR Techniques PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Paul C. Wang, Ph.D

  11. Major clinical research advances in gynecologic cancer in 2014


    Suh, Dong Hoon; Lee, Kyung-Hun; Kim, Kidong; Kang, Sokbom; Kim, Jae-Weon


    In 2014, 9 topics were selected as major advances in clinical research for gynecologic oncology: 2 each in cervical and corpus cancer, 4 in ovarian cancer, and 1 in breast cancer. For cervical cancer, several therapeutic agents showed viable antitumor clinical response in recurrent and metastatic disease: bevacizumab, cediranib, and immunotherapies including human papillomavirus (HPV)-tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and Z-100. The HPV test received FDA approval as the primary screening tool of...

  12. Meharry-Johns Hopkins Center for Prostate Cancer Research (United States)


    questionnaire to assess their prostate cancer health seeking behavior. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Prostate cancer, Dietary risk factors, Lycopene, Genetic ... predisposition , African-Americans, Cancer research training, Quality of life, Community outreach, Recruiting study participants, Cell line inhibition...Institute (NCI) state cancer profiles, the mortality rate is almost three times that of CA men (73.9 per 100,000 AA / 25.6 per 100,000 C). Genetic and

  13. An evaluation of current methods of diagnosing colorectal cancer in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, Janet; Tuckey, Mandy


    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a highly conversed topic, particularly since implementation of screening for CRC is imminent within the U.K. Aims: The aim of this research project was to examine the diagnostic tools currently used within the UK to detect CRC and their impact on the aetiology and epidemiology of CRC. Methodology: The complexity of the research topic lent itself towards a literature review. A systematic approach of researching was therefore adopted to analyse and critically evaluate the reliability and validity of articles. Electronic databases including AMED, Cancerlit, CINHAL, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE and EBM-Reviews were utilised to provide a wide spectrum of recent and relevant articles. Other research strategies involved looking for books relating to the topics, which were kept to within 6 years of publication to maintain accuracy of information. Selected websites, such as NICE, the Department of Health, NHS websites and Cancer Research U.K. were useful at explaining current and future screening plans and trials within Britain and allowed the study of reliable U.K. statistics. The research articles were then outlined and placed into sections of similar topic areas, which enabled the author to compare, contrast and evaluate the hypotheses. By organising the research in this way, a thorough review of the existing research for CRC was resultant. Results: A range of diagnostic tools is currently in use for detecting CRC within the UK. Screening for asymptomatic individuals aged 55-60 years+, (the age range where CRC incidence is higher), would provide the most effective reduction in CRC incidence and mortality rates. Conclusions: The use of a multi-phasic screening programme consisting of faecal occult blood tests (FOBt) and a whole bowel examination is considered to be the most effective diagnostic tools. However, preventative schemes, such as better education of the risks and symptoms of CRC, supported by the NHS Cancer Plan (2000), have

  14. Targeting PD-1/PD-L1 in lung cancer: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Cao M


    Full Text Available María González-Cao,1 Niki Karachaliou,1 Santiago Viteri,1 Daniela Morales-Espinosa,1 Cristina Teixidó,2 Jesús Sánchez Ruiz,3 Miquel Ángel Molina-Vila,2 Mariacarmela Santarpia,4 Rafael Rosell1,2,5,61Translational Cancer Research Unit, Instituto Oncológico Dr Rosell, Quirón Dexeus University Hospital, Barcelona, Spain; 2Pangaea Biotech SL, Barcelona, Spain; 3Centro Nacional de Investigación Oncología (CNIO, Madrid, Spain; 4Medical Oncology Unit, Human Pathology Department, University of Messina, Messina, Italy; 5Cancer Biology and Precision Medicine Program, Catalan Institute of Oncology, Germans Trias i Pujol Health Sciences Institute and Hospital, Campus Can Ruti, Badalona, Barcelona, Spain; 6Fundación Molecular Oncology Research, Barcelona, SpainAbstract: Increased understanding of tumor immunology has led to the development of effective immunotherapy treatments. One of the most important advances in this field has been due to pharmacological design of antibodies against immune checkpoint inhibitors. Anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies are currently in advanced phases of clinical development for several tumors, including lung cancer. Results from Phase I–III trials with anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies in non-small-cell lung cancer have demonstrated response rates of around 20% (range, 16%–50%. More importantly, responses are long-lasting (median duration of response, 18 months and fast (50% of responses are detected at time of first tumor evaluation with very low grade 3–4 toxicity (less than 5%. Recently, the anti-PD-1 antibody pembrolizumab received US Food and Drug Administration (FDA breakthrough therapy designation for treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer, supported by data from a Phase Ib trial. Another anti-PD-1 antibody, nivolumab, has also been approved for lung cancer based on survival advantage demonstrated in recently released data from a Phase III trial in squamous cell lung cancer.Keywords: immunotherapy, immunoncology

  15. The Ninth Annual American Association for Cancer Research International Conference on Frontiers in Cancer Prevention Research


    Xu, Li; Wang, Sophia S.; Healey, Megan A.; Faupel-Badger, Jessica M.; Wilken, Jason A.; Battaglia, Tracy; Szabo, Eva; Mao, Jenny T.; Bergan, Raymond C.


    The Ninth Annual AACR Frontiers in Cancer Prevention Research conference was held in Philadelphia in November 7–10, 2010. Its thematic focus was “Prevention: From Basic Science to Public Health Benefit.” Telomere plasticity, the microenvironment, inflammation, transformation to the metastatic phenotype, and pathways to obesity were highlighted as important elements of carcinogenesis amenable to intervention. The integration of information from novel technologies related to physical biology, m...

  16. Highlights of recent developments and trends in cancer nanotechnology research--view from NCI Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer. (United States)

    Hull, L C; Farrell, D; Grodzinski, P


    Although the incidence of cancer and cancer related deaths in the United States has decreased over the past two decades due to improvements in early detection and treatment, cancer still is responsible for a quarter of the deaths in this country. There is much room for improvement on the standard treatments currently available and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) has recognized the potential for nanotechnology and nanomaterials in this area. The NCI Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer was formed in 2004 to support multidisciplinary researchers in the application of nanotechnology to cancer diagnosis and treatment. The researchers in the Alliance have been productive in generating innovative solutions to some of the central issues of cancer treatment including how to detect tumors earlier, how to target cancer cells specifically, and how to improve the therapeutic index of existing chemotherapies and radiotherapy treatments. Highly creative ideas are being pursued where novelty in nanomaterial development enables new modalities of detection or therapy. This review highlights some of the innovative materials approaches being pursued by researchers funded by the NCI Alliance. Their discoveries to improve the functionality of nanoparticles for medical applications includes the generation of new platforms, improvements in the manufacturing of nanoparticles and determining the underlying reasons for the movement of nanoparticles in the blood. © 2013.

  17. Current NDT activities at Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekinci, S.


    Nondestructive testing (NDT) activities at Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center (CNAEM) has been initiated in the Industrial Application Department of the Center which was established in 1976 as the Radioisotope Applications Group for Industry. The Department started its first NDT activity with industrial radiography. The NDT activities have been developed by the support of various national (State Planning Organization (DPT)) and international (IAEA and UNDP) projects. Today, there are five basic NDT techniques (radiography, ultrasonic, magnetic particle, liquid penetrant and eddy current) used in the Industrial Application Department. The Department arranges routinely NDT qualification courses according to ISO 9712 and TS EN 473 standards for level 1 and 2 for Turkish Industry. It also carries out national DPT and IAEA Technical Co-operation projects and gives NDT services in the laboratory and in the field. Digital radiography and digital ultrasonic techniques are being used in advanced NDT applications. This paper describes the NDT activities of CNAEM. (author)

  18. Current Debates in Corporate Social Responsibility: An Agenda for Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Crowther


    Full Text Available Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR has a particular prominence at this point in time, featuring heavily in the discourses of both academe and business. The understanding of what is meant by CSR continues to evolve as a consensus is reached. Nevertheless some important debates continue – or are commencing – which need to be resolved. It is the purpose of this paper to highlight these as some of the current debates within the CSR community – and hence form a significant part of an agenda for research in the area. Specifically we focus upon three key areas for the management of business, namely setting standards for reporting, identifying and implementing sustainable practice, and the management of risk.

  19. Computerized clinical guidelines: current status & principles for future research. (United States)

    Kondylakis, Haridimos; Tsiknakis, Manolis


    Although it is widely accepted that the adoption of computerized clinical guidelines would improve the quality of the provided health care, their influence in the daily practice is limited. In this paper we provide insights on the core topics related to computer interpretable clinical guidelines and we present shortly the main approaches in the area. Then we discuss the current limitations, and we present three simple principles that according to our view should be adopted to enhance the penetration of computerized clinical guidelines in the health care organizations. The overall goal of this paper is not only to give readers a quick overview of the works in the area, but also to provide necessary insights for the practical understanding of the issues involved and draw directions for future research and development activities.

  20. Current status of ethnobotany research on palms from Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquina Albán


    Full Text Available The current situation concerning research in ethnobotany and economic botany of Peruvian palms is analyzed through a review of the literature with emphasis on knowledge related to uses and vernacular names. Of the 136 Peruvian palm species, 104 have at least one use. A total of 268 different uses distributed in 16 categories were registered. The most frequent categories are "construction", "edible", "craft industry" and "medicinal". There are 109 palm species with at least one vernacular name in Peru. The consulted literature is analyzed in four categories: (i general studies in economic botany, (ii ethnographic and ethnobiological studies, (iii studies of South-American palms of economic interest, (iv studies that exclusively deal with the useful Peruvian palms. Ethnobotanical knowledge of Peruvian palms proves to be essentially descriptive, with much repetitive information. Studies that significantly contribute to the genetic or agronomical improvement of the economically promising palms are rare.

  1. Achieving effective control in cancer pain: a review of current guidelines. (United States)

    Fielding, Flannery; Sanford, Tanya M; Davis, Mellar P


    Pain is one of the most common and distressing elements of suffering related to cancer and cancer treatment. Progress in cancer treatment means people will live longer with the sequelae of cancer and disease-directed treatments, and both the short- and long-term effects of opioid use must be considered. Skilled practitioners caring for individuals with cancer help to alleviate cancer-related pain by using the World Health Organization (WHO) step-wise approach to pain management as well as recently updated national and international guidelines. Current guidelines go beyond the unidimensional WHO model by addressing comprehensive assessment, pharmacological management of opioids and adverse effects associated with opioid use, the role of adjuvants, and the application of non-pharmacological treatments. By following current guidelines promoting a multifaceted approach to the management of cancer-related pain and advocating for patient-centered care, nurses are uniquely positioned to champion effective cancer pain management.

  2. Medical researchers unite for study on cancer intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Office


    Full Text Available We introduce Drs. Antoine Snijders and Jian-Hua Mao, whose article is published in this issue of AMOR and discuss their views on cancer genetics, targeted therapy, and personalized medicine.Having worked together in numerous joint investigations that have yielded significant results, Dr. Snijders and Dr. Mao would most definitely agree that two heads are better than one. “Researchers these days need to have the ability to collaborate across many different disciplines,” said the duo in an exclusive interview with AMOR. Dr. Snijders and Dr. Mao, both with PhDs in cancer genetics and genomics, are currently based at the Biological Systems and Engineering Division of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, California, which is a member of the national laboratory system supported by the U.S Department of Energy through its Office of Science. The Berkeley Lab is well known for producing excellent scholars, as thirteen Nobel Prize winners are affiliated with the Lab and seventy of its scientists are members of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS, one of the highest honors for a scientist in the United States. Dr. Snijders, a Dutch who has conducted his research at Berkeley Lab for the past eight years, did his Masters in Science (Medical Biology at the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Netherlands – an institute with a strong focus on scientific research and is home to five Spinoza Prize (a.k.a. the “Dutch Nobel” winners. Dr. Snijders’s PhD (cum laude in cancer and molecular biology was awarded by University Utrecht in Netherlands, but his research work was carried out at the University of California San Francisco. Subsequently, he continued his postdoctoral research in molecular cytogenetics at the same institution. A prolific author of 114 publications (with 3,851 citations according to ResearchGate, Dr. Snijders – who also volunteers with California’s Contra Costa County Search and Rescue team for missing persons – has interests in

  3. Current Status of Poly(ADP-ribose Polymerase Inhibitors as Novel Therapeutic Agents for Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Hiller


    Full Text Available Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC is an aggressive type of breast cancer that is clinically defined as lacking estrogen and progesterone receptors, as well as being ERBB2 (HER-2 negative. Without specific therapeutic targets, TNBC carries a worse prognosis than other types of breast cancer in the absence of therapy. Research has now further differentiated breast cancer into subtypes based on genetic expression patterns. One of these subtypes, basal-like, frequently overlaps with the clinical picture of TNBC. Additionally, both TNBC and basal-like breast cancer link to BRCA mutations. Recent pharmaceutical advances have created a class of drugs, poly(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP inhibitors, which are showing potential to effectively treat these patients. The aim of this paper is to summarize the basis behind PARP inhibitors and update the current status of their development in clinical trials for the treatment of TNBC.

  4. [Video game and internet addiction. The current state of research]. (United States)

    Rehbein, F; Mößle, T; Arnaud, N; Rumpf, H-J


    The use of interactive screen media is widespread and for some users leads to pathological symptoms that are phenomenologically similar to signs of addictive disorders. Addictive use of computer games and other Internet applications, such as social media can be distinguished. In the past standard criteria to classify this new disorder were lacking. In DSM-5, nine criteria are proposed for diagnosing Internet gaming disorder. The focus is currently on video games as most studies have been done in this field. Prevalence estimations are difficult to interpret due to the lack of standard diagnostic measures and result in a range of the frequency of Internet addiction between 1 % and 4.2 % in the general German population. Rates are higher in younger individuals. For computer game addiction prevalence rates between 0.9 % and 1.7  % can be found in adolescents. Despite substantial comorbidity among those affected current research points to addictive media use as a stand-alone disorder.

  5. Research progress in targeted therapy for liver cancer stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHAO Ping


    Full Text Available Liver cancer is a malignant tumor. The current operation or chemoradiotherapy cannot achieve a satisfactory effect, and relapse and metastasis are always big problems in the treatment of liver cancer. According to the recent theory of liver cancer stem cells, the genesis, development, relapse, metastasis, and prognosis of liver cancer are all related to liver cancer stem cells. If the liver cancer stem cells are treated by targeted therapy, which would reduce the number of or destroy the stem cells, the relapse, metastasis, and drug resistance after tumor resection may be reduced or eliminated. The progress in targeted therapy for liver cancer stem cells is reviewed here. Although there are many types of targeted therapies for liver cancer stem cells, it is still a key problem that the targeting is not strong enough, which needs to be solved urgently. Whether the dual- or multi-targeting would solve this problem still needs to be confirmed by further experimental studies.

  6. Towards meeting the research needs of Australian cancer consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saunders Carla


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a growing amount of literature to support the view that active involvement in research by consumers, especially informed and networked consumers, benefits the quality and direction of research itself, the research process and, most importantly, people affected by cancer. Our exploratory project focuses on identifying their priorities and developing a process to assess the research needs of Australian cancer consumers which may be useful beyond the cancer scenario. Methods This project was consumer initiated, developed and implemented, with the assistance of a leading Australian cancer consumer advocacy group, Cancer Voices NSW (CVN. Such direct involvement is unusual and ensures that the priorities identified, and the process itself, are not influenced by other interests, regardless how well-intentioned they may be. The processes established, and data collection via a workshop, followed by a questionnaire to confirm and prioritise findings, and comparison with a similar UK exercise, are detailed in this paper. Results Needs across five topic areas reflecting cancer control domains (prevention and risk; screening and diagnosis; treatment; survivorship; and end of life were identified. Cancer consumers high priority research needs were found to be: earlier diagnosis of metastatic cancers; the extent of use of best practice palliative care guidelines; identifying barriers to cancer risk behaviour change; and environmental, nutrition and lifestyle risk factors for people with cancer. A process for identifying consumers’ research priorities was developed and applied; this may be useful for further investigation in this under-studied area. Conclusion The findings provide a model for developing a consumer derived research agenda in Australia which can be used to inform the strategic direction of cancer research. Consumers have been seeking a workable method to achieve this and have worked in collaboration with a major

  7. Stakeholder engagement for comparative effectiveness research in cancer care: experience of the DEcIDE Cancer Consortium. (United States)

    Greenberg, Caprice C; Wind, Jennifer K; Chang, George J; Chen, Ronald C; Schrag, Deborah


    Stakeholder input is a critical component of comparative effectiveness research. To ensure that the research activities of the Developing Evidence to Inform Decisions about Effectiveness (DEcIDE) Network, supported by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, translate into the greatest impact for everyday practice and policy-making in cancer, we were tasked with soliciting stakeholder input regarding priority areas in cancer-related comparative effectiveness research for the DEcIDE Cancer Consortium. Given the increasing emphasis on stakeholder engagement in research, many investigators are facing a similar task, yet there is limited literature to guide such efforts, particularly in cancer care. To help fill this gap, we present our approach to operationalizing stakeholder engagement and discuss it in the context of other recent developments in the area. We describe challenges encountered in convening stakeholders from multiple vantage points to prioritize topics and strategies used to mitigate these barriers. We offer several recommendations regarding how to best solicit stakeholder input to inform comparative effectiveness research in cancer care. These recommendations can inform other initiatives currently facing the challenges of engaging stakeholders in priority setting for cancer.

  8. Current practice when treating lung cancer in Australasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holloway, L.


    A multidisciplinary meeting was held by the radiation oncology department of South Western Sydney Area Cancer Services in March 2003. This meeting was advertised in all radiation oncology departments in Australia and New Zealand. As a precursor to this meeting, a survey was undertaken on the use of radiotherapy for treating lung cancer. All departments in Australia and New Zealand were asked to participate. The survey considered planning techniques, delivery set-up and prescription doses for non-small-cell and small-cell lung cancer and palliative and radical treatments. A wide range in the techniques used was seen across departments, particularly when prescription doses and fractionation were considered

  9. FES in Europe and beyond: Current Translational Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Azevedo Coste


    Full Text Available Capacity of adult neural and muscle tissues to respond to external Electrical Stimulation (ES is the biological basis for the development and implementation of mobility impairment physiotherapy protocols and of related assistive technologies, e.g, Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES. All body tissues, however, respond to electrical stimulation and, indeed, the most successful application of FES is electrical stimulation of the heart to revert or limit effects of arrhythmias (Pace-makers and Defibrillators. Here, we list and discuss results of FES current research activities, in particular those presented at 2016 Meetings: the PaduaMuscleDays, the Italian Institute of Myology Meeting, the 20th International Functional Electrical Stimulation Society (IFESS conference held in Montpellier and the Vienna Workshop on FES. Several papers were recently e-published in the European Journal of Translational Myology as reports of meeting presentations. All the events and publications clearly show that FES research in Europe and beyond is alive and promisses translation of results into clinical management of a very large population of persons with deficiencies.

  10. State of multicultural neuropsychological assessment in children: current research issues. (United States)

    Byrd, Desiree; Arentoft, Alyssa; Scheiner, Diane; Westerveld, Michael; Baron, Ida Sue


    Scientific attention to cultural considerations in child neuropsychological assessment has not developed parallel to the focus these issues have received in adult and elderly neuropsychological assessment. There are limited data on the presence, magnitude, etiology, and implications of culture-related differences in cognitive test performance among children. This preliminary report reviews the available empirical literature on the current state of multicultural neuropsychological assessment in children. The review identified articles by searching PubMed and PsycINFO databases, and the tables of contents of Developmental Neuropsychology and Child Neuropsychology from 2003-2008. Of the 1,834 abstracts reviewed, ten papers met inclusion criteria for the review. Five studies were completed in America; four of these compared performance between ethnic groups while the fifth examined neighborhood level poverty indicators exclusively within African-American children. Of the five international studies, all established local normative data and/or were exploratory investigations of neuropsychological functions in specific cultural groups, including Taiwanese infants, South African youth, and bilingual British children. Taken together, the results yield important clinical and research data that begin to inform many of the complex and fascinating mechanisms by which ethnic identity and culture impact cognitive development and the neuropsychological assessment of children. A critique of the existing literature and directions for future research are provided.

  11. Cancer Control Research Training for Native Researchers: A Model for Development of Additional Native Researcher Training Programs (United States)

    Becker, Thomas M.; Dunn, Esther; Tom-Orme, Lillian; Joe, Jennie


    Several social and biological scientists who have Native status are engaged in productive research careers, but the encouragement that has been offered to Native students to formulate career goals devoted to cancer etiology or cancer control in Native peoples has had limited success. Hence, the Native Researchers' Cancer Control Training Program…

  12. The Cervix Cancer Research Network (CCRN: Increasing access to cancer clinical trials in low- and middle-income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gita eSuneja


    Full Text Available Introduction: The burden of cervical cancer is large and growing in developing countries, due in large part to limited access to screening services and lack of human papillomavirus (HPV vaccination. In spite of modern advances in diagnostic and therapeutic modalities, outcomes from cervical cancer have not markedly improved in recent years. Novel clinical trials are urgently needed to improve outcomes from cervical cancer worldwide. Methods: The Cervix Cancer Research Network (CCRN, a subsidiary of the Gynecologic Cancer InterGroup (GCIG, is a multi-national, multi-institutional consortium of physicians and scientists focused on improving cervical cancer outcomes worldwide by making cancer clinical trials available in low-, middle-, and high-income countries. Standard operating procedures for participation in CCRN include a pre-qualifying questionnaire to evaluate clinical activities and research infrastructure, followed by a site visit. Once a site is approved, they may choose to participate in one of four currently accruing clinical trials.Results: To date, 13 different CCRN site visits have been performed. Of these 13 sites visited, 10 have been approved as CCRN sites including Tata Memorial Hospital, India; Bangalore, India; Trivandrum, India; Ramathibodi, Thailand; Siriaj, Thailand; Pramongkutklao, Thailand; Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam; Blokhin Russian Cancer Research Center; the Hertzen Moscow Cancer Research Institute; and the Russian Scientific Center of Roentgenoradiology. The four currently accruing clinical trials are TACO, OUTBACK, INTERLACE, and SHAPE.Discussion: The CCRN has successfully enrolled 10 sites in developing countries to participate in four randomized clinical trials. The primary objectives are to provide novel therapeutics to regions with the greatest need and to improve the validity and generalizability of clinical trial results by enrolling a diverse sample of patients.

  13. Social Networking Site Usage Among Childhood Cancer Survivors - A Potential Tool for Research Recruitment? (United States)

    Seltzer, Erica D.; Stolley, Melinda R.; Mensah, Edward K.; Sharp, Lisa K.


    Purpose The recent and rapid growth of social networking site (SNS) use presents a unique public health opportunity to develop effective strategies for the recruitment of hard-to-reach participants for cancer research studies. This survey investigated childhood cancer survivors’ reported use of SNS such as facebook or MySpace and their perceptions of using SNS, for recruitment into survivorship research. Methods Sixty White, Black and Hispanic, adult childhood cancer survivors (range 18 – 48 years of age) that were randomly selected from a larger childhood cancer study, the Chicago Healthy Living Study (CHLS), participated in this pilot survey. Telephone surveys were conducted to understand current SNS activity and attitudes towards using SNS as a cancer research recruitment tool. Results Seventy percent of participants reported SNS usage of which 80% were at least weekly users and 79 % reported positive attitudes towards the use of SNS as a recruitment tool for survivorship research. Conclusions and implications for cancer survivors The results of this pilot study revealed that SNS use was high and regular among the childhood cancer survivors sampled. Most had positive attitudes towards using SNS for recruitment of research. The results of this pilot survey suggest that SNS may offer an alternative approach for recruitment of childhood cancer survivors into research. PMID:24532046

  14. Is concordance with World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research guidelines for cancer prevention related to subsequent risk of cancer? Results from the EPIC study. (United States)

    Romaguera, Dora; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Peeters, Petra H; van Gils, Carla H; Chan, Doris S M; Ferrari, Pietro; Romieu, Isabelle; Jenab, Mazda; Slimani, Nadia; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Fagherazzi, Guy; Perquier, Florence; Kaaks, Rudolf; Teucher, Birgit; Boeing, Heiner; von Rüsten, Anne; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Dahm, Christina C; Overvad, Kim; Quirós, José Ramón; Gonzalez, Carlos A; Sánchez, María José; Navarro, Carmen; Barricarte, Aurelio; Dorronsoro, Miren; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Crowe, Francesca L; Key, Timothy J; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Bamia, Christina; Masala, Giovanna; Vineis, Paolo; Tumino, Rosario; Sieri, Sabina; Panico, Salvatore; May, Anne M; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Büchner, Frederike L; Wirfält, Elisabet; Manjer, Jonas; Johansson, Ingegerd; Hallmans, Göran; Skeie, Guri; Benjaminsen Borch, Kristin; Parr, Christine L; Riboli, Elio; Norat, Teresa


    In 2007 the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) and the American Institute of Cancer Research (AICR) issued 8 recommendations (plus 2 special recommendations) on diet, physical activity, and weight management for cancer prevention on the basis of the most comprehensive collection of available evidence. We aimed to investigate whether concordance with the WCRF/AICR recommendations was related to cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. The present study included 386,355 EPIC participants from 9 European countries. At recruitment, dietary, anthropometric, and lifestyle information was collected. A score was constructed based on the WCRF/AICR recommendations on weight management, physical activity, foods and drinks that promote weight gain, plant foods, animal foods, alcoholic drinks, and breastfeeding for women; the score range was 0-6 for men and 0-7 for women. Higher scores indicated greater concordance with WCRF/AICR recommendations. The association between the score and cancer risk was estimated by using multivariable Cox regression models. Concordance with the score was significantly associated with decreased risk of cancer. A 1-point increment in the score was associated with a risk reduction of 5% (95% CI: 3%, 7%) for total cancer, 12% (95% CI: 9%, 16%) for colorectal cancer, and 16% (95% CI: 9%, 22%) for stomach cancer. Significant associations were also observed for cancers of the breast, endometrium, lung, kidney, upper aerodigestive tract, liver, and esophagus but not for prostate, ovarian, pancreatic, and bladder cancers. Adherence to the WCRF/AICR recommendations for cancer prevention may lower the risk of developing most types of cancer.

  15. Cancer immunotherapy in veterinary medicine: Current options and new developments. (United States)

    Regan, Daniel; Guth, Amanda; Coy, Jonathan; Dow, Steven


    Excitement in the field of tumor immunotherapy is being driven by several remarkable breakthroughs in recent years. This review will cover recent advances in cancer immunotherapy, including the use of T cell checkpoint inhibitors, engineered T cells, cancer vaccines, and anti-B cell and T cell antibodies. Inhibition of T cell checkpoint molecules such as PD-1 and CTLA-4 using monoclonal antibodies has achieved notable success against advanced tumors in humans, including melanoma, renal cell carcinoma, and non-small cell lung cancer. Therapy with engineered T cells has also demonstrated remarkable tumor control and regression in human trials. Autologous cancer vaccines have recently demonstrated impressive prolongation of disease-free intervals and survival times in dogs with lymphoma. In addition, caninized monoclonal antibodies targeting CD20 and CD52 just recently received either full (CD20) or conditional (CD52) licensing by the United States Department of Agriculture for clinical use in the treatment of canine B-cell and T-cell lymphomas, respectively. Thus, immunotherapy for cancer is rapidly moving to the forefront of cancer treatment options in veterinary medicine as well as human medicine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cancer Research UK | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cancer Research UK. Cancer Research UK. IDRC to populate at a later date. Nous finançons des chercheurs qui inspirent des changements mondiaux. Abonnez-vous · Carrières · Communiquez avec nous · Désabonnez-vous · Plan du site. Suivez-nous; Facebook · Twitter · Youtube ...

  17. IDRC and Cancer Research UK partner on innovative new tobacco ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    Oct 18, 2017 ... IDRC and Cancer Research UK are pleased to announce the launch of a new five-year initiative aimed at preventing tobacco-related diseases and promoting ... Cancer Research UK's international tobacco control program seeks to accelerate the implementation of the Framework Convention on Tobacco ...

  18. US-LA CRN Clinical Cancer Research in Latin America (United States)

    The United States – Latin America Cancer Research Network (US-LA CRN) convened its Annual Meeting, in coordination with the Ministry of Health of Chile to discuss the Network’s first multilateral clinical research study: Molecular Profiling of Breast Cancer (MPBC).

  19. Internet-based technologies to improve cancer care coordination: current use and attitudes among cancer patients. (United States)

    Girault, Anne; Ferrua, Marie; Lalloué, Benoît; Sicotte, Claude; Fourcade, Aude; Yatim, Fatima; Hébert, Guillaume; Di Palma, Mario; Minvielle, Etienne


    The uses of internet-based technologies (e.g. patient portals, websites and applications) by cancer patients could be strong drive for change in cancer care coordination practices. The goal of this study was to assess the current utilisation of internet-based technologies (IBT) among cancer patients, and their willingness to use them for their health, as well as analyse the influence of socio-demographics on both aspects. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted in June 2013, over seven non-consecutive days within seven outpatient departments of Gustave Roussy, a comprehensive cancer centre (≈160,000 consultations yearly), located just outside Paris. We computed descriptive statistics and performed correlation analysis to investigate patients' usage and attitudes in correspondence with age, gender, socioeconomic status, social isolation, and place of living. We then conducted multinomial logistic regressions using R. The participation level was 85% (n=1371). The median age was 53.4. 71% used a mobile phone everyday and 93% had access to Internet from home. Age and socioeconomic status were negatively associated with the use of IBT (puse in health care, and especially, the possibility to enhance communication with providers. 84% of patients reported feeling comfortable with the use of such technologies but age and socioeconomic status had a significant influence. Most patients used IBTs every day. Overall, patients advocated for an extended use of IBT in oncology. Differences in perceived ease of use corresponding to age and socioeconomic status have to be addressed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Manufacturing/Cell Therapy Specialist | Center for Cancer Research (United States)

    conditions; parasitic infections; rheumatic and inflammatory diseases; and rare and neglected diseases. CMRP’s collaborative approach to clinical research and the expertise and dedication of staff to the continuation and success of the program’s mission has contributed to improving the overall standards of public health on a global scale. The Clinical Monitoring Research Program (CMRP) provides cell culture experience to work on innovative Vector Production and T-cell therapies for cancer treatment, and responsible for cell culture media preparation, vector production, and/or cell processing and cell expansion in the cGMP clinical manufacturing facility in support of the National Cancer Institute’s (NCI’s), Center for Cancer Research (CCR), Surgery Branch (SB). KEY ROLES/RESPONSIBILITIES-THIS POSITION IS CONTINGENT UPON FUNDING APPROVAL Performs testing of raw materials, intermediates, and final products by following analytical methods Maintains, calibrates and operates equipment and instruments supporting cell bioassays, Flow Cytometry, ELISA and PCR assay Tracks and tests products according to protocols Maintains lab in an optimal state Monitors and trends data, completes routine record review of test data and related documents for in-process testing, drug substance and drug product release Generates CoAs for product release Assists in the preparation of dossiers and data packages for interactions between Surgery Branch and Regulatory agencies Develops, revises, and reviews SOPs, qualification/validation protocols and reports Participates in investigations regarding out of specifications (OOS) results; address and manage deviations related to analytical procedures Provides updates at daily and weekly meetings Monitors the GMP systems currently in place to ensure compliance with documented policies Reviews proposed changes to systems, procedures, methods, and submissions to regulatory agencies, as appropriate Gathers metric information for use in continuous

  1. Public health services and systems research: current state of finance research. (United States)

    Ingram, Richard C; Bernet, Patrick M; Costich, Julia F


    There is a growing recognition that the US public health system should strive for efficiency-that it should determine the optimal ways to utilize limited resources to improve and protect public health. The field of public health finance research is a critical part of efforts to understand the most efficient ways to use resources. This article discusses the current state of public health finance research through a review of public health finance literature, chronicles important lessons learned from public health finance research to date, discusses the challenges faced by those seeking to conduct financial research on the public health system, and discusses the role of public health finance research in relation to the broader endeavor of Public Health Services and Systems Research.

  2. Respiratory sensitization and allergy: Current research approaches and needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boverhof, Darrell R.; Billington, Richard; Gollapudi, B. Bhaskar; Hotchkiss, John A.; Krieger, Shannon M.; Poole, Alan; Wiescinski, Connie M.; Woolhiser, Michael R.


    There are currently no accepted regulatory models for assessing the potential of a substance to cause respiratory sensitization and allergy. In contrast, a number of models exist for the assessment of contact sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Research indicates that respiratory sensitizers may be identified through contact sensitization assays such as the local lymph node assay, although only a small subset of the compounds that yield positive results in these assays are actually respiratory sensitizers. Due to the increasing health concerns associated with occupational asthma and the impending directives on the regulation of respiratory sensitizers and allergens, an approach which can identify these compounds and distinguish them from contact sensitizers is required. This report discusses some of the important contrasts between respiratory allergy and ACD, and highlights several prominent in vivo, in vitro and in silico approaches that are being applied or could be further developed to identify compounds capable of causing respiratory allergy. Although a number of animal models have been used for researching respiratory sensitization and allergy, protocols and endpoints for these approaches are often inconsistent, costly and difficult to reproduce, thereby limiting meaningful comparisons of data between laboratories and development of a consensus approach. A number of emerging in vitro and in silico models show promise for use in the characterization of contact sensitization potential and should be further explored for their ability to identify and differentiate contact and respiratory sensitizers. Ultimately, the development of a consistent, accurate and cost-effective model will likely incorporate a number of these approaches and will require effective communication, collaboration and consensus among all stakeholders

  3. Current Pharmacologic Approaches in Painful Bladder Research: An Update (United States)


    The symptoms of interstitial cystitis (IC)/bladder pain syndrome (BPS) may have multiple causes and involve many contributing factors. Traditional treatments (intravesical instillations) have had a primary focus on the bladder as origin of symptoms without adequately considering the potential influence of other local (pelvic) or systemic factors. Systemic pharmacological treatments have had modest success. A contributing factor to the low efficacy is the lack of phenotyping the patients. Individualized treatment based on is desirable, but further phenotype categorization is needed. There seems to be general agreement that IC is a unique disease and that BPS is a syndrome with multiple pathophysiologies, but this has so far not been not been well reflected in preclinical research with the aim of finding new pharmacological treatments. Current research approaches, including anti-nerve growth factor treatment, anti-tumor necrosis factor-α treatment, activation of SHIP1 (AQX-1125), and P2X3 receptor antagonists, and α1-adrenoceptor antagonists are potential systemic treatments, implying that not only the bladder is exposed to the administered drug, which may be beneficial if the IC/BPS is a bladder manifestation of a systemic disease, or negative (adverse effects) if it is a local bladder condition. Local treatment approaches such as the antagonism of Toll-like receptors (which still is only experimental) and intravesical liposomes (with positive proof-of-concept), may have the advantages of a low number of systemic adverse effects, but cannot be expected to have effects on symptoms generated outside the bladder. Assessment of which of the treatment approaches discussed in this review that can be developed into useful therapies requires further studies. PMID:29298474

  4. Adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research recommendations and colorectal cancer risk. (United States)

    Turati, Federica; Bravi, Francesca; Di Maso, Matteo; Bosetti, Cristina; Polesel, Jerry; Serraino, Diego; Dalmartello, Michela; Giacosa, Attilio; Montella, Maurizio; Tavani, Alessandra; Negri, Eva; La Vecchia, Carlo


    The World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) and the American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) released in 2007 eight recommendations for cancer prevention on body fatness, diet and physical activity. Our aim is to evaluate the relation between adherence to these recommendations and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. We pooled data from two Italian case-control studies including overall 2419 patients with CRC and 4723 controls. Adherence to the WCRF/AICR guidelines was summarised through a score incorporating seven of the WCRF/AICR recommendations, with higher scores indicating higher adherence to the guidelines. Odds ratios (ORs) of colorectal cancer were estimated using multiple logistic regression models. Higher adherence to the WCRF/AICR recommendations was associated with a significantly reduced CRC risk (OR 0.67, 95% confidence interval, CI, 0.56-0.80 for a score ≥5 versus cancer (OR 0.67). Inverse associations were observed with the diet-specific WCRF/AICR score (OR 0.71, 95% CI, 0.61-0.84 for ≥3.5 versus <2.5 points) and with specific recommendations on body fatness (OR 0.82, 95% CI, 0.70-0.97), physical activity (OR 0.86, 95% CI, 0.75-1.00), foods and drinks that promote weight gain (OR 0.70, 95% CI, 0.56-0.89), foods of plant origin (OR 0.56, 95% CI, 0.42-0.76), limiting alcohol (OR 0.87, 95% CI, 0.77-0.99) and salt intake (OR 0.63, 95% CI, 0.48-0.84). Our study indicated that adherence to the WCRF/AICR recommendations is inversely related to CRC risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Current management of liver metastases of colon cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainieri Breedy, Giovanna


    Colon cancer has been one of the major tumors in the world, both men and women; and it is constituted the third most commonly diagnosed tumor, with approximately 1.2 million of new cases per year. This cancer type is considered of great importance in Costa Rica and has occupied the fifth place. Age is the main risk factor, followed by environmental, diabetic and genetic factors. An IV colon cancer has been manifested with any T, with any N and metastases. Metastases from colon cancer to liver can be classified according to whether have been synchronous (20 to 25%) or metachronous (15 to 29%). In turn, they can be synchronous, resectable or unresectable or mechanical resectable or unresectable. The liver has been the most common site of metastases, and the status of this organ has been an important determinant of overall survival in patients with advanced disease. Half of the patients developed metastases during the course of the disease. Metastases has represented the leading cause of death from this tumor. With the advent of new surgical techniques, new anesthetic care, new chemotherapeutic and molecular agents, together with new radiofrequency modalities and ablative treatment, the approach of metastases from colon cancer to the liver has been shown to be decisive in the prolongation of survival of the patient, who in the past was considered a terminal patient [es

  6. Rectal cancer and Fournier's gangrene - current knowledge and therapeutic options. (United States)

    Bruketa, Tomislav; Majerovic, Matea; Augustin, Goran


    Fournier's gangrene (FG) is a rapid progressive bacterial infection that involves the subcutaneous fascia and part of the deep fascia but spares the muscle in the scrotal, perianal and perineal region. The incidence has increased dramatically, while the reported incidence of rectal cancer-induced FG is unknown but is extremely low. Pathophysiology and clinical presentation of rectal cancer-induced FG per se does not differ from the other causes. Only rectal cancer-specific symptoms before presentation can lead to the diagnosis. The diagnosis of rectal cancer-induced FG should be excluded in every patient with blood on digital rectal examination, when urogenital and dermatological causes are excluded and when fever or sepsis of unknown origin is present with perianal symptomatology. Therapeutic options are more complex than for other forms of FG. First, the causative rectal tumor should be removed. The survival of patients with rectal cancer resection is reported as 100%, while with colostomy it is 80%. The preferred method of rectal resection has not been defined. Second, oncological treatment should be administered but the timing should be adjusted to the resolution of the FG and sometimes for the healing of plastic reconstructive procedures that are commonly needed for the reconstruction of large perineal, scrotal and lower abdominal wall defects.

  7. Research Training Program in Breast Cancer (United States)


    entry. Genes & Dev. 12: 456-461. Zhao, J., Kennedy, B.K., Lawrence, B.D., Barbie , D., Matera, A.G., Fletcher, J.A., and Harlow, E. 2000. NPAT links...Analysis of the NuRD subunits reveals a histone deacetylase core complex and a genetic studies of early breast cancer evolution . Breast Cancer Res

  8. Skin Cancer: NIH Research to Results (United States)

    ... train a person's immune cells to attack the skin cancer cells. New melanoma drugs. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration recently ... immune system cells found in tumors could shrink skin cancer tumors and possibly prolong life. Melanoma increasing among children. Although rare, melanoma among children ...

  9. International Partnerships for Clinical Cancer Research (United States)

    CGH co-sponsors the 2015 International Symposium on Cancer Clinical Trials and related meetings held in partnership with the Japanese National Cancer Center (JNCC) and Embassies of France, Korea, United Kingdom (UK), and United States (US) in Tokyo on May 14 - 15, 2015.

  10. Adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research lifestyle recommendations in colorectal cancer survivors : Results of the PROFILES registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkels, Renate M; van Lee, Linde; Beijer, Sandra; Bours, Martijn J; van Duijnhoven, Fränzel J B; Geelen, Anouk; Hoedjes, M.; Mols, F.; de Vries, Jeanne; Weijenberg, Matty P; Kampman, Ellen


    We examined adherence to the eight The World Cancer Research Foundation/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) recommendations on diet, physical activity, and body weight among colorectal cancer survivors, and whether adherence was associated with intention to eat healthy and with the

  11. Current advances in biomarkers for targeted therapy in triple-negative breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleisher B


    Full Text Available Brett Fleisher,1 Charlotte Clarke,2 Sihem Ait-Oudhia1 1Department of Pharmaceutics, Center for Pharmacometrics and Systems Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, University of Florida, Orlando, FL, 2Department of Translational Research, UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA Abstract: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC is a complex heterogeneous disease characterized by the absence of three hallmark receptors: human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, estrogen receptor, and progesterone receptor. Compared to other breast cancer subtypes, TNBC is more aggressive, has a higher prevalence in African-Americans, and more frequently affects younger patients. Currently, TNBC lacks clinically accepted targets for tailored therapy, warranting the need for candidate biomarkers. BiomarkerBase, an online platform used to find biomarkers reported in clinical trials, was utilized to screen all potential biomarkers for TNBC and select only the ones registered in completed TNBC trials through The selected candidate biomarkers were classified as surrogate, prognostic, predictive, or pharmacodynamic (PD and organized by location in the blood, on the cell surface, in the cytoplasm, or in the nucleus. Blood biomarkers include vascular endothelial growth factor/vascular endothelial growth factor receptor and interleukin-8 (IL-­8; cell surface biomarkers include EGFR, insulin-like growth factor binding protein, c-Kit, c-Met, and PD-L1; cytoplasm biomarkers include PIK3CA, pAKT/S6/p4E-BP1, PTEN, ALDH1, and the PIK3CA/AKT/mTOR-related metabolites; and nucleus biomarkers include BRCA1, the glucocorticoid receptor, TP53, and Ki67. Candidate biomarkers were further organized into a “cellular protein network” that demonstrates potential connectivity. This review provides an inventory and reference point for promising biomarkers for breakthrough targeted therapies in TNBC. Keywords: anti-cancer directed pharmacotherapy, difficult

  12. Leveraging Cancer Therapeutics for the HIV Cure Agenda: Current Status and Future Directions (United States)

    Polizzotto, Mark N.; Chen, Grace; Tressler, Randall L.; Godfrey, Catherine


    Despite effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) and undetectable HIV RNA in the plasma, latent replication-competent HIV persists indefinitely in long-lived cells. Cessation of ART results in rebound of HIV from these persistent reservoirs. While this was thought to be an insurmountable obstacle to viral eradication, recent cases suggest otherwise. To date one patient has been “cured” of HIV and several others have been able to interrupt ART without viral rebound for prolonged periods. These events have sparked renewed interest in developing strategies that will allow eradication of HIV in infected individuals. We review the current knowledge of HIV latency and the viral reservoir, describe the potential utility of emerging cancer therapeutics in HIV cure research with an emphasis on pathways implicated in reservoir persistence, and outline opportunities and challenges in the context of the current clinical trial and regulatory environment. PMID:26224205

  13. Designing Trojan Horses | Center for Cancer Research (United States)

    Waging battle against cancer cells without inflicting damage on normal tissue has long been a goal for cancer treatment. A new type of drug called immunotoxins may help make this goal a reality. Much like the Greeks used a wooden horse to get soldiers inside the gates of Troy, immunotoxins use clever genetic engineering to get a lethal toxin inside cancer cells. Each immunotoxin consists of two components an antibody and a toxin that are fused together. The custom-designed antibody acts as a homing signal, seeking out a specific target present on the surface of cancer cells. When the antibody binds its target, the whole immunotoxin is brought inside the cell. Unwittingly, the cancer cell has exposed itself to a powerful poison, a mistake that will likely condemn it to death.

  14. Tuberculosis control in prisons: current situation and research gaps. (United States)

    Dara, Masoud; Acosta, Colleen D; Melchers, Natalie V S Vinkeles; Al-Darraji, Haider A A; Chorgoliani, Dato; Reyes, Hernan; Centis, Rosella; Sotgiu, Giovanni; D'Ambrosio, Lia; Chadha, Sarabjit S; Migliori, Giovanni Battista


    Tuberculosis (TB) in penitentiary services (prisons) is a major challenge to TB control. This review article describes the challenges that prison systems encounter in TB control and provides solutions for the more efficient use of limited resources based on the three pillars of the post-2015 End TB Strategy. This paper also proposes research priorities for TB control in prisons based on current challenges. Articles (published up to 2011) included in a recent systematic review on TB control in prisons were further reviewed. In addition, relevant articles in English (published 1990 to May 2014) were identified by searching keywords in PubMed and Google Scholar. Article bibliographies and conference abstracts were also hand-searched. Despite being a serious cause of morbidity and mortality among incarcerated populations, many prison systems encounter a variety of challenges that hinder TB control. These include, but are not limited to, insufficient laboratory capacity and diagnostic tools, interrupted supply of medicines, weak integration between civilian and prison TB services, inadequate infection control measures, and low policy priority for prison healthcare. Governmental commitment, partnerships, and sustained financing are needed in order to facilitate improvements in TB control in prisons, which will translate to the wider community. Copyright © 2015 World Health Organization. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Current Research Therapeutic Strategies for Alzheimer’s Disease Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaume Folch


    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD currently presents one of the biggest healthcare issues in the developed countries. There is no effective treatment capable of slowing down disease progression. In recent years the main focus of research on novel pharmacotherapies was based on the amyloidogenic hypothesis of AD, which posits that the beta amyloid (Aβ peptide is chiefly responsible for cognitive impairment and neuronal death. The goal of such treatments is (a to reduce Aβ production through the inhibition of β and γ secretase enzymes and (b to promote dissolution of existing cerebral Aβ plaques. However, this approach has proven to be only modestly effective. Recent studies suggest an alternative strategy centred on the inhibition of the downstream Aβ signalling, particularly at the synapse. Aβ oligomers may cause aberrant N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR activation postsynaptically by forming complexes with the cell-surface prion protein (PrPC. PrPC is enriched at the neuronal postsynaptic density, where it interacts with Fyn tyrosine kinase. Fyn activation occurs when Aβ is bound to PrPC-Fyn complex. Fyn causes tyrosine phosphorylation of the NR2B subunit of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5. Fyn kinase blockers masitinib and saracatinib have proven to be efficacious in treating AD symptoms in experimental mouse models of the disease.

  16. [Current research status of drug therapy for apnea of prematurity]. (United States)

    Chen, Chao; Shu, Xian-Xiao; Yang, Xiao-Yan; Shi, Jing; Tang, Jun; Mu, De-Zhi


    To investigate the current status of studies on drug therapy for apnea of prematurity (AOP) in the past decade in China and abroad, and to describe the research trends in the field. CNKI and MEDLINE were searched with the key words "apnea of prematurity" and "treatment" for articles published in the past decade (January 2006 to December 2015). The articles were screened and the key words were extracted to establish the co-occurrence matrix. Ucinet 6.2 was used to plot the knowledge map. A total of 26 Chinese key words and 20 English key words were included. Those in the center of the co-existent knowledge map of Chinses keywords were "preterm infants", "apnea", "primary apnea", "naloxone" and "aminophylline"; while "apnea", "preterm infants" and "caffeine" located in the central place of the co-existent knowledge map of English keywords. Methylxanthines are still the major drugs for AOP; however, aminophylline is mainly used in China, while caffeine is mainly used in foreign countries. Other drugs such as naltrexone are also used in the clinical treatment of AOP.

  17. The crossroads of GIS and health information: a workshop on developing a research agenda to improve cancer control. (United States)

    Pickle, Linda Williams; Szczur, Martha; Lewis, Denise Riedel; Stinchcomb, David G


    Cancer control researchers seek to reduce the burden of cancer by studying interventions, their impact in defined populations, and the means by which they can be better used. The first step in cancer control is identifying where the cancer burden is elevated, which suggests locations where interventions are needed. Geographic information systems (GIS) and other spatial analytic methods provide such a solution and thus can play a major role in cancer control. This report presents findings from a workshop held June 16-17, 2005, to bring together experts and stakeholders to address current issues in GIScience and cancer control. A broad range of areas of expertise and interest was represented, including epidemiology, geography, statistics, environmental health, social science, cancer control, cancer registry operations, and cancer advocacy. The goals of this workshop were to build consensus on important policy and research questions, identify roadblocks to future progress in this field, and provide recommendations to overcome these roadblocks.

  18. Impact of biospecimens handling on biomarker research in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Callari Maurizio


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression profiling is moving from the research setting to the practical clinical use. Gene signatures able to correctly identify high risk breast cancer patients as well as to predict response to treatment are currently under intense investigation. While technical issues dealing with RNA preparation, choice of array platforms, statistical analytical tools are taken into account, the tissue collection process is seldom considered. The time elapsed between surgical tissue removal and freezing of samples for biological characterizations is rarely well defined and/or recorded even for recently stored samples, despite the publications of standard operating procedures for biological sample collection for tissue banks. Methods Breast cancer samples from 11 patients were collected immediately after surgical removal and subdivided into aliquots. One was immediately frozen and the others were maintained at room temperature for respectively 2, 6 and 24 hrs. RNA was extracted and gene expression profile was determined using cDNA arrays. Phosphoprotein profiles were studied in parallel. Results Delayed freezing affected the RNA quality only in 3 samples, which were not subjected to gene profiling. In the 8 breast cancer cases with apparently intact RNA also in sample aliquots frozen at delayed times, 461 genes were modulated simply as a function of freezing timing. Some of these genes were included in gene signatures biologically and clinically relevant for breast cancer. Delayed freezing also affected detection of phosphoproteins, whose pattern may be crucial for clinical decision on target-directed drugs. Conclusion Time elapsed between surgery and freezing of samples appears to have a strong impact and should be considered as a mandatory variable to control for clinical implications of inadequate tissue handling.

  19. [Medicinal plants in cancer patients: current practices and evaluation data]. (United States)

    Huet, Matthieu


    Many complementary and alternatives medicines are offered to patients with cancer. Among them, herbal medicines have a substantial place. These plants are mainly used to reduce adverse effects of anticancer treatments and for specific anticancer properties. Our review shows that only few clinical data support medicinal plants effectiveness in cancer patients. Arguments rely mainly on usual indications and pharmacological data for minimization of treatments toxicity while for the anticancer properties, on epidemiological and preclinical data. To inform and counsel patients and people around, healthcare professionals need to evaluate benefit-risk balance on evidence-based information. Because the medical decision should be shared with the patient, his beliefs and preferences have to be considered. When no adverse effect or drug interaction is associated with herbal medicine, we state that their use is acceptable. This paper discuss of potential risk and benefit of the most used medicinal plants by cancer patients.

  20. Value-Based Calculators in Cancer: Current State and Challenges. (United States)

    Nabhan, Chadi; Feinberg, Bruce A


    The ASCO Value Framework, National Comprehensive Cancer Network Evidence Blocks, Memorial Sloan Kettering's DrugAbacus, and Institute for Clinical and Economic Review incremental cost-effectiveness ratio calculator are value-based methodologies that attempt to address the disproportionate increase in cancer care spending. These calculators can be used as an initial step for discussing cost versus value, but they fall short in recognizing the importance of the cancer journey because they do not fully factor the patient's perspective or the global cost of care. This timely review highlights both the limitations and the advantages of each value calculator and suggests opportunities for refinement. Practicing oncologists, payers, and manufacturers should be familiar with value-based calculators because the role these tools play in cost containment is likely to be hotly debated.

  1. Current Management Strategy for Active Surveillance in Prostate Cancer. (United States)

    Syed, Jamil S; Javier-Desloges, Juan; Tatzel, Stephanie; Bhagat, Ansh; Nguyen, Kevin A; Hwang, Kevin; Kim, Sarah; Sprenkle, Preston C


    Active surveillance has been increasingly utilized as a strategy for the management of favorable-risk, localized prostate cancer. In this review, we describe contemporary management strategies of active surveillance, with a focus on traditional stratification schemes, new prognostic tools, and patient outcomes. Patient selection, follow-up strategy, and indication for delayed intervention for active surveillance remain centered around PSA, digital rectal exam, and biopsy findings. Novel tools which include imaging, biomarkers, and genetic assays have been investigated as potential prognostic adjuncts; however, their role in active surveillance remains institutionally dependent. Although 30-50% of patients on active surveillance ultimately undergo delayed treatment, the vast majority will remain free of metastasis with a low risk of dying from prostate cancer. The optimal method for patient selection into active surveillance is unknown; however, cancer-specific mortality rates remain excellent. New prognostication tools are promising, and long-term prospective, randomized data regarding their use in active surveillance will be beneficial.

  2. Current challenges in HER2-positive breast cancer. (United States)

    Puglisi, Fabio; Fontanella, Caterina; Amoroso, Vito; Bianchi, Giulia Valeria; Bisagni, Giancarlo; Falci, Cristina; Fontana, Andrea; Generali, Daniele; Gianni, Lorenzo; Grassadonia, Antonio; Moscetti, Luca; Portarena, Ilaria; Rossi, Emanuela; Marchetti, Paolo


    The introduction of trastuzumab into routine clinical practice has had a dramatic effect on the outlook for patients with HER2-positive breast cancer. Nevertheless, answers to some long unresolved questions about the optimal use of trastuzumab (such as its role in small tumors or low-risk disease, cardiac safety in the elderly, and treatment duration) have emerged only relatively recently. Moreover, with the availability of new highly effective HER2-directed therapies, including pertuzumab and trastuzumab-emtansine (T-DM1), the treatment algorithm for HER2-positive breast cancer continues to evolve. This review provides a summary of the latest evidence providing insight into the management of early and advanced HER2-positive breast cancer and delineates future perspectives of study and treatment for these patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Eliminating cancer stem cells: an interview with CCR’s Steven Hou | Center for Cancer Research (United States)

    Steven Hou, Ph.D., senior investigator in the Basic Research Laboratory at the Center for Cancer Research describes his latest research that has uncovered potential ways to eliminate cancer stem cells and may offer hope to patients with reoccurring tumors.  Learn more...

  4. The John Milner Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research Practicum | Division of Cancer Prevention (United States)

    The Nutritional Science Research Group in the Division of Cancer Prevention at the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health and the Department of Nutrition at the Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center are offering a one-week educational opportunity in Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research for individuals with a sustained commitment to nutrition and health promotion. |

  5. Oral field cancerization: an update on current concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi Mohan


    Full Text Available There always exists a field with genetically altered cells with a high risk of developing premalignant and malignant lesions. It may often happen that an individual stem cell is genetically altered and can cause the formation of a clone or a patch which is likely to turn into a tumor. This explains the higher recurrence rates following tumor resections. It is essential to identify and to treat this field in order to have greater chances to prevent cancer and achieve a better outcome. This article reports concepts, theories and markers for the assessment of field cancerization.

  6. Oral field cancerization: an update on current concepts. (United States)

    Mohan, Meenakshi; Jagannathan, Nithya


    There always exists a field with genetically altered cells with a high risk of developing premalignant and malignant lesions. It may often happen that an individual stem cell is genetically altered and can cause the formation of a clone or a patch which is likely to turn into a tumor. This explains the higher recurrence rates following tumor resections. It is essential to identify and to treat this field in order to have greater chances to prevent cancer and achieve a better outcome. This article reports concepts, theories and markers for the assessment of field cancerization.

  7. The potential consequences for cancer care and cancer research of Brexit. (United States)

    Selby, Peter; Lawler, Mark; Baird, Richard; Banks, Ian; Johnston, Patrick; Nurse, Paul


    Following the UK "Brexit" vote in June 2016, there are many uncertainties and risks for cancer research and cancer care in the UK. These are summarised and the importance of sustained engagement and influence from the cancer community on UK governments is emphasised.

  8. Scientists repurpose HPV vaccine technology to fight eye cancer | Center for Cancer Research (United States)

    Uveal melanoma is a rare eye cancer that affects about 1,600 people in the United States. A study by scientists in the Center for Cancer Research and Aura Biosciences, Cambridge, Mass., published December 14, 2017, in Molecular Cancer Therapeutics, provides new hope for the early treatment of uveal melanoma. Read more…

  9. Bringing global cancer leaders together at the 4th Annual Symposium on Global Cancer Research (United States)

    The Annual Symposium on Global Cancer Research held in April 2016 was developed with a special focus on innovative and low-cost technologies in global cancer control, and brought inspiring keynote speakers such as John Seffrin, Former CEO of the American Cancer Society, and Tom Bollyky, Senior Fellow for Global Health at the Council on Foreign Relations.

  10. Objectives | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research (United States)

    The overall objective of CPTAC is to systematically identify proteins that derive from alterations in cancer genomes and related biological processes, in order to understand the molecular basis of cancer that is not fully elucidated or not possible through genomics and to accelerate the translation of molecular findings into the clinic.  This is to be achieved through enhancing our understanding of cancer genome biology by adding a complementary functional layer of protein biology (a “proteogenome” approach) that refines/prioritizes driver genes, enhances understanding of pathogenesis

  11. Focal therapy for prostate cancer: current status and future perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miano, R.; Asimakopoulos, A. D.; Da Silva, R. D.; Bove, P.; Jones, S. J.; de la Rosette, J. J.; Kim, F. J.


    Focal therapy is a relatively new and extremely attractive option of treatment for prostate cancer. It has been described as the "middle approach" between active surveillance and radical treatment, aiming to destroy the tumor itself or the region containing the tumor in order to preserve surrounding

  12. Cancer in pregnancy: a survey of current clinical practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, S.N.; Kesic, V.I.; Calsteren, K. van; Petkovic, S.; Amant, F.; Ottevanger, N.; et al.,


    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate physicians' attitudes and knowledge regarding the treatment possibilities for patients with cancer in pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: A 30-item questionnaire was mailed electronically to physicians across Europe, who were potentially involved in care of pregnant patients and/or

  13. Cancer management in Sudan: Current status and future perspectives

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Sudan is one of the developing countries that face a great challenge with cancer management. About 5700 cases had been seen during year 2007 in Radiation and Isotope Center- Khartoum (RICK) and Institute of Nuclear medicine, Molecular biology, and Oncology (INMO) Wadmedani which are the only ...

  14. Major clinical research advances in gynecologic cancer in 2014. (United States)

    Suh, Dong Hoon; Lee, Kyung Hun; Kim, Kidong; Kang, Sokbom; Kim, Jae Weon


    In 2014, 9 topics were selected as major advances in clinical research for gynecologic oncology: 2 each in cervical and corpus cancer, 4 in ovarian cancer, and 1 in breast cancer. For cervical cancer, several therapeutic agents showed viable antitumor clinical response in recurrent and metastatic disease: bevacizumab, cediranib, and immunotherapies including human papillomavirus (HPV)-tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and Z-100. The HPV test received FDA approval as the primary screening tool of cervical cancer in women aged 25 and older, based on the results of the ATHENA trial, which suggested that the HPV test was a more sensitive and efficient strategy for cervical cancer screening than methods based solely on cytology. For corpus cancers, results of a phase III Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) 249 study of early-stage endometrial cancer with high-intermediate risk factors are followed by the controversial topic of uterine power morcellation in minimally invasive gynecologic surgery. Promising results of phase II studies regarding the effectiveness of olaparib in various ovarian cancer settings are summarized. After a brief review of results from a phase III study on pazopanib maintenance therapy in advanced ovarian cancer, 2 outstanding 2014 ASCO presentations cover the topic of using molecular subtypes in predicting response to bevacizumab. A review of the use of opportunistic bilateral salpingectomy as an ovarian cancer preventive strategy in the general population is presented. Two remarkable studies that discussed the effectiveness of adjuvant ovarian suppression in premenopausal early breast cancer have been selected as the last topics covered in this review.

  15. Research advances in sorafenib-induced apoptotic signaling pathways in liver cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Chaoya


    Full Text Available Currently, sorafenib is the multi-target inhibitor for the treatment of advanced primary liver cancer, and can effectively prolong the progression-free survival and overall survival in patients with advanced primary liver cancer. The application of sorafenib in the targeted therapy for liver cancer has become a hot topic. Major targets or signaling pathways include Raf/Mek/Erk, Jak/Stat, PI3K/Akt/mTOR, VEGFR and PDGFR, STAT, microRNA, Wnt/β-catenin, autolysosome, and tumor-related proteins, and sorafenib can regulate the proliferation, differentiation, metastasis, and apoptosis of liver cancer cells through these targets. This article reviews the current research on the action of sorafenib on these targets or signaling pathways to provide useful references for further clinical research on sorafenib.

  16. [Research on Constant-current Characteristics of Howland Current Source Used in Bioelectrical Impedance Detection]. (United States)

    Lin, Xingjian; Zhao, Weijie; Liu, Xiaojuan; Li, Lihua


    This study aims to analyze and improve Howland current source circuit and to study the constant current source of alternating current with high output impedance and high stability. A simulation study was carried out on the constant-current characteristics of Howland current source from two aspects of resistance match value and the selection of Op amp parameters, and then the output impedance was analyzed. The simulation experiment showed that when it was with the best matched resistance, the constant-current characteristics of Howland current source was better. Op amp parameters could affect the constant-current characteristics of Howland current source. In Howland current source circuit, the current source after parameter optimization had better output impedance and load capacity. The results showed that there was the best matched resistance in the selection by Howland current source. The Op amp with large broadband, high slew rate and open loop gain, and wide range of power supply voltage is more suitable for the bioelectrical impedance detection circuit.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolyada T.I


    Full Text Available Current data concerning features of multiple sclerosis (MS etiology, pathogenesis, clinical course and treatment of disease indicate the necessity of personalized approach to the management of MS patients. These features are the variety of possible etiological factors and mechanisms that trigger the development of MS, different courses of disease, and significant differences in treatment efficiency. Phenotypic and pathogenetic heterogeneity of MS requires, on the one hand, the stratification of patients into groups with different treatment depending on a number of criteria including genetic characteristics, disease course, stage of the pathological process, and forms of the disease. On the other hand, it requires the use of modern methods for assessment of individual risk of developing MS, its early diagnosis, evaluation and prognosis of the disease course and the treatment efficiency. This approach is based on the identification and determination of biomarkers of MS including the use of systems biology technology platforms such as genomics, proteomics, metabolomics and bioinformatics. Research and practical use of biomarkers of MS in clinical and laboratory practice requires the use of a wide range of modern medical and biological, mathematical and physicochemical methods. The group of "classical" methods used to study MS biomarkers includes physicochemical and immunological methods aimed at the selection and identification of single molecular biomarkers, as well as methods of molecular genetic analysis. This group of methods includes ELISA, western blotting, isoelectric focusing, immunohistochemical methods, flow cytometry, spectrophotometric and nephelometric methods. These techniques make it possible to carry out both qualitative and quantitative assay of molecular biomarkers. The group of "classical methods" can also include methods based on polymerase chain reaction (including multiplex and allele-specific PCR and genome sequencing

  18. The Changing Landscape of Lung Cancer Research and Treatment (United States)

    Along with the Lung Cancer Social Media (#LCSM) community, the National Cancer Institute will be co-hosting a lively and interactive Google Hangout on Air about the changing landscape of lung cancer research and treatment. During the chat, viewers will have the opportunity to pose questions to a panel of lung cancer experts including NCI's Dr. Shakun Malik, the head of thoracic oncology therapeutics, Roy S. Herbst, MD, PhD, Chief of Medical Oncology, Yale Cancer Center and Smilow Cancer Hospital at Yale-New Haven and David Tom Cooke MD FACS, Head, Section of General Thoracic Surgery University of California, Davis. You can also learn more and follow along on the #LCSM Chat page. The chat will be moderated by lung cancer advocate and #LCSM co-founder, Janet Freeman-Daily. To ask questions of our experts, simply use the #LCSM hashtag during the chat.

  19. Clinical perspectives of cancer stem cell research in radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bütof, Rebecca; Baumann, Michael; Dubrovska, Anna


    Radiotherapy has a proven potential to eradicate cancer stem cells which is reflected by its curative potential in many cancer types. Considerable progress has been made in identification and biological characterisation of cancer stem cells during the past years. Recent biological findings indicate significant inter- and intratumoural and functional heterogeneity of cancer stem cells and lead to more complex models which have potential implications for radiobiology and radiotherapy. Clinical evidence is emerging that biomarkers of cancer stem cells may be prognostic for the outcome of radiotherapy in some tumour entities. Perspectives of cancer stem cell based research for radiotherapy reviewed here include their radioresistance compared to the mass of non-cancer stem cells which form the bulk of all tumour cells, implications for image- and non-image based predictive bio-assays of the outcome of radiotherapy and a combination of novel systemic treatments with radiotherapy

  20. Summer Student Breast Cancer Research Training Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zaloga, Gary P


    .... Methyl and ethyl forms of omega-3 lipids failed to induce apoptosis. Ganoderma lucidum, a Chinese mushroom, was found to inhibit breast cancer cell growth and decrease EGF receptor phosphorylation...

  1. Chromatin Pioneers | Center for Cancer Research (United States)

    Taking advantage of their ability to explore provocative ideas, NCI investigators pioneered the study of chromatin to demonstrate its functional importance and lay the groundwork for understanding its role in cancer and other diseases.

  2. Cellular Imaging | Center for Cancer Research (United States)

    Innovative imaging methods developed and refined within CCR revealed atomic-level structures of biological molecules and unveiled dynamic views of a cell’s interior that are driving the design of new treatments and diagnostics for cancer.

  3. Evidence and research in rectal cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valentini, V.; Beets-Tan, R.G.; Borras, J.M.; Krivokapic, Z.; Leer, J.W.H.; Pahlman, L.; Rodel, C.; Schmoll, H.J.; Scott, N.; Velde, C.V.; Verfaillie, C.


    The main evidences of epidemiology, diagnostic imaging, pathology, surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and follow-up are reviewed to optimize the routine treatment of rectal cancer according to a multidisciplinary approach. This paper reports on the knowledge shared between different specialists

  4. Cancer Prevention and Control Research Manpower Development (United States)


    the Maternal and Child Health/ Teenage Pregnancy Section of the National AHEC Conference, Louisville, Kentucky, June 11-14, 1989. 7. Taylor B, Griffith...34 Rev.Env.Contam.and Toxicol. 129:29-50. 1992. 13. Levine RS and Dolin P. " Pregnancy and Breast Cancer: A Possible Explanation for the Negative Association...diagnosis of cancer, poverty , and limited access to quality care.4 In California, African American women are at least 10% more likely than white women to be

  5. Breast Cancer Translational Research Center of Excellence (United States)


    st century in the crusade against breast disorders. The project will continue utilizing a multidisciplinary approach as the standard of care for...on decreasing the morbidity and mortality of breast cancer among American women. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Biorepository, Biomedical Informatics, Focused...morbidity and mortality of breast cancer among American women with a specific focus on the problem as it pertains to the active duty military

  6. Policy challenges for cancer research: a call to arms. (United States)

    Sullivan, R


    Research has delivered remarkable benefits for cancer patients and their families since James Watson and Francis Crick wrote the now immortal line, 'We wish to propose a structure for the salt of deoxyribonucleic acid' thus setting the molecular foundations for the modern era of cancer control. The pace of technological innovation from fundamental scientific discoveries to the policy impact of huge population studies has been breathtaking. One has only to contrast a paper on the treatment of solid epithelial cancers written by Henri Tagnon and colleagues in 1966 (Eur J Cancer2 51-7) with the myriad of chemotherapeutic approaches at the oncologists disposal today. Inevitably, as the tide of research has risen so it has bought the flotsam and jetsam of regulations and policies. Some have been helpful, many pointless and too many actually harmful. Naturally, some of these regulatory and general policies (by this I mean those concerned with funding, structure and organization) have been specifically targeted at cancer research, e.g. US National Cancer Act 1971, whilst others have been a product of the general regulatory environment with indirect consequences for cancer research, e.g. EU Data Protection Directive 1995. Policy issues thus cover a vast terrain criss-crossed by complex interdependencies between scientific areas, countries S&T policies and socio-political constructs. Unfortunately, there has been little attention paid to the consequences of these policy issues from which the research community has, by and large, been passenger rather than driver.Global investment in cancer research is now at unprecedented levels. The recently published report by the European Cancer Research Managers Forum has found some 14 billion euros being annually spent worldwide on cancer research (this figure includes industry but overall probably underestimates spend by at least one billion [2]). With the ageing demographics of developed countries and the catch-up effect in

  7. Cancer Deep Phenotyping Extraction from Electronic Medical Records | Informatics Technology for Cancer Research (ITCR) (United States)

    As sequencing costs continue to decline, a torrent of cancer genomic data is looming. Very soon, our ability to deeply investigate the cancer genome will outpace our ability to correlate these changes with the phenotypes that they produce. We propose the advanced development and extension of a software platform for performing deep phenotype extraction directly from clinical text of cancer patients, with the goal of enabling translational cancer research and precision medicine.

  8. Major clinical research advances in gynecologic cancer in 2013. (United States)

    Suh, Dong Hoon; Kim, Jae-Weon; Kang, Sokbom; Kim, Hak Jae; Lee, Kyung-Hun


    In 2013, 10 topics were selected for major clinical research advances in gynecologic oncology; these included three topics regarding cervical cancer, three regarding ovarian cancer, two regarding endometrial cancer, and one each regarding breast cancer and radiation oncology. For cervical cancer, bevacizumab was first demonstrated to exhibit outstanding clinical efficacy in a recurrent, metastatic setting. Regarding cervical cancer screening, visual inspections with acetic acid in low-resource settings, p16/Ki-67 double staining, and the follow-up results of four randomized controlled trials of human papillomavirus-based screening methods were reviewed. Laparoscopic para-aortic lymphadenectomy before chemoradiation for locally advanced cervical cancer was the final topic for cervical cancer. Regarding front-line ovarian cancer therapies, dose-dense paclitaxel and carboplatin, intraperitoneal chemotherapy, and other targeted agents administered according to combination or maintenance schedules were discussed. Regarding recurrent ovarian cancer treatment, cediranib, olaparib, and farletuzumab were discussed for platinum-sensitive disease. The final overall survival data associated with a combination of bevacizumab and chemotherapy for platinum-resistant disease were briefly summarized. For endometrial cancer, the potential clinical efficacy of metformin, an antidiabetic drug, in obese patients was followed by integrated genomic analyses from the Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network. For breast cancer, three remarkable advances were reviewed: the long-term effects of continued adjuvant tamoxifen for 10 years, the effects of 2-year versus 1-year adjuvant trastuzumab for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive disease, and the approval of pertuzumab in a neoadjuvant setting with a pathologic complete response as the surrogate endpoint. Finally, the recent large studies of intensity-modulated radiotherapy for gynecologic cancer were briefly summarized.

  9. Ethical, Legal, and Social Implication of Cancer Research | Resources | CDP (United States)

    The Cancer Diagnosis Program strives to improve the diagnosis and assessment of cancer by effectively moving new scientific knowledge into clinical practice. This national program stimulates, coordinates and funds resources and research for the development of innovative in vitro diagnostics, novel diagnostic technologies and appropriate human specimens in order to better characterize cancers and allow improved medical decision making and evaluation of response to treatment.

  10. Current status and prospect of therapy with advanced cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watari, Tsutomu


    Symtomatic or palliative therapy of the patients with advanced cancer must be directed to the relief of specific distressing symptoms caused by or associated with neoplasm. The radiotherapy must have a clear concepts of the potential accomplishments of other treatment modalities, such as neurosurgery, anesthesiology, chemotherapy, pharmacology and psychotherapy, so that he may use his own method in proper perspective. I discussed following is an list of contents in this papers. Relief of pain, Psychotherapy, SVC obstruction, Obstructive jaundice, Brain and lung metastasis, prevention of fracture, Skin metastasis, Liver metastasis and treatment of advanced pediaric tumor etc. For the future: 1) Establishment of Stage and Grade of advanced cancer. 2) Development of new chemotherapeutic drug and immunotherapy. 3) Combination of multidisciplinary team and multidisciplinary treatment. (author)

  11. Graphic Evolution Witness the Development of Lung Cancer Translational Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao ZHANG


    Full Text Available Lung cancer treatment has altered from conventional chemotherapy to targeted treatment, which now has been turned to the immunotherapy. Translational research has played an irreplaceable role during this progression which graphic evolution has witnessed. The evolution has gone through forest plot, KM-curve, waterfall plot, spider plot and timeline-area, showing us the refining concept and gradual process of lung cancer treatment undergoing from community towards individual. Even though the latest immunotherapy is getting increasingly hot, the result isn’t quite expected. Meanwhile, the limitations of conventional treatment still exist which require further research. This article will primarily illustrate the development of translational research of lung cancer via the aspect of curve evolution and analysis some abortive clinical trials in lung cancer surgery for inspiring the next graphic style and lung cancer treatment.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Daniela Silva


    Full Text Available Oral cancer cavity (OCC is associated with high incidence of loco-regional recurrences, which account for the majority of treatment failures post-surgery and radiotherapy. The time-course of relapse manifestation and metastasis are unpredictable. Relapsed OCC represents a major clinical challenge in part due to their aggressive and invasive behaviors. Chemotherapy remains the only option for advanced OCC whenever salvage surgery or re-irradiation is not feasible, but its efficacy is limited as a result of the drug resistance development. Alternatives to use of different permutations of standard cytotoxic drugs or combinations with modulators of drug resistance have led to incremental therapeutic benefits. The introduction of targeted agents and biologics against selective targets that drive cancer progression has opened-up optimism to achieve superior therapeutic activity and overcome drug resistance because, unlike the non-selective cytotoxic, the target can be monitored at molecular levels to identify patients who can benefit from the drug. This review discusses the multifactorial aspects of clinical drug resistance and emerging therapeutic approaches in recurrent OCC, emphasizing recent advances in targeted therapies, immunotherapy, and potential relevance of new concepts such as epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cell hypothesis to drug resistance.

  13. Current status of immunologic studies in human lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, R.L.


    Several aspects of the immunology of human malignancy are reviewed, with particular emphasis on relevant findings in lung cancer. The existence of tumor-specific cell-mediated immune responses in patients with cancer has been demonstrated in numerous tumor types. Of more relevance in clinical situations is the association of generalized immunologic depression with malignancy. In the vast majority of cases, progressive declines in both tumor-specific and nonspecific immunologic parameters are observed with advancing disease. The approach to the immunologic evaluation of cancer patients and the potential usefulness of this approach to the diagnosis, prognosis, management, and assessment of therapeutic response are discussed. Evidence aimed at elucidating the mechanism of immunosuppression in malignancy, such as serum-blocking factors, immunoregulatory alpha globulins, and suppressor cells, is presented. Finally, emphasis is placed on the various forms of immunotherapy, including both specific active methods such as tumor cell or tumor antigen vaccines and nonspecific active immunotherapy involving agents like Bacillus Calmette-Guerin and levamisole. Early results from clinical immunotherapeutic trials are discussed.

  14. Overview of current radon and radon daughter research at LBL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This report provides a brief summary of radon and radon daughter research at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The radon and radon daughter research program has two broad goals: (1) the study of sources of radon and its subsequent transport into houses, and (2) research on the behavior of radon daughters in indoor environments. Additional research effort is directed to several auxiliary areas, including development of instrumentation and monitoring techniques, studies of indoor air movement, and measurement and control of indoor particulate concentrations

  15. The current status of research reactors in JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagawa, Hisashi


    There are several research reactors including a critical facility in JAERI. Of these research reactors, JRR-3, JRR-4 and JMTR are utilized widely by a large number of researchers. This paper describes the recent topics on utilization of JRR-3, JRR-4 and JMTR, and also describes the troubles which occurred in JRR-3 and JMTR recently. (author)

  16. Survey of current electric utility research in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Information on the research programs of eight Canadian electrical utilities and the Canadian Electrical Association has been compiled. Work done by the National Research Council of Canada is included, but the research done by Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. is excluded. Projects in the area of nuclear power include work on heat transfer and fluid flow, waste management, materials, and corrosion. (L.L.)

  17. Current developments in environmental psychology : topics and researchers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werff, Ellen; Perlaviciute, Goda; Muinos, Gabriel


    The aim of this special issue is to bring the work of early-career researchers in environmental psychology to the spotlight. These young researchers come from different countries and cultures, have their own theoretical approaches and employ different research methods to increase knowledge on the

  18. Situación de la investigación en el cribado de cáncer de mama en España: implicaciones para la prevención Current status of research in breast cancer screening in Spain: implications for prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Sala


    Full Text Available Objetivo: La finalización del despliegue de los programas de detección precoz de cáncer de mama en todas las comunidades autónomas de España ha facilitado el inicio de una investigación conjunta, con información procedente de varios programas, orientada a mejorar su efectividad. Métodos: Se ha construido una cohorte de más de 1 millón de mujeres cribadas para evaluar el riesgo y los determinantes de los resultados falsos positivos. Se ha evaluado el impacto del cambio de técnica de mamografía analógica a digital y se está estudiando el cáncer de intervalo y los resultados falsos negativos. Resultados: Los resultados ofrecen información muy útil, desde el punto de vista de salud pública, para identificar e informar mejor a las mujeres con mayor riesgo de presentar efectos adversos, a la vez que ayudará a identificar características ligadas a los programas y a las mujeres que permitan establecer mejores estrategias de prevención. Conclusiones: Estos resultados se incorporarán a los modelos matemáticos sobre evaluación de la eficiencia de los programas que se están desarrollando actualmente. Modelos que pueden ser de gran utilidad como herramienta dirigida a informar y guiar las decisiones clínicas y de planificación sanitaria sobre el control del cáncer.Objective: The consolidation of breast cancer screening programs, with full coverage of the target population in all Spanish regions, has encouraged the beginning of a joint research strategy. This strategy aims to improve the effectiveness of breast cancer screening by gathering information from distinct screening programs. Methods: A retrospective cohort with information on over 1.5 million screened women was constructed to evaluate risk factors for a false-positive result. The impact of the change from digital mammography to screen-film mammography was evaluated, while results for interval cancers and false negatives are currently being studied. Results: The results

  19. Current approaches to gastric cancer in Peru and Mexico. (United States)

    Santos, Erlan


    In Peru, the incidence of gastric cancer is reported to be around 15.8 per 100,000 inhabitants and it is the second most common oncological disease in men and the third one in women. Additionally, a high mortality index was reported, especially among poor people. To address this issue, in 2008, Peru initiated several insurance treatment plans of oncological diseases with promising results. In Mexico, there is a high predominance of gastric cancer in male gender compared to female gender, even reaching a 2/1 ratio, and the detection rate of early gastric cancer is low (10% to 20%) which results in a mainly palliative treatment with an overall survival rate in 5 years about 10% to 15% only. In Peru, the average age at diagnosis is around 62.96±14.75 years old and the most frequent symptoms includes abdominal pain, indigestion, loss of appetite, weight loss and gastrointestinal bleeding, while in Mexico, some studies reported an average age at diagnosis around 60.3±4.1 years old (range, 23-78 years old) and the most frequent symptoms were postprandial fullness (74.4%), abdominal pain (37.2%), weight loss (18.6%), and melena (4.6%). The anemia rate was 65.1% with a mean Hb level of 6.14 g/dL. In Peru, the most common gastric cancer type is the intestinal-type adenocarcinoma (around 34%), followed by the diffuse-type adenocarcinoma (18.7%), whilst among Mexicans, the diffuse-type was reported in 55.2% of cases, the intestinal-type was reported in 28.2% and the undifferentiated-type corresponded to 6%. In both, Peru and Mexico, 90% of the associated factors includes tabaquismo, diets rich in salt, smoked foods, and a sedentary lifestyle. Family inheritance and advanced age and pharmacological-resistant Helicobacter pylori infection are also important. Poverty has been heavily associated with a higher incidence of gastric cancer. The management of gastric cancer patients in Peru is carried out by general surgeons or general surgical oncologists. In recent years, efforts

  20. Prostate-specific antigen: does the current evidence support its use in prostate cancer screening?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duffy, Michael J


    Although widely used, the value of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in screening asymptomatic men for prostate cancer is controversial. Reasons for the controversy relate to PSA being less than an ideal marker in detecting early prostate cancer, the possibility that screening for prostate cancer may result in the overdetection and thus overtreatment of indolent disease and the lack of clarity as to the definitive or best treatment for men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer. Although the results from some randomized prospective trials suggest that screening with PSA reduces mortality from prostate cancer, the overall benefit was modest. It is thus currently unclear as to whether the modest benefit of reduced mortality outweighs the harms of overdetection and overtreatment. Thus, prior to undergoing screening for prostate cancer, men should be informed of the risks and benefits of early detection. Newly emerging markers that may complement PSA in the early detection of prostate cancer include specific isoforms of PSA and PCA3.

  1. Current and future molecular diagnostics in non-small-cell lung cancer. (United States)

    Li, Chun Man; Chu, Wing Ying; Wong, Di Lun; Tsang, Hin Fung; Tsui, Nancy Bo Yin; Chan, Charles Ming Lok; Xue, Vivian Wei Wen; Siu, Parco Ming Fai; Yung, Benjamin Yat Ming; Chan, Lawrence Wing Chi; Wong, Sze Chuen Cesar


    The molecular investigation of lung cancer has opened up an advanced area for the diagnosis and therapeutic management of lung cancer patients. Gene alterations in cancer initiation and progression provide not only information on molecular changes in lung cancer but also opportunities in advanced therapeutic regime by personalized targeted therapy. EGFR mutations and ALK rearrangement are important predictive biomarkers for the efficiency of tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment in lung cancer patients. Moreover, epigenetic aberration and microRNA dysregulation are recent advances in the early detection and monitoring of lung cancer. Although a wide range of molecular tests are available, standardization and validation of assay protocols are essential for the quality of the test outcome. In this review, current and new advancements of molecular biomarkers for non-small-cell lung cancer will be discussed. Recommendations on future development of molecular diagnostic services will also be explored.

  2. PD-1 and PD-L1 as emerging therapeutic targets in gastric cancer: current evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran PN


    Full Text Available Phu N Tran,1* Sarmen Sarkissian,1* Joseph Chao,2 Samuel J Klempner3,4 1Division of Hematology-Oncology, University of California Irvine, Orange, 2Department of Medical Oncology and Developmental Therapeutics, City of Hope, Duarte, 3Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 4The Angeles Clinic and Research Institute, Los Angeles, CA, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Gastric adenocarcinoma is a leading cause of global cancer-related morbidity and mortality, and new therapeutic approaches are needed. Despite the improved outcomes with monoclonal antibodies targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2, durable responses are uncommon. Targeting immune checkpoints including PD-1, PD-L1 and CTLA-4 have led to improved survival across several tumor types, frequently characterized by prolonged benefit in responding patients. Tumoral and lymphocyte-derived immunohistochemical staining for PD-1, PD-L1, and tumor mutational burden have shown potential as predictive response biomarkers in several tumor types. Optimal incorporation of immune-mediated therapies into gastric cancer (GC is an area of intense ongoing investigation and benefit has been demonstrated in smaller studies of advanced patients. Important questions of biomarker selection, roles for molecular characterization, optimal combinatorial approaches, and therapeutic sequencing remain. In this study, current data are reviewed for immune checkpoint inhibitors in GC, and putative biomarkers, ongoing trials, and future considerations are discussed. Keywords: immunotherapy, stomach cancer, checkpoint inhibitor, nivolumab, pembrolizumab, tumor mutational burden

  3. Anxiety and the patient with breast cancer: a review of current ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This ultimately has implications for their ongoing health and survival. This review of the available literature aims to heighten awareness of healthcare professionals to the current situation, with a view of improving the mental health care of South African patients with breast cancer. Keywords: anxiety, breast cancer, ...

  4. Cervical cancer in South Africa: An over- view of current status and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Current estimates are that 493 243 women are diagnosed with cervical cancer per year and 273 505 die from the disease.1. Globally it is the second most common cancer in women and the most common in developing countries. In Africa, which has a population of 267.9 million women aged 15 years or greater, it is.

  5. Cervical cancer in South Africa: An overview of current status and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Current estimates are that 493 243 women are diagnosed with cervical cancer per year and 273 505 die from the disease.1. Globally it is the second most common cancer in women and the most common in developing countries. In Africa, which has a population of 267.9 million women aged 15 years or greater, it is

  6. Identification of a Novel Cancer Biomarker | Center for Cancer Research (United States)

    During cancer development, cells accumulate a variety of mutations which alter their normal components and activities. One potential change is in the carbohydrate or sugar polymers which decorate proteins predominately found on the cell surface. The accessibility of these residues makes them ideal targets for the development of diagnostics or therapeutics.

  7. The parameters of the current legal framework for health research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Bioethics and Law. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 6, No 2 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  8. The John Milner Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research Practicum | Division of Cancer Prevention (United States)

    Attendee Testimonial Plenty of Food for Thought Served Up at the John Milner Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research Practicum by Julia Tobacyk Media Folder: research_groupView the Testimonial (PDF, 790 KB) Date: March 12-16, 2018 |

  9. Big data for population-based cancer research: the integrated cancer information and surveillance system. (United States)

    Meyer, Anne-Marie; Olshan, Andrew F; Green, Laura; Meyer, Adrian; Wheeler, Stephanie B; Basch, Ethan; Carpenter, William R


    The Integrated Cancer Information and Surveillance System (ICISS) facilitates population-based cancer research by developing extensive information technology systems that can link and manage large data sets. Taking an interdisciplinary 'team science' approach, ICISS has developed data, systems, and methods that allow researchers to better leverage the power of big data to improve population health.

  10. Cancer research in India: national priorities, global results. (United States)

    Sullivan, Richard; Badwe, Rajendra A; Rath, Goura K; Pramesh, C S; Shanta, V; Digumarti, Raghunadharao; D'Cruz, Anil; Sharma, Suresh C; Viswanath, Lokesh; Shet, Arun; Vijayakumar, Manavalan; Lewison, Grant; Chandy, Mammen; Kulkarni, Priyadarshini; Bardia, M R; Kumar, Shaleen; Sarin, Rajiv; Sebastian, Paul; Dhillon, Preet K; Rajaraman, Preetha; Trimble, Edward L; Aggarwal, Ajay; Vijaykumar, D K; Purushotham, Arnie D


    Over the past 20 years, cancer research in India has grown in size and impact. Clinicians, scientists, and government and state policy makers in India have championed cancer research, from studies to achieve low-tech, large-scale health outcomes to some of the most advanced areas of fundamental cancer science. In this paper, we frame public policy discussions about cancer with use of an in-depth analysis of research publications from India. Cancer research in India is a complex environment that needs to balance public policy across many competing agendas. We identify major needs across these environments such as those for increased research capacity and training and protected time for clinical researchers; for more support from states and enhanced collaborative funding programmes from government; for development of national infrastructures across a range of domains (ie, clinical trials, tissue banking, registries, etc); and for a streamlined and rational regulatory environment. We also discuss improvements that should be made to translate research into improvements in cancer outcomes and public health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. High risk bladder cancer: current management and survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. Leliveld


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the pattern of care in patients with high risk non muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC in the Comprehensive Cancer Center North-Netherlands (CCCN and to assess factors associated with the choice of treatment, recurrence and progression free survival rates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 412 patients with newly diagnosed high risk NMIBC. Clinical, demographic and follow-up data were obtained from the CCCN Cancer Registry and a detailed medical record review. Uni and multivariate analysis was performed to identify factors related to choice of treatment and 5 year recurrence and progression free survival. RESULTS: 74/412 (18% patients with high risk NMIBC underwent a transurethral resection (TUR as single treatment. Adjuvant treatment after TUR was performed in 90.7% of the patients treated in teaching hospitals versus 71.8 % in non-teaching hospitals (p 80 years OR 0.1 p = 0.001 and treatment in non-teaching hospitals (OR 0.25; p < 0.001 were associated with less adjuvant treatment after TUR. Tumor recurrence occurred in 191/392 (49% and progression in 84 /392 (21.4% patients. The mean 5-years progression free survival was 71.6% (95% CI 65.5-76.8. CONCLUSION: In this pattern of care study in high risk NMIBC, 18% of the patients were treated with TUR as single treatment. Age and treatment in non-teaching hospitals were associated with less adjuvant treatment after TUR. None of the variables sex, age, comorbidity, hospital type, stage and year of treatment was associated with 5 year recurrence or progression rates.

  12. Ambulatory surgery for the patient with breast cancer: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pek CH


    Full Text Available Chong Han Pek,1 John Tey,2 Ern Yu Tan1 1Department of General Surgery, 2Department of Anaesthesiology, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore, Singapore Abstract: Ambulatory breast cancer surgery is well accepted and is the standard of care at many tertiary centers. Rather than being hospitalized after surgery, patients are discharged on the day of surgery or within 23 hours. Such early discharge does not adversely affect patient outcomes and has the added benefits of better psychological adjustment for the patient, economic savings, and a more efficient utilization of health care resources. The minimal care needed post-discharge also means that the caregiver is not unduly burdened. Unplanned conversions to inpatient admission and readmission rates are low. Wound complications are infrequent and no issues with drain care have been reported. Because the period of postoperative observation is short and monitoring is not as intensive, ambulatory surgery is only suitable for low-risk procedures such as breast cancer surgery and in patients without serious comorbidities, where the likelihood of major perioperative events is low. Optimal management of pain, nausea, and vomiting is essential to ensure a quick recovery and return to normal function. Regional anesthesia such as the thoracic paravertebral block has been employed to improve pain control during the surgery and in the immediate postoperative period. The block provides excellent pain relief and reduces the need for opiates, which also consequently reduces the incidence of nausea and vomiting. The increasing popularity of total intravenous anesthesia with propofol has also helped reduce the incidence of nausea and vomiting in the postoperative period. Ambulatory surgery can be safely carried out in centers where there is a well-designed workflow to ensure proper patient selection, counseling, and education, and where patients and caregivers have easy access to

  13. Translation and validation of the questionnaire on current status of physiotherapy practice in the cancer rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Karthikeyan


    Conclusion: The translated and adapted versions are comparable with the original English instrument in terms of content and accuracy and it is suitable to assess the current physiotherapy practice pattern in cancer rehabilitation settings.

  14. Current research in Radiation Biology and Biochemistry Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarachand, U.; Singh, B.B.


    The Radiation Biology and Biochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay has been engaged in research in the frontier areas of (i) radiation biology related to tumour therapy and injury caused by free radicals; (ii) molecular basis of diseases of physiological origin; (iii) molecular aspects of chemical carcinogenesis and (iv) structure of genome and genome related functions. The gist of research and development activities carried out in the Division during the last two years are documented

  15. Kids, Adolescents, and Young Adults Cancer Study-A Methodological Approach in Cancer Epidemiology Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Link, N. L.; Maurer, E.; Largent, J.; Kent, E.; Sender, E.; Culver, H. A.; Morris, R. A.; Sender, E.


    Advances have been made in treatment and outcomes for pediatric cancer. However adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer have not experienced similar relative improvements. We undertook a study to develop the methodology necessary for epidemiologic cancer research in these age groups. Our goal was to create the Kids, Adolescents, and Young Adults Cancer (KAYAC) project to create a resource to address research questions relevant to this population. We used a combination of clinic and population-based ascertainment to enroll 111 cases aged 0-39 for this methodology development study. The largest groups of cancer types enrolled include: breast cancer, leukemia, lymphoma, and melanoma. The overall participation rate is 69.8% and varies by age and tumor type. The study included patients, mothers, and fathers. The methods used to establish this resource are described, and the values of the resource in studies of childhood and young adult cancer are outlined.

  16. Current State of Animal (Mouse Modeling in Melanoma Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer F. Kuzu


    Full Text Available Despite the considerable progress in understanding the biology of human cancer and technological advancement in drug discovery, treatment failure remains an inevitable outcome for most cancer patients with advanced diseases, including melanoma. Despite FDA-approved BRAF-targeted therapies for advanced stage melanoma showed a great deal of promise, development of rapid resistance limits the success. Hence, the overall success rate of melanoma therapy still remains to be one of the worst compared to other malignancies. Advancement of next-generation sequencing technology allowed better identification of alterations that trigger melanoma development. As development of successful therapies strongly depends on clinically relevant preclinical models, together with the new findings, more advanced melanoma models have been generated. In this article, besides traditional mouse models of melanoma, we will discuss recent ones, such as patient-derived tumor xenografts, topically inducible BRAF mouse model and RCAS/TVA-based model, and their advantages as well as limitations. Although mouse models of melanoma are often criticized as poor predictors of whether an experimental drug would be an effective treatment, development of new and more relevant models could circumvent this problem in the near future.

  17. The current status of nuclear research reactor in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sittichai, C.; Kanyukt, R.; Pongpat, P. [Office of Atomic Energy for Peace, Bangkok (Thailand)


    Since 1962, the Thai Research Reactor has been serving for various kinds of activities i.e. the production of radioisotopes for medical uses and research and development on nuclear science and technology, for more than three decades. The existing reactor site should be abandoned and relocated to the new suitable site, according to Thai cabinet`s resolution on the 27 December 1989. The decommissioning project for the present reactor as well as the establishment of new nuclear research center were planned. This paper discussed the OAEP concept for the decommissioning programme and the general description of the new research reactor and some related information were also reported. (author)

  18. A survey of etiologic hypotheses among testicular cancer researchers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stang, A; Trabert, B; Rusner, C


    Basic research results can provide new ideas and hypotheses to be examined in epidemiological studies. We conducted a survey among testicular cancer researchers on hypotheses concerning the etiology of this malignancy. All researchers on the mailing list of Copenhagen Testis Cancer Workshops...... the plausibility of the suggested etiologic hypotheses on a scale of 1 (very implausible) to 10 (very plausible). This report describes the methodology of the survey, the score distributions by individual hypotheses, hypothesis group, and the participants' major research fields, and discuss the hypotheses...... and corresponding authors of PubMed-indexed articles identified by the search term 'testicular cancer' and published within 10 years (in total 2750 recipients) were invited to respond to an e-mail-based survey. Participants of the 8th Copenhagen Testis Cancer Workshop in May 2014 were subsequently asked to rate...

  19. Water reactor safety research program. A description of current and planned research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) sponsors confirmatory safety research on lightwater reactors in support of the NRC regulatory program. The principal responsibility of the NRC, as implemented through its regulatory program is to ensure that public health, public safety, and the environment are adequately protected. The NRC performs this function by defining conditions for the use of nuclear power and by ensuring through technical review, audit, and follow-up that these conditions are met. The NRC research program provides technical information, independent of the nuclear industry, to aid in discharging these regulatory responsibilities. The objectives of NRC's research program are the following: (1) to maintain a confirmatory research program that supports assurance of public health and safety, and public confidence in the regulatory program, (2) to provide objectively evaluated safety data and analytical methods that meet the needs of regulatory activities, (3) to provide better quantified estimates of the margins of safety for reactor systems, fuel cycle facilities, and transportation systems, (4) to establish a broad and coherent exchange of safety research information with other Federal agencies, industry, and foreign organization. Current and planned research toward these goals is described

  20. [Recommendations for cancer prevention of World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF): situational analysis for Chile]. (United States)

    Crovetto, Mirta; Uauy, Ricardo


    The main diet-related cancers include colorectal, lung, breast in (postmenopausal) women, stomach, esophagus, prostate and pancreas. After tobacco, obesity is the leading cause of cancer; it accounts for one third of all cancers. Cancer is associated with high total body fat, abdominal fat and weight gain in adult life. These are all potentially modifiable risk factors. Consumption of a "healthy diet" and living an "active life" can significantly reduce the risk of cancer. The aim of this study was to analyze the recommendations published by the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) and American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) for the prevention of cancer in 2007. We compared the recommendations of Food, Nutrition and Physical Activity and the Prevention of Cancer: a global perspective", with the national situation in Chile, analyzing the national report on the prevalence of risk factors. Our main finding was that the pattern of consumption and lifestyles differ markedly from the WCRF recommendations: we observed an over consumption of sugary drinks and high intake of processed foods high in sodium and total fat and low consumption of legumes, vegetables, fruits high in antioxidants and fiber that protect from cancer. Chile has an increased cancer prevalence which is associated with poor quality diets, rising mean body mass index and a sedentary behavior. We recommend the strengthening programs to promote healthy diets and active living, in order to reduce cancer risk.

  1. Patient-derived Xenograft (PDX) Models In Basic and Translational Breast Cancer Research (United States)

    Dobrolecki, Lacey E.; Airhart, Susie D.; Alferez, Denis G.; Aparicio, Samuel; Behbod, Fariba; Bentires-Alj, Mohamed; Brisken, Cathrin; Bult, Carol J.; Cai, Shirong; Clarke, Robert B.; Dowst, Heidi; Ellis, Matthew J.; Gonzalez-Suarez, Eva; Iggo, Richard D.; Kabos, Peter; Li, Shunqiang; Lindeman, Geoffrey J.; Marangoni, Elisabetta; McCoy, Aaron; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Piwnica-Worms, Helen; Poupon, Marie-France; Reis-Filho, Jorge; Sartorius, Carol A.; Scabia, Valentina; Sflomos, George; Tu, Yizheng; Vaillant, François; Visvader, Jane E.; Welm, Alana; Wicha, Max S.


    Patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models of a growing spectrum of cancers are rapidly supplanting long-established traditional cell lines as preferred models for conducting basic and translational pre-clinical research. In breast cancer, to complement the now curated collection of approximately 45 long-established human breast cancer cell lines, a newly formed consortium of academic laboratories, currently from Europe, Australia, and North America, herein summarizes data on over 500 stably transplantable PDX models representing all three clinical subtypes of breast cancer (ER+, HER2+, and “Triple-negative” (TNBC)). Many of these models are well-characterized with respect to genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic features, metastatic behavior, and treatment response to a variety of standard-of-care and experimental therapeutics. These stably transplantable PDX lines are generally available for dissemination to laboratories conducting translational research, and contact information for each collection is provided. This review summarizes current experiences related to PDX generation across participating groups, efforts to develop data standards for annotation and dissemination of patient clinical information that does not compromise patient privacy, efforts to develop complementary data standards for annotation of PDX characteristics and biology, and progress toward “credentialing” of PDX models as surrogates to represent individual patients for use in pre-clinical and co-clinical translational research. In addition, this review highlights important unresolved questions, as well as current limitations, that have hampered more efficient generation of PDX lines and more rapid adoption of PDX use in translational breast cancer research. PMID:28025748

  2. A review on the effects of current chemotherapy drugs and natural agents in treating non–small cell lung cancer (United States)

    Huang, Chih-Yang; Ju, Da-Tong; Chang, Chih-Fen; Muralidhar Reddy, P.; Velmurugan, Bharath Kumar


    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide, and this makes it an attractive disease to review and possibly improve therapeutic treatment options. Surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, targeted treatments, and immunotherapy separate or in combination are commonly used to treat lung cancer. However, these treatment types may cause different side effects, and chemotherapy-based regimens appear to have reached a therapeutic plateau. Hence, effective, better-tolerated treatments are needed to address and hopefully overcome this conundrum. Recent advances have enabled biologists to better investigate the potential use of natural compounds for the treatment or control of various cancerous diseases. For the past 30 years, natural compounds have been the pillar of chemotherapy. However, only a few compounds have been tested in cancerous patients and only partial evidence is available regarding their clinical effectiveness. Herein, we review the research on using current chemotherapy drugs and natural compounds (Wortmannin and Roscovitine, Cordyceps militaris, Resveratrol, OSU03013, Myricetin, Berberine, Antroquinonol) and the beneficial effects they have on various types of cancers including non-small cell lung cancer. Based on this literature review, we propose the use of these compounds along with chemotherapy drugs in patients with advanced and/or refractory solid tumours. PMID:29130448

  3. A review on the effects of current chemotherapy drugs and natural agents in treating non-small cell lung cancer. (United States)

    Huang, Chih-Yang; Ju, Da-Tong; Chang, Chih-Fen; Muralidhar Reddy, P; Velmurugan, Bharath Kumar


    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide, and this makes it an attractive disease to review and possibly improve therapeutic treatment options. Surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, targeted treatments, and immunotherapy separate or in combination are commonly used to treat lung cancer. However, these treatment types may cause different side effects, and chemotherapy-based regimens appear to have reached a therapeutic plateau. Hence, effective, better-tolerated treatments are needed to address and hopefully overcome this conundrum. Recent advances have enabled biologists to better investigate the potential use of natural compounds for the treatment or control of various cancerous diseases. For the past 30 years, natural compounds have been the pillar of chemotherapy. However, only a few compounds have been tested in cancerous patients and only partial evidence is available regarding their clinical effectiveness. Herein, we review the research on using current chemotherapy drugs and natural compounds (Wortmannin and Roscovitine, Cordyceps militaris, Resveratrol, OSU03013, Myricetin, Berberine, Antroquinonol) and the beneficial effects they have on various types of cancers including non-small cell lung cancer. Based on this literature review, we propose the use of these compounds along with chemotherapy drugs in patients with advanced and/or refractory solid tumours. © Author(s) 2017. This article is published with open access by China Medical University.

  4. Targeting Cancer Stem Cells and Their Niche: Current Therapeutic Implications and Challenges in Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangang Zhao


    Full Text Available Cancer stem cells (CSCs have been identified as a subpopulation of stem-like cancer cells with the ability of self-renewal and differentiation in hematological malignancies and solid tumors. Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal cancers worldwide. CSCs are thought to be responsible for cancer initiation, progression, metastasis, chemoresistance, and recurrence in pancreatic cancer. In this review, we summarize the characteristics of pancreatic CSCs and discuss the mechanisms involved in resistance to chemotherapy, the interactions with the niche, and the potential role in cancer immunoediting. We propose that immunotherapy targeting pancreatic CSCs, in combination with targeting the niche components, may provide a novel treatment strategy to eradicate pancreatic CSCs and hence improve outcomes in pancreatic cancer.

  5. A comparison of cancer burden and research spending reveals discrepancies in the distribution of research funding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter Ashley JR


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ideally, the distribution of research funding for different types of cancer should be equitable with respect to the societal burden each type of cancer imposes. These burdens can be estimated in a variety of ways; “Years of Life Lost” (YLL measures the severity of death in regard to the age it occurs, "Disability-Adjusted Life-Years" (DALY estimates the effects of non-lethal disabilities incurred by disease and economic metrics focus on the losses to tax revenue, productivity or direct medical expenses. We compared research funding from the National Cancer Institute (NCI to a variety of burden metrics for the most common types of cancer to identify mismatches between spending and societal burden. Methods Research funding levels were obtained from the NCI website and information for societal health and economic burdens were collected from government databases and published reports. We calculated the funding levels per unit burden for a wide range of different cancers and burden metrics and compared these values to identify discrepancies. Results Our analysis reveals a considerable mismatch between funding levels and burden. Some cancers are funded at levels far higher than their relative burden suggests (breast cancer, prostate cancer, and leukemia while other cancers appear underfunded (bladder, esophageal, liver, oral, pancreatic, stomach, and uterine cancers. Conclusions These discrepancies indicate that an improved method of health care research funding allocation should be investigated to better match funding levels to societal burden.

  6. Clinical application and research of tumor markers in colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yumei


    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors. There are many tumor markers for detecting colorectal cancer, some of which have been widely used in clinical area. However, still lack an ideal tumor marker of colorectal cancer. In this review, we simply characterized some common tumor markers including carcinoembryonic antigen, CA19-9, CA50, CA242 etc and their dignostic value. And here we discussed some combined detecting procedures which improve diagnostic accuracy of colorectal cancer. In addition, with the development of the biomoleculer technique, some newly discovered tumor markers and genetic marekers have gained great progress in the research of colorectal cancer, and will become a promissing technique in the diagnosis of colorectal cancer. (authors)

  7. A Review of Current Machine Learning Methods Used for Cancer Recurrence Modeling and Prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemphill, Geralyn M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Cancer has been characterized as a heterogeneous disease consisting of many different subtypes. The early diagnosis and prognosis of a cancer type has become a necessity in cancer research. A major challenge in cancer management is the classification of patients into appropriate risk groups for better treatment and follow-up. Such risk assessment is critically important in order to optimize the patient’s health and the use of medical resources, as well as to avoid cancer recurrence. This paper focuses on the application of machine learning methods for predicting the likelihood of a recurrence of cancer. It is not meant to be an extensive review of the literature on the subject of machine learning techniques for cancer recurrence modeling. Other recent papers have performed such a review, and I will rely heavily on the results and outcomes from these papers. The electronic databases that were used for this review include PubMed, Google, and Google Scholar. Query terms used include “cancer recurrence modeling”, “cancer recurrence and machine learning”, “cancer recurrence modeling and machine learning”, and “machine learning for cancer recurrence and prediction”. The most recent and most applicable papers to the topic of this review have been included in the references. It also includes a list of modeling and classification methods to predict cancer recurrence.

  8. Promising Tools in Prostate Cancer Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonomo, Silvia; Hansen, Cecilie H; Petrunak, Elyse M


    Cytochrome P450 17A1 (CYP17A1) is an important target in the treatment of prostate cancer because it produces androgens required for tumour growth. The FDA has approved only one CYP17A1 inhibitor, abiraterone, which contains a steroidal scaffold similar to the endogenous CYP17A1 substrates...

  9. Advances in cancer research. Volume 48

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, G.; Weinhouse, S.


    This book contains the following five selections: Oncotrophoblast Gene Expression: Placental Alkaline Phosphatase; Cellular Events during Hepatocarcinogenesis in Rats and the Questions of Premalignancy; Human Papillomaviruses and Genital Cancer; Herpes Simplex Type 2 Virus and Cervical Neoplasia; and Transforming Genes and Target Cells of Murine Spleen Focus-Forming Viruses.

  10. Testicular Cancer Survivorship : Research Strategies and Recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Travis, Lois B.; Beard, Clair; Allan, James M.; Dahl, Alv A.; Feldman, Darren R.; Oldenburg, Jan; Daugaard, Gedske; Kelly, Jennifer L.; Dolan, M. Eileen; Hannigan, Robyn; Constine, Louis S.; Oeffinger, Kevin C.; Okunieff, Paul; Armstrong, Greg; Wiljer, David; Miller, Robert C.; Gietema, Jourik A.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Williams, Jacqueline P.; Nichols, Craig R.; Einhorn, Lawrence H.; Fossa, Sophie D.


    Testicular cancer represents the most curable solid tumor, with a 10-year survival rate of more than 95%. Given the young average age at diagnosis, it is estimated that effective treatment approaches, in particular, platinum-based chemotherapy, have resulted in an average gain of several decades of

  11. Summer Undergraduate Breast Cancer Research Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Folk, William


    .... These students participated in faculty-mentored research projects for eight weeks and participated in seminars, brown-bag lunches, and specialty discussion on research, clinical trials, career...

  12. The parameters of the current legal framework for health research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Nov 2, 2013 ... up or have access to a REC. This section must be read in concert with the NHREC guidelines, which set obligations for obtaining ethical approval.[7]. This means that the legislature intended all forms of health research to: (i) fall within national research priorities if being conducted by the public sector or ...

  13. The Research on School Marketing: Current Issues and Future Directions (United States)

    Oplatka, Izhar; Hemsley-Brown, Jane


    This review provides a synthesis of the scholarship that has sought to expand the understanding of educational marketing practice in schools. The following research questions guided this review. What are the common themes and characteristics that emerge from research about marketing in schools? What remains underdeveloped in the characterization…

  14. Urban tourism research : Recent progress and current paradoxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashworth, Gregory; Page, Stephen J.

    Urban tourism has remained a consistent theme in the expansion of tourism research since the 1980s and several seminal papers (e.g. Ashworth, 1989, 2003) have reviewed the state of research and its progress towards a greater recognition. This Progress in Tourism Management review article moves our

  15. Postgraduate Research Supervision: A Critical Review of Current Practice (United States)

    McCallin, Antoinette; Nayar, Shoba


    Changes in the funding and delivery of research programmes at the university level have, in recent years, resulted in significant changes to research supervision. This paper critically reviews key influences effecting postgraduate supervision. Analysis draws on literature spanning 2000-2010 to determine the appropriateness of traditional models of…

  16. Hospital closure: a review of current and proposed research.


    Hernandez, S R; Kaluzny, A D


    This paper reviews available data describing issues and research findings with implications for hospital closings. Factors contributing to fiscal problems of hospitals (e.g., inadequate reimbursement, inflation, management problems, organizational structure, societal factors) are discussed. Selected studies offering examples of hospital and community characteristics associated with closure are presented. This review suggests that future directions for research should focus not only on hospita...

  17. Human memory research: Current hypotheses and new perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Jaeger

    Full Text Available Abstract Research on human memory has increased significantly in the last few decades. Inconsistencies and controversies inherent to such research, however, are rarely articulated on published reports. The goal of the present article is to present and discuss a series of open questions related to major topics on human memory research that can be addressed by future research. The topics covered here are visual working memory, recognition memory, emotion and memory interaction, and methodological issues of false memories studies. Overall, the present work reveals a series of open questions and alternative analysis which could be useful for the process of hypothesis generation, and consequently for the design and implementation of future research on human memory.

  18. Digest of current research in the electric utility industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    A major objective of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is to be a prime resource for information on scientific research and development activities in the field of electric energy. In response to this objective, EPRI has developed the Research and Development Information System (RDIS), which is a computerized data base of research projects sponsored by the Institute and by individual electric utilities throughout the United States. RDIS provides the utility industry with a single, authoritative source of continuously updated information concerning in-progress, unpublished R and D projects. The program was initiated in 1974 and developed with the assistance of the EPRI Research Advisory Committee. This Digest is generated from the RDIS program. Contributors to this pilot volume were Consolidated Edison, EPRI, Pacific Gas and Electric, Philadelphia Electric, Southern California Edison, Tennessee Valley Authority, and Union Electric. The Digest will be issued annually. (auth)

  19. Cancer in Africa: opportunities for collaborative research and training. (United States)

    Adebamowo, C A; Akarolo-Anthony, S


    Cancer is a worldwide public health problem causing increasing morbidity and mortality, particularly in the developing world. Underlying trends are changing the pattern of cancer and this is also being influenced by the HIV/AIDS pandemic, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. Even though the pattern of cancer varies across Africa, there are identifiable trends. Breast and cervical cancers, and Kaposi sarcoma are the commonest cancers in women, while Kaposi sarcoma, liver and prostate cancers are the commonest in men. Cancer causes more morbidity and mortality in Africa compared to other parts of the world. Infections account for a disproportionate amount of cancers in Africa. The HIV epidemic is contributing to increased prevalence of many cancers particularly those associated with Herpes and Papilloma viruses. Tobacco use, another major carcinogen, is increasing, particularly among the young. Dietary factors, alcohol use, physical inactivity and environmental pollution are also important aetiological factors of cancer in Africa. In developing countries, poverty, limited government health budget and poor health care systems complicate cancer prevention, treatment and outcomes. Coordinated response by international agencies and NGOs is needed to help developing countries and several successful models exist. More action is also needed on ensuring safety and quality of chemotherapy and the price needs to be reduced. Responses advocated for cancer control in Africa include banning tobacco use, better regulation of alcohol sale, better environmental planning and immunization against cancer associated viruses. Training of health care workers to diagnose cancer and treat it effectively within limited budgets is needed. Research to develop these new treatments and others, particularly from natural products is urgently needed and this can be done safely within established health research ethics regulatory frameworks. Several opportunities for collaborative research and

  20. Current trend of research on 131I therapy for thyroid diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Tizhang


    At present time, there are two current trends of research on 131 I therapy for thyroid diseases. The first is extension of the application on the field of thyroid diseases. Formerly, the authors use the 131 I only on the hyperthyroidism of Graves' disease, plummer's disease or toxic nodular goiter as well as thyroid cancer, but now, also for some thyroid diseases with normal thyroid function, such as nontoxic multi-nodular goiter, simple diffuse goiter even the thyroid cyst. It seems quite rational to use the 131 I more widely, because it is really safe, easy and cheaper than others. The second trend is using 131 I combined together with other drugs in order to reduce the occurrence of hypothyroidism and enhance the therapeutic effect. Authors call it as combined therapy. Drugs recommended for such therapy are antithyroid drugs, β-adrenergic receptor blocking agents, thyroid hormone, gtucocorticoid as well as Chinese herb drugs and so on

  1. Application of Quantum Dots-Based Biotechnology in Cancer Diagnosis: Current Status and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Wei Peng


    Full Text Available The semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots (QDs have excellent photo-physical properties, and the QDs-based probes have achieved encouraging developments in cellular and in vivo molecular imaging. More and more researches showed that QDs-based technology may become a promising approach in cancer research. In this review, we focus on recent application of QDs in cancer diagnosis and treatment, including early detection of primary tumor such as ovarian cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer and pancreatic cancer, as well as regional lymph nodes and distant metastases. With the development of QDs synthesis and modification, the effect of QDs on tumor metastasis investigation will become more and more important in the future.

  2. Drug development for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: current status and future perspectives. (United States)

    Lassi, Kiran; Dawson, Nancy A


    Prostate cancer represents a third of all newly diagnosed cancers in men in the USA with an estimated incidence of 192,280 cases and 27,360 deaths in 2009. It continues to be a major cause of cancer-related morbidity and mortality, and there is an urgent need for new treatments. Historically, systemic therapy options were limited after progression on docetaxel-based chemotherapy. This article reviews current data on the novel therapeutics demonstrating activity in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer and their future role in the treatment of this disease with a poor prognosis.

  3. Statistical study on cancer patients of cancer research hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Yun Sang; Choi, Soo Yong; Kim, Ki Wha; Kang, Sung Mok


    The total number of malignant neoplasms included in this study 15,737 cases(11.8%) among 133,251 cases for 3 years. On sex, females with 52.9% were much more than males with 47.1%. The highest proportion of cancer patients by age was 33.7% in males and 28.5% in females, respectivelty for 50-59 age group. The most frequent primary site among males was found to be stomach with 35.5%, followed by liver(14.7%), lung(13.0%), esophagus(5.4%) and colon (3.2%). In females, the first order was uterine cervix with 40.6%, followed by stomach(17.2%), breast(14.4), rectum(3.7%) and lung(3.4%). The most common type of morphology of malignant neoplasms was adenocarcinoma(47.4%) in males an squamous cell carcinoma(58.0%) in females. Among the cancer patients initially diagnosed in this hospital, the proportion of malignant neoplasms by the exent of disease was 2.5% for patient with carcinoma-in-situ, 54.1% for patients with localized involvement, 13.3% for patients with regional involvement and 8.5% for patients with distant involvement. Among the cancer patients initially treatment in this hospital, the proportion of malignant neoplasms by the method of treatment was 23.6% for surgery, 25.3% for radiotherapy and 30.3% for chemotherapy. Among the cancer patients confirmed by medical records, 7.7% was traced more than 5 years. (Author)

  4. Lipid Biomarkers Identified for Liver Cancer | Center for Cancer Research (United States)

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an aggressive cancer of the liver with poor prognosis and growing incidence in developed countries. Pathology and genetic profiles of HCC are heterogeneous, suggesting that it can begin growing in different cell types. Although human tumors such as HCC have been profiled in-depth by genomics-based studies, not much is known about their overall metabolite modifications and how these changes can form a network that leads to aggressive disease and poor outcome.

  5. Review of current research on hydrocarbon production by plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedict, H. M.; Inman, B.


    This review assesses the status of research and development in the area of plants that produce hydrocarbons as a possible replacement for traditional fossil fuels. The information is meant to be used as a basis for determining the scope of a possible R and D program by DOE/FFB. Except in the case of guayule (Parthenium argentatum Gray), research on hydrocarbon species generally has not advanced beyond preliminary screening, extraction, and growth studies. Virtually no field studies have been initiated; hydrocarbon component extraction, separation, identification, and characterization have been only timidly approached; the biochemistry of hydrocarbon formation remains virtually untouched; and potential market analysis has been based on insufficient data. Research interest is increasing in this area, however. Industrial interest understandably centers about guayule prospects and is supplemented by NSF and DOE research funds. Additional support for other research topics has been supplied by DOE and USDA and by certain university systems. Due to the infant state of technology in this area of energy research, it is not possible to predict or satisfactorily assess at this time the potential contribution that plant hydrocarbons might make toward decreasing the nation's dependence upon petroleum. However, the general impression received from experts interviewed during this review was that the major thrust of research should be directed toward the manufacture of petrochemical substitutes rather than fuel production.

  6. Incorporating current research into formal higher education settings using Astrobites (United States)

    Sanders, Nathan E.; Kohler, Susanna; Faesi, Chris; Villar, Ashley; Zevin, Michael


    A primary goal of many undergraduate- and graduate-level courses in the physical sciences is to prepare students to engage in scientific research or to prepare students for careers that leverage skillsets similar to those used by research scientists. Even for students who may not intend to pursue a career with these characteristics, exposure to the context of applications in modern research can be a valuable tool for teaching and learning. However, a persistent barrier to student participation in research is familiarity with the technical language, format, and context that academic researchers use to communicate research methods and findings with each other: the literature of the field. Astrobites, an online web resource authored by graduate students, has published brief and accessible summaries of more than 1300 articles from the astrophysical literature since its founding in 2010. This article presents three methods for introducing students at all levels within the formal higher education setting to approaches and results from modern research. For each method, we provide a sample lesson plan that integrates content and principles from Astrobites, including step-by-step instructions for instructors, suggestions for adapting the lesson to different class levels across the undergraduate and graduate spectrum, sample student handouts, and a grading rubric.

  7. Current research trends in mountain biodiversity in NW Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Väisänen, Risto A.


    Full Text Available Focusing on four themes in relation to biodiversity (vegetation science, keystone grazers, long-term studies and protected areas, a synthesis of current research in the mountain areas of Fennoscandia, Iceland and Scotland is presented. Recent relevant advances in vegetation science include classifications of mountain habitats which together with species distribution maps offer new possibilities for analysis. Generalisations emerging from comparisons of the ecology and ecophysiology of plants between different mountain areas are greatly needed. Further studies on the ecological impacts of keystone grazers are urgently required because of the alarming rate of degradation of mountain habitats. The topics highlighted from northern Fennoscandia include (i the effect of overgrazing by reindeer on the cover of foliose lichens and on the regeneration of mountain birch, (ii the ecological interactions between the autumnal moth and mountain birch, and (Hi the effect of rodents on vegetation. Long-term studies of slow processes to capture rare but important events are needed to better understand the functioning of mountain ecosystems. Examples of such studies are presented for (i the moss Racomitrium lanuginosum as an indicator of airborne nitrogen pollution, (ii research based on cyclic oscillations of vole numbers, and (Hi the application of breeding birds in environmental assessment. The conservation of appropriate areas is important for mountain biodiversity. Mountain habitats have been protected extensively in northern Europe. The evaluation of how representative the existing areas are and how to use them for research need international co-ordination.

    [fr] On présente une synthèse de la recherche actuelle dans les régions de montagne de la Scandinavie, l'Islande et l'Ecosse, centrée sur quatre sujets autour de la biodiversité (science de la végétation, herbivores principaux, études à long terme et zones protégées. Les r

  8. Preserving fertility in young patients with endometrial cancer: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalogera E


    Full Text Available Eleftheria Kalogera, Sean C Dowdy, Jamie N Bakkum-Gamez Division of Gynecologic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA Abstract: Endometrial cancer (EC is the most common gynecologic malignancy in developed countries and affects predominantly postmenopausal women. It is estimated, however, that 15%–25% of women will be diagnosed before menopause. As more women choose to defer childbearing until later in life, the feasibility and safety of fertility-sparing EC management have been increasingly studied. Definitive treatment of total hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy precludes future fertility and may thus be undesirable by women who wish to maintain their reproductive potential. However, the consideration of conservative management carries the oncologic risks of unstaged EC and the risk of missing a synchronous ovarian cancer. It is further complicated by the lack of consensus regarding the initial assessment, treatment, and surveillance. Conservative treatment with progestins has been shown to be a feasible and safe fertility-sparing approach for women with low grade, early stage EC with no myometrial invasion. The two most commonly adopted regimens are medroxyprogesterone acetate at 500–600 mg daily and megestrol acetate at 160 mg daily for a minimum of 6–9 months, with initial response rates commonly reported between 60% and 80% and recurrence rates between 25% and 40%. Photodynamic therapy and hysteroscopic EC excision have recently been reported as alternative approaches to progestin therapy alone. However, limited efficacy and safety data exist. Live birth rates after progestin therapy have typically been reported around 30%; however, when focusing only on those who do pursue fertility after successful treatment, the live birth rates were found to be higher than 60%. Assisted reproductive technology has been associated with a higher live birth rate compared with spontaneous conception, most likely reflecting the

  9. Italy. Report 1 [Marine Radioecology. Current Research and Future Scope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argiero, L.


    Present research programme: Studies on radioactive, biological and hydrographic characteristics of Tyrrhenian Sea; Organization of suitable control network of marine water and fauna: systematic measurement of present components of natural and artificial radioactivity of water, sediments and of the marine food chain techniques of sampling; analysis and measurement of particular radioisotopes in marine water. α, β, γ analysis of samples; γ spectrometry, research on 90 Sr and 137 Cs. Determination of concentration factors of radioisotopes which are responsible for contamination of principal components of the flora and fauna in the Tyrrhenian Sea; research of hydrographie factors influencing the distribution of marine radioactivity. Nuclide content of other organisms of the Tyrrhenian flora and fauna

  10. Electron Microscopist/Structural Biologist | Center for Cancer Research (United States)

    PROGRAM DESCRIPTION The Cancer Research Technology Program (CRTP) develops and implements emerging technology, cancer biology expertise and research capabilities to accomplish NCI research objectives. The CRTP is an outward-facing, multi-disciplinary hub purposed to enable the external cancer research community and provides dedicated support to NCI’s intramural Center for Cancer Research (CCR). The dedicated units provide electron microscopy, protein characterization, protein expression, optical microscopy and genetics. These research efforts are an integral part of CCR at the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research (FNLCR). CRTP scientists also work collaboratively with intramural NCI investigators to provide research technologies and expertise. KEY ROLES/RESPONSIBILITIES - THIS POSITION IS CONTINGENT UPON FUNDING APPROVAL Develop technologies for application on emerging electron microscopy platforms. Operate and optimize performance of TEM microscopes, specifically Titan Krios and Talos Artctica for high-resolution data collection in single particle studies as well as cryo-electron tomography. Assist with maintenance for the Titan Krios and the Talos Arctica as well as associated instruments. Interact closely with and transfer newly developed technical capabilities to CCR Center for Molecular Microscopy (CMM) and CCR collaborators.

  11. Current status of quantitative rotational spectroscopy for atmospheric research (United States)

    Drouin, Brian J.; Wlodarczak, Georges; Colmont, Jean-Marcel; Rohart, Francois


    Remote sensing of rotational transitions in the Earth's atmosphere has become an important method for the retrieval of geophysical temperatures, pressures and chemical composition profiles that requires accurate spectral information. This paper highlights the current status of rotational data that are useful for atmospheric measurements, with a discussion of the types the rotational lineshape measurements that are not generally available in either online repository.

  12. Italy. Report 2 [Marine Radioecology. Current Research and Future Scope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, B.


    Present research programme (long-term): Radionuclides in plankton an marine sediments. Ecology of Anvantheria as Sr ''scanengers''. General distribution of radionuclides in marine environment Systematics and ecology of Avantharia, studied in different seas as a biological problem. Content of 90 Sr in plankton in relation to the presence or absence of Avantharia Radiochemistry of sea sediments (littoral); sedimentological and petrographical researches for stratigraphic purposes. Fall-out and wastes radionuclides absorbed by sediments. Correlation between Acantharia and concentration factor for 90 Sr. Stratigraphy of fall-out radionuclides in sea sediments. Biological researches on Acantharia rearing for turnover studies in vitro. Stratigraphical researches on recent coastal sediments for geochronological problems by means of fall-out radionuclides

  13. Relationship Education Research: Current Status and Future Directions (United States)

    Markman, Howard J.; Rhoades, Galena K.


    The overarching aim of this paper is to review research on relationship education programs and approaches that have been published or accepted for publication since the last review article in 2002. This paper provides a critical overview of the relationship education field and sets an agenda for research and practice for the next decade. A theme weaved throughout the paper are the ways in which relationship education is similar and different from couples therapy and we conclude that there can be a synergistic, healthy marriage between the two. We then provide recommendations for future directions for research in the relationship education field. Finally, the co-authors comment on our experiences in both the relationship education field and couples therapy field as both researchers and interventionists. PMID:22283386

  14. MicroRNA Detection: Current Technology and Research Strategies (United States)

    Hunt, Eric A.; Broyles, David; Head, Trajen; Deo, Sapna K.


    The relatively new field of microRNA (miR) has experienced rapid growth in methodology associated with its detection and bioanalysis as well as with its role in -omics research, clinical diagnostics, and new therapeutic strategies. The breadth of this area of research and the seemingly exponential increase in number of publications on the subject can present scientists new to the field with a daunting amount of information to evaluate. This review aims to provide a collective overview of miR detection methods by relating conventional, established techniques [such as quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), microarray, and Northern blotting (NB)] and relatively recent advancements [such as next-generation sequencing (NGS), highly sensitive biosensors, and computational prediction of microRNA/targets] to common miR research strategies. This should guide interested readers toward a more focused study of miR research and the surrounding technology.

  15. Current evidence of effects of Helicobacter pylori eradication on prevention of gastric cancer. (United States)

    Choi, Il Ju


    Gastric cancer is the second most common cause of cancer death worldwide and is usually detected at a late stage, except in Korea and Japan where early screening is in effect. Results from animal and epidemiological studies suggest that Helicobacter pylori infection, and subsequent gastritis, promote development of gastric cancer in the infected mucosa. Relatively effective treatment regimens are available to treat H. pylori infection, and in general, mass eradication of the organism is not currently recommended as a gastric cancer prevention strategy. However, regional guidelines vary regarding the indications and recommendations for H. pylori treatment for gastric cancer prevention. In this review, we discuss the results from intervention studies, provide insight regarding current guideline recommendations, and discuss future study directions.

  16. Worksite health promotion research: challenges, current state and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg F. Bauer


    Full Text Available

    Background: Worksite health promotion (WHP addresses diverse individual and work-related health determinants. Thus, multiple, non-standardized interventions as well as company outcomes other than health have to be considered in WHP research.

    Methods: The article builds primarily on published research reviews in WHP and related fields. It discusses key practical and research challenges of the workplace setting. The evidence available on the effectiveness of WHP is summarised and conclusions are drawn for future WHP practice and research.

    Results: WHP research on health-oriented, behavioural interventions shows that the level of evidence ranges from suggestive to acceptable for key prevention areas such as physical activity, nutrition, fitness, smoking, alcohol and stress. Such interventions are effective if key conditions are met. Future research is needed on long-term effects, on multi-component programs and on programs, which address environmental determinants of health behaviour as well. Research on work-related determinants of health shows the economic and public health relevance of WHP interventions. Reviews of work-oriented, organisational interventions show that they produce a range of individual and organisational outcomes. However, due to the complexity of the organisational context, the generalisability and predictability of such outcomes remain limited.

    Conclusions: WHP research shows success factors of WHP and provides evidence of its effectiveness. In future, the evidence base should be expanded by developing adaptive, company-driven intervention approaches which allow for continuous optimisation of companies from a health perspective. Also, approaches for active dissemination of such a systemic-salutogenic occupational health management approach should be developed to increase the public health impact of WHP.

  17. Current research and development trends in floristic geography


    Hang Sun; Tao Deng; Yongsheng Chen; Zhuo Zhou


    This paper summarizes the research status, existing issues, and trends in floristic geography. There is now a wealth of research accumulation on floristic investigations, distribution types of genera, floristic regions, and regional floristic analysis. It is also noted that most of these studies utilize simple statistical analyses, comparative studies, traditional methods, and single subjects, to provide a basic understanding and description of the floristic phenomenon, which is lacking spati...

  18. Current research in transcultural psychiatry in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekblad, Solvig; Kastrup, Marianne Carisius


    This article discusses major themes in recent transcultural psychiatric research in the Nordic countries from 2008 to 2011: (a) epidemiological studies of migration, (b) indigenous populations, and (c) quality of psychiatric care for migrants. Over the past several decades, the populations......, and after migration, with potential effects on their physical, mental, social, and spiritual health. Growing interest in transcultural issues is reflected in the level of scientific research and clinical activity in the field by Nordic physicians, psychologists, social scientists, demographers, medical...

  19. Nutritional genomic approaches to cancer prevention research. (United States)

    Ross, S A


    A wealth of evidence points to the diet as one of the most important modifiable determinants of the risk of developing cancer, but a greater understanding of the interaction between diet and genes may help distinguish who will and will not respond to dietary interventions. The term nutrigenomics or nutritional genomics refers to the bidirectional interactions between genes and diet. Nutritional genomics encompasses an understanding about how the response to bioactive food components depends on an individual's genetic background (nutrigenetics), nutrient induced changes in DNA methylation, histone posttranslational modifications, and other chromatin alterations (nutritional epigenetics), and nutrient induced changes in gene expression (nutritional transcriptomics). These approaches to the study of nutrition will assist in understanding how genetic variation, epigenetic events, and regulation of gene expression alter requirements for, and responses to, nutrients. Recognition of the interplay between genes and diet could ultimately help identify modifiable molecular targets for preventing, delaying, or reducing the symptoms of cancer and other chronic diseases.

  20. Big Data-Led Cancer Research, Application, and Insights. (United States)

    Brown, James A L; Ni Chonghaile, Triona; Matchett, Kyle B; Lynam-Lennon, Niamh; Kiely, Patrick A


    Insights distilled from integrating multiple big-data or "omic" datasets have revealed functional hierarchies of molecular networks driving tumorigenesis and modifiers of treatment response. Identifying these novel key regulatory and dysregulated elements is now informing personalized medicine. Crucially, although there are many advantages to this approach, there are several key considerations to address. Here, we examine how this big data-led approach is impacting many diverse areas of cancer research, through review of the key presentations given at the Irish Association for Cancer Research Meeting and importantly how the results may be applied to positively affect patient outcomes. Cancer Res; 76(21); 6167-70. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  1. MBCP - Approach - Immunotherapy | Center for Cancer Research (United States)

    Immunotherapy CCR investigators pioneered the use of the tuberculosis vaccine—Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG)—in the treatment of bladder cancer. In cases where the tumor burden is not too high and direct contact can be made with the urothelium surface of the bladder, BCG application appears to elicit an immune response that attacks the tumor as well as the attenuated virus. Ongoing clinical trials focusing on enhancing the patient’s immune system are listed below.

  2. Review of current status of LWR safety research in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Tasaburo; Mishima, Yoshitsugu; Ando, Yoshio; Miyazono, Shohachiro; Takashima, Yoichi.


    The Japan Atomic Energy Commission has exerted efforts on the research of the safety of nuclear plants in Japan, and ''Nuclear plant safety research committees'' was established in August 1974, which is composed of the government and the people. The philosophy of safety research, research and development plan, the forwarding procedure of the plan, international cooperation, for example LOFT program, and the effective feed back of the experimental results concerning nuclear safety are reviewed in this paper at first. As for the safety of nuclear reactors the basic philosophy that radio active fission products are contained in fuel or reactors with multiple barriers, (defence in depth) and almost no fission product is released outside reactor plants even at the time of hypothetical accident, is kept, and the research and development history and the future plan are described in this paper with the related technical problems. The structural safety is also explained, for example, on the philosophy ''leak before break'', pipe rupture, pipe restraint and stress analysis. The release of radioactive gas and liquid is decreased as the philosophy ''ALAP''. And probability safety evaluation method, LOCA, reactivity, accident and aseismatic design in nuclear plants in Japan are described. (Nakai, Y.)

  3. Research on Predicting Drive Current of Shipborne Satcom Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong Jinping


    Full Text Available Predicting the effect of antenna wind load on servo system precisely is meaningful to ensure the safety of satcom antenna on operation, which can avoid overload operation. In this paper, the computational fluid dynamics is used to proceed numerical computation on the pressure distribution of the reflector and torque of drive shaft under different wind speed, windward angle and angle of pitch of the antenna. The simulation model is built under MATLAB/Simulink simulation environment, and the drive current of the antenna servo system is analyzed under wind load effect and ship swing. Then, a method of predicting drive current of antenna servo system according to the wind speed, wind direction and attitude of the antenna is concluded. And this method is verified by simulation at last.

  4. Brain Cancer in Workers Employed at a Laboratory Research Facility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J Collins

    Full Text Available An earlier study of research facility workers found more brain cancer deaths than expected, but no workplace exposures were implicated.Adding four additional years of vital-status follow-up, we reassessed the risk of death from brain cancer in the same workforce, including 5,284 workers employed between 1963, when the facility opened, and 2007. We compared the work histories of the brain cancer decedents in relationship to when they died and their ages at death.As in most other studies of laboratory and research workers, we found low rates of total mortality, total cancers, accidents, suicides, and chronic conditions such as heart disease and diabetes. We found no new brain cancer deaths in the four years of additional follow-up. Our best estimate of the brain cancer standardized mortality ratio (SMR was 1.32 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.66-2.37, but the SMR might have been as high as 1.69. Deaths from benign brain tumors and other non-malignant diseases of the nervous system were at or below expected levels.With the addition of four more years of follow-up and in the absence of any new brain cancers, the updated estimate of the risk of brain cancer death is smaller than in the original study. There was no consistent pattern among the work histories of decedents that indicated a common causative exposure.

  5. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation: Considerations for Research in Adolescent Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan C. Lee


    Full Text Available Adolescent depression is a prevalent disorder with substantial morbidity and mortality. Current treatment interventions do not target relevant pathophysiology and are frequently ineffective, thereby leading to a substantial burden for individuals, families, and society. During adolescence, the prefrontal cortex undergoes extensive structural and functional changes. Recent work suggests that frontolimbic development in depressed adolescents is delayed or aberrant. The judicious application of non-invasive brain stimulation techniques to the prefrontal cortex may present a promising opportunity for durable interventions in adolescent depression. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS applies a low-intensity, continuous current that alters cortical excitability. While this modality does not elicit action potentials, it is thought to manipulate neuronal activity and neuroplasticity. Specifically, tDCS may modulate N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors and L-type voltage-gated calcium channels and effect changes through long-term potentiation or long-term depression-like mechanisms. This mini-review considers the neurobiological rationale for developing tDCS protocols in adolescent depression, reviews existing work in adult mood disorders, surveys the existing tDCS literature in adolescent populations, reviews safety studies, and discusses distinct ethical considerations in work with adolescents.

  6. Current status of cancer immunodetection with radiolabeled human monoclonal antibodies. (United States)

    De Jager, R; Abdel-Nabi, H; Serafini, A; Pecking, A; Klein, J L; Hanna, M G


    The use of radiolabeled murine monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) for cancer immunodetection has been limited by the development of human antimouse antibodies (HAMA). Human monoclonal antibodies do not elicit a significant human antihuman (HAHA) response. The generation and production of human monoclonal antibodies met with technical difficulties that resulted in delaying their clinical testing. Human monoclonal antibodies of all isotypes have been obtained. Most were immunoglobulin (Ig) M directed against intracellular antigens. Two antibodies, 16.88 (IgM) and 88BV59 (IgG3k), recognize different epitopes on a tumor-associated antigen, CTA 16.88, homologous to cytokeratins 8, 18, and 19. CTA 16.88 is expressed by most epithelial-derived tumors including carcinomas of the colon, pancreas, breast, ovary, and lung. The in vivo targeting by these antibodies is related to their localization in nonnecrotic areas of tumors. Repeated administration of 16.88 over 5 weeks to a cumulative dose of 1,000 mg did not elicit a HAHA response. Two of 53 patients developed a low titer of HAHA 1 to 3 months after a single administration of 88BV59. Planar imaging of colorectal cancer with Iodine-131 (131I)-16.88 was positive in two studies in 9 of 12 and 16 of 20 patients preselected by immunohistochemistry. Tumors less than 2 cm in diameter are usually not detected. The lack of immunogenicity and long tumor residence time (average = 17 days) makes 16.88 a good candidate for therapy. Radioimmunlymphoscintigraphy with indium-111 (111In)-LiLo-16.88 administered by an intramammary route was used in the presurgical staging of primary breast cancer. The negative predictive value of lymph node metastases for tumors less than 3 cm was 90.5%. Planar and single photon emission computed tomography imaging of colorectal carcinoma with technetium-99m (99mTc) 88BV59 was compared with computed tomography (CT) scan in 36 surgical patients. The antibody scan was more sensitive than the CT scan in detecting

  7. Wnt Inactivation for Liver Cancer Therapy | Center for Cancer Research (United States)

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common and third most deadly type of cancer in the world. The majority of cases occur in Asia and Africa, resulting in most cases being diagnosed only at advanced stages of the disease when drug resistance is high. HCC typically follows damage to the liver such as cirrhosis, making radiation and chemotherapy a more challenging prospect. Surgery is also not a very viable option because less than one in four carcinomas can be completely removed. The limitations in these treatment modalities create the need for alternative therapeutic approaches.

  8. Physician Assistant | Center for Cancer Research (United States)

    counseling within the boundaries of his/her specialty area of education and clinical preparation (pediatrics, adults, urologic, surgical, etc.). Review assigned patient resident reports and carry and answer the resident pager. Provide coverage for the post-call resident’s patients, while working closely with the Inpatient/Fellowship staff.  Support in-patient and out-patient care of subjects enrolled in experimental protocols and clinical trials. Work as a member of a multidisciplinary clinical team to provide comprehensive care to patients in a research environment. Write prescriptions. Explain the care management/discharge plan to all members of the covering team (inpatient NPs, attendings) at signout. This position is located in Bethesda, Maryland in support of the Center for Cancer Research (CCR).

  9. Contributions of 3D Cell Cultures for Cancer Research. (United States)

    Ravi, Maddaly; Ramesh, Aarthi; Pattabhi, Aishwarya


    Cancer cell lines have contributed immensely in understanding the complex physiology of cancers. They are excellent material for studies as they offer homogenous samples without individual variations and can be utilised with ease and flexibility. Also, the number of assays and end-points one can study is almost limitless; with the advantage of improvising, modifying or altering several variables and methods. Literally, a new dimension to cancer research has been achieved by the advent of 3Dimensional (3D) cell culture techniques. This approach increased many folds the ways in which cancer cell lines can be utilised for understanding complex cancer biology. 3D cell culture techniques are now the preferred way of using cancer cell lines to bridge the gap between the 'absolute in vitro' and 'true in vivo'. The aspects of cancer biology that 3D cell culture systems have contributed include morphology, microenvironment, gene and protein expression, invasion/migration/metastasis, angiogenesis, tumour metabolism and drug discovery, testing chemotherapeutic agents, adaptive responses and cancer stem cells. We present here, a comprehensive review on the applications of 3D cell culture systems for these aspects of cancers. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 2679-2697, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Summer Undergraduate Breast Cancer Research Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Folk, William


    ...) supported 6 students in 2002. These students participated in faculty-mentored research projects for eight weeks and participated in seminars, brown-bag lunches, and specialty discussions on research, clinical trials, career...

  11. Summer Undergraduate Breast Cancer Research Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Folk, William R; Blockus, Linda


    ...) supported 4 students in 2003. These students participated in faculty-mentored research projects for eight weeks and participated in seminars, brown-bag lunches, and specialty discussions on research, clinical trials, career...

  12. Summer Undergraduate Breast Cancer Research Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Folk, William R; Blockus, Linda


    ... opportunities, preparing for graduate school, and ethics. The 4 SUBCRP students joined the activities of the MU's Life Sciences Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program, including 80 other students involved in a wide variety of research experiences...

  13. Summer Undergraduate Breast Cancer Research Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Folk, William


    ... opportunities, preparing for graduate school, and ethics. The 6 SUBCRP students joined the activities of the MU's Life Sciences Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program, including 70 other students involved in a wide variety of research experiences...

  14. Current research on parenting styles, dimensions, and beliefs. (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G


    For decades, parenting has been characterized in terms of broad global styles, with authoritative parenting seen as most beneficial for children's development. Concerns with greater sensitivity to cultural and contextual variations have led to greater specificity in defining parenting in terms of different parenting dimensions and greater consideration of the role of parenting beliefs in moderating links between parenting and adjustment. New research includes 'domain-specific' models that describe parents as flexibly deploying different practices depending on their goals, children's needs, and the types of behaviors towards which parenting is directed. These trends are described, and directions for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Current tendencies and perspectives of development research reactors of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabaraev, B.A.; Kchmelschikov, V.V.


    Full text: During more than fifty years many Research Reactors were constructed under Russian projects, and that is a considerable contribution to the world reactor building. The designs of Research Reactors, constructed under Russian projects, appeared to be so successful, that permitted to raise capacity and widen the range of their application. The majority of Russian Research Reactors being middle-aged are far from having their designed resources exhausted and are kept on the intensive run still. In 2000 'Strategy of nuclear power development in Russia in the first half of XXI century' was elaborated and approved. The national nuclear power requirements and possible ways of its development determined in this document demanded to analyze the state of the research reactors base. The analysis results are presented in this report. The main conclusion consists in the following statement: on the one hand quantity and experimental potentialities of domestic Research Reactors are sufficient for the solution of reactor materials science tasks, and on the other hand the reconstruction and modernization appears to be the most preferable way of research reactors development for the near-term outlook. At present time the modernization and reconstruction works and works on extension of operational life of high-powered multipurpose MIR-M1, SM-3, IRV-1M, BOR-60, IVV-2M and others are conducted. There is support for the development of Research Reactors, intended for carrying out the fundamental investigations on the neutron beams. Toward this end the Government of Russia gives financial and professional support with a view to complete the reactor PIK construction in PINPh and the reactor IBR-2 modernization in JINR. In future prospect Research Reactors branch in Russia is to acquire the following trends: - limited number of existent scientific centers, based on the construction sites, with high flux materials testing research reactors, equipped with experimental facilities

  16. Gene therapy a promising treatment for breast cancer: current scenario in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muzavir, S.R.; Zahra, S.A.; Ahmad, A.


    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers among women around the world. It accounts for 22.9% of all the cancers and 18% of all female cancers in the world. One million new cases of breast cancer are diagnosed every year. Pakistan has more alarming situation with 90,000 new cases and ending up into 40,000 deaths annually. The risk factor for a female to develop breast cancer as compared with male is 100 : 1. The traditional way of treatment is by surgery, chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Advanced breast cancer is very difficult to treat with any of the traditional treatment options. A new treatment option in the form of gene therapy can be a promising treatment for breast cancer. Gene therapy provides treatment option in the form of targeting mutated gene, expression of cancer markers on the surface of cells, blocking the metastasis and induction of apoptosis, etc. Gene therapy showed very promising results for treatment of various cancers. All this is being trialed, experimented and practiced outside of Pakistan. Therefore, there is an immense need that this kind of work should be started in Pakistan. There are many good research institutes as well as well-reputed hospitals in Pakistan. Presently, there is a need to develop collaboration between research institutes and hospitals, so that the basic work and clinical trials can be done to treat breast cancer patients in the country. This collaboration will prove to be very healthy and will not only strength research institute but also will be very beneficial for cancer patients. (author)

  17. [The health food product Noni--does marketing harmonize with the current status of research?]. (United States)

    Johansen, Rolf


    Norwegian cancer patients frequently use Noni. The objective of this study was to find out whether the way noni is marketed in Norway and the health claims made about the product harmonize with current scientific knowledge of its benefits/adverse effects. An overview of medical research on noni was obtained from three databases. Web sites for private persons and for companies that sell noni in Norway were examined. Books, pamphlets etc. from a company specializing in selling information material about noni, were also examined. 48 scientific articles were included in the study, but none of these were clinical studies of humans. Several pharmacological effects of noni have been shown in vitro and in animal models (e.g., increased survival for animals with cancer). Information material describes noni as a health-promoting product that patients with most diseases will benefit from. Noni is to a great extent sold by multi-level marketing, but is also commonly sold by health food stores. There is no scientific basis for claiming that patients will benefit from using noni for any diseases. The way this product is sold has several worrying aspects.

  18. Paul Carlson | Center for Cancer Research (United States)

    Paul Carlson, Ph.D. March 28 Principal Investigator Laboratory of Mucosal Pathogens and Cellular Immunology Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER), FDA Topic:  "Research and Regulation of novel biologic products at the FDA's Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research"

  19. Major clinical research advances in gynecologic cancer in 2014 (United States)

    Lee, Kyung-Hun; Kim, Kidong; Kang, Sokbom


    In 2014, 9 topics were selected as major advances in clinical research for gynecologic oncology: 2 each in cervical and corpus cancer, 4 in ovarian cancer, and 1 in breast cancer. For cervical cancer, several therapeutic agents showed viable antitumor clinical response in recurrent and metastatic disease: bevacizumab, cediranib, and immunotherapies including human papillomavirus (HPV)-tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and Z-100. The HPV test received FDA approval as the primary screening tool of cervical cancer in women aged 25 and older, based on the results of the ATHENA trial, which suggested that the HPV test was a more sensitive and efficient strategy for cervical cancer screening than methods based solely on cytology. For corpus cancers, results of a phase III Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) 249 study of early-stage endometrial cancer with high-intermediate risk factors are followed by the controversial topic of uterine power morcellation in minimally invasive gynecologic surgery. Promising results of phase II studies regarding the effectiveness of olaparib in various ovarian cancer settings are summarized. After a brief review of results from a phase III study on pazopanib maintenance therapy in advanced ovarian cancer, 2 outstanding 2014 ASCO presentations cover the topic of using molecular subtypes in predicting response to bevacizumab. A review of the use of opportunistic bilateral salpingectomy as an ovarian cancer preventive strategy in the general population is presented. Two remarkable studies that discussed the effectiveness of adjuvant ovarian suppression in premenopausal early breast cancer have been selected as the last topics covered in this review. PMID:25872896

  20. Cancer research in need of a scientific revolution: Using 'paradigm shift' as a method of investigation. (United States)

    Wion, Didier; Appaix, Florence; Burruss, Meriwether; Berger, Francois; van der Sanden, Boudewijn


    Despite important human and financial resources and considerable accumulation of scientific publications, patents, and clinical trials, cancer research has been slow in achieving a therapeutic revolution similar to the one that occurred in the last century for infectious diseases. It has been proposed that science proceeds not only by accumulating data but also through paradigm shifts. Here, we propose to use the concept of 'paradigm shift' as a method of investigation when dominant paradigms fail to achieve their promises. The first step in using the 'paradigm shift' method in cancer research requires identifying its founding paradigms. In this review, two of these founding paradigms will be discussed: (i) the reification of cancer as a tumour mass and (ii) the translation of the concepts issued from infectious disease in cancer research. We show how these founding paradigms can generate biases that lead to over-diagnosis and over-treatment and also hamper the development of curative cancer therapies. We apply the 'paradigm shift' method to produce perspective reversals consistent with current experimental evidence. The 'paradigm shift' method enlightens the existence of a tumour physiologic-prophylactic-pathologic continuum. It integrates the target/antitarget concept and that cancer is also an extracellular disease. The 'paradigm shift' method has immediate implications for cancer prevention and therapy. It could be a general method of investigation for other diseases awaiting therapy.