WorldWideScience

Sample records for current budget federal

  1. Federal budget timetable

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the federal budget timetable under the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985 (Gramm-Rudman-Hollings). These deadlines apply to fiscal years (FY) 1987-1991. The deficit reduction measures in Gramm-Rudman-Hollings would lead to a balanced budget in 1991.

  2. A Fiscal Cliff: The Current U.S. Federal Budget, Potential Cuts, and Impacts on Science Funding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlenbrock, K. M.; Landau, E. A.; Hankin, E. R.

    2012-12-01

    As lawmakers on Capitol Hill face challenges to reach an agreement on how to cut the deficit while growing the economy, scientists must join the discussion and outline the serious impacts cuts to federal science programs will have on our society. Consistent and sustained federal science funding (discretionary spending) is an ever increasing struggle with the rising costs of mandatory spending and decrease in revenues. In 2011 Congress passed the Budget Control Act, which will require automatic across-the-board cuts, known as sequestration, and will take effect on 2 January 2013. Estimated cuts of $1.2 trillion and discretionary spending caps set at Fiscal Year 2012 levels will trigger non-defense program cuts of 9.8% in the first year as reported by the Congressional Research Service. Funding from non-defense program agencies such as NSF, NASA, DOE, NOAA, USGS, and others drive science and technological innovation, support public safety, create jobs, educate generations of scientists, stimulate the economy, protect our environment, and enrich lives. With non-defense discretionary programs representing less than one-fifth of the federal budget, severe cuts to these programs will not alleviate our deficit, but instead restrict our growth.

  3. CAUT Analysis of Federal Budget 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadian Association of University Teachers, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The 2012 federal Budget marks the beginning of a painful and unnecessary fiscal retrenchment. Despite boasting one of the lowest debt-to-GDP ratios amongst industrialized countries, the Conservative government is pressing ahead with deep cuts of more than $5 billion across departmental budgets by 2014-15. For post-secondary education and research,…

  4. CAUT Analysis of Federal Budget 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadian Association of University Teachers, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The 2013 federal Budget was delivered ironically the same day as the Parliamentary Budget Officer was in court seeking more information about the impact of the government's $5.2 billion in spending cuts announced last year. The lack of budgetary transparency and accountability has become a hallmark of the Conservative government. Anyone expecting…

  5. Public Budget Database - Budget Authority and offsetting receipts 1976-Current

    Data.gov (United States)

    Executive Office of the President — This file contains historical budget authority and offsetting receipts for 1976 through the current budget year, as well as four years of projections. It can be used...

  6. Research and Development in the Federal Budget, FY 1977.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapley, Willis H.

    Described is the federal government's budgeting process for allocating resources to research and development (R&D). The report includes: an overview of R&D in context of the total budget, a review of R&D budget data, identification of recurring issues and issues concerning the analysis of R&D budgets, an analysis of the FY 1977 budget, and a…

  7. Research and Development in the Federal Budget, FY 1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapley, Willis H.; And Others

    The federal government's budgeting process for allocating resources to research and development (R&D) is described. The report includes: (1) a review of the genesis of the FY 1978 budget; (2) a brief look at the overall budgets for FY 1978; (3) a description of the policies underlying the R&D budgets for FY 1978; (4) a discussion of the future…

  8. Public Budget Database - Governmental receipts 1962-Current

    Data.gov (United States)

    Executive Office of the President — This file contains governmental receipts for 1962 through the current budget year, as well as four years of projections. It can be used to reproduce many of the...

  9. Contemporary Social Work: an Analysis based on the federal budget

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Janaina Albuquerque de Camargo Schmidt; Mossicléía Mendes da Silva

    2015-01-01

      This study presents a critical reflection about Social Assistance policy, based on considerations about funds allocated to this policy in the federal budget highlighting the years of 2005, a landmark...

  10. [Congressional amendments to the Brazilian Federal health budget].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Tatiana Wargas de Faria; Machado, Cristiani Vieira; Lima, Luciana Dias de; Garcia, Marcia; Andrade, Carla Lourenço Tavares de; Gerassi, Camila Duarte

    2012-12-01

    The public budget in Brazil has undergone significant changes since enactment of the 1988 Federal Constitution. Mechanisms for integration of planning activities and budget execution have been created, and Legislative participation in budgeting has increased. Congressional amendments appeared in this context. The article discusses the participation of Congressional amendments in the Federal health budget from 1997 to 2006, combining elements for discussion of funding mechanisms and health planning. Such amendments played a significant role in the budget process, accounting for over half of health funds in some years. The North was the region of Brazil that received most resources resulting from Congressional amendments, suggesting the need for further studies on the relationship between the amendments' enforcement and political party coalitions. The article concludes that the amendments cannot be understood solely as a funding mechanism, but mainly as a political instrument, and that they are not necessarily subject to health planning logic.

  11. FY 1987 Federal Budget Proposal: Mixed outlook for geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    A new emphasis on “global geosciences” and a new start for the Ocean Topography Experiment (TOPEX) were among the highlights for geophysics in the federal budget for fiscal year (FY) 1987 that the Reagan administration submitted to Congress on February 5, 1986. Budget increases planned for the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), however, contrasted with cuts planned for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).Under the proposed budget, funding for research and development (R&D) would increase significantly in FY 1987, rising 16.9% over the funding that will remain in the FY 1986 budget after March 1, 1986. On that date, cuts in the FY 1986 budget will take effect under the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985, better known as Gramm-Rudman-Hollings (Eos, January 28, 1986, p. 41). Although that law was recently found unconstitutional by a special federal judicial panel, their ruling will not go into effect unless and until it is upheld by the Supreme Court, so the March 1 cuts are expected to go forward as planned. (If the Supreme Court hears the appeal, they will probably rule before early July, according to The Washington Post.) Under Gramm-Rudman-Hollings, the FY 1986 budgets of non-defense programs not protected in the law's provisions will be cut by 4.3%. Unprotected defense programs will be cut by close to 5%.

  12. Analyzing Content about the Federal Budget, National Debt, and Budget Deficit in High School and College-Level Economics Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marri, Anand R.; Gaudelli, William; Cohen, Aviv; Siegel, Brad; Wylie, Scott; Crocco, Margaret S.; Grolnick, Maureen

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to identify content on the federal budget, national debt, and budget deficit in the 12 most commonly used high school and college-level economics textbooks. Our systematic review of these sources leads to two key findings: (1) Textbooks are similar in how they represent fiscal policy yet treat the federal budget, deficit, and…

  13. Analyzing Social Issues Related to Teaching about the Federal Budget, Federal Debt, and Budget Deficit in Fifty State High School Social Studies Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marri, Anand R.; Crocco, Margaret S.; Shuttleworth, Jay; Gaudelli, William; Grolnick, Maureen

    2012-01-01

    This study of all fifty state, high school social studies curriculum standards found a lack of attention in the vast majority of state standards to the federal budget, federal debt, and budget deficit, topics of significant concern. These concepts are important to teaching about economics in the United States since they lie at the center of…

  14. Federalism in Pakistan, Current Developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razia Musarrat

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of this study is to elaborate the political issues and challenges faces by the federation of Pakistan during and after the Gen. Pervez Musharraf government. In this paper effort is made to discuss those issues on the biases of which politics of federalism started in the country. Pinching problems that caused disintegration to Pakistan are also discussed. Those issues are also discussed in details which are a constant threat to the “new federation of Pakistan”. Authors also focus on the 2008 elections and its consequences on Pakistan politics. All the results of this research are proved via review of the previous literature. Researchers have proved that as Pakistan has a diversified culture so federalism is best suited for its political structure. Researchers have also discussed few suggestive solutions for better bureaucracy.

  15. SHADOW PROCESSES INSTATE BUDGET: CURRENT CONDITION AND DETERMINING FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Varnalii

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The most significant factors that move state budget into the shadow are determined. Current condition of shadow processes in state budget is highlighted. The paper also provides an analysis of relationship between political processes and shadow economy in public sector of Ukraine.

  16. Influence of the Participatory Budgeting on the Infrastructural Development of the Territories in the Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurkan, Marina V.; Sotskova, Svetlana I.; Aksinina, Olga S.; Lyubarskaya, Maria A.; Tkacheva, Oksana N.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the investigated problem is caused by the need for the advancing of participatory budgeting practice in the Russian Federation. Due to insufficient development of theoretical, scientific, and methodological aspects of the participatory budgeting, very few territories in the Russian Federation use this tool effectively. The most…

  17. Public Budget Database - Outlays and offsetting receipts 1962-Current

    Data.gov (United States)

    Executive Office of the President — This file contains historical outlays and offsetting receipts for 1962 through the current budget year, as well as four years of projections. It can be used to...

  18. State Budgets and Federal Stimulus: A First Look

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karolak, Eric

    2009-01-01

    U.S. has slipped into a recession greater and deeper than anyone expected. At least 47 states are grappling with budget shortfalls, and 46 states already anticipate problems into 2010 and 2011. State legislatures have the daunting task of balancing budgets as revenues drop and the need for services increases. Whether one participates in a child…

  19. 75 FR 32982 - Notice of Intent To Request Extension From the Office of Management and Budget of a Currently...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Intent To Request Extension From the Office of Management and... Airmen for the Operation of Light-Sport Aircraft AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... request ] the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) to approve a current information collection. This...

  20. Metaphorical Accounting: How Framing the Federal Budget Like a Household's Affects Voting Intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibodeau, Paul H; Flusberg, Stephen J

    2017-01-31

    Political discourse is saturated with metaphor, but evidence for the persuasive power of this language has been hard to come by. We addressed this issue by investigating whether voting intentions were affected by implicit mappings suggested by a metaphorically framed message, drawing on a real-world example of political rhetoric about the federal budget. In the first experiment, the federal budget was framed as similar to or different from a household budget, though the information participants received was identical in both conditions. When the federal budget was described as similar to a household's, people considered the personal finances of a presidential candidate more relevant-a finding we replicated in a larger, pre-registered study. In a follow-up experiment, we presented participants with a more explicit rhetorical argument and found a similar effect, moderated by political affiliation. These studies illuminate how metaphorical comparison affects cognition for important real-world issues, sometimes in unintended ways.

  1. Social Security: The Trust Fund Reserve Accumulation, the Economy, and the Federal Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-19

    Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985, commonly called the Gramm- Rudman-Hollings ( GRH ) law. Current GRH targets are set to...Total GRH Budget Deflt GRH Target [ Amount of Social Security Trust Fund Surplus Source: Congressional Budget Office, January 4, 1989. with other major...Restructuring the GRH targets, which now focus only on reduc- ing the total deficit (including the social security surpluses) would sup- port the goal of

  2. Problems and Specific Features of Sub-Federal Budgets Execution in 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ivanovna Povarova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Last year has been marked by worrying trends in the development of a budgetary crisis in Russian regions; the crisis became apparent in 2013, when regional authorities had to get into huge debts in order to provide finances for the social obligations in the framework of the presidential decrees of May 7, 2012. The budget process in 2015 was characterized by expanding negative trends in those regions that had previously been the engines of economic growth and budget donors, which contradicts the regional development strategy. The crisis response measures consist in a large-scale optimization of expenses. Despite an attempt undertaken by the Government to replace commercial borrowings with budget loans, there are still no prospects for solving the debt issue. On the contrary, expert forecasts predict a doubling of the debt stock in regions by the end of 2017. Cuts in the expenditures on human capital development should be considered as a new negative trend, naturally resulting in the deterioration of material well-being of Russians, which was expressed in the decline in their real incomes and raising poverty level. It seems that on the eve of the RF State Duma elections the social policy of the authorities ceases to be socially oriented. Under the circumstances of an aggravating budget crisis, the Government is not increasing unrepayable financial aid (it did increase it in 2009; instead, it is pursuing the opposite policy and estranges itself from providing support to regions. Moreover, the Cabinet of Ministers does not openly wish to carry out a just division of powers and obligations of governmental units, but turns it into a mechanism for financing federal budget deficit by shifting state obligations onto the regions. The paper presents the results of the analysis of sub-federal budgets execution in 2015. The main goal was to identify the features of budget process and trends in the dynamics of budget parameters. The main conclusion is that

  3. U.S. Geological Survey Would Fare Well in Proposed Federal Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-02-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is among the U.S. federal science agencies that would see significant funding increases if Congress approves the Obama administration's proposed budget for fiscal year (FY) 2011. The FY 2011 budget request would provide USGS with $1.13 billion, an increase of $21.6 million, or 1.9%, above the FY 2010 enacted level. “In a time of budget austerity, to have the budget for a science agency like the USGS actually be at a level above 2010—and 2010 was a pretty good budget year for the USGS—is indeed a very good sign,” USGS director Marcia McNutt said at a 1 February budget briefing. “What we are seeing in the USGS budget is the reflection from both the president and the secretary [of the Department of the Interior, of which USGS is part] of their commitment that the problems that the nation is facing right now are problems to which science can help us find an answer,” she said.

  4. How Changes in Immigration Policy Might Affect the Federal Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Kossoudji and Deborah A. Cobb-Clark, “Coming Out of the Shadows : Learning About Legal Status and Wages From the Legalized Population,” Journal of Labor...demographic makeup of that population. Under current law, permanent residents who meet program requirements are generally eligible to receive benefits...small increase in the number of Medicare 45. See, for example, Sherrie A. Kossoudji and Deborah A. Cobb- Clark, “Coming Out of the Shadows : Learning

  5. The first federal budget under Prime Minister Justin Trudeau: Addressing social determinants of health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruckert, Arne; Labonté, Ronald

    2016-08-15

    A challenging budget environment during the Harper years has meant that crucial investments in the social determinants of health (SDHs) have increasingly been neglected. The tabling of what is widely considered a more progressive budget with expansionary fiscal elements under the new Prime Minister, Justin Trudeau, raises the question as to what extent this budget invests in policy areas that are crucial for achieving a more equitable distribution in the social determinants of health, as promised in the Liberal party platform. In this commentary, we argue that the first Liberal budget represents a step in the right direction, but that this first step needs to be followed up with a sustained commitment to address the pervasive (and unfair) social inequalities that are the root cause of persistent health inequities in Canada. We conclude that the first Trudeau budget, while moving in the right direction, does not fully embody the sustained policy changes needed to effectively address SDHs, including a more expansive role for the federal government in the redistribution of income and wealth.

  6. Developing social capital in 'learning borderlands': Has the federal government's budget delivered for low-paid Australian workers?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Keating, Maree

    2012-01-01

    The 2011 Australian federal budget confirmed generous funding for language, literacy and numeracy programs as well as skills recognition and training for older workers as part of a strategy to upgrade workforce skills...

  7. Federal NOx Budget Trading Program and CAIR NOx and SO2 Trading Programs (40 CFR Part 97)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This part establishes general provisions and the applicability, permitting, allowance, excess emissions, monitoring, and opt-in provisions for the federal NOx Budget Trading Program as a means of mitigating interstate transport of ozone and nitrogen oxides

  8. LOCAL BUDGETS UNDER CURRENT DECENTRALIZATION: UKRAINE AND FOREIGN EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Cheberyako

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the major trends and issues of development of local budgets in Ukraine. A study of the essence of fiscal decentralization as one of the components of the management, aimed at reducing the dependence of local governments from the central government with regard to foreign experience. Particular attention is paid to local budgets under decentralization of own and delegated financial powers. The theoretical principles of fiscal decentralization and its proven impact on the socio-economic development. Studied the European countries model of local budgets. The features of formation of revenues of local budgets under decentralization. The role in shaping tax revenues of local budgets in foreign countries and Ukraine. The analysis of state policy of financial support for regional development in Ukraine. The structure of tax revenue in the context of changes in the budget and tax legislation in a decentralized tax powers. Systematized features of fiscal decentralization in Ukraine. Problems and grounded main ways of optimizing the formation of local budgets in a decentralized tax powers. Formed selection of areas targeted as ways to increase economic and financial independence of regions of Ukraine.

  9. [Current ascariasis situation in the Russian Federation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darchenkova, N N; Romanenko, N A; Chernyshenko, A I

    2006-01-01

    In the Russian Federation (RF), ascariasis remains to be the most common geohelminthiasis, in children in particular. With its overall reduction, the prevalence of ascariasis is very uneven on the RF territory. In the past 15 years, from 1991 to 2004, there was a steady-state decrease in the incidence of ascariasis from 79.5 to 46.0 per 100,000. Its incidence rates remained higher than the average Russian ones in 33 RF subjects and lower than those in 48 subjects and began reducing in 8 subjects in the past 4 years. Of the 33 RF subjects wherein the incidence rates were constantly greater than the average Russian ones, 27 subjects are located in the natural background-favorable areas. In the past 15 years, there was an increase in the impact of socioeconomic factors on the higher incidence of ascariasis: the population's migration; the delivery and transport of Ascaris egg-contaminated greens, vegetables, berries; the development of hothouse gardening, and, as a result, the occurrence of ascariasis in the northern areas of the country, as well as the use of discharged waters for soil fertilization to grow crops. The territory of Russia was first epidemiologically districted in the context of ascariasis, by taking into account the natural background and socioeconomic factors. The area of ascariasis is on the rise. In all RF subjects, public health and social security bodies should constantly keep in mind the problem in ascariasis control and prevention.

  10. Strategies for Allocation of the US Federal Budget: Military and Innovative Dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glukhova Darya A.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to define the conceptual framework and features of priority directions in redistribution of the US federal funds. This subject is very relevant because it discloses a system of financing and allocations of the most powerful state in the world in many aspects. The article describes the structure of government funding of the national military sector and directions of the modernization of the US military-industrial complex. It has been determined that in the global expansion of military actions the USA in no case remain aloof from the given events. Manufacturing the US military products plays a key role in the defense industry not only of the country itself but also the international community as a whole. For Ukraine, with the complications in its military-political situation, the cooperation with the United States and inclusion of the financial assistance to our country in its federal budget are very important. The mentioned directions for allocating the received funds in the amount of $ 300 mln by the Ukrainian government confirm the support by the American state of our military equipment and modernization of the national defense industry

  11. Supporting Education... Building Canada: Child Poverty and Schools. Federal Budget 2009. Summary/Implications for Teachers and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadian Teachers' Federation (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    In November The Canadian Teachers' Federation (CTF), as part of the pre-budget consultation process, made a submission to the House of Commons Standing Committee on Finance. Entitled "Supporting Education... Building Canada: Child Poverty and Schools" the brief outlined why teachers saw child poverty as such an important issue to be…

  12. Consequences of the Budget Deficit in the Current Crisis in Romania. Implications on the Labor Market

    OpenAIRE

    Molănescu, Gabriela; Mirela Ionela ACELEANU

    2011-01-01

    In the current economic activity conditions, in which the need of financial resources is usually higher than the existing funds, the elaborations of budgets at any level is one of the primary issues, particularly as regards the principle of budgetary balance.     Approaches regarding sizing budgets deficits, means of financing and particularly sizing public debt get a series of touches of precise nature for different economies. Actual economic, financial, social...

  13. Comment on 'Current Budget of the Atmospheric Electric Global Circuit'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Kevin T.; Blakeslee, Richard J.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, three major issues relevant to Kasemir's new model will be addressed. The first concerns Kasemir's assertion that there are significant differences between the potentials associated with the new model and the conventional model. A recalculation of these potentials reveals that both models provide equivalent results for the potential difference between the Earth and ionosphere. The second issue to be addressed is Kasemir's assertion that discrepancies in the electric potentials associated with both models can be attributed to modeling the Earth as a sphere, instead of as a planar surface. A simple analytical comparison will demonstrate that differences in the equations for the potentials of the atmosphere derived with a spherical and a planar Earth are negligible for applications to global current flow. Finally, the third issue to be discussed is Kasemir's claim that numerous aspects of the conventional model are incorrect, including the role of the ionosphere in global current flow as well as the significance of cloud-to-ground lightning in supplying charge to the global circuit. In order to refute these misconceptions, it will be shown that these aspects related to the flow of charge in the atmosphere are accurately described by the conventional model of the global circuit.

  14. As emendas parlamentares no orçamento federal da saúde Congressional amendments to the Brazilian Federal health budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Wargas de Faria Baptista

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O orçamento público brasileiro passou por mudanças na Constituição Federal de 1988. Instituíram-se mecanismos para integração das atividades de planejamento e orçamento, e definiram-se formas de participação do Poder Legislativo no processo orçamentário. As emendas parlamentares surgem nesse contexto. O artigo discute a participação das emendas no orçamento federal da saúde no período de 1997 a 2006, reunindo elementos para a análise dos mecanismos de financiamento e planejamento setorial. Verificou-se uma participação significativa das emendas no período, reunindo mais da metade dos recursos de investimento em alguns anos. A Região Norte destaca-se pelo aporte de recursos, indicando a necessidade de estudos que aprofundem a relação entre destino de emendas e coalizões político-partidárias. Conclui-se que as emendas não podem ser compreendidas apenas como um mecanismo de financiamento, mas também como um mecanismo da política, não estando submetidas obrigatoriamente à lógica do planejamento, o que reforça a necessidade de maior transparência do poder público na execução orçamentária.The public budget in Brazil has undergone significant changes since enactment of the 1988 Federal Constitution. Mechanisms for integration of planning activities and budget execution have been created, and Legislative participation in budgeting has increased. Congressional amendments appeared in this context. The article discusses the participation of Congressional amendments in the Federal health budget from 1997 to 2006, combining elements for discussion of funding mechanisms and health planning. Such amendments played a significant role in the budget process, accounting for over half of health funds in some years. The North was the region of Brazil that received most resources resulting from Congressional amendments, suggesting the need for further studies on the relationship between the amendments' enforcement and

  15. R&D in the Federal Budget: FY 1979, R&D, Industry, and the Economy. Research & Development, AAAS Report III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapley, Willis H.; Phillips, Don I.

    The federal government's budgeting process for allocating resources to research and development (R&D) is described. The report includes: (1) a review of the FY 1979 R&D budget; (2) a statistical overview of the budget and a critique of the administration's policies on R&D; (3) a general picture of R&D in industry; and (4) a discussion of some of…

  16. 40 CFR 93.161 - Conformity evaluation for Federal installations with facility-wide emission budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conformity evaluation for Federal... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DETERMINING CONFORMITY OF FEDERAL ACTIONS TO STATE OR FEDERAL IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Determining Conformity of General Federal Actions to State or...

  17. Projected Benefits of Federal Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Programs - FY 2008 Budget Request

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-03-01

    This document summarizes the results of the benefits analysis of EERE's programs, as described in the FY 2008 Budget Request. EERE estimates benefits for its overall portfolio and for each of its nine Research, Development, Demonstration, and Deployment (RD3) programs. Benefits for the FY 2008 budget request are estimated for the midterm (2008-2030) and long term (2030-2050).

  18. Consequences of the Budget Deficit in the Current Crisis in Romania. Implications on the Labor Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela MOLĂNESCU

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the current economic activity conditions, in which the need of financial resources is usually higher than the existing funds, the elaborations of budgets at any level is one of the primary issues, particularly as regards the principle of budgetary balance. Approaches regarding sizing budgets deficits, means of financing and particularly sizing public debt get a series of touches of precise nature for different economies. Actual economic, financial, social and administrative conditions put up a series of problems which impose an extremely serious approach of the potential adverse impact by sizing of budget deficits and public debt over the real possibilities of noninflationary financing. In Romania, in the highly complex framework in which the economic activity takes place, in the attempt to show the place held by the budget deficit, a special role is assigned to determine the share of public financial deficit in the consolidated budget revenue and expenditure. Currently, knowledge and concern for reducing the budget deficit are still of great importance, especially as Romania is facing great difficulties in economic development. Amid deepening structural crisis phenomena, increasing budget deficits financed over a non-inflationary limits comes as an additional factor that contributes to imbalances of the economy. In addition, where budgetary expenditures are targeted to satisfy, primary, the redistribution function and to state subsidies, because of the lack of a real multiplier coefficient, the state budget deficit worsens. Influences such as introducing economic disturbance in the mechanisms which cause them to increase budget deficits can be summarized and grouped into two broad categories: economic influences and psychological influences. Regarding economic influences, we can say that they act strongly and strictly determined by how meanings used to cover budget deficit. The modalities used are subject to an analysis by direct or indirect

  19. Is it time to make kids a higher budget priority?

    OpenAIRE

    Steuerle, C. Eugene

    2014-01-01

    The children’s share of the federal budget is scheduled to decline from 10% of the federal budget in 2013 to 8% in 2024, despite 1.4 trillion in new annual government spending. Spending on children’s education, tax provisions, income security, and nutrition will decline, and the only federal expenditures on children’s health will increase. C. Eugene Steuerle argues that the next decade presents the opportunity to invest in children by carefully reassessing our current budget priorities.

  20. Federal Energy Management Program FY 2017 Budget At-A-Glance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-03-01

    With more than 350,000 buildings and 600,000 vehicles, the federal government is America’s largest single energy consumer. There is a tremendous opportunity and responsibility to lead by example in cutting energy waste and advancing America’s clean energy future. The progress the federal government has made to date, through public-private partnerships and successful approaches, should be leveraged to show leadership to the nation and continue to make significant contributions to our national energy and environmental goals.

  1. Late Budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Asger Lau; Lassen, David Dreyer; Nielsen, Lasse Holbøll Westh

    The budget forms the legal basis of government spending. If a budget is not in place at the beginning of the fiscal year, planning as well as current spending are jeopardized and government shutdown may result. This paper develops a continuous-time war-of-attrition model of budgeting...... in a presidential style-democracy to explain the duration of budget negotiations. We build our model around budget baselines as reference points for loss averse negotiators. We derive three testable hypotheses: there are more late budgets, and they are more late, when fiscal circumstances change; when such changes...... are negative rather than positive; and when there is divided government. We test the hypotheses of the model using a unique data set of late budgets for US state governments, based on dates of budget approval collected from news reports and a survey of state budget o¢ cers for the period 1988...

  2. Late Budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Asger Lau; Lassen, David Dreyer; Nielsen, Lasse Holbøll Westh

    are negative rather than positive; and when there is divided government. We test the hypotheses of the model using a unique data set of late budgets for US state governments, based on dates of budget approval collected from news reports and a survey of state budget o¢ cers for the period 1988......The budget forms the legal basis of government spending. If a budget is not in place at the beginning of the fiscal year, planning as well as current spending are jeopardized and government shutdown may result. This paper develops a continuous-time war-of-attrition model of budgeting...... in a presidential style-democracy to explain the duration of budget negotiations. We build our model around budget baselines as reference points for loss averse negotiators. We derive three testable hypotheses: there are more late budgets, and they are more late, when fiscal circumstances change; when such changes...

  3. Evolving the policy framework: Budget strategies, legislative authorities, and management strategies to facilitate federal forest adaptation and collaborative partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher Topik; Paige Lewis

    2014-01-01

    Some of the greatest challenges to the management of federal forests in the Unites States result from inadequate public and private investment in proactive forest restoration projects. This situation has been exacerbated by the growing fiscal and logistical demands of wildfire suppression activities, which currently consume at least 40 percent of the U.S. Forest...

  4. Control as a function of treasury maintenance of state budget of Ukraine: current state and directions of improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталія Іванівна Сушко

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available It is analyzed the current control system of the Treasury bodies in the treasury maintenance process of state budget by revenue and expenditure. The control powers of Treasury bodies at the stage of activity estimation of the chief accountants of budget entities are considered. It is proposed the model of financial control that carried out by Treasury bodies. The directions of improvement of internal control, taking into account the best international practices, are defined

  5. [Comment on “Federal funding at a time of budget austerity”] Report overlooks National Labs' integral role in research and training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toran, Laura

    Should we emphasize universities over national laboratories in times of limited federal science funding? Frank Press raised this question in his March 26, 1996, Eos article on “Federal Funding at a Time of Budget Austerity,” which summarized a report by the committee of the National Academies of Sciences and Engineering. Although he states that in the report “The unique and complementary roles of universities and federal laboratories are spelled out clearly,” he goes on to say “the committee proposed that universities be given credit for combining research and training.”

  6. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Europe & Latin America, Brazil: Selections from the 1987 Federal S&T Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-24

    Federal University of Santa Catarina 74 . Federal University of Santa Maria 74 . Federal Rural University of Pernambuco 75 . Federal Rural...Federal University of Pernambuco 5,645 Activities run by Federal University of Santa Catarina 107,350 Activities run by Federal University...Grande do Sul 1,800 Activities run by Federal University of Rio de Janeiro 84,292 Activities run by Federal University of Santa Catarina

  7. Closing the Mass Budget between Bering Strait and the Arctic Basin: The Chukchi Slope Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corlett, W. B.; Pickart, R. S.

    2016-02-01

    After passing through Bering Strait, Pacific-origin water flows across the Chukchi Sea in different branches that ultimately exit the shelf and provide heat, freshwater, and nutrients to the interior basin. It is important, therefore, to understand where and by what mechanisms the water is fluxed offshore. We have compiled all known shipboard hydrographic sections occupied across the Chukchi shelfbreak and slope that include direct velocity measurements (shipboard ADCP or lowered ADCP). In all, there are 46 sections occupied during the months of May-October from 2002 to 2014, spanning the region from Barrow Canyon to approximately 168°W. The data reveal the presence of a surface-intensified, westward-flowing current over the continental slope, situated offshore of the eastward-flowing shelfbreak jet. We call this feature the Chukchi slope current, which exists under all wind conditions. Using these data plus previously published transport values in Bering Strait and the Beaufort shelfbreak jet, we attempt to close the mass budget of the Chukchi shelf. The mean heat transport of the Chukchi slope current during the summer months is estimated, which has the potential to melt a substantial amount of pack-ice in the Canada Basin and influence the geographical distribution of the ice melt.

  8. Developing Social Capital In ‘Learning Borderlands’: Has the Federal Government's budget delivered for low-paid Australian workers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maree Keating

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The 2011 Australian federal budget confirmed generous funding for language, literacy and numeracy programs as well as skills recognition and training for older workers as part of a strategy to upgrade workforce skills. In considering possible responses to the announcement, many Australian adult education theorists and practitioners weighed up the contexts in which such programs could build the resources and increase the options of vulnerable workers. One such group of workers, retrenched factory workers, have benefitted from participation in union-run, integrated post-retrenchment programs, which have incorporated access to language, literacy and numeracy as well as vocational education and training programs. Such programs can build on the existing social capital amongst close-knit groups of workers as they develop the confidence to transform their work identities. This article draws on results from a study with a group of retrenched textile workers who accessed broad-based post-retrenchment support and subsequently participated in a high number of vocational education and training (VET courses before finding ongoing employment. The study suggests that VET participation plays a limited role in broadening the employment opportunities for retrenched factory workers who move into low-paid occupations. Whilst VET participation alongside other factors supported entry into some occupations, it played no role in supporting most workers in their transitions into non-manufacturing jobs.

  9. Budgeted Revenues and Expenditures in Public School Systems: Current Status and Trends, Update 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Educational Research Service, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This "ERS Research Snapshot" provides answers to some of the key questions often asked by education leaders, policy makers, other school employees, and community members about budgeted revenues and expenditures within U.S. public school systems: (1) Why is information about school district budgets important?; (2) How were school district…

  10. The Effects of the Current Global Economic and Financial Crisis on the EU Budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina DORNEAN

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the main effects of the current global financial and economic crisis on the European Union budget and the measures that were taken in order to support the EU member states with the purpose of limiting and counteracting its effects. The focus will be on the budgetary expenditure and on the new Treaty on Stability, Coordination and Governance. For this purpose, we developed a regression model using the Least Square method with three significant variables: a dependent variable – EU budgetary expenditure and two independent variables – budgetary deficit and unemployment rate of member states. According to our analysis, the crisis determined the increase of the EU budgetary expenditure, which was due especially to the increase of the budgetary deficit and rising unemployment in the EU member states. Our findings suggested that the budgetary deficit and the unemployment rate had a highly significant influence on community expenditure growth during the crisis, while the GDP growth and the public debt did not have any significance for the community expenditure growth.

  11. RESEARCH OF THE TERM “ORGANIZATION OF BUDGET EXECUTION” IN THE CONTEXT OF ENFORCEMENT PRACTICE IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya V. Fedotova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The economic development of the country largely depends on the quality of the organization of budget execution at each level of the Russian Federation’s budget system. In turn, a precise and clear understanding of the economic sense, which concluded in the term “organization of budget execution”, is an integral part of improving the quality of the organization of budget execution itself. The historical aspect of the origin and formation of the term’s definition is quite a long process, which has not completed at this moment. The author uses a comprehensive approach to the formation of term “organization of budget execution” by studying the components of the notion as elements of the research subject. Formation of basic concept of the term “budget” began in the early years of the 19th century, in Russia, however, the term has received particular development from the middle of the 19th century. The article presents the evolution of approaches of Russian and foreign scientists-economists to the terms “budget” and “budget execution”. At the same time, despite the widespread use of the term “organization of budget execution”, the question of formulating definition remains poorly understood in the scientific community. The research involves the methods of comparison, analysis, synthesis and induction method. Through the prism of the budget execution processes by public authorities and local government, the author formulated the the definition of the studied term.

  12. 浅谈俄罗斯联邦的建设工程预算%Shallow discussion on construction project budget of Russian Federation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张韧

    2011-01-01

    简要介绍了俄罗斯预算规范化发展的历史及现状,分别阐述了俄罗斯联邦固定价格预算和单价预算的特点及实施要点,以指导进入俄罗斯的中国建筑施工企业熟练掌握以上两种预算方法。%With a brief introduction on the budget normalization development history and status of Russian Federation,it respectively describes features and implementation points of fixed price budget and unit price budge,with a view to guide Chinese construction en

  13. EU budget reform in the context of the current economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionela POPA

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The European Union regarded as an economic reenhancement force in Europe and in the world must fund the needs of 500 million citizens. To do that, it should possess an innovative budget adjusted to the new facts of globalization meant to meet present challenges and create various opportunities for the future.In order to improve budgetary procedures, the need to reform the community bugdet has emerged, namely to change the way it is designed and spent. The manner of setting and distributing the community budget has been changed several times whenever the context in member states has demanded. Thus, European institutions concluded in 1988 interinstitutional agreements which have been covering budgetary process and budget allocation ever since. Agreements are concluded for several years and bear the name of “financial prospects”. Other two agreements have been made (during 2007-2013 and, respectively, 2014- 2020 in compliance with Delors I and Delors II Packages.The present paper focuses on approaching the progress of budgetary indicators in the context of the multiannual financial framework where the European Union budget is set.

  14. Modelling the global tropospheric ozone budget: exploring the variability in current models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Wild

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available What are the largest uncertainties in modelling ozone in the troposphere, and how do they affect the calculated ozone budget? Published chemistry-transport model studies of tropospheric ozone differ significantly in their conclusions regarding the importance of the key processes controlling the ozone budget: influx from the stratosphere, chemical processing and surface deposition. This study surveys ozone budgets from previous studies and demonstrates that about two thirds of the increase in ozone production seen between early assessments and more recent model intercomparisons can be accounted for by increased precursor emissions. Model studies using recent estimates of emissions compare better with ozonesonde measurements than studies using older data, and the tropospheric burden of ozone is closer to that derived here from measurement climatologies, 335±10 Tg. However, differences between individual model studies remain large and cannot be explained by surface precursor emissions alone; cross-tropopause transport, wet and dry deposition, humidity, and lightning make large contributions to the differences seen between models. The importance of these processes is examined here using a chemistry-transport model to investigate the sensitivity of the calculated ozone budget to different assumptions about emissions, physical processes, meteorology and model resolution. The budget is particularly sensitive to the magnitude and location of lightning NOx emissions, which remain poorly constrained; the 3–8 TgN/yr range in recent model studies may account for a 10% difference in tropospheric ozone burden and a 1.4 year difference in CH4 lifetime. Differences in humidity and dry deposition account for some of the variability in ozone abundance and loss seen in previous studies, with smaller contributions from wet deposition and stratospheric influx. At coarse model resolutions stratospheric influx is systematically overestimated

  15. The SEDIBUD (Sediment Budgets in Cold Environments) Programme: Current activities and future key tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beylich, A. A.; Lamoureux, S. F.; Decaulne, A.

    2012-04-01

    Projected climate change in cold regions is expected to alter melt season duration and intensity, along with the number of extreme rainfall events, total annual precipitation and the balance between snowfall and rainfall. Similarly, changes to the thermal balance are expected to reduce the extent of permafrost and seasonal ground frost and increase active layer depths. These effects will undoubtedly change surface environments in cold regions and alter the fluxes of sediments, nutrients and solutes, but the absence of quantitative data and coordinated process monitoring and analysis to understand the sensitivity of the Earth surface environment is acute in cold climate environments. The International Association of Geomorphologists (I.A.G./A.I.G.)SEDIBUD (Sediment Budgets in Cold Environments) Programme was formed in 2005 to address this existing key knowledge gap. SEDIBUD currently has about 400 members worldwide and the Steering Committee of this international programme is composed of ten scientists from eight different countries: Achim A. Beylich (Chair) (Norway), Armelle Decaulne (Secretary) (France), John C. Dixon (USA), Scott F. Lamoureux (Vice-Chair) (Canada), John F. Orwin (Canada), Jan-Christoph Otto (Austria), Irina Overeem (USA), Thorsteinn Saemundsson (Iceland), Jeff Warburton (UK), Zbigniew Zwolinski (Poland). The central research question of this global group of scientists is to: Assess and model the contemporary sedimentary fluxes in cold climates, with emphasis on both particulate and dissolved components. Initially formed as European Science Foundation (ESF) Network SEDIFLUX (2004-2006), SEDIBUD has further expanded to a global group of researchers with field research sites located in polar and alpine regions in the northern and southern hemisphere. Research carried out at each of the close to 50 defined SEDIBUD key test sites varies by programme, logistics and available resources, but typically represent interdisciplinary collaborations of

  16. 76 FR 28045 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Announcement of Office of Management and Budget...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... Office of Management and Budget Approval; Current Good Manufacturing Practice in Manufacturing, Packaging... entitled ``Current Good Manufacturing Practice in Manufacturing, Packaging, Labeling, or Holding Operations.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In the Federal Register of September 27, 2010 (75 FR 59266), the Agency...

  17. Storm- Time Dynamics of Ring Current Protons: Implications for the Long-Term Energy Budget in the Inner Magnetosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkioulidou, M.; Ukhorskiy, A. Y.; Mitchell, D. G.; Lanzerotti, L. J.

    2015-12-01

    The ring current energy budget plays a key role in the global electrodynamics of Earth's space environment. Pressure gradients developed in the inner magnetosphere can shield the near-Earth region from solar wind-induced electric fields. The distortion of Earth's magnetic field due to the ring current affects the dynamics of particles contributing both to the ring current and radiation belts. Therefore, understanding the long-term evolution of the inner magnetosphere energy content is essential. We have investigated the evolution of ring current proton pressure (7 - 600 keV) in the inner magnetosphere based on data from the Radiation Belt Storm Probes Ion Composition Experiment (RBSPICE) instrument aboard Van Allen Probe B throughout the year 2013. We find that although the low-energy component of the protons (governed by convective timescales and is very well correlated with the Dst index, the high-energy component (>100 keV) varies on much longer timescales and shows either no or anti-correlation with the Dst index. Interestingly, the contributions of the high- and low-energy protons to the total energy content are comparable. Our results indicate that the proton dynamics, and as a consequence the total energy budget in the inner magnetosphere (inside geosynchronous orbit), is not strictly controlled by storm-time timescales as those are defined by the Dst index.

  18. Implications of Recent Federal Personal Income Tax Increases for Income Tax Evasion, Tax Revenues, and Budget Deficits

    OpenAIRE

    Boylan, Robert; Cebula, Richard; Foley, Maggie; Izard, Douglass

    2014-01-01

    In 2013, federal personal income tax increases were implemented in the U.S. under provisions of two federal statutes: the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012 and the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010. Based on our analysis of data for the time period 1970-2008, we argue that the incentives to engage in federal personal income tax evasion have been increased as a direct consequence of the public tax-increase policies manifested in these two statutes. To demonstrate this concl...

  19. FEDERAL SUPPORT OF SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY IN THE UNITED STATES: CURRENT EVOLUTION UNDER THE POLITICAL STRUGGLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Istomin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available 2000’s and 2010’s witnessed diminishing margin of the United States in science and technology. Meanwhile, the U.S. remains a clear leader in this fi eld. Major driving force of the country’s success in the second half of the ХХ century remained assertive federal science policy. The article seeks to identify major trends in evolution of the U.S. science policy and the reasons behind relative decline of the level of budget support of the scientifi c research. The author studies evolution of the policies of George Bush and Barack Obama, as well as the views of Democrats and Republicans in the House of Representatives and the Senate. The article also examines the input into the federal policy of the governmental bodies, which are directly responsible for its implementation, as well as non-governmental organizations, which seek to advocate interests of scientists; it studies rising competition between the executive authorities and legislators for the recognition as a major champion of the academic community as well as American Recovery and Reinvestment Act.

  20. Shared Solar. Current Landscape, Market Potential, and the Impact of Federal Securities Regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brockway, Anna M. [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Ulrich, Elaine [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This report provides a high-level overview of the current U.S. shared solar landscape and the impact that a given shared solar program’s structure has on requiring federal securities oversight, as well as an estimate of market potential for U.S. shared solar deployment.

  1. Shared Solar. Current Landscape, Market Potential, and the Impact of Federal Securities Regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, David [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brockway, Anna M. [U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Ulrich, Elaine [U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-04-07

    This report provides a high-level overview of the current U.S. shared solar landscape, the impact that a given shared solar program’s structure has on requiring federal securities oversight, as well as an estimate of market potential for U.S. shared solar deployment.

  2. The Rise of International Relations Programs in the Brazilian Federal Universities: Curriculum Specificities and Current Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Marcos Alan S. V.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this reflection is to study the new international relations (IR) programs introduced by Brazilian federal universities, looking comparatively at their curriculum specificities and current challenges. In recent years, Brazil has seen an increase of IR programs launched in several regions. Since 2003, the Ministry of Education is in the…

  3. Current and Future Carbon Budgets of Tropical Rain Forest: A Cross Scale Analysis. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberbauer, S. F.

    2004-01-16

    The goal of this project was to make a first assessment of the major carbon stocks and fluxes and their climatic determinants in a lowland neotropical rain forest, the La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. Our research design was based on the concurrent use of several of the best available approaches, so that data could be cross-validated. A major focus of our effort was to combine meteorological studies of whole-forest carbon exchange (eddy flux), with parallel independent measurements of key components of the forest carbon budget. The eddy flux system operated from February 1998 to February 2001. To obtain field data that could be scaled up to the landscape level, we monitored carbon stocks, net primary productivity components including tree growth and mortality, litterfall, woody debris production, root biomass, and soil respiration in a series of replicated plots stratified across the major environmental gradients of the forest. A second major focus of this project was on the stocks and changes of carbon in the soil. We used isotope studies and intensive monitoring to investigate soil organic stocks and the climate-driven variation of soil respiration down the soil profile, in a set of six 4m deep soil shafts stratified across the landscape. We measured short term tree growth, climate responses of sap flow, and phenology in a suite of ten canopy trees to develop individual models of tree growth to daytime weather variables.

  4. Reply [to “Comment on ‘Federal funding at a time of budget austerity’”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Press, Frank

    National laboratories are indeed engaged in many educational activities, particularly those with close connections to universities. These activities are especially strong where they are linked to unique facilities or programs, which many are. The NRC report urges greater discipline in assessing their quality and role in education and training, but those institutions that have maintained high quality and that do indeed help educate the next generation about science and technology would fare well under the kind of review proposed. The report urges that federal laboratories focus on mission requirements. It also recommends that federal funding “generally favor” academic institutions. To the extent that some national laboratories function as “academic institutions” in the senses noted in the report, they should not only survive, but prosper. A few clarifications may be useful.

  5. Analysis of Reynolds stress budgets in LES of Langmuir supercells under crosswind currents in a coastal ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada-Martinez, Andres; Zhang, Jie

    2016-11-01

    Langmuir supercells (LSCs) in coastal oceans consist of parallel counter rotating vortices engulfing the water column in unstratified conditions. These cells have been observed in continental shelf regions 15-30 meters deep during the passage of storms. LSCs are aligned roughly in the wind direction and are generated via interaction of the wind-driven shear current and Stokes drift velocity induced by surface gravity waves. LSCs have been determined to be an important contributor to the suspension of sediments and their overall transport across shelves. It has also been shown that tidal forcing distorts and weakens LSCs, inhibiting their potential for sediment suspension. Large-eddy simulations of LSCs in flows driven by a surface wind stress and a constant crosswind pressure gradient (representative of crosswind tidal forcing) have been performed. Although a crosswind tidal current stronger than the wind-driven current is able to break up the LSCs giving rise to smaller scale, weaker Langmuir cells (LCs), analysis of Reynolds shear stress budgets reveals that non-local transport remains significant relative to flow without LCs. This demonstrates the need for a non-local transport term in Reynolds shear stress and turbulent scalar flux closures for coastal flows with LCs. Support from the US National Science Foundation and the Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative is gratefully acknowledged.

  6. Modeling Water and Carbon Budgets in Current and Future Agricultural Land Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewniak, B.; Song, J.; Prell, J.; Kotamarthi, R.; Jacob, R.

    2008-12-01

    Biofuels are a key component of renewable energy mix proposed as a substitute to fossil fuels. Biofuels are suggested as both economical and having potential for reducing atmospheric emissions of carbon from the transportation sector, by building up soil carbon levels when planted on lands where these levels have been reduced by intensive tillage. The purpose of this research is to develop a carbon-nitrogen based crop module (CNC) for the community land model (CLM) and to improve the characterization of the below and above ground carbon sequestration for bioenergy crops. The CNC simulates planting, growing, maturing and harvesting stages for three major crops: maize, soybean and wheat. In addition, dynamic root module is implemented to simulate fine root distribution and development based on relative availability of soil water and nitrogen in the root zone. Coupled CLM-CNC models is used to study crop yields, geographic locations for bioenergy crop production and soil carbon changes. Bioenergy crop cultivation is based on current crop cultivation and future land use change dataset. Soil carbon change has been simulated based on carbon input to the soil from the leaf, stem and root, and carbon emission from soil carbon decomposition. Simulated water and carbon fluxes have been compared with field observations and soil carbon content has been examined under different harvest practices.

  7. 76 FR 68757 - Information Collection Approved by the Office of Management and Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ... COMMISSION Information Collection Approved by the Office of Management and Budget AGENCY: Federal... Office of Management and Budget (OMB) approval for the following public information collections pursuant... collection of information unless it displays a currently valid OMB control number, and no person is...

  8. 76 FR 40908 - Information Collection Approved by the Office of Management and Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-12

    ... COMMISSION Information Collection Approved by the Office of Management and Budget AGENCY: Federal... Management and Budget (OMB) approval for the following public information collection(s) pursuant to the... information unless it displays a currently valid OMB control number, and no person is required to respond to...

  9. Quantifying the erosion effect on current carbon budget of European agricultural soils at high spatial resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugato, Emanuele; Paustian, Keith; Panagos, Panos; Jones, Arwyn; Borrelli, Pasquale

    2016-05-01

    The idea of offsetting anthropogenic CO2 emissions by increasing global soil organic carbon (SOC), as recently proposed by French authorities ahead of COP21 in the 'four per mil' initiative, is notable. However, a high uncertainty still exits on land C balance components. In particular, the role of erosion in the global C cycle is not totally disentangled, leading to disagreement whether this process induces lands to be a source or sink of CO2. To investigate this issue, we coupled soil erosion into a biogeochemistry model, running at 1 km(2) resolution across the agricultural soils of the European Union (EU). Based on data-driven assumptions, the simulation took into account also soil deposition within grid cells and the potential C export to riverine systems, in a way to be conservative in a mass balance. We estimated that 143 of 187 Mha have C erosion rates 0.45 Mg C ha(-1) yr(-1). In comparison with a baseline without erosion, the model suggested an erosion-induced sink of atmospheric C consistent with previous empirical-based studies. Integrating all C fluxes for the EU agricultural soils, we estimated a net C loss or gain of -2.28 and +0.79 Tg yr(-1) of CO2 eq, respectively, depending on the value for the short-term enhancement of soil C mineralization due to soil disruption and displacement/transport with erosion. We concluded that erosion fluxes were in the same order of current carbon gains from improved management. Even if erosion could potentially induce a sink for atmospheric CO2, strong agricultural policies are needed to prevent or reduce soil erosion, in order to maintain soil health and productivity.

  10. 78 FR 23885 - Federal Seed Act Program; Request for Extension and Revision of a Currently Approved Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Federal Seed Act Program; Request for Extension and Revision of a Currently... collection 7 CFR part 201 for Federal Seed Act Labeling and Enforcement. DATES: Comments on this document... submitted online at www.regulations.gov or sent to Fawad S. Shah, Director, Seed Regulatory and...

  11. Russia’s State Budget in 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Sergey Belev; Tatiana Tischenko; Ilya Sokolov

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with 2012 Russia's state budget. Authors speak about general characteristics of the budget system in Russia. They analyse revenues from major taxes and main parameters of the federal budget in 2012 and for 2012-2014, explain budget expenditures and give prospects of the budgetary and tax policy in Russia..

  12. Costing, Budgeting and Financial Reporting: A Report on Current Practice in the Further Education Sector. Research Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learning and Skills Development Agency, London (England).

    The approaches to costing, budgeting, and financial reporting being used in further education (FE) colleges in the United Kingdom as of autumn 2000 were examined through a questionnaire that was circulated to all finance directors in the FE college sector. Approximately one-third of the sector (144 FE colleges) responded. The responding FE…

  13. The Federal Communications Commission: Current Structure and Its Role in the Changing Telecommunications Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-14

    4 FCC Structure .......................................................................................................................6...for additional information on the history of the FCC. The Federal Communications Commission Congressional Research Service 6 FCC Structure The

  14. Benefit-cost analysis of DOE's Current Federal Program to increase hydrothermal resource utilization. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-12-10

    The impact of DOE's Current Federal Program on the commercialization of hydrothermal resources between 1980 and 2000 is analyzed. The hydrothermal resources of the United States and the types of DOE activities used to stimulate the development of these resources for both electric power and direct heat use are described briefly. The No Federal Program and the Current Federal Program are then described in terms of funding levels and the resultant market penetration estimates through 2000. These market penetration estimates are also compared to other geothermal utilization forecasts. The direct benefits of the Current Federal Program are next presented for electric power and direct heat use applications. An analysis of the external impacts associated with the additional hydrothermal resource development resulting from the Current Federal Program is also provided. Included are environmental effects, national security/balance-of-payments improvements, socioeconomic impacts and materials requirements. A summary of the analysis integrating the direct benefits, external impacts and DOE program costs concludes the report.

  15. Five countries pioneering accrual budgeting and accounting in central government

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dees, M.; Neelissen, P.A.

    2004-01-01

    In its 2001 Budget Memorandum, the Dutch government announced that accrual budgeting and accounting would replace the current obligation-cash budgeting and accounting system in ministerial budgets and accounts in several years’ time.

  16. The current state of NCAA Division I collegiate strength facilities: size, equipment, budget, staffing, and football status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Lawrence W; Petersen, Jeffrey C; Bellar, David M; Craig, Bruce W; Cottingham, Michael P; Gilreath, Erin L

    2014-08-01

    Strength and conditioning training programs are essential components of athletic performance, and the effectiveness of these programs can be linked to the strength and conditioning facilities (SCFs) used by athletes. The primary purpose of this study was to provide a statistical overview of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I SCFs, equipment and maintenance budget, and the relationship between SCF budget and staffing space, and equipment. The secondary purpose was to note differences in SCFs between those schools with and without football programs. An 84-item online survey instrument, developed with expert input from certified strength professionals, was used to collect data regarding the SCFs in NCAA Division I universities. A total of 110 valid and complete surveys were returned for a response rate of 38.6%. Results of Pearson's χ2 analysis demonstrated that the larger reported annual equipment budgets were associated with larger SCFs (χ2 = 451.4, p ≤ 0.001), greater maximum safe capacity of athletes using the facility (χ2 = 366.9, p ≤ 0.001), increased numbers of full-time coaches (χ2 = 224.2, p ≤ 0.001), and increased number of graduate assistant or intern coaches (χ2 = 102.9, p ≤ 0.001). Based on these data, it can be suggested to athletic administrators and strength and conditioning professionals at the collegiate level that budgets need to be re-evaluated as the number of personnel available to monitor student-athletes and the size and safe capacity of the facility are related to the ability of the strength and conditioning staff to safely and adequately perform their duties.

  17. The I.A.G. / A.I.G. SEDIBUD (Sediment Budgets in Cold Environments) Programme: Current and future activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beylich, Achim A.; Lamoureux, Scott; Decaulne, Armelle

    2013-04-01

    Projected climate change in cold regions is expected to alter melt season duration and intensity, along with the number of extreme rainfall events, total annual precipitation and the balance between snowfall and rainfall. Similarly, changes to the thermal balance are expected to reduce the extent of permafrost and seasonal ground frost and increase active layer depths. These effects will undoubtedly change surface environments in cold regions and alter the fluxes of sediments, nutrients and solutes, but the absence of quantitative data and coordinated geomorphic process monitoring and analysis to understand the sensitivity of the Earth surface environment is acute in cold climate environments. The International Association of Geomorphologists (I.A.G. / A.I.G. ) SEDIBUD (Sediment Budgets in Cold Environments) Programme was formed in 2005 to address this existing key knowledge gap. SEDIBUD currently has about 400 members worldwide and the Steering Committee of this international programme is composed of ten scientists from eight different countries: Achim A. Beylich (Chair) (Norway), Armelle Decaulne (Secretary) (France), John C. Dixon (USA), Scott F. Lamoureux (Vice-Chair) (Canada), John F. Orwin (Canada), Jan-Christoph Otto (Austria), Irina Overeem (USA), Thorsteinn Sæmundsson (Iceland), Jeff Warburton (UK) and Zbigniew Zwolinski (Poland). The central research question of this global group of scientists is to: Assess and model the contemporary sedimentary fluxes in cold climates, with emphasis on both particulate and dissolved components. Initially formed as European Science Foundation (ESF) Network SEDIFLUX (Sedimentary Source-to-Sink Fluxes in Cold Environments) (2004 - ), SEDIBUD has further expanded to a global group of researchers with field research sites located in polar and alpine regions in the northern and southern hemisphere. Research carried out at each of the close to 50 defined SEDIBUD key test sites varies by programme, logistics and available

  18. 75 FR 8137 - Coordination and Strategic Planning of the Federal Effort Against Intellectual Property...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... BUDGET Coordination and Strategic Planning of the Federal Effort Against Intellectual Property... Joint Strategic Plan AGENCY: Office of Management and Budget, Executive Office of the President. ACTION...: The Joint Strategic Plan. The IPEC is currently working with the interagency advisory committee to...

  19. Shared Solar: Current Landscape, Market Potential, and the Impact of Federal Securities Regulation; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-05-27

    This presentation provides a high-level overview of the current U.S. shared solar landscape, the impact that a given shared solar program's structure has on requiring federal securities oversight, as well as an estimate of market potential for U.S. shared solar deployment.

  20. 77 FR 12069 - Intent To Request Renewal From OMB of One Current Public Collection of Information: Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... their aircraft against acts of criminal violence or air piracy. With the enactment of Vision 100... collected to assess the qualifications and suitability of prospective and current FFDOs through an...

  1. Current status of radon and radium monitoring at the Federal University of Technology (UTFPR), PR, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine N.; Kappke, Jaqueline; Schelin, Hugo R.; Denyak, Valeriy; Barbosa, Laercio; Perna, Allan F.N. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Numerous and systematic studies performed in different countries for many decades resulted in the explicit conclusion that radon exposure, as well as its progeny, is the main cause of lung cancer among non-smokers. All three natural radon isotopes ({sup 222}Rn, {sup 220}Rn and {sup 219}Rn) are produced in the three principal natural radioactive decay chains. Specifically, the {sup 222}Rn is produced by the decay series of {sup 238}U and proceeded from {alpha}-decay of {sup 226}Ra. Current work describes the present status and obtained results concerning indoor radon survey in dwellings, radon in water supply and soil gas tests performed by the Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Physics of the Federal University of Technology (UTFPR) within Curitiba urban area. For radon in air activity measurements, it was used polycarbonate etched track detectors such as LEXAN (GE) and CR-39, mounted in diffusion chambers. For soil gas measurements, the experimental setup was based on the Professional Radon Monitor (AlphaGUARD, Genitron/SAPHYMO) connected to the air pump with filter vessels and to specially developed in our Laboratory the Soil Gas Probe. In the case of radon tests in drinking water, the experimental setup was based on the AlphaGUARD Radon monitor and Electronic radon detector RAD7 (Durridge Company, Inc.) connected to special kit of glass vessels through the air pump. Obtained results permitted to identify few dwellings where radon concentration in air was found bigger than 600 Bq/m{sup 3} which is considered as the action level by most of the European Community and the World Health Organization (WHO). In the case of studied artesian wells, collected samples of water presented the average {sup 222}Rn activity about 60 Bq/L which is 6 times bigger than maximum level recommended by USEPA. Some artesian wells presented the radon activity of almost 200 Bq/L. More over, it was identified the radioactivity of radium ({sup 226}Ra) salts which are soluble in water and almost

  2. 12 CFR 917.8 - Budget preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD GOVERNANCE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS POWERS AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF BANK BOARDS OF DIRECTORS AND SENIOR MANAGEMENT § 917.8 Budget preparation... interest by keeping its costs to an efficient and effective minimum. (b) No delegation of budget...

  3. System Budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Palle

    1996-01-01

    The lecture note is aimed at introducing system budgets for optical communication systems. It treats optical fiber communication systems (six generations), system design, bandwidth effects, other system impairments and optical amplifiers.......The lecture note is aimed at introducing system budgets for optical communication systems. It treats optical fiber communication systems (six generations), system design, bandwidth effects, other system impairments and optical amplifiers....

  4. Budget timetable

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a timetable for congressional action under the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985 (Gramm-Rudman-Hollings). These deadlines apply to fiscal years (FY) 1987-1991. The Congress missed a number of these deadlines last year. The deficit reduction measures in Gramm-Rudman-Hollings would lead to a balanced budget in 1991.

  5. MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING SYSTEM OF PUBLIC OFF-BUDGET FUNDS AS AN INFORMATIONAL BASIS FOR PUBLIC INSURANCE MECHANISMS FORMATION (CASE STUDY OF FEDERAL COMPULSORY MEDICAL INSURANCE FUND)

    OpenAIRE

    Anatoly A. Kozlov

    2014-01-01

    The article justifies the introduced proposals for a management accounting of theFederal Compulsory Medical InsuranceFund formation and the characteristics and principles of management accounting forms for the analysis of the territorialcompulsory medical insurance programs.

  6. DCS Budget Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — DCS Budget Tracking System database contains budget information for the Information Technology budget and the 'Other Objects' budget. This data allows for monitoring...

  7. An examination of the Total Quality Management (TQM) concept given current Federal/DoD competition initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabile, Michael E.

    1992-06-01

    Quality is vital to our defense and quality improvement is key to increasing productivity. The Department of Defense (DoD) Total Quality Management (TQM) effort has been given top priority by the Secretary of Defense. Many questions exist concerning the problems encountered when implementing TQM throughout DoD. This thesis looks at the compatibility of the TQM philosophy with current Federal Acquisition Regulation competition requirements. The writer concludes that the TQM philosophy implementation is compatible with existing competition policy.

  8. FY 1997 congressional budget request: Budget highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This is an overview of the 1997 budget request for the US DOE. The topics of the overview include a policy overview, the budget by business line, business lines by organization, crosswalk from business line to appropriation, summary by appropriation, energy supply research and development, uranium supply and enrichment activities, uranium enrichment decontamination and decommissioning fund, general science and research, weapons activities, defense environmental restoration and waste management, defense nuclear waste disposal, departmental administration, Office of the Inspector General, power marketing administrations, Federal Energy Regulatory commission, nuclear waste disposal fund, fossil energy research and development, naval petroleum and oil shale reserves, energy conservation, economic regulation, strategic petroleum reserve, energy information administration, clean coal technology and a Department of Energy Field Facilities map.

  9. 40 CFR 97.140 - State trading budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State trading budgets. 97.140 Section...) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Allowance Allocations § 97.140 State trading budgets. The State trading budgets for annual allocations of CAIR NOX...

  10. Results of operation and current safety performance of nuclear facilities located in the Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, V. M.; Khvostova, M. S.

    2016-12-01

    After the NPP radiation accidents in Russia and Japan, a safety statu of Russian nuclear power plants causes concern. A repeated life time extension of power unit reactor plants, designed at the dawn of the nuclear power engineering in the Soviet Union, power augmentation of the plants to 104-109%, operation of power units in a daily power mode in the range of 100-70-100%, the use of untypical for NPP remixed nuclear fuel without a careful study of the results of its application (at least after two operating periods of the research nuclear installations), the aging of operating personnel, and many other management actions of the State Corporation "Rosatom", should attract the attention of the Federal Service for Ecological, Technical and Atomic Supervision (RosTekhNadzor), but this doesn't happen. The paper considers safety issues of nuclear power plants operating in the Russian Federation. The authors collected statistical information on violations in NPP operation over the past 25 years, which shows that even after repeated relaxation over this period of time of safety regulation requirements in nuclear industry and highly expensive NPP modernization, the latter have not become more safe, and the statistics confirms this. At a lower utilization factor high-power pressure-tube reactors RBMK-1000, compared to light water reactors VVER-440 and 1000, have a greater number of violations and that after annual overhauls. A number of direct and root causes of NPP mulfunctions is still high and remains stable for decades. The paper reveals bottlenecks in ensuring nuclear and radiation safety of nuclear facilities. Main outstanding issues on the storage of spent nuclear fuel are defined. Information on emissions and discharges of radioactive substances, as well as fullness of storages of solid and liquid radioactive waste, located at the NPP sites are presented. Russian NPPs stress test results are submitted, as well as data on the coming removal from operation of NPP

  11. BEYOND BUDGETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edo Cvrkalj

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional budgeting principles, with strictly defined business goals, have been, since 1998, slowly growing into more sophisticated and organization-adjusted alternative budgeting concepts. One of those alternative concepts is the “Beyond budgeting” model with an implemented performance effects measuring process. In order for the model to be practicable, budget planning and control has to be reoriented to the “bottom up” planning and control approach. In today’s modern business surroundings one has to take both present and future opportunities and threats into consideration, by valorizing them in a budget which would allow a company to realize a whole pallet of advantages over the traditional budgeting principles which are presented later in the article. It is essential to emphasize the importance of successfully implementing the new budgeting principles within an organization. If the implementation has been lacking and done without a higher goal in mind, it is easily possible that the process has been implemented without coordination, planning and control framework within the organization itself. Further in the article we present an overview of managerial techniques and instruments within the “Beyond budgeting” model such as balanced scorecard, rolling forecast, dashboard, KPI and other supporting instruments. Lastly we define seven steps for implementing the “Beyond budgeting” model and offer a comparison of “Beyond budgeting” model against traditional budgeting principles which lists twelve reasons why “Beyond budgeting” is better suited to modern and market-oriented organizations. Each company faces those challenges in their own characteristic way but implementing new dynamic planning models will soon become essential for surviving in the market.

  12. PROVIDING BUDGET CREDITS TO RUSSIAN REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Gelyakhova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The state budget of the Russian Federation can be called the primary means of accumulating financial resources in the country. Giving cash is seen as a measure to prevent the country's financial crisis. Public lending is its basic form. Nevertheless, in spite of the scientific and practical significance of the Russian Federation Public Credit, the issue has not been studied. These circumstances suggest that there are many unresolved issues in the field of public credit Russian Federation.Relevance of the topic of this article is revealed when considering the peculiarities of the legal regulation of public credit of the Russian Federation. In this article the author attempts to develop a series of recommendations to improve legislation at both the federal and regional levels. The growth of the budget deficit in the Russian Federation determines the need to find all the possible sources of financing, the most important of which acts as a budget loan, which refers to "funds provided by the budget to another budget of the budget system, the legal entity (except for state (municipal institutions, a foreign state, foreign legal entity on a returnable and paid basis "(art. 6 of the Budget Code of the Russian Federation [1]. 

  13. The local property taxes and municipal federalism. Current and future inequity condition of Italian Property Taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Argiolas

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to analyze and compare the current local tax on real estate and the future and assessing criticality. The tax base is calculated by applying calculation methods that differ depending on the type of property you must tax. For buildings used for residential, the tax base is calculated on the basis of the cadastral income; in the case of building land is rather used the market value of land and buildings and, for rent, rural manor. The land property values are always lower than market values, which is because some time trying to implement a revision of the class with the objective of bringing the two values. The reclass procedure has recently been adopted in the municipality of Milano where it was decided to reclass of buildings located within a few micro-climates for the most central, in which houses were originally built affordable housing to meet the housing needs of the social classes poor and that over time turned into mansions in the city center. From 1 January 2012, the Imu will come into force, only municipal tax, which replaces the current Ici; the two taxes differ in the higher fixed rate (7.6 ‰, which does not involve substantial modifications to the old system tax. In this way, the result will be to produce an increase in the tax burden without solving the inequalities of the old system but increasing the gap. The Implementation Act contains provisions which IMU when applied to allow municipalities to solve some problems present in the Ici.

  14. BUDGET AND PUBLIC DEBT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morar Ioan Dan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of public budgeting is an important issue for public policy of the state, for the simple reason that no money from the state budget can not promote public policy. Budgetary policy is official government Doctrine vision mirror and also represents a starting point for other public policies, which in turn are financed by the public budget. Fiscal policy instruments at its disposal handles the public sector in its structure, and the private sector. Tools such as grant, budgetary allocation, tax, welfare under various forms, direct investments and not least the state aid is used by the state through their budgetary policies to directly and indirectly infuence sector, and the private. Fiscal policies can be grouped according to the structure of the public sector in these components, namely fiscal policy, budgeting and resource allocation policies for financing the budget deficit. An important issue is the financing of the budget deficit budgetary policies. There are two funding possibilities, namely, the higher taxes or more axles site and enter the second call to public loans. Both options involve extra effort from taxpayers in the current fiscal year when they pay higher taxes or a future period when public loans will be repaid. We know that by virtue of "fiscal pact" structural deficits of the member countries of the EU are limited by the European Commission, according to the macro structural stability and budget of each Member State. This problem tempers to some extent the governments of the Member States budgetary appetite, but does not solve the problem of chronic budget deficits. Another issue addressed in this paper is related to the public debt, the absolute amount of its relative level of public datoriri, about the size of GDP, public debt financing and its repayment sources. Sources of public debt issuance and monetary impact on the budget and monetary stability are variables that must underpin the justification of budgetary

  15. TRADITIONAL BUDGETING VERSUS BEYOND BUDGETING: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARDOS ILDIKO REKA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Budgets are an important part of the business environment since 1920 and are considered to be the key drivers and evaluators of managerial performance; and the key elements for planning and control. Budgets are the most powerful tool for management control; they can play an essential role in the organization’s power politics because it can increase the power and authority of top management and limit the autonomy of lower-level managers. Besides its advantages traditional budgeting presents disadvantages also. In recent years criticism towards traditional budgeting has increased. The basis of this criticism is that traditional budgeting is a relic of the past; it prevents reactions to changes in the market, it cannot keep up with the changes and requirements of today’s business world and it isn’t useful for business management. In order to eliminate criticism researchers and practitioners have developed more systematic and alternative concepts of budgeting that suits better for the needs of the modern business environment. Beyond budgeting, better budgeting, rolling forecasts, activity-based budgeting are the main alternatives developed in the last years. From the mentioned alternatives this article examines only beyond budgeting. Our paper discusses how budgeting has evolved into its current state, before examining why this universal technique has come under such heavy criticism of late. The paper is a literature analysis, it contributes to the existing managerial accounting literature and it is structured as follows. In the first part the background and evolution of budgeting is presented, followed by the analysis of related theories in traditional budgeting, emphasizing both the advantages and disadvantages of traditional budgeting. The second part of the paper continues with the discussion about alternative budgeting methods highlighting pros and cons of alternative methods, especially beyond budgeting. In the third part conducted

  16. Budget impact analysis of rivaroxaban vs warfarin anticoagulation strategy for direct current cardioversion in non-valvular atrial fibrillation patients: the MonaldiVert economic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Vincenzo; Rago, Anna; Papa, Andrea A; Bianchi, Valter; Tavoletta, Vincenzo; DE Vivo, Stefano; Cavallaro, Ciro; Nigro, Gerardo; D'Onofrio, Antonio

    2017-09-25

    Rivaroxaban is the first novel oral anticoagulant to receive regulatory approval for non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) patients who require cardioversion. The MonaldiVert real life experience showed positive benefit-risk profile of short term rivaroxaban administration for transesophageal echocardiogram guided cardioversion in patients who had not achieved adequate pre-procedural vitamin k antagonist (VKA) anticoagulation. Aim of our study was to perform a budget impact analysis of MonaldiVert anticoagulation strategy for direct current cardioversion in NVAF patients and to compare the following costs borne by the Regional Healthcare System (RHS) with those for a hypothetical cohort of identical patients underwent from the beginning to early rivaroxaban treatment before direct current cardioversion. The mean costs per each NVAF patient treated with VKA strategy and Rivaroxaban rescue strategy were 134.53€ and 189.83€, respectively. Considering a hypothetical scenario in which all population study would be treated from the beginning with rivaroxaban (Rivaroxaban early strategy), the mean cost per patient would have been 81.11€ (Table 3). The total cost borne by the RHS, including the cost of the cardioversion procedure, for the two therapeutic strategies carried out at Monaldi Hospital (VKA strategy and Rivaroxaban rescue strategy) was 88.458,53 €. The total cost would be borne by the RHS for Rivaroxaban early strategy, if applied to all population study, would have been 69.989,15 € with a saving of 18,469.38, respect to the actually applied strategy. Rivaroxaban rescue strategy for transoesophageal echocardiography guided direct current cardioversion in NVAF patients, who had not achieved adequate pre-procedural VKA anticoagulation, is an effective and safe strategy, which allows to not delay the procedure, reducing times and wastage of cardioversion slots, without substantial costs increase.

  17. 7 CFR 3015.115 - Budget revisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget revisions. 3015.115 Section 3015.115 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE UNIFORM FEDERAL ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS Programmatic Changes and Budget...

  18. On Current Budget Accounting Method%现行预算会计核算方法相关问题的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱荣

    2011-01-01

    China's current budget accounting system is composed of public finance budgetary accounting, accounting of governmental units and accounting for nonprofit organizations. Based on accounting on cash basis, aiming at meeting the requirement of budgetary management of government, it accounts the financial revenue, expenditure and balance. At the same time, it reveals the government's asset and liability. This paper analyzes the problems existing in the practical work, and puts forward the corresponding improvements.%我国现行的财政总预算会计、行政单位会计和事业单位会计共同构建的预算会计体系,是在收付实现制的基础上,以满足政府财政预算管理的目的,核算财政资金的收入、支出和结余情况,同时在一定程度上反映了政府的资产与负债等信息.本文就实务工作中所出现的几个问题进行了分析,并提出了相应的改进意见.

  19. Mean annual water-budget components for the Island of Kauai, Hawaii, for current conditions, 2001-10 rainfall and 2001-10 land cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The shapefile associated with this metadata file represents the spatial distribution of mean annual water-budget components, in inches, for the Island of Kauai,...

  20. Mean annual water-budget components for the Island of Oahu, Hawaii, for current conditions, 2001-10 rainfall and 2001-10 land cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The shapefile associated with this metadata file represents the spatial distribution of mean annual water-budget components, in inches, for the Island of Oahu,...

  1. Mean annual water-budget components for the Island of Maui, Hawaii, for current conditions, 2001-10 rainfall and 2001-10 land cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The shapefile associated with this metadata file represents the spatial distribution of mean annual water-budget components, in inches, for the Island of Maui,...

  2. 29 CFR 1471.135 - May the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service exclude a person who is not currently...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service exclude....135 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) General § 1471.135 May the Federal Mediation...

  3. 40 CFR 97.340 - State trading budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State trading budgets. 97.340 Section...) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 97.340 State trading budgets. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the...

  4. 40 CFR 97.40 - Trading program budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trading program budget. 97.40 Section...) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance Allocations § 97.40 Trading program budget. In accordance with §§ 97.41 and 97.42, the Administrator will allocate to the...

  5. 77 FR 38199 - Determining Conformity of Federal Actions to State or Federal Implementation Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 93 Determining Conformity of Federal Actions to State or Federal Implementation Plans... conformity purposes, the budget(s) shall not be used to satisfy the requirements of this section....

  6. The Status of Budget Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel W. Williams

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the breadth of the current forecast literature as it relates to public budget making. It serves to provide summary information to decision-makers who otherwise do not have the resources to learn more than a small amount focused on much more narrowly defined areas of forecasting (such as the politics of forecast bias. Next, it serves those who perform forecasting related to budgeting by reviewing the current methods and practices commonly used in this domain. It also provides a ground level for future public budget forecasting research. Finally, this article identifies several areas in which the public forecasting literature needs additional development. Several of these areas, such as the effectiveness of nonregression-based forecasting techniques, are quite important to the majority of governments in the United States and other subnational jurisdictions, where budget offices are limited and resource investments in technology are scarce.

  7. The Proposed Homeland Security Budget for 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. CBO 6 THE PROPOSED HOMELAND SECURITY BUDGET FOR 2013 CBOFigure 2. Homeland Security Funding Requested by the...Marshals Service Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives Federal Bureau of Investigation Miscellaneousa Food and Drug Administration...Administration National Security Division Food and Drug Administration Federal Bureau of Investigation Firearms, and Explosives Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco

  8. The Economics of the Federal Budget Deficit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-02

    the economy was then near full employment. That the standardized measure fell between 2000 and 2007 indicates an expansionary fiscal policy over the...rose at a time that fiscal policy was actually expansionary or that it fell at a time when fiscal policy was actually contractionary. Most of the...standardized surplus fell, suggesting that fiscal policy was expansionary . Between 2003 and 2007, it rose slightly in each year, indicating a modest

  9. Current and future carbon budget at Takayama site, Japan, evaluated by a regional climate model and a process-based terrestrial ecosystem model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuribayashi, Masatoshi; Noh, Nam-Jin; Saitoh, Taku M.; Ito, Akihiko; Wakazuki, Yasutaka; Muraoka, Hiroyuki

    2016-12-01

    Accurate projection of carbon budget in forest ecosystems under future climate and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration is important to evaluate the function of terrestrial ecosystems, which serve as a major sink of atmospheric CO2. In this study, we examined the effects of spatial resolution of meteorological data on the accuracies of ecosystem model simulation for canopy phenology and carbon budget such as gross primary production (GPP), ecosystem respiration (ER), and net ecosystem production (NEP) of a deciduous forest in Japan. Then, we simulated the future (around 2085) changes in canopy phenology and carbon budget of the forest by incorporating high-resolution meteorological data downscaled by a regional climate model. The ecosystem model overestimated GPP and ER when we inputted low-resolution data, which have warming biases over mountainous landscape. But, it reproduced canopy phenology and carbon budget well, when we inputted high-resolution data. Under the future climate, earlier leaf expansion and delayed leaf fall by about 10 days compared with the present state was simulated, and also, GPP, ER and NEP were estimated to increase by 25.2%, 23.7% and 35.4%, respectively. Sensitivity analysis showed that the increase of NEP in June and October would be mainly caused by rising temperature, whereas that in July and August would be largely attributable to CO2 fertilization. This study suggests that the downscaling of future climate data enable us to project more reliable carbon budget of forest ecosystem in mountainous landscape than the low-resolution simulation due to the better predictions of leaf expansion and shedding.

  10. Budget preparation, execution and methods at the major claimant/budget submitting office level

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, James E.

    2002-01-01

    This thesis describes the current Planning, Programming, and Budgeting System (PPBS) process at a Navy Major Claimant/Budget Submitting Office (BSO) by examining the overall navy process and the processes employed at a major claimant/BSO, COMPACFLT (CPF). The thesis begins by describing the scope of the Planning, Programming, and Budgeting requirements at CPF by describing its Area of Responsibility (AOR) and the major sub-claimants who rely on CPF for program and budget submissions and subse...

  11. Automated Budget System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Automated Budget System (ABS) automates management and planning of the Mike Monroney Aeronautical Center (MMAC) budget by providing enhanced capability to plan,...

  12. Innovative Concepts of Budgeting in the Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Bąk

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the current concepts of budgeting with the special focus on innovative budgets. It includes the evolution of the budgeting concept starting from the traditional one which was applied in the second half of the 20th Century and assumed the budget as the main tool for the achievement of company’s goals. The next presented method is Better Budgeting. It arouse at the nineties as the resposne for the critics of the traditional method which was accused for the fixed assumptions which were no longer matching with the fast changing competitive environment. This method assumed the high level of budget preparation as he opposite to the detailed level as well as shorter planning period. The Beyond Budgeting was the most radical method and eliminated budget as the tool supporting the management; the concept has been used from the nineties until today, by more than seventy multinational companies from beyond budgeting round table. However, Beyond Budgeting was also criticised for not being applied in the industrial sector and too theoretical approach. Therefore, Ronald Gleicha from European Business School, established a working group, which icludes the scientists and managers, in order to create by mid of 2009, the new and opitimal method, which is called Modern Budgeting.

  13. Fiscal Federalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Mosteanu

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The central budget of a country collects only a fraction of the total fiscal revenues and executes only o fraction of the national public expenditures, the rest of the revenues and expenditures becoming the responsability of subnational governments. The economist Charles Tiebout developed a theoretical model which although makes an imperfect description of the reality, shows that people’s mobility is being influenced by tax rates and the amount of state/local expenditures. Thus, he suggests that the degree of responsibility that can be appointed to the local budgets should subscribe to the tax – benefits ratio, the extend of the positive externalities and the scale economies of public goods. Also, the issue of revenues distribution among communities is being raised, being identified three kinds of grants used by the public authorities: matching grants, block grants and conditional block grants. In the concept of fiscal federalism there can be found a limited analogy between national public finance theory and international public finance theory, with the international taxation as the pivotal element.

  14. Secretary's annual report to Congress. Volume II. Budget highlights, 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-01-01

    DOE budget requests for FY 1982 is summarized and then detailed. Budget highlights of the energy programs include: conservation; research, development, and applications (fossil energy, solar, electric energy and energy storage systems, magnetic fusion, nuclear fission, environment); regulation and energy information; direct energy production, and strategic petroleum reserves. Additional programs and their budget requests are given for: general science, defense activities, and departmental administration. The FY 1981 supplemental and recission request is indicated. Special budget analyses are given for Federal fossil, Federal solar, nuclear waste, conservation, and alternative fuels activities programs. The organizational table is presented. Extensive statistics are presented in the appendix. (MCW)

  15. Environmental Education--A Future-Oriented Task: Current Situation and Prospects in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministry of Education and Science, Bonn (Germany).

    The Federal Republic of Germany has identified the conservation and the protection of the environment as a major challenge of the 1990s. Environmental education is further identified as an important part of anticipatory environmental policy. The document is separated into two parts. The first part presents the aims, content, and organizational…

  16. A Defense Budget Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-09

    budget practices. See Appendix D for the actual timetable of congressional action on the FY1999 budget.65 See James V. Saturno , The Appropriations...details, see James V. Saturno , The Appropriations Process and the Congressional69 Budget Act, CRS Report 97-947. Table 6. Milestone Votes on the Defense...James V. Saturno , The74 Appropriations Process and the Congressional Budget Act, CRS Report 97-947. The Budget Enforcement Act of 1990 and subsequent

  17. FY 1996 Congressional budget request: Budget highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-01

    The FY 1996 budget presentation is organized by the Department`s major business lines. An accompanying chart displays the request for new budget authority. The report compares the budget request for FY 1996 with the appropriated FY 1995 funding levels displayed on a comparable basis. The FY 1996 budget represents the first year of a five year plan in which the Department will reduce its spending by $15.8 billion in budget authority and by $14.1 billion in outlays. FY 1996 is a transition year as the Department embarks on its multiyear effort to do more with less. The Budget Highlights are presented by business line; however, the fifth business line, Economic Productivity, which is described in the Policy Overview section, cuts across multiple organizational missions, funding levels and activities and is therefore included in the discussion of the other four business lines.

  18. Taking Another Path: Community-Based Budgeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowski, Matthew J.; Davis, Darlene G.

    2011-01-01

    Given the current economic constraints facing the country, school districts in the U.S. have been pushed to develop annual budgets through a new lens and to accept the reality that budget adoption is a complex, political process. Whether a school district is rich or poor, growing or declining in enrollment, serving a specialized population or…

  19. Federal R&D Funding: Trends and Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, K. S.

    2014-12-01

    Between sequestration, shutdowns, and budget "cliffs," the federal budget process has experienced many challenges in recent years. Budgets for research and development (R&D) have mirrored these larger fiscal constraints. Over the past decade, many agencies and programs have seen flat or declining budgets, particularly when inflation is considered. This talk will examine recent geoscience R&D funding in the historical context and examine projections of future science funding in the framework of the Budget Control Act and other initiatives.

  20. Medicare: FY2009 Budget Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-06

    Proposals include savings achieved through reductions in many of the Medicare payment updates. The Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement and...9 Short-Term Power Wheelchair Rentals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Current Law...five- year budget window. Proposals include savings achieved through reductions in many of the Medicare payment updates. The Medicare Prescription

  1. Do Budget Deficits Reduce Household Taxpayer Compliance? Preliminary Evidence Using the Feige Data

    OpenAIRE

    Cebula, Richard; Toma, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates the hypothesis that higher federal budget deficits act to increase the degree of federal personal income tax evasion in the U.S. Using annual data on aggregate personal income tax evasion for the period 1961-1997, 1997 being the most recent year for which all of the needed data are currently available, and allowing for such factors as income tax rates, IRS tax return audit rates, the Vietnam War, and the Watergate scandal, it is found that income tax evasion is an incr...

  2. Zero-based budgeting: Pathway to sustainable budget implementation in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udeh Francis Nnoli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the application of Zero-Based Budgeting (ZBB system to budget implementation by the Federal Government of Nigeria by ascertaining among others, the relationship between ZBB approach and budget performance indices in Nigeria. To achieve the above, primary data were obtained through questionnaires that were specifically designed for this study. The data obtained were analysed with the SPSS version 21. The statistical tools employed were Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and Pearson Correlation Coefficiant (PCC. The Cronbach’s Alpha reliability test was used to test the internal consistency/reliability of the instrument used for the study. On the basis of the analysis, we found that there is significant difference in the effectiveness of ZBB in terms of budget implementation compared to the Traditional Budgeting System (TBS. It was also found that the application of ZBB tend to be performance-driven and is able to detect the redundant programmes/projects and staff, thereby recommending either realignment, discharge, transfer or redeployment of projects or resources. The study therefore, recommends among others that ZBB should be encouraged as a good means of budget implementation and also close monitoring of budget execution should be enshrined in work ethics at every stage of budget preparation and implementation in the country. This is believed would go a long way to strengthen measures aimed at mitigating poor budget implementation in the country.

  3. The 2014 Long-Term Budget Outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-16

    which was released yesterday. Between 2009 and 2012, the federal government recorded the largest budget deficits relative to the size of the economy since...1946, causing its debt to soar. The total amount of federal debt held by the public is now equivalent to about 74 percent of the economy s annual...be on an upward path relative to the size of the economy , a trend that could not be sustained indefinitely.

  4. Passive behavior of the government. Budget problems are aggravating in the regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ivanovna Povarova

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite a number of reforms, the current multi-level budgetary system does not fully correspond to the development strategy of the country and its regions. Still the Russian Government has not taken effective measures to address the main structural contradiction of the budgetary system, based on the non-adequate distribution of revenue and expenditure responsibilities, manifested in the sharp decline in the revenue base of territorial budgets during the 2009 global financial crisis. However, the crisis effects have not been analyzed and the conclusions have not been made. The Ministry of Finance of the Russian Federation tried to solve the problem of territorial budgets imbalance not by enhancing existing mechanisms of revenue distribution at the regional level, but by granting large-scale loans to be repaid after 2012. Despite it, due to the sharp rise in the social burden, the deficit and the debt load enlarged and resulted in the budget crisis in the regions. The experts of the Higher School of Economics state that 20 RF subjects, having the level of public debt above 80%, had been actually in default by the end of 2014. Instead of finding ways out of the fiscal crisis, the Russian authorities gradually lose overall control over the processes of regional development. The mechanisms of federal target programs work poorly and the RF subjects have to finance program activities. In fact, the management of territorial development is reduced to the transfer of financial resources from the federal budget to the regions and the Ministry of Finance of the Russian Federation regulating interbudgetary relations has, in fact, become the only real institute of regional policy. But the interbudgetary policy of the Ministry of Finance does not gain visible economic returns: in 2006–2014 the amount of repayable financial assistance to the regional budgets increased from 0.6 to 1.5 trillion rubles, and the number of selfsufficient territories decreased from

  5. Verification of uncertainty budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj; Madsen, B.S.

    2005-01-01

    The quality of analytical results is expressed by their uncertainty, as it is estimated on the basis of an uncertainty budget; little effort is, however, often spent on ascertaining the quality of the uncertainty budget. The uncertainty budget is based on circumstantial or historical data, and th...

  6. Radioprotective drugs: a synopsis of current research and a proposed research plan for the Federal Emergency Management Agency. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickman, R.; Anspaugh, L.

    1985-04-01

    FEMA has broad roles in the management of disasters potentially involving substantial amounts of radioactive contamination. These could be either peacetime or wartime disasters. A meeting was held in March 1985 to see if there are any research contributions that FEMA might reasonably make in the area of radioprotective drugs that would substantially enhance its ability to perform its mission. The other federal agencies presently sponsoring research in the field were represented at the meeting. A few selected researchers also participated to provide complementary viewpoints. Activities of a modest scale that FEMA might undertake were identified, as were larger scale activities that might be undertaken in the event of long-term, major funding-level increases for FEMA. 2 refs.

  7. 7 CFR 3015.114 - Budgets-general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE UNIFORM FEDERAL ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS Programmatic Changes and Budget Revisions... for each share. (b) Subdivision by programmatic segments. Some grants, subgrants, and cooperative agreements contain two or more programmatic segments (such as discrete programs, projects, functions,...

  8. Integrated carbon budget models for the Everglades terrestrial-coastal-oceanic gradient: Current status and needs for inter-site comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troxler, Tiffany G.; Gaiser, Evelyn; Barr, Jordan; Fuentes, Jose D.; Jaffe, Rudolf; Childers, Daniel L.; Collado-Vides, Ligia; Rivera-Monroy, Victor H.; Castañeda-Moya, Edward; Anderson, William; Chambers, Randy; Chen, Meilian; Coronado-Molina, Carlos; Davis, Stephen E.; Engel, Victor C.; Fitz, Carl; Fourqurean, James; Frankovich, Tom; Kominoski, John; Madden, Chris; Malone, Sparkle L.; Oberbauer, Steve F.; Olivas, Paulo; Richards, Jennifer; Saunders, Colin; Schedlbauer, Jessica; Scinto, Leonard J.; Sklar, Fred; Smith, Thomas J.; Smoak, Joseph M.; Starr, Gregory; Twilley, Robert; Whelan, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that coastal ecosystems can bury significantly more C than tropical forests, indicating that continued coastal development and exposure to sea level rise and storms will have global biogeochemical consequences. The Florida Coastal Everglades Long Term Ecological Research (FCE LTER) site provides an excellent subtropical system for examining carbon (C) balance because of its exposure to historical changes in freshwater distribution and sea level rise and its history of significant long-term carbon-cycling studies. FCE LTER scientists used net ecosystem C balance and net ecosystem exchange data to estimate C budgets for riverine mangrove, freshwater marsh, and seagrass meadows, providing insights into the magnitude of C accumulation and lateral aquatic C transport. Rates of net C production in the riverine mangrove forest exceeded those reported for many tropical systems, including terrestrial forests, but there are considerable uncertainties around those estimates due to the high potential for gain and loss of C through aquatic fluxes. C production was approximately balanced between gain and loss in Everglades marshes; however, the contribution of periphyton increases uncertainty in these estimates. Moreover, while the approaches used for these initial estimates were informative, a resolved approach for addressing areas of uncertainty is critically needed for coastal wetland ecosystems. Once resolved, these C balance estimates, in conjunction with an understanding of drivers and key ecosystem feedbacks, can inform cross-system studies of ecosystem response to long-term changes in climate, hydrologic management, and other land use along coastlines

  9. Budget Update: June 3, 2010. Report 10-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfork, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    On May 14, Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger released the May Revision to the proposed budget for the current year (2009-10) and budget year (2010-11). State finances have continued a three-year decline, with anticipated General Fund spending of $83 billion, their lowest in six years. To address the budget shortfall, the Governor proposes major…

  10. Execution of local budgets in 2014: tension is not decreasing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ivanovna Povarova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Vladimir Putin’s “May decrees” have received the status of a national goal. On the background of decreasing economic performance exacerbated by external shocks, the implementation of these decrees has become a heavy burden for regional budgets without an adequate financial support from the federal budget. As a result, almost every Russian region has suffered losses by the end of 2014. The fallacy of the ongoing course of budget policy has long been criticized by many leading scholars and experts; moreover, they proposed positive recommendations on the development of alternative policies. Unfortunately, the results of 2014 prove that the RF Government has not abandoned the policy of budget consolidation. On the contrary, gratuitous financial assistance to the regions is actively transformed into debt financing in the form of budget loans. However, the regional authorities can rely on this quasi-support, which is a temporary factor, only provided that the budget is deficit-free and at the expense of abandonment of spending on economic development and on the improvement of welfare of the population. The results of the analysis of the facts indicate that the budget-related problems of the regions, arising largely from the inefficient federal budget policy, have reached the critical level. One fourth of the subjects that had a predominant share of market debt turned out to be in a pre-default state. The breakdown of public finances has affected the most prosperous regions, which is contrary to the paradigm of sustainable regional development. The regions entered the crisis of 2014 with huge debt and budget deficit; the situation was not so grave during the financial and economic crisis of 2009. In terms of the upcoming 10% cut of federal budget expenditures [5], the subjects of the Russian Federation can hardly expect an increase in financial support. They will obviously have to adapt their budgets to the changing economic situation. But in

  11. Update on the Governor's Proposed 2009-10 Budget. Report 09-01

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfork, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    On December 31, 2008, Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger released the summary of his proposed budget for fiscal year 2009-10, including proposed changes to the current year (2008-09) budget. The complete budget was released on January 9, 2009. The budget plans assume current-year General Fund revenues of $91 billion--down from September's $102 billion…

  12. WORK EXPERIENCE OF THE OPERA TIVE INFORMATION SUPPORT SERVICE FOR SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH A T THE MEDICAL RADIOLOGICAL RESEARCH CENTER NAMED AFTER A.F . TSYB – BRANCH OF THE FEDERAL STATE BUDGET INSTITUTION "NATIONAL MEDICAL RESEARCH RADIOLOGICAL CENTER” OF T

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P. Savina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:The Operative Information Support Service for Scientific Research of the Medical Radiological Research Center named after A. F. Tsyb — Branch of the FSBI «National Medical Research Radiological Center” of the RF Health Ministry presented a report on providing off-budget support for scientific activities over the period from 1993 to 2014 using domestic and foreign information resources. The dynamics of employee activities in institutional sectors with aim to receive financial support for fundamental and applied scientific research on a competitive and non-competitive basis was given. The analysis of the obtained data indicated that a multi-channeling in off-budget funding was formed. It also showed to some extent a situation at the open market of grants in the field of medical radiology, radiobiology, and radiation epidemiology among leading investors in intellectual products.

  13. TREASURY EXECUTION OF LOCAL SPENDING BUDGETS: PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Dema, Dmitry; Feshchenko, Natalya

    2014-01-01

    The theoretical and practical aspects of using a treasury management system for servicing of local budgets are considered; the role of treasury bodies in routine management of local finances is defined. Current problems of treasury-based execution of local spending budgets are investigated and main deregulating factors affecting the procedure of cash execution of budgets are arranged in a system.Ways to improve budget funds management at the local level are proposed including: improvement of ...

  14. Restructuring the budget for the Fleet Modernization Program (FMP)

    OpenAIRE

    Zerbe, Jeffrey N.

    1996-01-01

    Management The Fleet Modernization Program (FMP) provides a systematic structure for planning, programming, budgeting, and installing improvements to ships of the active and reserve fleets. The procedures for budgeting and executing the FMP are governed by the rules of the current FMP Fiscal Appropriation. Since Fiscal Year (FY) 1989, a series of FMP appropriation decisions has resulted in each budget year program being budgeted and executed differently. These decisions have directly affec...

  15. The European Union Budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrvoje Šimović

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the current budgetary system of the EU, its features and the differences in it from the budgets of nation states, particularly from the standpoint of budgetary revenue and expenditure. Below there is an analysis of the system of the redistribution of EU budgetary resources via the Structural Funds, leading to different net positions of the member states in the use of budgetary resources. The object of the system is to achieve the maximum economic and social cohesion within the EU. The article points out that processes of EU enlargement and the creation of a new “financial perspective” will lead to many problems in the fulfilment of these objectives.

  16. 78 FR 19193 - Richard Phillips, Currently Incarcerated at: Inmate No. 81783-079, FCI Ray Brook Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Richard Phillips, Currently Incarcerated at: Inmate No. 81783- 079, FCI.... District Court, Eastern District of New York, Richard Phillips (``Phillips'') was convicted of violating...)) (``IEEPA''). Specifically, Phillips was convicted of knowingly, intentionally and willfully attempting to...

  17. Spatial frequency domain error budget

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauschildt, H; Krulewich, D

    1998-08-27

    The aim of this paper is to describe a methodology for designing and characterizing machines used to manufacture or inspect parts with spatial-frequency-based specifications. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, one of our responsibilities is to design or select the appropriate machine tools to produce advanced optical and weapons systems. Recently, many of the component tolerances for these systems have been specified in terms of the spatial frequency content of residual errors on the surface. We typically use an error budget as a sensitivity analysis tool to ensure that the parts manufactured by a machine will meet the specified component tolerances. Error budgets provide the formalism whereby we account for all sources of uncertainty in a process, and sum them to arrive at a net prediction of how "precisely" a manufactured component can meet a target specification. Using the error budget, we are able to minimize risk during initial stages by ensuring that the machine will produce components that meet specifications before the machine is actually built or purchased. However, the current error budgeting procedure provides no formal mechanism for designing machines that can produce parts with spatial-frequency-based specifications. The output from the current error budgeting procedure is a single number estimating the net worst case or RMS error on the work piece. This procedure has limited ability to differentiate between low spatial frequency form errors versus high frequency surface finish errors. Therefore the current error budgeting procedure can lead us to reject a machine that is adequate or accept a machine that is inadequate. This paper will describe a new error budgeting methodology to aid in the design and characterization of machines used to manufacture or inspect parts with spatial-frequency-based specifications. The output from this new procedure is the continuous spatial frequency content of errors that result on a machined part. If the machine

  18. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 97 - Final Section 126 Rule: Trading Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Final Section 126 Rule: Trading Budget... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS Pt. 97, App. C Appendix C to Part 97—Final Section 126 Rule: Trading Budget ST F126-EGU F126-NEGU Total DC 207...

  19. 40 CFR 97.86 - Withdrawal from NOX Budget Trading Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Withdrawal from NOX Budget Trading... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS Individual Unit Opt-ins. § 97.86 Withdrawal from NOX Budget Trading Program. (a) Requesting withdrawal....

  20. Water-budget methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Richard W.; Scanlon, Bridget R.

    2010-01-01

    A water budget is an accounting of water movement into and out of, and storage change within, some control volume. Universal and adaptable are adjectives that reflect key features of water-budget methods for estimating recharge. The universal concept of mass conservation of water implies that water-budget methods are applicable over any space and time scales (Healy et al., 2007). The water budget of a soil column in a laboratory can be studied at scales of millimeters and seconds. A water-budget equation is also an integral component of atmospheric general circulation models used to predict global climates over periods of decades or more. Water-budget equations can be easily customized by adding or removing terms to accurately portray the peculiarities of any hydrologic system. The equations are generally not bound by assumptions on mechanisms by which water moves into, through, and out of the control volume of interest. So water-budget methods can be used to estimate both diffuse and focused recharge, and recharge estimates are unaffected by phenomena such as preferential flow paths within the unsaturated zone. Water-budget methods represent the largest class of techniques for estimating recharge. Most hydrologic models are derived from a water-budget equation and can therefore be classified as water-budget models. It is not feasible to address all water-budget methods in a single chapter. This chapter is limited to discussion of the “residual” water-budget approach, whereby all variables in a water-budget equation, except for recharge, are independently measured or estimated and recharge is set equal to the residual. This chapter is closely linked with Chapter 3, on modeling methods, because the equations presented here form the basis of many models and because models are often used to estimate individual components in water-budget studies. Water budgets for streams and other surface-water bodies are addressed in Chapter 4. The use of soil-water budgets and

  1. Budget Summary of Changes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation — The Summary of Changes dataset extracted from PBGC's congressional budget justification. It contains all administrative and program increases and decreases including...

  2. 7 CFR 3402.14 - Budget and budget narrative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget and budget narrative. 3402.14 Section 3402.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION... budget narrative. Applicants must prepare the Budget, Form CSREES-2004, and a budget...

  3. ‘FLEXIBLE’ BUDGETS ARE ALREADY BUDGETING PROCESS ANALYSIS OF PRODUCTION COSTS FOR OIL AND FAT ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Shvetz’

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The problems of methodological fundamentals of managerial accounting of manufacturing costs in information provision for budgeting, not only at the enterprise level, but also as it is required by current conditions of advanced control, in the context of structural production units of “responsibility centers” using “flexible” budgets, which are prepared during the manufacturing process are examined. Unlike a simple comparison of the regular budgets (scheduled amount of work divided by regulatory costs per unit, “flexible” budget makes adjustments to the planned budget because it represents the actual amount of work divided by regulatory costs, which is included with the comparison of the amount of work that are not fulfilled, or carried to a greater or lesser extent compared with the expected budget. Thus, “Flexible” budgets reveal the actual extent of the changes compared with the expected budget.

  4. 美国联邦政府2017财年研发预算分析与启示%Research on R & D Budget of the U.S. Federal Government for Fiscal Year 2017

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁明磊; 陈宝明

    2016-01-01

    According to the president’s R&D budget for ifscal year 2017 which president Obama submitted in Feb. 2016, the paper analyzes the investment structure of the America’s ifscal year 2017 R&D budget, as well as the main department distribution and R&D plans. Based on summarized the major characteristics and the main ifelds of R&D investment in ifscal year 2017, it put forward some focus points and enlightenment.%本文根据奥巴马2016年2月提交的2017财年联邦政府预算案,分析美国2017财年研发经费预算的投入结构、主要部门经费分布与研发计划,总结2017财年研发投入的主要特点和重点以及研发投入领域,提出一些需要关注的研发投入方向以及启示。

  5. Budget Increases Proposed for NOAA and Energy Department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-05-01

    In addition to the Obama administration's proposed budget increases for NASA, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the U.S. Geological Survey (see Eos, 90(10), 83, 2009, and 90(20), 175, 2009), other federal Earth and space science agencies also would receive boosts in the proposed fiscal year (FY) 2010 budget. The proposed budget comes on top of the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act's (ARRA) US$18.3 billion in stimulus spending for research and development that can be apportioned between the FY 2009 and FY 2010 budgets. This news item focuses on the budget proposals for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the Department of Energy (DOE). Next week, Eos will look at the budget proposal for the National Science Foundation.

  6. Rules Relaxed on Budget Cuts to Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nirvi

    2011-01-01

    The author reports on controversial new guidance issued by the federal government which will allow districts to make permanent cuts in special education spending. In the past, federal law was interpreted to mean that once a district set its special education budget, it could not be reduced permanently except for very specific reasons. The…

  7. Budgeting for PACS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Lh

    2008-10-01

    There are a number of models for the acquisition of digital image management systems. The specific details for development of a budget for a PACS/RIS acquisition will depend upon the acquisition model - although there are similarities in the overarching principles and general information, particularly concerning the radiology service requirements that will drive budget considerations.While budgeting for PACS/RIS should follow the same principles as budgeting for any new technology, it is important to understand how far the implementation of digital image management systems can reach in a healthcare setting. Accurate identification of those elements of the healthcare service that will be affected by a PACS/RIS implementation is a critical component of successful budget formation and of the success of any business case and subsequent project that relies on those budget estimates.A budget for a PACS/RIS capital acquisition project should contain capital and recurrent elements. The capital is associated with the acquisition of the system in a purchase model and capital budget may also be required for upgrade - depending upon a facility's financial management processes.The recurrent (or operational) cost component for the PACS/RIS is associated with maintaining the system(s) in a sustainable operational state.It is also important to consider the service efficiencies, cost savings and service quality improvements that PACS/RIS can generate and include these factors into the economic analysis of any proposal for a PACS/RIS project.

  8. Budgeting Based on Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Kelt L.

    2011-01-01

    Every program in a school or school district has, or once had, a purpose. The purpose was most likely promoted, argued and debated among school constituencies--parents, teachers, administrators and school board members--before it was eventually approved. This process occurs year after year, budget after budget. In itself, this is not necessarily a…

  9. Managing the Student Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, Martha Lewkus

    1984-01-01

    Looks at the factors complicating the management of student worker budgets in libraries (e.g., the number of separate but interrelated budgets involved). Proposes a budgetary system incorporating double-entry bookkeeping, continuous proving, and combination receipts and disbursements. Considers the advantages of the system and details procedures.…

  10. Learning From Low Budgets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Chinese filmmakers turn small-budget productions into box-office successes Organizers of China’s upcoming film festivals are finally giving recognition to the little guys—low budget films—to encourage a generation of young,talented directors.

  11. Electricity Transmission, Pipelines, and National Trails: An Analysis of Current and Potential Intersections on Federal Lands in the Eastern United States, Alaska, and Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuiper, James A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Krummel, John R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hlava, Kevin J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Moore, H. Robert [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Orr, Andrew B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Schlueter, Scott O. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sullivan, Robert G. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Zvolanek, Emily A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-11-21

    As has been noted in many reports and publications, acquiring new or expanded rights-of-way for transmission is a challenging process, because numerous land use and land ownership constraints must be overcome to develop pathways suitable for energy transmission infrastructure. In the eastern U.S., more than twenty federally protected national trails (some of which are thousands of miles long, and cross many states) pose a potential obstacle to the development of new or expanded electricity transmission capacity. However, the scope of this potential problem is not well-documented, and there is no baseline information available that could allow all stakeholders to study routing scenarios that could mitigate impacts on national trails. This report, Electricity Transmission, Pipelines, and National Trails: An Analysis of Current and Potential Intersections on Federal Lands in the Eastern United States, was prepared by the Environmental Science Division of Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne). Argonne was tasked by DOE to analyze the “footprint” of the current network of National Historic and Scenic Trails and the electricity transmission system in the 37 eastern contiguous states, Alaska, and Hawaii; assess the extent to which national trails are affected by electrical transmission; and investigate the extent to which national trails and other sensitive land use types may be affected in the near future by planned transmission lines. Pipelines are secondary to transmission lines for analysis, but are also within the analysis scope in connection with the overall directives of Section 368 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005, and because of the potential for electrical transmission lines being collocated with pipelines.

  12. Federal Holidays

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — Federal law (5 U.S.C. 6103) establishes the following public holidays for Federal employees. Please note that most Federal employees work on a Monday through Friday...

  13. Who needs budgets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Jeremy; Fraser, Robin

    2003-02-01

    Budgeting, as most corporations practice it, should be abolished. That may sound radical, but doing so would further companies' long-running efforts to transform themselves into developed networks that can nimbly adjust to market conditions. Most other building blocks are in place, but companies continue to restrict themselves by relying on inflexible budget processes and the command-and-control culture that budgeting entails. A number of companies have rejected the foregone conclusions embedded in budgets, and they've given up the self-interested wrangling over what the data indicate. In the absence of budgets, alternative goals and measures--some financial, such as cost-to-income ratios, and some nonfinancial, such as time to market-move to the foreground. Companies that have rejected budgets require employees to measure themselves against the performance of competitors and against internal peer groups. Because employees don't know whether they've succeeded until they can look back on the results of a given period, they must use every ounce of energy to ensure that they beat the competition. A key feature of many companies that have rejected budgets is the use of rolling forecasts, which are created every few months and typically cover five to eight quarters. Because the forecasts are regularly revised, they allow companies to continuously adapt to market conditions. The forecasting practices of two such companies, both based in Sweden, are examined in detail: the bank Svenska Handelsbanken and the wholesaler Ahlsell. Though the first companies to reject budgets were located in Northern Europe, organizations that have gone beyond budgeting can be found in a range of countries and industries. Their practices allow them to unleash the power of today's management tools and realize the potential of a fully decentralized organization.

  14. Electricity Transmission, Pipelines, and National Trails. An Analysis of Current and Potential Intersections on Federal Lands in the Eastern United States, Alaska, and Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuiper, James A; Krummel, John R; Hlava, Kevin J; Moore, H Robert; Orr, Andrew B; Schlueter, Scott O; Sullivan, Robert G; Zvolanek, Emily A

    2014-03-25

    As has been noted in many reports and publications, acquiring new or expanded rights-of-way for transmission is a challenging process, because numerous land use and land ownership constraints must be overcome to develop pathways suitable for energy transmission infrastructure. In the eastern U.S., more than twenty federally protected national trails (some of which are thousands of miles long, and cross many states) pose a potential obstacle to the development of new or expanded electricity transmission capacity. However, the scope of this potential problem is not well-documented, and there is no baseline information available that could allow all stakeholders to study routing scenarios that could mitigate impacts on national trails. This report, Electricity Transmission, Pipelines, and National Trails: An Analysis of Current and Potential Intersections on Federal Lands in the Eastern United States, was prepared by the Environmental Science Division of Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne). Argonne was tasked by DOE to analyze the “footprint” of the current network of National Historic and Scenic Trails and the electricity transmission system in the 37 eastern contiguous states, Alaska, and Hawaii; assess the extent to which national trails are affected by electrical transmission; and investigate the extent to which national trails and other sensitive land use types may be affected in the near future by planned transmission lines. Pipelines are secondary to transmission lines for analysis, but are also within the analysis scope in connection with the overall directives of Section 368 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005, and because of the potential for electrical transmission lines being collocated with pipelines. Based on Platts electrical transmission line data, a total of 101 existing intersections with national trails on federal land were found, and 20 proposed intersections. Transmission lines and pipelines are proposed in Alaska; however there are no

  15. Budget estimates. Fiscal year 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    The U.S. Congress has determined that the safe use of nuclear materials for peaceful purposes is a legitimate and important national goal. It has entrusted the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with the primary Federal responsibility for achieving that goal. The NRC`s mission, therefore, is to regulate the Nation`s civilian use of byproduct, source, and special nuclear materials to ensure adequate protection of public health and safety, to promote the common defense and security, and to protect the environment. The NRC`s FY 1998 budget requests new budget authority of $481,300,000 to be funded by two appropriations - one is the NRC`s Salaraies and Expenses appropriation for $476,500,000, and the other is NRC`s Office of Inspector General appropriation for $4,800,000. Of the funds appropriated to the NRC`s Salaries and Expenses, $17,000,000, shall be derived from the Nuclear Waste Fund and $2,000,000 shall be derived from general funds. The proposed FY 1998 appropriation legislation would also exempt the $2,000,000 for regulatory reviews and other assistance provided to the Department of Energy from the requirement that the NRC collect 100 percent of its budget from fees. The sums appropriated to the NRC`s Salaries and Expenses and NRC`s Office of Inspector General shall be reduced by the amount of revenues received during FY 1998 from licensing fees, inspection services, and other services and collections, so as to result in a final FY 1998 appropriation for the NRC of an estimated $19,000,000 - the amount appropriated from the Nuclear Waste Fund and from general funds. Revenues derived from enforcement actions shall be deposited to miscellaneous receipts of the Treasury.

  16. Global Carbon Budget 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Quéré, Corinne; Andrew, Robbie M.; Canadell, Josep G.; Sitch, Stephen; Korsbakken, Jan Ivar; Peters, Glen P.; Manning, Andrew C.; Boden, Thomas A.; Tans, Pieter P.; Houghton, Richard A.; Keeling, Ralph F.; Alin, Simone; Andrews, Oliver D.; Anthoni, Peter; Barbero, Leticia; Bopp, Laurent; Chevallier, Frédéric; Chini, Louise P.; Ciais, Philippe; Currie, Kim; Delire, Christine; Doney, Scott C.; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Gkritzalis, Thanos; Harris, Ian; Hauck, Judith; Haverd, Vanessa; Hoppema, Mario; Klein Goldewijk, Kees; Jain, Atul K.; Kato, Etsushi; Körtzinger, Arne; Landschützer, Peter; Lefèvre, Nathalie; Lenton, Andrew; Lienert, Sebastian; Lombardozzi, Danica; Melton, Joe R.; Metzl, Nicolas; Millero, Frank; Monteiro, Pedro M. S.; Munro, David R.; Nabel, Julia E. M. S.; Nakaoka, Shin-ichiro; O'Brien, Kevin; Olsen, Are; Omar, Abdirahman M.; Ono, Tsuneo; Pierrot, Denis; Poulter, Benjamin; Rödenbeck, Christian; Salisbury, Joe; Schuster, Ute; Schwinger, Jörg; Séférian, Roland; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Stocker, Benjamin D.; Sutton, Adrienne J.; Takahashi, Taro; Tian, Hanqin; Tilbrook, Bronte; van der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T.; van der Werf, Guido R.; Viovy, Nicolas; Walker, Anthony P.; Wiltshire, Andrew J.; Zaehle, Sönke

    2016-11-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere - the "global carbon budget" - is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates and consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models. We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global carbon budget. For the last decade available (2006-2015), EFF was 9

  17. Budget Automation System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — BAS is the central Agency system used to integrate strategic planning, annual planning, budgeting and financial management. BAS contains resource (dollars and FTE),...

  18. Budget Deficit and Macroeconomics Fundamentals: The case of Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahnim Farajova

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the emergence of rising budget deficit is the main reason forcing economists to investigate the reasons for changes in fiscal balances. The purpose of the paper is to investigate the relationship between budget deficit and macroeconomic fundamentals using data from Azerbaijan. The empirical analysis applies ARDL Cointegration methodology in conjunction with Granger causality tests to provide evidence for both the long and short run dynamics between the variables involved in the analysis. Using the Error Correction specification, there was found evidence of long-run causality running from current account, real interest rate, GDP, inflation and exchange rate to budget deficit. There was also found evidence of short-run Granger causal effects running from current account and real interest rate towards budget deficit and a rather weak causal effect from inflation to budget deficit. However, there is no short – run causality running from interest rate to budget deficit.

  19. Global Carbon Budget 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Canadell, J. G.; Sitch, S.; Korsbakken, J. I.; Friedlingstein, P.; Peters, G. P.; Andres, R. J.; Boden, T. A.; Houghton, R. A.; House, J. I.; Keeling, R. F.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Bakker, D. C. E.; Barbero, L.; Bopp, L.; Chang, J.; Chevallier, F.; Chini, L. P.; Ciais, P.; Fader, M.; Feely, R. A.; Gkritzalis, T.; Harris, I.; Hauck, J.; Ilyina, T.; Jain, A. K.; Kato, E.; Kitidis, V.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Koven, C.; Landschützer, P.; Lauvset, S. K.; Lefèvre, N.; Lenton, A.; Lima, I. D.; Metzl, N.; Millero, F.; Munro, D. R.; Murata, A.; Nabel, J. E. M. S.; Nakaoka, S.; Nojiri, Y.; O'Brien, K.; Olsen, A.; Ono, T.; Pérez, F. F.; Pfeil, B.; Pierrot, D.; Poulter, B.; Rehder, G.; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Schuster, U.; Schwinger, J.; Séférian, R.; Steinhoff, T.; Stocker, B. D.; Sutton, A. J.; Takahashi, T.; Tilbrook, B.; van der Laan-Luijkx, I. T.; van der Werf, G. R.; van Heuven, S.; Vandemark, D.; Viovy, N.; Wiltshire, A.; Zaehle, S.; Zeng, N.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates as well as consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover-change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2, and land-cover change (some including nitrogen-carbon interactions). We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global

  20. Ecosystem carbon stocks and sequestration potential of federal lands across the conterminous United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zhengxi; Liu, Shuguang; Sohl, Terry L; Wu, Yiping; Young, Claudia J

    2015-10-13

    Federal lands across the conterminous United States (CONUS) account for 23.5% of the CONUS terrestrial area but have received no systematic studies on their ecosystem carbon (C) dynamics and contribution to the national C budgets. The methodology for US Congress-mandated national biological C sequestration potential assessment was used to evaluate ecosystem C dynamics in CONUS federal lands at present and in the future under three Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emission Scenarios (IPCC SRES) A1B, A2, and B1. The total ecosystem C stock was estimated as 11,613 Tg C in 2005 and projected to be 13,965 Tg C in 2050, an average increase of 19.4% from the baseline. The projected annual C sequestration rate (in kilograms of carbon per hectare per year) from 2006 to 2050 would be sinks of 620 and 228 for forests and grasslands, respectively, and C sources of 13 for shrublands. The federal lands' contribution to the national ecosystem C budget could decrease from 23.3% in 2005 to 20.8% in 2050. The C sequestration potential in the future depends not only on the footprint of individual ecosystems but also on each federal agency's land use and management. The results presented here update our current knowledge about the baseline ecosystem C stock and sequestration potential of federal lands, which would be useful for federal agencies to decide management practices to achieve the national greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation goal.

  1. Budgeting and Beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Carsten

    Budgets and budget control has been known since the early 19th century1. However the use of budget control was until the beginning of the 1920ies in US primarily related to governmental units and states and to a minor extent to business units in practice. At that time James McKinsey describes...... budgetary control as involving the following: 1. The statement of the plans of all the departments of the business for a certain period of time in the form of estimates 2. The coordination of these estimates into a well-balanced program for the business as a whole. 3. The preparation of reports showing...... a comparison between the actual and the estimated performance, and the revision of the original plans when these reports show that such a revision is necessary. As can be seen from the statement budgetary control includes at the same time a planning and coordination mechanism for actions and performance ex...

  2. Federalism Lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, A. E. Dick

    1987-01-01

    Examines the concept of federalism in terms of its past history and its encouraging future. Calls for a revival of concern for federalism not simply as a convenient administrative arrangement but as a fundamental constitutional value. (BSR)

  3. Federal STEM Educator Professional Development Programs: a discussion of funding, approaches, and implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaull, Aline

    2014-03-01

    Effective professional development is vital to training the next generation of quality science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) teachers. I will discuss approaches used to improve educator professional development under the Higher Education Act and Elementary and Secondary Education Acts. I will examine how federal funding is currently being allocated and summarize some of the programs that are being implemented whose aim is to improve content knowledge and provide disciplinary specific pedagogy in professional development. The recent proposed reorganization of STEM education programs in the FY 2014 budget sparked significant debate among policy-makers; however the issue of quality K-12 instruction has remained important to the physics societies. I will provide an update on these discussions and on the status of federal STEM teacher training programs in the FY 2015 budget proposal.

  4. Why Is the Self-Sufficiency of Urban Districts Budgets Not Growing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ivanovna Povarova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Urban districts occupy a special place in the system of municipalities due to their potential and role in the implementation of governmental economic policy. Possessing the most developed infrastructure, facilities and a good financial basis, large and medium-sized cities accumulate the major part of budget revenues. However, the predominant part of their revenues that amounts, according to various estimates, to 70–85% [1, 6, 15] goes to superior budgets. As a consequence of the reforms of intergovernmental fiscal relations and local government that were held in 2000–2009, cities were left without stable, legislated fiscal revenue sources that were sufficient to fulfill their obligations to the population. Currently, city government can fully dispose of single tax on imputed income, individual property tax and land tax. Significant imbalances in the distribution of budget revenues make cities dependent on the financial assistance of higher levels of public authority and lead to an accumulation of problems. The Federal Treasury data on the execution of urban districts budgets show the stagnation of own revenues in 2011–2014. According to the calculations made by ISEDT RAS, in 2014, the availability of own budget revenues per capita was below the average value in 60% of the capital cities of Russia’s constituent entities (regardless of Moscow and Saint Petersburg. This affected even major centers like Voronezh, Volgograd, Ufa, Chelyabinsk and Omsk. In the Vologda Oblast, the fiscal capacity of residents in urban districts that include the cities of Vologda and Cherepovets was 17% below the national average due to the reduction in the amount of receipts of own budget sources since 2012. In the conditions of acute shortage of financial resources to meet the growing obligations to support citizens, local authorities are forced to make borrowings; this fact limits the possibility of conducting a responsible fiscal policy and implementation of

  5. New law to cut 1986 budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) are among the agencies whose budgets are likely to be cut 4.3% on March 1, 1986, when the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985 makes its first impact.Under the law, the cuts will be implemented across the board by an order from the president. Unless Congress passes legislation to make its own cuts sometime between now and March 1, these cuts will automatically take an equal percentage from every nondefense program, project, and activity not protected from “sequestration” of funds and will automatically take a slightly higher percentage from the unprotected portions of the defense budget. Individual agencies could circumvent the across-the-board cuts by formulating their own plans to distribute their share of the reductions; however, these plans would need congressional approval. These cuts will affect budgets for the federal government in fiscal year (FY) 1986, which began on October 1, 1985. Unless revenues increase substantially, additional and mone severe belt-tightening is in store for FY 1987 and beyond.

  6. Voting behavior and budget stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Vicente

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze how the implementation of the Budgetary Stability Law has affected Political Budget Cycles generated by Spanish local governments. Specifically, we study whether the evolution of debt, budget deficit, capital spending and current spending over the electoral cycle has changed after the introduction of this law. We use a sample of 132 Spanish municipalities with more than 50,000 inhabitants (including the provincial capitals during the period 1995–2009. Our results show that the Budgetary Stability Law has avoided electoral cycles in debt. On the contrary, the adoption of this law has not mitigated the incumbents’ incentives to manipulate deficit, capital spending and current spending with electoral aims. Nevertheless, it has caused a change in the way in which mayors manipulate fiscal policy over the electoral cycle. The opportunistic expansion covered both preelectoral year and the electoral year before the implementation of this fiscal rule, while after that, deficit and spending increases are confined in the election year.

  7. How Career Centers Are Responding to the Budget Crunch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Paul B.; Step, Mary M.

    1992-01-01

    Surveyed career services offices (n=42) to determine effects of current budget crisis and strategies used to make up for deficits in operating budget and to produce a profile of services and population served. Found offices were raising fees, refining focus and efficiency, soliciting outside support, using paraprofessionals more, and doing more…

  8. Budget Update--June 5, 2009. Report 09-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfork, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    With the failure of most of the May 19 ballot measures, Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger has released additional proposed revisions to the current year (2008-09) and budget year (2009-10) state spending plans. The Governor and Legislature adopted an 18-month spending plan in late February, but that budget now has a $24 billion deficit. The…

  9. China Disabled Persons' Federation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    China Disabled Persons' Federation (CDPF), founded in Beijing in 1988, is a national organization of/for all persons with disabilities (PWDs) of different categories in China. Mr. Deng Pufang is currently the Chairman.

  10. Possible impacts of sequestration on federal research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-10-01

    U.S. federal research and development (R&D) activities could be reduced by up to $57.5 billion, or 8.4%, through 2017 because of automatic reductions in U.S. federal funding, referred to as sequestration, that are set to begin in January 2013 under the 2011 Budget Control Act. That is according to a 27 September analysis by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). If defense R&D is pulled from the equation, sequestration could cut nondefense R&D by $50.8 billion, or 17.2% through that same time period, according to AAAS. Under an equal allocation scenario, the Department of Energy could lose $4.6 billion for R&D over that time period, the National Science Foundation could lose $2.1 billion for R&D, and NASA could lose $3.5 billion, according to the analysis, which also notes that states could be hit hard by decreased federal R&D spending. Congressional leaders currently are looking into how to avoid sequestration. For more information, see http://www.aaas.org/news/releases/2012/0928sequester.shtml.

  11. Evaluation of the Impact of EISA Federal Project Investments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judd, Kathleen S.; Wendel, Emily M.; Morris, Scott L.; Williamson, Jennifer L.; Halverson, Mark A.; Livingston, Olga V.; Loper, Susan A.

    2012-12-31

    The DOE's Federal Energy Management Program has been charged by Office of Management and Budget to conduct an evaluation on actual and verifiable energy savings and carbon emissions reductions from federal energy management investments made across the Federal government as a result of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. This study presents the findings from that evaluation.

  12. European Union Budget Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele

    2015-01-01

    The marginal involvement of the European Union (EU) in redistributive policies and its limited fiscal resources have led to a notable lack of attention by EU scholars towards the EU budget and its dynamics. Yet the nature of the budgetary data and their high usability for statistical analysis make...

  13. NOAA seeks healthy budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Susan

    The small, crowded room of the House side of the U.S. Capitol building belied the large budget of $1,611,991,000 requested for Fiscal Year 1992 by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. John A. Knauss, Undersecretary for Oceans and Atmosphere, U.S. Department of Commerce, delivered his testimony on February 28 before the House Appropriations Subcommittee on Commerce, Justice, and State, the Judiciary and Related Agencies. He told the subcommittee that the budget “attempts to balance the two goals of maintaining NOAA's position as an important science agency and addressing the serious budget problems that the government continues to face.”Climate and global change, modernization of the National Weather Service, and the Coastal Ocean Science program are NOAA's three ongoing, high-priority initiatives that the budget addresses. Also, three additional initiatives—a NOAA-wide program to improve environmental data management, President Bush's multiagency Coastal America initiative, and a seafood safety program administered jointly by NOAA and the Food and Drug Administration—are addressed.

  14. Budgeting in Hard Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrino, Frank M.

    2003-01-01

    Interviews with school board members and administrators produced a list of suggestions for balancing a budget in hard times. Among these are changing calendars and schedules to reduce heating and cooling costs; sharing personnel; rescheduling some extracurricular activities; and forming cooperative agreements with other districts. (MLF)

  15. Implementing Responsibility Centre Budgeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonasek, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Recently, institutes of higher education (universities) have shown a renewed interest in organisational structures and operating methodologies that generate productivity and innovation; responsibility centre budgeting (RCB) is one such process. This paper describes the underlying principles constituting RCB, its origin and structural elements, and…

  16. Budgeting Academic Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Watson

    2011-01-01

    There are many articles about space management, including those that discuss space calculations, metrics, and categories. Fewer articles discuss the space budgeting processes used by administrators to allocate space. The author attempts to fill this void by discussing her administrative experiences with Middle Tennessee State University's (MTSU)…

  17. Implementing Responsibility Centre Budgeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonasek, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Recently, institutes of higher education (universities) have shown a renewed interest in organisational structures and operating methodologies that generate productivity and innovation; responsibility centre budgeting (RCB) is one such process. This paper describes the underlying principles constituting RCB, its origin and structural elements, and…

  18. Pakistan boosts science budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Margaret

    2009-08-01

    Government spending on science and technology development in Pakistan will jump by about a quarter in 2009-2010 compared with the previous fiscal year, with big increases planned for nuclear physics and higher education. In late June the country's National Assembly approved a budget of 48.2bn Pakistani rupees (Rs), or about £361m, for new science projects.

  19. 78 FR 3906 - Information Collection Request to Office of Management and Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-17

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Information Collection Request to Office of Management and Budget AGENCY: Coast Guard... Office of Management and Budget (OMB), Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs (OIRA), requesting an... January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Information Collection Request Title:...

  20. 78 FR 42535 - Information Collection Requests to Office of Management and Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Information Collection Requests to Office of Management and Budget AGENCY: Coast Guard... Office of Management and Budget (OMB), Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs (OIRA), requesting... January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Information Collection Requests 1....

  1. 76 FR 58529 - Information Collection Requests to Office of Management and Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Information Collection Requests to Office of Management and Budget AGENCY: Coast Guard... Office of Management and Budget (OMB), Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs (OIRA), requesting... January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Information Collection Requests 1....

  2. 45 CFR 74.25 - Revision of budget and program plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... NONPROFIT ORGANIZATIONS, AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 74.25 Revision of budget and program plans. (a) The budget plan is the financial expression of...) The need for additional Federal funding. (5) The inclusion, unless waived by the HHS awarding...

  3. 75 FR 39283 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for the Office of Management and Budget (OMB...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for the Office of Management and Budget (OMB... complete the requirement or request: 365. 10. Abstract: NRC-regulated facilities and other...

  4. 76 FR 72710 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Announcement of Office of Management and Budget...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Office of Management and Budget Approval; Adverse Experience Reporting for Licensed Biological Products... Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing that a collection of information entitled ``Adverse...

  5. 77 FR 65541 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission to the Office of Management and Budget for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-29

    ..., Office of Management, publishes this notice containing proposed information collection requests at the... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission to the Office of Management and Budget for...

  6. 78 FR 16842 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission to the Office of Management and Budget for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission to the Office of Management and Budget for Review... Education (EASIE) AGENCY: Office of Elementary and Secondary Education (OESE), Department of Education...

  7. 78 FR 45917 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission to the Office of Management and Budget for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission to the Office of Management and Budget for Review...) Performance Reports AGENCY: Department of Education (ED), Office of Vocational and Adult Education...

  8. 77 FR 69813 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission to the Office of Management and Budget for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission to the Office of Management and Budget for Review... Continuing Education Program AGENCY: Department of Education (ED), Office of Special Education...

  9. 78 FR 48862 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission to the Office of Management and Budget for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission to the Office of Management and Budget for Review... of Education Progress (NAEP) 2014-2016 System Clearance AGENCY: Institute of Education...

  10. 78 FR 30900 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission to the Office of Management and Budget for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission to the Office of Management and Budget for Review... Education Act (1894-0001) AGENCY: Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services...

  11. 78 FR 57846 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission to the Office of Management and Budget for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission to the Office of Management and Budget for Review... Final Performance Reports AGENCY: Office of Postsecondary Education (OPE), Department of Education...

  12. NASA's Proposed Budget Sees Small Dip, Emphasizes Innovation and Autonomy in Space

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kumar, Mohi

    2014-01-01

    NASA's proposed federal budget for fiscal year (FY) 2015, released on 4 March, includes new plans to send a probe to Jupiter's icy moon Europa, a ramp up in funding for a mission to redirect an asteroid into near...

  13. Obama Budget Proposal Would Increase Science Agency Funding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-02-01

    Although the Obama administration’s $3.8 trillion U.S. federal budget proposal for fiscal year (FY) 2011, announced on 1 February, would push the federal deficit to $1.6 trillion and include a 3-year budget freeze for a number of nondefense programs, science and technology “are doing very well,” according to John Holdren, assistant to the president for science and technology. While President Barack Obama announced in his State of the Union speech his intention to hold down costs, it “did not mean he was imposing a mindless across-the-board freeze,” Holdren said at a 2 February briefing. “In making the tough decisions embodied in the 2011 budget, he managed to preserve and expand what most needed to be preserved and expanded in the government's investments in research and development, and in science, technology, engineering, and math education.”

  14. FY09-FY10 NITRD Budget Cross Cut

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Science and Technology Policy, Executive Office of the President — This data set represents a cross cut of 13 Federal agencies R&D budget in the area of networking and information technology for FY09 and FY10 brokendown by...

  15. A Guaranteed FiX for the Budget Deficit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Allan Sloan; Fortune

    2012-01-01

    Okay, everyone knows that we've got big federal budget problems. Repub- licans aren't willing to raise taxes to solve them. Democrats aren't willing to cut benefits to solve the problems with- out taxes being increased, and maybe not even then.

  16. Nutrient budget in ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titlyanova, A. A.

    2007-12-01

    Methods to calculate nutrient budgets in forest and grassland ecosystems are analyzed on the basis of a large number of published materials and original data. New estimates of the belowground production in forest ecosystems with due account for the growth of fine roots are suggested. Nutrient retranslocation from senescent plant tissues to growing plant tissues and nutrient leaching from the forest canopy are discussed. The budgets of major nutrients (N, P, K, and Ca) in tundra, forest, and steppe ecosystems are calculated. Nutrient cycles in two forest ecosystems—a coniferous stand dominated by Picea abies and a broad-leaved stand dominated by Quercus robur—are analyzed in detail. It is shown that the more intensive turnover of nutrients in the oak stand is also characterized by a more closed character of the nutrient cycles.

  17. Update on the 2009-10 State Budget. Report 09-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfork, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    On February 20, 2009, Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger signed into law the 2009 Budget Package. This set of bills revised the current year (2008-09) budget and adopted a budget for the upcoming 2009-10 fiscal year. This 17-month spending plan was designed to address a two-year budgetary shortfall of more than $40 billion. The plan contains the…

  18. See-Through Budgets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A more transparent budget is needed to keep track of fiscal expenditures Just what was the massive 3 trillion yuan in revenue collected by the Chinese Government last fiscal year used for? This is a big question swirling around the conversation tables of a nation eager for answers. Most Chinese people are now increasingly aware of the right to know how governments at all levels spend their money and are

  19. The Incredible Shrinking Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.H.E. Journal, 2013

    2013-01-01

    If district technology leaders had a nickel for every time they heard the phrase "the new normal," they'd have all the money they need to run their IT departments. In an effort to help readers think about their budgets in creative and practical ways, "T.H.E. Journal" and the Consortium for School Networking (CoSN) recently convened a panel of CTOs…

  20. Kicking the Can: The U.S. Congress, the Bush Administration and the 2008 Budget

    OpenAIRE

    Doyle, Richard B.

    2008-01-01

    In December 2008, the U.S. Department of the Treasury issued its annual report on the health of the federal budget. The report details the U.S. government's long-term financial outlook, including the biggest fiscal challenge, i.e., the unsustainable growth in entitlement programs. Later the same month, U.S. federal budget legislation for FY 2008 was completed, with passage of an approximately $555 billion omnibus appropriations bill for largely non-defense spending ($70 billion...

  1. Reported Federal Drug Abuse Expenditures--Fiscal Years 1981 to 1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    RD-AI57 836 REPORTED FEDERAL DRUG ABUSE EXPENDITURES--FISCAL YEARS / 1981 TO i985(U) HERCULES AEROSPACE PRODUCTS CO MAGNA UTp BACCHUS NORKS 83 JUN 85...General Accounting Officec°- IReported Federal Drug Abuse Expenditures-- ~ Fiscal Years 1981 To 1985 GAO’s review centers on the Federal Drug Abuse Budget...Summary, a document which describes federal agencies’ budget author- ity and outlays for drug abuse programs, including drug law enforcement and pre

  2. The Cash Flow Budget. Part I--Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehm, Rudy

    1978-01-01

    With the cash flow budget a college store manager can prepare himself and the business office to meet current obligations during periods of cash shortfall. Its development is described and guidelines are offered. (LBH)

  3. The Strategic stakes of budget policies after 2008-financial crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma ZAOUI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the current budget policies during sub primes crisis answering two original issues: bring together the principal theoretical arguments and the analysis of events the most remarkable of crisis. Then, we tackle matters of budget policy from many points of view. Here, the challenge is to highlight the current stakes and future challenges of budget policies on one hand, to smooth economic cycle in the short term; and to back up growth and employment in the long term on the other.

  4. BUDGET AND BUDGET EXECUTION IN THE NORTHWEST REGION OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOAN BATRANCEA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The budget is a tool multiannual financial forecasting both at micro and macro level. In this sense, regional and local government budget is a financial instrument that connects resources to use local funds in order to ensure the prosperity of the community concerned. Construction and especially budget execution highlights the effectiveness of local and regional government. Using a system of indicators correlated reveals income, expenditure and budgetary outturn.

  5. Reforming the EU Budget

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele

    The marginal involvement of the EU in redistributive policies and its limited fiscal resources have led to a lack of attention to the EU budget and its determinants. In this paper I analyse an original dataset containing yearly data on the main macrocategories of expenditure and how they have...... changed over the last three decades (1984-2013). Using time series analysis, I find that the ability to form winning coalitions in the Council, the ideological position of the co-legislators, and some ‘structuring events’ - like the adoption of the Multiannual Financial Framework and the accession...

  6. Marketing with limited budget

    OpenAIRE

    Smirnova, Daria

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research-based thesis was to get an idea how managers of two small resembling hotels of a specific region deal with marketing process with a limited budget. In addition, the aim of the thesis was to examine if hotel managers who were interviewed perceive marketing only in the way of ‘promotion’ rather than marketing research, marketing mix and marketing environment theories. It was also found out if hotel managers of those hotels consider marketing as a key to successful h...

  7. Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-24

    centers in the field of subsurface geochemistry and geophysics. A new activity in computational chemical sciences would receive $14 million. Funding...other purposes.” 61 The NSF is a primary source of federal support for U.S. university research, especially in mathematics and computer science . It...Gonzalez; and CRS Report R44170, The National Science Foundation: FY2016 Budget Request and Funding History , by Heather B. Gonzalez. Federal Research and

  8. Federal Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer consists of federally owned or administered lands of theUnited States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Only areas of 640 acres or more are...

  9. Environmental budget and policy goal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Sang Hwan [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    The assigned budget for environmental sector is quite insufficient to meet enormous environmental demand. Under this circumstance, there is only one way to solve environmental problems efficiently, i.e. to use a given budget efficiently. Therefore, the study on efficient utilization of a given environmental invested finance is needed by customizing a diagnosis of present condition on the operation of environmental budget and environmental investment analysis. In this respect, an entire national budget of 1999 and environmental budget were analyzed in this study. By analyzing economic efficiency of sewage disposal program, integrated septic tank system, VOC regulation, incinerator construction program, food waste disposal program, and recycling program, an efficient budget policy was presented. 19 refs., 18 figs., 169 tabs.

  10. Collection assessment and acquisitions budgets

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Sul H

    2013-01-01

    This invaluable new book contains timely information about the assessment of academic library collections and the relationship of collection assessment to acquisition budgets. The rising cost of information significantly influences academic libraries'abilities to acquire the necessary materials for students and faculty, and public libraries'abilities to acquire material for their clientele. Collection Assessment and Acquisitions Budgets examines different aspects of the relationship between the assessment of academic library collections and the management of library acquisition budgets. Librar

  11. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF BUDGET ALLOCATION IN PUBLIC PROCUREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Yu. Fedorova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the problem of budget allocation in the state order inRussia. Assesses the effectiveness of the financial mechanism of the public procurement business entities, purchasing activities are regulated by Federal Law №44-FZ and №223-FZ. The dynamics of financing the procurement process and reveal its features by using the most common methods of procurement through competitive bidding and without bidding. Identifies the causes of inefficient spending budget as a result of the non-competitive procurement methods by certain categories of business entities. 

  12. Operational budgeting using fuzzy goal programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Mohammadi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Having an efficient budget normally has different advantages such as measuring the performance of various organizations, setting appropriate targets and promoting managers based on their achievements. However, any budgeting planning requires prediction of different cost components. There are various methods for budgeting planning such as incremental budgeting, program budgeting, zero based budgeting and performance budgeting. In this paper, we present a fuzzy goal programming to estimate operational budget. The proposed model uses fuzzy triangular as well as interval number to estimate budgeting expenses. The proposed study of this paper is implemented for a real-world case study in province of Qom, Iran and the results are analyzed.

  13. Motivation in Beyond Budgeting: A Motivational Paradox?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandalgaard, Niels; Bukh, Per Nikolaj

    In this paper we discuss the role of motivation in relation to budgeting and we analyse how the Beyond Budgeting model functions compared with traditional budgeting. In the paper we focus on budget related motivation (and motivation in general) and conclude that the Beyond Budgeting model...... is a motivational paradox....

  14. Substituting Direct Government Lending for Guaranteed Student Loans: How Budget Rules Distorted Economic Decisionmaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Dennis; Miles, Barbara

    1994-01-01

    Congress substituted direct federal loans for federal guarantee of private loans for postsecondary education. Budget savings were overestimated because credit risks, recognition of administrative costs, and increases in administrative and borrowing costs were ignored. Savings could have been achieved by reducing returns to private lenders and…

  15. Global Energy and Water Budgets in MERRA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Robertson, Franklin R.; Chen, Junye

    2010-01-01

    Reanalyses, retrospectively analyzing observations over climatological time scales, represent a merger between satellite observations and models to provide globally continuous data and have improved over several generations. Balancing the Earth s global water and energy budgets has been a focus of research for more than two decades. Models tend to their own climate while remotely sensed observations have had varying degrees of uncertainty. This study evaluates the latest NASA reanalysis, called the Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), from a global water and energy cycles perspective. MERRA was configured to provide complete budgets in its output diagnostics, including the Incremental Analysis Update (IAU), the term that represents the observations influence on the analyzed states, alongside the physical flux terms. Precipitation in reanalyses is typically sensitive to the observational analysis. For MERRA, the global mean precipitation bias and spatial variability are more comparable to merged satellite observations (GPCP and CMAP) than previous generations of reanalyses. Ocean evaporation also has a much lower value which is comparable to observed data sets. The global energy budget shows that MERRA cloud effects may be generally weak, leading to excess shortwave radiation reaching the ocean surface. Evaluating the MERRA time series of budget terms, a significant change occurs, which does not appear to be represented in observations. In 1999, the global analysis increments of water vapor changes sign from negative to positive, and primarily lead to more oceanic precipitation. This change is coincident with the beginning of AMSU radiance assimilation. Previous and current reanalyses all exhibit some sensitivity to perturbations in the observation record, and this remains a significant research topic for reanalysis development. The effect of the changing observing system is evaluated for MERRA water and energy budget terms.

  16. Fiscal Federalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Xingyuan; Ljungwall, Christer; Guo, Sujian

    2013-01-01

    in the Western literature? Second, are there any problems with existing principles of fiscal federalism and, if so, how to refine them? Third, how are refined principles relevant to the Chinese case and what policies should the Chinese government pursue in the future? Based on an in-depth and critical review...... relations is not without controversy. This paper aims to make a theoretical contribution to the ongoing debate on ‘fiscal federalism’ by addressing crucial questions regarding China's central–local fiscal relations: first, to what extent do Chinese central–local fiscal relations conform to fiscal federalism...

  17. Budget Report 2009: Adjustment Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oder, Norman

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on a 2009 budget survey conducted by "Library Journal" in which a random sample of U.S. public libraries were surveyed via mail or fax in October 2008. Those that answered the survey projected a modest increase in budgets for 2009, just 2%, with less than a 1% increase in funds for materials, a predictable area for cuts. That…

  18. PingFederate

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — PingFederate Server provides Identity Federation and Single Sign On Capabilities. Federated identity management (or identity federation) enables enterprises to...

  19. FLEXIBLE BUDGET OF SPORT COMPETITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Vukasović

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Manager of sport competition has right to decide and also to take responsibility for costs, income and financial results. From economic point of wiev flexible budget and planning cost calculations is top management base for analyzing success level of sport competition. Flexible budget is made before sport competition with few output level, where one is always from static plan-master plan. At the end of competition when we have results, we make report of plan executing and we also analyzing plan variances. Results of comparation between achieved and planning level of static budget can be acceptable if achieved level is approximate to budget level or if we analyzing results from gross or net income. Flexible budget become very important in case of world eco- nomic crises

  20. RESPONSIBILITY CENTERS AND ENTITY BUDGETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BÎRCĂ ALIONA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The investigation on relationships between responsibility centers and budgets supposes examining the influence of management control over the entity management structures. Thus, responsibility centers help to streamline the management structure and ensure the implementation of the budget system into practice. Budgeting refers to the transformation of financial plans into monetary units. The pragmatic approach of the relationship between responsibility centers and budgets is analyzed on the basis of Romanian entities in the regulated market of the Bucharest Stock Exchange. The fact that entities which show the management structure and at the same time show the income and expense budget makes us claim that both have an important role to play in implementing the entity strategies.

  1. Federation of Malaysia. Country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, L

    1985-01-01

    The 1984 population of Malaysia has been estimated at 14.7 million and the population growth rate averaged 2.3% in 1970-80. Population growth is officially encouraged to form a substantial home market for economic development. Toward this end, the 1985 budget has increased tax deductions for families with 5 children. The capital city of Kuala Lumpur is the largest metropolitan area (1 million population) and the Federal Territory is the most densely populated region. Immigration is strictly controlled by the government, and the percentage of foreign-born citizens was 5% in 1980. China, India, and Pakistan are decreasing in importance as countries of origin. Internal mobility, however, is increasing. Rural-rural migration accounted for 45% of internal migration in 1970-80 and was largely motivated by family reasons. Only 7% of Malaysians are estimated to move in search of work. Racial tensions led the government to grant special economic privileges to native-born Islamic Malays. The greatest proportion of the population is centered in the lowest age groups. The percentage of females 15-29 years of age rose from 26% in 1970 to 30% in 1980 and is expected to continue to rise. Fertility is on the decline. The majority of households in the country involve nuclear families. There has been an increase in the number of men and women who delay marriage or remain single. Education is widely available for children aged 6-15 years and those who meet certain academic standards receive free education up to age 19 years. The current labor force is estimated at 5.4 million, with an annual growth rate of 3.1%. Malaysia's per capita income (US $1860 in 1982) is among the highest in Southeast Asia and the gross national product increased by an average annual rate of 8% in 1970-81. The government plans to move toward the development of heavier industries and more manufacturing concerns.

  2. Appendix E - GPRA06 federal energy management program documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The mission of the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is to promote energy security, environmental stewardship and cost reduction through energy efficiency and water conservation, the use of distributed and renewable energy, and sound utility management decisions at Federal sites. [FY 2005 Congressional Budget Request, p. 475

  3. Voting behavior and budget stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Vicente

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze how the implementation of the Budgetary Stability Law has affectedPolitical Budget Cycles generated by Spanish local governments. Specifically, we study whether the evolutionof debt, budget deficit, capital spending and current spending over the electoral cycle has changed after theintroduction of this law. We use a sample of 132 Spanish municipalities with more than 50,000 inhabitants(including the provincial capitals during the period 1995‑2009. Our results show that the Budgetary StabilityLaw has avoided electoral cycles in debt. On the contrary, the adoption of this law has not mitigated theincumbents’ incentives to manipulate deficit, capital spending and current spending with electoral aims.Nevertheless, it has caused a change in the way in which mayors manipulate fiscal policy over the electoralcycle. The opportunistic expansion covered both preelectoral year and the electoral year before theimplementation of this fiscal rule, while after that, deficit and spending increases are confined in the electionyear.En este trabajo analizamos la influencia de la entrada en vigor de la Ley de Estabilidad Presupuestaria en losCiclos Políticos Presupuestarios generados por los gobiernos locales españoles. En concreto, estudiamos si laevolución de la deuda, del déficit, del gasto de capital y del gasto corriente a lo largo del ciclo electoral se havisto modificada tras la introducción de dicha ley. Para ello utilizamos una muestra formada por132 municipios españoles con más de 50.000 habitantes (incluidas las capitales de provincia durante elperiodo 1995‑2009. Nuestros resultados muestran que la Ley de Estabilidad Presupuestaria ha evitado lacreación de Ciclos Políticos Presupuestarios en la deuda. Por el contrario, la aprobación de dicha ley noha atenuado los incentivos de los políticos para manipular el déficit, el gasto de capital y el gasto corriente conla finalidad de permanecer en el poder

  4. Discovery and New Frontiers Project Budget Analysis Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhouse, Marilyn E.

    2011-01-01

    The Discovery and New Frontiers (D&NF) programs are multi-project, uncoupled programs that currently comprise 13 missions in phases A through F. The ability to fly frequent science missions to explore the solar system is the primary measure of program success. The program office uses a Budget Analysis Tool to perform "what-if" analyses and compare mission scenarios to the current program budget, and rapidly forecast the programs ability to meet their launch rate requirements. The tool allows the user to specify the total mission cost (fixed year), mission development and operations profile by phase (percent total mission cost and duration), launch vehicle, and launch date for multiple missions. The tool automatically applies inflation and rolls up the total program costs (in real year dollars) for comparison against available program budget. Thus, the tool allows the user to rapidly and easily explore a variety of launch rates and analyze the effect of changes in future mission or launch vehicle costs, the differing development profiles or operational durations of a future mission, or a replan of a current mission on the overall program budget. Because the tool also reports average monthly costs for the specified mission profile, the development or operations cost profile can easily be validate against program experience for similar missions. While specifically designed for predicting overall program budgets for programs that develop and operate multiple missions concurrently, the basic concept of the tool (rolling up multiple, independently-budget lines) could easily be adapted to other applications.

  5. Creeping Federalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sweeney, Richard J.

    2003-01-01

    that make taxharmonization difficult to impose. Other types of harmonization have a less clear-cut costbenefitanalysis. A federal commercial code that is uniform across member states reducestransaction and information costs, compared to leaving important code issues to memberstates; further, many states may...

  6. 77 FR 35391 - Franklin Budget Car Sales, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... Franklin Budget Car Sales, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment AGENCY: Federal... costs, sales statistics, inventories, formulas, patterns, devices, manufacturing processes, or customer... Budget Car Sales, Inc., also doing business as Franklin Toyota/Scion (``Franklin Toyota''). The proposed...

  7. Budget update: Future is looking gloomier for science

    Science.gov (United States)

    As the wheels of the new Republican-controlled Congress have been turning, it looks like belts are indeed going to be tighter around U.S. research and development budgets. In mid-March, the House Budget Committee voted to cut $100 billion over the next five years from federal agency budgets and published guidelines for how this could be done. NASA's Earth Observing System and the U.S. Geological Survey were again mentioned as potential targets and so was the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. If the reduction bill goes the legislative mile, the appropriations committees in each house of Congress will have to figure out where the cuts will fall. Republican and Democratic members of the House Science Committee quickly jumped into the traditional fray with their respective “Views and Estimates” on how science dollars should be doled out for fiscal year 1996. President Clinton has also jumped in the budget-cutting game with the release last week of a plan to cut $13 billion from four federal agencies over the next 5 years. In the meantime, a rescission bill for FY 1995 has been on the fast track through Congress. Here are some of the latest highlights:

  8. Capital Budgeting Evaluation Practices of Building Contractors in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.C Lam

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of an investigation into capital budgeting evaluation practicesin the construction industry of Hong Kong. The aim of this study was to identify thepopularity and extent of usage of various techniques for capital budget evaluation, investmentappraisal, risk analysis, and management science. The current study was comparedwith a similar survey conducted in 1994 to establish the changes in the capital budgetingevaluation practices of contracting firms over time. The results indicate that there was ageneral increase in the popularity and extent of usage in certain capital budget evaluationtechniques such as “best/worst estimate” and “formal financial evaluation”. In addition,the evaluation techniques examined were fitted into a discriminant function analysis (DFA,and a model has been developed which allows contracting firms to be classified accordingto their predominant characteristics in capital budget evaluation.

  9. Program Direction FY 2017 Budget At-A-Glance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-03-01

    Program Direction enables EERE to maintain and support a world-class federal workforce to accomplish its mission of creating and sustaining American leadership in the sustainable transportation, renewable power, and energy efficiency sectors. The FY 2017 Program Direction budget request provides resources for program and project management, administrative support, contract administration, human capital management, headquarters and field site non-laboratory facilities and infrastructure, and contractor support.

  10. Report of the Federal Internetworking Requirements Panel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-05-31

    The Federal Internetworking Requirements Panel (FIRP) was established by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to reassess Federal requirements for open systems networks and to recommend policy on the Government`s use of networking standards. The Panel was chartered to recommend actions which the Federal Government can take to address the short and long-term issues of interworking and convergence of networking protocols--particularly the Internet Protocol Suite (IPS) and Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) protocol suite and, when appropriate, proprietary protocols. The Panel was created at the request of the Office of Management and Budget in collaboration with the Federal Networking Council and the Federal Information Resources Management Policy Council. The Panel`s membership and charter are contained in an appendix to this report.

  11. GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget (SRB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NASA/GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) Release-3.0 data sets contains global 3-hourly, daily, monthly/3-hourly, and monthly averages of surface and top-of...

  12. Congress smiles on research budgets

    CERN Multimedia

    Reichhardt, T

    1998-01-01

    Congress has agreed to match or exceed most of the funding requests for the major science agencies requested by President Clinton in February. Many of them will receive their largest budget increases for years (11 paragraphs).

  13. Increase voted to NSF Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    The Subcommittee on Science, Research, and Technology of the House Committee on Science and Technology voted by a narrow margin on March 10 to increase the National Science Foundation (NSF) budget authorization by $30 million, pushing the total budget to $1099.5 million. The increase is targeted solely for science and engineering education (see table). Although the total for research and related activities in NSF remained the same as in President Reagan's budget request, the subcommittee shifted funds among directorates, including an $8.9 million decrease from the budget of the Directorate for Astronomical, Atmospheric, Earth, and Ocean Sciences (AAEO). The subcommittee action also calls for $1.6 million to be allocated to United States participation in the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (NASA).

  14. US physics suffers budget setbacks

    CERN Multimedia

    Gwynne, Peter

    2007-01-01

    "The US has slashed funding for the International Linear Collider (ILC) by 75% as the budget for 2008 has been finally agreed between the Republican Bush Administration and Democratic Cngress. The new budget legislation, which US president George W. Bush is expected to signe by 31 December, will see up to 200 scientists at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilag) lose their jobs." (2 pages)

  15. Why Do School District Budget Referenda Fail?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.; Ehrenberg, Randy A.; Smith, Christopher L.; Zhang, Liang

    2004-01-01

    Our article analyzes historical data for New York State on the percentage of school board budget proposals that are defeated each year and panel data that we have collected on budget vote success for individual school districts in the state. We find that changes in state aid have little impact on budget vote success. Defeating a budget in one year…

  16. 土木工程专业预算课程设计的教学现状与改进措施——以沈阳建筑大学为例%The Current Teaching Situations and Improving Measures of Civil Engineering Project Budget Task Design --Take Shenyang Jianzhu University as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘莉; 贾世龙; 许伟

    2012-01-01

    In combination with the features of civil engineering major curriculum design and employment of the graduates in this major, this article provides a synthetical analysis of the current situations and existing problems of the course "Civil Engineer/ug Project Budget Task Design". To solve the practica/problems existing in the course "Civil Engineering Project Budget Task Design", this article puts forward improving measures in the aspects of course design, teaching methods, internship session and computerization.%结合土木工程专业课程设置及学生就业特点,综合分析了土木工程预算课程设计现状及存在的问题。针对目前预算课程设计存在的实际问题,就课程设置、教学方法、实践环节及推行电算化方面提出了具体的改进措施。

  17. Features of Budget Execution in Public Institutions’ Budgets Entirely Funded by Public and Local Budgets; Case Study in an Educational Institution

    OpenAIRE

    Popa Ionela

    2012-01-01

    Budgeting, a set of steps taken by state competent bodies in order to materialize the financial policy applied by governmental authority, takes place in the following stages: setting out the budget statement, approving the budget, budget execution, budget execution completion, controlling and approving budget execution completion. Budget execution is described in specialized literature especially as a stage in the budgeting process in the components of the national public budget (public budge...

  18. DRAWING UP THE FINANCIAL BUDGET IN THE CASE OF A PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION COMPANY

    OpenAIRE

    Sorin Adrian Achim; Monica Violeta Achim; Mirela-Oana Pintea; Alin - Ionel Ienciu

    2008-01-01

    The drawing up of the companies’ budget represents one of the mostimportant instruments through which is accomplished an efficieny management, theevaluation of companies’ performances and personnel motivatio. Public localtransportation companies usually use budgets as comparison benchmarks for theperformances they obtain in their current activity. These bidgets represent anessential part in the unfolding of each company’s activity. This paper presents thedrawing up of the financial budgets wi...

  19. Budget execution (O and M,N) at Navy shore activities

    OpenAIRE

    Donnelly, William Joseph

    1980-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis addresses the budget execution function at Navy shore commands in regards to the expenditure of Operations and Maintenance, Navy (O&M, N) appropriated funds. The paper discusses the basics of management control and links the budget execution function thereto. The discussion of management control includes an explanation of the Management by Objectives and Results (MOR) model. The thesis also discussed current budget exec...

  20. Addressing Canada's Commercialization Crisis and Shortage of Venture Capital: Will the Federal Government’s Solution Work?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A. Hurwitz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Lack of funding is a major challenge to innovation in Canada’s emerging technology industry. This article will focus on this supply-side challenge within the complex venture capital ecosystem and discuss: i the current shortage of venture capital available to commercialize Canada’s R&D; ii the causes and consequences of that venture capital shortage; iii how the federal government will address this shortage through its innovative 2013 Venture Capital Action Plan, which commits $400 million and seeks to raise at least another $800 million from outside investors; and iv how a separate decision in the federal 2013 budget to phase out federal tax credits for labour-sponsored venture capital funds could imperil the 2013 Venture Capital Action Plan.

  1. Geophysical science in the 1996 budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    President Clinton released on February 6 his fiscal year 1996 budget for $1.6 million. In light of the prevailing move toward a leaner government, science and technology seemed to fare relatively well with a $72.9 billion slice of the pie, which would essentially keep spending at current levels barring inflation.Director of the office of Science and Technology Policy Jack Gibbons commented that the budget—which amounts to a real cut of about 3%—“reflects the President's commitment to investing in science and technology and education.”

  2. The prevalence of Beyond Budgeting in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandalgaard, Niels

      The annual budget has been criticised in recent years. The critics claim, among other things, that the annual budget is not suitable for today's business environment, that annual budgets stimulate dysfunctional behaviour and furthermore that the use of budgets is too costly. This paper examines...... with contingencies as perceived environmental uncertainty, size or decentralization. Instead increased competitive pressure is associated with supplementing the budget with rolling forecasts....

  3. Gender Equality From A Gender Budgeting Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Nyevero Maruzani; Nogget Matope; Efiritha Chauraya

    2012-01-01

    Gender budgeting, which is also known as gender responsive budgeting , tracks how budgets respond to gender equality and women’s rights requirement. This entails investing in and making available mechanisms, guidelines and indicators that enable gender equality advocates to track progress, benefit incidence and show how supposedly gender neutral budgets impact on men and women. The aim of this discussion is to highlight the importance of gender budgeting in addressing gender disparities while...

  4. Forum: Research in power plant technology 1998. Part 1: Current goals of BMBF research funding for energy technology. Part. 2: Consequences of budget reductions for the quality of research and teaching in German universities. Part. 3: Joint research concerning the high-temperature gas turbine. Research objectives and research results of the TURBO Working Group (AG Turbo); Forum: Forschung fuer die Kraftwerkstechnik 1998. Teil 1: Aktuelle Ziele der Forschungsfoerderung des BMBF in der Energietechnik. Teil 2: Auswirkungen von Sparzwaengen auf die Qualitaet von Forschung und Lehre an den Hochschulen. Teil 3: Verbundforschung zur Hochtemperatur-Gasturbine. Forschungsziele und Forschungsergebnisse der AG TURBO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luebbert, E.; Geipel, H. [Bundesministerium fuer Bildung, Wissenschaft, Forschung und Technology, Bonn (Germany); Wittig, S. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Lehrstuhl und Inst. fuer Thermische Stroemungsmaschinen; Keppel, W. [ABB-TDL, Mannheim (Germany); Weyer, H.B. [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), Koeln (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The research activities in power plant technology are presented from three points of view: - First the political basis of energy research in Germany is presented: the fourth programme `Energy Research and Energy Technologies` of the Federal Republic of September 1997 in the paper: Part 1 - Current Goals of BMBF Research Funding for Energy Technology`; - Subsequently the consequences of the need for saving for the quality of research and teaching at universities are described under Part 2 `Consequences of Budget Reductions for the Quality of Research and Teaching in German Universities`; - To conclude with, Part 3, the joint research of industry, universities and large research organizations is demonstrated taking `Joint Research Concerning the High-Temperature Gas Turbine - Research Objectives and Research Results of the TURBO Working Group (AG TURBO)` as an example. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Forschungsaktivitaeten in der Kraftwerstechnik werden unter drei Gesichtspunkten dargestellt: - zunaechst wird die politische Grundlage fuer die Energieforschung in Deutschland vorgestellt: das 4. Programm `Energieforschung und Energietechnologien` der Bundesregierung vom September 1997, - anschliessend werden die Auswirkungen von Sparzwaengen auf die Qualitaet von Forschung und Lehre an den Hochschulen geschildert, und - zuletzt wird an dem konkreten Beispiel: `Forschungsziele und Forschungsergebnisse der AG TURBO` die Verbundforschung von Industrie, Hochschulen und Grossforschungseinrichtungen demonstriert. (orig.)

  5. General Conformity Training Module 2.5: Proactive Role for Federal Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Module 2.5 explains how taking a proactive role will allow a federal agency to more effectively participate in newly promulgated programs under the General Conformity Regulations, such as the emission reduction credits and the emission budgets programs.

  6. (Updated) NCI Fiscal 2016 Bypass Budget Proposes $25 Million for Frederick National Lab | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Nancy Parrish, Staff Writer; image by Richard Frederickson, Staff Photographer The additional funding requested for Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research (FNLCR) in the Fiscal 2016 Bypass Budget was $25 million, or approximately 3.5 percent of the total additional funding request of $715 million. Officially called the Professional Judgment Budget, the Bypass Budget is a result of the National Cancer Act of 1971, which authorizes NCI to submit a budget directly to the president, to send to Congress. With a focus on NCI’s research priorities and areas of cancer research with potential for investment, the Bypass Budget specifies additional funding, over and above the current budget, that is needed to advance

  7. (Updated) NCI Fiscal 2016 Bypass Budget Proposes $25 Million for Frederick National Lab | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Nancy Parrish, Staff Writer; image by Richard Frederickson, Staff Photographer The additional funding requested for Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research (FNLCR) in the Fiscal 2016 Bypass Budget was $25 million, or approximately 3.5 percent of the total additional funding request of $715 million. Officially called the Professional Judgment Budget, the Bypass Budget is a result of the National Cancer Act of 1971, which authorizes NCI to submit a budget directly to the president, to send to Congress. With a focus on NCI’s research priorities and areas of cancer research with potential for investment, the Bypass Budget specifies additional funding, over and above the current budget, that is needed to advance

  8. Cash budgeting: an underutilized resource management tool in not-for-profit health care entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, R C; Edwards, D E; Edwards, J T

    1991-01-01

    Cash budgeting is generally considered to be an important part of resource management in all businesses. However, respondents to a survey of not-for-profit health care entities revealed that some 40 percent of the participants do not currently prepare cash budgets. Where budgeting occurred, the cash forecasts covered various time frames, and distribution of the document was inconsistent. Most budgets presented cash receipts and disbursements according to operating, investing, and financing activities--a format consistent with the year-end cash flow statement. By routinely preparing monthly cash budgets, the not-for-profit health care entity can project cash inflow/outflow or position with anticipated cash insufficiencies and surpluses. The budget should be compared each month to actual results to evaluate performance. The magnitude and timing of cash flows is much too critical to be left to chance.

  9. The Implications of Federal Education Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Clifton; Cosand, Joseph

    The significant role of the federal government in the support of higher education is noted in a survey of the development and changing patterns of federal support, and a critical review of the directions of current federal policy is offered. Implications are drawn about the effects of this policy on such national concerns as providing equal…

  10. An Analysis and Allocation System for Library Collections Budgets: The Comprehensive Allocation Process (CAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Lucy Eleonore; Blosser, John

    2012-01-01

    The "Comprehensive Allocation Process" (CAP) is a reproducible decision-making structure for the allocation of new collections funds, for the reallocation of funds within stagnant budgets, and for budget cuts in the face of reduced funding levels. This system was designed to overcome common shortcomings of current methods. Its philosophical…

  11. The advancement of regulation fee, budget system, and set-up time management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, J. S.; Choi, E. S.; Cho, J. I.; Jung, S. C.; Lee, J. H. [Caleb and Company, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-15

    Analyze the government's charging fee amendment and suggest the national regulation fee system. Suggest the future business portfolio based in the current business analysis. Design the advanced budget code structure, the performance management of the project budget and the survice level agreement between divisions. Develop the time management and the methodology of the standard man-hour calculation.

  12. An Analysis and Allocation System for Library Collections Budgets: The Comprehensive Allocation Process (CAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Lucy Eleonore; Blosser, John

    2012-01-01

    The "Comprehensive Allocation Process" (CAP) is a reproducible decision-making structure for the allocation of new collections funds, for the reallocation of funds within stagnant budgets, and for budget cuts in the face of reduced funding levels. This system was designed to overcome common shortcomings of current methods. Its philosophical…

  13. [Concept of budget-based remuneration system for the fields of psychiatry and psychotherapy, psychosomatic medicine and psychotherapy, child and adolescent psychiatry and psychotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    A new remuneration system is currently being developed for the hospital care of people with mental disorders. Last year, because of sharp criticism the option phase of the planned Flat-rate Charges in Psychiatry and Psychosomatics (Pauschalierende Entgelte Psychiatrie und Psychosomatik, PEPP) was extended by 2 years. During this time the Federal Ministry of Health wants to look for alternatives and possible starting points for the further development of care. Now, 16 scientific professional associations and organisations have presented a joint concept for a sustainable solution: the budget-based remuneration system. The system is suitable for ensuring that people with mental disorders are treated according to their particular needs and for promoting the appropriate further development of regional care in all treatment settings. It corresponds with the objectives as formulated in Section 17d of the Hospital Finance Act (Krankenhausfinanzierungsgesetz, KHG) and translates the PEPP system, which is currently being developed and focusses on average prices, into a performance-oriented, transparent budgetary system. The fundamental principle is the separation of the individual hospitals' budgeting on the basis of evidence-based, feature- and performance-related modules and billing in the form of advance payments from the agreed budget.

  14. Low-Budget Apps for Students of All Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanWeelden, Kimberly; Heath, Julia

    2013-01-01

    With more than 850,000 apps currently on the market, there are multiple apps that can be used to help all students in music education, particularly those with special needs. This article lists low-budget apps useful for the elementary or secondary general music classroom.

  15. Topics in Finance Part VI--Capital Budgeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laux, Judy

    2011-01-01

    This series on the theory of financial management offers insight into the roles of stockholder wealth maximization, the risk-return tradeoff, and agency conflicts as they apply to major topics in finance. The current article investigates capital budgeting. Much literature addresses this topic, with a number of articles challenging mainstream…

  16. Doing More with Less: Coping with Budget Cuts. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Howard

    2011-01-01

    Budget cuts are common in education, but nothing like the scale that schools have seen in the last two years. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan calls the current situation "the New Normal," meaning that schools will see increasing demands for performance in a climate of declining resources. Most of the literature suggests that schools cannot…

  17. Low-Budget Apps for Students of All Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanWeelden, Kimberly; Heath, Julia

    2013-01-01

    With more than 850,000 apps currently on the market, there are multiple apps that can be used to help all students in music education, particularly those with special needs. This article lists low-budget apps useful for the elementary or secondary general music classroom.

  18. Estimation of Forest Fire-fighting Budgets Using Climate Indexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Z.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2012-01-01

    Given the complexity and relative short length of current predicting system for fire behavior, it is inappropriate to be referred for planning fire-fighting budgets of BC government due to the severe uncertainty of fire behavior across fire seasons. Therefore, a simple weather derived index for

  19. EXECUTION OF BUDGET INDICATORS IN ROMANIA’S PUBLIC BUDGET; IMPROVEMENT METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IONELA POPA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, the aspects concerning the budget process are laid down in Law 500/2002 regarding public finance. According to this law, budget inputs and outputs as well as the specific regulations of a fiscal year are provided and authorized for a budget year by an annual budget law. As to the budgets making up the general consolidated budget, it should be mentioned that only two of them act as laws; they are the law of public budget and the law of public social insurance budget (and implicitly their amending laws. The present paper envisages the analysis of how effective the execution methods of budget indicators is in the public budget which from the perspective of revenues and expenses means the most important component of the general consolidated budget.

  20. The Era of Budget Hotels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    What began as an idea from an Internet posting is now set to sweep through China Asingle posting on the Internet gave birth to a large budget hotel brand.In 2001, the founder of ctrip.com, Ji Qi, noticed an online friend com-plaining that ctrip.com’s hotel reser-

  1. Feminism, Budgeting and Gender Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, S. N.; Ghadai, Sanjaya Kumar

    2017-01-01

    The Fourth Conference on Women at Beijing (1995) underlined the importance of gender mainstreaming; spurring India to provide for separate Gender Budgeting in 2005-06. The Constitution tries to make fine balance between right to equality and positive discrimination for promoting gender justice in India. Yet high levels of Gender Inequality Index…

  2. Budgeting for Food Service Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, John P.; Van Egmond-Pannell, Dorothy

    1987-01-01

    Fairfax County Public Schools, Virginia, runs a food service operation responsible for serving 100,000 student lunches at 179 school locations each day. In addition, meals are provided by contractual agreement to day care centers and private schools. The budget process is explained and illustrated with a chart. (MLF)

  3. Kollektiivne vastutus ja gender budgeting

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Vestlusringi teemad: riigieelarve koostamisel ei arvestata soolist võrdõiguslikkust; gender budgeting kui üks soolise võrdõiguslikkuse jälgimise viise; vabaabielu võib osutuda naisele palju ebasoodsamaks kui mehele; kogukonna kollektiivne vastutus perevägivalla korral. Vt. samas: Aasta 2004 suurte mõtlejate auhinnad

  4. Technology support for participatory budgeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jeremy; Rios, Jesus; Lippa, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Participatory budgeting is a reasonably well-established governance practice, particularly in South America. It is information and communication rich - making it well suited for modern technology support; in addition, the widespread participation of many citizens is difficult to achieve without...

  5. Kollektiivne vastutus ja gender budgeting

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Vestlusringi teemad: riigieelarve koostamisel ei arvestata soolist võrdõiguslikkust; gender budgeting kui üks soolise võrdõiguslikkuse jälgimise viise; vabaabielu võib osutuda naisele palju ebasoodsamaks kui mehele; kogukonna kollektiivne vastutus perevägivalla korral. Vt. samas: Aasta 2004 suurte mõtlejate auhinnad

  6. BASES OF PUBLIC POLICY FORMATION DIRECTED AT ENSURING BUDGET SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Onishchenko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the priorities and public policies that can improve the safety level of the budget of Ukraine have been grounded. Attention on the problems of imbalance and deficiency trends accumulation of public debt has been focused. The detailed analysis of the budget deficit of the European community to further research the main problems of fiscal security has been carried out. The formation of the concept of budget policy should include long-term and medium-term priorities of the state priorities areas have been concluded. Budget policy on public debt must deal with interrelated issues of debt bondage and effective use of public credit, promote economic growth with respect safe level and structure of public debt have been emphasized by author. Debt policy as part of fiscal policy under certain conditions can be a powerful tool to intensify investment and innovation processes in society, promote economic and social development. The reorientation of fiscal policy to address current problems through debt and use it as the basis of investment and innovation development provides an effective public debt management is designed to reduce state budget expenditures on its servicing and repayment, optimizing the scope and structure of debt according to economic growth. The role of debt policy in modern terms increases is clearly subordinate to and consistent with long-term goals and priorities of fiscal policy. There is an urgent development and implementation of effective mechanisms for investing borrowed resources, increasing the efficiency of public investment, including the improvement of organizational, financial, legal and controls. Strategically budget security guarantees only competitive economy, which can be constructed only by recovery and accelerated development of promising sectors of the national economy in the presence of a balanced budget policy. Now there is a tendency to implement only measures to stabilize the political and socio

  7. Unforeseen costs of cutting mosquito surveillance budgets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo M Vazquez-Prokopec

    Full Text Available A budget proposal to stop the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC funding in surveillance and research for mosquito-borne diseases such as dengue and West Nile virus has the potential to leave the country ill-prepared to handle new emerging diseases and manage existing ones. In order to demonstrate the consequences of such a measure, if implemented, we evaluated the impact of delayed control responses to dengue epidemics (a likely scenario emerging from the proposed CDC budget cut in an economically developed urban environment. We used a mathematical model to generate hypothetical scenarios of delayed response to a dengue introduction (a consequence of halted mosquito surveillance in the City of Cairns, Queensland, Australia. We then coupled the results of such a model with mosquito surveillance and case management costs to estimate the cumulative costs of each response scenario. Our study shows that halting mosquito surveillance can increase the management costs of epidemics by up to an order of magnitude in comparison to a strategy with sustained surveillance and early case detection. Our analysis shows that the total costs of preparedness through surveillance are far lower than the ones needed to respond to the introduction of vector-borne pathogens, even without consideration of the cost in human lives and well-being. More specifically, our findings provide a science-based justification for the re-assessment of the current proposal to slash the budget of the CDC vector-borne diseases program, and emphasize the need for improved and sustainable systems for vector-borne disease surveillance.

  8. Capital Budgeting: Do Private Sector Methods of Budgeting for Capital Assets Have Applicability to the Department of Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    Professor Michael Porter and recognize the strategic importance of conducting a Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats ( SWOT ) analysis as part...business use and not 28 expected to be converted to cash in the current or upcoming fiscal year, such as manufacturing equipment, real estate , etc... ANALYSIS .......................................................................5 A. DOD CAPITAL BUDGETING PRINCIPLES AND METHODS..............5 1

  9. President's Fiscal Year 2016 Budget Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Executive Office of the President — Each year, after the President's State of the Union address, the Office of Management and Budget releases the Administration's Budget, offering proposals on key...

  10. Federal technology policy in transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnes, K.H.

    1995-12-31

    This paper discusses federal energy and environmental policies and their impact on the U.S. economy. A brief history of the federal government`s role in developing scientific and technological infrastructure is given. Current trends in technology are summarized, with an emphasis on global aspects, and their impact on the economy is discussed. The need for a national technology policy, including continued research and development funding, is discussed and key elements of such a policy are outlined.

  11. Federal Funds for Research and Development: Fiscal Years 1980, 1981, and 1982, Volume XXX. Final Report. Surveys of Science Resources Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Div. of Science Resources Studies.

    This report is the 30th in a series that covers research and development (R&D) as shown in successive Presidential budgets. The Federal budget for 1982 was unusual in the extent to which it was subjected to change, reflecting the new administration's philosophy to reduce Federal spending. R&D funding data reflect the first series of 1981…

  12. Budget estimates fiscal year 1995: Volume 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    This report contains the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) fiscal year budget justification to Congress. The budget provides estimates for salaries and expenses and for the Office of the Inspector General for fiscal year 1995. The NRC 1995 budget request is $546,497,000. This is an increase of $11,497,000 above the proposed level for FY 1994. The NRC FY 1995 budget request is 3,218 FTEs. This is a decrease of 75 FTEs below the 1994 proposed level.

  13. A Content Analysis of Defense Budget Rhetoric

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    President’s budget. 14. SUBJECT TERMS Defense Budget, Content Analysis, Political Discourse, Budget Rhetoric, Political Communication , Senate Armed...represent the most recent paradigm shift in political communication research (Scheufele & Tewksbury, 2007, p. 10). These three models combine to construct...this study was to fill the gap on political communication by examining whether Congress was responsive to framing by the President’s budget. To

  14. Federal funding of health policy in Brazil: trends and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiani Vieira Machado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes Federal funding of health policy in Brazil in the 2000s, focusing on the Ministry of Health’s budget implementation. Federal spending on health was less unstable between 2000 and 2002 and has expanded since 2006. However, it fluctuated as a share of both the Gross Domestic Product and Gross National Revenue. Federal intergovernmental transfers increased, exceeding 70% in 2007. Meanwhile, the proportion of Federal investments remained low, varying from 3.4% to 6.3%. The highest absolute amount of spending was on specialized outpatient and hospital care. The decade showed a proportionally greater increase in spending on pharmaceutical care. The growing allocation of Federal funds to States in the North and Northeast, especially for primary care and epidemiological surveillance, failed to offset the sharp regional inequalities in per capita Federal spending. The main characteristics of health funding limit Federal health policy governance and pose several challenges for the Brazilian Unified National Health System.

  15. Assimilation impacts on Arctic Ocean circulation, heat and freshwater budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Hao; Mugford, Ruth I.; Haines, Keith; Smith, Gregory C.

    We investigate the Arctic basin circulation, freshwater content (FWC) and heat budget by using a high-resolution global coupled ice-ocean model implemented with a state-of-the-art data assimilation scheme. We demonstrate that, despite a very sparse dataset, by assimilating hydrographic data in and near the Arctic basin, the initial warm bias and drift in the control run is successfully corrected, reproducing a much more realistic vertical and horizontal structure to the cyclonic boundary current carrying the Atlantic Water (AW) along the Siberian shelves in the reanalysis run. The Beaufort Gyre structure and FWC and variability are also more accurately reproduced. Small but important changes in the strait exchange flows are found which lead to more balanced budgets in the reanalysis run. Assimilation fluxes dominate the basin budgets over the first 10 years (P1: 1987-1996) of the reanalysis for both heat and FWC, after which the drifting Arctic upper water properties have been restored to realistic values. For the later period (P2: 1997-2004), the Arctic heat budget is almost balanced without assimilation contributions, while the freshwater budget shows reduced assimilation contributions compensating largely for surface salinity damping, which was extremely strong in this run. A downward trend in freshwater export at the Canadian Straits and Fram Strait is found in period P2, associated with Beaufort Gyre recharge. A detailed comparison with observations and previous model studies at the individual Arctic straits is also included.

  16. 42 CFR 441.472 - Budget methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Budget methodology. 441.472 Section 441.472 Public... Self-Directed Personal Assistance Services Program § 441.472 Budget methodology. (a) The State shall set forth a budget methodology that ensures service authorization resides with the State and meets the...

  17. 40 CFR 35.9035 - Budget period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Budget period. 35.9035 Section 35.9035... ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9035 Budget period. An applicant may choose its budget period in consultation with and subject to the approval of the Regional Administrator. ...

  18. Standards of Excellence in Budget Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Denny G.; Harmer, W. Gary

    This guide describes the Meritorious Budget Awards Program recognizing excellence in school system budgeting awarded by the Association of School Business Officials. The award is designed to help school business administrators achieve a high standard of excellence in budget presentations. Chapters provide the expectations and relevant criteria…

  19. Three-Dimensional Visualisation as an Innovation Approach to Forecasting the City Budget Income

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markuts Yuliya I.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Forecasting city budget income is a very important instrument of the budget management through which it is possible to assume the future financial influence of the current budget policy and economic tendencies for achievement of long-term plans and identify alternative ways of solution of existing problems. The goal of the article is development of a model for complex system analysis, economic assessment of execution and forecasting income of the budget of the city of Donetsk with the aim to make high quality, timely and efficient managerial decisions with respect to the budget on the basis of an innovation approach, which is a combination of methods of interpolation, imitation and three-dimensional visualisation. The result of the study is diagnostics of narrow places in execution of the city budget for the studied period of 2008 – 2012, detection of interconnected budget income items, identification of existing tendencies of execution of the budget income and forecasting the income part of the city budget for the period of 2013 – 2017.

  20. 76 FR 72404 - Adequacy Status of Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets in Submitted PM10

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... [Federal Register Volume 76, Number 226 (Wednesday, November 23, 2011)] [Notices] [Page 72404] [FR Doc No: 2011-30305] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9495-4] Adequacy Status of Motor Vehicle... that the Agency has found that the motor vehicle emissions budgets (MVEBs) for particulate matter...

  1. 75 FR 35027 - Notice of Public Information Collection Approved By the Office of Management and Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Public Information Collection Approved By the Office of Management and Budget June 16, 2010. SUMMARY: The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has received the Office of Management and... increase in the station's FM Digital ERP). (2) Licensees to submit an application to the Media Bureau,...

  2. 76 FR 67764 - Finance, Budget & Program Committee Board of Directors Meeting; Sunshine Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NEIGHBORHOOD REINVESTMENT CORPORATION Finance, Budget & Program Committee Board of Directors Meeting; Sunshine Act Time & Date: 10 a.m., Thursday, November 3, 2011. Place: 1325 G Street, NW., Suite 800, Boardroom, Washington, DC 20005....

  3. 76 FR 55125 - Finance, Budget & Program Committee Meeting of the Board of Directors; Sunshine Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NEIGHBORHOOD REINVESTMENT CORPORATION Finance, Budget & Program Committee Meeting of the Board of Directors; Sunshine Act TIME AND DATE: 2 p.m., Wednesday, September 7, 2011 PLACE: 1325 G Street, NW., Suite 800, Boardroom, Washington,...

  4. 77 FR 56238 - Finance, Budget & Program. Committee Meeting of the Board of Directors; Sunshine Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NEIGHBORHOOD REINVESTMENT CORPORATION Finance, Budget & Program. Committee Meeting of the Board of Directors; Sunshine Act TIME & DATE: 3 p.m., Thursday, September 20, 2012. PLACE: 1325 G Street NW., Suite 800, Boardroom, Washington,...

  5. 78 FR 55300 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for the Office of Management and Budget (OMB...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for the Office of Management and Budget (OMB... needed annually to complete the requirement or request: 365. 10. Abstract: NRC-regulated facilities...

  6. Sequestration: Documenting and Assessing Lessons Learned Would Assist DOD in Planning for Future Budget Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    million in its direct, or mandatory , spending programs. While discretionary programs are typically funded annually through the congressional...appropriations process, mandatory programs are direct spending or entitlement programs. This is budget authority typically authorized by permanent law, rather...Federal Programs Congressional Relations Public Affairs Please Print on Recycled Paper.

  7. 77 FR 40904 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submitted for Office of Management and Budget Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-11

    ... Management and Budget Review; Comment Request AGENCY: Office of Natural Resources Revenue, Interior. ACTION... information from Indian beneficiaries. ONRR performs the minerals revenue management functions for the... royalties and other mineral revenues due. The Federal Oil and Gas Royalty Management Act of 1982...

  8. 78 FR 23569 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Announcement of Office of Management and Budget...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Office of Management and Budget Approval; Electronic Submission of Medical Device Registration and... Administration (FDA) is announcing that a collection of information entitled ``Electronic Submission of Medical...

  9. Some U.S. Budget Gains Likely for Science, but Little Increase for Student Aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLoughry, Thomas J.

    1992-01-01

    The expected fiscal 1993 federal budget requested by the Bush administration is likely to involve meager increases for student aid and biomedical research, increases for Head Start, and major increases for the National Science Foundation and the Superconducting Supercollider. Critics suggest cuts in defense spending be used to provide increased…

  10. 78 FR 8193 - Sunshine Act Meeting; Finance, Budget & Program Committee Meeting of the Board of Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NEIGHBORHOOD REINVESTMENT CORPORATION Sunshine Act Meeting; Finance, Budget & Program Committee Meeting of the Board of Directors TIME & DATE: 2:00 p.m., Wednesday, February 13, 2013. PLACE: 1325 G Street NW., Suite 800, Boardroom...

  11. 78 FR 3410 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission to the Office of Management and Budget for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission to the Office of Management and Budget for Review... Secondary Education Act of 1965, as Amended AGENCY: Department of Education (ED), Office of Elementary...

  12. 78 FR 65716 - Sunshine Act Meeting; Finance, Budget & Program Committee Meeting of the Board of Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NEIGHBORHOOD REINVESTMENT CORPORATION Sunshine Act Meeting; Finance, Budget & Program Committee Meeting of the Board of Directors TIME.... Corporate Scorecard Report D. HUD Counseling Rule E. Grants Report VIII. Adjournment Jeffrey T. Bryson...

  13. Capital budgeting practices in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo de Andrés

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to shed further light on the capital budgeting techniques used by Spanish companies. Our paper posits that the gap between theory and practice might be related to the nature of sources of value and to the efficiency of mechanisms aligning managerial and shareholder incentives, rather than to resource restrictions or model misinterpretation. We analyze data from a survey conducted in 2011, the final sample comprising 140 non-financial Spanish firms. Our findings show a behaviour pattern similar to that reported in prior research for firms in other countries. Particularly noteworthy is that payback appears to be the most widely used tool, while real options are used relatively little. Our results confirm that size and industry are related to the frequency of use of certain capital budgeting techniques. Further, we find that the relevance of growth opportunities and flexibility is an important factor explaining the use of real options.

  14. New York State budget update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-04-01

    The New York State Assembly proposed a 1999-2000 spending plan that rejected Governor George Pataki's sweeping cuts in funding for AIDS and other health-related programs. The proposal would add $12.4 million to AIDS services, including $10 million for community-based HIV-related services. The State Senate has not yet issued its proposed budget. The Governor is expected to be the biggest obstacle to the funding; he used his veto power extensively last year.

  15. USGS Water Availability and Use Science Program - research Towards a national water budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, M.

    2016-12-01

    A key part of achieving the US Department of the Interior's sustainability goals is informing the public and decision makers about the status and trends of the Nation's water resources. To achieve these goals the USGS has implemented a National Water Census (NWC) to provide a more accurate picture of the quantity of the Nation's water resources and improve forecasting of water availability for current and future economic, energy production, and environmental uses. In 2016, to streamline water sustainability activities, the USGS realigned all water availability and use oriented research, including the NWC, within a new Program - the Water Availability and Use Science Program (WAUSP). WAUSP supports producing a current, comprehensive scientific assessment of the factors that influence water availability through development of nationally consistent datasets on the status and trends of water budget components (precipitation, streamflow, groundwater, and evapotranspiration), as well as human water use; improving the current understanding of flow requirements for ecological purposes; and evaluating water-resource conditions in selected river basins, or Focus Area Studies, where competition for water is a local concern. In addition to supporting research that provides water budget component estimates at the smallest possible spatial and temporal scale, WAUSP has supported the development of new methods and techniques to improve estimation of water use through the National Water Use Science project. These efforts include developing a heat budget-based model to improve estimates of thermoelectric water use, evaluating direct and indirect water use associated with unconventional oil and gas production, and developing methods to estimate irrigation consumptive use at both the local and regional scale. Additionally, WAUSP collaborates with federal, State, local, and University partners on a number of other water use related research including the new Water Use Data and

  16. Facilities and Infrastructure FY 2017 Budget At-A-Glance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-03-01

    The Facilities and Infrastructure Program includes EERE’s capital investments, operations and maintenance, and site-wide support of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). It is the nation’s only national laboratory with a primary mission dedicated to the research, development and demonstration (RD&D) of energy efficiency, renewable energy and related technologies. EERE is NREL’s steward, primary client and sponsor of NREL’s designation as a Federally Funded Research and Development Center. The Facilities and Infrastructure (F&I) budget maintains NREL’s research and support infrastructure, ensures availability for EERE’s use, and provides a safe and secure workplace for employees.

  17. The Federal Government Debt: Its Size and Economic Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    Bahrain; Iran; Iraq; Kuwait; Oman; Qatar; Saudi Arabia; the United Arab Emirates; Algeria; Gabon; Libya; and Nigeria . . The Federal Government Debt: Its...for the budget deficit and the interest payment to rise in tandem , which is not surprising since the deficits represents additional debt which

  18. 77 FR 189 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Brand-Name Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-03

    ...-AK55 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Brand-Name Specifications AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DoD... brand-name specifications. DATES: Effective Date: February 2, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr... of Management and Budget (OMB) memoranda and policies on the use of brand- name specifications....

  19. IT Investment Allocation and Organizational Performance: A Study of Information Technology Investment Portfolios in Federal Government Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Ennis Jim C., III

    2011-01-01

    This study examined Federal Government Information Technology (IT) portfolio investments for twenty-seven Federal Government agencies, as provided annually to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) in their Agency IT Investment Portfolio Reports (Exhibit 53), and divided Federal agency IT investments into four categories: Innovation,…

  20. Impact of Medicare's prospective payment system on hospitals, skilled nursing facilities, and home health agencies: how the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 may have altered service patterns for Medicare providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulesher, Robert R

    2006-01-01

    The prospective payment system is one of many changes in reimbursement that has affected the delivery of health care. Originally developed for the payment of inpatient hospital services, it has become a major factor in how all health insurance is reimbursed. The policy implications extend beyond the Medicare program and affect the entire health care delivery system. Initially implemented in 1982 for payments to hospitals, prospective payment system was extended to payments for skilled nursing facility and home health agency services by the Balanced Budget Act of 1997. The intent of the Balanced Budget Act was to bring into balance the federal budget through reductions in spending. The decisions that providers have made to mitigate the impact are a function of ownership type, organizational mission, and current level of Medicare participation. This article summarizes the findings of several initial studies on the Balanced Budget Act's impact and discusses how changes in Medicare reimbursement policy have influenced the delivery of health care for the general public and for Medicare beneficiaries.

  1. Measuring the Economic Impacts of Federal Investments in Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, S; Merrill, S

    2011-08-31

    Measuring the Economic Impacts of Federal Investments in Research evaluates approaches to measuring the returns on federal research investments. This report identifies new methodologies and metrics that can be developed and used for assessing returns on research across a wide range of fields (biomedical, information technology, energy, agriculture, environment, and other biological and physical sciences, etc.), while using one or more background papers that review current methodologies as a starting point for the discussion. It focuses on tools that are able to exploit available data in the relatively near term rather than on methodologies that may require substantial new data collection. Over the last several years, there has been a growing interest in policy circles in identifying the payoffs from federal agency research investments, especially in terms of economic growth, competitiveness, and jobs. The extraordinary increase in research expenditures under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009 and the President's commitment to science and technology (S&T) funding increases going forward have heightened the need for measuring the impacts of research investments. Without a credible analysis of their outcomes, the recent and proposed increases in S&T funding may not be sustained, especially given competing claims for federal funding and pressures to reduce projected federal budget deficits. Motivated by these needs and requirements, Measuring the Economic Impacts of Federal Investments in Research reviews and discusses the use of quantitative and qualitative data to evaluate the returns on federal research and development (R&D) investments. Despite the job-focused mandate of the current ARRA reporting requirements, the impact of S&T funding extend well beyond employment. For instance, federal funding in energy research may lead to innovations that would reduce energy costs at the household level, energy imports at the national level, and

  2. Reorienting programme budgeting and marginal analysis (PBMA towards disinvestment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mortimer Duncan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Remarkable progress has been made over the past 40 years in developing rational, evidence-based mechanisms for the allocation of health resources. Much of this progress has centred on mechanisms for commissioning new medical devices and pharmaceuticals. The attention of fund-managers and policy-makers is only now turning towards development of mechanisms for decommissioning, disinvesting or redeploying resources from currently funded interventions. While Programme Budgeting and Marginal Analysis would seem well-suited to this purpose, past applications include both successes and failures in achieving disinvestment and resource release. Discussion Drawing on recent successes/failures in achieving disinvestment and resource release via PBMA, this paper identifies four barriers/enablers to disinvestment via PBMA: (i specification of the budget constraint, (ii scope of the programme budget, (iii composition and role of the advisory group, and (iv incentives for/against contributing to a 'shift list' of options for disinvestment and resource release. A number of modifications to the PBMA process are then proposed with the aim of reorienting PBMA towards disinvestment. Summary The reoriented model is differentiated by four features: (i hard budget constraint with budgetary pressure; (ii programme budgets with broad scope but specific investment proposals linked to disinvestment proposals with similar input requirements; (iii advisory/working groups that include equal representation of sectional interests plus additional members with responsibility for advocating in favour of disinvestment, (iv 'shift lists' populated and developed prior to 'wish lists' and investment proposals linked to disinvestment proposals within a relatively narrow budget area. While the argument and evidence presented here suggest that the reoriented model will facilitate disinvestment and resource release, this remains an empirical question. Likewise

  3. The effect of motivation profile and participative budgeting on budget goal commitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandalgaard, Niels; Bukh, Per Nikolaj; Poulsen, Carsten Stig

    2009-01-01

    The effect of participative budgeting on motivation is often considered in management accounting research. In this study we focus on dispositional factors of motivation rooted in personality that affect budgeting. Especially we focus on the effect of personality traits in the form of achievement......, power and affiliation motives on budget goal commitment in interaction with participative budgeting. The study is based on a survey among bank managers at different organizational levels of a Scandinavian regional bank and the results indicate that the effect of participative budgeting on budget goal...

  4. 77 FR 43078 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Central Contractor Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... secure and encrypted data with Federal agency finance offices to facilitate paperless payments through... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE... Office of Management and Budget (OMB) a request to review and approve an extension of a...

  5. 78 FR 12316 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Central Contractor Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... secure and encrypted data with Federal agency finance offices to facilitate paperless payments through... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE... Office of Management and Budget (OMB) a request to review and approve an extension of a...

  6. 75 FR 20397 - Work Reserved for Performance by Federal Government Employees; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-19

    ... original notice is available at http: edocket.access.gpo.gov/2010/2010-7329.htm. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET Work Reserved for Performance by Federal Government Employees; Correction AGENCY: Office...

  7. The Impact of Federal Regulations on Research Management in Colleges and Universities: Overview and Summaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, John A.; And Others

    The University of California Research Management Improvement Project (RMIP) was initiated to point out federal requirements and their impacts on the educational institution. The findings are contained in nine separate reports covering case flow; environmental health and safety; federal procurement requirements; financial management: budgeting and…

  8. 77 FR 69627 - Information Collection; Use of Project Labor Agreements for Federal Construction Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-20

    ... submitting to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) a request to review and approve an extension of an... encourages Federal agencies to consider the use of a project labor agreement (PLA), as they may decide... million, in order to promote economy and efficiency in Federal procurement. A PLA is a pre-hire...

  9. The Australian terrestrial carbon budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Haverd

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a study of the full carbon (C-CO2 budget of the Australian continent, focussing on 1990–2011 in the context of estimates over two centuries. The work is a contribution to the RECCAP (REgional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes project, as one of numerous regional studies being synthesised in RECCAP. In constructing the budget, we estimate the following component carbon fluxes: Net Primary Production (NPP; Net Ecosystem Production (NEP; fire; Land Use Change (LUC; riverine export; dust export; harvest (wood, crop and livestock and fossil fuel emissions (both territorial and non-territorial.

    The mean NEP reveals that climate variability and rising CO2 contributed 12 ± 29 (1σ error on mean and 68 ± 35 Tg C yr−1 respectively. However these gains were partially offset by fire and LUC (along with other minor fluxes, which caused net losses of 31 ± 5 Tg C yr−1 and 18 ± 7 Tg C yr−1 respectively. The resultant Net Biome Production (NBP of 31 ± 35 Tg C yr−1 offset fossil fuel emissions (95 ± 6 Tg C yr−1 by 32 ± 36%. The interannual variability (IAV in the Australian carbon budget exceeds Australia's total carbon emissions by fossil fuel combustion and is dominated by IAV in NEP. Territorial fossil fuel emissions are significantly smaller than the rapidly growing fossil fuel exports: in 2009–2010, Australia exported 2.5 times more carbon in fossil fuels than it emitted by burning fossil fuels.

  10. Network interdiction with budget constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santhi, Nankakishore [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pan, Feng [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Several scenarios exist in the modern interconnected world which call for efficient network interdiction algorithms. Applications are varied, including computer network security, prevention of spreading of Internet worms, policing international smuggling networks, controlling spread of diseases and optimizing the operation of large public energy grids. In this paper we consider some natural network optimization questions related to the budget constrained interdiction problem over general graphs. Many of these questions turn out to be computationally hard to tackle. We present a particularly interesting practical form of the interdiction question which we show to be computationally tractable. A polynomial time algorithm is then presented for this problem.

  11. Water Budget, 1983-1985 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maher, Mark (Bonneville Power Administration, Division of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR)

    1986-10-01

    This report encompasses the first three years (1983, 1984, and 1985) of operation. It includes: (1) background and history of the development of the Water Budget concept including a discussion of Water Budget manager positions; (2) implementation of the Water Budget since its formulation by the Council in 1983; (3) a discussion of the research and monitoring funded by BPA; and (4) a discussion of Section 304 of the Council's Program.

  12. Budgeting and Acquisition Business Process Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-07

    Nichols Act reforms (1986) were intended to rectify this situation. Then, with the drawdown after the fall of the Soviet Union, budget offices were...significant constraint as a variable in analyses of the effectiveness and suitability of systems. CAIV is intended to reduce acquisition costs. After ...budget be separated from the overall defense budget. This separation would help prevent the kind of financial whiplash that causes cost overruns

  13. Budgeting for a district VISION 2020 programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Lewallen

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Core concepts of a strong VISION 2020 programme Many eye care professionals view the prospect of budgeting with about as much pleasure as a visit to the dentist! Nevertheless, if VISION 2020 is going to succeed, programme managers will have to acquire some basic skills in budgeting. First, it is useful to identify some of the core concepts of a strong, practical VISION 2020 programme to be considered when preparing a budget.

  14. Low Budget,Big Box Office

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Chinese filmmakers are refining the art of turning a profit from small budget films ORGANIZERS of China’s upcoming film festivals are finally giving recognition to the little guys,to encourage a generation of young,talented directors producing low budget films. Several nominees were announced on September 10 to compete for the Small and Medium-Budget Film Prize at the annual Golden Rooster and Hundred Flowers Film Festival,later in the year.

  15. The Nitrogen Budget of Earth

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Ben

    2015-01-01

    We comprehensively compile and review N content in geologic materials to calculate a new N budget for Earth. Using analyses of rocks and minerals in conjunction with N-Ar geochemistry demonstrates that the Bulk Silicate Earth (BSE) contains \\sim7\\pm4 times present atmospheric N (4\\times10^18 kg N, PAN), with 27\\pm16\\times10^18 kg N. Comparison to chondritic composition, after subtracting N sequestered into the core, yields a consistent result, with BSE N between 17\\pm13\\times10^18 kg to 31\\pm24\\times10^18 kg N. In the chondritic comparison we calculate a N mass in Earth's core (180\\pm110 to 300\\pm180\\times10^18 kg) and discuss the Moon as a proxy for the early mantle. Significantly, we find the majority of the planetary budget of N is in the solid Earth. The N estimate herein precludes the need for a "missing N" reservoir. Nitrogen-Ar systematics in mantle rocks and basalts identify two mantle reservoirs: MORB-source like (MSL) and high-N. High-N mantle is composed of young, N-rich material subducted from the...

  16. The European aerosol budget in 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. J. Aan de Brugh

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the aerosol budget over Europe in 2006 calculated with the global transport model TM5 coupled to the size-resolved aerosol module M7. Comparison with ground observations indicates that the model reproduces the observed concentrations quite well with an expected slight underestimation of PM10 due to missing emissions (e.g. resuspension. We model that a little less than half of the anthropogenic aerosols emitted in Europe are exported and the rest is removed by deposition. The anthropogenic aerosols are removed mostly by rain (95% and only 5% is removed by dry deposition. For the larger natural aerosols, especially sea salt, a larger fraction is removed by dry processes (sea salt: 70%, mineral dust: 35%. We model transport of aerosols in the jet stream in the higher atmosphere and an import of Sahara dust from the south at high altitudes. Comparison with optical measurements shows that the model reproduces the Ångström parameter very well, which indicates a correct simulation of the aerosol size distribution. However, we underestimate the aerosol optical depth. Because the surface concentrations are close to the observations, the shortage of aerosol in the model is probably at higher altitudes. We show that the discrepancies are mainly caused by an overestimation of wet-removal rates. To match the observations, the wet-removal rates have to be scaled down by a factor of about 5. In that case the modelled ground-level concentrations of sulphate and sea salt increase by 50% (which deteriorates the match, while other components stay roughly the same. Finally, it is shown that in particular events, improved fire emission estimates may significantly improve the ability of the model to simulate the aerosol optical depth. We stress that discrepancies in aerosol models can be adequately analysed if all models would provide (regional aerosol budgets, as presented in the current study.

  17. INSTITUTIONAL SUPPORT OF SECURITY BUDGET OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Onishchenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The institutional framework from positions of different conceptual approaches was examined in the article. The attention was paid the problems of institutional support budget security in Ukraine. The institutionalization of budgetary relations and especially the formation system of institutional support was investigated. The author's approach to the nature of institutional support budget security was suggested. Institutional and legal, institutional and organizational, and staffing budget security were characterized. It is concluded that the process of institutional development budget security characterized by unacceptable levels of institutional strain.

  18. OMB Recommended vs Approved Operating Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset includes the Fiscal Year 2015 County Executive Recommended and County Council Approved operating budgets for Montgomery County, for comparison purposes....

  19. Reform of Budgeting for Acquisition: Lessons from Private Sector Capital Budgeting for the Department of Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-30

    Planning Execution Budgeting Programming Planning Execution Budgeting Programming Planning After Solis 2004, 28 However, the story that these diagrams...budget be separated from the overall defense budget. This separation: would help prevent the kind of financial whiplash that causes cost overruns...notes that after nearly twenty years of reform since the Packard Commission Report and Goldwater-Nichols, “major weapons systems still cost too much

  20. 76 FR 79692 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ... Office of Management and Budget Review; Comment Request; Current Good Manufacturing Practices and Related... review and clearance. Current Good Manufacturing Practices and Related Regulations for Blood and Blood... manufacturing, processing, packing, or holding do not conform to current good manufacturing practice (CGMP)......

  1. 76 FR 6620 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    ... Office of Management and Budget Review; Comment Request; Current Good Manufacturing Practice Regulations... collection of information to OMB for review and clearance. Current Good Manufacturing Practice Regulations... authority to issue current good manufacturing practice (cGMP) regulations for drugs, including...

  2. An Analysis of the Role of the Budget Committees in the Congressional Budget Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    Quarterly, 10 Jan. 1987, pp. 44-50. 17. Ibid., p. 44 67 18. Stephen Gettinger, "Party Unity, Not Bipartisanship , Sets Tone for Budget Debate...New in $1 Trillion 1988 Budget Request." Congressional Quarterly, (10 Jan. 1987). "Party Unity, Not Bipartisanship , Sets Tone for Budget Debate

  3. The Australian terrestrial carbon budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Haverd

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a study of the full carbon (C-CO2 budget of the Australian continent, focussing on 1990–2011 in the context of estimates over two centuries. The work is a contribution to the RECCAP (REgional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes project, as one of numerous regional studies. In constructing the budget, we estimate the following component carbon fluxes: net primary production (NPP; net ecosystem production (NEP; fire; land use change (LUC; riverine export; dust export; harvest (wood, crop and livestock and fossil fuel emissions (both territorial and non-territorial. Major biospheric fluxes were derived using BIOS2 (Haverd et al., 2012, a fine-spatial-resolution (0.05° offline modelling environment in which predictions of CABLE (Wang et al., 2011, a sophisticated land surface model with carbon cycle, are constrained by multiple observation types. The mean NEP reveals that climate variability and rising CO2 contributed 12 ± 24 (1σ error on mean and 68 ± 15 TgC yr−1, respectively. However these gains were partially offset by fire and LUC (along with other minor fluxes, which caused net losses of 26 ± 4 TgC yr−1 and 18 ± 7 TgC yr−1, respectively. The resultant net biome production (NBP is 36 ± 29 TgC yr−1, in which the largest contributions to uncertainty are NEP, fire and LUC. This NBP offset fossil fuel emissions (95 ± 6 TgC yr−1 by 38 ± 30%. The interannual variability (IAV in the Australian carbon budget exceeds Australia's total carbon emissions by fossil fuel combustion and is dominated by IAV in NEP. Territorial fossil fuel emissions are significantly smaller than the rapidly growing fossil fuel exports: in 2009–2010, Australia exported 2.5 times more carbon in fossil fuels than it emitted by burning fossil fuels.

  4. Nambe Pueblo Water Budget and Forecasting model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brainard, James Robert

    2009-10-01

    This report documents The Nambe Pueblo Water Budget and Water Forecasting model. The model has been constructed using Powersim Studio (PS), a software package designed to investigate complex systems where flows and accumulations are central to the system. Here PS has been used as a platform for modeling various aspects of Nambe Pueblo's current and future water use. The model contains three major components, the Water Forecast Component, Irrigation Scheduling Component, and the Reservoir Model Component. In each of the components, the user can change variables to investigate the impacts of water management scenarios on future water use. The Water Forecast Component includes forecasting for industrial, commercial, and livestock use. Domestic demand is also forecasted based on user specified current population, population growth rates, and per capita water consumption. Irrigation efficiencies are quantified in the Irrigated Agriculture component using critical information concerning diversion rates, acreages, ditch dimensions and seepage rates. Results from this section are used in the Water Demand Forecast, Irrigation Scheduling, and the Reservoir Model components. The Reservoir Component contains two sections, (1) Storage and Inflow Accumulations by Categories and (2) Release, Diversion and Shortages. Results from both sections are derived from the calibrated Nambe Reservoir model where historic, pre-dam or above dam USGS stream flow data is fed into the model and releases are calculated.

  5. Human papillomavirus prevalence and type-distribution, cervical cancer screening practices and current status of vaccination implementation in Russian Federation, the Western countries of the former Soviet Union, Caucasus region and Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogovskaya, Svetlana I; Shabalova, Irina P; Mikheeva, Irina V; Minkina, Galina N; Podzolkova, Nataly M; Shipulina, Olga Y; Sultanov, Said N; Kosenko, Iren A; Brotons, Maria; Buttmann, Nina; Dartell, Myassa; Arbyn, Marc; Syrjänen, Stina; Poljak, Mario

    2013-12-31

    Limited data are available on the burden of human papillomavirus (HPV) and its associated diseases in the Russian Federation, the Western Countries of the former Soviet Union (Belarus, Republic of Moldova, Ukraine), the Caucasus region and Central Asia (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan). Both the incidence and mortality rate of cervical cancer are higher in these countries than in most Western European countries. In this article, we review available data on HPV prevalence and type distribution in women with normal cytology, women from the general population, cervical precancerous lesions and cervical cancer, as well as data on national policies of cervical cancer screening and HPV vaccination initiatives in these countries. Based on scarce data from the 12 countries, the high-risk HPV (hrHPV) prevalence among 5226 women with normal cytology ranged from 0.0% to 48.4%. In women with low-grade cervical lesions, the hrHPV prevalence among 1062 women varied from 29.2% to 100%. HrHPV infection in 565 women with high-grade cervical lesions ranged from 77.2% to 100% and in 464 invasive cervical cancer samples from 89.8% to 100%. HPV16 was the most commonly detected hrHPV genotype in all categories. As the HPV genotype distribution in cervical diseases seems to be similar to that found in Western Europe the implementation of HPV testing in screening programs might be beneficial. Opportunistic screening programs, the lack of efficient call-recall systems, low coverage, and the absence of quality assured cytology with centralized screening registry are major reasons for low success rates of cervical cancer programs in many of the countries. Finally, HPV vaccination is currently not widely implemented in most of the twelve countries mainly due to pricing, availability, and limited awareness among public and health care providers. Country-specific research, organized nationwide screening programs, registries and well

  6. Performance Budgeting in the Netherlands: Beyond Arithmetic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.K.M. van Nispen tot Pannerden (Frans); J.J.A. Posseth (Johan)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractPerformance-based budgeting seems to be a promising tool for improving the management and accountability of public finances. However, its application causes many difficulties. This article briefly reviews international experience with performance-based budgeting and explores its applicat

  7. THE SUBJECTS OF MEDIADISCOURSE OF BUDGET PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesya Vyacheslavovna Sulina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The author highlights the media discourse of the budget process in its subject-temporal dimension. Place and role of the subjects of media discourse of the budget process are determined on the basis of the analysis of budgetary legislation, practical implementation of the budgeting process in the executive and legislative bodies and its reflection in the media. Public discourse of budgeting process includes not only participants, who are legally empowered, but also other actors involved in the formation of the informational agenda regarding the budget. For example, the subjects of media discourse of the budget process are executive and legislative bodies, regulatory authorities, recipients of budgetary funds, political parties, professional and expert communities, civil society activists. Sociocommunicative description of the budgeting process and its subjects is presented based on analytical and inductive methods. At the same time political journalism is not only a space for the formation of media discourse and reflection of the budgetary process, but also one of the indicators of the state of the political system as a whole. The conclusions present methodological aids for the media discourse analysis of specific cases of the budgeting process and may be used for scientific and practical research.

  8. 7 CFR 1744.64 - Budget adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... another source, requests a deficiency loan, or scales back the project. (b) RUS may make a budget... AGRICULTURE POST-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES COMMON TO GUARANTEED AND INSURED TELEPHONE LOANS Advance and... description of how the adjustment will affect loan purposes. RUS will not approve a budget adjustment...

  9. A Performance-Based Web Budget Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Sayf, Frank K.; Lau, Wilson

    2007-01-01

    A web-based formula-driven tool has been developed for the purpose of performing two distinct academic department budgeting functions: allocation funding to the department, and budget management by the department. The tool's major features are discussed and its uses demonstrated. The tool's advantages are presented. (Contains 10 figures.)

  10. Budget Setting Strategies for the Company's Divisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, M.; Brekelmans, R.C.M.; De Waegenaere, A.M.B.

    1997-01-01

    The paper deals with the issue of budget setting to the divisions of a company. The approach is quantitative in nature both in the formulation of the requirements for the set-budgets, as related to different general managerial objectives of interest, and in the modelling of the inherent uncertaintie

  11. Electronic Reference Works and Library Budgeting Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawal, Ibironke O.

    2007-01-01

    The number of electronic resources has climbed up steadily in recent times. Some of these e-resources are reference sources, mostly in Science, Technology and Medicine (STM), which publishers convert to electronic for obvious reasons. The library budgets for materials usually have two main lines, budget for one time purchase (monographs) and…

  12. Planning Programming Budgeting Systems: PPBS and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzenbach, Edward L.

    Continuous change in education is requiring educational administrators to plan for the distant future with as much precision as they now do for the immediate future. Recently, major advances in the planning-budgeting process have become available to educators in the form of PPBS. Fiduciary budgets, which have been used in most schools since the…

  13. 10 Budget-Savvy Content Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillis, David J.

    2004-01-01

    Facing an overall budget reduction of 10 percent, most colleges or universities would postpone investing in a Web content management system. However, for California State University Monterey Bay (CSUMB), a large budget cut made Web content management even more important. CSUMB found an innovative way to purchase and implement a new Content…

  14. Revised State Budget Sells Kids Short

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children Now, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Administration's May Revision of the 2012-2013 state budget addresses a $15.7 billion shortfall through funding shifts, cuts, and new revenue sources that place children squarely in harms way. California's kids are already grossly underserved relative to the rest of the nation's children. If the May Revise budget is passed by the Legislature,…

  15. LJ's 2010 Budget Survey: Bottoming Out?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Michael

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author presents the results of "Library Journal's" 2010 budget survey. The overall trend in FY10 indicated that 72 percent of survey respondents said their budget had been cut, and 43 percent had staff cuts. Among libraries serving populations above one million, these figures were even more acute, with 86 percent reporting…

  16. The Political Economy of the Budget Surplus in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Alesina

    2000-01-01

    Current surpluses in the U.S. have been achieved by a combination of a strong economy, low interest rates, and sharp cuts in defense spending. These surpluses follow a period (the 1980s) of rather exceptional budget deficit. This paper investigates the origin, size, and expected future patterns of the U.S. budget balance. It discusses how different political forces may generate alternative fiscal scenarios for the U.S. in the next decade.

  17. Involving citizens in public decision making: the case of participatory budgeting in Lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    Liucija Birskyte

    2013-01-01

    In times of increasing public distrust in government and its institutions, engaging the public in decision making may strengthen democracy as well as result in a more effective allocation of scarce public resources. Participatory budgeting has started in Brazil and spread around the world but is a new concept in some countries. The objective of this paper is to reveal the current situation of attempts to involve the public in making decisions on budget allocations in Lithuanian municipalities...

  18. 76 FR 5787 - Federal Perkins Loan, Federal Work-Study, and Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... Federal Perkins Loan, Federal Work-Study, and Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant Programs... Perkins Loan, Federal Work-Study (FWS), and Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant (FSEOG... Federal Perkins Loan Program, Federal Work-Study Program, and Federal Supplemental Educational...

  19. Federal Fleet Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — Annual report of Federal agencies' motor vehicle fleet data collected in the Federal Automotive Statistical Tool (FAST), a web-based reporting tool cosponsored by...

  20. TAP Service Federation Factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hume, A. C.; Krause, A.; Holliman, M.; Mann, R. G.; Noddle, K.; Voutsinas, S.

    2012-09-01

    This paper describes a prototype federation service for multiple TAP endpoints. Users can create a new TAP resource that allows them to query the federation as if all tables were in a single database.

  1. Political Budget Cycles in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Gregor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides research on the theme of the political budget cycles. The goal is to find out whether or not the government tries to manipulate the state budget and its components for the purpose of re-election across the countries of the European Union. In order to verify this theory a dynamic panel data model was used. The results were significant, but only if predetermined elections were not counted into the estimations. In that case, the theory of the political budget cycles could be accepted as valid for the EU countries. The main driving force of the political budget cycles across the countries of the European Union is fluctuation of the government expenditures. During the election year, the government expenditures are higher, and a year after the election, government expenditures are lower. This is reflected into the state budget balance.

  2. BUDGET AMENDMENT – CAUSE AND EFFECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROXANA ISPAS

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes both the causes and effects of budget amendment in Romania, taking into account the Fiscal Budget Responsibility Law. Reduction by 5% of the CSI payable by the employer from the 1st of October 2014 should be necessarily accompanied by a reform of the social security system, starting from the principle of equal treatment of taxpayers irrespective of their type of income and the elaboration and implementation of a medium-term strategy for financially rebalancing the social security budgets, especially the pensions' budget. Such a strategy should aim to increase the number of taxpayers, in particular by reducing "black" labor, and ensure a total transparency of budget expenditures as a whole in order to stimulate the growth of voluntary compliance to payment of taxes.

  3. 2010 Northwest Federal Market Assessment Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scanlon, Tim; Sandusky, William F.

    2011-09-01

    The primary intent of this market assessment is to provide insights on the effectiveness of current energy efficiency and renewable energy program offerings available to Federal sites in the region. The level of detail, quality and currency of the data used in this market assessment varies significantly by Federal agency and energy efficiency service provider. Limited access to some Federal sites, limited availability of key points of contact, time/resource constraints, and other considerations limited the total number of Federal agencies and energy efficiency service providers participating in the survey.

  4. Climate Change and Western Public Lands: a Survey of U.S. Federal Land Managers on the Status of Adaptation Efforts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelli M. Archie

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and its associated consequences pose an increasing risk to public lands in the western United States. High-level mandates currently require federal agencies to begin planning for adaptation, but the extent to which these mandates have resulted in policies being implemented that affect on the ground practices is unclear. To examine the status of adaptation efforts, we conducted an original survey and semistructured interviews with land managers from the four major federal land management agencies in the U.S. states of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. The survey was designed to examine current planning for adaptation on public lands and how it differs from prior planning, the major challenges facing land managers in this region, the major barriers preventing managers from planning for adaptation, and the major hurdles associated with implementing adaptation plans. Our results show that some adaptation planning is currently taking place, but that few adaptation projects have made it to the implementation phase. Overall, respondents considered lack of information at relevant scales, budget constraints, lack of specific agency direction, and lack of useful information to be the most common barriers to adaption planning. Budget constraints, lack of perceived importance to the public, and lack of public awareness or demand to take action were reported to be the biggest hurdles to implementation of adaptation projects. Agencies showed differing levels of adaptation activity, and reported different barriers to adaptation and hurdles to implementation. Reasons for the differences and implications for future research and policy are discussed.

  5. STRATEGIC PLANNING AND PROGRAM BUDGETING IN ROMANIA – RECENT DEVELOPMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D#259;nule#539;iu Dan-Constantin

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper emphasizes the efforts of Romanian authorities to implement program budgeting. Based on the first results, authorities decided to establish a link between strategic planning and budgeting, as a condition for implementing multi-annual budgeting.

  6. A budget impact analysis of natalizumab use in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dee, A

    2011-10-20

    BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis is the commonest cause of disability in young Irish adults. Natalizumab reduces disability progression in those patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis who are suitable for it. First line disease modifying therapies are given in the community and are paid for by the hi-tech drug scheme. Natalizumab is given in hospital and is paid for from the hospital\\'s budget. Access to natalizumab has been problematic in some Irish hospitals. A budget impact analysis was performed to look at the overall cost to the Health Service Executive of giving natalizumab. METHODS: A budget impact analysis was performed from the perspective of the Health Service Executive comparing the use of natalizumab with first line disease modifying therapies for 2009-2011. RESULTS: The study showed that currently, the use of natalizumab is likely to be cost saving to the Health Service Executive overall, because some of the costs for natalizumab are borne by private insurers, whereas, all of the costs of disease modifying therapies are borne by the Health Service Executive. CONCLUSIONS: Although the use of natalizumab is cost saving, current funding arrangements in the Health Service Executive do not allow for the transfer of money saved from drugs paid for in the hi-tech scheme, to hospitals who are supplying alternative treatments.

  7. Federal Technology Alert: Ground-Source Heat Pumps Applied to Federal Facilities--Second Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadley, Donald L.

    2001-03-01

    This Federal Technology Alert, which was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Federal Energy Management Programs, provides the detailed information and procedures that a Federal energy manager needs to evaluate most ground-source heat pump applications. This report updates an earlier report on ground-source heat pumps that was published in September 1995. In the current report, general benefits of this technology to the Federal sector are described, as are ground-source heat pump operation, system types, design variations, energy savings, and other benefits. In addition, information on current manufacturers, technology users, and references for further reading are provided.

  8. Budgeting for Solar PV Plant Operations & Maintenance: Practices and Pricing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enbar, Nadav [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Weng, Dean [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Klise, Geoffrey Taylor [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-01-01

    With rising grid interconnections of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, greater attention is being trained on lifecycle performance, reliability, and project economics. Expected to meet production thresholds over a 20-30 year timeframe, PV plants require a steady diet of operations and maintenance (O&M) oversight to meet contractual terms. However, industry best practices are only just beginning to emerge, and O&M budgets—given the arrangement of the solar project value chain—appear to vary widely. Based on insights from in-depth interviews and survey research, this paper presents an overview of the utility-scale PV O&M budgeting process along with guiding rationales, before detailing perspectives on current plant upkeep activities and price points largely in the U.S. It concludes by pondering potential opportunities for improving upon existing O&M budgeting approaches in ways that can benefit the industry at-large.

  9. Budgeting for Solar PV Plant Operations & Maintenance: Practices and Pricing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enbar, Nadav [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States); Weng, Dean [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States); Klise, Geoffrey Taylor [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    With rising grid interconnections of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, greater attention is being trained on lifecycle performance, reliability, and project economics. Expected to meet production thresholds over a 20-30 year timeframe, PV plants require a steady diet of operations and maintenance (O&M) oversight to meet contractual terms. However, industry best practices are only just beginning to emerge, and O&M budgets—given the arrangement of the solar project value chain—appear to vary widely. Based on insights from in-depth interviews and survey research, this paper presents an overview of the utility-scale PV O&M budgeting process along with guiding rationales, before detailing perspectives on current plant upkeep activities and price points largely in the U.S. It concludes by pondering potential opportunities for improving upon existing O&M budgeting approaches in ways that can benefi t the industry at-large.

  10. Diffraction and polarization effects in Earth radiation budget measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, J R; Barki, A R; Priestley, K J

    2016-12-01

    Thermal radiation emitted and reflected from the Earth and viewed from near-Earth orbit may be characterized by its spectral distribution, its degree of coherence, and its state of polarization. The current generation of broadband Earth radiation budget instruments has been designed to minimize the effect of diffraction and polarization on science products. We used Monte Carlo ray-trace (MCRT) models that treat individual rays as quasi-monochromatic, polarized entities to explore the possibility of improving the performance of such instruments by including measures of diffraction and polarization during calibration and operation. We have demonstrated that diffraction and polarization sensitivity associated with typical Earth radiation budget instrument design features has a negligible effect on measurements.

  11. TRANSPARENCY OF LOCAL BUDGETS IN THE NORTH-WEST REGION OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pintea Mirela-Oana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The central researched element in our paper is the local budgets, the basic component of local public finances. Local budgets, like any other budgets, are the most important tool for the management (of local governments planning, forecasting, implementing and monitoring the results of administrative-territorial units activity, also being an appropriate tool for enhancing performance. A budget is the government's plan regarding the use of public resources to meet the citizens' needs. The aim of this paper is to realize a research on budget transparency in local governments from the Nord-West Region of Romania, regarding the availability of the budget information on the websites of the county councils and the county residences. The key element of good governance in today global economic environment is transparency that can be defined as the openness of public authorities (central and local regarding their policy intention, formulation and implementation. For local governments budget transparency is an important issue, due to the growing role of administrative-territorial units, confirmed over time by the economic reality. The importance of local budgets has increased in recent years due to the need to improve management efficiency and accounting al the level of local governments. Not only policy makers but also the citizens need information regarding local government current activities, expenditures, development projects and policies. In this context of a growing need for information, the transparency of local budgets is a mandatory condition for any local government. The combination of budget transparency and public participation in budget processes has the potential to combat corruption, foster public accountability of government agencies and contribute to judicious use of public funds. In this context, budget transparency represents the mean through which ordinary citizens and civil society organizations can access information about the

  12. The terrestrial nitrogen budget of the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrall, F.; Burt, T. P.; Howden, N. K.; Whelan, M.

    2010-12-01

    This study estimates the total annual nitrogen budget of the UK from 1990 to 2020. The following inputs of nitrogen are considered: inorganic fertilizer, atmospheric deposition; food and feed imports; and biological nitrogen fixation. The outputs considered include: atmospheric emissions; direct losses of sewage and industrial effluent to the sea; fluvial losses at source; food and feed exports; and terrestrial and aquatic denitrification to N2. The study is the first to include in-stream losses and terrestrial denitrification to N2 into a national nitrogen budget: in so doing it does not have to assume the total budget is in balance following inter-annual changes. Unlike previous studies, this study is not limited to reactive nitrogen species. It is shown here that: i) Inputs of inorganic fertilizer declined significantly over the study period; atmospheric deposition showed no change and food and feed imports significantly increased. ii) Outputs of fluvial nitrogen rose significantly, but atmospheric emissions of N20 and NH3 declined dramatically, while dentrification to N2 remained steady. iii) The UK was a net source of total nitrogen in 1990 of 527 (±40%) ktonnes N/yr (22 kg N/ha/yr). By 2005, it was a net source of 172 (±106%) ktonnes N/yr (7 kg N/ha/yr). iv) The prognosis for the N budget of the UK to 2020 is critically dependent upon the future trends and trade-offs between atmospheric emissions and applications of inorganic fertilisers. If atmospheric emissions follow current trends then by 2020 the net sink of total N in the UK will be 44 ktonnes N/yr, if atmospheric emissions are restricted to current UK government emissions targets, then the UK will be a net source of Total N of 151 ktonnes N/yr as reductions in the application of inorganic fertiliser outstrip declines in atmospheric emissions.

  13. The Polish Budget Act for 2016: Legal Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Borodo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the legal content and system of the 2016 Budget Act and the legal significance of its regulations. The Budget Act for 2016 contains three parts: the state budget (general budget, complementary budgets, other legal provisions. The state revenues, expenditure, expenses, salaries, rates of some state levies are determined in the Budget Act. The regulations of the Budget Act relate to the financial activity of government and other parts of the state. The complex Budget Act contains provisions resulting from the many legal acts.

  14. Scientific and theoretical principles of personnel costs’ budgeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.P. Gutsal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The object of this article is to determine the main purpose of company’s budgeting, to study its functions in terms of personnel management, to identify the main advantages and disadvantages of budgeting and to determine the stages of realization budgeting in the company. There have been considered the purpose and aim of budgeting. The main functions of budgeting, which include such ones as: planning, forecasting, information and analysis function, motivational, coordinative, control and involvement function have been identified (determined. In terms of defined functions of budgeting their essence in budgeting personnel costs has been outlined. The main advantages and disadvantages of budgeting have been found. There has been determined the implementing and realization company’s budgeting. The process of budgeting is realized according to the following consecutive stages: preparatory and analytical stage; definition of budget constraints; drafting up the budget; discussion and adjustment of budget indicators; adoption of budget; analysis and control of the budget. There also has been considered budget organization structure which includes budget committee, budget planning and analysis department, financial responsibility center.

  15. Geodatabase compilation of hydrogeologic, remote sensing, and water-budget-component data for the High Plains aquifer, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Natalie A.; Gonzales-Bradford, Sophia L.; Flynn, Amanda T.; Qi, Sharon L.; Peterson, Steven M.; Stanton, Jennifer S.; Ryter, Derek W.; Sohl, Terry L.; Senay, Gabriel B.

    2013-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer underlies almost 112 million acres in the central United States. It is one of the largest aquifers in the Nation in terms of annual groundwater withdrawals and provides drinking water for 2.3 million people. The High Plains aquifer has gained national and international attention as a highly stressed groundwater supply primarily because it has been appreciably depleted in some areas. The U.S. Geological Survey has an active program to monitor the changes in groundwater levels for the High Plains aquifer and has documented substantial water-level changes since predevelopment: the High Plains Groundwater Availability Study is part of a series of regional groundwater availability studies conducted to evaluate the availability and sustainability of major aquifers across the Nation. The goals of the regional groundwater studies are to quantify current groundwater resources in an aquifer system, evaluate how these resources have changed over time, and provide tools to better understand a systems response to future demands and environmental stresses. The purpose of this report is to present selected data developed and synthesized for the High Plains aquifer as part of the High Plains Groundwater Availability Study. The High Plains Groundwater Availability Study includes the development of a water-budget-component analysis for the High Plains completed in 2011 and development of a groundwater-flow model for the northern High Plains aquifer. Both of these tasks require large amounts of data about the High Plains aquifer. Data pertaining to the High Plains aquifer were collected, synthesized, and then organized into digital data containers called geodatabases. There are 8 geodatabases, 1 file geodatabase and 7 personal geodatabases, that have been grouped in three categories: hydrogeologic data, remote sensing data, and water-budget-component data. The hydrogeologic data pertaining to the northern High Plains aquifer is included in three separate

  16. Neo-isolationism, balanced-budget conservatism, and the fiscal impacts of immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, G A; Espenshade, T J

    1997-01-01

    "A rise in neo-isolationism in the United States has given encouragement to a new fiscal politics of immigration. Growing anti-immigrant sentiment has coalesced with forces of fiscal conservatism to make immigrants an easy target of budget cuts. Limits on legal alien access to social welfare programs that are contained in the 1996 welfare and immigration reform acts seem motivated not so much by a guiding philosophy of what it means to be a member of American society as by a desire to shrink the size of the federal government and to produce a balanced budget. Even more than in the past, the consequence of a shrinking welfare state is to metamorphose legal immigrants from public charges to windfall gains for the federal treasury."

  17. Successful Control of Major Project Budgets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steen Lichtenberg

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper differs from scientific papers describing current research. In line with the theme of this special issue, it challenges conventional risk management practice against the background of former research results successfully finished decades ago. It is well-known that conventional practice frequently results in budget overruns of large projects. International reviews document that. Severe delays of schedules are also well-known. This paper describes successful research results from almost three decades ago, which successfully challenges this severe problem and has led to new practices. The research involved is an unusual mix: Scandinavian researchers from psychology, statistical theory and engineering economy. The resulting procedure has been widely used since around 1990 and challenges conventional procedures. The procedure is documented to be able to yield statistically correct prognoses, when the “rules of the game” have been correctly followed. After a short summary of the basic situation, this paper summarizes the research, followed by some resulting experiences, focusing on two recent studies each of 40 infrastructures and other major projects. In both sets, the actual final cost largely equaled the expected project cost. This result is a marked change from international past and present experience. Finally, the need for further research and progress is discussed.

  18. Beam positioning error budget in ICF driver

    CERN Document Server

    Shi Zhi Quan; Su Jing Qin

    2002-01-01

    The author presents the method of linear weight sum to beam positioning budget on the basis of ICF request on targeting, the approach of equal or unequal probability to allocate errors to each optical element. Based on the relationship between the motion of the optical components and beam position on target, the position error of the optical components was evaluated, which was referred to as the maximum range. Lots of ray trace were performed, the position error budget were modified by law of the normal distribution. An overview of position error budget of the components is provided

  19. Structure and Evolution of EU Budget Revenue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Mihaela Florea

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Although small size, representing only 1% of EU wealth, its budget is an important tool for achieving the objectives of integration. Basically, in one form or another, every EU citizen benefits from the EU budget at the local, national and European level: food and safer toys, new roads and better quality of security at EU borders. These are just a few examples of areas where the EU budget plays a decisive role. To fulfil its objectives, the European Union has traditional own resources, the VAT - based own resources and the GNI- based resources.

  20. Small business, cash budgets and general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, A R

    1991-01-01

    In practice management, general practice falls into the category of small business with all its attendant generic problems. Disciplined planning and good financial management are not often seen in small business. These are required if general practitioners are to continue (or return to) the provision of high quality medical services. An effective budget process, especially cash-flow budgeting, is the key to successful planning and financial management. Budgeting will bring Control, Co-ordination, and Credibility to your practice. It will enable you to set goals and to achieve them.

  1. Loyalty Card Promotional Activity in Budget Hotel

    OpenAIRE

    Teng, Fei

    2010-01-01

    Loyalty card is one of the most commonly used promotional activities in business. Thus far, there are some research has been done on luxury hotel, but very few researches are on budget hotel. So, the purpose of the thesis is finding out the Swedish customers’ attitude and behavior towards budget hotel’s loyalty card; getting to know what factors influence Swedish customers’ response towards the loyalty card and budget hotels. In the thesis, the main research problem is “How do Swedish custome...

  2. Beyond Budgeting og ledelsesfokus i Coloplast

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Formålet med denne utredningen har vært å forstå sammenhengen mellom styringsmodellen Beyond Budgeting og ledelse. Beyond Budgeting-filosofien argumenterer for at budsjettet er uegnet som styringsverktøy. For å være mer tilpasningsdyktig i en dynamisk verden, foreslås 12 prinsipper som skal gjøre virksomheten mer fleksibel. Store deler av tidligere forskning ser på implikasjoner ved styringsverktøyene, og få knytter Beyond Budgeting opp mot ledelse. Det er her blitt gjennomført en kvalitativ ...

  3. 75 FR 12217 - Federal Perkins Loan, Federal Work-Study, and Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ... Federal Perkins Loan, Federal Work-Study, and Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant programs... Perkins Loan, Federal Work-Study (FWS), and Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant (FSEOG.... (2) General Provisions for the Federal Perkins Loan Program, Federal Work-Study Program, and...

  4. 77 FR 4547 - Federal Perkins Loan, Federal Work-Study, and Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    ... Federal Perkins Loan, Federal Work-Study, and Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant Programs... requests and documents from postsecondary institutions for the Federal Perkins Loan, Federal Work-Study.... (2) General Provisions for the Federal Perkins Loan Program, Federal Work-Study Program, and...

  5. 78 FR 14776 - Federal Perkins Loan, Federal Work-Study, and Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ... Federal Perkins Loan, Federal Work-Study, and Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant Programs... requests and documents from postsecondary institutions for the Federal Perkins Loan, Federal Work-Study..., Federal Work-Study Program, and Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant Program, 34 CFR...

  6. 77 FR 68155 - Finance, Budget & Program Committee Meeting of the Board of Directors; Sunshine Act Meeting Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NEIGHBORHOOD REINVESTMENT CORPORATION Finance, Budget & Program Committee Meeting of the Board of Directors; Sunshine Act Meeting Notice TIME and DATE: 9:00 a.m., Tuesday, November 20, 2012. PLACE: 1325 G Street NW., Suite 800,...

  7. 78 FR 19006 - Information Collection Request Sent to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for Approval...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... National Park Service Information Collection Request Sent to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for.... ] Abstract: We administer the Federal Historic Preservation Tax Incentives program with the Internal Revenue... program, underutilized or vacant schools, warehouses, factories, retail stores, apartments, hotels,...

  8. 78 FR 73817 - Information Collection; Federal Excess Personal Property (FEPP) and Firefighter Property (FFP...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ... Forest Service Information Collection; Federal Excess Personal Property (FEPP) and Firefighter Property... currently approved information collection, Federal Excess Personal Property (FEPP) and Firefighter Property... Friday. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Federal Excess Personal Property (FEPP) and...

  9. Voting suffrage and the political budget cycle: Evidence from the London Metropolitan Boroughs 1902–1937

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidt, Toke S.; Mooney, Graham

    2014-01-01

    We study the opportunistic political budget cycle in the London Metropolitan Boroughs between 1902 and 1937 under two different suffrage regimes: taxpayer suffrage (1902–1914) and universal suffrage (1921–1937). We argue and find supporting evidence that the political budget cycle operates differently under the two types of suffrage. Taxpayer suffrage, where the right to vote and the obligation to pay local taxes are linked, encourages demands for retrenchment and the political budget cycle manifests itself in election year tax cuts and savings on administration costs. Universal suffrage, where all adult residents can vote irrespective of their taxpayer status, creates demands for productive public services and the political budget cycle manifests itself in election year hikes in capital spending and a reduction in current spending. PMID:25843984

  10. STATE OF AFFAIRS WITH THE FEDERAL FRAMEWORK OF SOCIAL WELFARE IN THE POPULATION IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Igorevna Falyushina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presented the survey of the Public (Federal Social Welfare framework, presented the factors entailing their low efficiency, despite the huge public investment in this institution. The reasons for this lie in the practice of a "blindly delegating" the state powers to the municipal level, that gives rise to lack of control over the budget expenditures. The paper sorted out the main tactics of budget allocations’ "withdrawal" from the target consumer and revealed the gaps in the approaches to the State budget’ allocation, and presented the author’s pattern of this procedure that makes it possible to send significant additional resources to the "challenged" regions.In addition, the study examined operation of the regional social welfare bodies, and highlighted shortcomings in their operation, with the ways to overcome them.The paper also presented the techniques of intensive development of the social welfare network in population that enable increasing significantly the network purposefulness within the current (ongoing funding, that seems to be extremely important while a tough budgetary shortfall incurred.

  11. On Standards of Budget Funding and Adjusting the Fees in State Universities

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Klyachko; Sergey Sinelnikov-Murylev

    2013-01-01

    The paper analyzes the implications of the financial regulations implementing a state order (standards of budget financing based on one student) in the higher education system and the use of them to regulate fees in the universities. It is demonstrated that the establishment of standards in the field of budgetary financing (field of study) does not allow to pay attention to differences in historical property complexes, schools, differences in socio-economic position of the Russian Federation ...

  12. Decision Grade: Readiness, Mission Impacts, and Classified Data in the Defense Budgeting Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-23

    for all federal agencies. At the time, the PPBS implementation came with plenty of controversy within the DOD. Ironically, the Service with the most...2009): [ASD(LA)] Provision of Information to Congress -Budget Justification Books -Executive Session Testimony - Inserts for the Record ( IFRs ) - Prepared...and implementation of the nuclear initiative announced by the President Gorbechev in the fall of 1991." 9:"(U) The President’s unilateral initiatives

  13. The global carbon budget 1959–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Le Quéré

    2013-05-01

    compared to the 2002–2011 average because of a high uptake by the land probably in response to natural climate variability associated to La Niña conditions in the Pacific Ocean. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration reached 391.31 ± 0.13 ppm at the end of year 2011. We estimate that EFF will have increased by 2.6% (1.9–3.5% in 2012 based on projections of gross world product and recent changes in the carbon intensity of the economy. All uncertainties are reported as ±1 sigma (68% confidence assuming Gaussian error distributions that the real value lies within the given interval, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global carbon budget. This paper is intended to provide a baseline to keep track of annual carbon budgets in the future. All data presented here can be downloaded from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (doi:10.3334/CDIAC/GCP_V2013.

  14. The global carbon budget 1959–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Le Quéré

    2012-12-01

    sigma (68% confidence assuming Gaussian error distributions that the real value lies within the given interval, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global carbon budget. This paper is intended to provide a baseline to keep track of annual carbon budgets in the future.

    All carbon data presented here can be downloaded from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (doi:10.3334/CDIAC/GCP_V2012.

  15. Toward an Improved Understanding of the Global Fresh Water Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Peter H.

    2005-01-01

    The major components of the global fresh water cycle include the evaporation from the land and ocean surfaces, precipitation onto the Ocean and land surfaces, the net atmospheric transport of water from oceanic areas over land, and the return flow of water from the land back into the ocean. The additional components of oceanic water transport are few, principally, the mixing of fresh water through the oceanic boundary layer, transport by ocean currents, and sea ice processes. On land the situation is considerably more complex, and includes the deposition of rain and snow on land; water flow in runoff; infiltration of water into the soil and groundwater; storage of water in soil, lakes and streams, and groundwater; polar and glacial ice; and use of water in vegetation and human activities. Knowledge of the key terms in the fresh water flux budget is poor. Some components of the budget, e.g. precipitation, runoff, storage, are measured with variable accuracy across the globe. We are just now obtaining precise measurements of the major components of global fresh water storage in global ice and ground water. The easily accessible fresh water sources in rivers, lakes and snow runoff are only adequately measured in the more affluent portions of the world. presents proposals are suggesting methods of making global measurements of these quantities from space. At the same time, knowledge of the global fresh water resources under the effects of climate change is of increasing importance and the human population grows. This paper provides an overview of the state of knowledge of the global fresh water budget, evaluating the accuracy of various global water budget measuring and modeling techniques. We review the measurement capabilities of satellite instruments as compared with field validation studies and modeling approaches. Based on these analyses, and on the goal of improved knowledge of the global fresh water budget under the effects of climate change, we suggest

  16. 75 FR 59266 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ... Office of Management and Budget Review; Comment Request; Current Good Manufacturing Practice in... Secretary) may, by regulation, prescribe good manufacturing practices for dietary supplements. Section 402(g... meet current good manufacturing practice regulations.'' Under section 701(a) of the FD&C Act (21...

  17. [FY 1996 Budget Summary : Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains information related to Rocky Mountain Arsenal's budget for the 1996 fiscal year. Page 1 is the memorandum from the Service to the U.S. Army...

  18. FY 2016 Supplement to the Presidents Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — The annual Supplement to the Presidents Budget for the NITRD Program provides a technical summary of the research activities planned and coordinated through NITRD in...

  19. [FY 1989 Budget Summary : Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a single page document summarizing Rocky Mountain Arsenal's Budget for the 1989 fiscal year. There are three mentioned tasks; Operations & Planning, Law...

  20. [FY 1990 Budget Summary : Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains information related to Rocky Mountain Arsenal's budget for the 1990 fiscal year. The specifics are broken down into seven tasks, task #1 being...

  1. Physics loses out in UK budget

    CERN Document Server

    Cartlidge, E

    1998-01-01

    British astronomers are angry that the budget for the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council will receive only a 0.5% rise above inflation. All the other research councils will get increases of at least 3% (1 page).

  2. FY 2015 Supplement to the Presidents Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — The annual Supplement to the Presidents Budget for the NITRD Program provides a technical summary of the research activities planned and coordinated through NITRD in...

  3. FY 2014 Supplement to the Presidents Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — The annual Supplement to the Presidents Budget for the NITRD Program provides a technical summary of the research activities planned and coordinated through NITRD in...

  4. Astronomy with a Budget Telescope An Introduction to Practical Observing

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    If you had purchased an inexpensive astronomical telescope a few years ago, disappointment would have been almost guaranteed. In current Internet age, times have changed and most (but not quite all) telescopes have been used to favorable results. Sir Patrick Moore, working with John Watson, has surveyed and tested the best and the worst of today's budget-priced astronomical telescopes. This new edition of Astronomy with a Budget Telescope is the result of their efforts. This book will show you how to recognize the good from the bad in observational ware with essential hints and tips on what to look for when buying both new and used telescopes. Updated and expanded, this latest edition includes budgeting tips for the new generation of digital cameras and 'go-to' telescopes. It provides a step-by-step guide to setting up your telescope, and how to observe the Moon, Sun, planets, stars, nebulae, and galaxies. Inside you'll find full-page finder charts and full-color images showing you what each object should loo...

  5. Budget and budgetary process in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Gherghina DRILA

    2010-01-01

    The unitary system of budgets was an important moment in the evolution of public finances, creating the framework for more effective management and control over allocated funds, public finances becoming those interactive tools used to match the requirements of economic and social environment, also being a catalyst for development. Romanian economy hasn’t matured yet, we are to achieve satisfactory participation in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) which, concerning the budget, should be translated...

  6. Meteorological Error Budget Using Open Source Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    VBA ) script was created that would read the model - based output and corresponding sounding data for each message type (METCM or METB3), output type...produce artillery MET error budget tables that account for expected errors when using MET model -based systems. Representatives of the US and other...nations within the North Atlantic Treaty Organization expressed a need for shareable model -based MET error budgets. Use of an openly available civilian

  7. Default, Reputation and Balanced-Budget Rules

    OpenAIRE

    David R. Stockman

    2004-01-01

    Is a balanced-budget rule compatible with a government honoring its debt obligations? According to the conventional explanation, governments honor their debt obligations to maintain a good reputation for future borrowing. The ability of borrowing is desirable because it allows for greater tax smoothing. However, a balanced-budget rule limits the ability to smooth taxes, rendering a large class of competititve equilibria not compatible with a government honoring its debt obligations. The reput...

  8. INTERNET MARKETING BUDGET ALLOCATION: FROM PRACTITIONER'S PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    LAN ZHAO; JISHAN ZHU

    2010-01-01

    Consider a firm promotes its products through several Internet media with a fixed Internet marketing budget and models the budget allocation decisions as a competitive game, in which each firm formulates its own optimization model that is influenced by the competitors' moves as well. One challenge to the application of such model in practice is how to deal with asymmetric information. In this paper, we discuss several issues that are often asked by the practitioners that are related to dealin...

  9. OPTIMIZING LOCAL BUDGET BALANCING IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyorgy Adina Crsitina

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the local public finance is growing in accordance with the increasing proportion of the decentralization process. The mechanism of resource allocation, and especially the allocation criteria used, constitutes subjects of debate. Our objective pursued is to assess whether the avoidance of the first step for balancing the allocation of funds can provide enhanced fairness in balancing the local budgets across the country. Local budgets in Romania receive significant resources from the state budget in the form of amounts and quotas distributed from certain taxes, which are revenues for the state budget. Some of these amounts are designed to balance the local budgets. The distribution of funds from the state budget to the local budgets requires two steps. Firstly, the amounts are divided by county, secondly, these amounts are directed within the county especially towards localities which have a lower financial standing. Given the significant disparities between counties, we believe that this mechanism does not ensure fairness in the allocation because the funds distributed according to the first step may not use fair criteria to meet the requirements for balanced local budgets. Therefore, we intend to simulate a balanced allocation of national funds for eliminating the first step that produces the most significant inequities. Direct application of the second step of allocation, with its two phases, will provide more funds serving those local administrative units for the income tax per capita is lower than the national average. Comparing the values allocated for the year 2011 with those obtained in the simulation we will examine changes that occur after the application of this method which seems to be more equitable and appropriate. This work was supported by CNCSISUEFISCSU, project number PNII-IDEI 1780/2008

  10. A Summary of Proposed Changes to the Current ICARTT Format Standards and their Implications to Future Airborne Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northup, Emily; Benson Early, Amanda; Beach, Aubrey; Wang, Dali; Kusterer, John; Quam, Brandi; Chen, Gao

    2015-01-01

    The Atmospheric Science Data Center (ASDC) at NASA Langley Research Center is responsible for the ingest, archive, and distribution of NASA Earth Science data in the areas of radiation budget, clouds, aerosols, and tropospheric chemistry. The ASDC specializes in atmospheric data that is important to understanding the causes and processes of global climate change and the consequences of human activities on the climate. The ASDC currently supports more than 44 projects and has over 1,700 archived data sets, which increase daily. ASDC customers include scientists, researchers, federal, state, and local governments, academia, industry, and application users, the remote sensing community, and the general public.

  11. POLITICAL BUDGET CYCLES: EVIDENCE FROM TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FİLİZ ERYILMAZ

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The theorical literature on “Political Business Cycles” presents important insights on the extent to which politicians attempt to manipulate government monetary and fiscal policies to influence electoral outcomes, in particular, with the aim of re-election. In recent years “Political Budget Cycles” is the one of the most important topics in Political Business Cycles literature. According to Political Budget Cycles Theory, some components of the government budget are influenced by the electoral cycle and consequently an increase in government spending or decrease in taxes in an election year, leading to larger fiscal deficit. This incumbent’s fiscal manipulation is a tool that governments possess to increase their changes for re-election. In this paper we investigate the presence of Political Budget Cycles using a data set of budget balance, total expenditure and total revenue over the period 1994–2012. Our findings suggest that incumbents in Turkey use fiscal policy to increase their popularity and win elections, therefore fiscal manipulation was rewarded rather than punished by Turkish voters. The meaning of this result is that Political Budget Cycles Theory is valid for Turkey between 1994 and 2012.

  12. The role of risk and cost benefit in program budgeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, C.J.; Alchowiak, J. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The primary Environmental Management (EM) program mission is protecting human health and the environment. EM is currently facing a decreasing budget while still having to deal with competing requirements and risks to workers, public, and environment. There has been no consistent framework for considering in an integrated fashion the multiple types of risks and hazards present in the nuclear weapons complex. Therefore, to allocate resources during the budget process, EM is using risk, long term costs, mortgage reduction, compliance issues, and stakeholders concerns to prioritize the funding of activities. Risk and cost-benefit analysis are valuable tools to help make decisions to reduce risks to health, safety, and the environment in a sensible and cost-effective manner. Principles for priority setting using risk analysis are to seek to compare risks by grouping them into broad categories of concern (e.g., high, medium, and low); to set priorities in managing risks to account for relevant management and social considerations; to inform priorities by as broad a range of views as possible, ideally with consensus; and, to try to coordinate risk reduction efforts among programs. The Draft Risk Report to Congress, Risks and the Risk Debate: Searching for Common Ground {open_quote}The First Step,{close_quote} provides the first link between budget, compliance requirements, and risk reduction/pollution prevention activities. The process used for the report provides an initial framework to capture the spectrum of risks associated with environmental management activities and to link these risks in a qualitative fashion to compliance and the budget.

  13. U.S. science and technology under budget stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Peter M.

    A set of hearings was held a few weeks ago by the House Science and Technology Committee, Don Fuqua, chairman, during which White House science advisor George A. Keyworth II ‘reiterated the Reagan Administration's wisdom of the marketplace philosophy’ (Chemical and Engineering News, Dec. 14, 1981). National Academy of Sciences President Frank Press responded to Keyworth's continuing statements on the ‘hard choices’ ahead with a proposed ‘compact’ among the public, private and academic research sectors. Representatives of the science R & D community are hanging on every word released from the White House, hoping to find some solace from the picture of disastrous budget cuts that appears to be emerging in all sectors. The budget cuts, cumulative for fiscal years 1982 and 1983, do not, in notable examples, leave room for hard choices; dismantling of entire programs appears to be expected. Two examples are the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) planetary scientific program and the programs of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). When NASA's program was recently described as ‘planetary science in extremis,’ the meaning intended was ‘near death,’ not ‘in the extreme’ (Science, Dec. 18, 1981). In the same light, Douglas M. Castle, former EPA director, defined ‘EPA under siege:’ ‘It's hard to find a rational explanation for [the 1983 fiscal year budget proposed by OMB] except that [the current EPA administrators] are, in fact, a wrecking crew’ (Environmental Science and Technology, December 1981). Meanwhile, the so-called ‘research universities’ in the United States are turning to more practical and applied avenues to secure funds for their R & D budgets. According to science policy analyst, Wil Lepkowski, ‘The practical goals of technology are fast swallowing academic science, and nothing seems likely to be the same again.’ (Chem. Eng. News, Nov. 23, 1981).

  14. HIV-INFECTION IN THE NORTH-WESTERN FEDERAL REGION OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION IN 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. T. Smolskaya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. In the current review the results of HIV surveillance in 11 administrative territories of the North-western federal region of the Russian Federation (NWFR in 2009 are summarized. The analysis of epidemic process is based on the data of HIV cases detected in the administrative territories of the NWFR by serological screening and registered in the state reporting forms.

  15. Federal Policies on Civic Education and Service. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Emily Hoban; Levine, Peter; Elrod, Brent

    2006-01-01

    The Federal government supports programs designed to encourage civic participation and increase civic knowledge. This fact sheet summarizes current federal legislation intended to mandate or encourage civic education and service programs for young people. In addition, it contains a list of relevant federally funded programs. (Contains 4 endnotes.)…

  16. College & University Budgeting. An Introduction for Faculty and Academic Administrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisinger, Richard J., Jr.; Dubeck, Leroy W.

    A budgeting handbook for academic administrators and faculty is presented. Economic and political influences on budgeting are considered, along with sources of funds for public and private colleges, and the chronology of the budget process. Multiyear summaries of the budget process in different types of colleges are included. Some major policy…

  17. State Budget Update, August 21, 2009. Report 09-21

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfork, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    On July 28, the Governor signed legislation making significant revisions to the 2009-10 state budget. The revised budget allocates $85 billion in State General Fund spending, down from the $92 billion in the budget approved by the Governor and Legislature in February. This budget revision also captures some savings from the just-completed 2008-09…

  18. Budget Update, November 9, 2010. Report 10-20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfork, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    On October 8, Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger signed the 2010-11 Budget Act for the State of California. This budget was the outcome of many months of negotiation between the Governor and the Legislature. The Governor vetoed $963 million in spending from the Legislature's budget, arriving at a budget that addresses an estimated $19.1 billion…

  19. STATE BUDGET AND FISCAL POLICY INSTRUMENTS TO ACHIEVE ITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haralambie George Alin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the tools for carrying out the fiscal budget in Romania. An effective fiscal policy involves increasing budget revenues and reduce their costs of collection. Public expenditure, taxes and debt are tools of fiscal policy to achieve economic stability budget. They are also presented the inter dependencies between fiscal policy and budget.

  20. 40 CFR 96.140 - State trading budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State trading budgets. 96.140 Section...) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.140 State trading budgets. The State trading budgets for...

  1. Estancia Basin dynamic water budget.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Richard P.

    2004-09-01

    The Estancia Basin lies about 30 miles to the east of Albuquerque, NM. It is a closed basin in terms of surface water and is somewhat isolated in terms of groundwater. Historically, the primary natural outlet for both surface water and groundwater has been evaporation from the salt lakes in the southeastern portion of the basin. There are no significant watercourses that flow into this basin and groundwater recharge is minimal. During the 20th Century, agriculture grew to become the major user of groundwater in the basin. Significant declines in groundwater levels have accompanied this agricultural use. Domestic and municipal use of the basin groundwater is increasing as Albuquerque population continues to spill eastward into the basin, but this use is projected to be less than 1% of agricultural use well into the 21st Century. This Water Budget model keeps track of the water balance within the basin. The model considers the amount of water entering the basin and leaving the basin. Since there is no significant surface water component within this basin, the balance of water in the groundwater aquifer constitutes the primary component of this balance. Inflow is based on assumptions for recharge made by earlier researchers. Outflow from the basin is the summation of the depletion from all basin water uses. The model user can control future water use within the basin via slider bars that set values for population growth, water system per-capita use, agricultural acreage, and the types of agricultural diversion. The user can also adjust recharge and natural discharge within the limits of uncertainty for those parameters. The model runs for 100 years beginning in 1940 and ending in 2040. During the first 55 years model results can be compared to historical data and estimates of groundwater use. The last 45 years are predictive. The model was calibrated to match to New Mexico Office of State Engineer (NMOSE) estimates of aquifer storage during the historical period by

  2. Analysis of Budget deficit in Romania during 2000-2013

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, over time, the years of economic crisis were defined by significant increases in the levels of budget deficits. Discussions on sizing budget deficits, financing, especially the volume of public debt became more intense, both politically and academically. The impact of budget deficit on economic growth is a common theme found in the economic policies adopted. The present paper aims to analyze the evolution of budget deficit and the structural budget deficit in Romania during 2000-20...

  3. Implementing Performance-Based Budgeting in Republic of Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ciubotaru

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article includes a research on budgeting based performance, and proposes a system of performance indicators that assess the linkage between the policies and annual budget law, the compliance of global budgeting performance to European principles in the area of public financial management, and the impact of public financing on economic growth. The analysis of performance indicators shows the linkages between the policies, and budgeting, as well as budgeting performance in compliance with European principles in this area.

  4. The Fundamentals of Formation of the State Budget and Tax Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasichniy Mykola D.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at substantiation and development of the theoretical and methodological definitions as to formation of the State budget and tax policy in the current conditions of economic transformations. The issues of developing the directions and measures of fiscal policy in line with the priorities of social and economic development of the country and its administrative-territorial units have been explored. Attention has been focused on the importance of assessing the impacting of the economic growth by not the tax burden only, but the tax structure as well, in the context of the major classifications. The article substantiates the importance of enhancing the efficiency of use of budgetary funds, separation of social and economic efficiency of the budget expenditures. Of particular interest are the issues relating to strengthening of the institutional foundations of the budget and tax policy, implementation of measures for introduction of the medium-term budget planning. Priorities of the budget policy in the sphere of the inter-budgetary relations and regulation of the budget deficit have been allocated.

  5. Belgian Federalism after the Sixth State Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goossens Jurgen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the most important institutional evolutions of Belgian federalism stemming from the implementation of the sixth state reform (2012-2014. This reform inter alia included a transfer of powers worth 20 billion euros from the federal level to the level of the federated states, a profound reform of the Senate, and a substantial increase in fiscal autonomy for the regions. This contribution critically analyses the current state of Belgian federalism. Although the sixth state reform realized important and long-awaited changes, further evolutions are to be expected. Since the Belgian state model has reached its limits with regard to complexity and creativity, politicians and academics should begin to reflect on the seventh state reform with the aim of increasing the transparency of the current Belgian institutional labyrinth.

  6. The relationship between budget allocated and budget utilized of faculties in an academic institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Wan Noor Hayatie Wan Abdul; Aziz, Rossidah Wan Abdul; Shuib, Adibah; Razi, Nor Faezah Mohamad

    2014-06-01

    Budget planning enables an organization to set priorities towards achieving certain goals and to identify the highest priorities to be accomplished with the available funds, thus allowing allocation of resources according to the set priorities and constraints. On the other hand, budget execution and monitoring enables allocated funds or resources to be utilized as planned. Our study concerns with investigating the relationship between budget allocation and budget utilization of faculties in a public university in Malaysia. The focus is on the university's operations management financial allocation and utilization based on five categories which are emolument expenditure, academic or services and supplies expenditure, maintenance expenditure, student expenditure and others expenditure. The analysis on financial allocation and utilization is performed based on yearly quarters. Data collected include three years faculties' budget allocation and budget utilization performance involving a sample of ten selected faculties of a public university in Malaysia. Results show that there are positive correlation and significant relationship between quarterly budget allocation and quarterly budget utilization. This study found that emolument give the highest contribution to the total allocation and total utilization for all quarters. This paper presents some findings based on statistical analysis conducted which include descriptive statistics and correlation analysis.

  7. The USDA's Healthy Eating on a Budget Program: Making Better Eating Decisions on a Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Alexandra M.; Hongu, Nobuko

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture has launched a new interactive online program titled Healthy Eating on a Budget. It is an addition to the popular ChooseMyPlate.gov programs, such as the SuperTracker program. The Healthy Eating on a Budget program helps consumers plan, purchase, and prepare healthful meals. This article discusses materials and…

  8. The USDA's Healthy Eating on a Budget Program: Making Better Eating Decisions on a Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Alexandra M.; Hongu, Nobuko

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture has launched a new interactive online program titled Healthy Eating on a Budget. It is an addition to the popular ChooseMyPlate.gov programs, such as the SuperTracker program. The Healthy Eating on a Budget program helps consumers plan, purchase, and prepare healthful meals. This article discusses materials and…

  9. The Optimization of Budget Outcome to Create Trust in Public Expenditure Allocation on Local Budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendri Koeswara

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Planning and budgeting process is the most crucial process in the administration of local government. Results of previous studies in Solok, the increase in the total budget is not accompanied by spending management capabilities. Expenditure of public service has always fluctuated, but ideally should always increasing. This study aimed to analyze the outcome of the budget in the allocation of public spending in an effort to realize the presence of trust on the budget in Solok West Sumatra Province. This study uses qualitative research methods with the type of research that is selected using descriptive type. While the techniques of data collection are done through an interview, observation and documentation study. This study further highlights the emic perspective, is the voice of the informant, not the personal opinion of the researchers (etic. Then, the data analysis is done categorically and chronologically, viewed repeatedly, and will continue to be encoded. To test the verification of data, triangulation is done by comparing the results of interviews with documents obtained in the field and testing of concepts used by researchers with the information given by the informant. The results showed that the pathology was found that budget allocations reflect inefficiencies as a failure of the link between policy, planning, and budgeting as a fragmented system. But on the other hand, it must be admitted there has been “trust” among policymaking actors in allocating public expenditure budget in playing the role in the budget policy.

  10. Federalism, Agenda Setting, and the Dynamics of Federal Education Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Paul

    This paper is part of a larger project on agenda setting in the U.S. federal system and the development of the federal education agenda since 1965. Two questions motivate the paper, one theoretical and the other empirical: (1) how does federalism affect the federal agenda?; and (2) what explains the development of federal involvement in K-12…

  11. Budget reforms in times of austerity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Mads Bøge

    In the literature times of austerity is argued to give rise to centralization of decisions making. A recently published article finds evidence of a centralization cascade in times of austerity. Based on a case study of recent changes of the Danish budget institutions, the aim of this pa-per is to......In the literature times of austerity is argued to give rise to centralization of decisions making. A recently published article finds evidence of a centralization cascade in times of austerity. Based on a case study of recent changes of the Danish budget institutions, the aim of this pa......-per is to explore how such a centralization cascade may look like when zooming into a specific case. Another aim is to explore the consequences of the changes of budget institutions. The paper shows that the fiscal crisis was a window of opportunity for the Ministry of Finance to introduce a budget reform...... finally results in a more detailed control and steering carried out by the managing directors in the agencies. The paper also shows that the changes imply a range of consequences; some are functional others are more dysfunction-al. There seems therefore to be a lot of trade-offs when budget institutions...

  12. SAY NO TO NEW BUDGET CUTS !

    CERN Multimedia

    STAFF ASSOCIATION

    2010-01-01

    In June, CERN Finance Committee postponed its proposals for the 2011 budget and the Director-General’s medium-term plan (2012–2015). The Member State delegations asked for a significant reduction in these budgets. The Staff Association condemns this request for new budget cuts which shows a short-term political vision. It is therefore organizing a demonstration on 25th August to defend basic research in Europe. On this day your presence is indispensable. Enough of simply getting by ! We know that budget cuts and the reduction of deficits are topical in several countries. The areas of research and training are also affected. However, in the case of CERN, severe budgetary constraints have been imposed for several years now, in particular since 1996 when the Organization’s budget was reduced by around 10%, just when the construction of the LHC was due to start. Since then, 100 million Swiss francs have been lost each year, reducing CERN’s resources to a minimum. All e...

  13. 76 FR 368 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Announcement of Office of Management and Budget...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... Testing of Dietary Ingredients; Current Good Manufacturing Practice in Manufacturing, Packaging, Labeling...; Current Good Manufacturing Practice in Manufacturing, Packaging, Labeling, or Holding Operations for.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In the Federal Register of September 30, 2010 (75 FR 60463), the Agency...

  14. Stochastic Budget Optimization in Internet Advertising

    CERN Document Server

    DasGupta, Bhaskar

    2010-01-01

    The problems studied in this paper arise out of how advertisers allocate their budget in internet advertising. Advertisers have a set of keywords and some stochastic information about the future, in our case, a probability distribution over scenarios} of cost vs click combinations. The stochastic budget optimization problems that the advertisers face then is to figure out how to spread a given budget across these keywords to maximize the expected number of clicks. We present the first known nontrivial polylogarithmic approximation for these problems; we also present first known hardness results of getting approximations better than logarithmic in various parameters involved. We also identify several special cases of these problems of practical interest, such as with fixed number of scenarios or with polynomial-sized parameters related to cost, which are solvable in polynomial time or with good approximations. The scenario model is natural for optimizing a variety of financial instruments, is apt in practice f...

  15. EXPENSES FOR ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES FROM LOCAL BUDGETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINEL ICHIM

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present article we propose to analyze and deepen significant categories of costs funded from the local budgets, namely the expenditure for economic activities. Our scientific approach begins with determining the place occupied by such expenses in local public expenditure by specifying their content and role. The center of gravity of the study is to treat and deepen the three subgroups of expenses that we consider representative: "The expenses for production, transportation, distribution and supply of heat in a centralized system", "Transport Costs" and Expenditure for agriculture and forestry ". The reaserch is based on the quantitative analysis of the expenses for economic actions, in local budgets, based on the existing data from the Statistical Yearbook of Romania, and highlights the structure of this type of expenses as well as the place they hold in the expediture of local budgets.The study includes an analysis of the dynamics of the share held by economic costs within total expenses from local budgets. From the reaserch carried out, it is shown that the evolution and structure of the expenditures for economic actions from local budgets is determined by the action of certain economical and social factors that vary from one administrative teritorial unit to another: the ray of economical develpoment of the administrative ter itorial unit, urbanization, the number and social structure of the population. The reaserch shows that in the field of expenses for economic actions, the largest share is held by expenditures for transportation (almost 80%, far away from the expenses for fuel and energy (13,66%. During the 1999-2013 the dynamic of expenses for economical actions in the total of expenditures of local budgets, is sinusoidal due to the intervention of certain legislative changes.

  16. ACA Federal Upper Limits

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Affordable Care Act Federal Upper Limits (FUL) based on the weighted average of the most recently reported monthly average manufacturer price (AMP) for...

  17. Federal Ballpark Estimator

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The Federal Ballpark E$timate(R) was developed by the Employee Benefit Research Institute(R) and its American Savings Education Council(R) (ASEC(R)) program. It is...

  18. New Mexico Federal Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This map layer consists of federally owned or administered lands of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Only areas of 640 acres or more are...

  19. Integrated vs. Federated Search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvschall, Kasper

    2009-01-01

    Oplæg om forskelle og ligheder mellem integrated og federated search i bibliotekskontekst. Holdt ved temadag om "Integrated Search - samsøgning i alle kilder" på Danmarks Biblioteksskole den 22. januar 2009.......Oplæg om forskelle og ligheder mellem integrated og federated search i bibliotekskontekst. Holdt ved temadag om "Integrated Search - samsøgning i alle kilder" på Danmarks Biblioteksskole den 22. januar 2009....

  20. Maintaining collections with a flat budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara E Morris

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the various processes, methods and tough decisions made by the University of Kansas Libraries to provide library materials while maintaining a flat collections budget for over eight years. During this period, those responsible for the Libraries’ collections have implemented quick stop- gap measures, picked all the ‘low-hanging fruit’, and eventually canceled a large journal package. This case study will help other librarians facing the reality of maintaining collections at a time when budgets, changing formats and publication practices are all obstacles to providing patrons with what they need.

  1. Soft Budget Constraints in Professional Football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Rasmus K.; Nielsen, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    European professional football clubs go out of business even though they operate chronically on the edge of financial collapse? The paper argues that the paradox can be explained by the fact that professional football clubs operate within soft budget constraints in a way which is similar to the role...... of large companies in socialist economies – a phenomenon which was first identified by the Hungarian Economist János Kornai. More generally, it is argued that our understanding of the peculiar economics of professional team sports can be enhanced significantly by applying the soft budget constrain concept...

  2. FY 1988 Budget: A brief look

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    Research funding fared relatively well in the abbreviated budget proposal for fiscal year (FY) 1988 that was submitted to Congress by the Reagan administration on January 5, 1987. Under the plan, funding of civilian basic research is proposed to increase by 4.5% over the FY 1987 level. This budget proposal, the first ever to top the $1-trillion mark, was released 1 month earlier than past proposals, in compliance with the new timetable established by the Gramm-Rudman-Hollings deficit control legislation passed in 1985. Because of the earlier deadline, the proposal was presented in abbreviated form, with a promise that more details will be made available in late January.

  3. Coordination and standardization of federal sedimentation activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glysson, G. Douglas; Gray, John R.

    1997-01-01

    In August 1964, the Bureau of the Budget issued Circular A-67 to set forth guidelines for the coordination of water-data acquisition activities throughout the Federal government. The U.S. Department of the Interior was assigned the task of implementing Circular A-67, which in turn redelegated this responsibility to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Delegation of the lead responsibility for water-data coordination to the USGS occurred because of its historical role as the primary agency for water-data acquisition in the United States. To provide overall leadership for implementing the provisions of Circular A-67, the USGS established the Office of Water Data Coordination in the Water Resources Division (WRD). In addition, regional and district offices of the WRD were delegated responsibility for coordinating water data within their geographic areas of responsibility. On December 10, 1991, the Office of Management and Budget issued OMB Number Memorandum M-92-01, which expands the USGS's coordination role to encompass all water information. This includes data critical to water resources in the following categories: - surface- and ground-water quality and quantity,

  4. Competency-Based Education and Federal Student Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Stephen R.

    2016-01-01

    Competency-based education is increasingly popular because of the flexibility it provides for students seeking a postsecondary credential. Current federal student aid, however, is geared toward supporting students in traditional, time-based degree programs. This paper discusses why current approaches to federal student aid are not supportive of…

  5. [The department budget, in the context of the hospital global budget. Initial results in general medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besançon, F

    1984-02-23

    In a general hospital (Hôtel-Dieu, in the center of Paris), run with a global budget, budgets determined for each unit were introduced as an experiment in 1980. Physicians were in charge of certain expenses, mainly: linen, drugs, transportation of patients to and from other hospitals within Paris, and blood fractions. The whole does not exceed 4% of the turnover (FF 20 millions in 1980) of a 67 bed internal medicine unit. Other accounts deal with the stays, admissions, prescriptions of technical acts, laboratory analyses, and X-rays. In 1980, expenses were 11% more than budgeted, but the increase in stays and particularly in admissions was significantly greater. The resulting savings were 8.8% and 18.7% for stays and admissions respectively. Psychic reactions were variable. The subsequent budgets followed the fluctuations of recorded expenses, which were fairly important in both directions. The unit budget may be an advance or a regression, in a restrictive and past-perpetuating context. The coherence between the unit budget and the global hospital budget is questionable. Physicians were willing to take part in accounting and saving. They have good reason for not enlarging their financial responsibilities. Conversely, they may give more attention to diseases of public opinion.

  6. Model of Stochastic Automation Asymptotically Optimal Behavior for Inter-budget Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena D. Streltsova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on the topical issue of inter-budget control in the structure ↔ by applying econometric models. To create the decision-making model, mathematical tool of the theory of stochastic automation, operating in random environments was used. On the basis of the application of this mathematical tool, the adaptive training economic and mathematical model, able to adapt to the environment, maintained by the income from the payment of federal and regional taxes and fees, payable to the budget of the constituent entity of the RF and paid to the budget of a lower level in the form of budget regulation was developed. The authors have developed the structure of the machine, described its behavior in a random environment and introduced the expression for the final probabilities of machine in each of its states. The behavioral aspect of the machine by means of a mathematically rigorous proof of the theorem on the feasibility of behavior and the asymptotic optimality of the proposed design of the machine were presented.

  7. The Earth Radiation Budget (ERB) experiment - An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobowitz, H.; Soule, H. V.; Kyle, H. L.; House, F. B.

    1984-01-01

    The development of ERB observational systems is traced from its beginnings in the late 1950's through to the current ERB on the Nimbus 7 satellite. The instruments comprising the current 22-channel ERB experiment are described in some detail. Noteworthy are the inclusion in one solar channel, of a self-calibrating cavity to measure the solar constant and the use of biaxial scanning telescopes to determine the angular reflection and emission model required for processing the narrow-angle radiometric data. A fairly detailed description of the prelaunch and in-flight calibrations is given along with an analysis of the radiometric performance of the instruments. The data processing system is traced with the aid of a schematic flow diagram showing the steps required to produce the many tape and microfilm products archived. Future plans for improving the quality and accuracy of the data products are discussed. Finally, the upcoming Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) is briefly mentioned. It will be capable of simultaneously measuring the radiation budget from three satellites, each having a different equator crossing time and angle.

  8. From Policy to Compliance: Federal Energy Efficient Product Procurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeMates, Laurèn [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Scodel, Anna [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-09-06

    Federal buyers are required to purchase energy-efficient products in an effort to minimize energy use in the federal sector, save the federal government money, and spur market development of efficient products. The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP)’s Energy Efficient Product Procurement (EEPP) Program helps federal agencies comply with the requirement to purchase energy-efficient products by providing technical assistance and guidance and setting efficiency requirements for certain product categories. Past studies have estimated the savings potential of purchasing energy-efficient products at over $500 million per year in energy costs across federal agencies.1 Despite the strong policy support for EEPP and resources available, energy-efficient product purchasing operates within complex decision-making processes and operational structures; implementation challenges exist that may hinder agencies’ ability to comply with purchasing requirements. The shift to purchasing green products, including energy-efficient products, relies on “buy in” from a variety of potential actors throughout different purchasing pathways. Challenges may be especially high for EEPP relative to other sustainable acquisition programs given that efficient products frequently have a higher first cost than non-efficient ones, which may be perceived as a conflict with fiscal responsibility, or more simply problematic for agency personnel trying to stretch limited budgets. Federal buyers may also face challenges in determining whether a given product is subject to EEPP requirements. Previous analysis on agency compliance with EEPP, conducted by the Alliance to Save Energy (ASE), shows that federal agencies are getting better at purchasing energy-efficient products. ASE conducted two reviews of relevant solicitations for product and service contracts listed on Federal Business Opportunities (FBO), the centralized website where federal agencies are required to post procurements greater

  9. Making Federalism Work in Italy. OECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 590

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibbee, Alexandra

    2007-01-01

    Fiscal federalism can be an important complement to structural reforms and budget consolidation. Empowering sub national governments, while at the same time making them accountable to local citizens in the uses of tax money, could improve the allocation of public resources and promote catch up of the lagging regions. Italy has launched itself in…

  10. 78 FR 54465 - Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ... State Grant Policy FY14 Appraisal Foundation and State Grant Recommendation FY14 ASC Budget April 2013 Appraisal Foundation Grant Reimbursement Report on the Maine Real Estate Appraisal Program How To Attend and... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions...

  11. 77 FR 54917 - Public Availability of General Services Administration FY 2012 Federal Activities Inventory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... ADMINISTRATION Public Availability of General Services Administration FY 2012 Federal Activities Inventory Reform (FAIR) Act Inventory AGENCY: General Services Administration (GSA). ACTION: Notice of Public... accordance with the FAIR Act of 1998, Public Law 105-270, and Office of Management and Budget (OMB)...

  12. Beyond budgeting og ledelsesfokus i Coloplast : hvilken sammenheng har styringsmodellen beyond budgeting og ledelse?

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Formålet med denne utredningen har vært å forstå sammenhengen mellom styringsmodellen Beyond Budgeting og ledelse. Beyond Budgeting-filosofien argumenterer for at budsjettet er uegnet som styringsverktøy. For å være mer tilpasningsdyktig i en dynamisk verden, foreslås 12 prinsipper som skal gjøre virksomheten mer fleksibel. Store deler av tidligere forskning ser på implikasjoner ved styringsverktøyene, og få knytter Beyond Budgeting opp mot ledelse. Det er her blitt gjennomført...

  13. 77 FR 23732 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Announcement of Office of Management and Budget...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing that a collection of information entitled ``Current Good Manufacturing Practices and Related Regulations for Blood and Blood Components; and Requirements for Donor Testing, Donor Notification, and ` Lookback' '' has been approved by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) under the Paperwork Reduction Act of...

  14. 78 FR 59979 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for the Office of Management and Budget (OMB...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... and Environmental Management Programs Requests to Agreement States for Information. 3. Current OMB... COMMISSION Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for the Office of Management and Budget (OMB... Management (OMB) review of ] information collection and solicitation of public comment. SUMMARY: The U.S...

  15. A compreensão dos operadores de direito do Distrito Federal sobre o usuário de drogas na vigência da nova lei The understanding of law professionals from the Federal District about drug users under the current new law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Barros Santoucy

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available O usuário de drogas tem recebido tratamentos contraditórios que promovem sua estigmatização e clandestinidade e limitam a compreensão do fenômeno. O objetivo foi investigar como Promotores e Juízes estão entendendo e aplicando a nova lei que legisla sobre a conduta de usar e portar drogas no Brasil. Onze operadores do Direito do Distrito Federal (DF participaram de entrevistas semi-estruturadas divididas em três eixos: a visão em relação ao usuário de droga; como a lei vem sendo aplicada; e como concebe o trabalho da equipe multidisciplinar. As respostas demonstraram posições muito heterogêneas, denotando não haver ainda unanimidade quanto à compreensão da nova lei: se por um lado há uma crença compartilhada de que o uso de drogas é um problema de saúde pública, por outro, acredita-se que o usuário deve receber uma punição por seu ato ilegal. Um diálogo interdisciplinar efetivo permitiria uma atuação eficaz e reflexiva visando a beneficiar as pessoas que chegam à justiça.Drugs users have been receiving contradictory treatments thereby promoting their stigma besides hiding and limiting the understanding of the phenomenon. The objective of this study was to investigate how the District Attorneys and Judges are considering and applying the new law which legislates on the conduct of drug use in Brazil. Eleven Law professionals from the Federal District participated in semi-structured interviews divided in three areas: the point of view in relation to the user of drugs, how the law is being applied, and how they conceive the work of the multidisciplinary teams. The results showed very heterogeneous positions, showing that there is no unanimity on the understanding of the new law. For some, there is a shared belief that drugs abuse is a public health problem, for others, it is believed that the user must receive a punishment for his/her illegal act. An effective and efficient interdisciplinary dialogue should allow a

  16. Alternate Budgetary Sources during Budget Rescissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keppler, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    This chapter describes revenue-generating and cost-saving strategies that student affairs divisions may consider during periods of budget rescissions and categorizes them according to the decision-making entities involved in each. The chapter also explains why particular examples are well suited to individual institutions.

  17. Carbon budgets and energy transition pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Vuuren, Detlef P.; Van Soest, Heleen; Riahi, Keywan; Clarke, Leon; Krey, Volker; Kriegler, Elmar; Rogelj, Joeri; Schaeffer, Michiel; Tavoni, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Scenarios from integrated assessment models can provide insights into how carbon budgets relate to other policy-relevant indicators by including information on how fast and by how much emissions can be reduced. Such indicators include the peak year of global emissions, the decarbonisation rate and t

  18. Carbon budgets and energy transition pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuuren, Van Detlef P.; Soest, van Heleen; Riahi, Keywan; Clarke, Leon; Krey, Volker; Kriegler, Elmar; Rogelj, Joeri; Schaeffer, Michiel; Tavoni, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Scenarios from integrated assessment models can provide insights into how carbon budgets relate to other policy-relevant indicators by including information on how fast and by how much emissions can be reduced. Such indicators include the peak year of global emissions, the decarbonisation rate an

  19. Your Money: Budget, Banking, Credit, Taxes, & Insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre, Liz

    Information and accompanying exercises in this learning module are provided to reinforce basic reading, spelling, writing, and math skills while at the same time introducing the fundamentals of personal money management. Written at an elementary level, the module covers five areas of personal finance: (1) planning a household budget on the basis…

  20. The European aerosol budget in 2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aan de Brugh, J.M.J.; Schaap, M.; Vignati, E.; Dentener, F.J.; Kahnert, M.; Sofiev, M.A.; Huijnen, V.; Krol, M.C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the aerosol budget over Europe in 2006 calculated with the global transport model TM5 coupled to the size-resolved aerosol module M7. Comparison with ground observations indicates that the model reproduces the observed concentrations quite well with an expected slight underestima

  1. Do political budget cycles really exist?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, J.G.; Haan, de J.

    2013-01-01

    Most recent cross-country studies on election-motivated fiscal policy assume that the data can be pooled. As various tests suggest that our data for some 70 democratic countries for the period 1970–2007 cannot be pooled, we use the Pooled Mean Group (PMG) estimator to test whether Political Budget C

  2. Cern faces 260m euro budget cuts

    CERN Multimedia

    Banks, Michael

    2010-01-01

    "The Cern particle-physics lab near Geneva is to slash about 260m euro ($340m) from its budget for 2011-2015. The cut, which was approved by Cern's council last month, will require the lab to scale back research into future particles accelerators" (0.5 page)

  3. Budgeting-Based Organization of Internal Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogulenko, Tatiana; Ponomareva, Svetlana; Bodiaco, Anna; Mironenko, Valentina; Zelenov, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    The article suggests methodical approaches to the budgeting-based organization of internal control, determines the tasks and subtasks of control that consist in the construction of an efficient system for the making, implementation, control, and analysis of managerial decisions. The organization of responsibility centers by means of implementing…

  4. The uncertainty budget in pharmaceutical industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj

    of their uncertainty, exactly as described in GUM [2]. Pharmaceutical industry has therefore over the last 5 years shown increasing interest in accreditation according to ISO 17025 [3], and today uncertainty budgets are being developed for all so-called critical measurements. The uncertainty of results obtained...

  5. States' Budgets Reflect Rising Tax Collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, David J.

    2005-01-01

    Many state budgets are reaping the benefits of tax revenues that are rising faster than at any time since the economic slowdown ended. Overall tax collections by states rose by 11.7 percent in the first quarter of 2005, giving the legislatures extra cash to shore up school aid, increase teacher pay, and finance new initiatives such as full-day…

  6. The evolving energy budget of accretionary wedges

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBeck, Jessica; Cooke, Michele; Maillot, Bertrand; Souloumiac, Pauline

    2017-04-01

    The energy budget of evolving accretionary systems reveals how deformational processes partition energy as faults slip, topography uplifts, and layer-parallel shortening produces distributed off-fault deformation. The energy budget provides a quantitative framework for evaluating the energetic contribution or consumption of diverse deformation mechanisms. We investigate energy partitioning in evolving accretionary prisms by synthesizing data from physical sand accretion experiments and numerical accretion simulations. We incorporate incremental strain fields and cumulative force measurements from two suites of experiments to design numerical simulations that represent accretionary wedges with stronger and weaker detachment faults. One suite of the physical experiments includes a basal glass bead layer and the other does not. Two physical experiments within each suite implement different boundary conditions (stable base versus moving base configuration). Synthesizing observations from the differing base configurations reduces the influence of sidewall friction because the force vector produced by sidewall friction points in opposite directions depending on whether the base is fixed or moving. With the numerical simulations, we calculate the energy budget at two stages of accretion: at the maximum force preceding the development of the first thrust pair, and at the minimum force following the development of the pair. To identify the appropriate combination of material and fault properties to apply in the simulations, we systematically vary the Young's modulus and the fault static and dynamic friction coefficients in numerical accretion simulations, and identify the set of parameters that minimizes the misfit between the normal force measured on the physical backwall and the numerically simulated force. Following this derivation of the appropriate material and fault properties, we calculate the components of the work budget in the numerical simulations and in the

  7. Onorbit IMU alignment error budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corson, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    The Star Tracker, Crew Optical Alignment Sight (COAS), and Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) from a complex navigation system with a multitude of error sources were combined. A complete list of the system errors is presented. The errors were combined in a rational way to yield an estimate of the IMU alignment accuracy for STS-1. The expected standard deviation in the IMU alignment error for STS-1 type alignments was determined to be 72 arc seconds per axis for star tracker alignments and 188 arc seconds per axis for COAS alignments. These estimates are based on current knowledge of the star tracker, COAS, IMU, and navigation base error specifications, and were partially verified by preliminary Monte Carlo analysis.

  8. Designing budgeting tool and sensitivity analysis for a start-up. : Case: Witrafi Oy

    OpenAIRE

    Arafath, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a thesis on the topic of designing budgeting tool and sensitivi-ty analysis for the commissioning company. The commissioning company is a Finnish Star-up and currently focusing on developing Intelligent Transport Sys-tems by using network based parking system. The aim of this thesis is to provide a ready-made budgeting tool therefore, the commissioning company can use the tool for its own purpose. This is a product-oriented thesis and it includes five project tasks. Pro...

  9. The understanding of law professionals from the Federal District about drug users under the current new law / A compreensão dos operadores de direito do Distrito Federal sobre o usuário de drogas na vigência da nova lei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fátima Olivier Sudbrack

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Drugs users have been receiving contradictory treatments thereby promoting their stigma besides hiding and limiting the understanding of the phenomenon. The objective of this study was to investigate how the District Attorneys and Judges are considering and applying the new law which legislates on the conduct of drug use in Brazil. Eleven Law professionals from the Federal District participated in semi-structured interviews divided in three areas: the point of view in relation to the user of drugs, how the law is being applied, and how they conceive the work of the multidisciplinary teams. The results showed very heterogeneous positions, showing that there is no unanimity on the understanding of the new law. For some, there is a shared belief that drugs abuse is a public health problem, for others, it is believed that the user must receive a punishment for his/her illegal act. An effective and efficient interdisciplinary dialogue should allow a reflective action aiming at favoring those who come to justice.

  10. Flowdown of the TMT astrometry error budget(s) to the IRIS design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöck, Matthias; Andersen, David; Rogers, John; Ellerbroek, Brent; Chisholm, Eric; Dunn, Jennifer; Herriot, Glen; Larkin, James; Moore, Anna; Suzuki, Ryuji; Wincentsen, James; Wright, Shelley

    2016-08-01

    TMT has defined the accuracy to be achieved for both absolute and differential astrometry in its top-level requirements documents. Because of the complexities of different types of astrometric observations, these requirements cannot be used to specify system design parameters directly. The TMT astrometry working group therefore developed detailed astrometry error budgets for a variety of science cases. These error budgets detail how astrometric errors propagate through the calibration, observing and data reduction processes. The budgets need to be condensed into sets of specific requirements that can be used by each subsystem team for design purposes. We show how this flowdown from error budgets to design requirements is achieved for the case of TMT's first-light Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (IRIS) instrument.

  11. Flowdown of the TMT astrometry error budget(s) to the IRIS design

    CERN Document Server

    Schoeck, Matthias; Rogers, John; Ellerbroek, Brent; Chisholm, Eric; Dunn, Jennifer; Herriot, Glen; Larkin, James; Moore, Anna; Suzuki, Ryuji; Wincentsen, James; Wright, Shelley

    2016-01-01

    TMT has defined the accuracy to be achieved for both absolute and differential astrometry in its top-level requirements documents. Because of the complexities of different types of astrometric observations, these requirements cannot be used to specify system design parameters directly. The TMT astrometry working group therefore developed detailed astrometry error budgets for a variety of science cases. These error budgets detail how astrometric errors propagate through the calibration, observing and data reduction processes. The budgets need to be condensed into sets of specific requirements that can be used by each subsystem team for design purposes. We show how this flowdown from error budgets to design requirements is achieved for the case of TMT's first-light Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (IRIS) instrument.

  12. Institutional and Organizational Structure of the Federal Procurement System of the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vovchenko Natalya Gennadyevna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the role of the Federal procurement system of the United States as a regulatory tool of the U.S. economy. The scope of research is focused on organizational and institutional aspects of forming and developing the U.S. Federal procurement system. The main purpose of the paper is to study up-to-date mechanism of government acquisition in the United States and to consider all its structural elements taken in conjunction with each other, such as the President, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB, the Office of Federal Procurement Policy (OFPP, the General Services Administration (GSA, other executive and regulatory agencies. The methodological background of the research is based on normative, system-wide, statistical and complex approaches to the study of structural elements of the U.S. Federal procurement system. The theoretical and practical material of the present research can be used in teaching and learning activities at economic faculties, for instance, in the course of lectures on government contacting and public procurement management. It also can be used in training and advanced training of specialists who draft public procurement regulations in the Russian Federation. The statutory regulation of the U.S. Federal procurement system constitutes an organizational framework of executive agencies, their functions and responsibilities, specifics of government control over contract performance, competition requirements and contracting methods. The paper considered interrelated components of the U.S. Federal procurement system, which operates in furtherance of efficient utilization of Federal budget.

  13. Predicting Nigeria budget allocation using regression analysis: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Predicting Nigeria budget allocation using regression analysis: A data mining approach. ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... Budget is used by the Government as a guiding tool for planning and management of its resources to aid in ...

  14. FY 2007 Supplement to the President`s Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — This Supplement to the President`s Fiscal Year FY 2007 Budget provides a technical summary of the budget request for the Networking and Information Technology...

  15. The advantage of using operational budgeting on governmental organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manouchehr Najafi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Budgeting plays an important role on increasing efficiency of organizations. It helps determine targets and possible future chaos a head of time. A good budgeting plan can create motivation among workers and managers. There are different budgeting plans such as traditional and operational. In this paper, we analyze the effects of executing budgeting plan on governmental organizations. The proposed study of this paper designs a questionnaire consists of various questions and selects 94 people out of 125 financial managers who work for various governmental organizations in province of Zanjan, Iran. The results indicate that the operational budgeting could help provide better performance measurement of governmental organizations, it helps us provide a more precise cost of products and services, and it helps government allocate the necessary budget proportion to performance measurement. The results of our survey also indicate that operational budgeting redirect costs towards our objectives and make the overall budgeting crystal clear.

  16. [FY 1992 Budget Proposals, Requests, Projections & Summaries : Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains information related to Rocky Mountain Arsenal's budget for the 1992 fiscal year. Detailed budget proposals, projections, and summaries are...

  17. FY 2008 Supplement to the President`s Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — This Supplement to the President`s Fiscal Year FY 2008 Budget provides a technical summary of the budget request for the Networking and Information Technology...

  18. FY 2010 Supplement to the President`s Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — This Supplement to the President`s Fiscal Year FY 2010 Budget provides a technical summary of the budget request for the Networking and Information Technology...

  19. FY 2009 Supplement to the President`s Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — Published: February 2008 Pages: 37 This Supplement to the President`s Fiscal Year FY 2009 Budget provides a technical summary of the budget request for the...

  20. FY 2006 Supplement to the President`s Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — This Supplement to the Presidents Budget for Fiscal Year 2006 offers a brief technical outline of the 2006 budget request for the Networking and Information...

  1. FY 2011 Supplement to the President`s Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — This Supplement to the President`s Fiscal Year FY 2011 Budget provides a technical summary of the budget request for the Networking and Information Technology...

  2. The Scope and Structure of the General EU Budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Cilak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to present the scope and structure of the general budget of the European Union. EU general budget is constructed in accordance with the budgetary principles that are set out in Regulation No 966/2012. The scope of the budget is related to entities whose income and expenses are accounted for in the budget. It is connected with the principle of unity and budget accuracy. The structure and content of the budget, however, are associated with the data exhibited in the budget and the way they are presented. Of particular importance in the context of the structure and content of the budget are principles such as universality, balance, specification.

  3. Federalism and Health Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Alan Tarr

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available President Barack Obama proposed a major overhaul of the American healthsystem, and in 2010 the U.S. Congress enacted his proposal, the PatientProtection and Affordable Care Act. Opponents of the Act challenged itsconstitutionality in federal court, claiming that it exceeds the powers grantedto the federal government under the Commerce Clause and the NecessaryProper Clause of the federal Constitution. Some courts have upheldthe law, but others have agreed with the critics, in particular ruling thatthe provision requiring citizens to buy health insurance is unconstitutional.Eventually the U.S. Supreme Court will rule on the issue. This article tracesthe controversy, surveys the interpretation of pertinent constitutional provisionsin past cases, analyzes the constitutional arguments presented byproponents and opponents of the Act, and concludes that the Act is constitutional.

  4. Organisation of Internal Control in a Budget Institution: Applied Aspect

    OpenAIRE

    Dikan Larysa V.; Deyneko Yevgen V.

    2013-01-01

    The article proves urgency and necessity of organisation of internal control in budget institutions. It graphically depicts a general structure of the organisation of internal control in budget institutions. It offers and substantiates a model of organisation of internal control in budget institutions. It proves that the key principles of organisation of internal control in budget institutions are principles of effectiveness and efficiency. Moreover, the effectiveness principle is connected w...

  5. Closing the gap between budget formulation and execution

    OpenAIRE

    Lowery, Erainust

    2000-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis is a case study analysis of the Resource Management Office of the Bureau of Naval Personnel (PERS-02). Specifically, an analysis of projected versus actual budget figures was conducted. The purpose of the research was to explain anomalies in the budget formulation figures as compared to actual budget execution figures and define ways to improve the protocol between budget activities. Based on model comparisons, document rev...

  6. THE CONCEPTUAL CONTENT OF STATE BUDGET PROCESS IN ECONOMIC THEORY

    OpenAIRE

    Žubule, Ērika; Puzule, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Evaluating the role of the budget in economy we may declare that the budget process should favour the social economic development of the state. The aim of the research is to explore and evaluate theoretical aspects of the state budget process as a component of the state financial policy and to work out proposals for improvement of the state budget process, based on the theoretical and empirical findings. The main objectives of the research were to study the foreign economic scientific literat...

  7. A Historical Analysis of the Biennial Budget Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    impaired. The malady of the program phase also infected the budget phase. Decision making late in the budget process becomes shrouded in urgency...chair.(b Iude o s t dote bi nniu e alatly, aiebu deIt reviewedlon annuimicfo ally mratf ilont Commite and f~iwsoeemmntatiee, caipminted bytj ’peuh r...Budget Committee, became infected . In 1984, he observed "I dn think there needs to be some (budget) reform. But there is no reform that can substitute fur

  8. Federalism and health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Richard P

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a cyclical theory of U.S. federalism and social policy: Many social policy initiatives are tested and refined at the state level, especially during conservative periods, and later morph into national policies. The paper describes such federalism cycles and offers an interpretation of why and how they occur, focusing on Medicaid. State activism has preserved and expanded Medicaid through policy innovation and resistance to retrenchment, especially in conservative periods, by taking advantage of the flexibility the program provides. I conclude that Medicaid's incremental/partnership approach is appropriate and feasible to build on for a future expansion of health care coverage.

  9. BUDGET ISSUES AND FISCAL POLICY IN ROMANIA AND IN LOCAL GOVERNMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHIRCULESCU MARIA FELICIA

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The work is based on one of the priority themes of any governance, namely public administration reform, a particular importance being its financial component. In terms of austerity in which public authorities operate in Romania, balancing local budgets is a current topic and strongly debated. It is a clear difference between earning income communities and communities of sufficient own funds set up not doing any maintenance to cover the village. Communities who occupy the first places have economic, social, demographic benefits, that enable continuous development. Although there is always the tendency to criticize communities that do not have sufficient income,it must be seen that in Europe today the basic concept that builds on development theory is economic and social cohesion. It is believed that the uneven development of the territories actually reflect the economic weaknesses of the combination of which led to political and economic instability. An alternative to this situation is the solidarity of local communities, calculated to maintain a balance between both communities. It is believed that overall healthy economic development can be achieved by a balanced territorial development, and not by widening the existing gaps. In this paper we conducted an analysis of revenues and expenditures of local budgets in Romania, the time interval, 2013-2015, and each party's share of the local budget both in GDP and in the general consolidated budget. Analysis based on the data allows the expression of conclusions on the implementation of revenue and expenditures of local budgets.

  10. Mental budgeting and the management of household finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonides, G.; Groot, de I.M.; Raaij, van W.

    2011-01-01

    Mental budgeting and financial management were investigated in a large sample of the Dutch population. Mental budgeting was quite common, and was explained from general education, having saving goals, financial knowledge, time orientation, and financial situation. Also, mental budgeting, in addition

  11. The interaction between motivational disposition and participative budgeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandalgaard, Niels; Bukh, Per Nikolaj; Poulsen, Carsten Stig

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to report the findings of a study of how dispositional factors of motivation rooted in personality interact with participative budgeting to affect budget goal commitment. The results indicate that the effect of increased budgetary participation on budget goal commitment...

  12. Elaboration of Public Budget – A Participatory Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narcis Eduard Mitu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we study a different way to manage public money, and to engage people in government. Participatory budgeting is a democratic process in which community members directly decide how to spend part of a public budget. It enables taxpayers to work with government to make the budget decisions that affect their lives.

  13. 40 CFR 52.2424 - Motor vehicle emissions budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle emissions budgets. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Virginia § 52.2424 Motor vehicle emissions budgets. (a) Motor vehicle emissions budget for the Hampton Roads maintenance area adjusting...

  14. 40 CFR 52.244 - Motor vehicle emissions budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle emissions budgets. 52.244... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.244 Motor vehicle emissions budgets. (a) Approval of the motor vehicle emissions budgets for the following ozone rate-of-progress...

  15. Deficit Prevention: Budget Control Model for Enrollment-Dependent Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsley, Michael K.

    1994-01-01

    An ongoing system of short-term budget controls that test actual performance against budget forecasts is essential for enrollment-dependent independent colleges. The budget control model presented here is a tool to inform the management continuously of changes in the all-important tuition revenue stream. (Author/MSE)

  16. Managing Highway Maintenance: Budget Preparation, Unit 9, Level 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Highway Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Offices of Research and Development.

    Part of the series "Managing Highway Maintenance," the unit describes the essential steps in developing a maintenance budget, or performance budget, based on the work to be done. It is designed for field engineers and supervisors who assist department officials in preparing work programs and budgets. The format is a programed,…

  17. The interaction between motivational disposition and participative budgeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandalgaard, Niels; Bukh, Per Nikolaj; Poulsen, Carsten Stig

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to report the findings of a study of how dispositional factors of motivation rooted in personality interact with participative budgeting to affect budget goal commitment. The results indicate that the effect of increased budgetary participation on budget goal commitment...

  18. Mental budgeting and the management of household finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonides, G.; Groot, de I.M.; Raaij, van W.

    2011-01-01

    Mental budgeting and financial management were investigated in a large sample of the Dutch population. Mental budgeting was quite common, and was explained from general education, having saving goals, financial knowledge, time orientation, and financial situation. Also, mental budgeting, in addition

  19. California's Budget Problems Leave Community Colleges Holding IOU's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Josh

    2009-01-01

    When California approved its budget last month, the community-college system managed to escape the sharp budget cuts that befell most other agencies. But the state's fiscal troubles have nonetheless created a cash crisis for two-year colleges. As part of its plan to close a $41-billion budget deficit, California will delay providing $540-million…

  20. 50 CFR 600.125 - Budgeting, funding, and accounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Budgeting, funding, and accounting. 600... Councils § 600.125 Budgeting, funding, and accounting. Link to an amendment published at 75 FR 59150, Sept... of the user, the revised text is set forth as follows: § 600.125 Budgeting, funding, and...

  1. Budgeting: The Basics and Beyond. Learn at Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska-Cue, Kathy; Sugden, Marilyn

    Designed as an at-home course to help users develop a realistic budget plan and set up a workable record-keeping system, these course materials provide practical tips, ideas, and suggestions for budgeting. The course begins with a nine-step budgeting process which emphasizes communicating among family members, considering personal or family…

  2. 40 CFR 96.40 - State trading program budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State trading program budget. 96.40... (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.40 State trading program budget. The State trading program...

  3. Peru's participatory budgeting: configurations of power, opportunities for change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Hordijk

    2009-01-01

    In 2003, Peru adopted the "Framework Law on participatory budgeting". It requires all the municipal and regional governments to institutionalize a yearly "participatory budgeting process". The Peruvian Participatory Budgeting (PB) is inspired on the PB-experiment in Porto Alegre, Brazil, but differs

  4. 40 CFR 96.340 - State trading budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State trading budgets. 96.340 Section...) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 96.340 State trading budgets. (a) Except as provided...

  5. A global Ge isotope budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baronas, J. Jotautas; Hammond, Douglas E.; McManus, James; Wheat, C. Geoffrey; Siebert, Christopher

    2017-04-01

    We present measurements of Ge isotope composition and ancillary data for samples of river water, low- and high-temperature hydrothermal fluids, and seawater. The dissolved δ74Ge composition of analyzed rivers ranges from 2.0 to 5.6‰, which is significantly heavier than previously determined values for silicate rocks (δ74Ge = 0.4-0.7‰, Escoube et al., Geostand. Geoanal. Res., 36(2), 2012) from which dissolved Ge is primarily derived. An observed negative correlation between riverine Ge/Si and δ74Ge signatures suggests that the primary δ74Ge fractionation mechanism during rock weathering is the preferential incorporation of light isotopes into secondary weathering products. High temperature (>150 °C) hydrothermal fluids analyzed in this study have δ74Ge of 0.7-1.6‰, most likely fractionated during fluid equilibration with quartz in the reaction zone. Low temperature (25-63 °C) hydrothermal fluids are heavier (δ74Ge between 2.9‰ and 4.1‰) and most likely fractionated during Ge precipitation with hydrothermal clays. Seawater from the open ocean has a δ74Gesw value of 3.2 ± 0.4‰, and is indistinguishable among the different ocean basins at the current level of precision. This value should be regulated over time by the isotopic balance of Ge sources and sinks, and a new compilation of these fluxes is presented, along with their estimated isotopic compositions. Assuming steady-state, non-opal Ge sequestration during sediment authigenesis likely involves isotopic fractionation Δ74Gesolid-solution that is -0.6 ± 1.8‰.

  6. Impact on the Federal Budget of Freezing Non-Security Discretionary Spending

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    Discretionary Spending Mindy R. Levit Analyst in Public Finance March 22, 2011 Congressional Research Service 7-5700 www.crs.gov R41174 Report...future years as well. Author Contact Information Mindy R. Levit Analyst in Public Finance mlevit@crs.loc.gov, 7-7792

  7. Office of Management and Budget Circular Number A-76 as a Statement of Federal Procurement Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-17

    impacted on the Circular A-76 program. In July, 1976, President Gerald Ford initiated his Presidential Management Initiatives (PMI) program. 2 7 Its...SP.Cinl Pro’AcPs a-;,oeintcd with oco ’-- studies. Requirement for sof Costo ~wfos Historical Perqpective Cost Comparisons as a Check on Competition Thc...jurisdiction, the Court of Appeals fur thle TIhird Circuit held that the AdiInist rat iv\\’ Procedure Act dlid not H ford the plaintiffs a judicial forumn

  8. Energy Budgets of the Giant Planets and Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liming, Li; Smith, Mark A.; Conrath, Barney J.; Conrath, Peter J.; Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Baines, Kevin H.; West, Robert A.; Achterberg, Richard K.; Orton, Glenn S.; Santiago, Perez-Hoyos; hide

    2012-01-01

    As a fundamental property, the energy budget affects many aspeCts of planets and their moons, such as thermal structure, meteorology, and evolution. We use the observations from two Cassini spectrometers (i.e., CIRS and VIMS) to explore one important component of the energy budget the total emitted power of Jupiter, Saturn, and Titan (Li et al., 2010, 2011, 2012). Key results are: (1) The Cassini observations precisely measure the global-average emitted power of three bodies: 14.l0+/-0.03 Wm(exp -2), 4.952+/-0.035 Wm(exp -2), and 2.834+/-0.012 Wm(exp -2) for Jupiter, Saturn, and Titan, respectively. (2) The meridional distribution of emitted power displays a significant asymmetry between the northern and southern hemispheres on Jupiter and Saturn. On Titan, the meridional distribution of emitted power is basically symmetric around the equator. (3) Comparing with the Voyager measurements, the new Cassini observations reveal a significant temporal variation of emitted power on both Jupiter and Saturn: i) The asymmetry between the two hemisphere shown in the Cassini epoch (2000-2010) is not present in the Voyager epoch (1979-1980); and ii) From the Voyager epoch to the Cassini epoch, the global-average emitted power appeared to increase by approx 3.8% for Jupiter and approx 6.4% for Saturn. (4) Together with previous measurements of the absorbed solar power on Titan, the new Cassini measurements of emitted power provide the first observational evidence of the global energy balance on Titan. The uncertainty in the previous measurements of absorbed solar energy places an upper limit on its energy imbalance of 6.0% on Titan. The exploration of emitted power is the first part of a series of studies examining the temporal variability of the energy budget on the giant planets and Titan. Currently, We are measuring the absorbed solar energy in order to determine new constraints on the energy budgets of Jupiter, Saturn, and Titan.

  9. 78 FR 26847 - Including Specific Pavement Types in Federal-aid Highway Traffic Noise Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-08

    ... Federal Highway Administration Including Specific Pavement Types in Federal-aid Highway Traffic Noise... types used in Federal-aid highway traffic noise analyses. Current highway traffic noise analyses rely on... suggestions on whether and how to include additional pavement types in Federal-aid highway traffic...

  10. Defense Infrastructure: DOD has Made Limited Progress in Assessing Foreign Encroachment Risks on Federally Managed Land

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-13

    Environmental Enforcement. These agencies administer federal lands—including those that are near DOD test and training ranges—and issue a wide...the current statutory and regulatory framework governing real property transactions involving the federal government and foreign- controlled entities...which DOD coordinates efforts with other federal agencies to monitor proposed real property transactions involving the federal government and

  11. The Oxidant Budget of Dissolved Organic Carbon Driven Isotope Excursions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, T. F.; Kennedy, M. J.

    2008-12-01

    Negative carbon isotope values, falling below the mantle average of about -5 per mil, in carbonate phases of Ediacaran age sedimentary rocks are widely regarded as reflecting negative excursions in the carbon isotopic composition of seawater lasting millions of years. These isotopic signals form the basis of chemostratigraphic correlations between Ediacaran aged sections in different parts of the world, and have been used to track the oxidation of the biosphere. However, these isotopic values are difficult to accommodate within limits prescribed by the current understanding of the carbon cycle, and a hypothetical Precambrian ocean dissolved organic carbon (DOC) pool 100 to 1000 times the size of the modern provides a potential source of depleted carbon not considered in Phanerozoic carbon cycle budgets. We present box model results that show the remineralization of such a DOC pool to drive an isotope excursion of the magnitude observed in the geological record exhausts global budgets of free oxygen and sulfate in 800 k.y. These results are incompatible with the estimated duration of late Ediacaran isotope excursions of more than 10 m.y., as well as geochemical and biological indicators that oceanic sulfate and oxygen levels were maintained or even increased at the same time. Therefore the carbon isotope record is probably not a useful tool for monitoring oxygen levels in the atmosphere and ocean. Covariation between the carbon and oxygen isotope records is often observed during negative excursions and is indicative of local processes or diagenetic overprinting.

  12. Mass and energy budgets of animals: Behavioral and ecological implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, W.P.

    1993-01-01

    The common goal of these diverse projects is to understand the mechanisms of how animal populations respond to the continual changes in their environment in both time and space. Our models are mechanistic allowing us to explore how a wide array of environmental variables may determine individual performance. Large scale climate change and its effect on animal populations can be seen as quantitative extensions of biological responses to smaller scales of environmental variability. Changes in developmental rates or reproductive levels of individuals, extension or contraction of geographic ranges, and modification of community organization have all been documented in response to previous changes in habitats. We know from our biophysical work that some changes in function are driven by microclimate conditions directly, and some are mediated indirectly through ecological parameters such as the food supply. Our research is guided by a comprehensive conceptual scheme of the interaction of an animal with its environment. The physical and physiological properties of the organism, and the range of available microclimates, set bounds on the performance of organismal function, such as growth, reproduction, storage, and behavior. To leave the most offspring over a lifetime, animals must perform those functions in a way that maximizes the amount of resources devoted to reproduction. Maximizing the total size of the budget and minimizing those budget items not devoted to reproduction are crucial. Animals trade off among expenditures for current and future reproduction. Both water and energy are important, potentially limiting resources. Projects described here include empirical studies and theoretical models.

  13. Energy policy and federalism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thur, L.M. (ed.)

    1981-04-01

    Separate abstracts are prepared for six papers presented as the product of an international seminar on Energy Policy and Federalism in North America. Specially commissioned papers for the seminar are presented along with a summary of the discussions. The summary appears in English, French, and Spanish; the other papers are in English. (MCW)

  14. Federal Forecasters Directory, 1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Education Statistics (ED), Washington, DC.

    This directory lists employees of the federal government who are involved in forecasting for policy formation and trend prediction purposes. Job title, agency, business address, phone or e-mail number, and specialty areas are listed for each employee. Employees are listed for the following agencies: (1) Bureau of the Census; (2) Bureau of Economic…

  15. Future Federal Role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    USA Today, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Reviews comments by United States Secretary of Education Terrel H. Bell about the future federal role in higher education. The role will be confined to student financial aid and support for research. Bell's statements about the quality of higher education are also included. (SR)

  16. A contemporary investigation of causality between the primary government budget deficit and the ex ante real long term interest rate in the US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Cebula

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Using error-correction model (ECM estimation, this study empirically examines, for theUS, the causality relationship between the federal government budget deficitand the ex ante real long term interest rate. The system includes personal federal income tax rates, the M2 money supply, the unemployment rate, an ex ante realshort term interest rate and net international capital inflows. To clarify thedeficit/interest rate relationship, the budget deficit is measured by the primarydeficit, which excludes net interest payments by the Treasury. The ECM estimates in this study provide results that suggest a bi-directional relationship between theprimary budget deficit and the ex ante real long term interest rate yield.

  17. Budget Management Model Based on Zero-based Budget%基于零基预算的预算管理模式研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海玲

    2013-01-01

      本文从我国国家预算管理体制大环境入手,从高职院校预算管理角度对目前我国高职院校预算管理中存在的问题进行研究和分析,并提出了适应新的公共财政预算制度的对策和建议。本文的研究对加强高职院校的预算管理,提高财务管理水平具有重要的现实意义。%Starting with our national budget management system, the paper studies and researches the problems in current budget management of national vocational colleges, and puts forward the strategies and suggestions on adapting the new public finance budget system. This study is significant to strengthen budgeting management in higher vocational colleges and improve financial management level.

  18. Citizen engagement and decision-making processes: approach from the brazilian federalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Gabriela Gandra Pimenta Magalhães

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a theoretical methodology article, aims to present, based on the literature review covering the theme of the evolution of the state, federalism and democracy in Brazil and popular participation, theoretical debates about federalism, citizen engagement and public participation, by highlighting the role of participatory budgeting. It was found that this context allows participation, as well as control and implementation of public policies, highlighting participatory budgeting as an important tool to minimize inequalities and imbalance of access to decision-making power. Finally it was noted that federalism does not offer guarantees for effective participation, being necessary to implement means that enable the democratization of the process of formulation and control of public policies.

  19. The OLAP-XML Federation System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Xuepeng; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2006-01-01

    We present the logical “OLAP-XML Federation System” that enables the external data available in XML format to be used as virtual dimensions. Unlike the complex and time-consuming physical integration of OLAP and external data in current OLAP systems, our system makes OLAP queries referencing fast...

  20. The Federal Role in Library Networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Marilyn Gell

    This paper examines library network activity in the United States and the past, present, and future roles of the federal government in nationwide library networking. The first chapter describes the history and development of library networks and defines terms used in the report. An examination of the current status of networks in the second…