WorldWideScience

Sample records for current biology vol

  1. Egyptian Journal of Biology - Vol 7 (2005)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Biology. ... Induced by Copper and Cadmium Stress in Broad Beans (Vicia faba L.) EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ... Food composition and feeding ecology of the Red Fox Vulpes vulpes (Linnaeus, ...

  2. Egyptian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology - Vol 32, No ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Egyptian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. ... Therapeutic Impacts of Almond Oil and Olive Oil on Cholesterol Dynamics and ... Multidrug Resistance Proteins in Pancreatic Carcinoma · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  3. Current trends in radiation protection in Egypt. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomma, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    The treatise presents the development of radiation protection in egypt over the past four decades. The contents will include a historical synopsis, and the current state of art regarding competent authorities, the hierarchy involved, and the respective responsibilities. The recent publications of the international trends in radiation protection are also mentioned. The efforts made towards the implementation of the new recommendations on radiation protection, and updating of the radiation protection legislations are also discussed. The 1994 international safety standards, and the collective opinion of the committee on radiation protection and public health (CRPPH) of the organization for economic Co-operation and development of the Nuclear energy agency OECD/NEA are also summarized

  4. Current trends in radiation protection in Egypt. Vol. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomma, M A [Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    The treatise presents the development of radiation protection in egypt over the past four decades. The contents will include a historical synopsis, and the current state of art regarding competent authorities, the hierarchy involved, and the respective responsibilities. The recent publications of the international trends in radiation protection are also mentioned. The efforts made towards the implementation of the new recommendations on radiation protection, and updating of the radiation protection legislations are also discussed. The 1994 international safety standards, and the collective opinion of the committee on radiation protection and public health (CRPPH) of the organization for economic Co-operation and development of the Nuclear energy agency OECD/NEA are also summarized.

  5. Gregory Bateson's relevance to current molecular biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni, Luis Emilio

    2008-01-01

    in a developmental pathway. Being a central figure in the development of cybernetic theory he collaborated with a range of researchers from the life sciences who were innovating their own disciplines by introducing cybernetic concepts in their particular fields and disciplines. In the light of this, it should...... not come as a surprise today to realize how the general ideas that he was postulating for the study of communication systems in biology fit so well with the astonishing findings of current molecular biology, for example in the field of cellular signal transduction networks. I guess this is the case due...

  6. Biologic resurfacing of the patella: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scapinelli, Raphaele; Aglietti, Paolo; Baldovin, Marino; Giron, Francesco; Teitge, Robert

    2002-07-01

    The techniques of biologic resurfacing of the patella, like other joint surfaces, are still evolving. Currently none of them is free from criticism. In this regard it is our hope that progress in the basic science will offer in the near future new and more optimistic therapeutic possibilities (i.e., the restoration of a reparative cartilage that is structurally and functionally comparable to the native one). The greater expectancies come perhaps from the present experimental investigations about the combined use of tissue-engineered implants embedded with staminal cells and growth factors. Many problems remain to be solved, however, before reliable applicability in humans. From a general point of view, stem cells obtained from various sources (e.g., adult bone marrow, umbilical cord) offer the same finalities as the embryonic stem cells, without the ethical obstacles related to the latter. Therefore, it may be that restoration of part or all of the articular surface of a joint will be possible by way of these mesenchymal progenitors that have the ability to differentiate into the chondrogenic and osteogenic lines, which is required for the restoration of the various layers of a normal articular cartilage and subchondral bone.

  7. A review of current techniques of Physico-chemical and biological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management ... Journal Home > Vol 8, No 5 (2015) > ... are more recent biological remediation methods, like vermiremediation, which are especially eco-friendly, cost effective, and sustainable.

  8. Research on condensed matter and atomic physics using major experimental facilities and devices: Physics, chemistry, biology. Reports on results. Vol. 2. 3. Solid state physics and materials science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report in three volumes substantiates the contents of the programme survey published in September 1989. The progress reports cover the following research areas: Vol. I, (1). Atomic and molecular physics - free atoms, molecules, macromolecules, clusters, matrix-isolated atoms and molecules. (2) Physics and chemistry of surfaces and interfaces - epitaxy, surface structure, adsorption, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties, thin films, synthetic layer structure. Vol. II, (3). Solid-state physics, and materials science -structural research, lattice dynamics, magnetic structure and dynamics, electronic states; load; spin and pulse density fluctuations; diffusion and internal motion, defects, unordered systems and liquids. Vol. III, (4). Chemistry - bonding and structure, kinetics and reaction mechanisms, polymer research, analysis and synthesis. (5). Biology, - structure and dynamics of biological macromolecules, membrane and cell biology. (6) Development of methods and instruments - neutron sources, synchrotron sources, special accelerators, research with interlinked systems and devices. (orig.) [de

  9. Mechanics of Biological Tissues and Biomaterials: Current Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Amir A. Zadpoor

    2015-01-01

    Investigation of the mechanical behavior of biological tissues and biomaterials has been an active area of research for several decades. However, in recent years, the enthusiasm in understanding the mechanical behavior of biological tissues and biomaterials has increased significantly due to the development of novel biomaterials for new fields of application, along with the emergence of advanced computational techniques. The current Special Issue is a collection of studies that address variou...

  10. Mechanics of Biological Tissues and Biomaterials: Current Trends (editorial)

    OpenAIRE

    Zadpoor, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    Investigation of the mechanical behavior of biological tissues and biomaterials has been an active area of research for several decades. However, in recent years, the enthusiasm in understanding the mechanical behavior of biological tissues and biomaterials has increased significantly due to the development of novel biomaterials for new fields of application, along with the emergence of advanced computational techniques. The current Special Issue is a collection of studies that address variou...

  11. Current research in Canada on biological effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marko, A.M.

    1980-05-01

    A survey of current research in Canada on the biological effects of ionizing radiation has been compiled. The list of projects has been classified according to structure (organizational state of the test system) as well as according to the type of effects. Using several assumptions, ballpark estimates of expenditures on these activities have been made. Agencies funding these research activities have been tabulated and the break-down of research in government laboratories and in academic institutions has been designated. Wherever possible, comparisons have been made outlining differences or similarities that exist between the United States and Canada concerning biological radiation research. It has been concluded that relevant research in this area in Canada is inadequate. Wherever possible, strengths and weaknesses in radiation biology programs have been indicated. The most promising course for Canada to follow is to support adequately fundamental studies of the biological effects of radiation. (auth)

  12. Research on condensed matter and atomic physics using major experimental facilities and devices: Physics, chemistry, biology. Reports on results. Vol. 3. 4. Chemistry. 5. Biology. 6. Development of methods and instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report in three volumes substantiates the contents of the programme survey published in September 1989. The progress reports cover the following research areas: Vol. I, (1). Atomic and molecular physics - free atoms, molecules, macromolecules, clusters, matrix-isolated atoms and molecules. (2) Physics and chemistry of surfaces and interfaces - epitaxy, surface structure, adsorption, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties, thin films, synthetic layer structure. Vol. II, (3). Solid-state physics, and materials science -structural research, lattice dynamics, magnetic structure and dynamics, electronic states; load; spin and pulse density fluctuations; diffusion and internal motion, defects, unordered systems and liquids. Vol. III, (4). Chemistry - bonding and structure, kinetics and reaction mechanisms, polymer research, analysis and synthesis. (5). Biology, - structure and dynamics of biological macromolecules, membrane and cell biology. (6) Development of methods and instruments - neutron sources, synchrotron sources, special accelerators, research with interlinked systems and devices. (orig.) [de

  13. Biological Effects of Neutron and Proton Irradiations. Vol. II. Proceedings of the Symposium on Biological Effects of Neutron Irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1964-01-01

    During recent years the interest in biological effects caused by neutrons has been increasing steadily as a result of the rapid development of neutron technology and the great number of neutron sources being used. Neutrons, because of their specific physical characteristics and biological effects, form a special type of radiation hazard but, at the same time, are a prospective tool for applied radiobiology. This Symposium, held in Brookhaven at the invitation of the United States Government from 7-11 October 1963, provided an opportunity for scientists to discuss the experimental information at present available on the biological action of neutrons and to evaluate future possibilities. It was a sequel to the Symposium on Neutron Detection, Dosimetry and Standardization, which was organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency in December 1962 at Harwell. The Symposium was attended by 128 participants from 17 countries and 6 international organizations. Fifty-four papers were presented. The following subjects were discussed in various sessions: (1) Dosimetry. Estimation of absorbed dose of neutrons in biological material. (2) Biological effects of high-energy protons. (3) Cellular and genetic effects. (4) Pathology of neutron irradiation, including acute and chronic radiation syndromes (mortality, anatomical and histological changes, biochemical and metabolic disturbances) and delayed consequences. (5) Relative biological effectiveness of neutrons evaluated by different biological tests. A Panel on Biophysical Considerations in Neutron Experimentation, with special emphasis on informal discussions, was organized during the Symposium. The views of the Panel are recorded in Volume II of the Proceedings. Many reports were presented on the important subject of the relative effectiveness of the biological action of neutrons, as well as on the general pathology of neutron irradiation and the cellular and genetic effects related to it. Three survey papers considered

  14. Mechanics of Biological Tissues and Biomaterials: Current Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir A. Zadpoor

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of the mechanical behavior of biological tissues and biomaterials has been an active area of research for several decades. However, in recent years, the enthusiasm in understanding the mechanical behavior of biological tissues and biomaterials has increased significantly due to the development of novel biomaterials for new fields of application, along with the emergence of advanced computational techniques. The current Special Issue is a collection of studies that address various topics within the general theme of “mechanics of biomaterials”. This editorial aims to present the context within which the studies of this Special Issue could be better understood. I, therefore, try to identify some of the most important research trends in the study of the mechanical behavior of biological tissues and biomaterials.

  15. Beat-wave excitation and current driven in tokamak plasma. Vol. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, B F [Plasma physics Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    Wave heating current drive in tokamaks is a growing subject in the plasma physics literature. For current drive in tokamaks by electromagnetic waves, different methods have been proposed recently. One of the promising schemes for current drive remains the beat wave scheme. This technique employs two CO- or counterpropagating monochromatic laser beams (or microwaves) whose frequency difference matches the plasma frequency, while the wave number difference (or sum, in the case of counterpropagating) determine the wave number of the resulting plasma beat wave. In this work, the basic analysis of a beat wave current drive scheme in which collinear waves are used is discussed. by assuming a Gaussian profile for the amplitude of these pump waves, the amplitudes of the longitudinal and radial fields of the beat wave due to the nonlinear wave interactions have been calculated. Besides, the transfer of momentum flux that accompanies the transfer of wave action in beat-wave scattering will be used to drive the toroidal radial currents in tokamaks. self-generated magnetic fields due to those currents were also calculated. 1 fig.

  16. Biological and biomatrial effects of gamma radiation on the mosquito Culex Pipiens L. Vol. 4.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakid, A M; Shoman, A A [Applied Biology Dept., NRC, Atomic Energy Authority. Cairo (Egypt); Amin, A H; Kansouh, A H [Plant Protection Dept., FaC. of Agriculture, Ain Shams Univ. Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    The mosquito, Culex Pipiens L. Was irradiated in the pupal stage with three gamma doses (40, 60 and 80 Gy). The effect of irradiation on the biology and ovarian development of the adult stage were assayed in comparison with a non-irradiated control group. The results showed that the gamma doses used decreased significantly adult emergence and increased malformations, while the sex ratio was not affected. fecundity of irradiated females was severely affected at 40 and 60 Gy, and 80 Gy produced in fecund females. Egg hatch ability was severely affected when males were irradiated at all doses. The gamma doses used decreased the number of ovarioles that reached the 5 th stage of christopher cycle. these ovarioles failed to produce mature eggs normally. The size of the irradiated female ovary was decreased either in length or in width at all doses used particularly at 80 Gy where the ovarian development was completely stopped on the first day of feeding. 6 figs.

  17. Current dichotomy between traditional molecular biological and omic research in cancer biology and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhold, William C

    2015-12-10

    There is currently a split within the cancer research community between traditional molecular biological hypothesis-driven and the more recent "omic" forms or research. While the molecular biological approach employs the tried and true single alteration-single response formulations of experimentation, the omic employs broad-based assay or sample collection approaches that generate large volumes of data. How to integrate the benefits of these two approaches in an efficient and productive fashion remains an outstanding issue. Ideally, one would merge the understandability, exactness, simplicity, and testability of the molecular biological approach, with the larger amounts of data, simultaneous consideration of multiple alterations, consideration of genes both of known interest along with the novel, cross-sample comparisons among cell lines and patient samples, and consideration of directed questions while simultaneously gaining exposure to the novel provided by the omic approach. While at the current time integration of the two disciplines remains problematic, attempts to do so are ongoing, and will be necessary for the understanding of the large cell line screens including the Developmental Therapeutics Program's NCI-60, the Broad Institute's Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia, and the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute's Cancer Genome Project, as well as the the Cancer Genome Atlas clinical samples project. Going forward there is significant benefit to be had from the integration of the molecular biological and the omic forms or research, with the desired goal being improved translational understanding and application.

  18. The effect of biological cohesion on current ripple development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malarkey, Jonathan; Baas, Jaco H.; Hope, Julie

    2014-05-01

    Results are presented from laboratory experiments examining the role of biological cohesion, associated with Extra Polymeric Substances, on the development of current ripples. The results demonstrate the importance of biological cohesion compared to the effect of physical cohesion associated with clays in an otherwise sandy bed. FURTHER INFORMATION In fluvial and marine environments sediment transport is mainly dependent on the nature of the bed surface (rippled or flat) and the nature of cohesion in the bed. Cohesion can be either physical, as a result of the presence of clays, or biological as a result of the presence of organisms. In the case of the latter, biological cohesion occurs as a result of the presence of Extra Polymeric Substances (EPS) secreted by microorganisms. While it is known that EPS can dramatically increase the threshold of motion (Grant and Gust, 1987), comparatively little is known about the effect of EPS on ripple formation and development. The experiments described here seek to fill this gap. They also allow the effect of biological cohesion to be compared with that of physical cohesion from previous experiments (Baas et al., 2013). The experiments, which were conducted in a 10m flume at Bangor University, involved a current over a bed made of fine sand, with a median diameter of 0.148mm, and various amounts of xanthan gum, a proxy for naturally occurring EPS (Vardy et al., 2007). The hydrodynamic experimental conditions were matched very closely to those of Baas et al. (2013). The ripple dimensions were recorded through the glass side wall of the tank using time lapse photography. In the physical cohesion experiments of Baas et al. (2013) for clay contents up to 12%, the clay was very quickly winnowed out of the bed, leaving essentially clay-free ripples that developed at more or less the same rate as clean sand ripples. The resulting equilibrium ripples were essentially the same length as the clean sand ripples but reduced in height. By

  19. "Known Unknowns": Current Questions in Muscle Satellite Cell Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelison, Ddw

    2018-01-01

    Our understanding of satellite cells, now known to be the obligate stem cells of skeletal muscle, has increased dramatically in recent years due to the introduction of new molecular, genetic, and technical resources. In addition to their role in acute repair of damaged muscle, satellite cells are of interest in the fields of aging, exercise, neuromuscular disease, and stem cell therapy, and all of these applications have driven a dramatic increase in our understanding of the activity and potential of satellite cells. However, many fundamental questions of satellite cell biology remain to be answered, including their emergence as a specific lineage, the degree and significance of heterogeneity within the satellite cell population, the roles of their interactions with other resident and infiltrating cell types during homeostasis and regeneration, and the relative roles of intrinsic vs extrinsic factors that may contribute to satellite cell dysfunction in the context of aging or disease. This review will address the current state of these open questions in satellite cell biology. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Parameters affecting profile shape of a high energy low current thin ion beam. Vol. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel Salam, F W; Moustafa, O A; El-Khabeary, H [Accelerators Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    The shape of the profile of a high energy, low current beam of finite length has beam investigated. The beam profile shape depends on the initial beam radius, beam perveance, atomic mass number, charge state of ions, and beam length. These parameters can affect the relation between the initial beam radius and the corresponding final one. An optimum initial beam radius corresponding to minimum final beam at the target has been formulated and the relation between them is deduced taking account of the space charge effect. The minimum beam radius at the target was found to be equal to 2.3 of the optimum initial radius. It is concluded that in order to obtain a small beam radius at a target placed at a finite distance from an ion source, a beam of a low perveance, low atomic mass number and high number of electronic charge is required. This is an important detection for micro machining applications using the oscillating electron ion source which produces nearly paraxial thin beam of low perveance. 12 figs.

  1. Current Issues in Histology, Biology and Prognosis of Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović Goran

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available High risk Hodgkin lymphoma patients may occasionally have borderline characteristics similar to gray zone lymphomas and T-cell/histiocyte rich B cell lymphomas. These entities require different and more aggressive treatment modalities. Aggressive behavior is often associated with disturbances caused by Epstein Barr virus, or immune evasion caused by overexpression of check point inhibitors PDL-1 and PDL-2 coupled with the lack of expression of Class I and II MHC molecules. Galectin-1, TARC, sCD163 and other surrogate markers of immunosuppression in Hodgkin lymphoma may be useful for the assessment of treatment response. The improvements in lymphoma management diminished the importance of prognostic factors unified in the International Prognostic Scoring system, reducing them from 7 to 3 factors that remained relevant. Interim PET analysis is the only method able to identify resistant patients while chemotherapy is ongoing, thus enabling adjustment of treatment according to the treatment response. Efforts for stratification of patients according to disease histology, biology, microenvironment, clinical scoring systems and PET scan are ongoing. Current breakthroughs have set strong background for novel therapies with monoclonal antibodies and check point inhibitors that will result in improvement of management of high risk patients.

  2. Mechanics of Biological Tissues and Biomaterials : Current Trends (editorial)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zadpoor, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    Investigation of the mechanical behavior of biological tissues and biomaterials has been an active area of research for several decades. However, in recent years, the enthusiasm in understanding the mechanical behavior of biological tissues and biomaterials has increased significantly due to the

  3. Gravitational biology and space life sciences: Current status and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gravitational and space biology organizations and journals. American Institute of ... of Scientific Unions (now the International Council for. Science). COSPAR ... Greek Aerospace Medical Association & Space Research. (GASMA). Provides ...

  4. Current research in Radiation Biology and Biochemistry Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarachand, U.; Singh, B.B.

    1995-01-01

    The Radiation Biology and Biochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay has been engaged in research in the frontier areas of (i) radiation biology related to tumour therapy and injury caused by free radicals; (ii) molecular basis of diseases of physiological origin; (iii) molecular aspects of chemical carcinogenesis and (iv) structure of genome and genome related functions. The gist of research and development activities carried out in the Division during the last two years are documented

  5. The Current Status of the Philosophy of Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takacs, Peter; Ruse, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The philosophy of biology today is one of the most exciting areas of philosophy. It looks critically across the life sciences, teasing out conceptual issues and difficulties bringing to bear the tools of philosophical analysis to achieve clarification and understanding. This essay surveys work in all of the major directions of research: evolutionary theory and the units/levels of selection; evolutionary developmental biology; reductionism; ecology; the species problem; teleology; evolutionary epistemology; evolutionary ethics; and progress. There is a comprehensive bibliography.

  6. Current research in Radiation Biology and Biochemistry Division

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarachand, U; Singh, B B [eds.; Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Radiation Biology and Biochemistry Div.

    1996-12-31

    The Radiation Biology and Biochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay has been engaged in research in the frontier areas of (i) radiation biology related to tumour therapy and injury caused by free radicals; (ii) molecular basis of diseases of physiological origin; (iii) molecular aspects of chemical carcinogenesis and (iv) structure of genome and genome related functions. The gist of research and development activities carried out in the Division during the last two years are documented.

  7. Research on condensed matter and atomic physics, using major experimental facilities and devices: Physics, chemistry, biology. Reports on results. Vol. 1. 1. Atomic and molecular physics. 2. Physics and chemistry of surfaces and interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report in three volumes substantiates the contents of the programme survey published in September 1989. The progress reports cover the following research areas: Vol. I, (1). Atomic and molecular physics - free atoms, molecules, macromolecules, clusters, matrix-isolated atoms and molecules. (2) Physics and chemistry of surfaces and interfaces - epitaxy, surface structure, adsorption, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties, thin films, synthetic layer structure. Vol. II, (3). Solid-state physics, and materials science -structural research, lattice dynamics, magnetic structure and dynamics, electronic states; load; spin and pulse density fluctuations; diffusion and internal motion, defects, unordered systems and liquids. Vol. III, (4). Chemistry - bonding and structure, kinetics and reaction mechanisms, polymer research, analysis and synthesis. (5). Biology, - structure and dynamics of biological macromolecules, membrane and cell biology. (6) Development of methods and instruments - neutron sources, synchrotron sources, special accelerators, research with interlinked systems and devices. (orig.) [de

  8. Unsolved problems in biology--The state of current thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dev, Sukhendu B

    2015-03-01

    Many outstanding problems have been solved in biology and medicine for which scientists have been awarded prestigious prizes including the Nobel Prize, Lasker Award and Breakthrough Prizes in life sciences. These have been the fruits of years of basic research. From time to time, publications have appeared listing "unsolved" problems in biology. In this article, I ask the question whether it is possible to have such a list, if not a unique one, at least one that is analogous to the Millennium Prize in mathematics. My approach to finding an answer to this question was to gather views of leading biologists. I have also included my own views. Analysis of all the responses received over several years has convinced me that it is difficult, but not impossible, to have such a prize. Biology is complex and very interdisciplinary these days at times involving large numbers of teams, unlike mathematics, where Andrew Wiles spent seven years in complete isolation and secrecy solving Fermat's last theorem. Such an approach is simply not possible in biology. Still I would like to suggest that a similar prize can be established by a panel of distinguished scientists. It would be awarded to those who solved one of the listed problems in biology that warrant a verifiable solution. Despite many different opinions, I found that there is some commonality in the responses I received - I go on to discuss what these are and how they may impact future thinking. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Current Status of the Philosophy of Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takacs, Peter; Ruse, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The philosophy of biology today is one of the most exciting areas of philosophy. It looks critically across the life sciences, teasing out conceptual issues and difficulties bringing to bear the tools of philosophical analysis to achieve clarification and understanding. This essay surveys work in all of the major directions of research:…

  10. How Many Kingdoms? Current Views of Biological Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margulis, Lynn

    1981-01-01

    Argues for the acceptance and use of a five-kingdom classification system for biology comprised of monera, protoctista, fungi, animals, and plants. Justifies the new system based upon the difference between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Outlines each kingdom and describes its members. (DC)

  11. Reconstitution of Biological Molecular generators of electric current. Bacteriorhodopsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drachev, L A; Frolov, V N; Kaulen, A D; Liberman, E A; Ostroumov, S A; Plakunova, V G; Semenov, A Y; Skulachev, V P

    1976-11-25

    1. Photoinduced generation of electric current by bacteriorhodopsin, incorporated into the planar phospholipid membrane, has been directly measured with conventional electrometer techniques. 2. Two methods for bacteriorhodopsin incorporation have been developed: (a) formation of planar membrane from a mixture of decane solution of phospholipids and of the fraction of violet fragments of the Halobacterium halobium membrane (bacteriorhodopsin sheets), and (b) adhesion of bacteriorhodopsin-containing reconstituted spherical membranes (proteoliposomes) to the planar membrane in the presence of Ca2+ or some other cations. In both cases, illumination was found to induce electric current generation directed across the planar membrane, an effect which was measured by macroelectrodes immersed into electrolyte solutions on both sides of the membrane. 3. The maximal values of the transmembrane electric potential were of about 150 mV at a current of about 10(-11) A. The electromotive force measured by means of counterbalancing the photoeffect by an external battery, was found to reach the value of 300 mV. 4. The action spectrum of the photoeffect coincides with the bacteriorhodopsin absorption spectrum (maximum about 570 nm). 5. Both components of the electrochemical potential of H+ ions (electric potential and delta pH) across the planar membrane affect the bacteriorhodopsin photoelectric response in a fashion which could be expected if bacteriorhodopsin were a light-dependent electrogenic proton pump. 6. La3+ ions were shown to inhibit operation of those bacteriorhodopsin which pump out H+ ions from the La3+-containing compartment. 7. The photoeffect, mediated by proteoliposomes associated with thick planar membrane, is decreased by gramicidin A at concentrations which do not influence the planar membrane resistance in the light. On the contrary, a protonophorous uncoupler, trichlorocarbonylcyanidephenylhydrazone, decreases the photoeffect only if it is added at a

  12. Vol draadwerk

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    Die motto van Marius Crous se derde bundel,. Vol draadwerk (2012) is ontleen aan die vader van die psigoanalise, Sigmund Freud, wat lui: “Everywhere I go I find a poet has been there before me.” Vol draadwerk verskyn ses jaar ná sy vorige bundel, Aan 'n beentjie sit en kluif. (2006). Vir sy bundel, Brief uit die kolonies ...

  13. Progress in Computational Physics (PiCP) Vol 2 Coupled Fluid Flow in Energy, Biology and Environmental Research

    CERN Document Server

    Ehrhardt, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    This second volume contains both, the mathematical analysis of the coupling between fluid flow and porous media flow and state-of-the art numerical techniques, like tailor-made finite element and finite volume methods. Readers will come across articles devoted to concrete applications of these models in the field of energy, biology and environmental research.

  14. Tritium in the Physical and Biological Sciences. Vol. II. Proceedings of the Symposium on the Detection and Use of Tritium in the Physical and Biological Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1962-02-15

    The use of tritium for research in physics, chemistry, biology and hydrology has in recent years become increasingly important. It was for this reason that the first international conference to discuss the progress of new developments was organized by the IAEA in conjunction with the Joint Commission on Applied Radioactivity and held from 3 - 10 May 1961, in Vienna. The first five sessions of the Symposium were devoted to the use of tritium in hydrology, physics and chemistry. Special emphasis was laid on the role of tritium as a tracer in hydrology, especially in the study of water movement. The establishment and improvement of counting and detection techniques to facilitate the application of tritium as a tracer was another aspect discussed in this part of the proceedings. Papers were read on the preparation of tritiated compounds and it was generally agreed that further clarification of the mechanism of various techniques, and of the Wilzbach gas exposure technique in particular, would lead to further developments in the synthesis of a number of tritium compounds important in biology. Other papers were concerned with tritium applications to studies of the mechanism of some chemical reactions together with the effects of tritium isotopes. During the second part of the Symposium the biological applications of tritium and tritiated compounds were discussed. These included general problems connected with the biological uses of tritium and the radiation effects of tritium on living organisms such as viruses, bacteria and cancer cells. The value of tritium in biological studies became apparent because of the ease with which a large number of metabolically active compounds such as hormones, vitamins and other important constituents in the body can be labelled with tritium. Tritium is also a weak beta-emitter and autoradiographs of tissues and single cells containing tritium-labelled compounds allow an excellent localization of the tracer. The Symposium was attended by

  15. Tritium in the Physical and Biological Sciences. Vol. II. Proceedings of the Symposium on the Detection and Use of Tritium in the Physical and Biological Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1962-01-01

    The use of tritium for research in physics, chemistry, biology and hydrology has in recent years become increasingly important. It was for this reason that the first international conference to discuss the progress of new developments was organized by the IAEA in conjunction with the Joint Commission on Applied Radioactivity and held from 3 — 10 May 1961, in Vienna. The first five sessions of the Symposium were devoted to the use of tritium in hydrology, physics and chemistry. Special emphasis was laid on the role of tritium as a tracer in hydrology, especially in the study of water movement. The establishment and improvement of counting and detection techniques to facilitate the application of tritium as a tracer was another aspect discussed in this part of the proceedings. Papers were read on the preparation of tritiated compounds and it was generally agreed that further clarification of the mechanism of various techniques, and of the Wilzbach gas exposure technique in particular, would lead to further developments in the synthesis of a number of tritium compounds important in biology. Other papers were concerned with tritium applications to studies of the mechanism of some chemical reactions together with the effects of tritium isotopes. During the second part of the Symposium the biological applications of tritium and tritiated compounds were discussed. These included general problems connected with the biological uses of tritium and the radiation effects of tritium on living organisms such as viruses, bacteria and cancer cells. The value of tritium in biological studies became apparent because of the ease with which a large number of metabolically active compounds such as hormones, vitamins and other important constituents in the body can be labelled with tritium. Tritium is also a weak beta-emitter and autoradiographs of tissues and single cells containing tritium-labelled compounds allow an excellent localization of the tracer. The Symposium was attended

  16. Purification of drugs from biological fluids by counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochlowski, Jill E; Pan, Jeffrey Y; Searle, Philip A; Buck, Wayne R; Spanton, Stephen G

    2009-08-21

    Experiments were performed to demonstrate the potential of counter-current chromatography (CCC) for the isolation of drugs and their metabolites from biological matrices relevant to the metabolism studies of pharmaceutical research. Examples of typical drugs are spiked into biological media ex vivo to provide test samples for analysis. A mass spectrometer hyphenated to a CCC allows for the detection of small molecule drugs within the matrix through selected ion monitoring, and fraction collection can provide material for further structural elucidation by NMR.

  17. Biological variability in biomechanical engineering research: Significance and meta-analysis of current modeling practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Douglas; Julias, Margaret; Nauman, Eric

    2014-04-11

    Biological systems are characterized by high levels of variability, which can affect the results of biomechanical analyses. As a review of this topic, we first surveyed levels of variation in materials relevant to biomechanics, and compared these values to standard engineered materials. As expected, we found significantly higher levels of variation in biological materials. A meta-analysis was then performed based on thorough reviews of 60 research studies from the field of biomechanics to assess the methods and manner in which biological variation is currently handled in our field. The results of our meta-analysis revealed interesting trends in modeling practices, and suggest a need for more biomechanical studies that fully incorporate biological variation in biomechanical models and analyses. Finally, we provide some case study example of how biological variability may provide valuable insights or lead to surprising results. The purpose of this study is to promote the advancement of biomechanics research by encouraging broader treatment of biological variability in biomechanical modeling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. 12-EEASA-Vol 22.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jenny

    2006-02-22

    Feb 22, 2006 ... Southern African Journal of Environmental Education, Vol. .... To this end, a planning conference on environmental .... mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, geography, agriculture, home economics and human and.

  19. NJB VOL.34 Original Lower.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    important sources of renewable biological ... The plantain (Musa paradisiaca) and banana chemicals (Nowak et ... fermentable sugars available for bio-ethanol ..... peels. Afr. J. Biochem. Res. 9(9): 104 - 109. 70. Osho et al./ Nig. J. Biotech. Vol.

  20. New Insights into Biology, Prognostic Factors, and Current Therapeutic Strategies in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    Smolewski, Piotr; Witkowska, Magdalena; Korycka-Wołowiec, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is characterized by the clonal proliferation and accumulation of mature B lymphocytes. CLL cells show an antiapoptotic profile, suggesting the important role of apoptosis inhibition in the disease development. However, there is some population of proliferating CLL cells, which may also play a role in progression of the disease. There are several newer, biological prognostic factors in CLL. Currently, cytogenetic abnormalities with different prognostic values...

  1. Current studies of biological materials using instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fardy, J.J.; McOrist, G.D.; Farrar, Y.J.

    1985-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis still remains the preferred option when analysing the trace element distribution in a wide rage of materials by neutron activation analysis. However, when lower limits of detection are required or major interferences reduce the effectiveness of this technique, radiochemical neutron activation analysis is applied. This paper examines the current use of both methods and the development of rapid radiochemical techniques for analysis of the biological materials, hair, cow's milk, human's milk, milk powder, blood and blood serum

  2. Current Methods Applied to Biomaterials - Characterization Approaches, Safety Assessment and Biological International Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Justine P R; Ortiz, H Ivan Melendez; Bucio, Emilio; Alves, Patricia Terra; Lima, Mayara Ingrid Sousa; Goulart, Luiz Ricardo; Mathor, Monica B; Varca, Gustavo H C; Lugao, Ademar B

    2018-04-10

    Safety and biocompatibility assessment of biomaterials are themes of constant concern as advanced materials enter the market as well as products manufactured by new techniques emerge. Within this context, this review provides an up-to-date approach on current methods for the characterization and safety assessment of biomaterials and biomedical devices from a physicalchemical to a biological perspective, including a description of the alternative methods in accordance with current and established international standards. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. Biologic Treatments for Sports Injuries II Think Tank-Current Concepts, Future Research, and Barriers to Advancement, Part 1: Biologics Overview, Ligament Injury, Tendinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPrade, Robert F; Geeslin, Andrew G; Murray, Iain R; Musahl, Volker; Zlotnicki, Jason P; Petrigliano, Frank; Mann, Barton J

    2016-12-01

    Biologic therapies, including stem cells, platelet-rich plasma, growth factors, and other biologically active adjuncts, have recently received increased attention in the basic science and clinical literature. At the 2015 AOSSM Biologics II Think Tank held in Colorado Springs, Colorado, a group of orthopaedic surgeons, basic scientists, veterinarians, and other investigators gathered to review the state of the science for biologics and barriers to implementation of biologics for the treatment of sports medicine injuries. This series of current concepts reviews reports the summary of the scientific presentations, roundtable discussions, and recommendations from this think tank. © 2016 The Author(s).

  4. Students' perceptions of motivation in high school biology class: Informing current theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManic, Janet A.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate students' perceptions of motivation to achieve while participating in general level high school biology classes. In a national poll of teacher's attitudes, student's motivation was a top concern of teachers (Elam, 1989). The student's perceptions of motivation are important to understand if improvements and advancements in motivation are to be implemented in the science classroom. This qualitative study was conducted in an urban high school that is located in a major metropolitan area in the southeast of the United States. The student body of 1100 is composed of Caucasian, African-American, Hispanic, and Asian students. The focus question of the study was: What are students' perceptions of their motivation in biology class? From general level biology classes, purposeful sampling narrowed the participants to fifteen students. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the participants having varying measurements of motivation on the Scale of Intrinsic versus Extrinsic Orientation in the Classroom (Harter, 1980). The interviews were recorded and transcribed. After transcription, the interviews were coded by the constant comparative method (Glaser & Strauss, 1967). The coded data of students' responses were analyzed and compared to current theories of motivation. The current theories are the social-cognitive model (Bandura, 1977), attribution theory (Weiner, 1979), basic needs theory (Maslow, 1954) and choice theory (Glasser, 1986). The results of this study support the social cognitive model of motivation (Bandura, 1977) through the description of family structure and its relationship to motivation (Gonzalez, 2002). The study upheld previous research in that extrinsic orientation was shown to be prevalent in older students (Harter, 1981; Anderman & Maehr, 1994). In addition, the students' responses disclosed the difficulties encountered in studying biology. Students expressed the opinion that biology terms are

  5. A role for biological optimization within the current treatment planning paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Shiva

    2009-01-01

    reduced (after DVO) by 5.0%/3.9%, and highest doses were reduced by 4.6%/7.8%. The optimization with purely biological OAR objectives achieved bladder/rectal EUDs that were 7.4%/3.1% lower than from DVO, but only reduced highest doses by 1.4%/0.7%. In the olfactory neuroblastoma case, the target was closely surrounded by the eyes, optic nerves, chiasm, and brainstem. In one of the scenarios studied, the eyes, optic nerves, and chiasm were targeted for EUD reduction after DVO. EUD to the left eye, right eye, left optic nerve, right optic nerve, and chiasm were reduced by 7.0%, 5.7%, 4.7%, 4.1%, and 0.6%, respectively, and highest doses were reduced by 16.5%, 11.0%, 5.1%, 3.8%, and 1.5%, respectively. The optimization with purely biological OAR objectives was less effective for the eyes and optics nerves. EUDs for the left eye/right eye/left optic nerve/right optic nerve/chiasm were lower than that from DVO by 0.4%/2.7%/4.0%/2.8%/15.6% and highest doses were lower by 4.6%/1.4%/2.4%/6.4%/7.1% (but purely biological optimization was better overall for the OARs not targeted for EUD reduction). Conclusions: Incorporating biological optimization after dose-volume constrained optimization can further reduce biological metrics, while preserving the important dose reductions achieved by dose-volume constrained optimization. Thus, biological optimization may be accommodated within the framework of current IMRT planning clinical expectations.

  6. Strategies to enhance biologically active-secondary metabolites in cell cultures of Artemisia - current trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammad; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Ahmad, Nisar; Khan, Haji; Ali, Gul Shad

    2017-11-01

    The genus Artemisia has been utilized worldwide due to its immense potential for protection against various diseases, especially malaria. Artemisia absinthium, previously renowned for its utilization in the popular beverage absinthe, is gaining resurgence due to its extensive pharmacological activities. Like A. annua, this species exhibits strong biological activities like antimalarial, anticancer and antioxidant. Although artemisinin was found to be the major metabolite for its antimalarial effects, several flavonoids and terpenoids are considered to possess biological activities when used alone and also to synergistically boost the bioavailability of artemisinin. However, due to the limited quantities of these metabolites in wild plants, in vitro cultures were established and strategies have been adopted to enhance medicinally important secondary metabolites in these cultures. This review elaborates on the traditional medicinal uses of Artemisia species and explains current trends to establish cell cultures of A. annua and A. absinthium for enhanced production of medicinally important secondary metabolites.

  7. Blood Stage Plasmodium falciparum Exhibits Biological Responses to Direct Current Electric Fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena M Coronado

    Full Text Available The development of resistance to insecticides by the vector of malaria and the increasingly faster appearance of resistance to antimalarial drugs by the parasite can dangerously hamper efforts to control and eradicate the disease. Alternative ways to treat this disease are urgently needed. Here we evaluate the in vitro effect of direct current (DC capacitive coupling electrical stimulation on the biology and viability of Plasmodium falciparum. We designed a system that exposes infected erythrocytes to different capacitively coupled electric fields in order to evaluate their effect on P. falciparum. The effect on growth of the parasite, replication of DNA, mitochondrial membrane potential and level of reactive oxygen species after exposure to electric fields demonstrate that the parasite is biologically able to respond to stimuli from DC electric fields involving calcium signaling pathways.

  8. Standard and biological treatment in large vessel vasculitis: guidelines and current approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratore, Francesco; Pipitone, Nicolò; Salvarani, Carlo

    2017-04-01

    Giant cell arteritis and Takayasu arteritis are the two major forms of idiopathic large vessel vasculitis. High doses of glucocorticoids are effective in inducing remission in both conditions, but relapses and recurrences are common, requiring prolonged glucocorticoid treatment with the risk of the related adverse events. Areas covered: In this article, we will review the standard and biological treatment strategies in large vessel vasculitis, and we will focus on the current approaches to these diseases. Expert commentary: The results of treatment trials with conventional immunosuppressive agents such as methotrexate, azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil, and cyclophosphamide have overall been disappointing. TNF-α blockers are ineffective in giant cell arteritis, while observational evidence and a phase 2 randomized trial support the use of tocilizumab in relapsing giant cell arteritis. Observational evidence strongly supports the use of anti-TNF-α agents and tocilizumab in Takayasu patients with relapsing disease. However biological agents are not curative, and relapses remain common.

  9. A critical review of the current knowledge regarding the biological impact of nanocellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endes, C; Camarero-Espinosa, S; Mueller, S; Foster, E J; Petri-Fink, A; Rothen-Rutishauser, B; Weder, C; Clift, M J D

    2016-12-01

    Several forms of nanocellulose, notably cellulose nanocrystals and nanofibrillated cellulose, exhibit attractive property matrices and are potentially useful for a large number of industrial applications. These include the paper and cardboard industry, use as reinforcing filler in polymer composites, basis for low-density foams, additive in adhesives and paints, as well as a wide variety of food, hygiene, cosmetic, and medical products. Although the commercial exploitation of nanocellulose has already commenced, little is known as to the potential biological impact of nanocellulose, particularly in its raw form. This review provides a comprehensive and critical review of the current state of knowledge of nanocellulose in this format. Overall, the data seems to suggest that when investigated under realistic doses and exposure scenarios, nanocellulose has a limited associated toxic potential, albeit certain forms of nanocellulose can be associated with more hazardous biological behavior due to their specific physical characteristics.

  10. The current status of studies on mitochondrial DNA with tumor, radiation biological effects and aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Qingjie; Sang Lu

    2004-01-01

    The mitochondrial plays a very important role in sustaining the normal physiological function, because it is the center of energy making and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is the only genetic material outside the nuclear. The result of studies showed that many diseases have a close relationship with mtDNA mutation and deletion. This article reviewed the current status of research on mtDNA with tumor, radiation biological effects and aging, in order to initiate the application study of mtDNA in the circle of radiation medicine

  11. Computer simulation of induced electric currents and fields in biological bodies by 60 Hz magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi Weiguo; Stuchly, M.A.; Gandhi, O.P.

    1993-01-01

    Possible health effects of human exposure to 60 Hz magnetic fields are a subject of increasing concern. An understanding of the coupling of electromagnetic fields to human body tissues is essential for assessment of their biological effects. A method is presented for the computerized simulation of induced electric currents and fields in bodies of men and rodents from power-line frequency magnetic fields. In the impedance method, the body is represented by a 3 dimensional impedance network. The computational model consists of several tens of thousands of cubic numerical cells and thus represented a realistic shape. The modelling for humans is performed with two models, a heterogeneous model based on cross-section anatomy and a homogeneous one using an average tissue conductivity. A summary of computed results of induced electric currents and fields is presented. It is confirmed that induced currents are lower than endangerous current levels for most environmental exposures. However, the induced current density varies greatly, with the maximum being at least 10 times larger than the average. This difference is likely to be greater when more detailed anatomy and morphology are considered. 15 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  12. Preclinical magnetic resonance imaging and systems biology in cancer research: current applications and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albanese, Chris; Rodriguez, Olga C; VanMeter, John; Fricke, Stanley T; Rood, Brian R; Lee, YiChien; Wang, Sean S; Madhavan, Subha; Gusev, Yuriy; Petricoin, Emanuel F; Wang, Yue

    2013-02-01

    Biologically accurate mouse models of human cancer have become important tools for the study of human disease. The anatomical location of various target organs, such as brain, pancreas, and prostate, makes determination of disease status difficult. Imaging modalities, such as magnetic resonance imaging, can greatly enhance diagnosis, and longitudinal imaging of tumor progression is an important source of experimental data. Even in models where the tumors arise in areas that permit visual determination of tumorigenesis, longitudinal anatomical and functional imaging can enhance the scope of studies by facilitating the assessment of biological alterations, (such as changes in angiogenesis, metabolism, cellular invasion) as well as tissue perfusion and diffusion. One of the challenges in preclinical imaging is the development of infrastructural platforms required for integrating in vivo imaging and therapeutic response data with ex vivo pathological and molecular data using a more systems-based multiscale modeling approach. Further challenges exist in integrating these data for computational modeling to better understand the pathobiology of cancer and to better affect its cure. We review the current applications of preclinical imaging and discuss the implications of applying functional imaging to visualize cancer progression and treatment. Finally, we provide new data from an ongoing preclinical drug study demonstrating how multiscale modeling can lead to a more comprehensive understanding of cancer biology and therapy. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Role of biologics and biosimilars in inflammatory bowel disease: current trends and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawla P

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Prashanth Rawla,1 Tagore Sunkara,2 Jeffrey Pradeep Raj3 1Department of Internal Medicine, Memorial Hospital of Martinsville and Henry County, Martinsville, VA, 2Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, The Brooklyn Hospital Center, Clinical Affiliate of The Mount Sinai Hospital, New York, NY, USA; 3Department of Pharmacology, St John’s Medical College, Bangalore, India Abstract: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is an idiopathic chronic inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal system. The spectrum is of predominantly two types, namely, ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. The incidence of IBD has been increasing steadily since 1990, and so the number of agents used in their treatment. Biologics that are derived partly or completely from living biological sources such as animals and humans have become widely available, which provide therapeutic benefits to the IBD patients. Currently, monoclonal antibodies against tumor necrosis factor-alpha (infliximab, adalimumab, certolizumab, and golimumab, integrins (vedolizumab and natalizumab, and interleukin (IL-12 and IL-23 antagonists (ustekinumab are approved for use in IBD. Biosimilars of infliximab and adalimumab are also available for the treatment of IBD. This review summarizes the clinical pharmacology, studies leading to their approval, overall indications and their use in IBD, usage in pregnancy and lactation, and the adverse effects of these agents. This review also summarizes the recent advances and future perspectives specific to biologics and biosimilars in IBD. Keywords: inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, biologics, biosimilars, tumor necrosis factor, integrin, interleukin, adalimumab, Humira®, certolizumab, Cimzia®, golimumab, Simponi®, infliximab, Remicade®, vedolizumab, Entyvio, natalizumab, Tysabri®, ustekinumab, Stelara® 

  14. Concise review: current status of stem cells and regenerative medicine in lung biology and diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Daniel J

    2014-01-01

    Lung diseases remain a significant and devastating cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In contrast to many other major diseases, lung diseases notably chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPDs), including both asthma and emphysema, are increasing in prevalence and COPD is expected to become the third leading cause of disease mortality worldwide by 2020. New therapeutic options are desperately needed. A rapidly growing number of investigations of stem cells and cell therapies in lung biology and diseases as well as in ex vivo lung bioengineering have offered exciting new avenues for advancing knowledge of lung biology as well as providing novel potential therapeutic approaches for lung diseases. These initial observations have led to a growing exploration of endothelial progenitor cells and mesenchymal stem (stromal) cells in clinical trials of pulmonary hypertension and COPD with other clinical investigations planned. Ex vivo bioengineering of the trachea, larynx, diaphragm, and the lung itself with both biosynthetic constructs as well as decellularized tissues have been used to explore engineering both airway and vascular systems of the lung. Lung is thus a ripe organ for a variety of cell therapy and regenerative medicine approaches. Current state-of-the-art progress for each of the above areas will be presented as will discussion of current considerations for cell therapy-based clinical trials in lung diseases. © AlphaMed Press.

  15. Current status of molecular biological techniques for plant breeding in the Republic of Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Seong-Han; Lee, Si-Myung; Park, Bum-Seok; Yun, In-Sun; Goo, Doe-Hoe; Kim, Seok-Dong [Rural Development Administration, National Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology, Suwon (Korea)

    2002-02-01

    Classical plant breeding has played an important role in developing new varieties in current agriculture. For decades, the technique of cross-pollination has been popular for breeding in cereal and horticultural crops to introduce special traits. However, recently the molecular techniques get widely accepted as an alternative tool in both introducing a useful trait for developing the new cultivars and investigating the characteristics of a trait in plant, like the identification of a gene. Using the advanced molecular technique, several genetically modified (GM) crops (e.g., Roundup Ready Soybean, YieldGard, LibertyLink etc.) became commercially cultivated and appeared in the global market since 1996. The GM crops, commercially available at the moment, could be regarded as successful achievements in history of crop breeding conferring the specific gene into economically valuable crops to make them better. Along with such achievements, on the other hand these new crops have also caused the controversial debate on the safety of GM crops as human consumption and environmental release as well. Nevertheless, molecular techniques are widespread and popular in both investigating the basic science of plant biology and breeding new varieties compared to their conventional counterparts. Thus, the Department of Bioresources at the National Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology (NIAST) has been using the molecular biological techniques as a complimentary tool for the improvement of crop varieties for almost two decades. (author)

  16. Current and emerging basic science concepts in bone biology: implications in craniofacial surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, Adam J; Mesa, John; Buchman, Steven R

    2012-01-01

    Ongoing research in bone biology has brought cutting-edge technologies into everyday use in craniofacial surgery. Nonetheless, when osseous defects of the craniomaxillofacial skeleton are encountered, autogenous bone grafting remains the criterion standard for reconstruction. Accordingly, the core principles of bone graft physiology continue to be of paramount importance. Bone grafts, however, are not a panacea; donor site morbidity and operative risk are among the limitations of autologous bone graft harvest. Bone graft survival is impaired when irradiation, contamination, and impaired vascularity are encountered. Although the dura can induce calvarial ossification in children younger than 2 years, the repair of critical-size defects in the pediatric population may be hindered by inadequate bone graft donor volume. The novel and emerging field of bone tissue engineering holds great promise as a limitless source of autogenous bone. Three core constituents of bone tissue engineering have been established: scaffolds, signals, and cells. Blood supply is the sine qua non of these components, which are used both individually and concertedly in regenerative craniofacial surgery. The discerning craniofacial surgeon must determine the proper use for these bone graft alternatives, while understanding their concomitant risks. This article presents a review of contemporary and emerging concepts in bone biology and their implications in craniofacial surgery. Current practices, areas of controversy, and near-term future applications are emphasized.

  17. Current technologies for biological treatment of textile wastewater--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarayu, K; Sandhya, S

    2012-06-01

    The release of colored wastewater represents a serious environmental problem and public health concern. Color removal from textile wastewater has become a big challenge over the last decades, and up to now, there is no single and economically attractive treatment method that can effectively decolorize the wastewater. Effluents from textile manufacturing, dyeing, and finishing processes contain high concentrations of biologically difficult-to-degrade or even inert auxiliaries, chemicals like acids, waxes, fats, salts, binders, thickeners, urea, surfactants, reducing agents, etc. The various chemicals such as biocides and stain repellents used for brightening, sequestering, anticreasing, sizing, softening, and wetting of the yarn or fabric are also present in wastewater. Therefore, the textile wastewater needs environmental friendly, effective treatment process. This paper provides a critical review on the current technology available for decolorization and degradation of textile wastewater and also suggests effective and economically attractive alternatives.

  18. BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PIKE (ESOX LUCIUS LINNAEUS, 1758 OF THE LOWER DNIEPER RIVER IN CURRENT CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Geina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyze major biological characteristics of pike (Esox lucius L., 1758 stock in the lower Dnieper River in the conditions of transformed flow. Methodology. Collection of the ichthyological material was carried out in the lower Dnieper River from commercial fishing gears, including beach seines, drag seines, fyke-nets. Field, laboratory processing of samples and mathematical analysis of the obtained results were carried out according to generally accepted methods and guidelines with some assumptions regarding the duration of pike fattening directly in the lower Dnieper River. Findings. Recent years, there is an increase in the specific weight of younger age groups in the pike stock in the lower Dnieper River. Analysis of linear growth indicates on satisfactory environmental conditions for pike. Current commercial contingent of pike is based on size classes of 46–50 cm versus 22–32 cm in the first half of the last century. Reproductive properties of pike, in particular fecundity, egg size and maturity coefficients did not virtually change compared to those of the last century. Depending on linear sizes, the absolute fecundity is 32.3–155.8 thousand eggs and the maturation coefficient is 11.1–15.7%. Morphologic variability of pike in the lower Dnieper River during the period from 1980s to the present time was observed for plastic features, which characterized fin sizes. Sexual dimorphism in current conditions was observed only for maximum body depth. No significant differences for other plastic features between males and females of pike in the lower Dnieper River. Originality. The data on biological characteristics of pike stock from the lower Dnieper River have been updated. Current fecundity of females of different size groups recorded in commercial catches was been determined. An analysis of morphological variability of major plastic features of pike in the process of the transformation of the Dnieper River flow has been

  19. Current status of biological indicators to detect and quantify previous exposures to radiation. Biological Indicators Working Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lushbaugh, C.; Eisele, G.; Burr, W. Jr.; Hubner, K.; Wachholz, B.

    1991-01-01

    Hematologic changes following whole-body exposure to gamma or x-ray radiation have been used to estimate dose. The usefulness of this biological indicator is limited because of the recovery of these cells with time, thus making it unsuitable for estimation of dose years after exposure. The same is true for spermatogenic indicators; recovery and restoration of sperm numbers and fertility makes this biological indicator impractical for assessing radiation dose decades after radiation exposure. As noted in the text of the report, immunological concepts are in a state of rapid development, and it is possible that improved methods for applying immunologic procedures as biological indicators of radiation may be developed in the future. However, at the time, immunological indicators are not useful, even in an early time period, for quantitating radiation dose after total-body irradiation. A semiquantitative effect is observable in the early phase after total-body irradiation over a period of days to weeks, but there is little data available to indicate whether any of the immunological parameters can be indicative of a dose when the test is applied several years after radiation exposure. More detailed information regarding immunological indicators for estimating irradiation dose has been summarized elsewhere (Wasserman 1986). There is good agreement that ionizing radiation causes biochemical changes in the body; however, attempts to apply these changes to provide a reliable biological dosimetry system have not been particularly successful. The status of this research has been summarized by Gerber (1986). One of the difficulties has been the problem of establishing clear dose-effect relationships in humans. The lack of specificity in the response for radiation is another problem

  20. Biological variation in musculoskeletal injuries: current knowledge, future research and practical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Malcolm; September, Alison V; Posthumus, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Evidence from familial and genetic association studies have reported that DNA sequence variants play an important role, together with non-genetic factors, in the aetiology of both exercise-associated and occupational-associated acute and chronic musculoskeletal soft tissue injuries. The associated variants, which have been identified to date, may contribute to the interindividual variation in the structure and, by implication, mechanical properties of the collagen fibril and surrounding matrix within musculoskeletal soft tissues, as well as their response to mechanical loading and other stimuli. Future work should focus on the establishment of multidisciplinary international consortia for the identification of biologically relevant variants involved in modulating injury risk. These consortia will improve the limitations of the published hypothesis-driven genetic association studies, since they will allow resources to be pooled in recruiting large well-characterised cohorts required for whole-genome screening. Finally, clinicians and coaches need to be aware that many direct-to-consumer companies are currently marketing genetic tests directly to athletes without it being requested by an appropriately qualified healthcare professional, and without interpretation alongside other clinical indicators or lifestyle factors. These specific genetic tests are premature and are not necessarily required to evaluate susceptibility to musculoskeletal soft tissue injury. Current practice should rather consider susceptibility through known risk factors such as a positive family history of a specific injury, a history of other tendon and/or ligament injuries and participation in activities associated with the specific musculoskeletal injuries. Potential susceptible athletes may then be individually managed to reduce their risk profile. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. The Molecular Biology of Soft-Tissue Sarcomas and Current Trends in Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Quesada

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Basic research in sarcoma models has been fundamental in the discovery of scientific milestones leading to a better understanding of the molecular biology of cancer. Yet, clinical research in sarcoma has lagged behind other cancers because of the multiple clinical and pathological entities that characterize sarcomas and their rarity. Sarcomas encompass a very heterogeneous group of tumors with diverse pathological and clinical overlapping characteristics. Molecular testing has been fundamental in the identification and better definition of more specific entities among this vast array of malignancies. A group of sarcomas are distinguished by specific molecular aberrations such as somatic mutations, intergene deletions, gene amplifications, reciprocal translocations, and complex karyotypes. These and other discoveries have led to a better understanding of the growth signals and the molecular pathways involved in the development of these tumors. These findings are leading to treatment strategies currently under intense investigation. Disruption of the growth signals is being targeted with antagonistic antibodies, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, and inhibitors of several downstream molecules in diverse molecular pathways. Preliminary clinical trials, supported by solid basic research and strong preclinical evidence, promises a new era in the clinical management of these broad spectrum of malignant tumors.

  2. Label-free SERS in biological and biomedical applications: Recent progress, current challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiao-Shan; Jahn, Izabella Jolan; Weber, Karina; Cialla-May, Dana; Popp, Jürgen

    2018-05-01

    To achieve an insightful look within biomolecular processes on the cellular level, the development of diseases as well as the reliable detection of metabolites and pathogens, a modern analytical tool is needed that is highly sensitive, molecular-specific and exhibits fast detection. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is known to meet these requirements and, within this review article, the recent progress of label-free SERS in biological and biomedical applications is summarized and discussed. This includes the detection of biomolecules such as metabolites, nucleic acids and proteins. Further, the characterization and identification of microorganisms has been achieved by label-free SERS-based approaches. Eukaryotic cells can be characterized by SERS in order to gain information about the outer cell wall or to detect intracellular molecules and metabolites. The potential of SERS for medically relevant detection schemes is emphasized by the label-free detection of tissue, the investigation of body fluids as well as applications for therapeutic and illicit drug monitoring. The review article is concluded with an evaluation of the recent progress and current challenges in order to highlight the direction of label-free SERS in the future.

  3. Biological degradation of oil sludge: A review of the current state of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The adverse effects of oil sludge on soil ecology and fertility have been of ... of contaminated land, with a view to making such land available for further use. Oil ... on the biological remediation technologies employed in the treatment oil sludge.

  4. [Current topics on cancer biology and research strategies for anti-cancer traditional Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiu-ping; Tang, Zheng-hai; Shi, Zhe; Lu, Jin-jian; Su, Huan-xing; Chen, Xin; Wang, Yi-tao

    2015-09-01

    Cancer, an abnormal cell proliferation resulted from multi-factors,has the highest morbidity and mortality among all the serious diseases. Considerable progress has been made in cancer biology in recent years. Tumor immunology, cancer stem cells (CSCs), autophagy, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) have become hot topics of interests in this area. Detailed dissection of these biological processes will provide novel directions, targets, and strategies for the pharmacological evaluation, mechanism elucidation, and new drug development of traditional Chinese medicine.

  5. SPring-8 Structural Biology Beamlines / Current Status of Public Beamlines for Protein Crystallography at SPring-8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamoto, Masahide; Hasegawa, Kazuya; Shimizu, Nobutaka; Sakai, Hisanobu; Shimizu, Tetsuya; Nisawa, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Masaki

    2007-01-01

    SPring-8 has 2 protein crystallography beamlines for public use, BL38B1 (Structural Biology III) and BL41XU (Structural Biology I). The BL38B1 is a bending magnet beamline for routine data collection, and the BL41XU is an undulator beamline specially customized for micro beam and ultra-high resolutional experiment. The designs and the performances of each beamline are presented

  6. Elemental analysis of biological materials. Current problems and techniques with special reference to trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Selected techniques were reviewed for the assay of trace and minor elements in biological materials. Other relevant information is also presented on the need for such analyses, sampling, sample preparation and analytical quality control. In order to evaluate and compare the applicability of the various analytical techniques on a meaningful and objective basis, the materials chosen for consideration were intended to be typical of a wide range of biological matrics of different elemental compositions, namely Bowen's kale, representing a plant material, and NBS bovine liver, IAEA animal muscle, and blood serum, representing animal tissues. The subject is reviewed under the following headings: on the need for trace element analyses in the life sciences (4 papers); sampling and sample preparation for trace element analysis (2 papers); analytical techniques for trace and minor elements in biological materials (7 papers); analytical quality control (2 papers)

  7. Synthetic biology and molecular genetics in non-conventional yeasts: Current tools and future advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, James M; Alper, Hal S

    2016-04-01

    Coupling the tools of synthetic biology with traditional molecular genetic techniques can enable the rapid prototyping and optimization of yeast strains. While the era of yeast synthetic biology began in the well-characterized model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae, it is swiftly expanding to include non-conventional yeast production systems such as Hansenula polymorpha, Kluyveromyces lactis, Pichia pastoris, and Yarrowia lipolytica. These yeasts already have roles in the manufacture of vaccines, therapeutic proteins, food additives, and biorenewable chemicals, but recent synthetic biology advances have the potential to greatly expand and diversify their impact on biotechnology. In this review, we summarize the development of synthetic biological tools (including promoters and terminators) and enabling molecular genetics approaches that have been applied in these four promising alternative biomanufacturing platforms. An emphasis is placed on synthetic parts and genome editing tools. Finally, we discuss examples of synthetic tools developed in other organisms that can be adapted or optimized for these hosts in the near future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Cloning, Stem Cells, and the Current National Debate: Incorporating Ethics into a Large Introductory Biology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Rachel D.

    2002-01-01

    Discussing the ethical issues involved in topics such as cloning and stem cell research in a large introductory biology course is often difficult. Teachers may be wary of presenting material biased by personal beliefs, and students often feel inhibited speaking about moral issues in a large group. Yet, to ignore what is happening "out there"…

  9. National inventory of selected biological monitoring programs. Summary report of current or recently completed projects, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, H. T.

    1976-10-01

    The Inventory has resulted in establishment of a series of data bases containing biological monitoring information of varying types, namely, directory of investigators, record of projects received from mail questionnaire, detailed description of selected biomonitoring projects, and bibliographic citations supporting the projects received. This report contains detailed descriptions of selected biomonitoring projects organized on a state-by-state basis and with appropriate indices.

  10. International Journal of Humanistic Studies - Vol 3 (2004)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Humanistic Studies - Vol 3 (2004). Journal Home > Archives > Vol 3 (2004). Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  11. Biological strategies for enhanced hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass during anaerobic digestion: Current status and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Shilva; Fonoll, Xavier; Khanal, Samir Kumar; Raskin, Lutgarde

    2017-12-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is the most abundant renewable bioresource on earth. In lignocellulosic biomass, the cellulose and hemicellulose are bound with lignin and other molecules to form a complex structure not easily accessible to microbial degradation. Anaerobic digestion (AD) of lignocellulosic biomass with a focus on improving hydrolysis, the rate limiting step in AD of lignocellulosic feedstocks, has received considerable attention. This review highlights challenges with AD of lignocellulosic biomass, factors contributing to its recalcitrance, and natural microbial ecosystems, such as the gastrointestinal tracts of herbivorous animals, capable of performing hydrolysis efficiently. Biological strategies that have been evaluated to enhance hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass include biological pretreatment, co-digestion, and inoculum selection. Strategies to further improve these approaches along with future research directions are outlined with a focus on linking studies of microbial communities involved in hydrolysis of lignocellulosics to process engineering. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The biological control of aquatic weeds in South Africa: Current status and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin P. Hill

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aquatic ecosystems in South Africa are prone to invasion by several invasive alien aquatic weeds, most notably, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms-Laub. (Pontederiaceae (water hyacinth; Pistia stratiotes L. (Araceae (water lettuce; Salvinia molesta D.S. Mitch. (Salviniaceae (salvinia; Myriophyllum aquaticum (Vell. Conc. Verd. (parrot’s feather; and Azolla filiculoides Lam. (Azollaceae (red water fern. Objective: We review the biological control programme on waterweeds in South Africa. Results: Our review shows significant reductions in the extent of invasions, and a return on biodiversity and socio-economic benefits through the use of this method. These studies provide justification for the control of widespread and emerging freshwater invasive alien aquatic weeds in South Africa. Conclusions: The long-term management of alien aquatic vegetation relies on the correct implementation of biological control for those species already in the country and the prevention of other species entering South Africa.

  13. Applications of intelligent optimization in biology and medicine current trends and open problems

    CERN Document Server

    Grosan, Crina; Tolba, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    This volume provides updated, in-depth material on the application of intelligent optimization in biology and medicine. The aim of the book is to present solutions to the challenges and problems facing biology and medicine applications. This Volume comprises of 13 chapters, including an overview chapter, providing an up-to-date and state-of-the research on the application of intelligent optimization for bioinformatics applications, DNA based Steganography, a modified Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm for Solving Capacitated Maximal Covering Location Problem in Healthcare Systems, Optimization Methods for Medical Image Super Resolution Reconstruction and breast cancer classification. Moreover, some chapters that describe several bio-inspired approaches in MEDLINE Text Mining, DNA-Binding Proteins and Classes, Optimized Tumor Breast Cancer Classification using Combining Random Subspace and Static Classifiers Selection Paradigms, and Dental Image Registration. The book will be a useful compendium for a broad...

  14. Biological control of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) through parasitoid augmentative releases: Current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya, Pablo; Liedo, Pablo

    2000-01-01

    Fruit flies are among the main pests affecting the world fruit industry (Aluja 1993). Bait sprays have traditionally been used successfully to control them; however, the side effects on the environment and health hazards commonly associated with pesticides, have resulted in strong public opposition to the use of bait sprays. This is particularly so when sprays are applied in urban areas or in coffee plantations where, although Medflies are present, they do not pose a danger to crops. Alternative methods that are effective and environmental friendly to suppress fruit fly populations are highly desirable. Biological control, the use of natural enemies to suppress pest populations, represents such an alternative. Some of the most successful cases of biological control are the control of Iceria purchasi Maskell (Homoptera: Margarodidae) by Rodolia cardinalis Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in California (De Bach 1968, van den Bosch et al. 1982), and the control of Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) mainly by Encarsia (=Prospaltella) opulenta Silv. (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) in Mexico (Jimenez 1961, 1971), both using the classical approach. However, this approach has been limited to certain conditions of environmental stability and biodiversity which are only found in a few ecosystems. Other factors, such as types of pests, the economic threshold and product quality requirements represent additional limitations. The best option in many cases could be augmentative biological control, which could overcome some of the deficiencies of the classical approach (Sivinski 1996). According to Knipling (1992) and Barclay (1987), augmentative biological control can be considered as a formal alternative for suppressing pest populations and even for use in eradication programmes, after integration with the sterile insect technique (SIT). In this approach, mass production of natural enemies is required and this production has to be cost effective

  15. Airborne biological hazards and urban transport infrastructure: current challenges and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Zaheer Ahmad; Campos, Luiza Cintra; Christie, Nicola; Colbeck, Ian

    2016-08-01

    Exposure to airborne biological hazards in an ever expanding urban transport infrastructure and highly diverse mobile population is of growing concern, in terms of both public health and biosecurity. The existing policies and practices on design, construction and operation of these infrastructures may have severe implications for airborne disease transmission, particularly, in the event of a pandemic or intentional release of biological of agents. This paper reviews existing knowledge on airborne disease transmission in different modes of transport, highlights the factors enhancing the vulnerability of transport infrastructures to airborne disease transmission, discusses the potential protection measures and identifies the research gaps in order to build a bioresilient transport infrastructure. The unification of security and public health research, inclusion of public health security concepts at the design and planning phase, and a holistic system approach involving all the stakeholders over the life cycle of transport infrastructure hold the key to mitigate the challenges posed by biological hazards in the twenty-first century transport infrastructure.

  16. Marine parasites as biological tags in South American Atlantic waters, current status and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantatore, D M P; Timi, J T

    2015-01-01

    Many marine fisheries in South American Atlantic coasts (SAAC) are threatened by overfishing and under serious risk of collapsing. The SAAC comprises a diversity of environments, possesses a complex oceanography and harbours a vast biodiversity that provide an enormous potential for using parasites as biological tags for fish stock delineation, a prerequisite for the implementation of control and management plans. Here, their use in the SAAC is reviewed. Main evidence is derived from northern Argentine waters, where fish parasite assemblages are dominated by larval helminth species that share a low specificity, long persistence and trophic transmission, parasitizing almost indiscriminately all available fish species. The advantages and constraints of such a combination of characteristics are analysed and recommendations are given for future research. Shifting the focus from fish/parasite populations to communities allows expanding the concept of biological tags from local to regional scales, providing essential information to delineate ecosystem boundaries for host communities. This new concept arose as a powerful tool to help the implementation of ecosystem-based approaches to fisheries management, the new paradigm for fisheries science. Holistic approaches, including parasites as biological tags for stock delineation will render valuable information to help insure fisheries and marine ecosystems against further depletion and collapse.

  17. Energy transmission transformer for a wireless capsule endoscope: analysis of specific absorption rate and current density in biological tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiba, Kenji; Nagato, Tomohiro; Tsuji, Toshio; Koshiji, Kohji

    2008-07-01

    This paper reports on the electromagnetic influences on the analysis of biological tissue surrounding a prototype energy transmission system for a wireless capsule endoscope. Specific absorption rate (SAR) and current density were analyzed by electromagnetic simulator in a model consisting of primary coil and a human trunk including the skin, fat, muscle, small intestine, backbone, and blood. First, electric and magnetic strength in the same conditions as the analytical model were measured and compared to the analytical values to confirm the validity of the analysis. Then, SAR and current density as a function of frequency and output power were analyzed. The validity of the analysis was confirmed by comparing the analytical values with the measured ones. The SAR was below the basic restrictions of the International Commission on Nonionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). At the same time, the results for current density show that the influence on biological tissue was lowest in the 300-400 kHz range, indicating that it was possible to transmit energy safely up to 160 mW. In addition, we confirmed that the current density has decreased by reducing the primary coil's current.

  18. Tannins: current knowledge of food sources, intake, bioavailability and biological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, José; Puupponen-Pimiä, Riitta; Dauer, Andreas; Aura, Anna-Marja; Saura-Calixto, Fulgencio

    2009-09-01

    Tannins are a unique group of phenolic metabolites with molecular weights between 500 and 30 000 Da, which are widely distributed in almost all plant foods and beverages. Proanthocyanidins and hydrolysable tannins are the two major groups of these bioactive compounds, but complex tannins containing structural elements of both groups and specific tannins in marine brown algae have also been described. Most literature data on food tannins refer only to oligomeric compounds that are extracted with aqueous-organic solvents, but a significant number of non-extractable tannins are usually not mentioned in the literature. The biological effects of tannins usually depend on their grade of polymerisation and solubility. Highly polymerised tannins exhibit low bioaccessibility in the small intestine and low fermentability by colonic microflora. This review summarises a new approach to analysis of extractable and non-extractable tannins, major food sources, and effects of storage and processing on tannin content and bioavailability. Biological properties such as antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiviral effects are also described. In addition, the role of tannins in diabetes mellitus has been discussed.

  19. Biological Production of 3-Hydroxypropionic Acid: An Update on the Current Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonidas Matsakas

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The production of high added-value chemicals from renewable resources is a necessity in our attempts to switch to a more sustainable society. 3-Hydroxypropionic acid (3HP is a promising molecule that can be used for the production of an important array of high added-value chemicals, such as 1,3-propanediol, acrylic acid, acrylamide, and bioplastics. Biological production of 3HP has been studied extensively, mainly from glycerol and glucose, which are both renewable resources. To enable conversion of these carbon sources to 3HP, extensive work has been performed to identify appropriate biochemical pathways and the enzymes that are involved in them. Novel enzymes have also been identified and expressed in host microorganisms to improve the production yields of 3HP. Various process configurations have also been proposed, resulting in improved conversion yields. The intense research efforts have resulted in the production of as much as 83.8 g/L 3HP from renewable carbon resources, and a system whereby 3-hydroxypropionitrile was converted to 3HP through whole-cell catalysis which resulted in 184.7 g/L 3HP. Although there are still challenges and difficulties that need to be addressed, the research results from the past four years have been an important step towards biological production of 3HP at the industrial level.

  20. Current State of Pediatric Sarcoma Biology and Opportunities for Future Discovery: A Report from the Sarcoma Translational Research Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hingorani, Pooja; Janeway, Katherine; Crompton, Brian D.; Kadoch, Cigall; Mackall, Crystal L.; Khan, Javed; Shern, Jack F.; Schiffman, Joshua; Mirabello, Lisa; Savage, Sharon A.; Ladanyi, Marc; Meltzer, Paul; Bult, Carol J.; Adamson, Peter C.; Lupo, Philip J.; Mody, Rajen; DuBois, Steven G.; Parsons, D. Williams; Khanna, Chand; Lau, Ching; Hawkins, Douglas S.; Randall, R. Lor; Smith, Malcolm; Sorensen, Poul H.; Plon, Sharon E.; Skapek, Stephen X.; Lessnick, Stephen; Gorlick, Richard; Reed, Damon R.

    2017-01-01

    Sarcomas are a rare subgroup of pediatric cancers comprised of a variety of bone and soft-tissue tumors. While significant advances have been made in improving outcomes of patients with localized pediatric sarcomas since the addition of systemic chemotherapy to local control many decades ago, outcomes for patients with metastatic and relapsed sarcoma remain poor with few novel therapeutics identified to date. With the advent of new technologies to study cancer genomes, transcriptomes and epigenomes, our understanding of sarcoma biology has improved tremendously in a relatively short period of time. However, much remains to be accomplished in this arena especially with regard to translating all of this new knowledge to the bedside. To this end, a meeting was convened in Philadelphia, PA on April 18, 2015 sponsored by the QuadW foundation, Children’s Oncology Group and CureSearch for Children’s Cancer that brought together sarcoma clinicians and scientists from North America to review the current state of pediatric sarcoma biology and ongoing/planned genomics based clinical trials in an effort to identify and bridge knowledge gaps that continue to exist at the current time. At the conclusion of the workshop, three key objectives that would significantly further our understanding of sarcoma were identified and a proposal was put forward to develop an all-encompassing pediatric sarcoma biology protocol that would address these specific needs. This review summarizes the proceedings of the workshop. PMID:27132463

  1. Molecular and cellular biology of cerebral arteriovenous malformations: a review of current concepts and future trends in treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel-Castilla, Leonardo; Russin, Jonathan J; Martinez-Del-Campo, Eduardo; Soriano-Baron, Hector; Spetzler, Robert F; Nakaji, Peter

    2014-09-01

    Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are classically described as congenital static lesions. However, in addition to rupturing, AVMs can undergo growth, remodeling, and regression. These phenomena are directly related to cellular, molecular, and physiological processes. Understanding these relationships is essential to direct future diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. The authors performed a search of the contemporary literature to review current information regarding the molecular and cellular biology of AVMs and how this biology will impact their potential future management. A PubMed search was performed using the key words "genetic," "molecular," "brain," "cerebral," "arteriovenous," "malformation," "rupture," "management," "embolization," and "radiosurgery." Only English-language papers were considered. The reference lists of all papers selected for full-text assessment were reviewed. Current concepts in genetic polymorphisms, growth factors, angiopoietins, apoptosis, endothelial cells, pathophysiology, clinical syndromes, medical treatment (including tetracycline and microRNA-18a), radiation therapy, endovascular embolization, and surgical treatment as they apply to AVMs are discussed. Understanding the complex cellular biology, physiology, hemodynamics, and flow-related phenomena of AVMs is critical for defining and predicting their behavior, developing novel drug treatments, and improving endovascular and surgical therapies.

  2. Current status of biological indicators to detect and quantify previous exposures to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lushbaugh, C.; Eisele, G.; Burr, W. Jr.; Hubner, K.; Wachholz, B.

    1991-01-01

    As noted in the text of this paper, immunological concepts are in a state of rapid development, and it is possible that improved methods for applying immunologic procedures as biological indicators of radiation may be developed in the future. However, at the present time, immunological indicators are not useful, even in an early time period, for quantitating radiation dose after total-body irradiation. A semiquantitative effect is observable in the early phase after total-body irradiation over a period of days to weeks, but there is little data available to indicate whether any of the immunological parameters can be indicative of a dose when the test is applied several years after radiation exposure. More detailed information regarding immunological indicators for estimating irradiation dose has been summarized elsewhere

  3. Current trends and new challenges of databases and web applications for systems driven biological research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Kumar eSreenivasaiah

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic and rapidly evolving nature of systems driven research imposes special requirements on the technology, approach, design and architecture of computational infrastructure including database and web application. Several solutions have been proposed to meet the expectations and novel methods have been developed to address the persisting problems of data integration. It is important for researchers to understand different technologies and approaches. Having familiarized with the pros and cons of the existing technologies, researchers can exploit its capabilities to the maximum potential for integrating data. In this review we discuss the architecture, design and key technologies underlying some of the prominent databases (DBs and web applications. We will mention their roles in integration of biological data and investigate some of the emerging design concepts and computational technologies that are likely to have a key role in the future of systems driven biomedical research.

  4. Current status of medical training for facing chemical, biological and nuclear disasters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra Cepena, Eulises; Gell Labannino, Adia; Perez Perez, Aristides

    2013-01-01

    A descriptive, longitudinal and prospective study was conducted in 200 sixth year-medical students from the Faculty 2 of Medical University in Santiago de Cuba during 2011-2012, with the purpose of determining some of deficiencies affecting their performance during chemical, biological or nuclear disasters, for which an unstructured survey and an observation guide were applied. In the series demotivation of some students regarding the topic, poor theoretical knowledge of the topic, the ignorance of ways to access information and the little use of this topic in college scientific events were evidenced, which also involved the little systematization of the content on disasters and affected the objectives of medical training with comprehensive profile

  5. The molecular biology of prostate cancer: current understanding and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Jason; Afridi, Adil; Vatsia, Sohrab; Joshi, Gargi; Joshi, Gunjan; Kaplan, Steven A; Smith, Noel L; Khan, Sardar Ali

    2018-04-01

    With continuous progress over the past few decades in understanding diagnosis, treatment, and genetics, much has been learned about the prostate cancer-diagnosed genome. A comprehensive MEDLINE® and Google scholar literature search was conducted using keyword variations relating to the genetics of prostate cancer such as chromosomal alterations, androgen receptor, castration-resistant, inheritance, polymorphisms, oncogenes, metastasis, biomarkers, and immunotherapy. Traditionally, androgen receptors (AR) have been the focus of research. Recently, identification of recurrent chromosomal alterations that lead to either multiplication of regions (gain-of-function) or deletion of regions (loss-of-function) has opened the door to greater genetic accessibility. These chromosomal aberrations lead to variation in copy number and gene expression. Some of these chromosomal alterations are inherited, while others undergo somatic mutations during disease progression. Inherited gene mutations that make one susceptible to prostate cancer have been identified with familial-linked studies. Somatic genes that progress tumorigenesis have also been identified. Research on the molecular biology of prostate cancer has characterized these genes into tumor suppressor genes or oncogenes. Additionally, genome-wide assay studies have identified many high-risk single-nucleotide polymorphisms recurrent throughout the prostate cancer-diagnosed genome. Castration-resistant prostate cancer is the most aggressive form of prostate cancer, and its research has elucidated many types of mutations associated with AR itself, including enhanced expression and amplification, point mutations, and alternative splicing. Understanding the molecular biology of prostate cancer has permitted more accurate identification using advanced biomarkers and therapy for aggressive forms using immunotherapy. An age-related disease, prostate cancer commands profound attention. With increasing life expectancy and the

  6. Proceedings of the DAE-BRNS life sciences symposium on current trends in biology and medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This year's Life Sciences Symposium is focused on Health Sciences. It will provide an interactive platform for deliberations on current developments in basic research on cancer, diabetes, infectious diseases, reproduction, stem cells and degenerative diseases. Several aspects like metabolism, use of biophysical techniques, detection methods, micro RNA based regulation, assisted reproductive technologies etc. are covered. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  7. Current Status and Recommendations for the Future of Research, Teaching, and Testing in the Biological Sciences of Radiation Oncology: Report of the American Society for Radiation Oncology Cancer Biology/Radiation Biology Task Force, Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallner, Paul E., E-mail: pwallner@theabr.org [21st Century Oncology, LLC, and the American Board of Radiology, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Anscher, Mitchell S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia (United States); Barker, Christopher A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Bassetti, Michael [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Bristow, Robert G. [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Medical Biophysics, Princess Margaret Cancer Center/University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Cha, Yong I. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Norton Cancer Center, Louisville, Kentucky (United States); Dicker, Adam P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Formenti, Silvia C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University, New York, New York (United States); Graves, Edward E. [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Hahn, Stephen M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania (United States); Hei, Tom K. [Center for Radiation Research, Columbia University, New York, New York (United States); Kimmelman, Alec C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Kirsch, David G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Kozak, Kevin R. [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin (United States); Lawrence, Theodore S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan (United States); Marples, Brian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Oakland University, Oakland, California (United States); and others

    2014-01-01

    In early 2011, a dialogue was initiated within the Board of Directors (BOD) of the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) regarding the future of the basic sciences of the specialty, primarily focused on the current state and potential future direction of basic research within radiation oncology. After consideration of the complexity of the issues involved and the precise nature of the undertaking, in August 2011, the BOD empanelled a Cancer Biology/Radiation Biology Task Force (TF). The TF was charged with developing an accurate snapshot of the current state of basic (preclinical) research in radiation oncology from the perspective of relevance to the modern clinical practice of radiation oncology as well as the education of our trainees and attending physicians in the biological sciences. The TF was further charged with making suggestions as to critical areas of biological basic research investigation that might be most likely to maintain and build further the scientific foundation and vitality of radiation oncology as an independent and vibrant medical specialty. It was not within the scope of service of the TF to consider the quality of ongoing research efforts within the broader radiation oncology space, to presume to consider their future potential, or to discourage in any way the investigators committed to areas of interest other than those targeted. The TF charge specifically precluded consideration of research issues related to technology, physics, or clinical investigations. This document represents an Executive Summary of the Task Force report.

  8. Deep Time Data Infrastructure: Integrating Our Current Geologic and Biologic Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolankowski, S. M.; Fox, P. A.; Ma, X.; Prabhu, A.

    2016-12-01

    As our knowledge of Earth's geologic and mineralogical history grows, we require more efficient methods of sharing immense amounts of data. Databases across numerous disciplines have been utilized to offer extensive information on very specific Epochs of Earth's history up to its current state, i.e. Fossil record, rock composition, proteins, etc. These databases could be a powerful force in identifying previously unseen correlations such as relationships between minerals and proteins. Creating a unifying site that provides a portal to these databases will aid in our ability as a collaborative scientific community to utilize our findings more effectively. The Deep-Time Data Infrastructure (DTDI) is currently being defined as part of a larger effort to accomplish this goal. DTDI will not be a new database, but an integration of existing resources. Current geologic and related databases were identified, documentation of their schema was established and will be presented as a stage by stage progression. Through conceptual modeling focused around variables from their combined records, we will determine the best way to integrate these databases using common factors. The Deep-Time Data Infrastructure will allow geoscientists to bridge gaps in data and further our understanding of our Earth's history.

  9. Current Comparative Table (CCT) automates customized searches of dynamic biological databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsteiner, Benjamin R; Olson, Michael R; Rutherford, Robert

    2005-07-01

    The Current Comparative Table (CCT) software program enables working biologists to automate customized bioinformatics searches, typically of remote sequence or HMM (hidden Markov model) databases. CCT currently supports BLAST, hmmpfam and other programs useful for gene and ortholog identification. The software is web based, has a BioPerl core and can be used remotely via a browser or locally on Mac OS X or Linux machines. CCT is particularly useful to scientists who study large sets of molecules in today's evolving information landscape because it color-codes all result files by age and highlights even tiny changes in sequence or annotation. By empowering non-bioinformaticians to automate custom searches and examine current results in context at a glance, CCT allows a remote database submission in the evening to influence the next morning's bench experiment. A demonstration of CCT is available at http://orb.public.stolaf.edu/CCTdemo and the open source software is freely available from http://sourceforge.net/projects/orb-cct.

  10. General Biology and Current Management Approaches of Soft Scale Pests (Hemiptera: Coccidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Ernesto Robayo; Chong, Juang-Horng

    We summarize the economic importance, biology, and management of soft scales, focusing on pests of agricultural, horticultural, and silvicultural crops in outdoor production systems and urban landscapes. We also provide summaries on voltinism, crawler emergence timing, and predictive models for crawler emergence to assist in developing soft scale management programs. Phloem-feeding soft scale pests cause direct (e.g., injuries to plant tissues and removal of nutrients) and indirect damage (e.g., reduction in photosynthesis and aesthetic value by honeydew and sooty mold). Variations in life cycle, reproduction, fecundity, and behavior exist among congenerics due to host, environmental, climatic, and geographical variations. Sampling of soft scale pests involves sighting the insects or their damage, and assessing their abundance. Crawlers of most univoltine species emerge in the spring and the summer. Degree-day models and plant phenological indicators help determine the initiation of sampling and treatment against crawlers (the life stage most vulnerable to contact insecticides). The efficacy of cultural management tactics, such as fertilization, pruning, and irrigation, in reducing soft scale abundance is poorly documented. A large number of parasitoids and predators attack soft scale populations in the field; therefore, natural enemy conservation by using selective insecticides is important. Systemic insecticides provide greater flexibility in application method and timing, and have longer residual longevity than contact insecticides. Application timing of contact insecticides that coincides with crawler emergence is most effective in reducing soft scale abundance.

  11. Current strategies for protein production and purification enabling membrane protein structural biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Aditya; Shin, Kyungsoo; Patterson, Robin E; Liu, Xiang-Qin; Rainey, Jan K

    2016-12-01

    Membrane proteins are still heavily under-represented in the protein data bank (PDB), owing to multiple bottlenecks. The typical low abundance of membrane proteins in their natural hosts makes it necessary to overexpress these proteins either in heterologous systems or through in vitro translation/cell-free expression. Heterologous expression of proteins, in turn, leads to multiple obstacles, owing to the unpredictability of compatibility of the target protein for expression in a given host. The highly hydrophobic and (or) amphipathic nature of membrane proteins also leads to challenges in producing a homogeneous, stable, and pure sample for structural studies. Circumventing these hurdles has become possible through the introduction of novel protein production protocols; efficient protein isolation and sample preparation methods; and, improvement in hardware and software for structural characterization. Combined, these advances have made the past 10-15 years very exciting and eventful for the field of membrane protein structural biology, with an exponential growth in the number of solved membrane protein structures. In this review, we focus on both the advances and diversity of protein production and purification methods that have allowed this growth in structural knowledge of membrane proteins through X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM).

  12. Studies in Gender and Development in Africa - Vol 2 (2008)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies in Gender and Development in Africa - Vol 2 (2008) ... I don't love my husband” Advice Columns as Teaching Resource for Gender and Sexuality: Experiences from the University of Cape Coast, Ghana ... Current Issue Atom logo

  13. Sanguinaria canadensis: Traditional Medicine, Phytochemical Composition, Biological Activities and Current Uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Croaker

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Sanguinaria canadensis, also known as bloodroot, is a traditional medicine used by Native Americans to treat a diverse range of clinical conditions. The plants rhizome contains several alkaloids that individually target multiple molecular processes. These bioactive compounds, mechanistically correlate with the plant’s history of ethnobotanical use. Despite their identification over 50 years ago, the alkaloids of S. canadensis have not been developed into successful therapeutic agents. Instead, they have been associated with clinical toxicities ranging from mouthwash induced leukoplakia to cancer salve necrosis and treatment failure. This review explores the historical use of S. canadensis, the molecular actions of the benzophenanthridine and protopin alkaloids it contains, and explores natural alkaloid variation as a possible rationale for the inconsistent efficacy and toxicities encountered by S. canadensis therapies. Current veterinary and medicinal uses of the plant are studied with an assessment of obstacles to the pharmaceutical development of S. canadensis alkaloid based therapeutics.

  14. Sanguinaria canadensis: Traditional Medicine, Phytochemical Composition, Biological Activities and Current Uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croaker, Andrew; King, Graham J; Pyne, John H; Anoopkumar-Dukie, Shailendra; Liu, Lei

    2016-08-27

    Sanguinaria canadensis, also known as bloodroot, is a traditional medicine used by Native Americans to treat a diverse range of clinical conditions. The plants rhizome contains several alkaloids that individually target multiple molecular processes. These bioactive compounds, mechanistically correlate with the plant's history of ethnobotanical use. Despite their identification over 50 years ago, the alkaloids of S. canadensis have not been developed into successful therapeutic agents. Instead, they have been associated with clinical toxicities ranging from mouthwash induced leukoplakia to cancer salve necrosis and treatment failure. This review explores the historical use of S. canadensis, the molecular actions of the benzophenanthridine and protopin alkaloids it contains, and explores natural alkaloid variation as a possible rationale for the inconsistent efficacy and toxicities encountered by S. canadensis therapies. Current veterinary and medicinal uses of the plant are studied with an assessment of obstacles to the pharmaceutical development of S. canadensis alkaloid based therapeutics.

  15. Biological responses to current UV-B radiation in Arctic regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Kristian Rost; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Ro-Poulsen, H.

    2008-01-01

    Depletion of the ozone layer and the consequent increase in solar ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) may impact living conditions for arctic plants significantly. In order to evaluate how the prevailing UV-B fluxes affect the heath ecosystem at Zackenberg (74°30'N, 20°30'W) and other high......-arctic regions, manipulation experiments with various set-ups have been performed. Activation of plant defence mechanisms by production of UV-B absorbing compounds was significant in ambient UV-B in comparison to a filter treatment reducing the UV-B radiation. Despite the UV-B screening response, ambient UV...... (mycorrhiza) or in the biomass of microbes in the soil of the root zone. However, the composition of the soil microbial community was different in the soils under ambient and reduced UV radiation after three treatment years. These results provide new insight into the negative impact of current UV-B fluxes...

  16. Asthma and obesity in children: current evidence and potential systems biology approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, U; Latzin, P; Usemann, J; Maccora, J; Zumsteg, U; Kriemler, S

    2015-01-01

    Both obesity and asthma are highly prevalent, complex diseases modified by multiple factors. Genetic, developmental, lung mechanical, immunological and behavioural factors have all been suggested as playing a causal role between the two entities; however, their complex mechanistic interactions are still poorly understood and evidence of causality in children remains scant. Equally lacking is evidence of effective treatment strategies, despite the fact that imbalances at vulnerable phases in childhood can impact long-term health. This review is targeted at both clinicians frequently faced with the dilemma of how to investigate and treat the obese asthmatic child and researchers interested in the topic. Highlighting the breadth of the spectrum of factors involved, this review collates evidence regarding the investigation and treatment of asthma in obese children, particularly in comparison with current approaches in 'difficult-to-treat' childhood asthma. Finally, the authors propose hypotheses for future research from a systems-based perspective. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Radiation-induced bystander effects. Mechanisms, biological implications, and current investigations at the Leipzig LIPSION facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oesterreicher, J.; Prise, K.M.; Michael, B.D.; Vogt, J.; Butz, T.; Tanner, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Background: The bystander effect is a relatively new area of radiobiological research, which is aimed at studying post-radiation changes in neighboring non-hit cells or tissues. The bystander effect of ionizing irradiation is important after low-dose irradiation in the range of up to 0.2 Gy, where a higher incidence of stochastic damage was observed than was expected from a linear-quadratic model. It is also important when the irradiation of a cell population is highly non-uniform. Objective: This review summarizes most of the important results and proposed bystander effect mechanisms as well as their impact on theory and clinical practice. The literature, in parts contradictory, is collected, the main topics are outlined, and some basic papers are described in more detail. In order to illustrate the microbeam technique, which is considered relevant for the bystander effect research, the state of the Leipzig LIPSION nanoprobe facility is described. Results: The existence of a radiation-induced bystander effect is now generally accepted. The current state of knowledge on it is summarized here. Several groups worldwide are working on understanding its different aspects and its impact on radiobiology and radiation protection. Conclusion: The observation of a bystander effect has posed many questions, and answering them is a challenging topic for radiobiology in the future. (orig.)

  18. Radiation-induced bystander effects. Mechanisms, biological implications, and current investigations at the Leipzig LIPSION facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oesterreicher, J. [Dept. of Nuclear Solid State Physics, Univ. of Leipzig (Germany); Dept. of Radiobiology and Immunology, Purkyne Military Medical Academy, Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Prise, K.M.; Michael, B.D. [Gray Cancer Inst., Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Vogt, J.; Butz, T. [Dept. of Nuclear Solid State Physics, Univ. of Leipzig (Germany); Tanner, J.M. [Clinic and Polyclinic of Radiation Oncology, Martin Luther Univ. Halle-Wittenberg (Germany)

    2003-02-01

    Background: The bystander effect is a relatively new area of radiobiological research, which is aimed at studying post-radiation changes in neighboring non-hit cells or tissues. The bystander effect of ionizing irradiation is important after low-dose irradiation in the range of up to 0.2 Gy, where a higher incidence of stochastic damage was observed than was expected from a linear-quadratic model. It is also important when the irradiation of a cell population is highly non-uniform. Objective: This review summarizes most of the important results and proposed bystander effect mechanisms as well as their impact on theory and clinical practice. The literature, in parts contradictory, is collected, the main topics are outlined, and some basic papers are described in more detail. In order to illustrate the microbeam technique, which is considered relevant for the bystander effect research, the state of the Leipzig LIPSION nanoprobe facility is described. Results: The existence of a radiation-induced bystander effect is now generally accepted. The current state of knowledge on it is summarized here. Several groups worldwide are working on understanding its different aspects and its impact on radiobiology and radiation protection. Conclusion: The observation of a bystander effect has posed many questions, and answering them is a challenging topic for radiobiology in the future. (orig.)

  19. Current Status of Animal Models of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Behavioral and Biological Phenotypes, and Future Challenges in Improving Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deslauriers, Jessica; Toth, Mate; Der-Avakian, Andre; Risbrough, Victoria B

    2018-05-15

    Increasing predictability of animal models of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has required active collaboration between clinical and preclinical scientists. Modeling PTSD is challenging, as it is a heterogeneous disorder with ≥20 symptoms. Clinical research increasingly utilizes objective biological measures (e.g., imaging, peripheral biomarkers) or nonverbal behaviors and/or physiological responses to complement verbally reported symptoms. This shift toward more-objectively measurable phenotypes enables refinement of current animal models of PTSD, and it supports the incorporation of homologous measures across species. We reviewed >600 articles to examine the ability of current rodent models to probe biological phenotypes of PTSD (e.g., sleep disturbances, hippocampal and fear-circuit dysfunction, inflammation, glucocorticoid receptor hypersensitivity) in addition to behavioral phenotypes. Most models reliably produced enduring generalized anxiety-like or depression-like behaviors, as well as hyperactive fear circuits, glucocorticoid receptor hypersensitivity, and response to long-term selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Although a few paradigms probed fear conditioning/extinction or utilized peripheral immune, sleep, and noninvasive imaging measures, we argue that these should be incorporated more to enhance translation. Data on female subjects, on subjects at different ages across the life span, or on temporal trajectories of phenotypes after stress that can inform model validity and treatment study design are needed. Overall, preclinical (and clinical) PTSD researchers are increasingly incorporating homologous biological measures to assess markers of risk, response, and treatment outcome. This shift is exciting, as we and many others hope it not only will support translation of drug efficacy from animal models to clinical trials but also will potentially improve predictability of stage II for stage III clinical trials. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Egyptian Journal of Biology - Vol 4 (2002)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Separation, identification and quantification of photosynthetic pigments from three Red Sea seaweeds using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography ... Protection induced by external Ca application on proline accumulation, ion balance, photosynthetic pigments, protein and ABA concentration of mustard ...

  1. Egyptian Journal of Biology - Vol 2 (2000)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chromosomal analysis of some Egyptian diving beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Rowaida Saleh Ahmed, Robert B Angus, Samy Zalat, Fatma Shaarawi, 76-84 ...

  2. Egyptian Journal of Biology - Vol 1 (1999)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    "Vector-host-parasite": inter-relationships in leishmaniasis. V. Focus on the feeding medium of Leishmania parasites in vivo and in vitro · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Suzan Daba, Fouad G Youssef, Bahira M El Sawaf, 153-159 ...

  3. Egyptian Journal of Biology - Vol 12 (2010)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Monitoring of the endemic Sinai Baton Blue butterfly Pseudophilotes sinaicus in the St Katherine Protectorate, South Sinai · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. S Rashad, M Kamel, F Gilbert, AED Ismail, M James, S Zalat ...

  4. Egyptian Journal of Biology - Vol 16 (2014)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Host preferences of aphidophagous hoverflies from field distribution of their larvae · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. H Sadeghi, G Rotheray, P Laska, F Gilbert, 1-16. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ejb.v16i1.1 ...

  5. The 'antisocial' person: an insight in to biology, classification and current evidence on treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajapakse Senaka

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This review analyses and summarises the recent advances in understanding the neurobiology of violence and empathy, taxonomical issues on defining personality disorders characterised by disregard for social norms, evidence for efficacy of different treatment modalities and ethical implications in defining 'at-risk' individuals for preventive interventions. Methods PubMed was searched with the keywords 'antisocial personality disorder', 'dissocial personality disorder' and 'psychopathy'. The search was limited to articles published in English over the last 10 years (1999 to 2009 Results Both diagnostic manuals used in modern psychiatry, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual published by the American Psychiatric Association and the International Classification of Diseases published by the World Health Organization, identify a personality disorder sharing similar traits. It is termed antisocial personality disorder in the diagnostic and statistical manual and dissocial personality disorder in the International Classification of Diseases. However, some authors query the ability of the existing manuals to identify a special category termed 'psychopathy', which in their opinion deserves special attention. On treatment-related issues, many psychological and behavioural therapies have shown success rates ranging from 25% to 62% in different cohorts. Multisystemic therapy and cognitive behaviour therapy have been proven efficacious in many trials. There is no substantial evidence for the efficacy of pharmacological therapy. Currently, the emphasis is on early identification and prevention of antisocial behaviour despite the ethical implications of defining at-risk children. Conclusions Further research is needed in the areas of neuroendocrinological associations of violent behaviour, taxonomic existence of psychopathy and efficacy of treatment modalities.

  6. Development of Helisoma trivolvis pond snails as biological samplers for biomonitoring of current-use pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Shane A; Belden, Jason B

    2016-09-01

    Nontarget aquatic organisms residing in wetlands are commonly exposed to current-use pesticides through spray drift and runoff. However, it is frequently challenging to measure exposure because of rapid dissipation of pesticides from water and reduced bioavailability. The authors' hypothesis is that freshwater snails can serve as bioindicators of pesticide exposure based on their capacity to passively accumulate tissue residues. Helisoma trivolvis snails were evaluated as biomonitors of pesticide exposure using a fungicide formulation that contains pyraclostrobin and metconazole and is frequently applied to crops surrounding depressional wetlands. Exposure-response studies indicate that H. trivolvis are tolerant of pyraclostrobin and metconazole at concentrations >10 times those lethal to many aquatic species, with a median lethal concentration based on pyraclostrobin of 441 μg/L (95% confidence interval of 359-555 μg/L). Bioconcentration factors ranged from 137 mL/g to 211 mL/g and from 39 mL/g to 59 mL/g for pyraclostrobin and metconazole, respectively. Elimination studies suggested one-compartmental elimination and snail tissue half-lives (t50 ) of approximately 15 h and 5 h for pyraclostrobin and metconazole, respectively. Modeling derived toxicokinetic parameters in the context of an environmentally relevant pulsed exposure suggests that residues can be measured in snails long after water concentrations fall below detection limits. With high fungicide tolerance, rapid accumulation, and slow elimination, H. trivolvis may be viable for biomonitoring of pyraclostrobin and should be investigated for other pesticides. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2320-2329. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  7. Proceedings of the Seventh Conference of Nuclear Sciences and Applications. Vol.1,2,3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, H.F.

    2000-01-01

    The publication has been set up as a textbook for nuclear sciences and applications vol.1: (1) radiochemistry; (2) radiation chemistry; (3) isotope production; (4) waste management; vol.2: (1) nuclear and reactor; (2) physics; (3) plasma physics; (4) instrumentation and devices; (5) trace and ultra trace analysis; (6) environmental; vol.3: (1) radiation protection; (2) radiation health hazards; (3) nuclear safety; (4) biology; (5) agriculture

  8. Proceedings of the Seventh Conference of Nuclear Sciences and Applications. Vol.1,2,3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aly, H F [ed.

    2000-07-01

    The publication has been set up as a textbook for nuclear sciences and applications vol.1: (1) radiochemistry; (2) radiation chemistry; (3) isotope production; (4) waste management; vol.2: (1) nuclear and reactor; (2) physics; (3) plasma physics; (4) instrumentation and devices; (5) trace and ultra trace analysis; (6) environmental; vol.3: (1) radiation protection; (2) radiation health hazards; (3) nuclear safety; (4) biology; (5) agriculture.

  9. Vol 41 No 2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    3 Centre for Primary Care Research. Medical Journal of Zambia, Vol. 41, No. 2: 59 - 64 (2014) ... pollutants by inhaling second-hand tobacco smoke are at risk of adverse health ..... To put the measured PM levels into perspective, a. 2.5. 5.

  10. Enhanced biological production off Chennai triggered by October 1999 super cyclone (Orissa)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Madhu, N.V.; Maheswaran, P.A.; Jyothibabu, R.; Sunil, V.; Revichandran, C.; Balasubramanian, T.; Gopalakrishnan, T.C.; Nair, K.K.C.

    COMMUNICATIONS CURRENT SCIENCE, VOL. 82, NO. 12, 25 JUNE 2002 *For correspondence. (e - mail: madhu@niokochi.org) Enhanced biological production off Chennai triggered by October 1999 super cyclone (Orissa) N. V. Madhu*, P. A. Maheswaran, R... in the world?s oceans typically have duration of only a few days, but the physical and biological effects due to this perturbation can last up to several weeks 1 ? 4 . The integrated effect from these storm events has the potential to account for a...

  11. Targeted Therapy Database (TTD): a model to match patient's molecular profile with current knowledge on cancer biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocellin, Simone; Shrager, Jeff; Scolyer, Richard; Pasquali, Sandro; Verdi, Daunia; Marincola, Francesco M; Briarava, Marta; Gobbel, Randy; Rossi, Carlo; Nitti, Donato

    2010-08-10

    The efficacy of current anticancer treatments is far from satisfactory and many patients still die of their disease. A general agreement exists on the urgency of developing molecularly targeted therapies, although their implementation in the clinical setting is in its infancy. In fact, despite the wealth of preclinical studies addressing these issues, the difficulty of testing each targeted therapy hypothesis in the clinical arena represents an intrinsic obstacle. As a consequence, we are witnessing a paradoxical situation where most hypotheses about the molecular and cellular biology of cancer remain clinically untested and therefore do not translate into a therapeutic benefit for patients. To present a computational method aimed to comprehensively exploit the scientific knowledge in order to foster the development of personalized cancer treatment by matching the patient's molecular profile with the available evidence on targeted therapy. To this aim we focused on melanoma, an increasingly diagnosed malignancy for which the need for novel therapeutic approaches is paradigmatic since no effective treatment is available in the advanced setting. Relevant data were manually extracted from peer-reviewed full-text original articles describing any type of anti-melanoma targeted therapy tested in any type of experimental or clinical model. To this purpose, Medline, Embase, Cancerlit and the Cochrane databases were searched. We created a manually annotated database (Targeted Therapy Database, TTD) where the relevant data are gathered in a formal representation that can be computationally analyzed. Dedicated algorithms were set up for the identification of the prevalent therapeutic hypotheses based on the available evidence and for ranking treatments based on the molecular profile of individual patients. In this essay we describe the principles and computational algorithms of an original method developed to fully exploit the available knowledge on cancer biology with the

  12. Parasites as biological tags for the discrimination of marine fish stocks in Brazil: current status and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Aparecida Soares

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Soares I.A. & Luque J.L. [Parasites as biological tags for the discrimination of marine fish stocks in Brazil: current status and perspectives.] Parasitos como marcadores biológicos para discriminação de estoques de peixes marinhos no Brasil: estado atual e perspectivas. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 38(supl. 3:99-113, 2016. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Veterinárias, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, BR 465 Km 7, Seropédica, RJ 23890-000, Brasil. E-mail: luqueufrrj@gmail.com The global state of marine fisheries and its effects endanger the future of fishery resources, which may result in extinction of several species as well as threatening the overall integrity of the ecosystems. As the fish consumption growths, marine fishing and related market activities are stimulated increasing the incidence of threatened or exploited species. Aiming the future sustainability, fishery inventories need to be properly identified as a tool for implementation of more efficient policies on the management and conservation of the natural resources. Thus, by the high heterogeneity observed in the Atlantic coast of Brazil as well as the lack of related studies using this tool, the country represents great potential for the use of this technique, to improve our knowledge of local fishing resources. Therefore, the present study highlights the use of parasites as biological markers on identifying fish populations through robust statistical analysis, which represents an efficient and low cost approach and the lack of similar studies in Brazil showing the need of more research efforts on this subject in Brazil.

  13. Targeted Therapy Database (TTD: a model to match patient's molecular profile with current knowledge on cancer biology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Mocellin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The efficacy of current anticancer treatments is far from satisfactory and many patients still die of their disease. A general agreement exists on the urgency of developing molecularly targeted therapies, although their implementation in the clinical setting is in its infancy. In fact, despite the wealth of preclinical studies addressing these issues, the difficulty of testing each targeted therapy hypothesis in the clinical arena represents an intrinsic obstacle. As a consequence, we are witnessing a paradoxical situation where most hypotheses about the molecular and cellular biology of cancer remain clinically untested and therefore do not translate into a therapeutic benefit for patients. OBJECTIVE: To present a computational method aimed to comprehensively exploit the scientific knowledge in order to foster the development of personalized cancer treatment by matching the patient's molecular profile with the available evidence on targeted therapy. METHODS: To this aim we focused on melanoma, an increasingly diagnosed malignancy for which the need for novel therapeutic approaches is paradigmatic since no effective treatment is available in the advanced setting. Relevant data were manually extracted from peer-reviewed full-text original articles describing any type of anti-melanoma targeted therapy tested in any type of experimental or clinical model. To this purpose, Medline, Embase, Cancerlit and the Cochrane databases were searched. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: We created a manually annotated database (Targeted Therapy Database, TTD where the relevant data are gathered in a formal representation that can be computationally analyzed. Dedicated algorithms were set up for the identification of the prevalent therapeutic hypotheses based on the available evidence and for ranking treatments based on the molecular profile of individual patients. In this essay we describe the principles and computational algorithms of an original method

  14. Prospects for Applying Synthetic Biology to Toxicology: Future Opportunities and Current Limitations for the Repurposing of Cytochrome P450 Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrendorff, James B Y H; Gillam, Elizabeth M J

    2017-01-17

    The 30 years since the inception of Chemical Research in Toxicology, game-changing advances in chemical and molecular biology, the fundamental disciplines underpinning molecular toxicology, have been made. While these have led to important advances in the study of mechanisms by which chemicals damage cells and systems, there has been less focus on applying these advances to prediction, detection, and mitigation of toxicity. Over the last ∼15 years, synthetic biology, the repurposing of biological "parts" in systems engineered for useful ends, has been explored in other areas of the biomedical and life sciences, for such applications as detecting metabolites, drug discovery and delivery, investigating disease mechanisms, improving medical treatment, and producing useful chemicals. These examples provide models for the application of synthetic biology to toxicology, which, for the most part, has not yet benefited from such approaches. In this perspective, we review the synthetic biology approaches that have been applied to date and speculate on possible short to medium term and "blue sky" aspirations for synthetic biology, particularly in clinical and environmental toxicology. Finally, we point out key hurdles that must be overcome for the full potential of synthetic biology to be realized.

  15. Survey of currently available reference materials for use in connection with the determination of trace elements in biological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parr, R.M.

    1983-09-01

    Elemental analysis of biological materials is at present the subject of intensive study by many different research groups throughout the world, in view of the importance of these trace elements in health and medical diagnosis. IAEA and other organizations are now making a variety of suitable reference materials available for use in connection with the determination of trace elements in biological materials. To help analysts in making a selection from among these various materials, the present report provides a brief survey of data for all such biological reference materials known to the author. These data are compiled by the author from January 1982 to June 1983

  16. Central African Journal of Medicine - Vol 60, No 9-12 (2016)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Central African Journal of Medicine - Vol 60, No 9-12 (2016). Journal Home > Archives > Vol 60, No 9-12 (2016). Supplementary Issue. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue ...

  17. Clinics in Mother and Child Health - Vol 5, No 1 (2008)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clinics in Mother and Child Health - Vol 5, No 1 (2008). Journal Home > Archives > Vol 5, No 1 (2008). Special Edition - Congress Abstracts. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue ...

  18. Vol 12, No 1 (2014)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The) - Vol 12, No 1 (2014) ... The effect of serum angiotensin II and angiotensin II type 1 receptor gene ... with diabetic ketoacidosis · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  19. Zede Journal - Vol 29 (2012)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Archives > Vol 29 (2012) ... Leakage aware hardware and stochastic power scheduling for smart mobile devices ... Energy efficient topology for Wireless Mesh Networks · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  20. Acute and Impaired Wound Healing: Pathophysiology and Current Methods for Drug Delivery, Part 1: Normal and Chronic Wounds: Biology, Causes, and Approaches to Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demidova-Rice, Tatiana N.; Hamblin, Michael R.; Herman, Ira M.

    2012-01-01

    This is the first installment of 2 articles that discuss the biology and pathophysiology of wound healing, review the role that growth factors play in this process, and describe current ways of growth factor delivery into the wound bed. Part 1 discusses the latest advances in clinicians’ understanding of the control points that regulate wound healing. Importantly, biological similarities and differences between acute and chronic wounds are considered, including the signaling pathways that initiate cellular and tissue responses after injury, which may be impeded during chronic wound healing. PMID:22713781

  1. Methods of Model Reduction for Large-Scale Biological Systems: A Survey of Current Methods and Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Thomas J; van der Graaf, Piet H; Tindall, Marcus J

    2017-07-01

    Complex models of biochemical reaction systems have become increasingly common in the systems biology literature. The complexity of such models can present a number of obstacles for their practical use, often making problems difficult to intuit or computationally intractable. Methods of model reduction can be employed to alleviate the issue of complexity by seeking to eliminate those portions of a reaction network that have little or no effect upon the outcomes of interest, hence yielding simplified systems that retain an accurate predictive capacity. This review paper seeks to provide a brief overview of a range of such methods and their application in the context of biochemical reaction network models. To achieve this, we provide a brief mathematical account of the main methods including timescale exploitation approaches, reduction via sensitivity analysis, optimisation methods, lumping, and singular value decomposition-based approaches. Methods are reviewed in the context of large-scale systems biology type models, and future areas of research are briefly discussed.

  2. Current status on behavioral and biological markers of PTSD: a search for clarity in a conflicting literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, Phillip R; Diamond, David M

    2013-06-01

    Extensive research has identified stereotypic behavioral and biological abnormalities in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), such as heightened autonomic activity, an exaggerated startle response, reduced basal cortisol levels and cognitive impairments. We have reviewed primary research in this area, noting that factors involved in the susceptibility and expression of PTSD symptoms are more complex and heterogeneous than is commonly stated, with extensive findings which are inconsistent with the stereotypic behavioral and biological profile of the PTSD patient. A thorough assessment of the literature indicates that interactions among myriad susceptibility factors, including social support, early life stress, sex, age, peri- and post-traumatic dissociation, cognitive appraisal of trauma, neuroendocrine abnormalities and gene polymorphisms, in conjunction with the inconsistent expression of the disorder across studies, confounds attempts to characterize PTSD as a monolithic disorder. Overall, our assessment of the literature addresses the great challenge in developing a behavioral and biomarker-based diagnosis of PTSD. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. State-of-the-art technologies, current opinions and developments, and novel findings: news from the field of histochemistry and cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asan, Esther; Drenckhahn, Detlev

    2008-12-01

    Investigations of cell and tissue structure and function using innovative methods and approaches have again yielded numerous exciting findings in recent months and have added important data to current knowledge, inspiring new ideas and hypotheses in various fields of modern life sciences. Topics and contents of comprehensive expert reviews covering different aspects in methodological advances, cell biology, tissue function and morphology, and novel findings reported in original papers are summarized in the present review.

  4. Cardiovascular diseases induced by low level ionizing radiation. Current status and proposal of future directions of the biological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Toshiyasu; Nomura, Takaharu; Ishii, Keiichiro

    2013-01-01

    In the publication on tissue reactions of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) was calculated based on linear non-threshold model, without taking account of dose-rate effect. To evaluate the validity of this estimation, we analyzed recent epidemiological and biological findings on CVD at low dose or low dose-rate. Though epidemiological data suggested that radiation would have a causal association with CVD by inducing atherosclerosis, it was limited by heterogeneity among studies, and the contribution of other pathways was also suggested. As biological mechanisms, inflammation is considered as the critical factor of radiation induced CVD. However, the inflammatory responses at low dose were inconsistent among studies, and there were few data at low dose-rate. Furthermore, because those responses were transient, it was very difficult to link them to CVD with long latency. We proposed a concept for the analysis of these long latency diseases by focusing the premonitory symptoms of CVD which could be affected by radiation. As the premonitory symptoms recruitment of white blood cells to inflamed blood vessels and/or tissues would have the highest priority to investigate. To elucidate the dose-rate effect and reflect the results on the radiological protection, it would be important to examine the premonitory symptoms after long term exposure mimicking the actual situation, such as chronic exposure or fractionated exposure of very small dose. (author)

  5. Executive summary of NIH workshop on the Use and Biology of Energy Drinks: Current Knowledge and Critical Gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorkin, Barbara C; Camp, Kathryn M; Haggans, Carol J; Deuster, Patricia A; Haverkos, Lynne; Maruvada, Padma; Witt, Ellen; Coates, Paul M

    2014-10-01

    Sales of energy drinks in the United States reached $12.5 billion in 2012. Emergency department visits related to consumption of these products have increased sharply, and while these numbers remain small relative to product sales, they raise important questions regarding biological and behavioral effects. Although some common ingredients of energy drinks have been extensively studied (e.g., caffeine, B vitamins, sugars, inositol), data on other ingredients (e.g., taurine) are limited. Summarized here are data presented elsewhere in this issue on the prevalence and patterns of caffeine-containing energy drink use, the effects of these products on alertness, fatigue, cognitive functions, sleep, mood, homeostasis, as well as on exercise physiology and metabolism, and the biological mechanisms mediating the observed effects. There are substantial data on the effects of some energy drink ingredients, such as caffeine and sugars, on many of these outcomes; however, even for these ingredients many controversies and gaps remain, and data on other ingredients in caffeine-containing energy drinks, and on ingredient interactions, are sparse. This summary concludes with a discussion of critical gaps in the data and potential next steps. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  6. STECH VOL5 (1) FEBRUARY, 2016

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Copyright 1AARR 2012-2016: www.afrrevjo.net

    STECH VOL 5 (1) FEBRUARY, 2016. Vol. 5 (1), S/No11, February, 2016: 1-13 ..... Knowledge produce is an act of discovery which involves exploring, analyzing .... Architectural Research, Elsevier: Higher Education Press Limited Company.

  7. Sophia: An African Journal of Philosophy - Vol 13, No 1 (2010)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sophia: An African Journal of Philosophy - Vol 13, No 1 (2010) ... Letting die: A moral defence · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT ... Corporate culture: It's impact on corporate life and business practices in ... Current Issue Atom logo

  8. Currently Situation, Some Cases and Implications of the Legislation on Access and Benefit-sharing to Biologi cal Genetic Resource in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Yi-ding

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Australia is one of the most abundant in biodiversity country of the global which located in Oceanian and became a signatory coun try of the Convention on Biodiversity, International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resource for Food and Agriculture, Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species. This country stipulated the Environmental Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act(EPBC, 1999 and Environmental Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Regulations, 2002. Queensland and the North Territory passed the Bio-discovery Act in 2004 and Biological Resource Act in 2006 separately. This paper firstly focus on current situation, characteristic of the legislation on ac cess and benefit-sharing to biological resource in the commonwealth and local place in Australia and then collected and analyzed the typical case of access and benefit-sharing in this country that could bring some experience to China in this field. The conclusion of this paper is that China should stipulated the specific legislation on access and benefit-sharing to biological genetic resource as like the Environmental Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act(EPBC, 1999 and establish the rule of procedure related to the access and benefit-sharing as like the Environmental Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Regulations, 2002, Bio-discovery Act in 2004, Queensland and the Biological Resource Act in 2006, the North Territory.

  9. Herpetofauna of the Beni Biological Station Biosphere Reserve, Amazonian Bolivia: Additional information, and current knowledge in context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middendorf, G.; Reynolds, R.; Herrera-MacBryde, Olga; Dallmeier, Francisco; MacBryde, Bruce; Cominskey, James A.; Miranda, Carmen

    2000-01-01

    Previous collections in the Departamento del Beni in tropical Bolivia only hinted at high levels of herpetological biodiversity (Fugler 1986, 1988; de la Riva 1990a; Fugler and de la Riva 1990). Fieldwork (totaling 48 days) in July-August 1988 and September 1987 (dry seasons) and November-December 1990 (wet season) has resulted in collection and identification of 401 amphibian and reptilian specimens from the general area of the Beni Biological Station's (EBB) headquarters at El Porvenir. These collections represent 33 amphibian and 17 reptilian species in 29 genera (14 amphibian, 15 reptilian). The inventory of herpetofauna scientifically documented to occur in the Departamento del Beni is considered to have been increased by 6 amphibian and 10 reptilian species. Specimens that could not be definitively identified (reflecting taxonomic uncertainty and/or probably species new to science) include 3 amphibian species (anurans) and 2 reptilian species (snakes). The EBB harbors the richest savanna for anuran species known in South America.

  10. Current limitations in super-resolution fluorescence microscopy for biological specimens: How deep can we go from the cover glass?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Yasushi

    2017-04-01

    Diffraction limit of resolution has been one of the biggest limitations in the optical microscopy. Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy has enabled us to break this limit. However, for the observations of real biological specimens, especially for the imaging of tissues or whole body, the target structures of interest are often embedded deep inside the specimen. Here, we would present our results to extend the target of the super-resolution microscopy deeper into the cells. Confocal microscope optics work effectively to minimize the effect by the aberrations by the cellular components, but at the expense of the signal intensities. Spherical aberrations by the refractive index mismatch between the cellular environment and the immersion liquid can be much larger, but can be reduced by adjusting the correction collar at the objective lens.

  11. Biologically fixed N2 as a source for N2O production in a grass–clover mixture, measured by 15N2 (erratum i vol. 74 p. 203)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Mette Sustmann; Ambus, P.

    2006-01-01

    The contribution of biologically fixed dinitrogen (N-2) to the nitrous oxide (N2O) production in grasslands is unknown. To assess the contribution of recently fixed N-2 as a source of N2O and the transfer of fixed N from clover to companion grass, mixtures of white clover and perennial ryegrass...

  12. The Biological Function and Clinical Utilization of CD147 in Human Diseases: A Review of the Current Scientific Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Lijuan; Edwards, Carl K.; Zhou, Lijun

    2014-01-01

    CD147 or EMMPRIN is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily in humans. It is widely expressed in human tumors and plays a central role in the progression of many cancers by stimulating the secretion of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and cytokines. CD147 regulates cell proliferation, apoptosis, and tumor cell migration, metastasis and differentiation, especially under hypoxic conditions. CD147 is also important to many organ systems. This review will provide a detailed overview of the discovery, characterization, molecular structure, diverse biological functions and regulatory mechanisms of CD147 in human physiological and pathological processes. In particular, recent studies have demonstrated the potential application of CD147 not only as a phenotypic marker of activated regulatory T cells but also as a potential diagnostic marker for early-stage disease. Moreover, CD147 is recognized as an effective therapeutic target for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and other cancers, and exciting clinical progress has been made in HCC treatment using CD147-directed monoclonal antibodies. PMID:25268615

  13. The Biological Function and Clinical Utilization of CD147 in Human Diseases: A Review of the Current Scientific Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Xiong

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available CD147 or EMMPRIN is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily in humans. It is widely expressed in human tumors and plays a central role in the progression of many cancers by stimulating the secretion of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs and cytokines. CD147 regulates cell proliferation, apoptosis, and tumor cell migration, metastasis and differentiation, especially under hypoxic conditions. CD147 is also important to many organ systems. This review will provide a detailed overview of the discovery, characterization, molecular structure, diverse biological functions and regulatory mechanisms of CD147 in human physiological and pathological processes. In particular, recent studies have demonstrated the potential application of CD147 not only as a phenotypic marker of activated regulatory T cells but also as a potential diagnostic marker for early-stage disease. Moreover, CD147 is recognized as an effective therapeutic target for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC and other cancers, and exciting clinical progress has been made in HCC treatment using CD147-directed monoclonal antibodies.

  14. Information manager-2011-Vol 11

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Library _info_Sc_ 1

    The Information Manager Vol. ... extent while carrying out their duties on a daily basis. ... It concluded by admonishing librarians to brace up and keep pace ... Proper training should be given to .... used to information and communication technologies .... proficiency Skills .... analysis of the workplace and implementation of.

  15. Radiobioassay, vol 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashkar, F.S.

    1983-01-01

    A comprehensive guide and treatise on various radioassay procedures in specific areas of biology and medicine. Radioassay has revolutionized laboratory medicine with its versatility, accuracy, sensitivity, and reproducibility. Volume I covers problems related to specificity of antigen and/or antibody identification of RIA are extensively reviewed. Coverage is provided on the principles of RIA data management systems, such as data collection and banks, and the principles of scintillation detectors and their application to radioassay. Also discussed are laboratory evaluations on adrenal dysfunction, thyroid and parathyroid hormones, calcitonin, and human reproduction functions

  16. Current antiviral drugs and their analysis in biological materials - Part II: Antivirals against hepatitis and HIV viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nováková, Lucie; Pavlík, Jakub; Chrenková, Lucia; Martinec, Ondřej; Červený, Lukáš

    2018-01-05

    This review is a Part II of the series aiming to provide comprehensive overview of currently used antiviral drugs and to show modern approaches to their analysis. While in the Part I antivirals against herpes viruses and antivirals against respiratory viruses were addressed, this part concerns antivirals against hepatitis viruses (B and C) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Many novel antivirals against hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV have been introduced into the clinical practice over the last decade. The recent broadening portfolio of these groups of antivirals is reflected in increasing number of developed analytical methods required to meet the needs of clinical terrain. Part II summarizes the mechanisms of action of antivirals against hepatitis B virus (HBV), HCV, and HIV, their use in clinical practice, and analytical methods for individual classes. It also provides expert opinion on state of art in the field of bioanalysis of these drugs. Analytical methods reflect novelty of these chemical structures and use by far the most current approaches, such as simple and high-throughput sample preparation and fast separation, often by means of UHPLC-MS/MS. Proper method validation based on requirements of bioanalytical guidelines is an inherent part of the developed methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The Current Status of the Space Station Biological Research Project: a Core Facility Enabling Multi-Generational Studies under Slectable Gravity Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, O.

    2002-01-01

    The Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) has developed a new plan which greatly reduces the development costs required to complete the facility. This new plan retains core capabilities while allowing for future growth. The most important piece of equipment required for quality biological research, the 2.5 meter diameter centrifuge capable of accommodating research specimen habitats at simulated gravity levels ranging from microgravity to 2.0 g, is being developed by NASDA, the Japanese space agency, for the SSBRP. This is scheduled for flight to the ISS in 2007. The project is also developing a multi-purpose incubator, an automated cell culture unit, and two microgravity habitat holding racks, currently scheduled for launch in 2005. In addition the Canadian Space Agency is developing for the project an insect habitat, which houses Drosophila melanogaster, and provides an internal centrifuge for 1 g controls. NASDA is also developing for the project a glovebox for the contained manipulation and analysis of biological specimens, scheduled for launch in 2006. This core facility will allow for experimentation on small plants (Arabidopsis species), nematode worms (C. elegans), fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster), and a variety of microorganisms, bacteria, yeast, and mammalian cells. We propose a plan for early utilization which focuses on surveys of changes in gene expression and protein structure due to the space flight environment. In the future, the project is looking to continue development of a rodent habitat and a plant habitat that can be accommodated on the 2.5 meter centrifuge. By utilizing the early phases of the ISS to broadly answer what changes occur at the genetic and protein level of cells and organisms exposed to the ISS low earth orbit environment, we can generate interest for future experiments when the ISS capabilities allow for direct manipulation and intervention of experiments. The ISS continues to hold promise for high quality, long

  18. Biological Control of Tephritid Fruit Flies in Argentina: Historical Review, Current Status, and Future Trends for Developing a Parasitoid Mass-Release Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovruski, Sergio M; Schliserman, Pablo

    2012-09-14

    In Argentina there are two tephritid fruit fly species of major economic and quarantine importance: the exotic Ceratitis capitata that originated from Southeast Africa and the native Anastrepha fraterculus. In recent years, the use of fruit fly parasitoids as biocontrol agents has received renewed attention. This increasing interest has recently led to the establishment of a program for the mass rearing of five million Diachasmimorpha longicaudata parasitoids per week in the BioPlanta San Juan facility, San Juan, Argentina. The first augmentative releases of D. longicaudata in Argentina are currently occurring on commercial fig crops in rural areas of San Juan as part of an integrated fruit fly management program on an area-wide basis. In this context, research is ongoing to assess the suitability of indigenous parasitoid species for successful mass rearing on larvae of either C. capitata or A. fraterculus. The purpose of this article is to provide a historical overview of the biological control of the fruit fly in Argentina, report on the strategies currently used in Argentina, present information on native parasitoids as potential biocontrol agents, and discuss the establishment of a long-term fruit fly biological control program, including augmentative and conservation modalities, in Argentina's various fruit growing regions.

  19. Biological Control of Tephritid Fruit Flies in Argentina: Historical Review, Current Status, and Future Trends for Developing a Parasitoid Mass-Release Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio M. Ovruski

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In Argentina there are two tephritid fruit fly species of major economic and quarantine importance: the exotic Ceratitis capitata that originated from Southeast Africa and the native Anastrepha fraterculus. In recent years, the use of fruit fly parasitoids as biocontrol agents has received renewed attention. This increasing interest has recently led to the establishment of a program for the mass rearing of five million Diachasmimorpha longicaudata parasitoids per week in the BioPlanta San Juan facility, San Juan, Argentina. The first augmentative releases of D. longicaudata in Argentina are currently occurring on commercial fig crops in rural areas of San Juan as part of an integrated fruit fly management program on an area-wide basis. In this context, research is ongoing to assess the suitability of indigenous parasitoid species for successful mass rearing on larvae of either C. capitata or A. fraterculus. The purpose of this article is to provide a historical overview of the biological control of the fruit fly in Argentina, report on the strategies currently used in Argentina, present information on native parasitoids as potential biocontrol agents, and discuss the establishment of a long-term fruit fly biological control program, including augmentative and conservation modalities, in Argentina’s various fruit growing regions.

  20. Molluscs and echinoderms aquaculture: biological aspects, current status, technical progress and future perspectives for the most promising species in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Pais

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Shellfish aquaculture is a widespread activity in the Italian peninsula. However, only two bivalve species are mainly cultured along the coastline of that country: the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and the Manila clam Venerupis philippinarum (Ruditapes philippinarum. By contrast, just a few other mollusc species of commercial interest are scarcely reared at a small-scale level. After analysing the current status of Italian shellfish production, this paper reports and discusses the potential for culturing several different invertebrate species [i.e., the European flat oyster Ostrea edulis, the grooved carpet shell Venerupis decussata (Ruditapes decussatus, the razor clams Ensis minor and Solen marginatus, the cephalopod Octopus vulgaris, and the purple sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus] in this country. In addition, a detailed overview of the progress made in aquacultural techniques for these species in the Mediterranean basin is presented, highlighting the most relevant bottlenecks and the way forward to shift from the experimental to the aquaculture phase. Finally, an outlook of the main economic and environmental benefits arising from these shellfish culture practices is also given.

  1. Vol 1 No 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    elearning

    The International Journal of Health Research is a peer-reviewed online international journal allowing free ... The journal welcomes original research papers, reviews and case reports on current topics of special interest and relevance. .... In the early stages of drug development, it .... ing the results of a method run within a.

  2. Photosensitivity: a current biological overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkeeb, Dena; Elkeeb, Laila; Maibach, Howard

    2012-12-01

    The level of interest in photoirritation (phototoxicity) has increased because of the awareness among the scientific community of the increase in the UV portion of the solar spectrum reaching the earth. The need of new chemicals and drugs puts pressure on pre-test methods for side effects, especially interactive adverse effects with UV light. So pre-marketing clinical trials conducted before a new drug is licensed are essential, as such, at the early phases of the discovery process of the drug/chemical, developing an efficacious photosensitivity testing system is prudent to avoid such potential side effects. To review published literature and provide an overview on exogenous photosensitivity and assays used to evaluate the photosensitivity potential of drugs/chemicals. As well as testing considerations by the Regulatory bodies (namely, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, the U.S Food and Drug Administration and the European Union regulatory agencies). We searched medical and scientific search engines as well as websites of the EU and US Regulatory agencies and used keywords such as cutaneous phototoxicity, phototoxicity in vitro assays, phototoxicity in vivo assays and other related terms.

  3. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in ageing and age-related diseases: How currently available treatment modalities affect EPC biology, atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altabas, Velimir; Altabas, Karmela; Kirigin, Lora

    2016-10-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are mononuclear cells that circulate in the blood and are derived from different tissues, expressing cell surface markers that are similar to mature endothelial cells. The discovery of EPCs has lead to new insights in vascular repair and atherosclerosis and also a new theory for ageing. EPCs from the bone marrow and some other organs aid in vascular repair by migrating to distant vessels where they differentiate into mature endothelial cells and replace old and injured endothelial cells. The ability of EPCs to repair vascular damage depends on their number and functionality. Currently marketed drugs used in a variety of diseases can modulate these characteristics. In this review, the effect of currently available treatment options for cardiovascular and metabolic disorders on EPC biology will be discussed. The various EPC-based therapies that will be discussed include lipid-lowering agents, antihypertensive agents, antidiabetic drugs, phosphodiesteraze inhibitors, hormones, as well as EPC capturing stents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Rhodium. Suppl. Vol. B1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, W.P.; Jehn, H.; McCleverty, J.A.; Raub, C.J.; Robinson, S.D.

    1982-01-01

    The present rhodium vol. B1 is concerned largely with linary compounds and coordination complexes of this important metal, which is used either alone or in alloy form for fabrication of other materials or for heterogeneous catalysis. In first two chapters are devoted for hydrides, oxides, ternary and quaternary oxorhodates. Third chapter is on different type of complexes with nitrogen. From chapter four to seven is on halogen complexes with this metal. Next chapters are on sulphides, sulphoxide and sulphito complexes, sulphates and sulphato complexes, selenides and tellurides, borides, borane complexes, carbides, carbonato, cyno, fulminato and thiocyanato complexes. Finally, silicide, phosphides, phosphito and arsenides are treated over here. (AB)

  5. students' perceptions of difficult concepts in biology in senior

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal

    GLOBAL JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH VOL 16, 2017: 139-147 ... However, teaching strategies, ... minds-on strategy, integrating biological concepts to daily life and provision of .... to classroom management, to learning and.

  6. Effect of Biological and Chemical Ripening Agents on the Nutritional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Biological and Chemical Ripening Agents on the Nutritional and Metal Composition of Banana ( Musa spp ) ... Journal Home > Vol 18, No 2 (2014) > ... curcas leaf were used and compared with a control with no ripening agent.

  7. Current resistance issues in antimicrobial therapy | Senekal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Continuing Medical Education. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 28, No 2 (2010) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  8. Joyo progress report, vol. 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Following Joyo Reactor Technology Progress Reports (Vol. 1 to Vol. 7), the name was changed to Joyo Progress Report from this volume, and the activities concerning the fast breeder experimental reactor Joyo as a whole are to be reported as quarterly report. In the fast breeder experimental reactor Joyo, the change to the core for irradiation (MK-2) from the core for breeding (MK-1) was carried out since January, 1982, in order to utilize the reactor as an irradiation facility for the development of fuel and materials. The main work was the construction of the core for irradiation by exchanging 290 fuel elements, and the exchange of upper and lower guide pipes for control rods, the reconstruction of the driving mechanism, the installation of standby neutron detector system, the acceptance and inspection of new fuel, and the transfer of spent fuel between pools were carried out. As scheduled, the core for irradiation attained the initial criticality on November 22, and the works of constructing the core were completed on December 23, 1982. Thereafter, the 100 MW performance test was begun. Various experience and valuable data were obtained in the regular inspection and the maintenance and repair works carried out at the same time, regarding the operation and maintenance of the Joyo facilities. (Kako, I.)

  9. Biomass: Current Status Immediate Perspective. Vol. V; Biomasa: estado actual y perspectiva inmediata. Vol. V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linares, J. I. (ed.); Moratilla, B. Y. (ed.); Cledera, M. M. (ed.); Cantizano, A. (ed.); Francisco, R. (ed.); Chamochin, R. (ed.)

    2009-07-01

    Despite the intuitive association of biomass with developing countries, industrialized nations have experienced in the last years a huge increasing in the use and consideration of biomass as strategic energy source. To this new energy policy in developed countries has contributed the need of diversifying the sources of fuel supply, the need of fighting against the increment of greenhouse effect gas emissions to the atmosphere, and the growing price of fossil fuels.

  10. Neonicotinoids in the Canadian aquatic environment: a literature review on current use products with a focus on fate, exposure, and biological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J C; Dubetz, C; Palace, V P

    2015-02-01

    Developed to replace organophosphate and carbamate insecticides, neonicotinoids are structurally similar to nicotine. The three main neonicotinoid insecticides, imidacloprid, clothianidin, and thiamethoxam, are being re-evaluated by Health Canada's Pest Management Regulatory Agency (PMRA). An important aspect of the re-evaluation is the potential for effects in non-target organisms, including aquatic organisms. Leaching into surface waters is one of the major concerns surrounding extensive use of neonicotinoids, especially in close proximity to water bodies. The PMRA has classified IMI as 'persistent' with a 'high' leaching potential. Globally, neonicotinoids have been detected in a variety of water bodies, typically at concentrations in the low μg/L range. While IMI has been included in some monitoring exercises, there are currently very few published data for the presence of CLO and THM in Canadian water bodies. The majority of neonicotinoid toxicity studies have been conducted with IMI due to its longer presence on the market and high prevalence of use. Aquatic insects are particularly vulnerable to neonicotinoids and chronic toxicity has been observed at concentrations of IMI below 1 μg/L. Acute toxicity has been reported at concentrations below 20 μg/L for the most sensitive species, including Hyalella azteca, ostracods, and Chironomus riparius. Fish, algae, amphibians, and molluscs are relatively insensitive to IMI. However, the biological effects of THM and CLO have not been as well explored. The Canadian interim water quality guideline for IMI is 0.23 μg/L, but there is currently insufficient use, fate, and toxicological information available to establish guidelines for CLO and THM. Based on concentrations of neonicotinoids reported in surface waters in Canada and globally, there is potential for aquatic invertebrates to be negatively impacted by neonicotinoids. Therefore, it is necessary to address knowledge gaps to inform decisions around guidelines

  11. Egyptian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology - Vol 31, No ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular evaluation of Glypican 3 gene expression in Egyptian patients with Hepatocellular carcinoma · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. SA El-Kafrawy, M El-Daly, T Salem, M Abdel-Hamid, MA Hola, IH El-Sayed, 159-172 ...

  12. Cameroon Journal of Experimental Biology - Vol 8, No 1 (2012)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inhibition and Kinetic Studies of Tortoise (Kinixys erosa) Liver arginase · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. RRE Okonji, FK Agboola, A Adeyinka, 17-25 ...

  13. Tropical Freshwater Biology - Vol 18, No 2 (2009)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Organic fertilizer decomposition and nutrient loads in water reservoir with changing temperature, Wakiso – Ug · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT ... benthos in response to the biodeposition and bioturbation activities of the freshwater mussel Lamellidens marginalis (Lamarck) · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  14. International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences - Vol 11 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacterial contamination of medical doctors' white coats as contributing factor to ... Ecologie alimentaire de Labeobarbus altianalis (Boulenger, 1900) du Bassin de .... effects of three Nigerian medicinal plant extracts on E.coli-induced diarrhea ...

  15. International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences - Vol 11 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1423 ... Régime et rythme d'activité alimentaires de Tylochromis jentinki ... Détermination de la contamination par l'Aflatoxine B1 de la pâte d'arachide consommée ... des souches de Salmonella spp. et Escherichia coli isolées des exploitations ...

  16. Egyptian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology - Vol 22, No ...

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    Evaluation of some genetic factors influencing the phenotypic severity of β thalassemia Egyptian patients · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Ibtessam R Hussein, Amina M Medhat, Samir F Zohny, Alice K Abd El-Aleem, Ghada Y El-Kammah, Bardees M Foda, 107- ...

  17. Egyptian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology - Vol 31, No ...

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    In vivo effect of quercetin flavonoid on hepatic gene expression and enzyme activity levels in old rats · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. HZ Habib, ML Louka, NAH Nassef, 21-34. The impact of Morus alba leaves extract on neurotransmitters & apoptosis experimental ...

  18. Egyptian Journal of Biology - Vol 3, No 2 (2001)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protozoa: Apicomplexa) from the ... bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes. Ramadan AM Ali, Nadia M Hussien ... Evaluation of the pathophysiological effects of bromazepam on some clinical chemistry parameters of the rat. Mahmoud M Abdel-Latif, ...

  19. Egyptian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology - Vol 24, No ...

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    Protective role of green tea polyphenols against paraquat induced oxidative stress in rat liver · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL ... Role of reduced glutathione, nitric oxide and some trace elements in Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD ...

  20. International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences - Vol 8 ...

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    Phenolic content and heritability of resistance in four hybrid populations of Theobroma cacao L. after leaves inoculation with Phytophthora megakarya Bras. et Grif · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. ML Ondobo, P Effa Onomo, PF Djocgoue, J Manga ...

  1. Egyptian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology - Vol 25, No ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quantum mechanic study of basis set effect on NMR chemical shielding and hydrogen bonding of some amino acids in gaseous phase and solvent · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. M Monajjemi, M Heshmat, A Tahan, H Monajemi, F Mollaamin, 154-179.

  2. International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences - Vol 10 ...

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    Evaluation de la qualité et de l'acceptabilité de couscous à base de trois formulations de farines .... Hippeastrum hybridum anthocyanins as indicators of endpoint in acid – base titrations · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  3. Egyptian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology - Vol 27, No ...

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    Purification And Characterization Of Vigna unguiculata Cultiver Asparaginase · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. EMM Ali. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ejbmb.v27i1.43196 ...

  4. Advances in space biology and medicine. Vol. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonting, Sjoerd L. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    Topics discussed include the effects of prolonged spaceflights on the human body; skeletal responses to spaceflight; gravity effects on reproduction, development, and aging; neurovestibular physiology in fish; and gravity perception and circumnutation in plants. Attention is also given to the development of higher plants under altered gravitational conditions; the techniques, findings, and theory concerning gravity effects on single cells; protein crystal growth in space; and facilities for animal research in space.

  5. Egyptian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology - Vol 26, No ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Demonstration Of An Abnormality Of Apolipoprotein Ciii And Genetic Polymorphism In Gout Patients With Hypertriglyceridemia In Egypt · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. M Zahra, O M Hassanin, 55-66. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ejbmb.v26i1.35957 ...

  6. Egyptian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology - Vol 35, No ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... The impact of FTO rs17817449 gene polymorphism, serum ghrelin and high sensitivity ... MIR-146A and TLR4 gene expression in predicting rheumatoid arthritis disease ... effects of sesame oil with methotrexate in adjuvant induced arthritis.

  7. International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences - Vol 11 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Atropine exposure in adolescence predispose to adult memory loss in Wistar rats · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. A Olawepo, A.O. Ishola, M.S. Ajao, O.J. Olayemi, L.A. Olayaki, 1937-1947. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ijbcs.v11i5.1 ...

  8. International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences - Vol 11 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... L. 1758: Hymenoptera, Apidae) in three beekeeping sites of the Democratic Republic of Congo · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Boniface Posho Ndola, Paul Malumba, Bernard Wathelet, Eric Haubruge, Frederic Francis, Bach Kim Nguyen, 541-555.

  9. Ethiopian Journal of Biological Sciences - Vol 10, No 2 (2011)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Floristic composition and community analysis of Menagesha Amba Mariam Forest (Egdu Forest) in Central Shewa, Ethiopia · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Abiyou Tilahun, Teshome Soromessa, Ensermu Kelbessa, Abyot Dibaba ...

  10. Egyptian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology - Vol 23, No ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of anthracyclin-related hyperlipidemia taurine or PDE4 inhibitor during endotoxemia · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Hoda E Mohamed, I Ali Sousou, Mervat E Asker, Tamer M Abd-Elfattah, 1-19. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ejbmb.v23i1.35912 ...

  11. African Journal of Applied Zoology and Environmental Biology - Vol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of cosubstrates on primary biodegradation of triphenylmethane dyes by Pseudomonas sp. EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD ... Utilisation of azo and triphenylmethane dyes as sole source of carbon, energy and nitrogen by Bacillus sp. EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  12. Cameroon Journal of Experimental Biology - Vol 7, No 1 (2011)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synthèse, étude toxicologique et activité psychotrope de nouvelles arylidènpyridazin-3-ones N-substituées · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. A Benmoussa, PM Kanyonga, M Ansar, A Zellou, JE Harti, J Lamsaouri, MA Faouzi, A Zahidi, H Benziane, ...

  13. International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences - Vol 6 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Croissance et aptitude au greffage de deux génotypes d'anacardier (Anacardium occidentale L.) élites utilisés comme porte–greffe en Côte d'Ivoire · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. J-BA Djaha, AA N'daadopo, EK Koffi, CK Ballo, M Coulibaly, 1453- ...

  14. International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences - Vol 11 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    West Africa) : perceptions and endogenous measures of adaptation · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. D.O. Bello, L.E. Ahoton, A Saidu, I.P.B. Akponikpe, V.A. Ezin, ...

  15. Cameroon Journal of Experimental Biology - Vol 3, No 1 (2007)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... et de I'oestrogenicite de I'extrait aqueux du melange de feuilles d'Aloe buettneri, Dicliptera verticillata, Hibiscus macranthus et Justicia insularis chez la rate immature · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. PB Telefo, MT Pellicer-Rubio, P Moundipa, FM Tchouanguep, ...

  16. Egyptian Journal of Biology - Vol 3, No 1 (2001)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water relations, transpiration rate, stomatal behaviour and leaf sap pH of Aloe vera and Aloe eru. Soad A Sheteawi, Kawther M Tawfik, Zeinab Abd El-Gawad. Growth and aloin production of Aloe vera and Aloe eru under different ecological conditions. Kawther M Tawfik, Soad A Sheteawi, Zeinab A El-Gawad ...

  17. International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences - Vol 9 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cowpea aphid – borne mosaic virus) selon la proximité des parcelles voisines ... Influence des conditions pédo-climatiques sur les composantes du rendement de Jatropha curcas (L) dans les zones Nord de savane et Sud forestière de la Côte ...

  18. Ethiopian Journal of Biological Sciences - Vol 10, No 1 (2011)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Short Communication A study on the bactericidal effect of nisin purified from Lactococcus lactis · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Kalidoss Rajendran, Ramanathan Nagappan, Kalpana Ramamurthy ...

  19. International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences - Vol 11 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dynamique de la résorption utérine chez la chèvre du Sahel: effet de la parité · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Boureima Traore, Moussa Zongo, Were Pitala, Moise Haro, Drissa Sanou, Laya Sawadogo, 2926-2657 ...

  20. Egyptian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology - Vol 33, No ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Compartive study between the effects of human CD34 and rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on amelioration of CCL4 induced liver fibrosis · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Amany O Mohamed, Naglaa K Idriss, Dina Sabry, Mona Magdy, Hayam G Sayyed, ...

  1. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR TONUKARI NYEROVWO

    2011-01-10

    Jan 10, 2011 ... reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction; CTAB, cetyl trimethyl ammonium .... Shanghai Sangon Biological Engineering Technology & Services. Co., Ltd. ..... tolerance in harvested banana fruit. Postharvest Biol.

  2. Phytoalexin Elicitation- Potency As A Novel Technology for Biological Control and Protection Digitalis purpurea L. plants from Pre-Sowing Seed Treatment with Gamma Ray and Electric Current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosila, H.A.; Lila, M.; Ahmed, T.E.S.

    2012-01-01

    Digitalis purpurea L seeds treated with gamma ray, (G) 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5 KR, and electric current (E), 0, 100, 150, 200 mA, then planted in splite-splite plot design for 3 replicates (R) and 2 successive seasons, in sandy soil irrigated with brackish water (900ppm) through surface drip irrigation system (SDI).The formed plants were foliar sprayed with manganese (M),0,3ppm-The formed Phytoalexin (PA) was bioassayed and chemically quantified.M3ppm could induce sistemic resistance (ISR) which initiate to farm 0.064, 0.070 mg PA 100mg fresh leaves. The formed PA exhibited PA-glycosidal structure wherefore, achieve therapeutic potency. (G) depress significantlly PA 73-91% of control while (E) activated (PA) significantly 134-154% of control. At (GE) interaction, such (G) dose PA increased significantlly by increasing (E) dose up to E200mA. Hence (E) efface a serious depression of (G). At (GEM) interaction, (G) 2.5, 5, 7.5 KR EO mA, M3ppm the formed. (PA) were; 91, 75, 63 were increased significantlly by increasing (E) dose up to E200mA M3ppm 128, 119, 109 – 129, 117, 107% of control for first and second season, respectively. Therefore, M elicitor application, in GEM combination, could be considered as a novel strategy for biological control and plant protection, from economic and environmental benefit point of view. It would occur by decreasing the cost of fungicides, bactericides and pesticides in Digitalis purpurea L biomass production, grown in extended agriculture area.

  3. Are we missing the boat? Current uses of long-term biological monitoring data in the evaluation and management of marine protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, P F E; Flander, L B; Cook, C N

    2015-02-01

    Protected area management agencies are increasingly using management effectiveness evaluation (MEE) to better understand, learn from and improve conservation efforts around the globe. Outcome assessment is the final stage of MEE, where conservation outcomes are measured to determine whether management objectives are being achieved. When quantitative monitoring data are available, best-practice examples of outcome assessments demonstrate that data should be assessed against quantitative condition categories. Such assessments enable more transparent and repeatable integration of monitoring data into MEE, which can promote evidence-based management and improve public accountability and reporting. We interviewed key informants from marine protected area (MPA) management agencies to investigate how scientific data sources, especially long-term biological monitoring data, are currently informing conservation management. Our study revealed that even when long-term monitoring results are available, management agencies are not using them for quantitative condition assessment in MEE. Instead, many agencies conduct qualitative condition assessments, where monitoring results are interpreted using expert judgment only. Whilst we found substantial evidence for the use of long-term monitoring data in the evidence-based management of MPAs, MEE is rarely the sole mechanism that facilitates the knowledge transfer of scientific evidence to management action. This suggests that the first goal of MEE (to enable environmental accountability and reporting) is being achieved, but the second and arguably more important goal of facilitating evidence-based management is not. Given that many MEE approaches are in their infancy, recommendations are made to assist management agencies realize the full potential of long-term quantitative monitoring data for protected area evaluation and evidence-based management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. samaru-main-vol 11 2011

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Library _info_Sc_ 1

    2004-07-11

    Jul 11, 2004 ... Samaru Journal of Information Studies Vol. 11 (1 & 2)2011 ... It is therefore paramount that the library ... source of primary and up to date information, both students and ... entertainment, arts, fashion, law, economy, medicine,.

  5. AJESMS_ Vol 8 2010 August 15 2011

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Mereku

    2010-08-15

    Aug 15, 2010 ... African Journal of Educational Studies in Mathematics and Sciences Vol. 8, 2010 ... environs, a mining area in Wassa West District of Ghana .... This finding is based on autopsy data and on reports showing that blood levels in.

  6. Quantum Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Sergi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A critical assessment of the recent developmentsof molecular biology is presented.The thesis that they do not lead to a conceptualunderstanding of life and biological systems is defended.Maturana and Varela's concept of autopoiesis is briefly sketchedand its logical circularity avoided by postulatingthe existence of underlying living processes,entailing amplification from the microscopic to the macroscopic scale,with increasing complexity in the passage from one scale to the other.Following such a line of thought, the currently accepted model of condensed matter, which is based on electrostatics and short-ranged forces,is criticized. It is suggested that the correct interpretationof quantum dispersion forces (van der Waals, hydrogen bonding, and so onas quantum coherence effects hints at the necessity of includinglong-ranged forces (or mechanisms for them incondensed matter theories of biological processes.Some quantum effects in biology are reviewedand quantum mechanics is acknowledged as conceptually important to biology since withoutit most (if not all of the biological structuresand signalling processes would not even exist. Moreover, it is suggested that long-rangequantum coherent dynamics, including electron polarization,may be invoked to explain signal amplificationprocess in biological systems in general.

  7. JRHR Vol 8 No 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    dependency and cultural orientation factors. And the conclusion is ... to use sexual difference to exploit women and also finds it un- phenomenological to ... other words, it is neither biological category that simply defines a woman; nor is nature ...

  8. Interaction of Waves and Currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-03-01

    glitter due to the greater surface roughness on the current. This surface roughness has value in remote sensing, particularly when infrared observations...34Pneumatic Breakwaters to Protect Dredges," Journal of Waterways and Harbors Division, Vol. 87, No. WW2 , May 1961, pp. 67- 87. Discussion 87 (Nov.) 127

  9. Clusters in Nuclei. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Following the pioneering discovery of alpha clustering and of molecular resonances, the field of nuclear clustering is today one of those domains of heavy-ion nuclear physics that faces the greatest challenges, yet also contains the greatest opportunities. After many summer schools and workshops, in particular over the last decade, the community of nuclear molecular physicists has decided to collaborate in producing a comprehensive collection of lectures and tutorial reviews covering the field. This second volume follows the successful Lect. Notes Phys. 818 (Vol.1), and comprises six extensive lectures covering the following topics: - Microscopic cluster models - Neutron halo and break-up reactions - Break-up reaction models for two- and three-cluster projectiles - Clustering effects within the di-nuclear model - Nuclear alpha-particle condensates - Clusters in nuclei: experimental perspectives By promoting new ideas and developments while retaining a pedagogical style of presentation throughout, these lectures will serve as both a reference and an advanced teaching manual for future courses and schools in the fields of nuclear physics and nuclear astrophysics. (orig.)

  10. Clusters in Nuclei. Vol. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, Christian (ed.) [Strasbourg Univ. (France). Inst. Pluridiciplinaire Hubert Curien

    2012-07-01

    Following the pioneering discovery of alpha clustering and of molecular resonances, the field of nuclear clustering is today one of those domains of heavy-ion nuclear physics that faces the greatest challenges, yet also contains the greatest opportunities. After many summer schools and workshops, in particular over the last decade, the community of nuclear molecular physicists has decided to collaborate in producing a comprehensive collection of lectures and tutorial reviews covering the field. This second volume follows the successful Lect. Notes Phys. 818 (Vol.1), and comprises six extensive lectures covering the following topics: - Microscopic cluster models - Neutron halo and break-up reactions - Break-up reaction models for two- and three-cluster projectiles - Clustering effects within the di-nuclear model - Nuclear alpha-particle condensates - Clusters in nuclei: experimental perspectives By promoting new ideas and developments while retaining a pedagogical style of presentation throughout, these lectures will serve as both a reference and an advanced teaching manual for future courses and schools in the fields of nuclear physics and nuclear astrophysics. (orig.)

  11. Crisis Communication (Handbooks of Communication Science Vol. 23)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Winni

    Vol. 23 - The Handbook of Communication Science General editors: Peter J. Schultz and Paul Cobley......Vol. 23 - The Handbook of Communication Science General editors: Peter J. Schultz and Paul Cobley...

  12. Dynamics of structures '89. Vol. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The proceedings, comprising 3 volumes published by the Plzen Centre of the Czechoslovak Society for Science and Technology (Vol. 1 and 2) and by Skoda Works in Plzen (Vol. 3), contain 107 papers, out of which 8 fall within the INIS Subject Scope; these deal with problems related to the earthquake resistance of nuclear power plants. Attention is paid to the evaluation of seismic characteristics of nuclear power plant equipment, to the equipment testing and to calculations of its dynamic characteristics under simulated seismic stress. (Z.M.)

  13. Biological control of necrotrophic plant pathogenic fungi: Tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Biotechnology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 25 (2007) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  14. Reproductive Biology of Gerres Oyena (Pisces: Gerreidae) Along ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 6, No 1 (2008) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  15. Reproductive biology of common octopus Octopus vulgaris (Cuvier ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 13, No 1 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  16. Abundance and Reproductive Biology of the Penaeid Prawns of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 2, No 2 (2003) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  17. Current management of chronic hepatitis B: review | Cariem | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Gastroenterology Review. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 2, No 2 (2004) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  18. The parameters of the current legal framework for health research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Bioethics and Law. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 6, No 2 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  19. Short Report: New use of current technology to measure rectal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Sports Medicine. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 17, No 1 (2005) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  20. The invisible frontier : the current limits of decentralization and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Agricultural Extension. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 30 (2001) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  1. Biotechnological uses of Azotobacter vinelandii : Current state, limits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Biotechnology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 9, No 33 (2010) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  2. Current antibiotic susceptibility profile of the bacteria associated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 15, No 1 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  3. How would Ludwig Wittgenstein have performed in the current ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Higher Education. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 23, No 4 (2009) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  4. Current issues in medical education | Al Shehri | West African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    West African Journal of Medicine. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 22, No 4 (2003) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  5. AJESMS_ Vol 8 2010 August 15 2011

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Mereku

    2010-08-15

    Aug 15, 2010 ... African Journal of Educational Studies in Mathematics and Sciences Vol. ... girls from two Senior High Schools in Accra, the capital of Ghana in West Africa. .... On the face of it, the Brazilian and Swedish children might seem to have the ... The two profile dimensions that have been specified for teaching, ...

  6. Water SA - Vol 30, No 3 (2004)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Application of a residential end-use model for estimating cold and hot water demand ... of multistage filtration using different filter media against conventional water ... (Germs et al., 2004), published in the April 2004 (Vol 30 No 2) issue of Water ...

  7. Survey of currently available reference materials for use in connection with the determination of trace elements in biological and environmental materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muramatsu, Y.; Parr, R.M.

    1985-12-01

    This report focuses on analytical reference materials which have been developed for use in connection with the determination of toxic and essential trace elements in biomedical and health-related environmental samples. Data are reported on 60 biological and 40 environmental (non-biological) reference materials from 11 suppliers. Certified concentration values (or their equivalents) and non-certified concentration values (or information values) are presented in various tables which are intended to help the user select a reference material that matches as closely as possible (i.e. with respect to matrix type and concentration of the element of interest) the ''real'' samples that are to be analysed. These tables have been generated from a database characterized by the following parameters: total number of reference materials=100; total number of elements recorded=69; total number of concentration values recorded=1771. Also included in the report is information (where available) on the cost of each material, the unit weight or volume supplied, and the minimum weight of material recommended for analysis. (author)

  8. Bioboosters in the treatment of rheumatic diseases: a comprehensive review of currently available biologics in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis and psoriatic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Cantini

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Fabrizio Cantini, Carlotta Nannini, Laura NiccoliSecond Division of Medicine, Rheumatology Unit, Hospital of Prato, ItalyAbstract: Immunologic research has clarified many aspects of the pathogenesis of inflammatory rheumatic disorders. Biologic drugs acting on different steps of the immune response, including cytokines, B- and T-cell lymphocytes, have been marketed over the past 10 years for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA, ankylosing spondylitis (AS, and psoriatic arthritis (PsA. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs of anti-cytokine agents in RA (including the anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα drugs infliximab, etanercept, adalimumab, golimumab, certolizumab, anti-interleukin (IL-1 anakinra, and anti-IL-6 tocilizumab demonstrated a significant efficacy compared to traditional therapies, if combined with methotrexate (MTX, as measured by ACR 20, 50 and 70 response criteria. The new therapies have also been demonstrated to be superior to MTX in slowing or halting articular damage. RCTs have shown the efficacy of anti-TNFα in AS patients through significant improvement of symptoms and function. Trials of anti-TNFα in PsA patients showed marked improvement of articular symptoms for psoriasis and radiological disease progression. More recent studies have demonstrated the efficacy of B-cell depletion with rituximab, and T-cell inactivation with abatacept. All these drugs have a satisfactory safety profile. This paper reviews the different aspects of efficacy and tolerability of biologics in the therapy of RA, AS, and PsA.Keywords: anti-TNF, anti-cytokine agents, rituximab, abatacept, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis

  9. AFRIMEDIC VOL. 1, NO. 2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Buchi

    Background: Pre-labour rupture of membranes (PROM) at term is often encountered in current obstetric practice. Its management is sometimes controversial. Objectives: This was to determine the incidence, management modalities and pregnancy outcomes of cases of pre-labour rupture of membranes at term in Nnewi, ...

  10. Zede Journal - Vol 28 (2011)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recent Developments in the Definition of Design Earthquake Ground Motions Calling for a Revision of the Current Ethiopian Seismic Code - EBCS 8: 1995 · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. A Worku, 1-15 ...

  11. Information manager-2011-Vol 11

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Library _info_Sc_ 1

    Management of Records in the Judiciary of South-Western States of Nigeria. by ... The Nigeria Monthly Reports. (7). The Selected Judgments of the Supreme ... efficiently manage non-current court records are .... Poor records management habits and practices have ..... 63.3% indicated the presence of such a person, whose.

  12. Z Physics at LEP 1. Vol. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altarelli, G.; Kleiss, R.; Verzegnassi, C.

    1989-01-01

    The contents of this final report from the Workshop on Z Physics at LEP can be divided into two parts. The first part, comprising Vols. 1 and 2, is a relatively concise but fairly complete handbook on the physics of e + e - annihilation near the Z peak (with normal LEP luminosity and unpolarized beams, appropriate for the first phase of LEP operation). The second part (Vol. 3) is devoted to a review of the existing Monte Carlo event generators for LEP physics. A special effort has been made to co-ordinate the different parts of this report, with the aim of achieving a systematic and balanced review of the subject, rather than having simply a collection of separate contributions. (orig.)

  13. Z physics at LEP 1. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altarelli, G.; Kleiss, R.; Verzegnassi, C.

    1989-01-01

    The contents of this final report from the Workshop on Z Physics at LEP can be divided into two parts. The first part, comprising Vols. 1 and 2, is a relatively concise but fairly complete handbook on the physics of e + e - annihilation near the Z peak (with normal LEP luminosity and unpolarized beams, appropriate for the first phase of LEP operation). The second part (Vol. 3) is devoted to a review of the existing Monte Carlo event generators for LEP physics. A special effort has been made to co-ordinate the different parts of this report, with the aim of achieving a systematic and balanced review of the subject, rather than having simply a collection of separate contributions. (orig.)

  14. volBrain: An Online MRI Brain Volumetry System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjón, José V.; Coupé, Pierrick

    2016-01-01

    The amount of medical image data produced in clinical and research settings is rapidly growing resulting in vast amount of data to analyze. Automatic and reliable quantitative analysis tools, including segmentation, allow to analyze brain development and to understand specific patterns of many neurological diseases. This field has recently experienced many advances with successful techniques based on non-linear warping and label fusion. In this work we present a novel and fully automatic pipeline for volumetric brain analysis based on multi-atlas label fusion technology that is able to provide accurate volumetric information at different levels of detail in a short time. This method is available through the volBrain online web interface (http://volbrain.upv.es), which is publically and freely accessible to the scientific community. Our new framework has been compared with current state-of-the-art methods showing very competitive results. PMID:27512372

  15. volBrain: an online MRI brain volumetry system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose V. Manjon

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The amount of medical image data produced in clinical and research settings is rapidly growing resulting in vast amount of data to analyze. Automatic and reliable quantitative analysis tools, including segmentation, allow to analyze brain development and to understand specific patterns of many neurological diseases. This field has recently experienced many advances with successful techniques based on non-linear warping and label fusion. In this work we present a novel and fully automatic pipeline for volumetric brain analysis based on multi-atlas label fusion technology that is able to provide accurate volumetric information at different levels of detail in a short time. This method is available through the volBrain online web interface (http://volbrain.upv.es, which is publically and freely accessible to the scientific community. Our new framework has been compared with current state-of-the-art methods showing very competitive results.

  16. volBrain: An Online MRI Brain Volumetry System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjón, José V; Coupé, Pierrick

    2016-01-01

    The amount of medical image data produced in clinical and research settings is rapidly growing resulting in vast amount of data to analyze. Automatic and reliable quantitative analysis tools, including segmentation, allow to analyze brain development and to understand specific patterns of many neurological diseases. This field has recently experienced many advances with successful techniques based on non-linear warping and label fusion. In this work we present a novel and fully automatic pipeline for volumetric brain analysis based on multi-atlas label fusion technology that is able to provide accurate volumetric information at different levels of detail in a short time. This method is available through the volBrain online web interface (http://volbrain.upv.es), which is publically and freely accessible to the scientific community. Our new framework has been compared with current state-of-the-art methods showing very competitive results.

  17. Large hadron collider workshop. Proceedings. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarlskog, G.; Rein, D.

    1990-01-01

    The aim of the LHC workshop at Aachen was to discuss the 'discovery potential' of a high-luminosity hadron collider (the Large Hadron Collider) and to define the requirements of the detectors. Of central interest was whether a Higgs particle with mass below 1 TeV could be seen using detectors potentially available within a few years from now. Other topics included supersymmetry, heavy quarks, excited gauge bosons, and exotica in proton-proton collisions, as well as physics to be observed in electron-proton and heavy-ion collisions. A large part of the workshop was devoted to the discussion of instrumental and detector concepts, including simulation, signal processing, data acquisition, tracking, calorimetry, lepton identification and radiation hardness. The workshop began with parallel sessions of working groups on physics and instrumentation and continued, in the second half, with plenary talks giving overviews of the LHC project and the SSC, RHIC, and HERA programmes, summaries of the working groups, presentations from industry, and conclusions. Vol.1 of these proceedings contains the papers presented at the plenary sessions, Vol.2 the individual contributions to the physics sessions, and Vol.3 those to the instrumentation sessions. (orig.)

  18. Large hadron collider workshop. Proceedings. Vol. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarlskog, G.; Rein, D.

    1990-01-01

    The aim of the LHC workshop at Aachen was to discuss the 'discovery potential' of a high-luminosity hadron collider (the Large Hadron Collider) and to define the requirements of the detectors. Of central interest was whether a Higgs particle with mass below 1 TeV could be seen using detectors potentially available within a few years from now. Other topics included supersymmetry, heavy quarks, excited gauge bosons, and exotica in proton-proton collisions, as well as physics to be observed in electron-proton and heavy-ion collisions. A large part of the workshop was devoted to the discussion of instrumental and detector concepts, including simulation, signal processing, data acquisition, tracking, calorimetry, lepton identification and radiation hardness. The workshop began with parallel sessions of working groups on physics and instrumentaiton and continued, in the second half, with plenary talks giving overviews of the LHC project and the SSC, RHIC, and HERA programmes, summaries of the working groups, presentations from industry, and conclusions. Vol. 1 of these proceedings contains the papers presented at the plenary sessions, Vol. 2 the individual contributions to the physics sessions, and Vol. 3 those to the instrumentation sessions. (orig.)

  19. Large hadron collider workshop. Proceedings. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarlskog, G.; Rein, D.

    1990-01-01

    The aim of the LCH workshop at Aachen was to discuss the 'discovery potential' of a high-luminosity hadron collider (the Large Hadron Collider) and to define the requirements of the detectors. Of central interest was whether a Higgs particle with mass below 1 TeV could be seen using detectors potentially available within a few years from now. Other topics included supersymmetry, heavy quarks, excited gauge bosons, and exotica in proton-proton collisions, as well as physics to be observed in electron-proton and heavy-ion collisions. A large part of the workshop was devoted to the discussion of instrumental and detector concepts, including simulation, signal processing, data acquisition, tracking, calorimetry, lepton identification and radiation hardness. The workshop began with parallel sessions of working groups on physics and instrumentation and continued, in the second half, with plenary talks giving overviews of the LHC project and the SSC, RHIC, and HERA programmes, summaries of the working groups, presentations from industry, and conclusions. Vol. 1 of these proceedings contains the papers presented at the plenary sessions, Vol. 2 the individual contributions to the physics sessions, and Vol. 3 those to the instrumentation sessions. (orig.)

  20. Current awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compagno, C; Brambilla, L; Capitanio, D; Boschi, F; Ranzi, B M; Porro, D

    2001-05-01

    In order to keep subscribers up-to-date with the latest developments in their field, this current awareness service is provided by John Wiley & Sons and contains newly-published material on yeasts. Each bibliography is divided into 10 sections. 1 Books, Reviews & Symposia; 2 General; 3 Biochemistry; 4 Biotechnology; 5 Cell Biology; 6 Gene Expression; 7 Genetics; 8 Physiology; 9 Medical Mycology; 10 Recombinant DNA Technology. Within each section, articles are listed in alphabetical order with respect to author. If, in the preceding period, no publications are located relevant to any one of these headings, that section will be omitted. (4 weeks journals - search completed 7th Mar. 2001)

  1. Carbon fluxes within the epipelagic zone of the Humboldt Current System off Chile: The significance of euphausiids and diatoms as key functional groups for the biological pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Humberto E.; Daneri, Giovanni; Iriarte, José L.; Yannicelli, Beatriz; Menschel, Eduardo; Barría, Claudio; Pantoja, Silvio; Lizárraga, Lorena

    2009-12-01

    The information from 54 drifting sediment traps deployed between 1997 and 2006 along the Humboldt Current System off Chile (from 19.9°S to 42.2°S) was analyzed to contribute to unveiling the recurrent global-ocean issue of the lack of relationship between gross primary production (GPP) and particulate organic carbon (POC) export below 50 m depth. When the proportion of carbon that effectively sinks is relatively low compared to the carbon being fixed through GPP, a significant amount (average of 32%) of the sinking organic matter is composed of diatoms, regardless of GPP rates. Such a fraction seems to be affected by the physiological state of phytoplankton. In contrast, when the fraction of carbon sinking is high relative to GPP, most of sinking organic matter is composed of euphausid faecal strings. Such a situation occurs at relatively low values of GPP and chlorophyll-a. Most of these high sinking rates of pellets and low phytoplankton biomass occur during summer, when physical conditions favour the presence of phytoplankton blooms, and when the GPP/Biomass ratio indicates healthy phytoplankton physiological conditions. All this evidence supports the assessment of the relevance of euphausiids as key species in the Humboldt Current System pointing to (i) the top-down control that euphausiids are capable of exerting over primary producer biomass, and (ii) euphausiids‘ paramount role on total organic carbon flux over the Concepción continental shelf, regarding both POC export to the sediments and possibly the channelling of GPP directly to higher trophic levels.

  2. Polonium-210 and lead-210 in the Southern Polar Ocean: Naturally occurring tracers of biological and hydrographical processes in the surface waters of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the Weddell Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, J.

    1997-01-01

    In this thesis the distribution of 210 Po and 210 Pb in the upper 600 m of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the Weddell Sea was investigated along north-south transects in austral spring and autumn. 210 Po and 210 Pb can serve as sensitive tracers for the special hydrographic conditions of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the Weddell Sea as well as for biological processes during phytoplankton blooms. The 210 Po/ 210 Pb disequilibrium was used as a tracer for particle export. This tracer integrates export on a timescale of 276 days because of the 138 day half-life of 210 Po and complements the 234 Th/ 238 U disequilibrium as another tracer for plankton production and export on a shorter timescale of several weeks. (orig.) [de

  3. Biological radioprotector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanescu, Ioan; Titescu, Gheorghe; Tamaian, Radu; Haulica, Ion; Bild, Walther

    2002-01-01

    According to the patent description, the biological radioprotector is deuterium depleted water, DDW, produced by vacuum distillation with an isotopic content lower than natural value. It appears as such or in a mixture with natural water and carbon dioxide. It can be used for preventing and reducing the ionizing radiation effects upon humans or animal organisms, exposed therapeutically, professionally or accidentally to radiation. The most significant advantage of using DDW as biological radioprotector results from its way of administration. Indeed no one of the radioprotectors currently used today can be orally administrated, what reduces the patients' compliance to prophylactic administrations. The biological radioprotector is an unnoxious product obtained from natural water, which can be administrated as food additive instead of drinking water. Dose modification factor is according to initial estimates around 1.9, what is a remarkable feature when one takes into account that the product is toxicity-free and side effect-free and can be administrated prophylactically as a food additive. A net radioprotective action of the deuterium depletion was evidenced experimentally in laboratory animals (rats) hydrated with DDW of 30 ppm D/(D+H) concentration as compared with normally hydrated control animals. Knowing the effects of irradiation and mechanisms of the acute radiation disease as well as the effects of administration of radiomimetic chemicals upon cellular lines of fast cell division, it appears that the effects of administrating DDW result from stimulation of the immunity system. In conclusion, the biological radioprotector DDW presents the following advantages: - it is obtained from natural products without toxicity; - it is easy to be administrated as a food additive, replacing the drinking water; - besides radioprotective effects, the product has also immunostimulative and antitumoral effects

  4. Highlights of Astronomy, Vol. 16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montmerle, Thierry

    2015-04-01

    Part I. Invited Discourses: 1. The Herschel view of star formation; 2. Past, present and future of Chinese astronomy; 3. The zoo of galaxies; 4. Supernovae, the accelerating cosmos, and dark energy; Part II. Joint Discussion: 5. Very massive stars in the local universe; 6. 3-D views of the cycling Sun in stellar context; 7. Ultraviolet emission in early-type galaxies; 8. From meteors and meteorites to their parent bodies: current status and future developments; 9. The connection between radio properties and high-energy emission in AGNs; 10. Space-time reference systems for future research; Part III. Special Sessions: 11. Origin and complexity of massive star clusters; 12. Cosmic evolution of groups and clusters of galaxies; 13. Galaxy evolution through secular processes; 14. New era for studying interstellar and intergalactic magnetic fields; 15. The IR view of massive stars: the main sequence and beyond; 16. Science with large solar telescopes; 17. The impact hazard: current activities and future plans; 18. Calibration of star-formation rate measurements across the electromagnetic spectrum; 19. Future large scale facilities; 20. Dynamics of the star-planet relations strategic plan and the Global Office of Astronomy for Development; 21. Strategic plan and the Global Office of Astronomy for Development; 22. Modern views of the interstellar medium; 23. High-precision tests of stellar physics from high-precision photometry; 24. Communicating astronomy with the public for scientists; 25. Data intensive astronomy; 26. Unexplained spectral phenomena in the interstellar medium; 27. Light pollution: protecting astronomical sites and increasing global awareness through education.

  5. Biological biogas upgrading capacity of a hydrogenotrophic community in a trickle-bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rachbauer, Lydia; Voitl, Gregor; Bochmann, Günther; Fuchs, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Data on long term operation of a system supplied with real biogas are presented. • Ex-situ biological methanation is feasible for biogas upgrading. • Gas quality obtained complies with strictest direct grid injection criteria. • Biomethane can act as flexible storage for renewable surplus electricity. - Abstract: The current study reports on biological biogas upgrading by means of hydrogen addition to obtain biomethane. A mesophilic (37 °C) 0.058 m"3 trickle-bed reactor with an immobilized hydrogenotrophic enrichment culture was operated for a period of 8 months using a substrate mix of molecular hydrogen (H_2) and biogas (36–42% CO_2). Complete CO_2 conversion (> 96%) was achieved up to a H_2 loading rate of 6.5 m_n"3 H_2/m"3_r_e_a_c_t_o_r _v_o_l_. × d, corresponding to 2.3 h gas retention time. The optimum H_2/CO_2 ratio was determined to be between 3.67 and 4.15. CH_4 concentrations above 96% were achieved with less than 0.1% residual H_2. This gas quality complies even with tightest standards for grid injection without the need for additional CO_2 removal. If less rigid standards must be fulfilled H_2 loading rates can be almost doubled (10.95 versus 6.5 m_n"3 H_2/m"3_r_e_a_c_t_o_r _v_o_l_. × d) making the process even more attractive. At this H_2 loading the achieved methane productivity was 2.52 m_n"3 CH_4/m"3_r_e_a_c_t_o_r _v_o_l_. × d. In terms of biogas this corresponds to an upgrading capacity of 6.9 m_n"3 biogas/m"3_r_e_a_c_t_o_r _v_o_l_. × d. The conducted experiments demonstrate that biological methanation in an external reactor is well feasible for biogas upgrading under the prerequisite that an adequate H_2 source is available.

  6. African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology - Vol 5, No ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology - Vol 5, No 1 (2004) ... ASYMPTOMATIC SIGNIFICANT BACTERIURIA AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN IN ... TO PARASITISM AND THE IMPLICATION ON TREATMENT APPROACH ...

  7. Current ornithology

    CERN Document Server

    1983-01-01

    The appearance of the first volume of a projected series is the occasion for comment on scope, aims, and genesis of the work. The scope of Current Ornithology is all of the biology of birds. Ornithology, as a whole-organism science, is concerned with birds at every level of bi­ ological organization, from the molecular to the community, at least from the Jurassic to the present time, and over every scholarly discipline in which bird biology is done; to say this is merely to expand a dic­ tionary definition of "ornithology. " The aim of the work, to be realized over several volumes, is to present reviews or position statements con­ cerning the active fields of ornithological research. The reviews will be relatively short, and often will be done from the viewpoint of a readily­ identified group or school. Such a work could have come into being at any time within the past fifty years, but that Current Ornithology appears now is a result of events that are only seven to eight years old. One important event wa...

  8. Crohn's Disease: current state of biological therapy Doença de Crohn: estado atual da terapia biológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César Monteiro Santos Júnior

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD are defined as nonspecific chronic intestinal inflammations with possible systemic involvement. IBD have unknown etiology. The inflammatory process is complex and heterogeneous, both as to the characterization of the disease that affects the digestive tract, without an intelligible pattern of revelation and balance, and in its different systemic damages when including the extensive and severe extraintestinal symptoms. Aparently, the natural history of the disease is irregular in relation to the offending agent system and the attacked system, both in the intestinal and extraintestinal teguments. Isolated aspects showing irregularity in this balance gives us the notion that IBD, especially Crohn's disease, can be caused by the stimulation of an immune response caused by damaging agents (intestinal bacteria, but mediated by inadequate genetic factors, whose expressions determine different individual susceptibilities. These observations have been shown in genetic studies that emphasize the importance of pathological interaction between host and bacteria subsidized by a genomic region that contains genes producing proteins (NOD2 - nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing 2 participating in an enhanced defense response by the tissue. Increased numbers and the activation of these cells in the intestinal mucosa elevate local levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α, interleukin-1β, interferon-Γ, and cytokines of the interleukin-23-Th17 pathway. So, it can be assumed that the susceptibility, which is a result of genetic alterations, is connected to an exaggerated response in the pro-inflammatory phase because of a dysfunction in the intestinal immune system. The identification of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α as the active element in the pro-inflammatory inadequate response gave rise to the heightened production of biological substances that could block TNF-α, at different levels, opening a large

  9. Biological Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... E-Tools Safety and Health Topics / Biological Agents Biological Agents This page requires that javascript be enabled ... 202) 693-2300 if additional assistance is required. Biological Agents Menu Overview In Focus: Ebola Frederick A. ...

  10. Errata Resonance, Vol.20, No.12, 2015. Rajaram Nityananda, Sun ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Resonance, Vol.20, No.12, 2015. Rajaram Nityananda, Sun, Sky and Clouds: Where Light and Matter Meet. Page 1121: The correct Figure 5 is reproduced below: Resonance, Vol.20, No.11, 2015. Anil Kumar, Felix Bloch (1905–1983). Page 956: Para 1, Line 5, 'also from Zürich' should be read as 'from nearby Bern'.

  11. Continuing Medical Education - Vol 27, No 1 (2009)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Continuing Medical Education - Vol 27, No 1 (2009). Journal Home > Archives > Vol 27, No 1 (2009). Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Addiction treatment · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. R Meyer ...

  12. Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences - Vol 28, No 2 (2018)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences - Vol 28, No 2 (2018). Journal Home > Archives > Vol 28, No 2 (2018). Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Prevalence of opportunistic intestinal parasites and associated factors among HIV patients while receiving ART at Arba Minch Hospital in southern Ethiopia: a ...

  13. Economic and Policy Review - Vol 13, No 3 (2007)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economic and Policy Review - Vol 13, No 3 (2007). Journal Home > Archives > Vol 13, No 3 ... Snagging the wheel of progress: Corruption, New anti-corruption drive and Nigeria\\'s quest for development. S B Kura ... Book Review: challenges of African growth opportunities, constraints and strategic directions. S I Owualah ...

  14. Biological biomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorge-Herrero, E. [Servicio de Cirugia Experimental. Clinica Puerta de Hierro, Madrid (Spain)

    1997-05-01

    There are a number of situations in which substances of biological origin are employed as biomaterials. Most of them are macromolecules derived from isolated connective tissue or the connective tissue itself in membrane form, in both cases, the tissue can be used in its natural form or be chemically treated. In other cases, certain blood vessels can be chemically pretreated and used as vascular prostheses. Proteins such as albumin, collagen and fibrinogen are employed to coat vascular prostheses. Certain polysaccharides have also been tested for use in controlled drug release systems. Likewise, a number of tissues, such as dura mater, bovine pericardium, procine valves and human valves, are used in the preparation of cardiac prostheses. We also use veins from animals or humans in arterial replacement. In none of these cases are the tissues employed dissimilar to the native tissues as they have been chemically modified, becoming a new bio material with different physical and biochemical properties. In short, we find that natural products are being utilized as biomaterials and must be considered as such; thus, it is necessary to study both their chemicobiological and physicomechanical properties. In the present report, we review the current applications, problems and future prospects of some of these biological biomaterials. (Author) 84 refs.

  15. Physical, biological, current, and other data from CTD, XBT, ADCP, bottle casts, net casts, and other instruments from the N. E. Atlantic Ocean in support of the OMEX 1 project from 01 April 1993 to 01 December 1995 (NODC Accession 0000172)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, biological, current, and other data were collected from CTD, XBT, ADCP, bottle casts, net casts, and other instruments from the N. E. Atlantic Ocean in...

  16. Reproductive biology of spiny lobster Panulirus regius from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reproductive biology of spiny lobster Panulirus regius from the northwestern Cape Verde Islands. R Freitas, A Medina, S Correira, M Castro. Abstract. No Abstract. African Journal of Marine Science Vol.29(2) 2007: pp. 201-208. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  17. The French Infectious Diseases Society's readiness and response to epidemic or biological risk-the current situation following the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus and Ebola virus disease alerts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coignard-Biehler, H; Rapp, C; Chapplain, J M; Hoen, B; Che, D; Berthelot, P; Cazenave-Roblot, F; Rabaud, C; Brouqui, P; Leport, C

    2018-03-01

    In 2012, the French Infectious Diseases Society (French acronym SPILF) initiated the "Coordination of epidemic and biological risk" (SPILF-COREB - Emergences [SCE]) group to support the readiness and response of healthcare workers (HCWs) to new alerts. To present the SCE group, its functioning, and the main support it provided for frontline HCWs. A multidisciplinary group of heads of infectious disease departments from reference hospitals was created to build a network of clinical expertise for care, training, and research in the field of epidemic and biological risk (EBR). The network developed a set of standardized operational procedures (SOPs) to guide interventions to manage EBR-suspect patients. A working group created the SOP aimed at frontline HCWs taking care of patients. Priority was given to the development of a generic procedure, which was then adapted according to the current alert. Five key steps were identified and hierarchized: detecting, protecting, caring for, alerting, and referring the EBR patient. The interaction between clinicians and those responsible for the protection of the community was crucial. The SOPs validated by the SPILF and its affiliates were disseminated to a wide range of key stakeholders through various media including workshops and the SPILF's website. SPILF can easily adapt and timely mobilize the EBR expertise in case of an alert. The present work suggests that sharing and discussing this experience, initiated at the European level, can generate a new collective expertise and needs to be further developed and strengthened. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Cross sections for atomic processes, vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takayanagi, Kazuo; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Otani, Shunsuke

    1977-09-01

    This data collection book contains the data on all processes involving hydrogen and helium isotopes, their ions, electrons and photons, collected systematically and comprehensively, and is compiled subsequently to Vol. 1 as one of the works of the data collection study group in the Institute of Plasma Physics, Nagoya University, Japan. The items of the contents will include energy level, multiplicately excited state, radiation process, electron collision, ionic collision, recombination, collision of neutral atoms, colliding process involving molecules, and other processes. However, the first edition this time contains energy level, radiation process, electron collision and ionic collision, and the data on remaining items are now under collection. Though some criticisms have been heard about Vol. 1, the authors consider that such comprehensive collection based on systematic classification is the foundation of making a generalized data bank expected to become necessary in future. Thus the data collection book includes all relevant processes, and records the experimental data and theoretically calculated results in principle without modification by selecting them systematically. This year, investigation on data evaluation is taken up also as one of the tasks of the study group. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  19. Physics at LEP2. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altarelli, G.; Sjoestrand, T.; Zwirner, F.

    1995-01-01

    This is final report of the Workshop on Physics at LEP2, held at CERN during 1995. The first part of vol. 1 is devoted to aspects of machine physics of particular relevance to experiments, including the energy, luminosity and interaction regions, as well as the measurement of beam energy. The second part of vol. 1 is a relatively concise, but fairly complete, handbook on the physics of e + e - annihilation above the WW threshold and up to √s∼200 GeV. It contains discussions on WW cross-sections and distributions, W mass determination, Standard Model processes, QCD and gamma-gamma physics, as well as aspects of discovery physics, such as Higgs, new particle searches, triple gauge boson couplings and Z'. The second volume contains a review of the existing Monte Carlo generators for LEP2 physics. These include generators for WW physics, QCD and gamma-gamma processes, Bhabha scattering and discovery physics. A special effort was made to co-ordinate the different parts, with a view to achieving a systematic and balanced review of the subject, rather than just publishing a collection of separate contributions. (orig.)

  20. Physics at LEP2. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altarelli, G.; Sjoestrand, T.; Zwirner, F.

    1996-01-01

    This is the final report of the Workshop on Physics at LEP2, held at CERN during 1995. The first part of vol. 1 is devoted to aspects of machine physics of particular relevance to experiments, including the energy, luminosity and interaction regions, as well as the measurement of beam energy. The second part of vol. 1 is a relatively concise, but fairly complete, handbook on the physics of e + e - annihilation above the WW threshold and up to √s∼200 GeV. It contains discussions on WW cross-sections and distributions, W mass determination, Standard Model processes, QCD and gamma-gamma physics, as well as aspects of discovery physics, such as Higgs, new particle searches, triple gauge boson couplings and Z'. The second volume contains a review of the existing Monte Carlo generators for LEP2 physics. These include generators for WW physics, QCD and gamma-gamma processes, Bhabha scattering and discovery physics. A special effort was made to co-ordinate the different parts, with a view to achieving a systematic and balanced review of the subject, rather than just publishing a collection of separate contributions. (orig.)

  1. Physics at LEP2. Vol. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altarelli, G [ed.; Sjoestrand, T [ed.; Zwirner, F [ed.

    1995-02-19

    This is final report of the Workshop on Physics at LEP2, held at CERN during 1995. The first part of vol. 1 is devoted to aspects of machine physics of particular relevance to experiments, including the energy, luminosity and interaction regions, as well as the measurement of beam energy. The second part of vol. 1 is a relatively concise, but fairly complete, handbook on the physics of e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation above the WW threshold and up to {radical}s{approx}200 GeV. It contains discussions on WW cross-sections and distributions, W mass determination, Standard Model processes, QCD and gamma-gamma physics, as well as aspects of discovery physics, such as Higgs, new particle searches, triple gauge boson couplings and Z`. The second volume contains a review of the existing Monte Carlo generators for LEP2 physics. These include generators for WW physics, QCD and gamma-gamma processes, Bhabha scattering and discovery physics. A special effort was made to co-ordinate the different parts, with a view to achieving a systematic and balanced review of the subject, rather than just publishing a collection of separate contributions. (orig.).

  2. Standard biological parts knowledgebase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Galdzicki

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We have created the Knowledgebase of Standard Biological Parts (SBPkb as a publically accessible Semantic Web resource for synthetic biology (sbolstandard.org. The SBPkb allows researchers to query and retrieve standard biological parts for research and use in synthetic biology. Its initial version includes all of the information about parts stored in the Registry of Standard Biological Parts (partsregistry.org. SBPkb transforms this information so that it is computable, using our semantic framework for synthetic biology parts. This framework, known as SBOL-semantic, was built as part of the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL, a project of the Synthetic Biology Data Exchange Group. SBOL-semantic represents commonly used synthetic biology entities, and its purpose is to improve the distribution and exchange of descriptions of biological parts. In this paper, we describe the data, our methods for transformation to SBPkb, and finally, we demonstrate the value of our knowledgebase with a set of sample queries. We use RDF technology and SPARQL queries to retrieve candidate "promoter" parts that are known to be both negatively and positively regulated. This method provides new web based data access to perform searches for parts that are not currently possible.

  3. Standard Biological Parts Knowledgebase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdzicki, Michal; Rodriguez, Cesar; Chandran, Deepak; Sauro, Herbert M.; Gennari, John H.

    2011-01-01

    We have created the Knowledgebase of Standard Biological Parts (SBPkb) as a publically accessible Semantic Web resource for synthetic biology (sbolstandard.org). The SBPkb allows researchers to query and retrieve standard biological parts for research and use in synthetic biology. Its initial version includes all of the information about parts stored in the Registry of Standard Biological Parts (partsregistry.org). SBPkb transforms this information so that it is computable, using our semantic framework for synthetic biology parts. This framework, known as SBOL-semantic, was built as part of the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL), a project of the Synthetic Biology Data Exchange Group. SBOL-semantic represents commonly used synthetic biology entities, and its purpose is to improve the distribution and exchange of descriptions of biological parts. In this paper, we describe the data, our methods for transformation to SBPkb, and finally, we demonstrate the value of our knowledgebase with a set of sample queries. We use RDF technology and SPARQL queries to retrieve candidate “promoter” parts that are known to be both negatively and positively regulated. This method provides new web based data access to perform searches for parts that are not currently possible. PMID:21390321

  4. Standard biological parts knowledgebase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdzicki, Michal; Rodriguez, Cesar; Chandran, Deepak; Sauro, Herbert M; Gennari, John H

    2011-02-24

    We have created the Knowledgebase of Standard Biological Parts (SBPkb) as a publically accessible Semantic Web resource for synthetic biology (sbolstandard.org). The SBPkb allows researchers to query and retrieve standard biological parts for research and use in synthetic biology. Its initial version includes all of the information about parts stored in the Registry of Standard Biological Parts (partsregistry.org). SBPkb transforms this information so that it is computable, using our semantic framework for synthetic biology parts. This framework, known as SBOL-semantic, was built as part of the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL), a project of the Synthetic Biology Data Exchange Group. SBOL-semantic represents commonly used synthetic biology entities, and its purpose is to improve the distribution and exchange of descriptions of biological parts. In this paper, we describe the data, our methods for transformation to SBPkb, and finally, we demonstrate the value of our knowledgebase with a set of sample queries. We use RDF technology and SPARQL queries to retrieve candidate "promoter" parts that are known to be both negatively and positively regulated. This method provides new web based data access to perform searches for parts that are not currently possible.

  5. Notes on the biology of Oryctes monoceros (OLIV.) A pest of palms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal of Agricultural Sciences. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 2, No 1 (2003) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  6. A background to risk analysis. Vol. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    This 4-volumes report gives a background of ideas, principles, and examples which might be of use in developing practical methods for risk analysis. Some of the risk analysis techniques described are somewhat experimental. The report is written in an introductory style, but where some point needs further justification or evaluation, this is given in the form of a chapter appendix. In this way, it is hoped that the report can serve two purposes, - as a basis for starting risk analysis work and as a basis for discussing effectiveness of risk analysis procedures. The report should be seen as a preliminary stage, prior to a program of industrial trials of risk analysis methods. Vol. 4 treats human error in plant operation. (BP)

  7. A background to risk analysis. Vol. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    This 4-volumes report gives a background of ideas, principles, and examples which might be of use in developing practical methods for risk analysis. Some of the risk analysis techniques described are somewhat experimental. The report is written in an introductory style, but where some point needs further justifi- cation or evaluation, this is given in the form of a chapter appenix. In this way, it is hoped that the report can serve two purposes, - as a basis for starting risk analysis work and as a basis for discussing effectiveness of risk analysis procedures. The report should be seen as a preliminary stage, prior to a program of industrial trials of risk analysis methods. Vol. 3 contains chapters on quantification of risk, failure and accident probability, risk analysis and design, and examles of risk analysis for process plant. (BP)

  8. A background to risk analysis. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    This 4-volumes report gives a background of ideas, principles and examples which might be of use in developing practical methods for risk analysis. Some of the risk analysis techniques described are somewhat experimental. The report is written in an introductory style, but where some point needs further justification or evaluation, this is given in the form of a chapter appendix. In this way, it is hoped that the report can serve two purposes, - as a basis for starting risk analysis work and as a basis for discussing effectiveness of risk analysis procedures. The report should be seen as a preliminary stage, prior to a program of industrial trials of risk analysis methods. Vol. 2 treats generic methods of qualitative failure analysis. (BP)

  9. A background risk analysis. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    This 4-volumes report gives a background of ideas, principles, and examples which might be of use in developing practical methods for risk analysis. Some of the risk analysis techniques, described are somewhat experimental. The report is written in an introductory style, but where some point needs further justification or evaluation, this is given in the form of a chapter appendix. In this way, it is hoped that the report can serve two purposes, - as a basis for starting risk analysis work and as a basis for discussing effectiveness of risk analysis procedures. The report should be seen as a preliminary stage, prior to a program of industrial trials of risk analysis methods. Vol. 1 contains a short history of risk analysis, and chapters on risk, failures, errors and accidents, and general procedures for risk analysis. (BP)

  10. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research - Vol 15, No 9 (2016)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development of hydroxyapatite-based nanomaterials to enhance biological response of ... Polymeric implant of methylprednisolone for spinal injury: preparation and characterization · EMAIL FREE .... as alternative method for trace analysis of arsenic in natural medicinal products · EMAIL FREE ... Current Issue Atom logo

  11. The role of history in understanding current South African attitudes to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Journal of Environmental Education. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 10 (1989) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  12. The right to self-determination under international law: The current ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nnamdi Azikiwe University Journal of International Law and Jurisprudence. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 6 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  13. Current perspectives of doping in football and the 2010 list of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Continuing Medical Education. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 28, No 5 (2010) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  14. Advances in boundary elements. Vol. 1-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brebbia, C.A.; Connor, J.J.

    1989-01-01

    This book contains some of the edited papers presented at the 11th Boundary Element Conference, held in Cambridge, Massachusetts, during August 1989. The papers are arranged in three different books comprising the following topics: Vol. 1: Computations and Fundamentals - comprises sections on fundamentals, adaptive techniques, error and convergence, numerical methods and computational aspects. (283 p.). Vol. 2: Field and fluid flow solutions - includes the following topics: potential problems, thermal studies, electrical and electromagnetic problems, wave propagation, acoustics and fluid flow. (484 p.). Vol. 3: Stress analysis - deals with advances in linear problems, nonlinear problems, fracture mechanics, contact mechanics, optimization, geomechanics, plates and shells, vibrations and industrial applications. (450 p). (orig./HP)

  15. Modern Biology

    OpenAIRE

    ALEKSIC, Branko

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this course is to learn the philosophy, principles, and techniques of modern biology. The course is particularly designed for those who have not learned biology previously or whose major is other than biology, and who may think that they do not need to know any biology at all. The topics are covered in a rather general, overview manner, but certain level of diligence in grasping concepts and memorizing the terminology is expected.

  16. Impact of Theoretical Chemistry on Chemical and Biological Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Current Issue : Vol. 23, Issue 3 · Current Issue Volume 23 | Issue 3. March 2018. Home · Volumes & Issues · Categories · Special Issues · Search · Editorial Board · Information for Authors · Subscription ...

  17. Current management of Parkinson's disease | Salawu | Annals of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annals of African Medicine. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 9, No 2 (2010) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Current management of Parkinson's disease. F Salawu, A ...

  18. Mathematical biology

    CERN Document Server

    Murray, James D

    1993-01-01

    The book is a textbook (with many exercises) giving an in-depth account of the practical use of mathematical modelling in the biomedical sciences. The mathematical level required is generally not high and the emphasis is on what is required to solve the real biological problem. The subject matter is drawn, e.g. from population biology, reaction kinetics, biological oscillators and switches, Belousov-Zhabotinskii reaction, reaction-diffusion theory, biological wave phenomena, central pattern generators, neural models, spread of epidemics, mechanochemical theory of biological pattern formation and importance in evolution. Most of the models are based on real biological problems and the predictions and explanations offered as a direct result of mathematical analysis of the models are important aspects of the book. The aim is to provide a thorough training in practical mathematical biology and to show how exciting and novel mathematical challenges arise from a genuine interdisciplinary involvement with the biosci...

  19. Water SA - Vol 27, No 2 (2001)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of simultaneous chemical precipitation in modified activated sludge systems exhibiting biological excess phosphate removal: Part 6: Modelling of simultaneous chemical-biological P removal - review of existing models · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD ...

  20. Experimental radiotherapy and clinical radiobiology. Vol. 16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, M.; Dahm-Daphi, J.; Dikomey, E.; Petersen, C.; Rodemann, H.P.; Zips, D.

    2007-01-01

    The following topics were dealt with: DNA repair as therapeutical target in radiation therapy, biological imaging and tumor microenvironment, molecular factors of radiation therapy, molecular factors and modulation of the radiation reaction of normal tissues, experimental tumor therapy, EGFR inhibition, the endothel cell as primary target of radiation therapy, molecular and cellular foundations of the radiation biology of protons and ions. (HSI)

  1. Afican Health Sciences Vol 10 No 4.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    African Health Sciences Vol 10 No 4 December 2010. 353. Effect of ... Key words: Rumex steudelii, Antifertility, Folliculogenesis, Endometrium, uterus, ovary, ovarian follicles, corpus luteum,. Rats. ..... first cycle in intrauterine growth-related and.

  2. African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology - Vol 5, No ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology - Vol 5, No 3 (2004) ... In Peripheral Leukocyte And Body Fluids Of Onchocerciasis Patients Treated With ... A Study Of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria In Pregnancy In Ile - Ife, Southwestern ...

  3. Southern African Journal of Environmental Education - Vol 8 (1988)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Journal of Environmental Education - Vol 8 (1988) ... An interaction of archaeology with school history in a museum education context ... The child in the outdoor classroom · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  4. Gender and Behaviour - Vol 5, No 2 (2007)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender and Behaviour. ... Gender and Behaviour - Vol 5, No 2 (2007) ... Home Type, Age and Gender on The Antisocial Behaviour of Secondary School Students. ... Gender-Wise Comparison on Emotional Intelligence and Marital Satisfaction.

  5. International Journal of Development and Policy Studies - Vol 2, No ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Development and Policy Studies - Vol 2, No 1 (2006) .... Locating oppressive use of language: a study of linguistic violence on nigerian ... trafficking - poverty link based on urban development and planning process ...

  6. Pan African Medical Journal - Vol 16, No 1 (2014)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pan African Medical Journal - Vol 16, No 1 (2014) .... Cancer incidence in Morocco: report from Casablanca registry 2005-2007 · EMAIL FREE FULL .... Maladie de Leo-Buerger faisant suite à une intoxication au cannabis · EMAIL FREE FULL ...

  7. International Journal of Health Research - Vol 2, No 4 (2009)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Health Research - Vol 2, No 4 (2009) ... Psychosocial characteristics of patients admitted to a drug rehabilitation unit in Nigeria · EMAIL ... Hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of fruit pulp of limonia acidissima linn ...

  8. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 14, No 18 (2015)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 14, No 18 (2015). Journal Home ... Isolation of microalgae species from arid environments and evaluation of their potentials for biodiesel production · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  9. Wind tunnel evaluation of Hi-Vol TSP effectiveness data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Wind tunnel evaluation of EPA's Hi-Vol TSP sampler for sampling effectiveness with regards to aerodynamic particle diameter (5 to 35 microns), wind speed (2, 8, 24...

  10. African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences - Vol 21 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences - Vol 21, No 3 (2015) ... Factors Influencing the Health of Men in Polygynous Relationship · EMAIL FULL ... Views of HIV Positive Pregnant Women on Accessibility of the Prevention of ...

  11. African Journal of Chemical Education - Vol 7, No 1 (2017)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Chemical Education - Vol 7, No 1 (2017). Journal Home ... Hybridization and molecular geometry: A number game · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD ... AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...

  12. African Research Review - Vol 4, No 4 (2010)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Research Review - Vol 4, No 4 (2010) .... Educational Policy and Technological Development in Africa: An X-Ray of Problems and Solutions in the .... Tradition and Art Appreciation: A Boost to Cultural Tourism in Nigeria · EMAIL FREE ...

  13. South African Journal of Higher Education - Vol 19 (2005)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Higher Education - Vol 19 (2005) ... The 'idea of engagement' and 'the African University in the 21st Century': Some ... The challenges of knowledge production by researchers in Public Administration, a South African ...

  14. African Health Sciences - Vol 13, No 2 (2013)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Health Sciences. ... African Health Sciences - Vol 13, No 2 (2013) ... S Musisi, D Akena, E Nakimuli-Mpungu, C Abbo, J Okello, 205-218 .... Alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking pattern among brothelbased female sex workers in ...

  15. African Health Sciences - Vol 15, No 4 (2015)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Health Sciences. ... African Health Sciences - Vol 15, No 4 (2015) .... H Madubedube, Andre P Kengne, Rajiv T Erasmus, Tahir S Pillay, Tandi E ... on lung function and cardiorespiratory fitness in both cigarette and hookah smokers.

  16. West African Journal of Industrial and Academic Research - Vol 4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    West African Journal of Industrial and Academic Research - Vol 4, No 1 (2012) ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access ... on Gas Turbine Engine Data · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  17. West African Journal of Industrial and Academic Research - Vol 17 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    West African Journal of Industrial and Academic Research - Vol 17, No 1 (2017) ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access ... The effect of electricity and gas losses on Nigeria`s Gross Domestic Product · EMAIL ...

  18. Research in Hospitality Management - Vol 5, No 2 (2015)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research in Hospitality Management - Vol 5, No 2 (2015) ... Hotel quality in the European Capital of Culture: Leeuwarden 2018 · EMAIL FREE FULL ... Consumer patronage and willingness-to-pay at different levels of restaurant attributes: A ...

  19. Jolivet: Complete Flute Music, Vol. 2 / Guy S. Rickards

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rickards, Guy S.

    1996-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Jolivet: Complete Flute Music, Vol. 2. Kroumata Percussion Ensemble, Tapiola Sinfonietta, Paavo Järvi". BIS CD 739 (64 minutes: DDD). Item marked from CD630 (6/94), CD272, remainder new to UK

  20. Southern African Business Review - Vol 21, No 1 (2017)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Business Review - Vol 21, No 1 (2017) ... Pre-packaged applications in business reorganisations: International principles · EMAIL ... Microcredit supply under Islamic Banking in Khartoum State, Sudan · EMAIL FREE FULL ...

  1. Tanzania Veterinary Journal - Vol 32, No 1 (2017)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Veterinary Journal - Vol 32, No 1 (2017) ... factors for porcine cysticercosis transmission and animal welfare in selected villages in Nyasa, Tanzania ... Thoracic radiographic anatomy in sheep · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  2. Journal of Community Medicine and Primary Health Care - Vol 23 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Community Medicine and Primary Health Care - Vol 23, No 1-2 (2011) ... The Nigerian National Health Bill 2011: Delay of Presidential Assent to an Act: ... Knowledge And Practice of Occupational Safety Among Quarry Workers in A ...

  3. African Heath Sciences Vol 8 No 1.p65

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Harriet

    African Health Sciences Vol 8 No 1 March 2008. 36 ... Objective:To highlight difficulties in the diagnosis and management of non-traumatic perforation of small bowel. Material and ..... of three operations for typhoid perforation. Br J Surg. 1997;.

  4. GLOBAL JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES VOL 8, NO

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ada

    GLOBAL JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES VOL 8, NO. ... media. From the over fifty tertiary institutions in the country graduates are churned .... few were collected at the contact addresses, ... acquisition is paramount for successful job hunting.

  5. Nigerian Journal of Chemical Research Vol. 20, 2015 39 Seasonal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr M Waziri

    Vol. 20, 2015. 39. Seasonal Variations in Physicochemical Properties of Water, Sediment and Fish of ... The levels of some physicochemical parameters in the dam water were determined in wet and dry seasons .... Water, Waste and Health in ...

  6. African Research Review - Vol 5, No 1 (2011)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Research Review - Vol 5, No 1 (2011) .... Gender and Occupational Preferences among Senior High School Students in Cross River State ... Academic Achievement in Physics · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  7. Marine environment news Vol. 4, no. 1, June 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    The last six months have been a frenetically busy time for us in Monaco. Our Marine Programmes have been positively reviewed by the Standing Advisory Group on Nuclear Applications (SAGNA) and by an External Evaluation of our Programme. Both Groups report to the Director General, Mr Mohammed ElBaradei, and we hope that new investment in personnel and equipment may eventually result from their evaluations and feedback. We were honoured by the visit of His Serene Highness Prince Albert II of Monaco in March 2006 to our facilities. HSH continues to take a personal interest in MEL's isotopic and pollutant analyses of biota and environmental samples from the Arctic environment which we sampled during His Highness' cruise in June 2005 (see Vol. 3. No 2. MEL Newsletter). This issue also shows that MEL has hosted several important workshops and meetings. The US Research Vessel Endeavour visited the port of Monaco in April and MEL hosted an informal reception for the crew. The visit was in connection with ongoing, joint MEL-US studies in ocean carbon sinks in the Mediterranean (the MEDFLUX programme). More recently, MEL has been involved in discussion with Gulf Member States for a Marine Radioactivity Baseline Study. Finally, I am pleased to note that our MEL Newsletter is clearly having a positive outreach with Member States, since we are currently witnessing a doubling in Member States requests through the TC Concept Proposals (2007-2008) for fellowships, courses and capacity building in marine environment

  8. Editor's welcome, PORTAL, Vol. 1, No. 2, July 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Allatson

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the highly successful inauguration of PORTAL in January 2004, we have received many kind expressions of support from international studies practitioners in a range of fields, and from such places as Canada, Italy, Mexico, Nigeria, New Zealand, Spain, Trinidad, the U.K., and the U.S.A. Particularly gratifying have been the endorsements of the journal and its publishing aims by people involved in their own electronic publishing enterprises. For their generous responses to PORTAL, the Editorial Committee would like to express its collective appreciation to the following people: Professor Jean-Marie Volet, of the University of Western Australia, and the guiding editor of the ground-breaking e-journal Mots Pluriels (www.arts.uwa.edu.au/MotsPluriels; and Francis Leo Collins, member of the Editorial Committee for the Graduate Journal of Asia Pacific Studies (GJAPS, based in Auckland, New Zealand. PORTAL's readers may be interested in the current call for papers from GJAPS (www.arts.auckland.ac.nz/gjaps, for a special issue on "Imagining the Asia-Pacific" (deadline October 31, 2004. This issue of PORTAL contains essays that cover wide terrain: the Chilean diasporic community in Australia; the world of German intellectuals; contemporary Mexican socio-political movements; rural-urban migration in China; and transnational advocacy networks and election monitoring in the Philippines, Chile, Nicaragua and Mexico. In the cultural section of this issue, we are delighted to present a short story from the noted German Studies scholar Anthony Stephens, and the first half of a beautiful, deeply poetic and haunting novel entitled Son, from the London-based writer and art-critic Jennifer Higgie. The novel’s second and final part will appear in PORTAL vol. 2, no. 1, in January 2005. On a different note, we would like to express our support for the inaugural Ubud Writers and Readers Festival, to be held in Ubud, Bali, from October 11 to 17, 2004. The Festival

  9. Synthetic Biology: Putting Synthesis into Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jing; Luo, Yunzi; Zhao, Huimin

    2010-01-01

    The ability to manipulate living organisms is at the heart of a range of emerging technologies that serve to address important and current problems in environment, energy, and health. However, with all its complexity and interconnectivity, biology has for many years been recalcitrant to engineering manipulations. The recent advances in synthesis, analysis, and modeling methods have finally provided the tools necessary to manipulate living systems in meaningful ways, and have led to the coining of a field named synthetic biology. The scope of synthetic biology is as complicated as life itself – encompassing many branches of science, and across many scales of application. New DNA synthesis and assembly techniques have made routine the customization of very large DNA molecules. This in turn has allowed the incorporation of multiple genes and pathways. By coupling these with techniques that allow for the modeling and design of protein functions, scientists have now gained the tools to create completely novel biological machineries. Even the ultimate biological machinery – a self-replicating organism – is being pursued at this moment. It is the purpose of this review to dissect and organize these various components of synthetic biology into a coherent picture. PMID:21064036

  10. Biological therapeutics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greenstein, Ben; Brook, Daniel A

    2011-01-01

    This introductory textbook covers all the main categories of biological medicines, including vaccines, hormonal preparations, drugs for rheumatoid arthritis and other connective tissue diseases, drugs...

  11. Workshop Arboretum Volčji potok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Kučan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available From its constitution onwards, the Volčji Potok Arboretum has been caught between various conflicting orientations. It is both a scientific, research and educational institution, and a cultural monument with exquisite garden and landscape design features and areas of great natural value and built cultural heritage, as well as commercial venue. At the same time, it functions as a park and an area for mass events, a garden centre and nursery. This variety of functions has helped Arboretum to survive the pressures of time; however, partial and uncoordinated interventions have threatened its original mission and its image and generated a number of conflicting situations. The workshop, organised on the initiative of the Institute for the Protection of Cultural Heritage of Slovenia, which involved students from the Faculty of Architecture and students from the Department of Landscape Architecture of the Biotechnical Faculty in mixed groups, generated eight proposals to solve some of the most urgent problems by introducing optimised development with clearly defined goals and priorities.

  12. Is synthetic biology mechanical biology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Sune

    2015-12-01

    A widespread and influential characterization of synthetic biology emphasizes that synthetic biology is the application of engineering principles to living systems. Furthermore, there is a strong tendency to express the engineering approach to organisms in terms of what seems to be an ontological claim: organisms are machines. In the paper I investigate the ontological and heuristic significance of the machine analogy in synthetic biology. I argue that the use of the machine analogy and the aim of producing rationally designed organisms does not necessarily imply a commitment to mechanical biology. The ideal of applying engineering principles to biology is best understood as expressing recognition of the machine-unlikeness of natural organisms and the limits of human cognition. The paper suggests an interpretation of the identification of organisms with machines in synthetic biology according to which it expresses a strategy for representing, understanding, and constructing living systems that are more machine-like than natural organisms.

  13. Computational biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Lars Røeboe; Jones, Neil; Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2011-01-01

    Computation via biological devices has been the subject of close scrutiny since von Neumann’s early work some 60 years ago. In spite of the many relevant works in this field, the notion of programming biological devices seems to be, at best, ill-defined. While many devices are claimed or proved t...

  14. Mesoscopic biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper we present a qualitative outlook of mesoscopic biology where the typical length scale is of the order of nanometers and the energy scales comparable to thermal energy. Novel biomolecular machines, governed by coded information at the level of DNA and proteins, operate at these length scales in biological ...

  15. Biological desulfurisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, B.J. [UOP LLC (United States); Benschop, A.; Janssen, A. [Paques Natural Solutions (Netherlands); Kijlstra, S. [Shell Global Solutions (Netherlands)

    2001-03-01

    This article focuses on the biological THIOPAQ process for removing hydrogen sulphide from refinery gases and recovering elemental sulphur. Details are given of the process which absorbs hydrogen sulphide-containing gas in alkaline solution prior to oxidation of the dissolved sulphur to elemental sulphur in a THIOPAQ aerobic biological reactor, with regeneration of the caustic solution. Sulphur handling options including sulphur wash, the drying of the sulphur cake, and sulphur smelting by pressure liquefaction are described. Agricultural applications of the biologically recovered sulphur, and application of the THIOPAQ process to sulphur recovery are discussed.

  16. Systems Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    study and understand the function of biological systems, particu- larly, the response of such .... understand the organisation and behaviour of prokaryotic sys- tems. ... relationship of the structure of a target molecule to its ability to bind a certain ...

  17. Next-generation biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues da Fonseca, Rute Andreia; Albrechtsen, Anders; Themudo, Goncalo Espregueira Cruz

    2016-01-01

    we present an overview of the current sequencing technologies and the methods used in typical high-throughput data analysis pipelines. Subsequently, we contextualize high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies within their applications in non-model organism biology. We include tips regarding managing...

  18. Molecular Biology of Medulloblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Current methods of diagnosis and treatment of medulloblastoma, and the influence of new biological advances in the development of more effective and less toxic therapies are reviewed by researchers at Children’s National Medical Center, The George Washington University, Washington, DC.

  19. Editor's welcome, PORTAL, Vol. 3, No. 1, January 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Allatson

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Welcome to the first appearance of PORTAL for 2006 (vol. 3, no. 1, a special issue entitled ‘Other Worlds’ guest edited by James Goodman and Christina Ho from the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Technology Sydney (UTS. The papers collected in this special issue focus on what the guest editors call “the transformative power of social movements” that respond to the processes and discourses of globalization and globalism by generating alternative sites and spaces of agency, or ‘other worlds.’ The contributors to the issue originally presented papers at a conference held in April 2005 in Sydney, with the title ‘Other Worlds: Social Movements and the Making of Alternatives.’ That conference was organized by the Research Initiative on International Activism at UTS, and supported by the Research Committee on Social Movements and Collective Action of the International Sociological Association. The Editorial Committee of PORTAL would like to thank both institutions for their support of the event that led to this special issue. I would also like to thank Wayne Peake, Kate Barclay, and Murray Pratt for their editorial efforts in seeing this issue through to publication. The Editorial Committee is pleased to showcase in the Cultural Works Section a short meditative piece by local writer Joel Scott, who is currently undertaking studies in Pamplona, Spain. When considered in the context of the special issue’s discussions of ‘other worlds’ that precede it, Scott’s ‘God, We’re Not Immigrants! A Reflection on Moving and Staying,’ provides an evocative insight into the sociocultural and imaginative limits that may preclude the construction of alternative ‘worlds.’

  20. Proceedings of the 1. Arabic conference on chemical applications (Chemia 2). Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    The conference of chemical application was held on 1-5 Nov 1997 in Cairo, This vol.2 contains of chemical application on nuclear materials. Studies on these vol.This second volume covers papers presented on the subjects

  1. Water SA - Vol 43, No 2 (2017)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sensitivity to selected contaminants in a biological early warning system using Anodonta woodiana (Mollusca) · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Luisa Giari, Fabio Vincenzi, Elisa Anna Fano, Ivano Graldi, Fernando Gelli, Giuseppe Castaldelli, 200-208.

  2. NJB VOL.34 Original Lower.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    medium comprising 2 g of yeast extract, 2 g of glucose, 2.8 g of lactose broth in 50 ml of different ... The optimum biodecolourization temperature was 35 C with ... used to develop an effective biological treatment system for the wastewaters.

  3. AJESMS_ Vol 8 2010 August 15 2011

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Mereku

    2010-08-15

    Aug 15, 2010 ... The study revealed that students making different subject choices. (physical or biological science) reported similar experiences and conceptions, ... The increasing reluctance ... nature of these studies, however, they were carried out in foreign ... settings most part of which does not apply to the context of the.

  4. African Zoology - Vol 35, No 2 (2000)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reproductive biology of an open-water spawning Lake Malawi cichlid, Copadichromis chrysonotus · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Lance W. Smith, 151-164. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15627020.2000.11657086 ...

  5. STECH VOL5 (1) FEBRUARY, 2016

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Copyright 1AARR 2012-2016: www.afrrevjo.net

    2016-02-11

    Feb 11, 2016 ... in biology in senior secondary schools in Anambra State. .... It is a test of student's ability to find a simple form where it is hidden within a complex pattern. ... calculated F-value of 1.7638, which is significant at .1853, but not significant at 0.05 ... Demands of Senior Secondary School Physics Curriculum.

  6. African Zoology - Vol 29, No 2 (1994)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Population biology of house mice (Mus musculus L.) on sub-Antarctic Marion Island · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. D.C. Matthewson, R.J. van Aarde, J.D. Skinner, 99-106 ...

  7. Water SA - Vol 30, No 5 (2004)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The search for Cryptosporidiumoocysts and Giardia cystsin source water used ... Full-scale implementation of external nitrification biological nutrient removal at the ... from land to the marine environment: A water quality management perspective ... Integrated water resource planning in the city of Cape Town · EMAIL FREE ...

  8. African Zoology - Vol 17, No 1 (1982)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biology and taxonomic status of an estuarine population of Pranesus pinguis (Lacépède) (Teleostei: Atherinidae) in south east Africa · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. M.A.J. Harman, S.J.M. Blaber, D.P. Cyrus, 15-23 ...

  9. JUST Vol. 28 No. 2 Aug 2008

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ben

    2008-08-02

    Aug 2, 2008 ... communication, research and socio-economic growth of a people; external factors such as chemi- cal, biological, physical and disasters can also deteriorate multimedia materials. Finally, caution must be taken when blending the methods of preservation. Keywords: Preservation, Libraries, Print, Non-Print.

  10. Primary and oxidative DNA damage in salivary leukocytes as a tool for the evaluation of air pollution early biological effects in children: current status of the MAPEC (Monitoring Air Pollution Effects on Children for supporting public health policy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuele Vannini

    2015-05-01

    Conclusions - The main objective of the MAPEC study is to evaluate the associations in children between air pollutants and early biological effects, and to propose a model for estimating the global genotoxic risk.

  11. The current status of psychotherapy | Gureje | West African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    West African Journal of Medicine. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 23, No 2 (2004) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should ...

  12. Current management of Parkinson's disease | Salawu | Annals of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annals of African Medicine. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 9, No 2 (2010) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web ...

  13. Proceedings of the second international conference on environmental impact assessment of all economical activities. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Proceedings of the conference consist of 3 volumes: Vol. 1 - 'Environmental Impact Assessment of all Economical Activities including Industry'; Vol. 2 - 'Air Pollution Control and Prevention'; Vol. 3 - Waste Management and Environmental Problems in Construction Industry'. Out of 32 papers contained in Vol. 2, 4 were inputted to INIS. They deal with nuclear fusion as a potential energy source, with environmental aspects of disposal of ashes from power plants in the Czech Republic, and with land reclamation after mining activities. (Z.S.)

  14. Proceedings of the second international conference on environmental impact assessment of all economical activities. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Proceedings of the conference consist of 3 volumes: Vol. 1 - 'Environmental Impact Assessment of all Economical Activities including Industry'; Vol. 2 - 'Air Pollution Control and Prevention'; Vol. 3 - Waste Management and Environmental Problems in Construction Industry'. Out of 32 papers contained in Vol. 1, 2 were inputted to INIS. They deal with models of radionuclide transport in food chains and the use of aerial monitoring in the study of environmental contamination. (Z.S.)

  15. Dynamics of structures '89. Vol. 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The proceedings, comprising 3 volumes published by the Plzen Centre of the Czechoslovak Society for Science and Technology (Vol. 1 and 2) and by Skoda Works in Plzen (Vol. 3), contain 107 papers, out of which 8 fall within the INIS Subject Scope; these deal with problems related to the earthquake resistance of nuclear power plants. Attention is paid to the evaluation of seismic characteristics of nuclear power plant equipment, to the equipment testing and to calculations of its dynamic characteristics under simulated seismic stress. (Z.M.)

  16. Archives: Egyptian Journal of Biology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 17 of 17 ... Archives: Egyptian Journal of Biology. Journal Home > Archives: Egyptian Journal of Biology. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 17 of 17 Items ...

  17. [Biological agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Koichi

    2009-03-01

    There are two types of biological agents for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA); monoclonal antibodies and recombinant proteins. Among the latter, etanercept, a recombinant fusion protein of soluble TNF receptor and IgG was approved in 2005 in Japan. The post-marketing surveillance of 13,894 RA patients revealed the efficacy and safety profiles of etanercept in the Japanese population, as well as overseas studies. Abatacept, a recombinant fusion protein of CTLA4 and IgG, is another biological agent for RA. Two clinical trials disclosed the efficacy of abatacept for difficult-to-treat patients: the AIM for MTX-resistant cases and the ATTAIN for patients who are resistant to anti-TNF. The ATTEST trial suggested abatacept might have more acceptable safety profile than infliximab. These biologics are also promising for the treatment of RA for not only relieving clinical symptoms and signs but retarding structural damage.

  18. Biological preconcentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manginell, Ronald P [Albuquerque, NM; Bunker, Bruce C [Albuquerque, NM; Huber, Dale L [Albuquerque, NM

    2008-09-09

    A biological preconcentrator comprises a stimulus-responsive active film on a stimulus-producing microfabricated platform. The active film can comprise a thermally switchable polymer film that can be used to selectively absorb and desorb proteins from a protein mixture. The biological microfabricated platform can comprise a thin membrane suspended on a substrate with an integral resistive heater and/or thermoelectric cooler for thermal switching of the active polymer film disposed on the membrane. The active polymer film can comprise hydrogel-like polymers, such as poly(ethylene oxide) or poly(n-isopropylacrylamide), that are tethered to the membrane. The biological preconcentrator can be fabricated with semiconductor materials and technologies.

  19. Systems biology of personalized nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ommen, B. van; Broek, T. van den; Hoogh, I. de; Erk, M. van; Someren, E. van; Rouhani-Rankouhi, T.; Anthony, J.C.; Hogenelst, K.; Pasman, W.; Boorsma, A.; Wopereis, S.

    2017-01-01

    Personalized nutrition is fast becoming a reality due to a number of technological, scientific, and societal developments that complement and extend current public health nutrition recommendations. Personalized nutrition tailors dietary recommendations to specific biological requirements on the

  20. Combining supramolecular chemistry with biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uhlenheuer, D.A.; Petkau - Milroy, K.; Brunsveld, L.

    2010-01-01

    Supramolecular chemistry has primarily found its inspiration in biological molecules, such as proteins and lipids, and their interactions. Currently the supramolecular assembly of designed compounds can be controlled to great extent. This provides the opportunity to combine these synthetic

  1. Managing biological diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Fred B.; Knopf, Fritz L.

    1993-01-01

    viewing issues across biological, spatial, and temporal scales (Knopf and Smith 1992), natural resource managers find much conflicting information in the literature on strategies and programs for the conservation of biological diversity (Ehrlich 1992). Moreover, recommendations provided in much of the published information available for planning or decisions not only can be debated but may prove counterproductive if implemented. Current operational efforts beg for clearer focus on fundamental concepts central to daily decisions that impact native biological diversity. Recognizing that many biologists would provide different council and at the risk of oversimplification, we offer the following 4 topical issues as fundamental guidance to wise conservation action. These recommendations are based on our collective experiences working within conservation agencies since our original, collaborative essay (Samson and Knopf 1982). They are offered as initial, rather than authoritative, steps to better align research and management decisions with what we perceive as the critical issues in conserving biological diversity at the landscape and ecosystem levels of resolution.

  2. Issues in Biological Shape Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilger, Klaus Baggesen

    This talk reflects parts of the current research at informatics and Mathematical Modelling at the Technical University of Denmark within biological shape modelling. We illustrate a series of generalizations, modifications, and applications of the elements of constructing models of shape or appear......This talk reflects parts of the current research at informatics and Mathematical Modelling at the Technical University of Denmark within biological shape modelling. We illustrate a series of generalizations, modifications, and applications of the elements of constructing models of shape...

  3. 'tomo_display' and 'vol_tools': IDL VM Packages for Tomography Data Reconstruction, Processing, and Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, M. L.; Gualda, G. A.

    2009-05-01

    One of the challenges in tomography is the availability of suitable software for image processing and analysis in 3D. We present here 'tomo_display' and 'vol_tools', two packages created in IDL that enable reconstruction, processing, and visualization of tomographic data. They complement in many ways the capabilities offered by Blob3D (Ketcham 2005 - Geosphere, 1: 32-41, DOI: 10.1130/GES00001.1) and, in combination, allow users without programming knowledge to perform all steps necessary to obtain qualitative and quantitative information using tomographic data. The package 'tomo_display' was created and is maintained by Mark Rivers. It allows the user to: (1) preprocess and reconstruct parallel beam tomographic data, including removal of anomalous pixels, ring artifact reduction, and automated determination of the rotation center, (2) visualization of both raw and reconstructed data, either as individual frames, or as a series of sequential frames. The package 'vol_tools' consists of a series of small programs created and maintained by Guilherme Gualda to perform specific tasks not included in other packages. Existing modules include simple tools for cropping volumes, generating histograms of intensity, sample volume measurement (useful for porous samples like pumice), and computation of volume differences (for differential absorption tomography). The module 'vol_animate' can be used to generate 3D animations using rendered isosurfaces around objects. Both packages use the same NetCDF format '.volume' files created using code written by Mark Rivers. Currently, only 16-bit integer volumes are created and read by the packages, but floating point and 8-bit data can easily be stored in the NetCDF format as well. A simple GUI to convert sequences of tiffs into '.volume' files is available within 'vol_tools'. Both 'tomo_display' and 'vol_tools' include options to (1) generate onscreen output that allows for dynamic visualization in 3D, (2) save sequences of tiffs to disk

  4. South African Journal of Education - Vol 28, No 4 (2008)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Education - Vol 28, No 4 (2008) ... in Italian high-school prospective mathematics and physics teachers · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ... Critical thinking: are the ideals of OBE failing us or are we failing the ideals of OBE?

  5. Schostakowitsch. Orchesterlieder (Vol. 2), Neeme Järvi / Werner Pfister

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pfister, Werner

    1996-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Schostakowitsch. Orchesterlieder (Vol. 2): Sechs Romanzen op. 21, Sechs Gedichte op. 143a, Suite auf Verse von Michelangelo Buonarroti op. 145a. Göteborger Sinfoniker, Neeme Järvi". DG CD 447 085-2 (WD: 71'06") DDD

  6. Afican Health Sciences Vol 9 No 2.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    African Health Sciences Vol 9 No 2 June 2009 ... Background:The under five mortality rate (U5MR) is measure of wellbeing and decreasing the U5MR by two .... under three scenarios 1-3. ... Negative indicates increase in childhood mortalities.

  7. Afican Health Sciences Vol 9 No 1.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    African Health Sciences Vol 9 No 1 March 2009. 41 compounds isolated from the extracts can be applied as weed killers and have been tested on the water hyacinth .... dispensing serial dilutions of the test extract, concentrations ranging from 5.0 mg/ml to 50.0 mg/ ml. McFarland No.1 standard was used in the preparation ...

  8. Ghana Medical Journal - Vol 47, No 2 (2013)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ghana Medical Journal - Vol 47, No 2 (2013). Journal Home > Archives ... DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. AB Olokoba, W Gashau, S Bwala, A Adamu, FK Salawu, 79-81 ... DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. EY Bonney, NA Addo, NAA Ntim, F Addo-Yobo, P Bondzie, KE Aryee, J Barnor, J brandful, V Bekoe, SA Ohene, W Ampofo, 82-86 ...

  9. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 12, No 21 (2013)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 12, No 21 (2013) ... Studies of the genetics of inheritance of stem rust resistance in bread wheat · EMAIL FREE .... Evaluation of the effect of ginger modified cassava starch as thickener in the formulation of ...

  10. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management - Vol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management - Vol 22, No 5 (2018) .... Growth Performance of Five Bean (Phaseolus spp) Varieties as Influenced by Organic ...

  11. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management - Vol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management - Vol 22, No 4 (2018) ... Evaluating the effect of mobility speed on the performance of three handover algorithms in ...

  12. South African Medical Journal - Vol 88, No 3 (1998)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuberculosis and anorexia nervosa · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Christopher Paul Szabo, 275-276. Books Advances in Pediatric Pulmonology. Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine Vol. 7 · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  13. Perception and acceptance of technological risks. Vol. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renn, O

    1981-01-01

    Vol. 3 discusses the problem of attitudes towards nuclear power. Data are compiled for five communities in North-Rhine Westphalia with nuclear facilities and the control community of Kerpen, which has no nuclear power plant. At the same time, the empirical and theoretical investigations are comprehensively evaluated.

  14. Nigerian Journal of Chemical Research 29 Vol. 15, 2010 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hp

    Nigerian Journal of Chemical Research. 29. Vol. 15, 2010. Antibacterial & Antifungal Studies On Some Coordination Compound Of Metals. With Ampicillin. Pranay Guru. Department of Engineering Chemistry, People's College of Research & Technology, Bhopal. (M. P.) India, email:pranayguru@rediffmail.com. ABSTRACT.

  15. AFRREV STECH, Vol. 3(1) February, 2014

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    Indexed African Journals Online: www.ajol.info. AFRREV STECH. An International Journal of Science and Technology. Bahir Dar, Ethiopia. Vol. 3 (1), S/No 6, February, 2014: 1-11. ISSN 2225-8612 (Print) ISSN 2227-5444 (Online). EFFECTS OF DEFORESTATION ON NATURAL. BIO-DIVERSITY IN DELTA NORTH ...

  16. AJESMS Vol 9 2011 October 23 2012 final

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    2011-10-23

    Oct 23, 2011 ... African Journal of Educational Studies in Mathematics and Sciences Vol. ... alveolar re-circulation and gravity orientation are key factors in determining the ..... Comp. Biomed. Res. 3, pp 675-689. Pich, J. (1972). Theory of ...

  17. Journal of EEA, Vol. 30, 2013 SIEVE TRAY EFFICIENCY USING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dell

    Journal of EEA, Vol. 30, 2013. SIEVE TRAY EFFICIENCY USING CFD MODELING AND SIMULATION ... ABSTRACT. In this work, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) .... per unit volume, MG is the molecular weight of the gas/vapor, kL and kG ...

  18. 59 East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Vol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pharm-chem

    East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. Vol. 16 (2013). There is a misconception that traditional medicine is unique to developing countries of Africa, Asia and. South America. This is certainly not true. Traditional medicine, often referred to as "alternative medicine", is widely used in developed countries ...

  19. (JASR) Vol. 12, No. 2, 2012 DEPLETING FOREST RESOURCES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    deteriorating forest resources of Nigeria and its impact on climate change. Key words: Forest Resources, ... Mangrove Forest. Sub Total. 905,930 .... South America” Global Biogeographical Cycle vol 9, pp 329-350. Miller, K. R., Reid, W. V., ...

  20. Shostakovich: The Orchestral Songs Vol. 2 / Michael Tanner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tanner, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Shostakovich: The Orchestral Songs Vol. 2: Six Romances on texts by Japanese poets, Op. 21. Six Poems on Marina Tsvetayeva, Op. 143. Suite on Verses of Michelangelo, Op. 145. Gothenburg Symphony Orchestra, Neeme Järvi". DG 447 085-2GH (71 minutes:DDD)

  1. Mizan Law Review - Vol 5, No 2 (2011)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mizan Law Review - Vol 5, No 2 (2011) ... Ethiopian Law of International Carriage by Air: An Overview · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ... Comment: Overview of the Core Changes in the New Ethiopian Urban Land Leasehold Proclamation · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  2. Afican Health Sciences Vol 10 No 1.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    African Health Sciences Vol 10 No 1 March 2010. 89. Rethinking ... There is a worsening scarcity of Human Resource for ... This is not in any way lowering standards of oncologic diagnosis but filling the otherwise ... for health ratios stand at 0.8 health workers per 1000 ... cancer occurs 10-15years earlier in black women.

  3. South African Journal of Education - Vol 31, No 1 (2011)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Education - Vol 31, No 1 (2011) ... How an analysis of reviewers' reports can enhance the quality of submissions to a journal of education ... Doctoral learning: a case for a cohort model of supervision and support ...

  4. Environmental biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschumi, P.A.

    1981-01-01

    Environmental biology illustrates the functioning of ecosystems and the dynamics of populations with many examples from limnology and terrestrial ecology. On this basis, present environmental problems are analyzed. The present environmental crisis is seen as a result of the failure to observe ecological laws. (orig.) [de

  5. Biological timekeeping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lloyd, David

    2016-01-01

    , the networks that connect differenttime domains and the oscillations, rhythms and biological clocks that coordinate andsynchronise the complexity of the living state.“It is the pattern maintained by this homeostasis, which is the touchstone ofour personal identity. Our tissues change as we live: the food we...

  6. Scaffolded biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minelli, Alessandro

    2016-09-01

    Descriptions and interpretations of the natural world are dominated by dichotomies such as organism vs. environment, nature vs. nurture, genetic vs. epigenetic, but in the last couple of decades strong dissatisfaction with those partitions has been repeatedly voiced and a number of alternative perspectives have been suggested, from perspectives such as Dawkins' extended phenotype, Turner's extended organism, Oyama's Developmental Systems Theory and Odling-Smee's niche construction theory. Last in time is the description of biological phenomena in terms of hybrids between an organism (scaffolded system) and a living or non-living scaffold, forming unit systems to study processes such as reproduction and development. As scaffold, eventually, we can define any resource used by the biological system, especially in development and reproduction, without incorporating it as happens in the case of resources fueling metabolism. Addressing biological systems as functionally scaffolded systems may help pointing to functional relationships that can impart temporal marking to the developmental process and thus explain its irreversibility; revisiting the boundary between development and metabolism and also regeneration phenomena, by suggesting a conceptual framework within which to investigate phenomena of regular hypermorphic regeneration such as characteristic of deer antlers; fixing a periodization of development in terms of the times at which a scaffolding relationship begins or is terminated; and promoting plant galls to legitimate study objects of developmental biology.

  7. Biological digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosevear, A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the biological degradation of non-radioactive organic material occurring in radioactive wastes. The biochemical steps are often performed using microbes or isolated enzymes in combination with chemical steps and the aim is to oxidise the carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulphur to their respective oxides. (U.K.)

  8. Marine Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewees, Christopher M.; Hooper, Jon K.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of informational material for a course in marine biology or oceanology at the secondary level is presented. Among the topics discussed are: food webs and pyramids, planktonic blooms, marine life, plankton nets, food chains, phytoplankton, zooplankton, larval plankton and filter feeders. (BT)

  9. Africa Development - Vol 42, No 3 (2017)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The liberal peace security regimen: a gramscian critique of its application in ... Progress and challenges in implementing the women, peace and security agenda in the African Union's peace and security architecture ... Current Issue Atom logo

  10. Rwanda Journal - Vol 4, No 1 (2017)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Julienne Murererehe, Peace Uwambaye, Moses Isyagi, Theogene Nyandwi, Kato Njunwa, 39-47 ... Peace Uwambaye, Kato Njunwa, Assouman Nuhu, Anne Kumurenzi, Moses Isyagi, Julienne Murererehe, Donart ... Current Issue Atom logo

  11. Egyptian Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 25 (2007)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue ... of thermostable alkaline protease under solid state fermentation conditions for ... of toxigenic Pennicium strains and mycotoxins production in different feedstuffs ...

  12. TJOG Vol 26 No 1.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to reduce the rising trend especially in developing countries where the figures are competing seriously with those ... Objective: The study assesses the current caesarean section rate in the hospital, ... birth to women aged 30-50 years despite a.

  13. Weak currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite Lopes, J.

    1976-01-01

    A survey of the fundamental ideas on weak currents such as CVC and PCAC and a presentation of the Cabibbo current and the neutral weak currents according to the Salam-Weinberg model and the Glashow-Iliopoulos-Miami model are given [fr

  14. Spin current

    CERN Document Server

    Valenzuela, Sergio O; Saitoh, Eiji; Kimura, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    In a new branch of physics and technology called spin-electronics or spintronics, the flow of electrical charge (usual current) as well as the flow of electron spin, the so-called 'spin current', are manipulated and controlled together. This book provides an introduction and guide to the new physics and application of spin current.

  15. Biological Soft Robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Adam W

    2015-01-01

    In nature, nanometer-scale molecular motors are used to generate force within cells for diverse processes from transcription and transport to muscle contraction. This adaptability and scalability across wide temporal, spatial, and force regimes have spurred the development of biological soft robotic systems that seek to mimic and extend these capabilities. This review describes how molecular motors are hierarchically organized into larger-scale structures in order to provide a basic understanding of how these systems work in nature and the complexity and functionality we hope to replicate in biological soft robotics. These span the subcellular scale to macroscale, and this article focuses on the integration of biological components with synthetic materials, coupled with bioinspired robotic design. Key examples include nanoscale molecular motor-powered actuators, microscale bacteria-controlled devices, and macroscale muscle-powered robots that grasp, walk, and swim. Finally, the current challenges and future opportunities in the field are addressed.

  16. Clinical and Radiation Oncology. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurga, L.; Adam, Z.; Autrata, R.

    2010-01-01

    The work is two-volume set and has 1,658 pages. It is divided into 5 sections: I. Principles Clinical and radiation oncology. II. Hematological Malignant tumors. III. Solid tumors. IV. Treatment options metastatic Disease. V. Clinical practice in oncology. First volume contains following sections a chapters: Section I: Principles of clinical and radiation oncology, it contains following chapters: (1) The history of clinical/experimental and radiation oncology in the Czech Republic; (2) The history of clinical/experimental and radiation oncology in the Slovak Republic - development and development of oncology in Slovakia; (3) Clinical and radiation oncology as part of evidence-based medicine; (4) Molecular biology; (5) Tumor Disease; (6) Epidemiology and prevention of malignant tumors; (7) Diagnosis, staging, stratification and monitoring of patients in oncology; (8) Imaging methods in oncology; (9) Principles of surgical treatment of cancer diseases; (10) Symptomatology and signaling of malignant tumors - systemic, paraneoplastic and paraendocrine manifestations of tumor diseases; (11) Principles of radiation oncology; (12 Modeling radiobiological effects of radiotherapy; (13) Principles of anticancer chemotherapy; (14) Hormonal manipulation in the treatment of tumors; (15) Principles of biological and targeted treatment of solid tumors; (16) Method of multimodal therapy of malignant tumors; (17) Evaluation of treatment response, performance evaluation criteria (RECIST); (18) Adverse effects of cancer chemotherapy and the principles of their prevention and treatment; (19) Biological principles of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; (20) Design, analysis and ethical aspects of clinical studies in oncology; (21) Fundamentals of biostatistics for oncologists; (22) Information infrastructure for clinical and radiological oncology based on evidence; (23) Pharmacoeconomic aspects in oncology; (24) Respecting patient preferences when deciding on the strategy and

  17. Biological warfare agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraipandian Thavaselvam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies.

  18. Biological warfare agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavaselvam, Duraipandian; Vijayaraghavan, Rajagopalan

    2010-01-01

    The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies. PMID:21829313

  19. Marine biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index

  20. JAERI TIARA annual report vol. 1 (1992)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishigaki, Isao; Nashiyama, Isamu; Naramoto, Hiroshi; Omichi, Hideki; Tanaka, Ryuichi; Watanabe, Hiromasa; Watanabe, Hiroshi

    1993-03-01

    This annual report describes research activities which have been performed with the JAERI TIARA (Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application) facilities from April 1, 1991 to March 31, 1992, and also gives an outline of the ion accelerators and surrounding apparatus which have been constructed and prepared for various experiments. As well as an outline of the characteristics of AVF cyclotron, 3 MV tandem electrostatic accelerator and other ones, included are 25 summary reports on preparation of experimental apparatus and on the preliminary results of experimental studies using the 3 MV tandem accelerator in the different research fields of beam technology, materials for space environment and nuclear fusion reactor, organic and inorganic functional materials, biology, medicine, radiation chemistry, radioisotope production and nuclear chemistry. Lists of publication, staff of TIARA and cooperated researchers are also given. (author)

  1. 26. colloquium spectroscopicum international. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsalev, D.

    1989-01-01

    The central topic of the CSI is analytical spectroscopy of atoms and molecules. Special attention is paid to new methods and techniques; laser spectroscopy; applications in the field of technology, environmental protection, medicine and biology. The whole scientific programme includes about 60 invited papers and over 600 posters. This volume contains 245 abstracts grouped in the following sections: Atomic emission and fluorescence spectroscopy, ICP-mass, ICP-, DCP- and MIP-optical emission spectrometry , X-ray emission and fluorescence spectrometry, γ-ray and Moessbauer spectroscopy, Laser spectroscopy, Plasma spectroscopy, Surface spectroscopy, Astrophysical spectroscopy, Nonlinear spectroscopy, Radiation sources and detectors and Spectra acquisition and processing. 69 of them have been documented separately in INIS

  2. Serpins in arthropod biology

    OpenAIRE

    Meekins, David A.; Kanost, Michael R.; Michel, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Serpins are the largest known family of serine proteinase inhibitors and perform a variety of physiological functions in arthropods. Herein, we review the field of serpins in arthropod biology, providing an overview of current knowledge and topics of interest. Serpins regulate insect innate immunity via inhibition of serine proteinase cascades that initiate immune responses such as melanization and antimicrobial peptide production. In addition, several serpins with anti-pathogen activity are ...

  3. Annual Review of Psychology, Vol. 29, 1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenzweig, Mark R., Ed.; Porter, Lyman W., Ed.

    The volume contains 20 scholarly essays on current research in representative areas of the field of psychology. Most of the authors are professors and researchers at universities in the United States, representing departments of psychology, management, social ecology, human development, education, psychiatry, and medicine. A few private research…

  4. Structural Biology Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIGMS NIGMS Home > Science Education > Structural Biology Structural Biology Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area PDF Version (688 KB) Other Fact Sheets What is structural biology? Structural biology is the study of how biological ...

  5. USSR Report, Space Biology and Aerospace Medicine, Vol. 18, No. 5, September-October 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-11-20

    should be primarily of plant origin, with a large share of unsaturated fatty acids. Vitamin (water- and lipid-soluble) intake should be increased to... vitamins . The food items in the diet should be selected in accordance with the individual preferences of expedition members, taking into consideration...concen- trations of Ca ions higher by a factor of 10 (see K3 and K3 ) in Figure 2), which is apparently related to the lower Ca2+ activity of

  6. USSR Report, Space Biology and Aerospace Medicine, Vol. 18, No. 3, May-June 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-03

    pressor effect in 72% after stimulation of mechanoreceptors and chemoreceptors of internal organs, skin and muscles. There is distinct demonstration...0.2 m£; I 10 ug/£; F 0.8 mg/Jl; Na+ 10 mg/jl; K+ 4 mg/£; transparency 30 cm; taste 0-1 score, odor 0 score. The final stage of our study was a test...glacier melt. The treated water had no extraneous odor or aftertaste. The mountain climbers recommended broader use of salt tablets to improve the taste

  7. Synthetic biology and occupational risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, John; Murashov, Vladimir; Schulte, Paul

    2017-03-01

    Synthetic biology is an emerging interdisciplinary field of biotechnology that involves applying the principles of engineering and chemical design to biological systems. Biosafety professionals have done an excellent job in addressing research laboratory safety as synthetic biology and gene editing have emerged from the larger field of biotechnology. Despite these efforts, risks posed by synthetic biology are of increasing concern as research procedures scale up to industrial processes in the larger bioeconomy. A greater number and variety of workers will be exposed to commercial synthetic biology risks in the future, including risks to a variety of workers from the use of lentiviral vectors as gene transfer devices. There is a need to review and enhance current protection measures in the field of synthetic biology, whether in experimental laboratories where new advances are being researched, in health care settings where treatments using viral vectors as gene delivery systems are increasingly being used, or in the industrial bioeconomy. Enhanced worker protection measures should include increased injury and illness surveillance of the synthetic biology workforce; proactive risk assessment and management of synthetic biology products; research on the relative effectiveness of extrinsic and intrinsic biocontainment methods; specific safety guidance for synthetic biology industrial processes; determination of appropriate medical mitigation measures for lentiviral vector exposure incidents; and greater awareness and involvement in synthetic biology safety by the general occupational safety and health community as well as by government occupational safety and health research and regulatory agencies.

  8. Editor's Note The current issue — Vol. 2. No.2, of the Contemporary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    branding opportunity the appearance of the journal has been transformed to make it more appealing in design. It has been re-sized to make it conform to the dimensions of similar journals on the market. In all other respects, however, the. CJAS should be seen as a continuation of the Research Review. It continues to be ...

  9. Current Writing: Text and Reception in Southern Africa - Vol 18, No 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lions, leopards and liminal spaces:Representations of Biosociality in the Writings of Katy Payne, Linda Tucker and Gillian van Houten · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. W Woodward ...

  10. Biological Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    These chemicals or organisms increase the rate at which microorganisms break down complex compounds into simpler products (biodegredation). Two bioremediation technologies currently being used for oil spill cleanups are fertilization and seeding.

  11. The feasibility of a regional CTDIvol to estimate organ dose from tube current modulated CT exams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatonabadi, Maryam; Kim, Hyun J.; Lu, Peiyun; McMillan, Kyle L.; Cagnon, Chris H.; McNitt-Gray, Michael F.; DeMarco, John J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In AAPM Task Group 204, the size-specific dose estimate (SSDE) was developed by providing size adjustment factors which are applied to the Computed Tomography (CT) standardized dose metric, CTDI vol . However, that work focused on fixed tube current scans and did not specifically address tube current modulation (TCM) scans, which are currently the majority of clinical scans performed. The purpose of this study was to extend the SSDE concept to account for TCM by investigating the feasibility of using anatomic and organ specific regions of scanner output to improve accuracy of dose estimates. Methods: Thirty-nine adult abdomen/pelvis and 32 chest scans from clinically indicated CT exams acquired on a multidetector CT using TCM were obtained with Institutional Review Board approval for generating voxelized models. Along with image data, raw projection data were obtained to extract TCM functions for use in Monte Carlo simulations. Patient size was calculated using the effective diameter described in TG 204. In addition, the scanner-reported CTDI vol (CTDI vol,global ) was obtained for each patient, which is based on the average tube current across the entire scan. For the abdomen/pelvis scans, liver, spleen, and kidneys were manually segmented from the patient datasets; for the chest scans, lungs and for female models only, glandular breast tissue were segmented. For each patient organ doses were estimated using Monte Carlo Methods. To investigate the utility of regional measures of scanner output, regional and organ anatomic boundaries were identified from image data and used to calculate regional and organ-specific average tube current values. From these regional and organ-specific averages, CTDI vol values, referred to as regional and organ-specific CTDI vol , were calculated for each patient. Using an approach similar to TG 204, all CTDI vol values were used to normalize simulated organ doses; and the ability of each normalized dose to correlate with

  12. Index to Nuclear Safety. A technical progress review by chronology, permuted title, and author. Vol. 11, No. 1 through Vol. 15, No. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottrell, W.B.; Klein, A.

    1975-04-01

    This issue of the Index to Nuclear Safety covers only articles included in Nuclear Safety, Vol. 11, No. 1, through Vol. 15, No. 6. This index is presented in three sections as follows: Chronological List of Articles by Volume; Permuted Title (KWIC) Index; and Author Index. (U.S.)

  13. Progress in medical radiation physics. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orton, C.G.

    1982-01-01

    This book is the first of a series that will provide in-depth reviews of new developments in medical radiation physics. This volume is directed toward application scientists who are involved with research in this field. Six chapters review current topics in medical radiation physics. The first chapter reviews neutron dosimetry for biomedical applications. The second chapter briefly surveys current tissue inhomogeneity corrections in proton-beam treatment planning. Chapter three deals with anthropomorphic phantom materials. It includes a useful table of recommended tissue substitutes and information on manufacturing. The fourth chapter reviews applications of computed tomography (CT) in radiotherapy treatment planning. Chapter five is a short introduction to positron imaging. The last chapter describes optical methods for radiograph storage

  14. Biology Branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, W F

    1974-12-31

    Progress is reported on the following studies in biochemistry and molecular biology: study of long pyrimidine polynucleotides in DNA; isolation of thymine dimers from Schizosaccharomyces pombe; thermal stability of high molecular weight RNA; nucleases of Micrococcus radiodurans; effect of ionizing radiation on M. radiodurans cell walls and cell membranes; chemical modification of nucleotides; exonucleases of M. radiodurans; and enzymatic basis of repair of radioinduced damage in M. radiodurans. Genetics, development, and population studies include repair pathways and mutation induction in yeast; induction of pure mutant clones in yeast; radiosensitivity of bacteriophage T4; polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of bacteriophage T4; radiation genetics of Dahibominus; and radiation studies on bitting flies. (HLW)

  15. Radiotracers in medical applications, vols 1-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rayudu, G.V.S.

    1983-01-01

    These volumes will serve as a basis for instruction and reference for professionals such as radiopharmaceutical chemists, radiopharmacologists, radiopharmacists, radiobiochemists, and others involved in the medical applications of radiotracers. Vol. I: Topics include radiohalogenated compounds, including radioiodine; Tc-labeled compounds; and in-house prepared radiopharmaceuticals. The charge particle range vs. energy in every element is tabulated for protons for cyclotrons users. Discussions are also provided on nonimaging radiotracer methods; 11 C, 13 N, 15 O, 67 Ga. 111 In, 75 Se, /SUP 123m/ Te compounds; radioactive noble gases; and miscellaneous radiotracers for imaging. Vol. II: Pertinent nuclear science data such as radiation dosimetry, radionuclide production modes, radionuclides for therapy, human experimentation regulations and consent forms, and radiotracer laboratory designs are presented

  16. Current limiters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loescher, D.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Systems Surety Assessment Dept.; Noren, K. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1996-09-01

    The current that flows between the electrical test equipment and the nuclear explosive must be limited to safe levels during electrical tests conducted on nuclear explosives at the DOE Pantex facility. The safest way to limit the current is to use batteries that can provide only acceptably low current into a short circuit; unfortunately this is not always possible. When it is not possible, current limiters, along with other design features, are used to limit the current. Three types of current limiters, the fuse blower, the resistor limiter, and the MOSFET-pass-transistor limiters, are used extensively in Pantex test equipment. Detailed failure mode and effects analyses were conducted on these limiters. Two other types of limiters were also analyzed. It was found that there is no best type of limiter that should be used in all applications. The fuse blower has advantages when many circuits must be monitored, a low insertion voltage drop is important, and size and weight must be kept low. However, this limiter has many failure modes that can lead to the loss of over current protection. The resistor limiter is simple and inexpensive, but is normally usable only on circuits for which the nominal current is less than a few tens of milliamperes. The MOSFET limiter can be used on high current circuits, but it has a number of single point failure modes that can lead to a loss of protective action. Because bad component placement or poor wire routing can defeat any limiter, placement and routing must be designed carefully and documented thoroughly.

  17. Spin current

    CERN Document Server

    Valenzuela, Sergio O; Saitoh, Eiji; Kimura, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Since the discovery of the giant magnetoresistance effect in magnetic multilayers in 1988, a new branch of physics and technology, called spin-electronics or spintronics, has emerged, where the flow of electrical charge as well as the flow of electron spin, the so-called “spin current,” are manipulated and controlled together. The physics of magnetism and the application of spin current have progressed in tandem with the nanofabrication technology of magnets and the engineering of interfaces and thin films. This book aims to provide an introduction and guide to the new physics and applications of spin current, with an emphasis on the interaction between spin and charge currents in magnetic nanostructures.

  18. Bayes in biological anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konigsberg, Lyle W; Frankenberg, Susan R

    2013-12-01

    In this article, we both contend and illustrate that biological anthropologists, particularly in the Americas, often think like Bayesians but act like frequentists when it comes to analyzing a wide variety of data. In other words, while our research goals and perspectives are rooted in probabilistic thinking and rest on prior knowledge, we often proceed to use statistical hypothesis tests and confidence interval methods unrelated (or tenuously related) to the research questions of interest. We advocate for applying Bayesian analyses to a number of different bioanthropological questions, especially since many of the programming and computational challenges to doing so have been overcome in the past two decades. To facilitate such applications, this article explains Bayesian principles and concepts, and provides concrete examples of Bayesian computer simulations and statistics that address questions relevant to biological anthropology, focusing particularly on bioarchaeology and forensic anthropology. It also simultaneously reviews the use of Bayesian methods and inference within the discipline to date. This article is intended to act as primer to Bayesian methods and inference in biological anthropology, explaining the relationships of various methods to likelihoods or probabilities and to classical statistical models. Our contention is not that traditional frequentist statistics should be rejected outright, but that there are many situations where biological anthropology is better served by taking a Bayesian approach. To this end it is hoped that the examples provided in this article will assist researchers in choosing from among the broad array of statistical methods currently available. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Biology task group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The accomplishments of the task group studies over the past year are reviewed. The purposes of biological investigations, in the context of subseabed disposal, are: an evaluation of the dose to man; an estimation of effects on the ecosystem; and an estimation of the influence of organisms on and as barriers to radionuclide migration. To accomplish these ends, the task group adopted the following research goals: (1) acquire more data on biological accumulation of specific radionuclides, such as those of Tc, Np, Ra, and Sr; (2) acquire more data on transfer coefficients from sediment to organism; (3) Calculate mass transfer rates, construct simple models using them, and estimate collective dose commitment; (4) Identify specific pathways or transfer routes, determine the rates of transfer, and make dose limit calculations with simple models; (5) Calculate dose rates to and estimate irradiation effects on the biota as a result of waste emplacement, by reference to background irradiation calculations. (6) Examine the effect of the biota on altering sediment/water radionuclide exchange; (7) Consider the biological data required to address different accident scenarios; (8) Continue to provide the basic biological information for all of the above, and ensure that the system analysis model is based on the most realistic and up-to-date concepts of marine biologists; and (9) Ensure by way of free exchange of information that the data used in any model are the best currently available

  20. Biological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trott, K.R.

    1973-01-01

    Following an introduction into the field of cellular radiation effect considering the most important experimental results, the biological significance of the colony formation ability is brought out. The inactivation concept of stem cells does not only prove to be good, according to the present results, in the interpretation of the pathogenesis of acute radiation effects on moult tissue, it also enables chronicle radiation injuries to be interpreted through changes in the fibrous part of the organs. Radiation therapy of tumours can also be explained to a large extent by the radiation effect on the unlimited reproductiveness of tumour cells. The more or less similar dose effect curves for healthy and tumour tissue in practice lead to intermittent irradiation. The dependence of the intermittent doses and intervals on factors such as Elkind recovery, synchronisation, redistribution, reoxygenation, repopulation and regeneration are reviewed. (ORU/LH) [de

  1. Biological fuel cells and their applications

    OpenAIRE

    Shukla, AK; Suresh, P; Berchmans, S; Rajendran, A

    2004-01-01

    One type of genuine fuel cell that does hold promise in the long-term is the biological fuel cell. Unlike conventional fuel cells, which employ hydrogen, ethanol and methanol as fuel, biological fuel cells use organic products produced by metabolic processes or use organic electron donors utilized in the growth processes as fuels for current generation. A distinctive feature of biological fuel cells is that the electrode reactions are controlled by biocatalysts, i.e. the biological redox-reac...

  2. Anestesia volátil e monitorização anestésica.

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre, Nuno; Costa, Margarida; Mascarenhas, Ramiro

    2009-01-01

    Os autores apresentam um texto de apoio à disciplina de anestesiologia do curso de Medicina Veterinária .Neste texto são abordadas diversas temáticas da anestesia volátil tais como: equipamentos utilizados em anestesia volátil, farmacologia dos anestésicos voláteis. A monitorização dos pacientes é abordada na vertente mecânica ou intrumental e na componente básica.

  3. Checklist for imaging methods. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenz, W.

    1988-01-01

    The checklists in current medicine are intended as a source of information and reference. The first part of this issue explains examination techniques in practice and in hospitals. The second part deals with aetiology, pathogenesis and clinical symptomatology, with findings and examination techniques leading to the specific diagnosis, and, where appropriate, with differential diagnosis and conservative therapy of the various diseases. The third part gives concise information on possible surgery, surgical principles and techniques, which in this context means interventional radiology. The chapters of the second part each discuss a specific body area or disease, such as the abdominal cavity, the extraperitoneal region, the retroperitoneum, acute abdomen, acute abdominal trauma, acute affections of the abdominal wall, the stomach, the post-surgery stomach, duodenum, the small intestine, the colon, sigma and rectum, the gallbladder and bile ducts, the liver, spleen, pancreas, kidneys, and the peritoneum. (orig./MG) With 256 figs., 24 tabs [de

  4. Scientific computing vol III - approximation and integration

    CERN Document Server

    Trangenstein, John A

    2017-01-01

    This is the third of three volumes providing a comprehensive presentation of the fundamentals of scientific computing. This volume discusses topics that depend more on calculus than linear algebra, in order to prepare the reader for solving differential equations. This book and its companions show how to determine the quality of computational results, and how to measure the relative efficiency of competing methods. Readers learn how to determine the maximum attainable accuracy of algorithms, and how to select the best method for computing problems. This book also discusses programming in several languages, including C++, Fortran and MATLAB. There are 90 examples, 200 exercises, 36 algorithms, 40 interactive JavaScript programs, 91 references to software programs and 1 case study. Topics are introduced with goals, literature references and links to public software. There are descriptions of the current algorithms in GSLIB and MATLAB. This book could be used for a second course in numerical methods, for either ...

  5. Scientific computing vol II - eigenvalues and optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Trangenstein, John A

    2017-01-01

    This is the second of three volumes providing a comprehensive presentation of the fundamentals of scientific computing. This volume discusses more advanced topics than volume one, and is largely not a prerequisite for volume three. This book and its companions show how to determine the quality of computational results, and how to measure the relative efficiency of competing methods. Readers learn how to determine the maximum attainable accuracy of algorithms, and how to select the best method for computing problems. This book also discusses programming in several languages, including C++, Fortran and MATLAB. There are 49 examples, 110 exercises, 66 algorithms, 24 interactive JavaScript programs, 77 references to software programs and 1 case study. Topics are introduced with goals, literature references and links to public software. There are descriptions of the current algorithms in LAPACK, GSLIB and MATLAB. This book could be used for a second course in numerical methods, for either upper level undergraduate...

  6. Energy storage, compression, and switching. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nardi, V.; Bostick, W.H.; Sahlin, H.

    1983-01-01

    This book is a compilation of papers presented at the Second International Conference on Energy Storage, Compression, and Switching, which was held in order to assemble active researchers with a major interest in plasma physics, electron beams, electric and magnetic energy storage systems, high voltage and high current switches, free-electron lasers, and pellet implosion plasma focus. Topics covered include: Slow systems: 50-60 Hz machinery, homopolar generators, slow capacitors, inductors, and solid state switches; Intermediate systems: fast capacitor banks; superconducting storage and switching; gas, vacuum, and dielectric switching; nonlinear (magnetic) switching; imploding liners capacitors; explosive generators; and fuses; and Fast systems: Marx, Blumlein, oil, water, and pressurized water dielectrics; switches; magnetic insulation; electron beams; and plasmas

  7. Soils newsletter. Vol. 25, No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-06-01

    This issue of the Newsletter announces the two new co-ordinated research projects (CRPs), each of 5 years duration, were approved in March: Assess the effectiveness of soil conservation techniques for sustainable watershed management using fallout radionuclides; Selection for greater agronomic water use efficiency in wheat and rice using carbon isotope discrimination. Both CRPs are interdisciplinary - the first with the Isotope Hydrology Section and the second with the Plant Breeding and Genetics Section. Research contract and agreement proposals are presently being invited for the first project, which will be implemented in 2002, while the second project will be implemented in 2003. Preparations for Symposium 59 'Towards Integrated Soil, Water and Nutrient Management in Cropping Systems: the Role of Nuclear Techniques' at the 17th World Congress of Soil Science, 14-21 August 2002, Bangkok, Thailand, are being finalized. Due to the large response to the call for papers, the symposium was extended from a half-day to a full-day event, with 14 oral presentations and approximately 80 poster presentations scheduled. As sponsors of Symposium 59, we have been offered a cost-free booth to display our projects and products. The symposium and booth are both important mechanisms to increase awareness and visibility and demonstrate sub-programme activities to a large cross section of the international scientific community concerned with natural resource management. The Agency is providing financial support to nine participants from developing countries to attend the Congress. Memoranda of Understanding (MOUs) were signed recently with several Organisations to foster international co-operation and collaboration. The agreements are with the International Fertilizer Development Centre (IFDC), the Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility Programme (TSBF) and the International Wheat and Maize Improvement Centre (CIMMYT). MOUs were previously agreed with IRRI, ICRAF, ICRISAT, ICARDA

  8. Approaches to chemical synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarabelli, Cristiano; Stano, Pasquale; Anella, Fabrizio; Carrara, Paolo; Luisi, Pier Luigi

    2012-07-16

    Synthetic biology is first represented in terms of two complementary aspects, the bio-engineering one, based on the genetic manipulation of extant microbial forms in order to obtain forms of life which do not exist in nature; and the chemical synthetic biology, an approach mostly based on chemical manipulation for the laboratory synthesis of biological structures that do not exist in nature. The paper is mostly devoted to shortly review chemical synthetic biology projects currently carried out in our laboratory. In particular, we describe: the minimal cell project, then the "Never Born Proteins" and lastly the Never Born RNAs. We describe and critically analyze the main results, emphasizing the possible relevance of chemical synthetic biology for the progress in basic science and biotechnology. Copyright © 2012 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Biological treatment of Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Bjerrum, Jacob Tveiten; Seidelin, Jakob Benedict

    2012-01-01

    Introduction of biological agents for the treatment of Crohn's disease (CD) has led to a transformation of the treatment paradigm. Several biological compounds have been approved for patients with CD refractory to conventional treatment: infliximab, adalimumab and certolizumab pegol (and...... natalizumab in several countries outside the European Union). However, despite the use of biologics for more than a decade, questions still remain about the true efficacy and the best treatment regimens - especially about when to discontinue treatment. Furthermore, a need for optimizing treatment...... with biologics still exists, as 20-40% of patients with CD (depending on selection criteria) do not have any relevant response to the current biological agents (i.e. primary failures). A better patient selection might maximize the clinical outcome while minimizing the complications associated with this type...

  10. Neutral currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschos, E.A.

    1977-01-01

    It is stated that over the past few years considerable progress has been made in the field of weak interactions. The existence of neutral currents involving leptons and hadrons has been established and some of the questions concerning their detailed structure have been answered. This imposes constraints on the gauge theories and has eliminated large classes of models. New questions have also been raised, one of which concerns the conservation laws obeyed by neutral currents. The wide range of investigations is impressive and is expected to continue with new results from particle, nuclear, and atomic physics. Headings include - various aspects of a gauge theory (choice of group, the symmetry breaking scheme, representation assignments for fermion fields); space-time structure; isospin structure; leptonic neutral currents; and atomic experiments. (U.K.)

  11. Creating biological nanomaterials using synthetic biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, MaryJoe K; Ruder, Warren C

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic biology is a new discipline that combines science and engineering approaches to precisely control biological networks. These signaling networks are especially important in fields such as biomedicine and biochemical engineering. Additionally, biological networks can also be critical to the production of naturally occurring biological nanomaterials, and as a result, synthetic biology holds tremendous potential in creating new materials. This review introduces the field of synthetic biology, discusses how biological systems naturally produce materials, and then presents examples and strategies for incorporating synthetic biology approaches in the development of new materials. In particular, strategies for using synthetic biology to produce both organic and inorganic nanomaterials are discussed. Ultimately, synthetic biology holds the potential to dramatically impact biological materials science with significant potential applications in medical systems. (review)

  12. Creating biological nanomaterials using synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, MaryJoe K; Ruder, Warren C

    2014-02-01

    Synthetic biology is a new discipline that combines science and engineering approaches to precisely control biological networks. These signaling networks are especially important in fields such as biomedicine and biochemical engineering. Additionally, biological networks can also be critical to the production of naturally occurring biological nanomaterials, and as a result, synthetic biology holds tremendous potential in creating new materials. This review introduces the field of synthetic biology, discusses how biological systems naturally produce materials, and then presents examples and strategies for incorporating synthetic biology approaches in the development of new materials. In particular, strategies for using synthetic biology to produce both organic and inorganic nanomaterials are discussed. Ultimately, synthetic biology holds the potential to dramatically impact biological materials science with significant potential applications in medical systems.

  13. Neutral currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, B.

    1994-11-01

    The evidence for the existence of weak neutral current has been a very controverted topics in the early 1970's, as well as the muon did in the 1930's. The history is very rich considering the evolution of the experimental techniques in high energy particle physics. The history of the discovery and the study of weak neutral current is reviewed. Later the quest of the intermediate vector boson continues with the decision of the community to build a large proton antiproton collider. (K.A.). 14 refs., 1 fig

  14. Proceedings of the second international conference on environmental impact assessment of all economical activities. Vol. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Proceedings of the conference consist of 3 volumes: Vol. 1 - 'Environmental Impact Assessment of all Economical Activities including Industry'; Vol. 2 - 'Air Pollution Control and Prevention'; Vol. 3 - Waste Management and Environmental Problems in Construction Industry'. Out of 39 papers contained in Vol. 3, 3 were inputted to INIS. They deal with the use of portable radioisotope X-ray fluorescence analyzers in the determination of building material contamination by toxic elements, with underground waste repositories and ground water contamination, and the impact of the Temelin nuclear power plant on the hydrosphere and other environmental components. (Z.S.)

  15. Quantum physics meets biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Markus; Juffmann, Thomas; Vedral, Vlatko

    2009-12-01

    Quantum physics and biology have long been regarded as unrelated disciplines, describing nature at the inanimate microlevel on the one hand and living species on the other hand. Over the past decades the life sciences have succeeded in providing ever more and refined explanations of macroscopic phenomena that were based on an improved understanding of molecular structures and mechanisms. Simultaneously, quantum physics, originally rooted in a world-view of quantum coherences, entanglement, and other nonclassical effects, has been heading toward systems of increasing complexity. The present perspective article shall serve as a "pedestrian guide" to the growing interconnections between the two fields. We recapitulate the generic and sometimes unintuitive characteristics of quantum physics and point to a number of applications in the life sciences. We discuss our criteria for a future "quantum biology," its current status, recent experimental progress, and also the restrictions that nature imposes on bold extrapolations of quantum theory to macroscopic phenomena.

  16. Biologic Therapy and Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Ravi K; Busse, William W

    2018-02-01

    Although airway inflammation is an intrinsic and key feature of asthma, this response varies in its intensity and translation to clinical characteristics and responsiveness to treatment. The observations that clinical heterogeneity is an important aspect of asthma and a feature that likely dictates and determines responses to treatment in severe asthma, patient responsiveness to medication is incomplete, and risks for exacerbation are increased. The development of biologics, which target selected and specific components of inflammation, has been a promising advance to achieve asthma control in patients with severe disease. This article reviews the current biologics available and under development and how their use has affected asthma and which subpopulations appear to benefit the greatest. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  17. Current algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, M.

    1967-01-01

    The first three chapters of these lecture notes are devoted to generalities concerning current algebra. The weak currents are defined, and their main properties given (V-A hypothesis, conserved vector current, selection rules, partially conserved axial current,...). The SU (3) x SU (3) algebra of Gell-Mann is introduced, and the general properties of the non-leptonic weak Hamiltonian are discussed. Chapters 4 to 9 are devoted to some important applications of the algebra. First one proves the Adler- Weisberger formula, in two different ways, by either the infinite momentum frame, or the near-by singularities method. In the others chapters, the latter method is the only one used. The following topics are successively dealt with: semi leptonic decays of K mesons and hyperons, Kroll- Ruderman theorem, non leptonic decays of K mesons and hyperons ( ΔI = 1/2 rule), low energy theorems concerning processes with emission (or absorption) of a pion or a photon, super-convergence sum rules, and finally, neutrino reactions. (author) [fr

  18. Current Titles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Various

    2006-06-01

    This booklet is published for those interested in current research being conducted at the National Center for Electron Microscopy. The NCEM is a DOE-designated national user facility and is available at no charge to qualified researchers. Access is controlled by an external steering committee. Interested researchers may contact Jane Cavlina, Administrator, at 510/486-6036.

  19. Current scenario

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Current scenario. India , like other parts of the world, is also facing the problem of increase in the incidence of drug resistance in tuberculosis. Multi-drug resistance (MDR, resistance to RIF & INH) and extensively drug resistant strains (X-DR, resistance to RIF, INH, FQs ...

  20. Integrative radiation systems biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unger, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Maximisation of the ratio of normal tissue preservation and tumour cell reduction is the main concept of radiotherapy alone or combined with chemo-, immuno- or biologically targeted therapy. The foremost parameter influencing this ratio is radiation sensitivity and its modulation towards a more efficient killing of tumour cells and a better preservation of normal tissue at the same time is the overall aim of modern therapy schemas. Nevertheless, this requires a deep understanding of the molecular mechanisms of radiation sensitivity in order to identify its key players as potential therapeutic targets. Moreover, the success of conventional approaches that tried to statistically associate altered radiation sensitivity with any molecular phenotype such as gene expression proofed to be somewhat limited since the number of clinically used targets is rather sparse. However, currently a paradigm shift is taking place from pure frequentistic association analysis to the rather holistic systems biology approach that seeks to mathematically model the system to be investigated and to allow the prediction of an altered phenotype as the function of one single or a signature of biomarkers. Integrative systems biology also considers the data from different molecular levels such as the genome, transcriptome or proteome in order to partially or fully comprehend the causal chain of molecular mechanisms. An example for the application of this concept currently carried out at the Clinical Cooperation Group “Personalized Radiotherapy in Head and Neck Cancer” of the Helmholtz-Zentrum München and the LMU Munich is described. This review article strives for providing a compact overview on the state of the art of systems biology, its actual challenges, potential applications, chances and limitations in radiation oncology research working towards improved personalised therapy concepts using this relatively new methodology

  1. Decision making in radiation oncology. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Jiade J.; Brady, Luther W.

    2011-01-01

    Decision Making in Radiation Oncology is a reference book designed to enable radiation oncologists, including those in training, to make diagnostic and treatment decisions effectively and efficiently. The orientation of this groundbreaking publication is entirely practical, in that the focus is on issues relating to cancer management. The design has been carefully chosen based on the belief that ''a picture is worth a thousand words'': Knowledge is conveyed through an illustrative approach using algorithms, schemas, graphics, and tables. Text is kept to a minimum, reducing the effort involved in reading while enhancing understanding. Detailed guidelines are provided for multidisciplinary cancer management as well as for radiation therapy techniques. In addition to the attention-riveting algorithms for diagnosis and treatment, strategies for the management of disease at individual stages are detailed for all the commonly diagnosed malignancies. Detailed attention is given to the core evidence that has shaped the current treatment standards and advanced radiation therapy techniques. Clinical trials that have yielded ''gold standard'' treatment and their results are documented in the schemas. Moreover, radiation techniques, including treatment planning and delivery, are also presented in an illustrative way. (orig.)

  2. Report of Activity, 1996 - 1997. Vol.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouvry, Stephane

    1999-01-01

    This report covers the activity developed in the Division of Theoretical Physics of the Orsay Institute of Nuclear Physics during 1996-1997. Summary reports and short communications are grouped in the following sections: 1. Statistical Physics (37 papers); 2. Nuclear Physics (22 papers); 3. Field and Particles (25 papers); 4. Mathematical Physics (3 papers). The report is completed with a list of publications, seminars, conferences, as well as external/internal reports, lectures and theses. In the field of nuclear physics the research has been focussed on superdeformed nuclei, high spin states, far-off-stability nuclei, high excitation energy levels and nuclear matter thermodynamics. These subjects were often associated to the experimental research developed in the frame of large experimental programs as EUROGAM, SPIRAL, EDEN, INDRA, etc in which IN2P3 is currently participating. In the field of Field Theory and Particle Physics the studies were related to non-perturbative aspects of the quantum field theory, on one side and to quantum chromodynamics, through the phenomenological analyses of the hadron structure and interactions, on the other side

  3. CINDA 75. Vol. 1 Z<=52

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    CINDA, the Computer Index of Neutron Data, contains bibliographical references to measurements, calculations, reviews and evaluations of neutron cross-sections and other microscopic neutron data; it includes also index references to computer libraries of numerical neutron data exchanged between four regional neutron data centres. CINDA 75 is a cumulative issue in two volumes, which supersedes all earlier issues. It contains the complete CINDA file as at 1 April 1975. The compilation and publication of CINDA are the result of world-wide co-operation involving the following four information centres. Each centre is responsible for compiling the CINDA entries from the literature published in a defined geographical area given in brackets: (1) The USA National Neutron Cross-Section Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory, USA (United States and Canada). (2) The USSR Nuclear Data Centre at the Fiziko-Energeticheskij Institut, Obninsk, Soviet Union (USSR). (3) The NEA Neutron Data Compilation Centre at Saclay, France (OECD member countries in Western Europe and Japan). (4) The IAEA Nuclear Data Section at Vienna, Austria (all other countries in Eastern Europe, Asia, Australia, Africa, Central and South America; also IAEA publications and translation journals). Besides the published CINDA books, up-to-date computer retrievals for specified CINDA information are currently available on request. For CINDA computer retrievals, as well as for suggestions and corrections, scientists are invited to contact the above-mentioned centers. This first volume covers the nuclei with Z<=52

  4. Decision making in radiation oncology. Vol. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Jiade J. [National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Brady, Luther W. (eds.) [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2011-10-15

    Decision Making in Radiation Oncology is a reference book designed to enable radiation oncologists, including those in training, to make diagnostic and treatment decisions effectively and efficiently. The orientation of this groundbreaking publication is entirely practical, in that the focus is on issues relating to cancer management. The design has been carefully chosen based on the belief that ''a picture is worth a thousand words'': Knowledge is conveyed through an illustrative approach using algorithms, schemas, graphics, and tables. Text is kept to a minimum, reducing the effort involved in reading while enhancing understanding. Detailed guidelines are provided for multidisciplinary cancer management as well as for radiation therapy techniques. In addition to the attention-riveting algorithms for diagnosis and treatment, strategies for the management of disease at individual stages are detailed for all the commonly diagnosed malignancies. Detailed attention is given to the core evidence that has shaped the current treatment standards and advanced radiation therapy techniques. Clinical trials that have yielded ''gold standard'' treatment and their results are documented in the schemas. Moreover, radiation techniques, including treatment planning and delivery, are also presented in an illustrative way. (orig.)

  5. Roentgen signs in diagnostic imaging. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meschan, I.

    1988-01-01

    The introductory chapter presents terminology and definitions of current use in the field of roentgen pathology and also gives a short list of terms relating to the application of the novel imaging methods. The first chapter explains the fundamentals of radiological evaluation of the bone joints and skeleton, and chapters two and three discuss fractures and luxations of the extremities and the available treatment methods. The fourth chapter deals with congenital and hereditary bone lesions and the relevant roentgen signs such as reduced contrast or modifications in size or shape. The chapters five and six deal with specific bone lesions of a particular bone or skeletal area, or a particular extremity, also characterised by reduced contrast. Other bone lesions showing enhanced density, expansive processes or other massive change are discussed in chapter seven, and roen tgen signs of the bone joints in chapter eight. The last chapter deals with computed tomography for diagnostic evaluation of the appendicular skeleton. (MG) With 1803 figs., 29 tabs [de

  6. CASPIAN BIOLOGICAL RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Guseynov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. We present the data on the biological resources of the Caspian Sea, based on the analysis of numerous scientific sources published between years of 1965 and 2011. Due to changes in various biotic and abiotic factors we find it important to discuss the state of the major groups of aquatic biocenosis including algae, crayfish, shrimp, pontogammarus, fish and Caspian seal. Methods. Long-term data has been analyzed on the biology and ecology of the main commercial fish stocks and their projected catches for qualitative and quantitative composition, abundance and biomass of aquatic organisms that make up the food base for fish. Results and discussion. It has been found that the widespread commercial invertebrates in the Caspian Sea are still poorly studied; their stocks are not identified and not used commercially. There is a great concern about the current state of the main commercial fish stocks of the Caspian Sea. A critical challenge is to preserve the pool of biological resources and the restoration of commercial stocks of Caspian fish. For more information about the state of the marine ecosystem in modern conditions, expedition on Caspian Sea should be carried out to study the hydrochemical regime and fish stocks, assessment of sturgeon stocks, as well as the need to conduct sonar survey for sprat stocks. Conclusions. The main condition for preserving the ecosystem of the Caspian Sea and its unique biological resources is to develop and apply environmentally-friendly methods of oil, issuing concerted common fisheries rules in various regions of theCaspian Sea, strengthening of control for sturgeon by all Caspian littoral states. The basic principle of the protection of biological resources is their rational use, based on the preservation of optimal conditions of their natural or artificial reproduction. 

  7. A Brief Introduction to Chinese Biological Biological

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Chinese Biological Abstracts sponsored by the Library, the Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, the Biological Documentation and Information Network, all of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, commenced publication in 1987 and was initiated to provide access to the Chinese information in the field of biology.

  8. Soils newsletter. Vol. 24, No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-06-01

    In response to Agenda 21 produced by the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 the UN System launched EARTHWATCH, a worldwide environmental program. The IAEA joined this initiative through a series of activities on environmental monitoring, impact assessment and environmental protection. Recognizing that soil erosion and associated sedimentation are serious threats to sustainable agricultural production and environmental protection, two IAEA Divisions, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture and the Division of Physical and Chemical Sciences, joined forces to plan, organize and implement activities on the use of fallout radionuclides, in particular Cesium-137, to assess soil redistribution, and hence erosion and sedimentation, through the establishment of two Co-ordinated Research Projects. These studies have now been successfully completed with a number of significant achievements. The Cesium-137 technique provided reliable erosion and sedimentation data over a medium-term (40 year) period in a range of environments and scales worldwide. Soil erosion rates averaged from 0 to >1001 ha -1 y -1 and demonstrated that local land use exerted a greater influence than climate, lithology or soil type. However, the influence of the latter can be readily distinguished. Standardised methods and protocols for the application of the technique were successfully developed. Currently these are being documented through the production of a handbook on 'Assessment of Soil Erosion and Sedimentation using Environmental Radionuclides'. Cesium-137 redistribution is an established nuclear technique that should be broadly disseminated through Technical Co-operation Projects. The provision of modern counting equipment to developing countries is crucial in this regard, particularly for low activity samples from the southern hemisphere, as counting time is the limiting step in the methodology. The sub-programme in Soil and Water Management and Crop Nutrition

  9. Biological therapies for spondyloarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Vincenzo; Atteno, Mariangela; Spanò, Angelo; Scarpa, Raffaele; Peluso, Rosario

    2014-06-01

    Biological therapies and new imaging techniques have changed the therapeutic and diagnostic approach to spondyloarthritis. In patients with axial spondyloarthritis, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) inhibitor treatment is currently the only effective therapy in patients for whom conventional therapy with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) has failed. TNFα inhibitor treatment is more effective in preventing articular damage in peripheral joints than in axial ones. It is important to treat patients at an early stage of disease to reduce disease progression; moreover it is necessary to identify causes of therapy inefficacy in preventing joint damage in the axial subset.

  10. Lichens as biological indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, H S

    1981-09-15

    Lichens, a symbiotic association of an alga and a fungus, have been used for some years as 'bioindicators', to detect environmental pollution. For this, their property of reacting to certain pollutants with characteristic changes of growth is exploired. With this biological method, continual, sufficiently sensitive measurements over wide areas can often be carried out more simply than with expensive, complicated technical equipment, which requires servicing, as well. This article describes the various possibilities of using lichens as bioindicators, and reviews the methods currently in use for measuring air pollution by means of lichens.

  11. Soil-structure interaction Vol.3. Influence of ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costantino, C J

    1986-04-01

    This study has been performed for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by the Structural Analysis Division of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The study was conducted during the fiscal year 1965 on the program entitled 'Benchmarking of Structural Engineering Problems' sponsored by NRC. The program considered three separate but complementary problems, each associated with the soil-structure interaction (551) phase of the seismic response analysis of nuclear plant facilities. The reports, all entitled Soil-Structure Interaction, are presented in three separate volumes, namely: Vol. 1 Influence of Layering by AJ Philippacopoulos, Vol. 2 Influence of Lift-Off by C.A. Miller, Vol. 3 Influence of Ground Water by C.J. Costantino. The two problems presented in Volumes 2 and 3 were conducted at the City University of New York (CUNY) under subcontract to BNL. This report, Volume 3 of the report, presents a summary of the first year's effort on the subject of the influence of foundation ground water on the SSI phenomenon. A finite element computer program was developed for the two-phased formulation of the combined soil-water problem. This formulation is based on the Biot dynamic equations of motion for both the solid and fluid phases of a typical soil. Frequency dependent interaction coefficients were generated for the two-dimensional plane problem of a rigid surface footing moving against a saturated linear soil. The results indicate that interaction coefficients are significantly modified as compared to the comparable values for a dry soil, particularly for the rocking mode of response. Calculations were made to study the impact of the modified interaction coefficients on the response of a typical nuclear reactor building. The amplification factors for a stick model placed atop a dry and saturated soil were computed. It was found that pore water caused the rocking response to decrease and translational response to increase over the frequency range of interest, as

  12. Soils newsletter. Vol. 24, No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-12-01

    The potential for interdisciplinary research activities within the Joint Division was highlighted recently at a Consultant's Meeting on identification of crop species/cultivars for drought and salinity tolerance for sustained crop yields using carbon isotope discrimination. The meeting was organized by the Soil and Water Management and Crop Nutrition sub-programme in co-operation with the Plant Breeding and Genetics sub-programme. The Meeting served to heighten awareness of the important role that isotopic marker techniques can play in selection and breeding of germplasm with superior plant physiological traits. In particular, the use of the 13 C isotope discrimination technique to select for improved yield and agronomic water use efficiency in cereal and legume crops under conditions of abiotic stress was discussed and critically analysed. Five internationally recognized scientists reviewed the current state-of the-art and formulated recommendations and conclusions for a future Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on the further validation of the δ 13 C technique for wheat and rice under a range of environmental conditions. Yield plateaux for both wheat and rice are being approached through established breeding programmes in favourable as well as water-limited environments. However, recent advances in the understanding of physiological traits that contribute to yield has created new opportunities to increase yield through genetic improvement. Carbon isotope discrimination has been shown to have substantial potential application as a screening tool in breeding programmes to increase the rate of genetic increase in yield. This approach is attractive because it provides both temporal and spatial integration of the important traits influencing carbon gain and water use by plants. A milestone was reached recently in Australia with the release of a new wheat variety, Drysdale, with increased yield under stored soil moisture conditions in the northern summer rainfall

  13. Controle biológico de helmintos parasitos de animais: estágio atual e perspectivas futuras Biological control of helminth parasites of animals: current stage and future outlook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Andrade Mota

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available O controle biológico é um método desenvolvido para diminuir uma população de parasitas pela utilização de antagonista natural. A administração de fungos nematófagos aos animais domésticos é considerada uma promissora alternativa na profilaxia das helmintíases gastrintestinais parasitárias. Os fungos nematófagos desenvolvem estruturas em forma de armadilhas, responsáveis pela captura e destruição dos estágios infectantes dos nematóides. Os fungos dos gêneros Arthrobotrys, Duddingtonia e Monacrosporium têm demonstrado eficácia em experimentos laboratoriais e no campo no controle de parasitos de bovinos, eqüinos, ovinos e suínos. Diversas formulações fúngicas têm sido avaliadas, no entanto, ainda não há nenhum produto comercial disponível. A associação dos grupos de pesquisa e o envolvimento das indústrias poderão colaborar para o sucesso na implementação desta forma de controle.Biological control is a non-chemical alternative method with its main goal to reduce the amount of parasite population using natural antagonists. The administration of nematophagous fungi to animals has been considered an alternative in gastrointestinal helminthiasis prophylaxis. The nematophagous fungi produce trap-shaped structures, which are responsible for capturing and destroying the free-living stages of nematodes. The genera Arthrobotrys, Duddingtonia and Monacrosporium has been shown efficacy in laboratory and field experiments against cattle, equine, ovine and swine parasites. Several fungi formulations have been evaluated, but there is so far no commercial product available. The association of research groups with industry could improve the successful implementation of this control method.

  14. Laser Beam Shaping XIII, Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 8490

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Forbes, A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available .1117/12.2013615 Proc. of SPIE Vol. 8490 849001-1 Downloaded From: http://proceedings.spiedigitallibrary.org/ on 10/17/2012 Terms of Use: http://spiedl.org/terms The papers included in this volume were part of the technical conference cited on the cover and title..., Bellingham, Washington 98227-0010 USA Telephone +1 360 676 3290 (Pacific Time)? Fax +1 360 647 1445 SPIE.org Copyright ? 2012, Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers. Copying of material in this book for internal or personal use...

  15. Current titles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This booklet is published for those interested in current research being conducted at the National Center for Electron Microscopy. The NCEM is a DOE-designated national user facility and is available at no charge to qualified researchers. Access is controlled by an external steering committee. Interested researchers may contact Gretchen Hermes at (510) 486-5006 or address below for a User`s Guide. Copies of available papers can be ordered from: Theda Crawford National Center for Electron Microscopy, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, One Cyclotron Rd., MS72, Berkeley, California, USA 94720.

  16. Current awareness on yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-02-01

    In order to keep subscribers up-to-date with the latest developments in their field, this current awareness service is provided by John Wiley & Sons and contains newly-published material on yeasts. Each bibliography is divided into 10 sections. 1 Books, Reviews & Symposia; 2 General; 3 Biochemistry; 4 Biotechnology; 5 Cell Biology; 6 Gene Expression; 7 Genetics; 8 Physiology; 9 Medical Mycology; 10 Recombinant DNA Technology. Within each section, articles are listed in alphabetical order with respect to author. If, in the preceding period, no publications are located relevant to any one of these headings, that section will be omitted. (3 weeks journals - search completed 5th. Dec. 2001)

  17. Editorial Vol-1-Issue-1-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yngve Nordkvelle

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Launching a new journal is a rare event - doing it electronically is even more rare. Given the subtext for the journal: “media, technology and lifelong learning”, the format might not be so surprising. Enthusiasts for electronic publishing underline that it acts as an alternative to the traditional publishing in a number of significant ways. It is far more affordable for independent actors to establish, it is a lot more reasonable to run, and in addition supports genuine academic virtues more effectively than traditional journals: results from research can be published faster, they are accessible for everyone with a PC hooked onto the Internet, it can serve formerly unrecognised academic communities and special interests with a platform, etc.Genevieve Brown and Beverly J. Irby give a brilliant account of the “whys” and “hows” they confronted while planning and launching their journal “Advancing Women in Leadership Journal”. Read their wonderful article in The Journal of Electronic Publishing.The most important, however, is the founding idea, what the editors suggest as their contribution to the current discourses in the field. Seminar.net is a title we find telling: it is about education, it is about teaching and learning, about democracy in the digital age and about didactics. Now, didactics has a significant position in educational theory in general. Behind the development of didactics, there is a long history of trying to formalise the “art of teaching”. Educational technology goes back to the ancient Greek, according to the historian of educational technology, Paul Saettler. Trying to make teaching meaningful to the student, efficient in its use of time and resources, coping with both the process of conveying meaning, cultural standards and upbringing as well as initiating the young into the world of adults is a complex activity. Inventing methods, tricks of the trade and rules of thumb, has, during history, been crucial

  18. Soils newsletter. Vol. 26, No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-06-01

    Water is a scarce and finite resource, and the FAO Committee on Agriculture (COAG) recently identified the sustainable use of natural resources as a priority area within the agriculture programme. COAG made specific reference to the need for better water management and the improvement of land, soil and water quality. The sub-programme is currently engaged in several projects on water, and will endeavour to expand these activities in the future through both the regular and technical co-operation programmes of the Agency. The final Consultants' Meeting of a 3-year study on 'The comparison of the soil moisture neutron probe with time-domain reflectometry and capacitance methods' was held at IAEA HQ, Vienna, in March 2003. Experts from Australia, Austria, France and the United States of America, and the SSU Seibersdorf, conducted the comparative assessment under various soil and climatic conditions and cropping systems. Two sets of guidelines will be issued from this project. One will be a technical guide to the use of various soil water monitoring instruments and the other will provide guidelines for choosing a soil water measurement sensor. In addition, it is planned to publish a special issue of The Vadose Zone Journal containing scientific articles on the experimental work undertaken in the project. An FAO/IAEA Interregional Training Course on the 'Use of Nuclear and Related Techniques to Increase Water Use Efficiency in Rainfed and Irrigated Agriculture' will be held at the SSU, Seibersdorf, from 1 - 25 July 2003. Fifteen candidates from FAO and IAEA Member States in all regions have been selected to participate. The objective of the course is to transfer knowledge and practical experience to developing countries on the use of nuclear and related techniques to measure and monitor soil water status, including technologies, strategies and approaches to conserve water, reduce wastage and increase water use efficiency in irrigated and rainfed cropping systems

  19. Biologics in spine arthrodesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Abhishek; Dodwad, Shah-Nawaz M; Hsu, Wellington K

    2015-06-01

    Spine fusion is a tool used in the treatment of spine trauma, tumors, and degenerative disorders. Poor outcomes related to failure of fusion, however, have directed the interests of practitioners and scientists to spinal biologics that may impact fusion at the cellular level. These biologics are used to achieve successful arthrodesis in the treatment of symptomatic deformity or instability. Historically, autologous bone grafting, including iliac crest bong graft harvesting, had represented the gold standard in spinal arthrodesis. However, due to concerns over potential harvest site complications, supply limitations, and associated morbidity, surgeons have turned to other bone graft options known for their osteogenic, osteoinductive, and/or osteoconductive properties. Current bone graft selection includes autograft, allograft, demineralized bone matrix, ceramics, mesenchymal stem cells, and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein. Each pose their respective advantages and disadvantages and are the focus of ongoing research investigating the safety and efficacy of their use in the setting of spinal fusion. Rh-BMP2 has been plagued by issues of widespread off-label use, controversial indications, and a wide range of adverse effects. The risks associated with high concentrations of exogenous growth factors have led to investigational efforts into nanotechnology and its application in spinal arthrodesis through the binding of endogenous growth factors. Bone graft selection remains critical to successful fusion and favorable patient outcomes, and orthopaedic surgeons must be educated on the utility and limitations of various biologics in the setting of spine arthrodesis.

  20. Thermal and biological gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overend, R.P.; Rivard, C.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Gasification is being developed to enable a diverse range of biomass resources to meet modern secondary energy uses, especially in the electrical utility sector. Biological or anaerobic gasification in US landfills has resulted in the installation of almost 500 MW(e) of capacity and represents the largest scale application of gasification technology today. The development of integrated gasification combined cycle generation for coal technologies is being paralleled by bagasse and wood thermal gasification systems in Hawaii and Scandinavia, and will lead to significant deployment in the next decade as the current scale-up activities are commercialized. The advantages of highly reactive biomass over coal in the design of process units are being realized as new thermal gasifiers are being scaled up to produce medium-energy-content gas for conversion to synthetic natural gas and transportation fuels and to hydrogen for use in fuel cells. The advent of high solids anaerobic digestion reactors is leading to commercialization of controlled municipal solid waste biological gasification rather than landfill application. In both thermal and biological gasification, high rate process reactors are a necessary development for economic applications that address waste and residue management and the production and use of new crops for energy. The environmental contribution of biomass in reducing greenhouse gas emission will also be improved.

  1. Catfish Biology and Farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Rex A; Elaswad, Ahmed

    2018-02-15

    This article summarizes the biology and culture of ictalurid catfish, an important commercial, aquaculture, and sport fish family in the United States. The history of the propagation as well as spawning of common catfish species in this family is reviewed, with special emphasis on channel catfish and its hybridization with blue catfish. The importance of the channel catfish female×blue catfish male hybrid, including current and future methods of hybrid catfish production, and the potential role it plays in the recovery of the US catfish industry are discussed. Recent advances in catfish culture elements, including environment, management, nutrition, feeding, disease control, culture systems, genetic improvement programs, transgenics, and the application of genome-based approaches in catfish production and welfare, are reviewed. The current status, needs, and future projections are discussed, as well as genetically modified organism developments that are changing the future.

  2. ECONOMICS OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT (15 vols + 4 cdroms) by Gregory Zorzos

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory Zorzos

    2002-01-01

    Research contains many ancient texts (Ancient Greek, Hebrews, Hieroglyphs, Assyrian, Sumerian, Babylonian, Latin, etc.). 1. (MICRO-MACRO ECONOMICS OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT (5 vols + cdrom). Microeconomics and macroeconomics of Alexander the Great. Economic theories, feasibilities, economic plannings, general description of the campaign's business plan etc. 2. BANKS OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT (2 vols + cdrom) Describes banking system, economists, financiers, investors, accountants, bookkeepers, etc,...

  3. Index to Nuclear Safety. A technical progress review by chronology, permuted title, and author. Vol. 11, No. 1--Vol. 17, No. 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrell, W.B.; Klein, A.

    1977-02-23

    This index to Nuclear Safety covers articles in Nuclear Safety Vol. 11, No. 1 (Jan.-Feb. 1970), through Vol. 17, No. 6 (Nov.-Dec. 1976). The index includes a chronological list of articles (including abstract) followed by KWIC and Author Indexes. Nuclear Safety, a bimonthly technical progress review prepared by the Nuclear Safety Information Center, covers all safety aspects of nuclear power reactors and associated facilities. The index lists over 350 technical articles in the last six years of publication.

  4. Index to Nuclear Safety. A technical progress review by chronology, permuted title, and author. Vol. 11, No. 1--Vol. 17, No. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottrell, W.B.; Klein, A.

    1977-01-01

    This index to Nuclear Safety covers articles in Nuclear Safety Vol. 11, No. 1 (Jan.-Feb. 1970), through Vol. 17, No. 6 (Nov.-Dec. 1976). The index includes a chronological list of articles (including abstract) followed by KWIC and Author Indexes. Nuclear Safety, a bimonthly technical progress review prepared by the Nuclear Safety Information Center, covers all safety aspects of nuclear power reactors and associated facilities. The index lists over 350 technical articles in the last six years of publication

  5. From Editor vol 11, No.4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugur Demiray

    2010-10-01

    and non-formal programmes in basic and applied sciences, agriculture, technology, health, environment, education, language, teaching education, literature, population and gender issues to create awareness and promote knowledge. The impact of the programmes are reviewed and evaluated, based on feedback studies with target groups, and with particular reference to ODL in agriculture and rural development. The fifth article which is entitled as “Enticers And Barriers To E-Learning Based Distance Corporate Training: The Case of a Greek Bank”, written by Katerina G. SERAPHIM, Hellenic Open University, GREECE. The purpose of this study is to investigate what influences employees’ acceptance and resistance to a corporate e-learning initiative provided by one of the leading Banks in Greece.The results of the research provide insight into the barriers and enticers in relation to e-learning and identify areas for improvement, with a view to developing and implementing efficient corporate e-learning initiatives.“Sustainable Assessment and Evaluation Strategies for Open and Distance Learning”, send by Charity Akuadi OKONKWO, School of Education, National Open University of Nigeria, NIGERIA. This paper first presents an overview of the concepts of assessment and evaluation in Open and Distance Learning (ODL environment. The large numbers of students and numerous courses make assessment and evaluation very difficult and administrative nightmare at Distance Learning (DL institutions. For validity to be high in ODL assessment, assessment must provide the appropriate situation possible for measuring the specific abilities being measured. It is hoped that these strategies if adopted have the potentials to eliminate some of the challenges that ODL institutions are currently facing in assessment. It will also strengthen quality assurance mechanism in ODL institutions.The seventh article titled as “learning From First Time elearning Experiences For Continuous Professional

  6. From Editor vol 11, No.3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugur Demiray

    2010-07-01

    virtual CoP evolves and becomes embedded within this organization.The sixth article which is entitled as “Providing Information Communication Technology Support to Distance Education Students: A Case of the University of Ghana, Legon”, written by Beatrice K. AGYEMANG from Presbyterian College of Education and Perpetua DADZIE from Department of Information Studies, University of Ghana, Legon, GHANA. The purpose of their study is to investigate the current state of Information Communication Technology policy of the University of Ghana Distance Education (DE programme and the extent of awareness and use of ICTs in general by the DE learners was carried out. The survey methodology was adopted using questionnaire and interview instruments. Respondents were made up of 120 DE students, the coordinator of the DE programme, and 5 workers at the DE unit. The questionnaires were distributed to all the 120 students while the workers responded to a semi-structured interview. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics.“Determining The Navigational Aids Use On The Internet: The Information Technologies Teacher Candidates’ Case”, send by Abdullah KUZU and Research Assistant Mehmet FIRAT, from Anadolu University, Eskisehir. TURKEY. In this survey research, Information Technologies Teacher Candidates’ use of navigational aids in Web sites and Web browsers, and the reasons for low use of navigational aids were investigated. The findings of the study revealed that the teacher candidates did not use bookmarks, Web maps, RSS and atom feeds sufficiently. Moreover, it was found out that the use of navigational aids by teacher candidates show variations according to the average Internet use is researched.The eight article is came from Malaysia. Titled article is on INFORMATION VISUALIZATION AND PROPOSING NEW INTERFACE FOR MOVIE RETRIEVAL SYSTEM (IMDB, written by Ronak ETEMADPOUR, Mona MASOOD and Bahari BELATON from Universiti Sains Malaysia. Their paper focuses on development

  7. From the Editor Vol: 6 number 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugur Demiray

    2005-04-01

    development of policy and the creation of theory. Regional Educational Technology Assistance (RETA is a statewide partnership that helps New Mexico educators and administrators integrate technology in the classroom in USA. Through the US Department of Education's Technology Innovation Challenge Grant, RETA serves the professional development needs of New Mexico's K-12 teachers. RETA brings technology curriculum integration to school sites around the state. TOJDE is referenced as a course material by diverse institutions from the globe, such as Nova Southeastern University Fischler Graduate School of Education and Human Services Programs in Instructional Technology and Distance Education (ITDE 8009 and ITDE 8010 Study Guide INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNOLOGY AND DISTANCE EDUCATION TRENDS And ISSUES, Materials Relating to EDAD 890, Winter 2004 at Ohio University, etc. One of the strong goals of TOJDE is to invite experienced and knowledgeable experts on board. In this issue, we are very pleased to announce that four experts in their disciplines and well-known scholarly personalities in the world joined TOJDE’s Editorial Board. The first editor is Dr. Camille Maria L. CASTOLO from Philippines. She is a subject specialist in the Open University of the Polytechnic University of the Philippines. She is currently an editorial board of the IRRODL and the Asian Journal for Open Universities. She is an active member of the ICDE and AAOU. She has written so many articles and researches on open and distance education. She has been the director of Open University for 8 years and still served as a subject specialist in the same unit up to this time. The second one, Dr. Hanafi ATAN, is an Associate Professor at School of Distance Education, Universiti Sains Malaysia. He is at the editorial team of Malaysian Journal of Distance Education, Malaysian Journal of Educational Technology, Malaysian Online Journal of Instructional Technology, Studies in Learning, Evaluation, Innovation and Development and

  8. Handbook on criticality. Vol. 1. Criticality and nuclear safety; Handbuch zur Kritikalitaet. Bd. 1. Kritikalitaet und nukleare Sicherheit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-04-15

    This handbook was prepared primarily with the aim to provide information to experts in industry, authorities or research facilities engaged in criticality-safety-related problems that will allow an adequate and rapid assessment of criticality safety issues already in the planning and preparation of nuclear facilities. However, it is not the intention of the authors of the handbook to offer ready solutions to complex problems of nuclear safety. Such questions have to remain subject to an in-depth analysis and assessment to be carried out by dedicated criticality safety experts. Compared with the previous edition dated December 1998, this handbook has been further revised and supplemented. The proven basic structure of the handbook remains unchanged. The handbook follows in some ways similar criticality handbooks or instructions published in the USA, UK, France, Japan and the former Soviet Union. The expedient use of the information given in this handbook requires a fundamental understanding of criticality and the terminology of nuclear safety. In Vol. 1, ''Criticality and Nuclear Safety'', therefore, first the most important terms and fundamentals are introduced and explained. Subsequently, experimental techniques and calculation methods for evaluating criticality problems are presented. The following chapters of Vol. 1 deal i. a. with the effect of neutron reflectors and absorbers, neutron interaction, measuring methods for criticality, and organisational safety measures and provide an overview of criticality-relevant operational experience and of criticality accidents and their potential hazardous impact. Vol. 2 parts 1 and 2 finally compile criticality parameters in graphical and tabular form. The individual graph sheets are provided with an initially explained set of identifiers, to allow the quick finding of the information of current interest. Part 1 includes criticality parameters for systems with {sup 235}U as fissile material, while part

  9. The relativity of biological function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubichler, Manfred D; Stadler, Peter F; Prohaska, Sonja J; Nowick, Katja

    2015-12-01

    Function is a central concept in biological theories and explanations. Yet discussions about function are often based on a narrow understanding of biological systems and processes, such as idealized molecular systems or simple evolutionary, i.e., selective, dynamics. Conflicting conceptions of function continue to be used in the scientific literature to support certain claims, for instance about the fraction of "functional DNA" in the human genome. Here we argue that all biologically meaningful interpretations of function are necessarily context dependent. This implies that they derive their meaning as well as their range of applicability only within a specific theoretical and measurement context. We use this framework to shed light on the current debate about functional DNA and argue that without considering explicitly the theoretical and measurement contexts all attempts to integrate biological theories are prone to fail.

  10. [Currently available skin substitutes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oravcová, Darina; Koller, Ján

    2014-01-01

    The current trend of burn wound care has shifted to more holistic approach of improvement in the long-term form and function of the healed burn wounds and quality of life. Autologous split or full-thickness skin graft are the best definitive burn wound coverage, but it is constrained by the limited available sources, especially in major burns. Donor site morbidities in term of additional wounds and scarring are also of concern of the autograft application. This has demanded the emergence of various skin substitutes in the management of acute burn injury as well as post burn reconstructions. This paper reviews currently available skin substitutes, produced in not for-profit skin banks as well as commercially available. They are divided according to type of material included, as biological, biosynthetic and synthetic and named respectively.

  11. Biological effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This fourth chapter presents: cell structure and metabolism; radiation interaction with biological tissues; steps of the production of biological effect of radiation; radiosensitivity of tissues; classification of biological effects; reversibility, transmissivity and influence factors; pre-natal biological effects; biological effects in therapy and syndrome of acute irradiation

  12. Biological physics and synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filhol, J.M.; Chavanne, J.; Weckert, E.

    2001-01-01

    This conference deals with the applications of synchrotron radiation to current problems in biology and medicine. Seven sessions take stock on the subject: sources and detectors; inelastic scattering and dynamics; muscle diffraction; reaction mechanisms; macromolecular assemblies; medical applications; imaging and spectroscopy. The document presents the papers abstracts. (A.L.B.)

  13. Biological physics and synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filhol, J M; Chavanne, J [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 38 - Grenoble (France); Weckert, E [Hasylab at Desy, Hamburg (Germany); and others

    2001-07-01

    This conference deals with the applications of synchrotron radiation to current problems in biology and medicine. Seven sessions take stock on the subject: sources and detectors; inelastic scattering and dynamics; muscle diffraction; reaction mechanisms; macromolecular assemblies; medical applications; imaging and spectroscopy. The document presents the papers abstracts. (A.L.B.)

  14. Microholographic imaging of biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, W.S.; Cullen, D.; Solem, J.C.; Longworth, J.W.; McPherson, A.; Boyer, K.; Rhodes, C.K.

    1990-01-01

    A camera system suitable for x-ray microholography has been constructed. Visible light Fourier transform microholograms of biological samples and other test targets have been recorded and reconstructed digitally using a glycerol microdrop as a reference wave source. Current results give a resolution of ∼4 - 10 λ with λ = 514.5 nm. 11 refs., 1 fig

  15. The Physics of Marine Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Kathleen

    1992-01-01

    Discusses ways in which marine biology can be integrated into the physics classroom. Topics suggested for incorporation include the harmonic motion of ocean waves, ocean currents, the interaction of visible light with ocean water, pressure, light absorption, and sound transfer in water. (MDH)

  16. Radiopharmaceuticals - current state and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muenze, R.

    1981-07-01

    The current state as well as the tendencies of modern radiopharmaceutical development and application is reviewed. After an evaluation of the fundamental preconditions of decay characteristics and pharmaceutical properties the problems concerning sup(99m)Tc-radiopharmaceuticals, metabolizable compounds and the use of specific biological interactions are discussed. (author)

  17. Considerations on an automatic computed tomography tube current modulation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moro, L.; Panizza, D.; D'Ambrosio, D.; Carne, I.

    2013-01-01

    The scope of this study was to evaluate the effects on radiation output and image noise varying the acquisition parameters with an automatic tube current modulation (ATCM) system in computed tomography (CT). Chest CT examinations of an anthropomorphic phantom were acquired using a GE LightSpeed VCT 64-slice tomograph. Acquisitions were performed using different pitch, slice thickness and noise index (NI) values and varying the orientation of the scanned projection radiograph (SPR). The radiation output was determined by the CT dose index (CTDI vol ). Image noise was evaluated measuring the standard deviation of CT numbers in several regions of interest. The radiation output was lower if the SPR was acquired in the anterior-posterior projection. The radiation dose with the posterior-anterior SPR was higher, because the divergence of the X-ray beam magnifies the anatomical structures closest to the tube, especially the spinal column, and this leads the ATCM system to estimate higher patient attenuation values and, therefore, to select higher tube current values. The NI was inversely proportional to the square root of the CTDI vol and, with fixed NI, the CTDI vol increased as the slice thickness decreased. This study suggests some important issues to use the GE ATCM system efficiently. (authors)

  18. Review of Pasteuria penetrans: Biology, Ecology, and Biological Control Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z X; Dickson, D W

    1998-09-01

    Pasteuria penetrans is a mycelial, endospore-forming, bacterial parasite that has shown great potential as a biological control agent of root-knot nematodes. Considerable progress has been made during the last 10 years in understanding its biology and importance as an agent capable of effectively suppressing root-knot nematodes in field soil. The objective of this review is to summarize the current knowledge of the biology, ecology, and biological control potential of P. penetrans and other Pasteuria members. Pasteuria spp. are distributed worldwide and have been reported from 323 nematode species belonging to 116 genera of free-living, predatory, plant-parasitic, and entomopathogenic nematodes. Artificial cultivation of P. penetrans has met with limited success; large-scale production of endospores depends on in vivo cultivation. Temperature affects endospore attachment, germination, pathogenesis, and completion of the life cycle in the nematode pseudocoelom. The biological control potential of Pasteuria spp. have been demonstrated on 20 crops; host nematodes include Belonolaimus longicaudatus, Heterodera spp., Meloidogyne spp., and Xiphinema diversicaudatum. Pasteuria penetrans plays an important role in some suppressive soils. The efficacy of the bacterium as a biological control agent has been examined. Approximately 100,000 endospores/g of soil provided immediate control of the peanut root-knot nematode, whereas 1,000 and 5,000 endospores/g of soil each amplified in the host nematode and became suppressive after 3 years.

  19. Network Reconstruction of Dynamic Biological Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Asadi, Behrang

    2013-01-01

    Inference of network topology from experimental data is a central endeavor in biology, since knowledge of the underlying signaling mechanisms a requirement for understanding biological phenomena. As one of the most important tools in bioinformatics area, development of methods to reconstruct biological networks has attracted remarkable attention in the current decade. Integration of different data types can lead to remarkable improvements in our ability to identify the connectivity of differe...

  20. Microautoradiographic methods and their applications in biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benes, L.

    1978-01-01

    A survey of microautoradiographic methods and of their application in biology is given. The current state of biological microautoradiography is shown, focusing on the efficiency of techniques and on special problems proceeding in autoradiographic investigations in biology. Four more or less independent fields of autoradiography are considered. In describing autoradiographic techniques two methodological tasks are emphasized: The further development of the labelling technique in all metabolic studies and of instrumentation and automation of autoradiograph evaluation. (author)

  1. Biological agents in polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amarilyo, Gil; Tarp, Simon; Foeldvari, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Although various biological agents are in use for polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis (pJIA), head-to-head trials comparing the efficacy and safety among them are lacking. We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of biological agents in pJIA using all currently...

  2. Biological Motion Cues Trigger Reflexive Attentional Orienting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jinfu; Weng, Xuchu; He, Sheng; Jiang, Yi

    2010-01-01

    The human visual system is extremely sensitive to biological signals around us. In the current study, we demonstrate that biological motion walking direction can induce robust reflexive attentional orienting. Following a brief presentation of a central point-light walker walking towards either the left or right direction, observers' performance…

  3. Molecular biology of the cell

    CERN Document Server

    Alberts, Bruce; Lewis, Julian

    2000-01-01

    Molecular Biology of the Cell is the classic in-dept text reference in cell biology. By extracting the fundamental concepts from this enormous and ever-growing field, the authors tell the story of cell biology, and create a coherent framework through which non-expert readers may approach the subject. Written in clear and concise language, and beautifully illustrated, the book is enjoyable to read, and it provides a clear sense of the excitement of modern biology. Molecular Biology of the Cell sets forth the current understanding of cell biology (completely updated as of Autumn 2001), and it explores the intriguing implications and possibilities of the great deal that remains unknown. The hallmark features of previous editions continue in the Fourth Edition. The book is designed with a clean and open, single-column layout. The art program maintains a completely consistent format and style, and includes over 1,600 photographs, electron micrographs, and original drawings by the authors. Clear and concise concept...

  4. Componentes volátiles de mamey (mammea americana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Lucía Morales

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Los componentes volátiles del aroma de mamey (Mammea americana L, fueron extraídos utilizando el método de destilación por arrastre con vapor-extracción simultánea con solvente orgánico. El extracto fue prefraccionado por cromatografía en columna en silica gel con gradiente discontinuo Pentano: Éter etílico para obtener tres fracciones que fueron analizadas por CGAR y CGAR-EM. Se detectaron 34 compuestos, de los cuales fueron identificados 22, siendo los componentes mayoritarios: Furfural (7281 ^ig/kg y E-Famesol (2145 ng/kg

  5. Handbook of welding engineering. Vol. 1 and Vol. 2. 2. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruge, J.

    1980-01-01

    This second edition of the handbook still has been guided by the principle of presenting as comprehensive information as possible on the whole subject field of welding engineering as concisely as seems adequate. The task of completely revising the first edition has not been restricted to up-dating the standards, guidelines and instruction sheets. It rather also seemed appropriate to amend the text in many cases in order to incorporate the latest results of research in science and technology. This inevitably enlarged the material to an extent recommending a publication in two volumes. Volume I deals with materials problems, and the sections discussing technical aspects of fracture mechanics and the welding of high-alloy steels have been enlarged. The section on nonmetals has been supplemented by a more detailed treatment of plastics and by chapters on other nonmetals such as glass, ceramics, graphite, and biological substances. Volume II deals with welding techniques, fabrication and quality assurance. Apart from the methods of welding, cutting, soldering, bonding (adhesives), and thermal spray coating, methods of improving the efficiency of fabrication by means of numerically controlled welding and process control are discussed in detail. Taking into account the growing importance of quality assurance, new chapters on modern control methods have been incorporated, methods such as control by neutron radiation, xeroradiography and acoustic and optical holography, as well as a section on distortion and buckling. The chapters on welding and cutting under water in marine technology, on occupational safety and economic aspects have been considerably enlarged. (orig./IHOE) [de

  6. Biology Reflective Assessment Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayley, Cheryl Ann

    Often students and educators view assessments as an obligation and finality for a unit. In the current climate of high-stakes testing and accountability, the balance of time, resources and emphasis on students' scores related to assessment have been slanted considerably toward the summative side. This tension between assessment for accountability and assessment to inform teaching strains instruction and educators' ability to use that information to design learning opportunities that help students develop deeper conceptual understanding. A substantive body of research indicates that formative and reflective assessment can significantly improve student learning. Biology Reflective Assessment Curriculum (BRAC) examines support provided for high school science students through assessment practices. This investigation incorporates the usage of reflective assessments as a guiding practice for differentiated instruction and student choice. Reflective assessment is a metacognitive strategy that promotes self-monitoring and evaluation. The goals of the curriculum are to promote self-efficacy and conceptual understanding in students learning biology through developing their metacognitive awareness. BRAC was implemented in a high school biology classroom. Data from assessments, metacognitive surveys, self-efficacy surveys, reflective journals, student work, a culminating task and field notes were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the curriculum. The results suggest that students who develop their metacognitive skills developed a deeper conceptual understanding and improved feelings of self-efficacy when they were engaged in a reflective assessment unit embedded with student choice. BRAC is a tool for teachers to use assessments to assist students in becoming metacognitive and to guide student choice in learning opportunities.

  7. Biological effectiveness of antiproton annihilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holzscheiter, M.H.; Agazaryan, N.; Bassler, Niels

    2004-01-01

    We describe an experiment designed to determine whether or not the densely ionizing particles emanating from the annihilation of antiprotons produce an increase in ‘‘biological dose’’ in the vicinity of the narrow Bragg peak for antiprotons compared to protons. This experiment is the first direct...... measurement of the biological effects of antiproton annihilation. The experiment has been approved by the CERN Research Board for running at the CERN Antiproton Decelerator (AD) as AD-4/ACE (Antiproton Cell Experiment) and has begun data taking in June of 2003. The background, description and the current...

  8. Biological effectiveness of antiproton annihilation

    CERN Document Server

    Holzscheiter, Michael H.; Bassler, Niels; Beyer, Gerd; De Marco, John J.; Doser, Michael; Ichioka, Toshiyasu; Iwamoto, Keisuke S.; Knudsen, Helge V.; Landua, Rolf; Maggiore, Carl; McBride, William H.; Møller, Søren Pape; Petersen, Jorgen; Smathers, James B.; Skarsgard, Lloyd D.; Solberg, Timothy D.; Uggerhøj, Ulrik I.; Withers, H.Rodney; Vranjes, Sanja; Wong, Michelle; Wouters, Bradly G.

    2004-01-01

    We describe an experiment designed to determine whether or not the densely ionizing particles emanating from the annihilation of antiprotons produce an increase in “biological dose” in the vicinity of the narrow Bragg peak for antiprotons compared to protons. This experiment is the first direct measurement of the biological effects of antiproton annihilation. The experiment has been approved by the CERN Research Board for running at the CERN Antiproton Decelerator (AD) as AD-4/ACE (Antiproton Cell Experiment) and has begun data taking in June of 2003. The background, description and the current status of the experiment are given.

  9. Chemoradiotherapy and molecular biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Masatoshi; Mitsuhashi, Norio; Niibe, Hideo

    2000-01-01

    The current status of chemoradiotherapy was reviewed from the standpoint of molecular biology. Chemoradiotherapy was conducted to achieve systemic tumor control, to intensify the response to irradiation, and to reduce adverse reactions. The mechanisms of the efficacy of chemoradiotherapy were: modification of dose-response relationships, inhibition of tumor cell recovery from sublethal damage or potential lethal damage, effects on cell dynamics and the cell cycle, improvement of blood flow or reoxygenation, recruitment, improvement of drug uptake, increased cell damage. Cell death (necrosis and apoptosis) and cancer-related genes were described, as the essential points, because they are involved in the response to chemoradiotherapy. Cisplatin (platinum compound), 5-fluorouracil, etoposide, and taxoid (paclitaxel, docetaxel) were the principal anticancer agents used for chemoradiotherapy, and they enhanced the effects of irradiation. However, even when good responses or synergism between anticancer drug and radiotherapy was observed in in vitro studies, there was little therapeutic advantage clinically. Data from in vitro and in vivo studies should be collected and systemized, and ''molecular biology in chemotherapy'' that can be applied clinically may become established. (K.H.)

  10. US Competitiveness in Synthetic Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronvall, Gigi Kwik

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology is an emerging technical field that aims to make biology easier to engineer; the field has applications in strategically important sectors for the US economy. While the United States currently leads in synthetic biology R&D, other nations are heavily investing in order to boost their economies, which will inevitably diminish the US leadership position. This outcome is not entirely negative--additional investments will expand markets--but it is critical that the US government take steps to remain competitive: There are applications from which the US population and economy may benefit; there are specific applications with importance for national defense; and US technical leadership will ensure that US experts have a leading role in synthetic biology governance, regulation, and oversight. Measures to increase competitiveness in S&T generally are broadly applicable for synthetic biology and should be pursued. However, the US government will also need to take action on fundamental issues that will affect the field's development, such as countering anti-GMO (genetically modified organism) sentiments and anti-GMO legislation. The United States should maintain its regulatory approach so that it is the product that is regulated, not the method used to create a product. At the same time, the United States needs to ensure that the regulatory framework is updated so that synthetic biology products do not fall into regulatory gaps. Finally, the United States needs to pay close attention to how synthetic biology applications may be governed internationally, such as through the Nagoya Protocol of the Convention on Biological Diversity, so that beneficial applications may be realized.

  11. National Biological Monitoring Inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    The National Biological Monitoring Inventory, initiated in 1975, currently consists of four computerized data bases and voluminous manual files. MAIN BIOMON contains detailed information on 1,021 projects, while MINI BIOMON provides skeletal data for over 3,000 projects in the 50 states, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, plus a few in Canada and Mexico. BIBLIO BIOMON and DIRECTORY BIOMON complete the computerized data bases. The structure of the system provides for on-line search capabilities to generate details of agency sponsorship, indications of funding levels, taxonomic and geographic coverage, length of program life, managerial focus or emphasis, and condition of the data. Examples of each of these are discussed and illustrated, and potential use of the Inventory in a variety of situations is emphasized

  12. Dyneins: structure, biology and disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    King, Stephen M

    2012-01-01

    .... From bench to bedside, Dynein: Structure, Biology and Disease offers research on fundamental cellular processes to researchers and clinicians across developmental biology, cell biology, molecular biology, biophysics, biomedicine...

  13. Biological conversion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, C.D.

    A system for bioconversion of organic material comprises a primary bioreactor column wherein a biological active agent (zymomonas mobilis) converts the organic material (sugar) to a product (alcohol), a rejuvenator column wherein the biological activity of said biological active agent is enhanced, and means for circulating said biological active agent between said primary bioreactor column and said rejuvenator column.

  14. Translational environmental biology: cell biology informing conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traylor-Knowles, Nikki; Palumbi, Stephen R

    2014-05-01

    Typically, findings from cell biology have been beneficial for preventing human disease. However, translational applications from cell biology can also be applied to conservation efforts, such as protecting coral reefs. Recent efforts to understand the cell biological mechanisms maintaining coral health such as innate immunity and acclimatization have prompted new developments in conservation. Similar to biomedicine, we urge that future efforts should focus on better frameworks for biomarker development to protect coral reefs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Computational Systems Chemical Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Oprea, Tudor I.; May, Elebeoba E.; Leitão, Andrei; Tropsha, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    There is a critical need for improving the level of chemistry awareness in systems biology. The data and information related to modulation of genes and proteins by small molecules continue to accumulate at the same time as simulation tools in systems biology and whole body physiologically-based pharmacokinetics (PBPK) continue to evolve. We called this emerging area at the interface between chemical biology and systems biology systems chemical biology, SCB (Oprea et al., 2007).

  16. Transgender youth: current concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    In many countries throughout the world, increasing numbers of gender nonconforming/transgender youth are seeking medical services to enable the development of physical characteristics consistent with their experienced gender. Such medical services include use of agents to block endogenous puberty at Tanner stage II with subsequent use of cross-sex hormones, and are based on longitudinal studies demonstrating that those individuals who were first identified as gender dysphoric in early or middle childhood and continue to meet the mental health criteria for being transgender at early puberty are likely to be transgender as adults. This review addresses terms and definitions applicable to gender nonconforming youth, studies that shed light on the biologic determinants of gender identity, current clinical practice guidelines for transgender youth, challenges to optimal care, and priorities for research. PMID:28164070

  17. Uterine sarcoma - current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Charlotte; Miah, Aisha B

    2017-01-01

    Uterine sarcomas comprise a group of rare tumors with differing tumor biology, natural history and response to treatment. Diagnosis is often made following surgery for presumed benign disease. Currently, preoperative imaging does not reliably distinguish between benign leiomyomas and other malignant pathology. Uterine leiomyosarcoma is the most common sarcoma, but other subtypes include endometrial stromal sarcoma (low grade and high grade), undifferentiated uterine sarcoma and adenosarcoma. Clinical trials have shown no definite survival benefit of adjuvant radiotherapy or chemotherapy and have been hampered by the rarity and heterogeneity of these disease types. There is a role of adjuvant treatment in carefully selected cases following multidisciplinary discussion at sarcoma reference centers. In patients with metastatic disease, systemic chemotherapy can then be considered. There is activity of a number of agents, including doxorubicin, trabectedin, gemcitabine-based chemotherapy, eribulin and pazopanib. Patients should be considered for clinical trial entry where possible. Close international collaboration is important to allow progress in this group of diseases.

  18. Transgender youth: current concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Rosenthal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In many countries throughout the world, increasing numbers of gender nonconforming/transgender youth are seeking medical services to enable the development of physical characteristics consistent with their experienced gender. Such medical services include use of agents to block endogenous puberty at Tanner stage II with subsequent use of cross-sex hormones, and are based on longitudinal studies demonstrating that those individuals who were first identified as gender dysphoric in early or middle childhood and continue to meet the mental health criteria for being transgender at early puberty are likely to be transgender as adults. This review addresses terms and definitions applicable to gender nonconforming youth, studies that shed light on the biologic determinants of gender identity, current clinical practice guidelines for transgender youth, challenges to optimal care, and priorities for research.

  19. Taxonomy and biology of proteocephalidean cestodes: current state and perspectives

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Scholz, Tomáš; de Chambrier, A.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 2 (2003), s. 65-75 ISSN 0440-6605 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/01/1314 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : Proteocephalidea * taxonomy * phylogeny Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.474, year: 2003

  20. Neutron Scattering in Biology Techniques and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Fitter, Jörg; Katsaras, John

    2006-01-01

    The advent of new neutron facilities and the improvement of existing sources and instruments world wide supply the biological community with many new opportunities in the areas of structural biology and biological physics. The present volume offers a clear description of the various neutron-scattering techniques currently being used to answer biologically relevant questions. Their utility is illustrated through examples by some of the leading researchers in the field of neutron scattering. This volume will be a reference for researchers and a step-by-step guide for young scientists entering the field and the advanced graduate student.

  1. Genomes, Phylogeny, and Evolutionary Systems Biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, Monica

    2005-03-25

    With the completion of the human genome and the growing number of diverse genomes being sequenced, a new age of evolutionary research is currently taking shape. The myriad of technological breakthroughs in biology that are leading to the unification of broad scientific fields such as molecular biology, biochemistry, physics, mathematics and computer science are now known as systems biology. Here I present an overview, with an emphasis on eukaryotes, of how the postgenomics era is adopting comparative approaches that go beyond comparisons among model organisms to shape the nascent field of evolutionary systems biology.

  2. AFRREV STECH, Vol. 3(1) February, 2014

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    2014-02-06

    Feb 6, 2014 ... achievements in biology in senior secondary schools in Anambra. State. .... student's ability to find a simple form where it is hidden within a complex pattern. ... on the units of study in SS11 biology Curriculum used for the study. ... is shown by the calculated F – value of 13.2188, which is significant at 0000 ...

  3. Report of Activity, 1996 - 1997. Vol.2; Rapport d`activite 1996 - 1997. Vol.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouvry, Stephane [Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France)

    1999-10-01

    This report covers the activity developed in the Division of Theoretical Physics of the Orsay Institute of Nuclear Physics during 1996-1997. Summary reports and short communications are grouped in the following sections: 1. Statistical Physics (37 papers); 2. Nuclear Physics (22 papers); 3. Field and Particles (25 papers); 4. Mathematical Physics (3 papers). The report is completed with a list of publications, seminars, conferences, as well as external/internal reports, lectures and theses. In the field of nuclear physics the research has been focussed on superdeformed nuclei, high spin states, far-off-stability nuclei, high excitation energy levels and nuclear matter thermodynamics. These subjects were often associated to the experimental research developed in the frame of large experimental programs as EUROGAM, SPIRAL, EDEN, INDRA, etc in which IN2P3 is currently participating. In the field of Field Theory and Particle Physics the studies were related to non-perturbative aspects of the quantum field theory, on one side and to quantum chromodynamics, through the phenomenological analyses of the hadron structure and interactions, on the other side

  4. Arvustuse piirid ja auhinnad : mõtteid kirjanduskriitikast vol 2 / Jan Kaus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaus, Jan, 1971-

    2007-01-01

    Tänapäeva eesti kirjanduskriitikast. Vt. ka vol. 1: Kaus, Jan. Eetika, taburetiefekt ja jätkuv objektivisatsioon, Sirp, 15. juuni., lk. 7. Vastukaja: Raudam, Toomas. Arvustuse piiritused //Sirp (2007) 10. aug., lk. 9

  5. African Journal of Finance and Management - Vol 8, No 2 (2000)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Finance and Management - Vol 8, No 2 (2000) ... Effects of Mergers and Acquisitions to Shareholders' Wealth: Evidence from the United Kingdom. ... Matching Managerial Skills and Behaviour with Business Strategy - ...

  6. Siim Nestor soovitab : Tallinn Doom Night vol.1. Odessa Pop / Siim Nestor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nestor, Siim, 1974-

    2006-01-01

    Soome doom-metal ansambel Reverend Bizarre üritusel "Tallinn Doom Night vol.1" 8. dets. klubis Rockstar's. Indipoppi viljelev Rootsi duo My Darling Yoy! üritusel "Odessa Pop" 9. dets. Tallinnas klubis KuKu

  7. Journal of Business Research - Vol 6, No 1-2 (2012)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Business Research - Vol 6, No 1-2 (2012) ... Economic Cost of Breast Cancer in Ghana: The Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital ... Capital Adequacy and the Performance of Ghanaian Banks · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  8. Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences - Vol 5, No 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences - Vol 5, No 2 (2007) ... Marketing Of Bushmeat In Peri-Urban Areas Of Ibadan Metropolis Of Oyo State, ... Sport Fisheries Potentials Of Agbokim Waterfalls, Cross River State, Nigeria ...

  9. South African Journal of Higher Education - Vol 16, No 2 (2002)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Higher Education - Vol 16, No 2 (2002) ... Rewarding quality teaching in higher education: the evading dream? ... Employers' perceptions of the profile of MBA graduates · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  10. Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics - Vol 14, No 3 (2013)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics - Vol 14, No 3 (2013) ... Comparative study: Parameters of gait in Down syndrome versus matched obese and ... episodes in a Japanese child: Clinical, radiological and molecular genetic analysis ...

  11. Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics - Vol 11, No 1 (2010)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics - Vol 11, No 1 (2010) ... Gene polymorphisms of TNF-α and IL-10 related to rheumatic heart disease · EMAIL ... with familial Mediterranean fever · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  12. Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia - Vol 23, No 1 (2009)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia - Vol 23, No 1 (2009) ... CHEMICAL REGENERATION OF GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON USED IN CITRIC ... FLUORESCENCE PROPERTIES OF 4-ACYL ISOCHROMAN-1,3-DIONES · EMAIL ...

  13. Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics - Vol 13, No 2 (2012)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics - Vol 13, No 2 (2012) ... as independent indicators for B-CLL: Correlation to response to treatment and disease ... Profile of disorders of sexual differentiation in the Northeast region of Cairo, Egypt ...

  14. South African Journal of Animal Science - Vol 30, No 2 (2000)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Animal Science - Vol 30, No 2 (2000) ... Relationship between performance measurements and sale price of Dorper rams in the Northern Cape ... Factors affecting goat production in a communal farming system in the ...

  15. Lwati: A Journal of Contemporary Research - Vol 10, No 3 (2013)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lwati: A Journal of Contemporary Research - Vol 10, No 3 (2013) ... Evaluation of Social Studies Curriculum on Compassion Dispositions in Students of ... European Trading Companies and Economic Development in the Cross River Basin of ...

  16. International Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences - Vol 5, No 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences - Vol 5, No 2 (2009) ... Illustration of decimation in digital signal processing (DSP) systems using ... of diesel polluted soils on hydrocarbon-utilizing microbial counts and oil degradation ...

  17. Sophia: An African Journal of Philosophy - Vol 10, No 2 (2008)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sophia: An African Journal of Philosophy - Vol 10, No 2 (2008) ... Spiritual intelligence (SQ), leadership and good governance: A treatise ... Traditional religion of Ogbaland: Distinguishing characteristics · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  18. Global Journal of Medical Sciences - Vol 10, No 1-2 (2011)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal of Medical Sciences - Vol 10, No 1-2 (2011) ... Implications for Global Standards to Promote International Collaboration and Advanced ... Clinical Nursing Research: A Tool for Professional Development · EMAIL FREE FULL ...

  19. Journal of Computer Science and Its Application - Vol 20, No 2 (2013)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Computer Science and Its Application - Vol 20, No 2 (2013) ... Fuzzy analysis and adaptive anthropometry model for object identification in surveillance system ... Natural language processing techniques for automatic test questions ...

  20. Tanzania Dental Journal Vol. 14 No. 1, May 2007 In vitro efficacy of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2007-05-30

    May 30, 2007 ... Tanzania Dental Journal Vol. 14 No. ... 2 Centre for Stomatological Research, School of Dentistry, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa. ..... Interestingly, clinical trials .... International Organization for Standardization,.

  1. Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia - Vol 3, No 2 (1989)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia - Vol 3, No 2 (1989) ... Synthesis and characterization of gold (III) halide complexes of some pyridine ... Molluscicidal activities of some alkaloids · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  2. Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia - Vol 27, No 3 (2013)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia - Vol 27, No 3 (2013) ... of the psychoactive phenylpropylamino alkaloids of khat (Catha edulis Forsk) chewing ... Synthesis and characterization of CdTe quantum dots by one-step method · EMAIL ...

  3. Journal of Agriculture and Social Research, Vol. 13, No.1, 2013 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adesope

    Journal of Agriculture and Social Research, Vol. 13, No.1, 2013. 56. EFFECT .... respondents who would soon become young entrepreneurs after their training period. The .... world congress on public health, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Mohammed ...

  4. International Journal of Arts and Humanities (IJAH) Ethiopia Vol. 7 (1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof

    2018-01-24

    Jan 24, 2018 ... International Journal of Arts and Humanities (IJAH). Ethiopia. Vol. 7 (1), S/No ... Department of International and Strategic Studies. Faculty of Arts and ..... American political science review, 98(01), 171-. 189. Stiglitz, J. (2002).

  5. Plant biology in the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzaz, F A

    2001-05-08

    In the beginning of modern plant biology, plant biologists followed a simple model for their science. This model included important branches of plant biology known then. Of course, plants had to be identified and classified first. Thus, there was much work on taxonomy, genetics, and physiology. Ecology and evolution were approached implicitly, rather than explicitly, through paleobotany, taxonomy, morphology, and historical geography. However, the burgeoning explosion of knowledge and great advances in molecular biology, e.g., to the extent that genes for specific traits can be added (or deleted) at will, have created a revolution in the study of plants. Genomics in agriculture has made it possible to address many important issues in crop production by the identification and manipulation of genes in crop plants. The current model of plant study differs from the previous one in that it places greater emphasis on developmental controls and on evolution by differential fitness. In a rapidly changing environment, the current model also explicitly considers the phenotypic variation among individuals on which selection operates. These are calls for the unity of science. In fact, the proponents of "Complexity Theory" think there are common algorithms describing all levels of organization, from atoms all the way to the structure of the universe, and that when these are discovered, the issue of scaling will be greatly simplified! Plant biology must seriously contribute to, among other things, meeting the nutritional needs of the human population. This challenge constitutes a key part of the backdrop against which future evolution will occur. Genetic engineering technologies are and will continue to be an important component of agriculture; however, we must consider the evolutionary implications of these new technologies. Meeting these demands requires drastic changes in the undergraduate curriculum. Students of biology should be trained in molecular, cellular, organismal

  6. Systems Biology as an Integrated Platform for Bioinformatics, Systems Synthetic Biology, and Systems Metabolic Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bor-Sen Chen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Systems biology aims at achieving a system-level understanding of living organisms and applying this knowledge to various fields such as synthetic biology, metabolic engineering, and medicine. System-level understanding of living organisms can be derived from insight into: (i system structure and the mechanism of biological networks such as gene regulation, protein interactions, signaling, and metabolic pathways; (ii system dynamics of biological networks, which provides an understanding of stability, robustness, and transduction ability through system identification, and through system analysis methods; (iii system control methods at different levels of biological networks, which provide an understanding of systematic mechanisms to robustly control system states, minimize malfunctions, and provide potential therapeutic targets in disease treatment; (iv systematic design methods for the modification and construction of biological networks with desired behaviors, which provide system design principles and system simulations for synthetic biology designs and systems metabolic engineering. This review describes current developments in systems biology, systems synthetic biology, and systems metabolic engineering for engineering and biology researchers. We also discuss challenges and future prospects for systems biology and the concept of systems biology as an integrated platform for bioinformatics, systems synthetic biology, and systems metabolic engineering.

  7. Systems Biology as an Integrated Platform for Bioinformatics, Systems Synthetic Biology, and Systems Metabolic Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bor-Sen; Wu, Chia-Chou

    2013-01-01

    Systems biology aims at achieving a system-level understanding of living organisms and applying this knowledge to various fields such as synthetic biology, metabolic engineering, and medicine. System-level understanding of living organisms can be derived from insight into: (i) system structure and the mechanism of biological networks such as gene regulation, protein interactions, signaling, and metabolic pathways; (ii) system dynamics of biological networks, which provides an understanding of stability, robustness, and transduction ability through system identification, and through system analysis methods; (iii) system control methods at different levels of biological networks, which provide an understanding of systematic mechanisms to robustly control system states, minimize malfunctions, and provide potential therapeutic targets in disease treatment; (iv) systematic design methods for the modification and construction of biological networks with desired behaviors, which provide system design principles and system simulations for synthetic biology designs and systems metabolic engineering. This review describes current developments in systems biology, systems synthetic biology, and systems metabolic engineering for engineering and biology researchers. We also discuss challenges and future prospects for systems biology and the concept of systems biology as an integrated platform for bioinformatics, systems synthetic biology, and systems metabolic engineering. PMID:24709875

  8. Models for synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaznessis, Yiannis N

    2007-11-06

    Synthetic biological engineering is emerging from biology as a distinct discipline based on quantification. The technologies propelling synthetic biology are not new, nor is the concept of designing novel biological molecules. What is new is the emphasis on system behavior. The objective is the design and construction of new biological devices and systems to deliver useful applications. Numerous synthetic gene circuits have been created in the past decade, including bistable switches, oscillators, and logic gates, and possible applications abound, including biofuels, detectors for biochemical and chemical weapons, disease diagnosis, and gene therapies. More than fifty years after the discovery of the molecular structure of DNA, molecular biology is mature enough for real quantification that is useful for biological engineering applications, similar to the revolution in modeling in chemistry in the 1950s. With the excitement that synthetic biology is generating, the engineering and biological science communities appear remarkably willing to cross disciplinary boundaries toward a common goal.

  9. Biology of Breast Cancer: A Predoctoral Training Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maihle, Nita

    1996-01-01

    .... Thirty-two full-time faculty members currently participate in Mayo's didactic tumor biology training curriculum which supports the training of postdoctoral trainees in NCI sponsored postdoctoral...

  10. Index to Nuclear Safety. A technical progress review by chronology, permuted title, and author. Vol 11, No. 1 through Vol. 16, No. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottrell, W.B.; Klein, A.

    1976-04-01

    This index to Nuclear Safety covers articles in Nuclear Safety Vol. 11, No. 1 (Jan.-Feb. 1970) through Vol. 16, No. 6 (Nov.-Dec. 1975). Included in the index is a chronological list of articles (including abstract) followed by both a KWIC index and an Author Index. Nuclear Safety is a bimonthly technical progress review prepared by the Nuclear Safety Information Center and covers all safety aspects of nuclear power reactors and associated facilities. The index lists over 300 technical articles in the last six years of publication

  11. Index to Nuclear Safety: a technical progress review by chronology, permuted title, and author. Vol. 11(1)--Vol. 18(6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrell, W.B.; Klein, A.

    1978-04-11

    This index to Nuclear Safety covers articles published in Nuclear Safety, Vol. 11, No. 1 (January-February 1970), through Vol. 18, No. 6 (November-December 1977). It is divided into three sections: a chronological list of articles (including abstracts) followed by a permuted-title (KWIC) index and an author index. Nuclear Safety, a bimonthly technical progress review prepared by the Nuclear Safety Information Center (NSIC), covers all safety aspects of nuclear power reactors and associated facilities. Over 450 technical articles published in Nuclear Safety in the last eight years are listed in this index.

  12. Index to Nuclear Safety. A technical progress review by chronology, permuted title, and author. Vol 11, No. 1 through Vol. 16, No. 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrell, W.B.; Klein, A.

    1976-04-01

    This index to Nuclear Safety covers articles in Nuclear Safety Vol. 11, No. 1 (Jan.-Feb. 1970) through Vol. 16, No. 6 (Nov.-Dec. 1975). Included in the index is a chronological list of articles (including abstract) followed by both a KWIC index and an Author Index. Nuclear Safety is a bimonthly technical progress review prepared by the Nuclear Safety Information Center and covers all safety aspects of nuclear power reactors and associated facilities. The index lists over 300 technical articles in the last six years of publication.

  13. Index to Nuclear Safety: a technical progress review by chronology, permuted title, and author. Vol. 11(1)--Vol. 18(6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottrell, W.B.; Klein, A.

    1978-01-01

    This index to Nuclear Safety covers articles published in Nuclear Safety, Vol. 11, No. 1 (January-February 1970), through Vol. 18, No. 6 (November-December 1977). It is divided into three sections: a chronological list of articles (including abstracts) followed by a permuted-title (KWIC) index and an author index. Nuclear Safety, a bimonthly technical progress review prepared by the Nuclear Safety Information Center (NSIC), covers all safety aspects of nuclear power reactors and associated facilities. Over 450 technical articles published in Nuclear Safety in the last eight years are listed in this index

  14. Establishment of a semi-biological phantom model for the study of the effect of dose reducing measures on radiation-induced DNA double strand breaks in CT using the example of risk organ based tube current modulation; Etablierung eines semibiologischen Phantommodells zur Untersuchung des Effekts dosisreduzierender Massnahmen auf strahleninduzierte DNA-Doppelstrangbrueche in der CT am Beispiel der risikoorganbasierten Roehrenstrommodulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, Matthias

    2013-12-12

    The number of computed tomography (CT) examinations has been rising during the last decades. Therefore techniques for dose reduction receive increasing attention. Risk organ-based tube current modulation (RCM) in CT is a new approach and works by lowering the tube current, while the tube is in front of the patient's body. Therefore it should lead to a dose reduction for radiosensitive organs like the female breast, the eye lenses and the thyroid gland. Biological radiation effects cannot be estimated by physical-based dose measurements. γ-H2AX is a sensitive marker for the determination of x-ray induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSB). Hence the aim of this study was to establish a biological phantom model based on the γ-H2AX immunofluorescence microscopy method and to investigate the effect of RCM on radiation induced DNA damages. The γ-H2AX method is based on the phosphorylation of the histone variant H2AX. The phosphorylated histone γ-H2AX can be visualised using antibodies and is specific for radiation induced DSB. Blood lymphocytes from healthy volunteers, skin fibroblasts (LN) and mammary epithelial cells (HMEpC-p) were placed in different positions of an Alderson-phantom and exposed to x-rays using a 128-slice dual-source CT scanner. Standard head, neck and chest-CT scan protocols either with or without risk-organ based tube current modulation were used. RCM reduces the tube current to 20 percent at an angle of 130 degree anterior to the body, whereas tube current is increased at an angle of 230 degree posterior to the body. Afterwards cells were isolated, fixed on slides und stained with specific primary γ-H2AX antibodies and fluorescent secondary antibodies. Tiny green dots (named foci) can be detected and quantified with a fluorescence microscope and represent distinct DSB. Non-irradiated samples served as controls and CT-induced DSB were calculated by subtraction of pre- from post-exposure values. In this study a semibiological phantom model

  15. Evaluation of Capacity on a High Throughput Vol-oxidizer for Operability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Hwan; Park, Geun Il; Lee, Jung Won; Jung, Jae Hoo; Kim, Ki Ho; Lee, Yong Soon; Lee, Do Youn; Kim, Su Sung

    2010-01-01

    KAERI is developing a pyro-process. As a piece of process equipment, a high throughput vol-oxidizer which can handle a several tens kg HM/batch was developed to supply U 3 O 8 powders to an electrolytic reduction(ER) reactor. To increase the reduction yield, UO 2 pellets should be converted into uniform powders. In this paper, we aim at the evaluation of a high throughput vol-oxidizer for operability. The evaluation consisted of 3 targets, a mechanical motion test, a heating test and hull separation test. In order to test a high throughput vol-oxidizer, By using a control system, mechanical motion tests of the vol-oxidizer were conducted, and heating rates were analyzed. Also the separation tests of hulls for recovery rate were conducted. The test results of the vol-oxidizer are going to be applied for operability. A study on the characteristics of the volatile gas produced during a vol-oxidation process is not included in this study

  16. Biological evolution: Some genetic considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saad Zaghloul Salem

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Natural selection might be observed in nature but not in life. The concept of biological evolution is an illogic and insensible hypothesis since it stands in direct contradiction with our current knowledge regarding the behavior as well as the structural and functional characteristics of the human genome and human proteome. Additionally, almost all basic postulations of this concept can neither be tested nor imitated for experimentation, which is a prerequisite for acceptance and validation of any scientific hypotheses.

  17. Experimental radiotherapy and clinical radiobiology. Vol. 17. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, M.; Dahm-Daphi, J.; Dikomey, E.; Petersen, C.; Rodemann, H.P.; Zips, D.

    2008-01-01

    The proceedings contain the lectures and poster sessions on the following topics: modulation of the immune system for the improvement of tumor radiotherapy; molecular factors and predictors of radiation sensitivity of tumor cells; DNA repair; molecular factors and modulation of radiation reactions of normal tissue; biological studies with differential experimental radiations; tumor stem cells: importance for the radiotherapy; DNA repair and its importance for the radiation sensitivity of tumor cells; biological modification of the radiation sensitivity of tumor cells; biological imaging and tumor microenvironment

  18. Nanorobotics current approaches and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, Antoine

    2013-01-01

    Nanorobot devices now perform a wide variety of tasks at the nanoscale in a wide variety of fields including but not limited to fields such as manufacturing, medicine, supply chain, biology, and outer space. Nanorobotics: Current Approaches and Techniques is a comprehensive overview of this interdisciplinary field with a wide ranging discussion that includes nano-manipulation and industrial nanorobotics, nanorobotics in biology and medicine, nanorobotic sensing, navigation and swarm behavior, and protein and DNA-based nanorobotics. Also included is the latest on topics such as bio-nano-actuators and propulsion and navigation of nanorobotic systems using magnetic fields. Nanorobotics: Current Approaches and Techniques is an ideal book for scientists, researchers, and engineers actively involved in applied and robotic research and development.

  19. Biology of Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... switch to the Professional version Home Blood Disorders Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Resources In This ... Version. DOCTORS: Click here for the Professional Version Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Components of Blood ...

  20. Biological basis of detoxication

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caldwell, John; Jakoby, William B

    1983-01-01

    This volume considers that premise that most of the major patterns of biological conversion of foreign compounds are known and may have predictive value in assessing the biological course for novel compounds...