WorldWideScience

Sample records for current atmospheric models

  1. One kind of atmosphere-ocean three layer model for calculating the velocity of ocean current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, Z; Xi, P

    1979-10-01

    A three-layer atmosphere-ocean model is given in this paper to calcuate the velocity of ocean current, particularly the function of the vertical coordinate, taking into consideratiln (1) the atmospheric effect on the generation of ocean current, (2) a calculated coefficient of the eddy viscosity instead of an assumed one, and (3) the sea which actually varies in depth.

  2. Data assimilation in atmospheric chemistry models: current status and future prospects for coupled chemistry meteorology models

    OpenAIRE

    M. Bocquet; H. Elbern; H. Eskes; M. Hirtl; R. Žabkar; G. R. Carmichael; J. Flemming; A. Inness; M. Pagowski; J. L. Pérez Camaño; P. E. Saide; R. San Jose; M. Sofiev; J. Vira; A. Baklanov

    2015-01-01

    Data assimilation is used in atmospheric chemistry models to improve air quality forecasts, construct re-analyses of three-dimensional chemical (including aerosol) concentrations and perform inverse modeling of input variables or model parameters (e.g., emissions). Coupled chemistry meteorology models (CCMM) are atmospheric chemistry models that simulate meteorological processes and chemical transformations jointly. They offer the possibility to assimilate both meteorologica...

  3. Simulation models: a current indispensable tool in studies of the continuous water-soil-plant - atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Seijas, Teresa; Gonzalez, Felicita; Cid, G.; Osorio, Maria de los A.; Ruiz, Maria Elena

    2008-01-01

    Full text: This work assesses the current use of simulation models as a tool useful and indispensable for the advancement in the research and study of the processes related to the continuous water-soil - plant-atmosphere. In recent years they have reported in the literature many jobs where these modeling tools are used as a support to the decision-making process of companies or organizations in the agricultural sphere and in Special for the design of optimal management of irrigation and fertilization strategies of the crops. Summarizes some of the latest applications reported with respect to the use of water transfers and solutes, such simulation models mainly to nitrate leaching and groundwater contamination problems. On the other hand also summarizes important applications of simulation models of growth of cultivation for the prediction of effects on the performance of different conditions of water stress, and finally some other applications on the management of the different irrigation technologies as kingpins, superfiail irrigation and drip irrigation. Refer also the main work carried out in Cuba. (author)

  4. Surface energy balances of three general circulation models: Current climate and response to increasing atmospheric CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutowski, W.J.; Gutzler, D.S.; Portman, D.; Wang, W.C.

    1988-04-01

    The surface energy balance simulated by state-of-the-art general circulation models at GFDL, GISS and NCAR for climates with current levels of atmospheric CO 2 concentration (control climate) and with twice the current levels. The work is part of an effort sponsored by the US Department of Energy to assess climate simulations produced by these models. The surface energy balance enables us to diagnose differences between models in surface temperature climatology and sensitivity to doubling CO 2 in terms of the processes that control surface temperature. Our analysis compares the simulated balances by averaging the fields of interest over a hierarchy of spatial domains ranging from the entire globe down to regions a few hundred kilometers across

  5. The ALI-ARMS Code for Modeling Atmospheric non-LTE Molecular Band Emissions: Current Status and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutepov, A. A.; Feofilov, A. G.; Manuilova, R. O.; Yankovsky, V. A.; Rezac, L.; Pesnell, W. D.; Goldberg, R. A.

    2008-01-01

    The Accelerated Lambda Iteration (ALI) technique was developed in stellar astrophysics at the beginning of 1990s for solving the non-LTE radiative transfer problem in atomic lines and multiplets in stellar atmospheres. It was later successfully applied to modeling the non-LTE emissions and radiative cooling/heating in the vibrational-rotational bands of molecules in planetary atmospheres. Similar to the standard lambda iterations ALI operates with the matrices of minimal dimension. However, it provides higher convergence rate and stability due to removing from the iterating process the photons trapped in the optically thick line cores. In the current ALI-ARMS (ALI for Atmospheric Radiation and Molecular Spectra) code version additional acceleration of calculations is provided by utilizing the opacity distribution function (ODF) approach and "decoupling". The former allows replacing the band branches by single lines of special shape, whereas the latter treats non-linearity caused by strong near-resonant vibration-vibrational level coupling without additional linearizing the statistical equilibrium equations. Latest code application for the non-LTE diagnostics of the molecular band emissions of Earth's and Martian atmospheres as well as for the non-LTE IR cooling/heating calculations are discussed.

  6. Atmospheric Signature of the Agulhas Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkwinkwa Njouodo, Arielle Stela; Koseki, Shunya; Keenlyside, Noel; Rouault, Mathieu

    2018-05-01

    Western boundary currents play an important role in the climate system by transporting heat poleward and releasing it to the atmosphere. While their influence on extratropical storms and oceanic rainfall is becoming appreciated, their coastal influence is less known. Using satellite and climate reanalysis data sets and a regional atmospheric model, we show that the Agulhas Current is a driver of the observed band of rainfall along the southeastern African coast and above the Agulhas Current. The Agulhas current's warm core is associated with sharp gradients in sea surface temperature and sea level pressure, a convergence of low-level winds, and a co-located band of precipitation. Correlations among wind convergence, sea level pressure, and sea surface temperature indicate that these features show high degree of similarity to those in the Gulf Stream region. Model experiments further indicate that the Agulhas Current mostly impacts convective rainfall.

  7. Model study of the influence of solar wind parameters on electric currents and fields in middle atmosphere at high latitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonev, P.; Velinov, P.

    2012-01-01

    The electric currents and fields in the strato/mesosphere and lower ionosphere are a result mainly of tropospheric electrical generators (thunderstorms and electrified clouds) which principally determine their global distributions and magnitudes. There are, however, additional sources, e.g. the solar wind (SW), whose contribution to these currents and fields is realized by SW-magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. This last causes creation of large trans-polar electric potential difference VPC in each polar cap of ∼ 30–140 kV and of horizontal scale ∼ 3000 km which is realized through field-aligned currents (FAC) and is controlled by SW parameters. The potential difference VPC forces formation of closure currents in the dynamo-region. Our study by simulation shows that much smaller currents penetrate into the lower atmospheric regions and influence characteristics of the global atmospheric electrical circuit (GEC). Also, the downward mapping of the horizontal electric fields due to the potential difference VPC leads to creation of very small, but non-negligible vertical electric fields at sea level. They have been demonstrated experimentally as significant (up to few tens of per cent) SW-controlled modifications of the GEC electric characteristics at the ground, at polar latitudes. Our model, based on simulation of Maxwell’s equations in the region 0–160 km under steady-state conditions show that similar but relatively much larger SW-dominated modifications of GEC characteristics take place in the strato/mesosphere and lower ionosphere at polar and high latitudes

  8. Current and Future Development of a Non-hydrostatic Unified Atmospheric Model (NUMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    following capabilities: 1.  Highly scalable on current and future computer architectures ( exascale computing and beyond and GPUs) 2.  Flexibility... Exascale Computing •  10 of Top 500 are already in the Petascale range •  Should also keep our eyes on GPUs (e.g., Mare Nostrum) 2.  Numerical

  9. Wavelet applications for modeling in the atmospheric sciences: Current status and potential extensions. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Envair, J.H.; Ekstrom, P.

    1995-11-01

    Wavelets are elementary mathematical functions used to construct, transform, and analyze higher functions and observational data. This report describes the results of an exploratory research effort to evaluate wavelet applications for numerically integrating differential equations associated with air pollution transport and conversion models. It is intended to provide a primer on wavelets, and specifically outlines the use of wavelets in a model that addresses derivative-evaluation and boundary-condition problems. Several factors complicate the use of wavelets for integrating differential equations. First, an enormous range of different wavelet types exists, making the choice of wavelet family for a given application challenging. Moreover, in contrast to the Fourier series, the functional derivatives necessary for numerical approximation are difficult to evaluate and consolidate in terms of wavelet expansions, introducing appreciable complexity into any attempt at wavelet-based integration. On the positive side, wavelet techniques do hold promise for effectively interfacing plume and other subgrid-scale phenomena in grid models. Moreover, workable techniques for derivative evaluation and simulation of boundary features appear feasible. Wavelet use may provide a viable, advantageous option for numerically integrating model equations describing fields on all scales of time and distance, especially where inhomogeneous fields exist, and provide a computationally efficient method of focusing on high-variability regions. The potential for wavelets to conduct integrations totally in transform space contrasts with Fourier-based approaches, which essentially preclude such treatments whenever nonlinear chemical processes occur in the modeled system

  10. On Verifying Currents and Other Features in the Hawaiian Islands Region Using Fully Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System Compared to Global Ocean Model and Ocean Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessen, P. G.; Chen, S.

    2014-12-01

    This poster introduces and evaluates features concerning the Hawaii, USA region using the U.S. Navy's fully Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS-OS™) coupled to the Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM). It also outlines some challenges in verifying ocean currents in the open ocean. The system is evaluated using in situ ocean data and initial forcing fields from the operational global Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM). Verification shows difficulties in modelling downstream currents off the Hawaiian islands (Hawaii's wake). Comparing HYCOM to NCOM current fields show some displacement of small features such as eddies. Generally, there is fair agreement from HYCOM to NCOM in salinity and temperature fields. There is good agreement in SSH fields.

  11. Advanced Atmospheric Ensemble Modeling Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Chiswell, S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Kurzeja, R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Maze, G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Viner, B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Werth, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-09-29

    Ensemble modeling (EM), the creation of multiple atmospheric simulations for a given time period, has become an essential tool for characterizing uncertainties in model predictions. We explore two novel ensemble modeling techniques: (1) perturbation of model parameters (Adaptive Programming, AP), and (2) data assimilation (Ensemble Kalman Filter, EnKF). The current research is an extension to work from last year and examines transport on a small spatial scale (<100 km) in complex terrain, for more rigorous testing of the ensemble technique. Two different release cases were studied, a coastal release (SF6) and an inland release (Freon) which consisted of two release times. Observations of tracer concentration and meteorology are used to judge the ensemble results. In addition, adaptive grid techniques have been developed to reduce required computing resources for transport calculations. Using a 20- member ensemble, the standard approach generated downwind transport that was quantitatively good for both releases; however, the EnKF method produced additional improvement for the coastal release where the spatial and temporal differences due to interior valley heating lead to the inland movement of the plume. The AP technique showed improvements for both release cases, with more improvement shown in the inland release. This research demonstrated that transport accuracy can be improved when models are adapted to a particular location/time or when important local data is assimilated into the simulation and enhances SRNL’s capability in atmospheric transport modeling in support of its current customer base and local site missions, as well as our ability to attract new customers within the intelligence community.

  12. Responses to atmospheric CO2 concentrations in crop simulation models: a review of current simple and semicomplex representations and options for model development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanuytrecht, Eline; Thorburn, Peter J

    2017-05-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO 2 concentrations ([CO 2 ]) cause direct changes in crop physiological processes (e.g. photosynthesis and stomatal conductance). To represent these CO 2 responses, commonly used crop simulation models have been amended, using simple and semicomplex representations of the processes involved. Yet, there is no standard approach to and often poor documentation of these developments. This study used a bottom-up approach (starting with the APSIM framework as case study) to evaluate modelled responses in a consortium of commonly used crop models and illuminate whether variation in responses reflects true uncertainty in our understanding compared to arbitrary choices of model developers. Diversity in simulated CO 2 responses and limited validation were common among models, both within the APSIM framework and more generally. Whereas production responses show some consistency up to moderately high [CO 2 ] (around 700 ppm), transpiration and stomatal responses vary more widely in nature and magnitude (e.g. a decrease in stomatal conductance varying between 35% and 90% among models was found for [CO 2 ] doubling to 700 ppm). Most notably, nitrogen responses were found to be included in few crop models despite being commonly observed and critical for the simulation of photosynthetic acclimation, crop nutritional quality and carbon allocation. We suggest harmonization and consideration of more mechanistic concepts in particular subroutines, for example, for the simulation of N dynamics, as a way to improve our predictive understanding of CO 2 responses and capture secondary processes. Intercomparison studies could assist in this aim, provided that they go beyond simple output comparison and explicitly identify the representations and assumptions that are causal for intermodel differences. Additionally, validation and proper documentation of the representation of CO 2 responses within models should be prioritized. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Comment on 'Current Budget of the Atmospheric Electric Global Circuit'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Kevin T.; Blakeslee, Richard J.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, three major issues relevant to Kasemir's new model will be addressed. The first concerns Kasemir's assertion that there are significant differences between the potentials associated with the new model and the conventional model. A recalculation of these potentials reveals that both models provide equivalent results for the potential difference between the Earth and ionosphere. The second issue to be addressed is Kasemir's assertion that discrepancies in the electric potentials associated with both models can be attributed to modeling the Earth as a sphere, instead of as a planar surface. A simple analytical comparison will demonstrate that differences in the equations for the potentials of the atmosphere derived with a spherical and a planar Earth are negligible for applications to global current flow. Finally, the third issue to be discussed is Kasemir's claim that numerous aspects of the conventional model are incorrect, including the role of the ionosphere in global current flow as well as the significance of cloud-to-ground lightning in supplying charge to the global circuit. In order to refute these misconceptions, it will be shown that these aspects related to the flow of charge in the atmosphere are accurately described by the conventional model of the global circuit.

  14. Atmospheric Deposition Modeling Results

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset provides data on model results for dry and total deposition of sulfur, nitrogen and base cation species. Components include deposition velocities, dry...

  15. Infrared radiation models for atmospheric methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cess, R. D.; Kratz, D. P.; Caldwell, J.; Kim, S. J.

    1986-01-01

    Mutually consistent line-by-line, narrow-band and broad-band infrared radiation models are presented for methane, a potentially important anthropogenic trace gas within the atmosphere. Comparisons of the modeled band absorptances with existing laboratory data produce the best agreement when, within the band models, spurious band intensities are used which are consistent with the respective laboratory data sets, but which are not consistent with current knowledge concerning the intensity of the infrared fundamental band of methane. This emphasizes the need for improved laboratory band absorptance measurements. Since, when applied to atmospheric radiation calculations, the line-by-line model does not require the use of scaling approximations, the mutual consistency of the band models provides a means of appraising the accuracy of scaling procedures. It is shown that Curtis-Godson narrow-band and Chan-Tien broad-band scaling provide accurate means of accounting for atmospheric temperature and pressure variations.

  16. Models for infrared atmospheric radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, S. N.

    1976-01-01

    Line and band models for infrared spectral absorption are discussed. Radiative transmittance and integrated absorptance of Lorentz, Doppler, and voigt line profiles were compared for a range of parameters. It was found that, for the intermediate path lengths, the combined Lorentz-Doppler (Voigt) profile is essential in calculating the atmospheric transmittance. Narrow band model relations for absorptance were used to develop exact formulations for total absorption by four wide band models. Several continuous correlations for the absorption of a wide band model were compared with the numerical solutions of the wide band models. By employing the line-by-line and quasi-random band model formulations, computational procedures were developed for evaluating transmittance and upwelling atmospheric radiance. Homogeneous path transmittances were calculated for selected bands of CO, CO2, and N2O and compared with experimental measurements. The upwelling radiance and signal change in the wave number interval of the CO fundamental band were also calculated.

  17. Current status of quantitative rotational spectroscopy for atmospheric research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouin, Brian J.; Wlodarczak, Georges; Colmont, Jean-Marcel; Rohart, Francois

    2004-01-01

    Remote sensing of rotational transitions in the Earth's atmosphere has become an important method for the retrieval of geophysical temperatures, pressures and chemical composition profiles that requires accurate spectral information. This paper highlights the current status of rotational data that are useful for atmospheric measurements, with a discussion of the types the rotational lineshape measurements that are not generally available in either online repository.

  18. Modelling land surface - atmosphere interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Søren Højmark

    representation of groundwater in the hydrological model is found to important and this imply resolving the small river valleys. Because, the important shallow groundwater is found in the river valleys. If the model does not represent the shallow groundwater then the area mean surface flux calculation......The study is investigates modelling of land surface – atmosphere interactions in context of fully coupled climatehydrological model. With a special focus of under what condition a fully coupled model system is needed. Regional climate model inter-comparison projects as ENSEMBLES have shown bias...... by the hydrological model is found to be insensitive to model resolution. Furthermore, this study highlights the effect of bias precipitation by regional climate model and it implications for hydrological modelling....

  19. Fractionation and current time trends of PCB congeners: evolvement of distributions 1950–2010 studied using a global atmosphere-ocean general circulation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Lammel

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available PCBs are ubiquitous environmental pollutants expected to decline in abiotic environmental media in response to decreasing primary emissions since the 1970s. A coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model with embedded dynamic sub-models for atmospheric aerosols and the marine biogeochemistry and air-surface exchange processes with soils, vegetation and the cryosphere is used to study the transport and fate of four PCB congeners covering a range of 3–7 chlorine atoms.

    The change of the geographic distribution of the PCB mixture reflects the sources and sinks' evolvement over time. Globally, secondary emissions (re-volatilisation from surfaces are on the long term increasingly gaining importance over primary emissions. Secondary emissions are most important for the congeners with 5–6 chlorine atoms. Correspondingly, the levels of these congeners are predicted to decrease slowest. Changes in congener mixture composition (fractionation are characterized both geographically and temporally. In high latitudes enrichment of the lighter, less persistent congeners and more delayed decreasing levels in response to decreasing emissions are found. The delivery of the contaminants to high latitudes is predicted to be more efficient than previously suggested. The results suggest furthermore that the effectiveness of emission control measures may significantly vary among substances. The trends of decline of organic contaminant levels in the abiotic environmental media do not only vary with latitude (slow in high latitudes, but do also show longitudinal gradients.

  20. Modeling of atmospheric pollutant transfers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jourdain, F.

    2007-01-01

    Modeling is today a common tool for the evaluation of the environmental impact of atmospheric pollution events, for the design of air monitoring networks or for the calculation of pollutant concentrations in the ambient air. It is even necessary for the a priori evaluation of the consequences of a pollution plume. A large choice of atmospheric transfer codes exist but no ideal tool is available which allows to model all kinds of situations. The present day approach consists in combining different types of modeling according to the requested results and simulations. The CEA has a solid experience in this domain and has developed independent tools for the impact and safety studies relative to industrial facilities and to the management of crisis situations. (J.S.)

  1. Coupled atmosphere-wildland fire modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Henri Balbi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Simulating the interaction between fire and atmosphere is critical to the estimation of the rate of spread of the fire. Wildfire’s convection (i.e., entire plume can modify the local meteorology throughout the atmospheric boundary layer and consequently affect the fire propagation speed and behaviour. In this study, we use for the first time the Méso-NH meso-scale numerical model coupled to the point functional ForeFire simplified physical front-tracking wildfire model to investigate the differences introduced by the atmospheric feedback in propagation speed and behaviour. Both numerical models have been developed as research tools for operational models and are currently used to forecast localized extreme events. These models have been selected because they can be run coupled and support decisions in wildfire management in France and Europe. The main originalities of this combination reside in the fact that Méso-NH is run in a Large Eddy Simulation (LES configuration and that the rate of spread model used in ForeFire provides a physical formulation to take into account the effect of wind and slope. Simulations of typical experimental configurations show that the numerical atmospheric model is able to reproduce plausible convective effects of the heat produced by the fire. Numerical results are comparable to estimated values for fire-induced winds and present behaviour similar to other existing numerical approaches.

  2. Model for Simulation Atmospheric Turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik

    1976-01-01

    A method that produces realistic simulations of atmospheric turbulence is developed and analyzed. The procedure makes use of a generalized spectral analysis, often called a proper orthogonal decomposition or the Karhunen-Loève expansion. A set of criteria, emphasizing a realistic appearance...... eigenfunctions and estimates of the distributions of the corresponding expansion coefficients. The simulation method utilizes the eigenfunction expansion procedure to produce preliminary time histories of the three velocity components simultaneously. As a final step, a spectral shaping procedure is then applied....... The method is unique in modeling the three velocity components simultaneously, and it is found that important cross-statistical features are reasonably well-behaved. It is concluded that the model provides a practical, operational simulator of atmospheric turbulence....

  3. Improving practical atmospheric dispersion models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, J.C.R.; Hudson, B.; Thomson, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    The new generation of practical atmospheric dispersion model (for short range ≤ 30 km) are based on dispersion science and boundary layer meteorology which have widespread international acceptance. In addition, recent improvements in computer skills and the widespread availability of small powerful computers make it possible to have new regulatory models which are more complex than the previous generation which were based on charts and simple formulae. This paper describes the basis of these models and how they have developed. Such models are needed to satisfy the urgent public demand for sound, justifiable and consistent environmental decisions. For example, it is preferable that the same models are used to simulate dispersion in different industries; in many countries at present different models are used for emissions from nuclear and fossil fuel power stations. The models should not be so simple as to be suspect but neither should they be too complex for widespread use; for example, at public inquiries in Germany, where simple models are mandatory, it is becoming usual to cite the results from highly complex computational models because the simple models are not credible. This paper is written in a schematic style with an emphasis on tables and diagrams. (au) (22 refs.)

  4. Frontiers in Atmospheric Chemistry Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colette, Augustin; Bessagnet, Bertrand; Meleux, Frederik; Rouïl, Laurence

    2013-04-01

    The first pan-European kilometre-scale atmospheric chemistry simulation is introduced. The continental-scale air pollution episode of January 2009 is modelled with the CHIMERE offline chemistry-transport model with a massive grid of 2 million horizontal points, performed on 2000 CPU of a high performance computing system hosted by the Research and Technology Computing Center at the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CCRT/CEA). Besides the technical challenge, which demonstrated the robustness of the selected air quality model, we discuss the added value in terms of air pollution modelling and decision support. The comparison with in-situ observations shows that model biases are significantly improved despite some spurious added spatial variability attributed to shortcomings in the emission downscaling process and coarse resolution of the meteorological fields. The increased spatial resolution is clearly beneficial for the detection of exceedances and exposure modelling. We reveal small scale air pollution patterns that highlight the contribution of city plumes to background air pollution levels. Up to a factor 5 underestimation of the fraction of population exposed to detrimental levels of pollution can be obtained with a coarse simulation if subgrid scale correction such as urban increments are ignored. This experiment opens new perspectives for environmental decision making. After two decades of efforts to reduce air pollutant emissions across Europe, the challenge is now to find the optimal trade-off between national and local air quality management strategies. While the first approach is based on sectoral strategies and energy policies, the later builds upon new alternatives such as urban development. The strategies, the decision pathways and the involvement of individual citizen differ, and a compromise based on cost and efficiency must be found. We illustrated how high performance computing in atmospheric science can contribute to this

  5. Stochastic models for atmospheric dispersion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager

    2003-01-01

    Simple stochastic differential equation models have been applied by several researchers to describe the dispersion of tracer particles in the planetary atmospheric boundary layer and to form the basis for computer simulations of particle paths. To obtain the drift coefficient, empirical vertical...... positions close to the boundaries. Different rules have been suggested in the literature with justifications based on simulation studies. Herein the relevant stochastic differential equation model is formulated in a particular way. The formulation is based on the marginal transformation of the position...... velocity distributions that depend on height above the ground both with respect to standard deviation and skewness are substituted into the stationary Fokker/Planck equation. The particle position distribution is taken to be uniform *the well/mixed condition( and also a given dispersion coefficient...

  6. Observations and Modeling of Atmospheric Radiance Structure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wintersteiner, Peter

    2001-01-01

    The overall purpose of the work that we have undertaken is to provide new capabilities for observing and modeling structured radiance in the atmosphere, particularly the non-LTE regions of the atmosphere...

  7. Atmospheric Photooxidation Products and Chemistry of Current-use Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murschell, T.; Farmer, D.

    2017-12-01

    Pesticides are widely used in agricultural, commercial, and residential applications across the United States. Pesticides can volatilize off targets and travel long distances, with atmospheric lifetimes determined by both physical and chemical loss processes. In particular, oxidation by the hydroxyl radical (OH) can reduce the lifetime and thus atmospheric transport of pesticides, though the rates and oxidation products of atmospheric pesticide oxidation are poorly understood. Here, we investigate reactions of current-use pesticides with OH. MCPA, triclopyr, and fluroxypyr are herbicides that are often formulated together to target broadleaf weeds. We detect these species in the gas-phase using real-time high resolution chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) with both acetate and iodide reagent ions. We used an Oxidative Flow Reactor to explore OH radical oxidation and photolysis of these compounds, simulating up to 5 equivalent days of atmospheric aging by OH. Use of two ionization schemes allowed for the more complete representation of the OH radical oxidation of the three pesticides. The high resolution mass spectra allows us to deduce structures of the oxidation products and identify multi-generational chemistry. In addition, we observe nitrogen oxides, as well as isocyanic acid (HNCO), from some nitrogen-containing pesticides. We present yields of species of atmospheric importance, including NOx and halogen species and consider their impact on air quality following pesticide application.

  8. Surface CUrrents from a Diagnostic model (SCUD): Pacific

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The SCUD data product is an estimate of upper-ocean velocities computed from a diagnostic model (Surface CUrrents from a Diagnostic model). This model makes daily...

  9. Modelling of pollution dispersion in atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borysiewicz, M.; Stankiewicz, R.

    1994-01-01

    The paper contains the review of the mathematical foundation of atmospheric dispersion models. The atmospheric phenomena relevant to atmospheric dispersion model are discussed. In particular the parametrization of processes with time and space scales smaller than numerical grid size, limited by available computer power, is presented. The special attention was devoted to similarity theory and parametrization of boundary layer. The numerical methods are analysed and the drawbacks of the method are presented. (author). 99 refs, 15 figs, 3 tabs

  10. Performance engineering in the community atmosphere model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worley, P; Mirin, A; Drake, J; Sawyer, W

    2006-01-01

    The Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) is the atmospheric component of the Community Climate System Model (CCSM) and is the primary consumer of computer resources in typical CCSM simulations. Performance engineering has been an important aspect of CAM development throughout its existence. This paper briefly summarizes these efforts and their impacts over the past five years

  11. Examining Model Atmospheric Particles Inside and Out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingen, L. M.; Zhao, Y.; Fairhurst, M. C.; Perraud, V. M.; Ezell, M. J.; Finlayson-Pitts, B. J.

    2017-12-01

    Atmospheric particles scatter incoming solar radiation and act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), thereby directly and indirectly affecting the earth's radiative balance and reducing visibility. These atmospheric particles may not be uniform in composition. Differences in the composition of a particle's outer surface from its core can arise during particle growth, (photo)chemical aging, and exchange of species with the gas phase. The nature of the surface on a molecular level is expected to impact growth mechanisms as well as their ability to act as CCN. Model laboratory particle systems are explored using direct analysis in real time-mass spectrometry (DART-MS), which is sensitive to surface composition, and contrasted with average composition measurements using high resolution, time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometry (HR-ToF-AMS). Results include studies of the heterogeneous reactions of amines with solid dicarboxylic acid particles, which are shown to generate aminium dicarboxylate salts at the particle surface, leaving an unreacted core. Combination of both mass spectrometric techniques reveals a trend in reactivity of C3-C7 dicarboxylic acids with amines and allows calculation of the DART probe depth into the particles. The results of studies on additional model systems that are currently being explored will also be reported.

  12. Modeling of atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baklouti, Nada

    2010-01-01

    This work is a prediction of atmospheric dispersion of radionuclide from a chronic rejection of the nuclear power generating plant that can be located in one of the Tunisian sites: Skhira or Bizerte. Also it contains a study of acute rejection 'Chernobyl accident' which was the reference for the validation of GENII the code of modeling of atmospheric dispersion.

  13. Modeling the atmospheric chemistry of TICs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, Michael V.; Burns, Douglas S.; Chynwat, Veeradej; Moore, William; Plitz, Angela; Rottmann, Shawn; Hearn, John

    2009-05-01

    An atmospheric chemistry model that describes the behavior and disposition of environmentally hazardous compounds discharged into the atmosphere was coupled with the transport and diffusion model, SCIPUFF. The atmospheric chemistry model was developed by reducing a detailed atmospheric chemistry mechanism to a simple empirical effective degradation rate term (keff) that is a function of important meteorological parameters such as solar flux, temperature, and cloud cover. Empirically derived keff functions that describe the degradation of target toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) were derived by statistically analyzing data generated from the detailed chemistry mechanism run over a wide range of (typical) atmospheric conditions. To assess and identify areas to improve the developed atmospheric chemistry model, sensitivity and uncertainty analyses were performed to (1) quantify the sensitivity of the model output (TIC concentrations) with respect to changes in the input parameters and (2) improve, where necessary, the quality of the input data based on sensitivity results. The model predictions were evaluated against experimental data. Chamber data were used to remove the complexities of dispersion in the atmosphere.

  14. Soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikonen, J.P.; Sucksdorff, Y. [Finnish Environment Agency, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    In this study the soil/vegetation/atmosphere-model based on the formulation of Deardorff was refined to hour basis and applied to a field in Vihti. The effect of model parameters on model results (energy fluxes, temperatures) was also studied as well as the effect of atmospheric conditions. The estimation of atmospheric conditions on the soil-vegetation system as well as an estimation of the effect of vegetation parameters on the atmospheric climate was estimated. Areal surface fluxes, temperatures and moistures were also modelled for some river basins in southern Finland. Land-use and soil parameterisation was developed to include properties and yearly variation of all vegetation and soil types. One classification was selected to describe the hydrothermal properties of the soils. Evapotranspiration was verified against the water balance method

  15. Soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikonen, J P; Sucksdorff, Y [Finnish Environment Agency, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    In this study the soil/vegetation/atmosphere-model based on the formulation of Deardorff was refined to hour basis and applied to a field in Vihti. The effect of model parameters on model results (energy fluxes, temperatures) was also studied as well as the effect of atmospheric conditions. The estimation of atmospheric conditions on the soil-vegetation system as well as an estimation of the effect of vegetation parameters on the atmospheric climate was estimated. Areal surface fluxes, temperatures and moistures were also modelled for some river basins in southern Finland. Land-use and soil parameterisation was developed to include properties and yearly variation of all vegetation and soil types. One classification was selected to describe the hydrothermal properties of the soils. Evapotranspiration was verified against the water balance method

  16. Atmospheric pollution. From processes to modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sportisse, B.

    2008-01-01

    Air quality, greenhouse effect, ozone hole, chemical or nuclear accidents.. All these phenomena are tightly linked to the chemical composition of atmosphere and to the atmospheric dispersion of pollutants. This book aims at supplying the main elements of understanding of 'atmospheric pollutions': stakes, physical processes involved, role of scientific expertise in decision making. Content: 1 - classifications and scales: chemical composition of the atmosphere, vertical structure, time scales (transport, residence); 2 - matter/light interaction: notions of radiative transfer, application to the Earth's atmosphere; 3 - some elements about the atmospheric boundary layer: notion of scales in meteorology, atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), thermal stratification and stability, description of ABL turbulence, elements of atmospheric dynamics, some elements about the urban climate; 4 - notions of atmospheric chemistry: characteristics, ozone stratospheric chemistry, ozone tropospheric chemistry, brief introduction to indoor air quality; 5 - aerosols, clouds and rains: aerosols and particulates, aerosols and clouds, acid rains and leaching; 6 - towards numerical simulation: equation of reactive dispersion, numerical methods for chemistry-transport models, numerical resolution of the general equation of aerosols dynamics (GDE), modern simulation chains, perspectives. (J.S.)

  17. Combined eye-atmosphere visibility model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Y. J.

    1981-01-01

    Existing models of the optical characteristics of the eye are combined with a recent model of optical characteristics of the atmosphere given by its modulation transfer function. This combination results in the combined eye-atmosphere performance given by the product of their modulation transfer functions. An application for the calculation of visibility thresholds in the case of a two-halves field is given.

  18. Modeling atmospheric dispersion for reactor accident consequence evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpert, D.J.; Gudiksen, P.H.; Woodard, K.

    1982-01-01

    Atmospheric dispersion models are a central part of computer codes for the evaluation of potential reactor accident consequences. A variety of ways of treating to varying degrees the many physical processes that can have an impact on the predicted consequences exists. The currently available models are reviewed and their capabilities and limitations, as applied to reactor accident consequence analyses, are discussed

  19. Recent advances in non-LTE stellar atmosphere models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Andreas A. C.

    2017-11-01

    In the last decades, stellar atmosphere models have become a key tool in understanding massive stars. Applied for spectroscopic analysis, these models provide quantitative information on stellar wind properties as well as fundamental stellar parameters. The intricate non-LTE conditions in stellar winds dictate the development of adequate sophisticated model atmosphere codes. The increase in both, the computational power and our understanding of physical processes in stellar atmospheres, led to an increasing complexity in the models. As a result, codes emerged that can tackle a wide range of stellar and wind parameters. After a brief address of the fundamentals of stellar atmosphere modeling, the current stage of clumped and line-blanketed model atmospheres will be discussed. Finally, the path for the next generation of stellar atmosphere models will be outlined. Apart from discussing multi-dimensional approaches, I will emphasize on the coupling of hydrodynamics with a sophisticated treatment of the radiative transfer. This next generation of models will be able to predict wind parameters from first principles, which could open new doors for our understanding of the various facets of massive star physics, evolution, and death.

  20. Atmospheric dispersion models of radioactivity releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oza, R.B.

    2016-01-01

    In view of the rapid industrialization in recent time, atmospheric dispersion models have become indispensible 'tools' to ensure that the effects of releases are well within the acceptable limits set by the regulatory authority. In the case of radioactive releases from the nuclear facility, though negligible in quantity and many a times not even measurable, it is required to demonstrate the compliance of these releases to the regulatory limits set by the regulatory authority by carrying out radiological impact assessment. During routine operations of nuclear facility, the releases are so low that environmental impact is usually assessed with the help of atmospheric dispersion models as it is difficult to distinguish negligible contribution of nuclear facility to relatively high natural background radiation. The accidental releases from nuclear facility, though with negligible probability of occurrence, cannot be ruled out. In such cases, the atmospheric dispersion models are of great help to emergency planners for deciding the intervention actions to minimize the consequences in public domain and also to workout strategies for the management of situation. In case of accidental conditions, the atmospheric dispersion models are also utilized for the estimation of probable quantities of radionuclides which might have got released to the atmosphere. Thus, atmospheric dispersion models are an essential tool for nuclear facility during routine operation as well as in the case of accidental conditions

  1. A model of the primordial lunar atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Prabal; Elkins-Tanton, Lindy; Petro, Noah; Mandell, Avi

    2017-09-01

    We create the first quantitative model for the early lunar atmosphere, coupled with a magma ocean crystallization model. Immediately after formation, the moon's surface was subject to a radiative environment that included contributions from the early Sun, a post-impact Earth that radiated like a mid-type M dwarf star, and a cooling global magma ocean. This radiative environment resulted in a largely Earth-side atmosphere on the Moon, ranging from ∼104 to ∼102 pascals, composed of heavy volatiles (Na and SiO). This atmosphere persisted through lid formation and was additionally characterized by supersonic winds that transported significant quantities of moderate volatiles and likely generated magma ocean waves. The existence of this atmosphere may have influenced the distribution of some moderate volatiles and created temperature asymmetries which influenced ocean flow and cooling. Such asymmetries may characterize young, tidally locked rocky bodies with global magma oceans and subject to intense irradiation.

  2. Regional forecasting with global atmospheric models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowley, T.J.; North, G.R.; Smith, N.R.

    1994-05-01

    The scope of the report is to present the results of the fourth year's work on the atmospheric modeling part of the global climate studies task. The development testing of computer models and initial results are discussed. The appendices contain studies that provide supporting information and guidance to the modeling work and further details on computer model development. Complete documentation of the models, including user information, will be prepared under separate reports and manuals

  3. A Review of Atmospheric Ozone and Current Thinking on the Antarctic Ozone Hole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA 0 A Review of Atmospheric ozone and Current Thinking on the Antartic Ozone Hole A thesis submitted in partial satisfaction of the...4. TI TLE (Pit 5,1tlfie) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PFRIOO COVERED A Review of Atmospheric Ozone and Current THESIS/DA/;J.At1AAU00 Thinking on the Antartic ...THESIS A Review of Atmospheric Ozone and Current Thinking on the Antartic Ozone Hole by Randolph Antoine Fix Master of Science in Atmospheric Science

  4. A comparison of the WIND System atmospheric models and RASCAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    A detailed comparison of the characteristics of the WIND System atmospheric models and the NRC's RASCAL code was made. The modeling systems differ substantially in the way input is entered and the way output is displayed. Nevertheless, using the same source term and meteorological input parameters, the WIND System atmospheric models and RASCAL produce similar results in most situations. The WIND System atmospheric model predictions and those made by RASCAL are within a factor of two at least 70% of the time and are within a factor of four 89% of the time. Significant differences in the dose between the models may occur during conditions of low wind speeds, strong atmospheric stability, and/or wet deposition as well as for many atmospheric cases involving cloud shine. Even though the numerical results are similar in most cases, there are many site-specific and operational characteristics that have been incorporated into the WIND System atmospheric models to provide SRS emergency response personnel with a more effective emergency response tool than is currently available from using RASCAL

  5. Current sources of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in our atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, David; McCulloch, Archie; Liang, Qing; Reimann, Stefan; Newman, Paul A.

    2018-02-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 or CTC) is an ozone-depleting substance whose emissive uses are controlled and practically banned by the Montreal Protocol (MP). Nevertheless, previous work estimated ongoing emissions of 35 Gg year-1 of CCl4 into the atmosphere from observation-based methods, in stark contrast to emissions estimates of 3 (0-8) Gg year-1 from reported numbers to UNEP under the MP. Here we combine information on sources from industrial production processes and legacy emissions from contaminated sites to provide an updated bottom-up estimate on current CTC global emissions of 15-25 Gg year-1. We now propose 13 Gg year-1 of global emissions from unreported non-feedstock emissions from chloromethane and perchloroethylene plants as the most significant CCl4 source. Additionally, 2 Gg year-1 are estimated as fugitive emissions from the usage of CTC as feedstock and possibly up to 10 Gg year-1 from legacy emissions and chlor-alkali plants.

  6. Chemical kinetics and modeling of planetary atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Yuk L.

    1990-01-01

    A unified overview is presented for chemical kinetics and chemical modeling in planetary atmospheres. The recent major advances in the understanding of the chemistry of the terrestrial atmosphere make the study of planets more interesting and relevant. A deeper understanding suggests that the important chemical cycles have a universal character that connects the different planets and ultimately link together the origin and evolution of the solar system. The completeness (or incompleteness) of the data base for chemical kinetics in planetary atmospheres will always be judged by comparison with that for the terrestrial atmosphere. In the latter case, the chemistry of H, O, N, and Cl species is well understood. S chemistry is poorly understood. In the atmospheres of Jovian planets and Titan, the C-H chemistry of simple species (containing 2 or less C atoms) is fairly well understood. The chemistry of higher hydrocarbons and the C-N, P-N chemistry is much less understood. In the atmosphere of Venus, the dominant chemistry is that of chlorine and sulfur, and very little is known about C1-S coupled chemistry. A new frontier for chemical kinetics both in the Earth and planetary atmospheres is the study of heterogeneous reactions. The formation of the ozone hole on Earth, the ubiquitous photochemical haze on Venus and in the Jovian planets and Titan all testify to the importance of heterogeneous reactions. It remains a challenge to connect the gas phase chemistry to the production of aerosols.

  7. A Mercury Model of Atmospheric Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, Alex B. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Chodash, Perry A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Procassini, R. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2018-01-19

    Using the particle transport code Mercury, accurate models were built of the two sources used in Operation BREN, a series of radiation experiments performed by the United States during the 1960s. In the future, these models will be used to validate Mercury’s ability to simulate atmospheric transport.

  8. Infrared radiation models for atmospheric ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratz, David P.; Ces, Robert D.

    1988-01-01

    A hierarchy of line-by-line, narrow-band, and broadband infrared radiation models are discussed for ozone, a radiatively important atmospheric trace gas. It is shown that the narrow-band (Malkmus) model is in near-precise agreement with the line-by-line model, thus providing a means of testing narrow-band Curtis-Godson scaling, and it is found that this scaling procedure leads to errors in atmospheric fluxes of up to 10 percent. Moreover, this is a direct consequence of the altitude dependence of the ozone mixing ratio. Somewhat greater flux errors arise with use of the broadband model, due to both a lesser accuracy of the broadband scaling procedure and to inherent errors within the broadband model, despite the fact that this model has been tuned to the line-by-line model.

  9. Southeast Atmosphere Studies: learning from model-observation syntheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of atmospheric trace species in the United States have changed dramatically over the past several decades in response to pollution control strategies, shifts in domestic energy policy and economics, and economic development (and resulting emission changes elsewhere in the world. Reliable projections of the future atmosphere require models to not only accurately describe current atmospheric concentrations, but to do so by representing chemical, physical and biological processes with conceptual and quantitative fidelity. Only through incorporation of the processes controlling emissions and chemical mechanisms that represent the key transformations among reactive molecules can models reliably project the impacts of future policy, energy and climate scenarios. Efforts to properly identify and implement the fundamental and controlling mechanisms in atmospheric models benefit from intensive observation periods, during which collocated measurements of diverse, speciated chemicals in both the gas and condensed phases are obtained. The Southeast Atmosphere Studies (SAS, including SENEX, SOAS, NOMADSS and SEAC4RS conducted during the summer of 2013 provided an unprecedented opportunity for the atmospheric modeling community to come together to evaluate, diagnose and improve the representation of fundamental climate and air quality processes in models of varying temporal and spatial scales.This paper is aimed at discussing progress in evaluating, diagnosing and improving air quality and climate modeling using comparisons to SAS observations as a guide to thinking about improvements to mechanisms and parameterizations in models. The effort focused primarily on model representation of fundamental atmospheric processes that are essential to the formation of ozone, secondary organic aerosol (SOA and other trace species in the troposphere, with the ultimate goal of understanding the radiative impacts of these species in the southeast and

  10. Southeast Atmosphere Studies: learning from model-observation syntheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jingqiu; Carlton, Annmarie; Cohen, Ronald C.; Brune, William H.; Brown, Steven S.; Wolfe, Glenn M.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Pye, Havala O. T.; Ng, Nga Lee; Xu, Lu; McNeill, V. Faye; Tsigaridis, Kostas; McDonald, Brian C.; Warneke, Carsten; Guenther, Alex; Alvarado, Matthew J.; de Gouw, Joost; Mickley, Loretta J.; Leibensperger, Eric M.; Mathur, Rohit; Nolte, Christopher G.; Portmann, Robert W.; Unger, Nadine; Tosca, Mika; Horowitz, Larry W.

    2018-02-01

    Concentrations of atmospheric trace species in the United States have changed dramatically over the past several decades in response to pollution control strategies, shifts in domestic energy policy and economics, and economic development (and resulting emission changes) elsewhere in the world. Reliable projections of the future atmosphere require models to not only accurately describe current atmospheric concentrations, but to do so by representing chemical, physical and biological processes with conceptual and quantitative fidelity. Only through incorporation of the processes controlling emissions and chemical mechanisms that represent the key transformations among reactive molecules can models reliably project the impacts of future policy, energy and climate scenarios. Efforts to properly identify and implement the fundamental and controlling mechanisms in atmospheric models benefit from intensive observation periods, during which collocated measurements of diverse, speciated chemicals in both the gas and condensed phases are obtained. The Southeast Atmosphere Studies (SAS, including SENEX, SOAS, NOMADSS and SEAC4RS) conducted during the summer of 2013 provided an unprecedented opportunity for the atmospheric modeling community to come together to evaluate, diagnose and improve the representation of fundamental climate and air quality processes in models of varying temporal and spatial scales.This paper is aimed at discussing progress in evaluating, diagnosing and improving air quality and climate modeling using comparisons to SAS observations as a guide to thinking about improvements to mechanisms and parameterizations in models. The effort focused primarily on model representation of fundamental atmospheric processes that are essential to the formation of ozone, secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and other trace species in the troposphere, with the ultimate goal of understanding the radiative impacts of these species in the southeast and elsewhere. Here we

  11. Coupling atmospheric and ocean wave models for storm simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Jianting

    the atmosphere must, by conservation, result in the generation of the surface waves and currents. The physics-based methods are sensitive to the choice of wind-input source function (Sin), parameterization of high-frequency wave spectra tail, and numerical cut-off frequencies. Unfortunately, literature survey......This thesis studies the wind-wave interactions through the coupling between the atmospheric model and ocean surface wave models. Special attention is put on storm simulations in the North Sea for wind energy applications in the coastal zones. The two aspects, namely storm conditions and coastal...... shows that in most wind-wave coupling systems, either the Sin in the wave model is different from the one used for the momentum flux estimation in the atmospheric model, or the methods are too sensitive to the parameterization of high-frequency spectra tail and numerical cut-off frequencies. To confront...

  12. Portable University Model of the Atmosphere (PUMA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraedrich, K.; Kirk, E.; Lunkeit, F. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Meteorologisches Inst.

    1998-10-01

    The Portable University Model of the Atmosphere (PUMA) is based on the Reading multi-level spectral model SGCM (Simple Global Circulation Model) described by Hoskins and Simmons (1975) and James and Gray (1986). Originally developed as a numerical prediction model, it was changed to perform as a circulation model. For example, James and Gray (1986) studied the influence of surface friction on the circulation of a baroclinic atmosphere, James and James (1992), and James et al. (1994) investigated ultra-low-frequency variability, and Mole and James (1990) analyzed the baroclinic adjustment in the context of a zonally varying flow. Frisius et al. (1998) simulated an idealized storm track by embedding a dipole structure in a zonally symmetric forcing field and Lunkeit et al. (1998) investigated the sensitivity of GCM (General Circulation Model) scenarios by an adaption technique applicapable to SGCMs. (orig.)

  13. Electrical model of cold atmospheric plasma gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slutsker, Ya. Z.; Semenov, V. E.; Krasik, Ya. E.; Ryzhkov, M. A.; Felsteiner, J.; Binenbaum, Y.; Gil, Z.; Shtrichman, R.; Cohen, J. T.

    2017-10-01

    We present an analytical model of cold atmospheric plasma formed by a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD), which is based on the lumped and distributed elements of an equivalent electric circuit of this plasma. This model is applicable for a wide range of frequencies and amplitudes of the applied voltage pulses, no matter whether or not the generated plasma plume interacts with a target. The model allows quantitative estimation of the plasma plume length and the energy delivered to the plasma. Also, the results of this model can be used for the design of DBD guns which efficiently generate cold atmospheric plasma. A comparison of the results of the model with those obtained in experiments shows a fairly good agreement.

  14. Modelling stable atmospheric boundary layers over snow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, H.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Thesis entitled:

    Modelling Stable Atmospheric Boundary Layers over Snow

    H.A.M. Sterk

    Wageningen, 29th of April, 2015

    Summary

    The emphasis of this thesis is on the understanding and forecasting of the Stable Boundary Layer (SBL) over snow-covered surfaces. SBLs

  15. Atmospheric characteristics essential for health effects modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, N.S.

    1977-01-01

    Factors to be considered in evaluating the possible consequences of exposure of human populations to radioactive aerosols are reviewed. Mathematical models of the mechanisms of radioinduced carcinogenesis, tissue deposition and lung clearance of radioactive aerosols, and meteorological parameters affecting the diffusion of radioactive aerosols in the atmosphere are discussed

  16. MODEL ATMOSPHERES FOR X-RAY BURSTING NEUTRON STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medin, Zach; Fontes, Christopher J.; Fryer, Chris L.; Hungerford, Aimee L.; Steinkirch, Marina von; Calder, Alan C.

    2016-01-01

    The hydrogen and helium accreted by X-ray bursting neutron stars is periodically consumed in runaway thermonuclear reactions that cause the entire surface to glow brightly in X-rays for a few seconds. With models of the emission, the mass and radius of the neutron star can be inferred from the observations. By simultaneously probing neutron star masses and radii, X-ray bursts (XRBs) are one of the strongest diagnostics of the nature of matter at extremely high densities. Accurate determinations of these parameters are difficult, however, due to the highly non-ideal nature of the atmospheres where XRBs occur. Observations from X-ray telescopes such as RXTE and NuStar can potentially place strong constraints on nuclear matter once uncertainties in atmosphere models have been reduced. Here we discuss current progress on modeling atmospheres of X-ray bursting neutron stars and some of the challenges still to be overcome.

  17. MODEL ATMOSPHERES FOR X-RAY BURSTING NEUTRON STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medin, Zach; Fontes, Christopher J.; Fryer, Chris L.; Hungerford, Aimee L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Steinkirch, Marina von; Calder, Alan C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The hydrogen and helium accreted by X-ray bursting neutron stars is periodically consumed in runaway thermonuclear reactions that cause the entire surface to glow brightly in X-rays for a few seconds. With models of the emission, the mass and radius of the neutron star can be inferred from the observations. By simultaneously probing neutron star masses and radii, X-ray bursts (XRBs) are one of the strongest diagnostics of the nature of matter at extremely high densities. Accurate determinations of these parameters are difficult, however, due to the highly non-ideal nature of the atmospheres where XRBs occur. Observations from X-ray telescopes such as RXTE and NuStar can potentially place strong constraints on nuclear matter once uncertainties in atmosphere models have been reduced. Here we discuss current progress on modeling atmospheres of X-ray bursting neutron stars and some of the challenges still to be overcome.

  18. The Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boville, B. A.; Garcia, R. R.; Sassi, F.; Kinnison, D.; Roble, R. G.

    The Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM) is an upward exten- sion of the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate System Model. WACCM simulates the atmosphere from the surface to the lower thermosphere (140 km) and includes both dynamical and chemical components. The salient points of the model formulation will be summarized and several aspects of its performance will be discussed. Comparison with observations indicates that WACCM produces re- alistic temperature and zonal wind distributions. Both the mean state and interannual variability will be summarized. Temperature inversions in the midlatitude mesosphere have been reported by several authors and are also found in WACCM. These inver- sions are formed primarily by planetary wave forcing, but the background state on which they form also requires gravity wave forcing. The response to sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies will be examined by com- paring simulations with observed SSTs for 1950-1998 to a simulation with clima- tological annual cycle of SSTs. The response to ENSO events is found to extend though the winter stratosphere and mesosphere and a signal is also found at the sum- mer mesopause. The experimental framework allows the ENSO signal to be isolated, because no other forcings are included (e.g. solar variability and volcanic eruptions) which complicate the observational record. The temperature and wind variations asso- ciated with ENSO are large enough to generate significant perturbations in the chem- ical composition of the middle atmosphere, which will also be discussed.

  19. Atmospheric inverse modeling via sparse reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hase, Nils; Miller, Scot M.; Maaß, Peter; Notholt, Justus; Palm, Mathias; Warneke, Thorsten

    2017-10-01

    Many applications in atmospheric science involve ill-posed inverse problems. A crucial component of many inverse problems is the proper formulation of a priori knowledge about the unknown parameters. In most cases, this knowledge is expressed as a Gaussian prior. This formulation often performs well at capturing smoothed, large-scale processes but is often ill equipped to capture localized structures like large point sources or localized hot spots. Over the last decade, scientists from a diverse array of applied mathematics and engineering fields have developed sparse reconstruction techniques to identify localized structures. In this study, we present a new regularization approach for ill-posed inverse problems in atmospheric science. It is based on Tikhonov regularization with sparsity constraint and allows bounds on the parameters. We enforce sparsity using a dictionary representation system. We analyze its performance in an atmospheric inverse modeling scenario by estimating anthropogenic US methane (CH4) emissions from simulated atmospheric measurements. Different measures indicate that our sparse reconstruction approach is better able to capture large point sources or localized hot spots than other methods commonly used in atmospheric inversions. It captures the overall signal equally well but adds details on the grid scale. This feature can be of value for any inverse problem with point or spatially discrete sources. We show an example for source estimation of synthetic methane emissions from the Barnett shale formation.

  20. Atmospheric statistical dynamic models. Model performance: the Lawrence Livermore Laboratoy Zonal Atmospheric Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, G.L.; Ellsaesser, H.W.; MacCracken, M.C.; Luther, F.M.

    1978-06-01

    Results from the zonal model indicate quite reasonable agreement with observation in terms of the parameters and processes that influence the radiation and energy balance calculations. The model produces zonal statistics similar to those from general circulation models, and has also been shown to produce similar responses in sensitivity studies. Further studies of model performance are planned, including: comparison with July data; comparison of temperature and moisture transport and wind fields for winter and summer months; and a tabulation of atmospheric energetics. Based on these preliminary performance studies, however, it appears that the zonal model can be used in conjunction with more complex models to help unravel the problems of understanding the processes governing present climate and climate change. As can be seen in the subsequent paper on model sensitivity studies, in addition to reduced cost of computation, the zonal model facilitates analysis of feedback mechanisms and simplifies analysis of the interactions between processes

  1. Circulation-based Modeling of Gravity Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiburg, E. H.; Borden, Z.

    2013-05-01

    Atmospheric and oceanic flows driven by predominantly horizontal density differences, such as sea breezes, thunderstorm outflows, powder snow avalanches, and turbidity currents, are frequently modeled as gravity currents. Efforts to develop simplified models of such currents date back to von Karman (1940), who considered a two-dimensional gravity current in an inviscid, irrotational and infinitely deep ambient. Benjamin (1968) presented an alternative model, focusing on the inviscid, irrotational flow past a gravity current in a finite-depth channel. More recently, Shin et al. (2004) proposed a model for gravity currents generated by partial-depth lock releases, considering a control volume that encompasses both fronts. All of the above models, in addition to the conservation of mass and horizontal momentum, invoke Bernoulli's law along some specific streamline in the flow field, in order to obtain a closed system of equations that can be solved for the front velocity as function of the current height. More recent computational investigations based on the Navier-Stokes equations, on the other hand, reproduce the dynamics of gravity currents based on the conservation of mass and momentum alone. We propose that it should therefore be possible to formulate a fundamental gravity current model without invoking Bernoulli's law. The talk will show that the front velocity of gravity currents can indeed be predicted as a function of their height from mass and momentum considerations alone, by considering the evolution of interfacial vorticity. This approach does not require information on the pressure field and therefore avoids the need for an energy closure argument such as those invoked by the earlier models. Predictions by the new theory are shown to be in close agreement with direct numerical simulation results. References Von Karman, T. 1940 The engineer grapples with nonlinear problems, Bull. Am. Math Soc. 46, 615-683. Benjamin, T.B. 1968 Gravity currents and related

  2. Numerical model simulation of atmospheric coolant plumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaillard, P.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of humid atmospheric coolants on the atmosphere is simulated by means of a three-dimensional numerical model. The atmosphere is defined by its natural vertical profiles of horizontal velocity, temperature, pressure and relative humidity. Effluent discharge is characterised by its vertical velocity and the temperature of air satured with water vapour. The subject of investigation is the area in the vicinity of the point of discharge, with due allowance for the wake effect of the tower and buildings and, where application, wind veer with altitude. The model equations express the conservation relationships for mometum, energy, total mass and water mass, for an incompressible fluid behaving in accordance with the Boussinesq assumptions. Condensation is represented by a simple thermodynamic model, and turbulent fluxes are simulated by introduction of turbulent viscosity and diffusivity data based on in-situ and experimental water model measurements. The three-dimensional problem expressed in terms of the primitive variables (u, v, w, p) is governed by an elliptic equation system which is solved numerically by application of an explicit time-marching algorithm in order to predict the steady-flow velocity distribution, temperature, water vapour concentration and the liquid-water concentration defining the visible plume. Windstill conditions are simulated by a program processing the elliptic equations in an axisymmetrical revolution coordinate system. The calculated visible plumes are compared with plumes observed on site with a view to validate the models [fr

  3. On tridimensional rip current modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchesiello, Patrick; Benshila, Rachid; Almar, Rafael; Uchiyama, Yusuke; McWilliams, James C.; Shchepetkin, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    Do lateral shear instabilities of nearshore circulation account for a substantial part of Very Low-Frequency (VLF) variability? If yes, it would promote stirring and mixing of coastal waters and surf-shelf exchanges. Another question is whether tridimensional transient processes are important for instability generation. An innovative modeling system with tridimensional wave-current interactions was designed to investigate transient nearshore currents and interactions between nearshore and innershelf circulations. We present here some validation of rip current modeling for the Aquitanian coast of France, using in-situ and remote video sensing. We then proceed to show the benefits of 3D versus 2D (depth-mean flow) modeling of rip currents and their low-frequency variability. It appears that a large part of VLF motions is due to intrinsic variability of the tridimensional flow. 3D models may thus provide a valuable, only marginally more expensive alternative to conventional 2D approaches that miss the vertical flow structure and its nonlinear interaction with the depth-averaged flow.

  4. A Global Atmospheric Model of Meteoric Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wuhu; Marsh, Daniel R.; Chipperfield, Martyn P.; Janches, Diego; Hoffner, Josef; Yi, Fan; Plane, John M. C.

    2013-01-01

    The first global model of meteoric iron in the atmosphere (WACCM-Fe) has been developed by combining three components: the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM), a description of the neutral and ion-molecule chemistry of iron in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT), and a treatment of the injection of meteoric constituents into the atmosphere. The iron chemistry treats seven neutral and four ionized iron containing species with 30 neutral and ion-molecule reactions. The meteoric input function (MIF), which describes the injection of Fe as a function of height, latitude, and day, is precalculated from an astronomical model coupled to a chemical meteoric ablation model (CABMOD). This newly developed WACCM-Fe model has been evaluated against a number of available ground-based lidar observations and performs well in simulating the mesospheric atomic Fe layer. The model reproduces the strong positive correlation of temperature and Fe density around the Fe layer peak and the large anticorrelation around 100 km. The diurnal tide has a significant effect in the middle of the layer, and the model also captures well the observed seasonal variations. However, the model overestimates the peak Fe+ concentration compared with the limited rocket-borne mass spectrometer data available, although good agreement on the ion layer underside can be obtained by adjusting the rate coefficients for dissociative recombination of Fe-molecular ions with electrons. Sensitivity experiments with the same chemistry in a 1-D model are used to highlight significant remaining uncertainties in reaction rate coefficients, and to explore the dependence of the total Fe abundance on the MIF and rate of vertical transport.

  5. Applicability of Current Atmospheric Correction Techniques in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Tiwari, Surya Prakash; Ouhssain, Mustapha; Jones, Burton

    2016-01-01

    Much of the Red Sea is considered to be a typical oligotrophic sea having very low chlorophyll-a concentrations. Few existing studies describe the variability of phytoplankton biomass in the Red Sea. This study evaluates the resulting chlorophyll-a values computed with different chlorophyll algorithms (e.g., Chl_OCI, Chl_Carder, Chl_GSM, and Chl_GIOP) using radiances derived from two different atmospheric correction algorithms (NASA standard and Singh and Shanmugam (2014)). The resulting satellite derived chlorophyll-a concentrations are compared with in situ chlorophyll values measured using the High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Statistical analyses are used to assess the performances of algorithms using the in situ measurements obtain in the Red Sea, to evaluate the approach to atmospheric correction and algorithm parameterization.

  6. Applicability of Current Atmospheric Correction Techniques in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Tiwari, Surya Prakash

    2016-10-26

    Much of the Red Sea is considered to be a typical oligotrophic sea having very low chlorophyll-a concentrations. Few existing studies describe the variability of phytoplankton biomass in the Red Sea. This study evaluates the resulting chlorophyll-a values computed with different chlorophyll algorithms (e.g., Chl_OCI, Chl_Carder, Chl_GSM, and Chl_GIOP) using radiances derived from two different atmospheric correction algorithms (NASA standard and Singh and Shanmugam (2014)). The resulting satellite derived chlorophyll-a concentrations are compared with in situ chlorophyll values measured using the High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Statistical analyses are used to assess the performances of algorithms using the in situ measurements obtain in the Red Sea, to evaluate the approach to atmospheric correction and algorithm parameterization.

  7. Regional transport model of atmospheric sulfates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, K.S.; Thomson, I.; Egan, B.A.

    1977-01-01

    As part of the Sulfate Regional Experiment (SURE) Design Project, a regional transport model of atmospheric sulfates has been developed. This quasi-Lagrangian three-dimensional grid numerical model uses a detailed SO 2 emission inventory of major anthropogenic sources in the Eastern U.S. region, and observed meteorological data during an episode as inputs. The model accounts for advective transport and turbulent diffusion of the pollutants. The chemical transformation of SO 2 and SO 4 /sup =/ and the deposition of the species at the earth's surface are assumed to be linear processes at specified constant rates. The numerical model can predict the daily average concentrations of SO 2 and SO 4 /sup =/ at all receptor locations in the grid region during the episode. Because of the spatial resolution of the grid, this model is particularly suited to investigate the effect of tall stacks in reducing the ambient concentration levels of sulfur pollutants. This paper presents the formulations and assumptions of the regional sulfate transport model. The model inputs and results are discussed. Isopleths of predicted SO 2 and SO 4 /sup =/ concentrations are compared with the observed ground level values. The bulk of the information in this paper is directed to air pollution meteorologists and environmental engineers interested in the atmospheric transport modeling studies of sulfur oxide pollutants

  8. The use of coupled atmospheric and hydrological models for water-resources management in headwater basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavesley, G.; Hay, L.

    1998-01-01

    Coupled atmospheric and hydrological models provide an opportunity for the improved management of water resources in headwater basins. Issues currently limiting full implementation of coupled-model methodologies include (a) the degree of uncertainty in the accuracy of precipitation and other meteorological variables simulated by atmospheric models, and (b) the problem of discordant scales between atmospheric and bydrological models. Alternative methodologies being developed to address these issues are reviewed.

  9. Data driven modelling of vertical atmospheric radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoch, Jaromir; Hlubinka, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    In the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute (CHMI) there exists a unique set of meteorological measurements consisting of the values of vertical atmospheric levels of beta and gamma radiation. In this paper a stochastic data-driven model based on nonlinear regression and on nonhomogeneous Poisson process is suggested. In the first part of the paper, growth curves were used to establish an appropriate nonlinear regression model. For comparison we considered a nonhomogeneous Poisson process with its intensity based on growth curves. In the second part both approaches were applied to the real data and compared. Computational aspects are briefly discussed as well. The primary goal of this paper is to present an improved understanding of the distribution of environmental radiation as obtained from the measurements of the vertical radioactivity profiles by the radioactivity sonde system. - Highlights: → We model vertical atmospheric levels of beta and gamma radiation. → We suggest appropriate nonlinear regression model based on growth curves. → We compare nonlinear regression modelling with Poisson process based modeling. → We apply both models to the real data.

  10. Organic chemistry in the atmosphere. [laboratory modeling of Titan atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagan, C.

    1974-01-01

    The existence of an at least moderately complex organic chemistry on Titan is stipulated based on clear evidence of methane, and at least presumptive evidence of hydrogen in its atmosphere. The ratio of methane to hydrogen is the highest of any atmosphere in the solar system. Irradiation of hydrogen/methane mixtures produces aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons. A very reasonable hypothesis assumes that the red cloud cover of Titan is made of organic chemicals. Two-carbon hydrocarbons experimentally produced from irradiated mixtures of methane, ammonia, water, and hydrogen bear out the possible organic chemistry of the Titanian environment.

  11. Atmospheric Wind Relaxations and the Oceanic Response in the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fewings, M. R.; Dorman, C. E.; Washburn, L.; Liu, W.

    2010-12-01

    the Gulf of Alaska influence ocean conditions in central and southern California via these wind relaxations. The ocean response within a few km of the coast involves poleward-flowing currents that transport warm water out of the lees of capes and headlands and counter to the direction of the California Current [Send et al. 1987, Harms and Winant 1998, Winant et al. 2003, Melton et al. 2009]. A similar response occurs in the Benguela and Canary Current coastal upwelling systems. The ocean response involves both barotropic and baroclinic dynamics and is consistent with existing geophysical models of buoyant, coastally-trapped plumes [Washburn et al., in prep]. Our ongoing work includes i) studying the regional ocean response to determine its spatial extent, time evolution, and ocean-atmosphere coupling dynamics; ii) developing an atmospheric index to predict wind relaxations in southern California based on pressure in the Gulf of Alaska; iii) examining the strength and frequency of wind relaxations over the past 30 years for connections to El Niño and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation; and iv) predicting future variations in wind relaxations and the response of the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem.

  12. Modeling of Revitalization of Atmospheric Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Robert; Knox, Jim

    2014-01-01

    The Atmosphere Revitalization Recovery and Environmental Monitoring (ARREM) project was initiated in September of 2011 as part of the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program. Under the ARREM project, testing of sub-scale and full-scale systems has been combined with multiphysics computer simulations for evaluation and optimization of subsystem approaches. In particular, this paper describes the testing and modeling of the water desiccant subsystem of the carbon dioxide removal assembly (CDRA). The goal is a full system predictive model of CDRA to guide system optimization and development.

  13. mathematical modelling of atmospheric dispersion of pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, M.E.

    2002-01-01

    the main objectives of this thesis are dealing with environmental problems adopting mathematical techniques. in this respect, atmospheric dispersion processes have been investigated by improving the analytical models to realize the realistic physical phenomena. to achieve these aims, the skeleton of this work contained both mathematical and environmental topics,performed in six chapters. in chapter one we presented a comprehensive review study of most important informations related to our work such as thermal stability , plume rise, inversion, advection , dispersion of pollutants, gaussian plume models dealing with both radioactive and industrial contaminants. chapter two deals with estimating the decay distance as well as the decay time of either industrial or radioactive airborne pollutant. further, highly turbulent atmosphere has been investigated as a special case in the three main thermal stability classes namely, neutral, stable, and unstable atmosphere. chapter three is concerned with obtaining maximum ground level concentration of air pollutant. the variable effective height of pollutants has been considered throughout the mathematical treatment. as a special case the constancy of effective height has been derived mathematically and the maximum ground level concentration as well as its location have been established

  14. Regional forecasting with global atmospheric models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowley, T.J.; North, G.R.; Smith, N.R.

    1994-05-01

    This report was prepared by the Applied Research Corporation (ARC), College Station, Texas, under subcontract to Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as part of a global climate studies task. The task supports site characterization work required for the selection of a potential high-level nuclear waste repository and is part of the Performance Assessment Scientific Support (PASS) Program at PNL. The work is under the overall direction of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), US Department of Energy Headquarters, Washington, DC. The scope of the report is to present the results of the third year's work on the atmospheric modeling part of the global climate studies task. The development testing of computer models and initial results are discussed. The appendices contain several studies that provide supporting information and guidance to the modeling work and further details on computer model development. Complete documentation of the models, including user information, will be prepared under separate reports and manuals

  15. The thermal structure of Triton's atmosphere - Pre-Voyager models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckay, Christopher P.; Pollack, James B.; Zent, Aaron P.; Cruikshank, Dale P.; Courtin, Regis

    1989-01-01

    Spectral data from earth observations have indicated the presence of N2 and CH4 on Triton. This paper outlines the use of the 1-D radiative-convective model developed for Titan to calculate the current pressure of N2 and CH4 on Triton. The production of haze material is obtained by scaling down from the Titan value. Results and predictions for the Voyager Triton encounter are as follows: A N2-CH4 atmosphere on Triton is thermodynamically self consistent and would have a surface pressure of approximately 50 millibar; due to the chemically produced haze, Triton has a hot atmosphere with a temperature of approximately 130 K; Triton's troposphere is a region of saturation of the major constituent of the atmosphere, N2.

  16. Current and future levels of mercury atmospheric pollution on a global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacyna, Jozef M.; Travnikov, Oleg; De Simone, Francesco; Hedgecock, Ian M.; Sundseth, Kyrre; Pacyna, Elisabeth G.; Steenhuisen, Frits; Pirrone, Nicola; Munthe, John; Kindbom, Karin

    2016-10-01

    An assessment of current and future emissions, air concentrations, and atmospheric deposition of mercury worldwide is presented on the basis of results obtained during the performance of the EU GMOS (Global Mercury Observation System) project. Emission estimates for mercury were prepared with the main goal of applying them in models to assess current (2013) and future (2035) air concentrations and atmospheric deposition of this contaminant. The combustion of fossil fuels (mainly coal) for energy and heat production in power plants and in industrial and residential boilers, as well as artisanal and small-scale gold mining, is one of the major anthropogenic sources of Hg emissions to the atmosphere at present. These sources account for about 37 and 25 % of the total anthropogenic Hg emissions globally, estimated to be about 2000 t. Emissions in Asian countries, particularly in China and India, dominate the total emissions of Hg. The current estimates of mercury emissions from natural processes (primary mercury emissions and re-emissions), including mercury depletion events, were estimated to be 5207 t year-1, which represents nearly 70 % of the global mercury emission budget. Oceans are the most important sources (36 %), followed by biomass burning (9 %). A comparison of the 2035 anthropogenic emissions estimated for three different scenarios with current anthropogenic emissions indicates a reduction of these emissions in 2035 up to 85 % for the best-case scenario. Two global chemical transport models (GLEMOS and ECHMERIT) have been used for the evaluation of future mercury pollution levels considering future emission scenarios. Projections of future changes in mercury deposition on a global scale simulated by these models for three anthropogenic emissions scenarios of 2035 indicate a decrease in up to 50 % deposition in the Northern Hemisphere and up to 35 % in Southern Hemisphere for the best-case scenario. The EU GMOS project has proved to be a very important

  17. Current and future levels of mercury atmospheric pollution on a global scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Pacyna

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available An assessment of current and future emissions, air concentrations, and atmospheric deposition of mercury worldwide is presented on the basis of results obtained during the performance of the EU GMOS (Global Mercury Observation System project. Emission estimates for mercury were prepared with the main goal of applying them in models to assess current (2013 and future (2035 air concentrations and atmospheric deposition of this contaminant. The combustion of fossil fuels (mainly coal for energy and heat production in power plants and in industrial and residential boilers, as well as artisanal and small-scale gold mining, is one of the major anthropogenic sources of Hg emissions to the atmosphere at present. These sources account for about 37 and 25 % of the total anthropogenic Hg emissions globally, estimated to be about 2000 t. Emissions in Asian countries, particularly in China and India, dominate the total emissions of Hg. The current estimates of mercury emissions from natural processes (primary mercury emissions and re-emissions, including mercury depletion events, were estimated to be 5207 t year−1, which represents nearly 70 % of the global mercury emission budget. Oceans are the most important sources (36 %, followed by biomass burning (9 %. A comparison of the 2035 anthropogenic emissions estimated for three different scenarios with current anthropogenic emissions indicates a reduction of these emissions in 2035 up to 85 % for the best-case scenario. Two global chemical transport models (GLEMOS and ECHMERIT have been used for the evaluation of future mercury pollution levels considering future emission scenarios. Projections of future changes in mercury deposition on a global scale simulated by these models for three anthropogenic emissions scenarios of 2035 indicate a decrease in up to 50 % deposition in the Northern Hemisphere and up to 35 % in Southern Hemisphere for the best-case scenario. The EU GMOS project has

  18. Stellar Atmospheric Modelling for the ACCESS Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Matthew; Kaiser, Mary Elizabeth; Bohlin, Ralph; Kurucz, Robert; ACCESS Team

    2018-01-01

    A goal of the ACCESS program (Absolute Color Calibration Experiment for Standard Stars) is to enable greater discrimination between theoretical astrophysical models and observations, where the comparison is limited by systematic errors associated with the relative flux calibration of the targets. To achieve these goals, ACCESS has been designed as a sub-orbital rocket borne payload and ground calibration program, to establish absolute flux calibration of stellar targets at flight candidates, as well as a selection of A and G stars from the CALSPEC database. Stellar atmosphere models were generated using Atlas 9 and Atlas 12 Kurucz stellar atmosphere software. The effective temperature, log(g), metallicity, and redenning were varied and the chi-squared statistic was minimized to obtain a best-fit model. A comparison of these models and the results from interpolation between grids of existing models will be presented. The impact of the flexibility of the Atlas 12 input parameters (e.g. solar metallicity fraction, abundances, microturbulent velocity) is being explored.

  19. Atmospheric corrosion: statistical validation of models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, V.; Martinez-Luaces, V.; Guineo-Cobs, G.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we discuss two different methods for validation of regression models, applied to corrosion data. One of them is based on the correlation coefficient and the other one is the statistical test of lack of fit. Both methods are used here to analyse fitting of bi logarithmic model in order to predict corrosion for very low carbon steel substrates in rural and urban-industrial atmospheres in Uruguay. Results for parameters A and n of the bi logarithmic model are reported here. For this purpose, all repeated values were used instead of using average values as usual. Modelling is carried out using experimental data corresponding to steel substrates under the same initial meteorological conditions ( in fact, they are put in the rack at the same time). Results of correlation coefficient are compared with the lack of it tested at two different signification levels (α=0.01 and α=0.05). Unexpected differences between them are explained and finally, it is possible to conclude, at least in the studied atmospheres, that the bi logarithmic model does not fit properly the experimental data. (Author) 18 refs

  20. Atmospheric transmittance model for photosynthetically active radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulescu, Marius; Stefu, Nicoleta; Gravila, Paul; Paulescu, Eugenia; Boata, Remus; Pacurar, Angel; Mares, Oana; Pop, Nicolina; Calinoiu, Delia

    2013-01-01

    A parametric model of the atmospheric transmittance in the PAR band is presented. The model can be straightforwardly applied for calculating the beam, diffuse and global components of the PAR solar irradiance. The required inputs are: air pressure, ozone, water vapor and nitrogen dioxide column content, Ångström's turbidity coefficient and single scattering albedo. Comparison with other models and ground measured data shows a reasonable level of accuracy for this model, making it suitable for practical applications. From the computational point of view the calculus is condensed into simple algebra which is a noticeable advantage. For users interested in speed-intensive computation of the effective PAR solar irradiance, a PC program based on the parametric equations along with a user guide are available online at http://solar.physics.uvt.ro/srms

  1. Modeling Atmospheric Activity of Cool Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrijver, C. J.

    2003-10-01

    This review discusses a set of simple models for cool-star activity with which we compute (1) photospheric field patterns on stars of different activity levels, (2) the associated outer-atmospheric field configurations, and (3) the soft X-ray emission that is expected to result from the ensemble of loop atmospheres in the coronae of these stars. The model is based on empirically-determined properties of solar activity. It allows us to extrapolate to stars of significantly higher and lower activity than seen on the present-day Sun through its cycle. With it, we can, for example, gain insight into stellar field patterns (including a possible formation mechanism for polar starspots), as well as in the properties of coronal heating (helpful in the identification of the quiescent coronal heating mechanism). Lacking comprehensive theoretical understanding, the model's reliance on empirical solar data means that the multitude of processes involved are approximated to be independent of rotation rate, activity level, and fundamental stellar parameters, or -- where unavoidably necessary -- assumed to simply scale with activity. An evaluation of the most important processes involved guides a discussion of the limits of the model, of the limitations in our knowledge, and of future needs. "I propose to adopt such rules as will ensure the testability of scientific statements; which is to say, their falsifiability." Karl Popper (1902-1994)

  2. Modeling the Chemical Complexity in Titan's Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuitton, Veronique; Yelle, Roger; Klippenstein, Stephen J.; Horst, Sarah; Lavvas, Panayotis

    2018-06-01

    Titan's atmospheric chemistry is extremely complicated because of the multiplicity of chemical as well as physical processes involved. Chemical processes begin with the dissociation and ionization of the most abundant species, N2 and CH4, by a variety of energy sources, i.e. solar UV and X-ray photons, suprathermal electrons (reactions involving radicals as well as positive and negative ions, all possibly in some excited electronic and vibrational state. Heterogeneous chemistry at the surface of the aerosols could also play a significant role. The efficiency and outcome of these reactions depends strongly on the physical characteristics of the atmosphere, namely pressure and temperature, ranging from 1.5×103 to 10-10 mbar and from 70 to 200 K, respectively. Moreover, the distribution of the species is affected by molecular diffusion and winds as well as escape from the top of the atmosphere and condensation in the lower stratosphere.Photochemical and microphysical models are the keystones of our understanding of Titan's atmospheric chemistry. Their main objective is to compute the distribution and nature of minor chemical species (typically containing up to 6 carbon atoms) and haze particles, respectively. Density profiles are compared to the available observations, allowing to identify important processes and to highlight those that remain to be constrained in the laboratory, experimentally and/or theoretically. We argue that positive ion chemistry is at the origin of complex organic molecules, such as benzene, ammonia and hydrogen isocyanide while neutral-neutral radiative association reactions are a significant source of alkanes. We find that negatively charged macromolecules (m/z ~100) attract the abundant positive ions, which ultimately leads to the formation of the aerosols. We also discuss the possibility that an incoming flux of oxygen from Enceladus, another Saturn's satellite, is responsible for the presence of oxygen-bearing species in Titan's reductive

  3. FINGERING CONVECTION AND CLOUDLESS MODELS FOR COOL BROWN DWARF ATMOSPHERES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tremblin, P.; Amundsen, D. S.; Mourier, P.; Baraffe, I.; Chabrier, G.; Drummond, B.; Homeier, D.; Venot, O.

    2015-01-01

    This work aims to improve the current understanding of the atmospheres of brown dwarfs, especially cold ones with spectral types T and Y, whose modeling is a current challenge. Silicate and iron clouds are believed to disappear at the photosphere at the L/T transition, but cloudless models fail to reproduce correctly the spectra of T dwarfs, advocating for the addition of more physics, e.g., other types of clouds or internal energy transport mechanisms. We use a one-dimensional radiative/convective equilibrium code ATMO to investigate this issue. This code includes both equilibrium and out-of-equilibrium chemistry and solves consistently the PT structure. Included opacity sources are H 2 -H 2 , H 2 -He, H 2 O, CO, CO 2 , CH 4 , NH 3 , K, Na, and TiO, VO if they are present in the atmosphere. We show that the spectra of Y dwarfs can be accurately reproduced with a cloudless model if vertical mixing and NH 3 quenching are taken into account. T dwarf spectra still have some reddening in, e.g., J–H, compared to cloudless models. This reddening can be reproduced by slightly reducing the temperature gradient in the atmosphere. We propose that this reduction of the stabilizing temperature gradient in these layers, leading to cooler structures, is due to the onset of fingering convection, triggered by the destabilizing impact of condensation of very thin dust

  4. FINGERING CONVECTION AND CLOUDLESS MODELS FOR COOL BROWN DWARF ATMOSPHERES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tremblin, P.; Amundsen, D. S.; Mourier, P.; Baraffe, I.; Chabrier, G.; Drummond, B. [Astrophysics Group, University of Exeter, EX4 4QL Exeter (United Kingdom); Homeier, D. [Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, CRAL, UMR CNRS 5574, F-69364 Lyon Cedex 07 (France); Venot, O., E-mail: tremblin@astro.ex.ac.uk, E-mail: pascal.tremblin@cea.fr [Instituut voor Sterrenkunde, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2015-05-01

    This work aims to improve the current understanding of the atmospheres of brown dwarfs, especially cold ones with spectral types T and Y, whose modeling is a current challenge. Silicate and iron clouds are believed to disappear at the photosphere at the L/T transition, but cloudless models fail to reproduce correctly the spectra of T dwarfs, advocating for the addition of more physics, e.g., other types of clouds or internal energy transport mechanisms. We use a one-dimensional radiative/convective equilibrium code ATMO to investigate this issue. This code includes both equilibrium and out-of-equilibrium chemistry and solves consistently the PT structure. Included opacity sources are H{sub 2}-H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}-He, H{sub 2}O, CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, NH{sub 3}, K, Na, and TiO, VO if they are present in the atmosphere. We show that the spectra of Y dwarfs can be accurately reproduced with a cloudless model if vertical mixing and NH{sub 3} quenching are taken into account. T dwarf spectra still have some reddening in, e.g., J–H, compared to cloudless models. This reddening can be reproduced by slightly reducing the temperature gradient in the atmosphere. We propose that this reduction of the stabilizing temperature gradient in these layers, leading to cooler structures, is due to the onset of fingering convection, triggered by the destabilizing impact of condensation of very thin dust.

  5. Atmospheric greenhouse effect - simple model; Atmosfaerens drivhuseffekt - enkel modell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanestroem, Ingolf; Henriksen, Thormod

    2011-07-01

    The article shows a simple model for the atmospheric greenhouse effect based on consideration of both the sun and earth as 'black bodies', so that the physical laws that apply to them, may be used. Furthermore, explained why some gases are greenhouse gases, but other gases in the atmosphere has no greenhouse effect. But first, some important concepts and physical laws encountered in the article, are repeated. (AG)

  6. Numerical modeling of atmospheric washout processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayer, D.; Beheng, K.D.; Herbert, F.

    1987-01-01

    For the washout of particles from the atmosphere by clouds and rain one has to distinguish between processes which work in the first phase of cloud development, when condensation nuclei build up in saturated air (Nucleation Aerosol Scavenging, NAS) and those processes which work at the following cloud development. In the second case particles are taken off by cloud droplets or by falling rain drops via collision (Collision Aerosol Scavenging, CAS). The physics of both processes is described. For the CAS process a numerical model is presented. The report contains a documentation of the mathematical equations and the computer programs (FORTRAN). (KW) [de

  7. Atmospheric dispersion models for environmental pollution applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gifford, F.A.

    1976-01-01

    Pollutants are introduced into the air by many of man's activities. The potentially harmful effects these can cause are, broadly speaking, of two kinds: long-term, possibly large-scale and wide-spread chronic effects, including long-term effects on the earth's climate; and acute, short-term effects such as those associated with urban air pollution. This section is concerned with mathematical cloud or plume models describing the role of the atmosphere, primarily in relation to the second of these, the acute effects of air pollution, i.e., those arising from comparatively high concentration levels. The need for such air pollution modeling studies has increased spectacularly as a result of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1968 and, especially, two key court decisions; the Calvert Cliffs decision, and the Sierra Club ruling on environmental non-degradation

  8. Atlantis model outputs - Developing end-to-end models of the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of this project is to develop spatially discrete end-to-end models of the California Current LME, linking oceanography, biogeochemistry, food web...

  9. Modeling of particle mixing in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Shupeng

    2015-01-01

    This thesis presents a newly developed size-composition resolved aerosol model (SCRAM), which is able to simulate the dynamics of externally-mixed particles in the atmosphere, and evaluates its performance in three-dimensional air-quality simulations. The main work is split into four parts. First, the research context of external mixing and aerosol modelling is introduced. Secondly, the development of the SCRAM box model is presented along with validation tests. Each particle composition is defined by the combination of mass-fraction sections of its chemical components or aggregates of components. The three main processes involved in aerosol dynamic (nucleation, coagulation, condensation/ evaporation) are included in SCRAM. The model is first validated by comparisons with published reference solutions for coagulation and condensation/evaporation of internally-mixed particles. The particle mixing state is investigated in a 0-D simulation using data representative of air pollution at a traffic site in Paris. The relative influence on the mixing state of the different aerosol processes and of the algorithm used to model condensation/evaporation (dynamic evolution or bulk equilibrium between particles and gas) is studied. Then, SCRAM is integrated into the Polyphemus air quality platform and used to conduct simulations over Greater Paris during the summer period of 2009. This evaluation showed that SCRAM gives satisfactory results for both PM2.5/PM10 concentrations and aerosol optical depths, as assessed from comparisons to observations. Besides, the model allows us to analyze the particle mixing state, as well as the impact of the mixing state assumption made in the modelling on particle formation, aerosols optical properties, and cloud condensation nuclei activation. Finally, two simulations are conducted during the winter campaign of MEGAPOLI (Megacities: Emissions, urban, regional and Global Atmospheric Pollution and climate effects, and Integrated tools for

  10. Swell impact on wind stress and atmospheric mixing in a regional coupled atmosphere-wave model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Lichuan; Rutgersson, Anna; Sahlée, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Over the ocean, the atmospheric turbulence can be significantly affected by swell waves. Change in the atmospheric turbulence affects the wind stress and atmospheric mixing over swell waves. In this study, the influence of swell on atmospheric mixing and wind stress is introduced into an atmosphere-wave-coupled...... regional climate model, separately and combined. The swell influence on atmospheric mixing is introduced into the atmospheric mixing length formula by adding a swell-induced contribution to the mixing. The swell influence on the wind stress under wind-following swell, moderate-range wind, and near......-neutral and unstable stratification conditions is introduced by changing the roughness length. Five year simulation results indicate that adding the swell influence on atmospheric mixing has limited influence, only slightly increasing the near-surface wind speed; in contrast, adding the swell influence on wind stress...

  11. The global change research center atmospheric chemistry model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, Jr., Francis Perry [Oregon Graduate Inst. of Science and Technology, Portland, OR (United States)

    1995-01-01

    This work outlines the development of a new model of the chemistry of the natural atmosphere. The model is 2.5-dimensional, having spatial coordinates height, latitude, and, the half-dimension, land and ocean. The model spans both the troposphere and stratosphere, although the troposphere is emphasized and the stratosphere is simple and incomplete. The chemistry in the model includes the Ox, HOx, NOx, and methane cycles in a highly modular fashion which allows model users great flexibility in selecting simulation parameters. A detailed modeled sensitivity analysis is also presented. A key aspect of the model is its inclusion of clouds. The model uses current understanding of the distribution and optical thickness of clouds to determine the true radiation distribution in the atmosphere. As a result, detailed studies of the radiative effects of clouds on the distribution of both oxidant concentrations and trace gas removal are possible. This work presents a beginning of this study with model results and discussion of cloud effects on the hydroxyl radical.

  12. Atmospheric mercury dispersion modelling from two nearest hypothetical point sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Razi, Khandakar Md Habib; Hiroshi, Moritomi; Shinji, Kambara [Environmental and Renewable Energy System (ERES), Graduate School of Engineering, Gifu University, Yanagido, Gifu City, 501-1193 (Japan)

    2012-07-01

    The Japan coastal areas are still environmentally friendly, though there are multiple air emission sources originating as a consequence of several developmental activities such as automobile industries, operation of thermal power plants, and mobile-source pollution. Mercury is known to be a potential air pollutant in the region apart from SOX, NOX, CO and Ozone. Mercury contamination in water bodies and other ecosystems due to deposition of atmospheric mercury is considered a serious environmental concern. Identification of sources contributing to the high atmospheric mercury levels will be useful for formulating pollution control and mitigation strategies in the region. In Japan, mercury and its compounds were categorized as hazardous air pollutants in 1996 and are on the list of 'Substances Requiring Priority Action' published by the Central Environmental Council of Japan. The Air Quality Management Division of the Environmental Bureau, Ministry of the Environment, Japan, selected the current annual mean environmental air quality standard for mercury and its compounds of 0.04 ?g/m3. Long-term exposure to mercury and its compounds can have a carcinogenic effect, inducing eg, Minamata disease. This study evaluates the impact of mercury emissions on air quality in the coastal area of Japan. Average yearly emission of mercury from an elevated point source in this area with background concentration and one-year meteorological data were used to predict the ground level concentration of mercury. To estimate the concentration of mercury and its compounds in air of the local area, two different simulation models have been used. The first is the National Institute of Advanced Science and Technology Atmospheric Dispersion Model for Exposure and Risk Assessment (AIST-ADMER) that estimates regional atmospheric concentration and distribution. The second is the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated trajectory Model (HYSPLIT) that estimates the atmospheric

  13. Atmospheric solar tides and their electrodynamic effects. I. The global Ssub(q) current system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forbes, J M; Lindzen, R S [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, Mass. (USA)

    1976-09-01

    This paper is Part I of a study dealing with the electrodynamic consequences of solar tides in the E-region of the Earth's atmosphere. The major result to emerge from Part I is that E-region dynamo action of combined diurnal and semidiurnal winds consistent with measurements is found to account for the Ssub(q) variations in ground magnetic data, without having to resort to electric fields of plasmaspheric origin as suggested in the recent literature. Real discrepancies of the order of 20% in amplitude and 1 to 2 h in phase still exist between the data and the present theoretical model. The model couples a global thin-shell dynamo solution which takes into account the vertical structure of the winds with a full three-dimensional model of the equatorial electrojet. Part I is primarily concerned with the classical thin-shell global solution, whereas Part II (Forbes et al., J. Atmos. Terr. Phys.; 38:911 (1976)) deals solely with the equatorial electrojet; however, the equatorial magnetic variations to be presented here are taken from Part II. Previous global dynamo models have utilized winds which are shown to be unrealistic by recent measurements and dissipative tidal theory, and do not include the important effects of vertical current flow at the magnetic equator. Inclusion of vertical current effects, which are discussed in detail in Part II, relaxes the need for E-region diurnal wind speeds as large as those required by previous workers to reproduce the Ssub(q) current system. Computed vertical structures of the Ssub(q) currents explain some puzzling features of the few midlatitude rocket magnetometer measurements that are available. The Joule heating by Ssub(q) currents is comparable to solar EUV heating above 60/sup 0/N, but contribute negligibly to the total heat budget of the thermosphere.

  14. Mathematical models for atmospheric pollutants. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, R.L.; Barrager, S.M.

    1979-08-01

    The present and likely future roles of mathematical modeling in air quality decisions are described. The discussion emphasizes models and air pathway processes rather than the chemical and physical behavior of specific anthropogenic emissions. Summarized are the characteristics of various types of models used in the decision-making processes. Specific model subclasses are recommended for use in making air quality decisions that have site-specific, regional, national, or global impacts. The types of exposure and damage models that are currently used to predict the effects of air pollutants on humans, other animals, plants, ecosystems, property, and materials are described. The aesthetic effects of odor and visibility and the impact of pollutants on weather and climate are also addressed. Technical details of air pollution meteorology, chemical and physical properties of air pollutants, solution techniques, and air quality models are discussed in four appendices bound in separate volumes

  15. NASA's Upper Atmosphere Research Program (UARP) and Atmospheric Chemistry Modeling and Analysis Program (ACMAP): Research Summaries 1997-1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurylo, M. J.; DeCola, P. L.; Kaye, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    Under the mandate contained in the FY 1976 NASA Authorization Act, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has developed and is implementing a comprehensive program of research, technology development, and monitoring of the Earth's upper atmosphere, with emphasis on the upper troposphere and stratosphere. This program aims at expanding our chemical and physical understanding to permit both the quantitative analysis of current perturbations as well as the assessment of possible future changes in this important region of our environment. It is carried out jointly by the Upper Atmosphere Research Program (UARP) and the Atmospheric Chemistry Modeling and Analysis Program (ACMAP), both managed within the Research Division in the Office of Earth Science at NASA. Significant contributions to this effort have also been provided by the Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project (AEAP) of NASA's Office of Aero-Space Technology. The long-term objectives of the present program are to perform research to: understand the physics, chemistry, and transport processes of the upper troposphere and the stratosphere and their control on the distribution of atmospheric chemical species such as ozone; assess possible perturbations to the composition of the atmosphere caused by human activities and natural phenomena (with a specific emphasis on trace gas geographical distributions, sources, and sinks and the role of trace gases in defining the chemical composition of the upper atmosphere); understand the processes affecting the distributions of radiatively active species in the atmosphere, and the importance of chemical-radiative-dynamical feedbacks on the meteorology and climatology of the stratosphere and troposphere; and understand ozone production, loss, and recovery in an atmosphere with increasing abundances of greenhouse gases. The current report is composed of two parts. Part 1 summarizes the objectives, status, and accomplishments of the research tasks supported

  16. Conservative modelling of the moisture and heat transfer in building components under atmospheric excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janssen, Hans; Blocken, Bert; Carmeliet, Jan

    2007-01-01

    While the transfer equations for moisture and heat in building components are currently undergoing standardisation, atmospheric boundary conditions, conservative modelling and numerical efficiency are not addressed. In a first part, this paper adds a comprehensive description of those boundary...

  17. Model sensitivity studies of the decrease in atmospheric carbon tetrachloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Chipperfield

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 is an ozone-depleting substance, which is controlled by the Montreal Protocol and for which the atmospheric abundance is decreasing. However, the current observed rate of this decrease is known to be slower than expected based on reported CCl4 emissions and its estimated overall atmospheric lifetime. Here we use a three-dimensional (3-D chemical transport model to investigate the impact on its predicted decay of uncertainties in the rates at which CCl4 is removed from the atmosphere by photolysis, by ocean uptake and by degradation in soils. The largest sink is atmospheric photolysis (74 % of total, but a reported 10 % uncertainty in its combined photolysis cross section and quantum yield has only a modest impact on the modelled rate of CCl4 decay. This is partly due to the limiting effect of the rate of transport of CCl4 from the main tropospheric reservoir to the stratosphere, where photolytic loss occurs. The model suggests large interannual variability in the magnitude of this stratospheric photolysis sink caused by variations in transport. The impact of uncertainty in the minor soil sink (9 % of total is also relatively small. In contrast, the model shows that uncertainty in ocean loss (17 % of total has the largest impact on modelled CCl4 decay due to its sizeable contribution to CCl4 loss and large lifetime uncertainty range (147 to 241 years. With an assumed CCl4 emission rate of 39 Gg year−1, the reference simulation with the best estimate of loss processes still underestimates the observed CCl4 (overestimates the decay over the past 2 decades but to a smaller extent than previous studies. Changes to the rate of CCl4 loss processes, in line with known uncertainties, could bring the model into agreement with in situ surface and remote-sensing measurements, as could an increase in emissions to around 47 Gg year−1. Further progress in constraining the CCl4 budget is partly limited by

  18. Model coupler for coupling of atmospheric, oceanic, and terrestrial models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Haruyasu; Kobayashi, Takuya; Tsuduki, Katsunori; Kim, Keyong-Ok

    2007-02-01

    A numerical simulation system SPEEDI-MP, which is applicable for various environmental studies, consists of dynamical models and material transport models for the atmospheric, terrestrial, and oceanic environments, meteorological and geographical databases for model inputs, and system utilities for file management, visualization, analysis, etc., using graphical user interfaces (GUIs). As a numerical simulation tool, a model coupling program (model coupler) has been developed. It controls parallel calculations of several models and data exchanges among them to realize the dynamical coupling of the models. It is applicable for any models with three-dimensional structured grid system, which is used by most environmental and hydrodynamic models. A coupled model system for water circulation has been constructed with atmosphere, ocean, wave, hydrology, and land-surface models using the model coupler. Performance tests of the coupled model system for water circulation were also carried out for the flood event at Saudi Arabia in January 2005 and the storm surge case by the hurricane KATRINA in August 2005. (author)

  19. Critical review of hydraulic modeling on atmospheric heat dissipation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Y.; Brown, S.M.

    1977-01-01

    Objectives of this study were: to define the useful roles of hydraulic modeling in understanding the predicting atmospheric effects of heat dissipation systems; to assess the state-of-the-art of hydraulic modeling of atmospheric phenomena; to inventory potentially useful existing hydraulic modeling facilities both in the United States and abroad; and to scope hydraulic model studies to assist the assessment of atmospheric effects of nuclear energy centers

  20. Modelling organic particles in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couvidat, Florian

    2012-01-01

    Organic aerosol formation in the atmosphere is investigated via the development of a new model named H 2 O (Hydrophilic/Hydrophobic Organics). First, a parameterization is developed to take into account secondary organic aerosol formation from isoprene oxidation. It takes into account the effect of nitrogen oxides on organic aerosol formation and the hydrophilic properties of the aerosols. This parameterization is then implemented in H 2 O along with some other developments and the results of the model are compared to organic carbon measurements over Europe. Model performance is greatly improved by taking into account emissions of primary semi-volatile compounds, which can form secondary organic aerosols after oxidation or can condense when temperature decreases. If those emissions are not taken into account, a significant underestimation of organic aerosol concentrations occurs in winter. The formation of organic aerosols over an urban area was also studied by simulating organic aerosols concentration over the Paris area during the summer campaign of Megapoli (July 2009). H 2 O gives satisfactory results over the Paris area, although a peak of organic aerosol concentrations from traffic, which does not appear in the measurements, appears in the model simulation during rush hours. It could be due to an underestimation of the volatility of organic aerosols. It is also possible that primary and secondary organic compounds do not mix well together and that primary semi volatile compounds do not condense on an organic aerosol that is mostly secondary and highly oxidized. Finally, the impact of aqueous-phase chemistry was studied. The mechanism for the formation of secondary organic aerosol includes in-cloud oxidation of glyoxal, methylglyoxal, methacrolein and methylvinylketone, formation of methyltetrols in the aqueous phase of particles and cloud droplets, and the in-cloud aging of organic aerosols. The impact of wet deposition is also studied to better estimate the

  1. Model for Atmospheric Propagation of Spatially Combined Laser Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS MODEL FOR ATMOSPHERIC PROPAGATION OF SPATIALLY COMBINED LASER BEAMS by Kum Leong Lee September...MODEL FOR ATMOSPHERIC PROPAGATION OF SPATIALLY COMBINED LASER BEAMS 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Kum Leong Lee 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND...BLANK ii Approved for public release. Distribution is unlimited. MODEL FOR ATMOSPHERIC PROPAGATION OF SPATIALLY COMBINED LASER BEAMS Kum Leong Lee

  2. A THICK CURRENT SHELL MODEL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-08-25

    Aug 25, 2005 ... control ling the current distribution latitudinally and vertically ... horizontal plane (v 3 constant) as a result oF the ... optimisation subroutine of licensed MATLAB 6.0 ... electrojct axis does not coincide with the dip equator.

  3. Shocks and currents in stratified atmospheres with a magnetic null point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarr, Lucas A.; Linton, Mark

    2017-08-01

    We use the resistive MHD code LARE (Arber et al 2001) to inject a compressive MHD wavepacket into a stratified atmosphere that has a single magnetic null point, as recently described in Tarr et al 2017. The 2.5D simulation represents a slice through a small ephemeral region or area of plage. The strong gradients in field strength and connectivity related to the presence of the null produce substantially different dynamics compared to the more slowly varying fields typically used in simple sunspot models. The wave-null interaction produces a fast mode shock that collapses the null into a current sheet and generates a set of outward propagating (from the null) slow mode shocks confined to field lines near each separatrix. A combination of oscillatory reconnection and shock dissipation ultimately raise the plasma's internal energy at the null and along each separatrix by 25-50% above the background. The resulting pressure gradients must be balanced by Lorentz forces, so that the final state has contact discontinuities along each separatrix and a persistent current at the null. The simulation demonstrates that fast and slow mode waves localize currents to the topologically important locations of the field, just as their Alfvenic counterparts do, and also illustrates the necessity of treating waves and reconnection as coupled phenomena.

  4. On the Nature, Theory, and Modeling of Atmospheric Planetary Boundary Layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baklanov, Alexander A.; Grisogono, Branko; Bornstein, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The gap between our modern understanding of planetary boundary layer physics and its decades-old representations in current operational atmospheric models is widening, which has stimulated this review of the current state of the art and an analysis of the immediate needs in boundary layer theory......, measurements, and modeling....

  5. Verification of atmospheric diffusion models using data of long term atmospheric diffusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Junji; Kido, Hiroko; Hato, Shinji; Homma, Toshimitsu

    2009-03-01

    Straight-line or segmented plume models as atmospheric diffusion models are commonly used in probabilistic accident consequence assessment (PCA) codes due to cost and time savings. The PCA code, OSCAAR developed by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (Present; Japan Atomic Energy Agency) uses the variable puff trajectory model to calculate atmospheric transport and dispersion of released radionuclides. In order to investigate uncertainties involved with the structure of the atmospheric dispersion/deposition model in OSCAAR, we have introduced the more sophisticated computer codes that included regional meteorological models RAMS and atmospheric transport model HYPACT, which were developed by Colorado State University, and comparative analyses between OSCAAR and RAMS/HYPACT have been performed. In this study, model verification of OSCAAR and RAMS/HYPACT was conducted using data of long term atmospheric diffusion experiments, which were carried out in Tokai-mura, Ibaraki-ken. The predictions by models and the results of the atmospheric diffusion experiments indicated relatively good agreements. And it was shown that model performance of OSCAAR was the same degree as it of RAMS/HYPACT. (author)

  6. Electric current model of magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfen, H.

    1979-05-01

    A dualism between the field and the particle approach exists also in plasma physics. A number of phenomena, such as the formation of double layers and the energy transport form one region to another, can be understood only by the particle (electric current) description. Hence a translation of the traditional field description into a particle (electric current) description is essential. Such a translation has earlier been made for the heliosphere. The purpose of this paper is to outline a similar application to the magnetosphere, focussing on the energy transfer from the solar wind. As a first approximation a magnetic field consisting of a dipole field and homogeneous magnetic field is used whereas in a second approximation the configuration is more realistic. (author)

  7. Simulation of convection-stabilized low-current glow and arc discharges in atmospheric-pressure air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naidis, G V

    2007-01-01

    A two-dimensional model of stationary convection-stabilized low-current glow and arc discharge columns in atmospheric-pressure air is developed which accounts for deviation of the plasma state from the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). In addition to equations of energy, continuity and momentum (analogous to those used in LTE arc models), the non-LTE model includes balance equations for plasma species and for the vibrational energy of nitrogen molecules. The kinetic scheme is used which was developed recently for the simulation of low-current wall-stabilized discharges in air. Results of calculation of discharge parameters over a wide current range are presented. It is shown that the non-equilibrium effects are substantial at currents lower than ∼ 100 mA. The calculated plasma parameters agree with available experimental data

  8. ARTEAM - Advanced ray tracing with earth atmospheric models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunz, G.J.; Moerman, M.M.; Eijk, A.M.J. van

    2002-01-01

    The Advanced Ray Tracing with Earth Atmospheric Models (ARTEAM) aims at a description of the electro-optical propagation environment in the marine atmospheric surface layer. For given meteorological conditions, the model evaluates height- and range-resolved transmission losses, refraction and

  9. Integrating wildfire plume rises within atmospheric transport models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallia, D. V.; Kochanski, A.; Wu, D.; Urbanski, S. P.; Krueger, S. K.; Lin, J. C.

    2016-12-01

    Wildfires can generate significant pyro-convection that is responsible for releasing pollutants, greenhouse gases, and trace species into the free troposphere, which are then transported a significant distance downwind from the fire. Oftentimes, atmospheric transport and chemistry models have a difficult time resolving the transport of smoke from these wildfires, primarily due to deficiencies in estimating the plume injection height, which has been highlighted in previous work as the most important aspect of simulating wildfire plume transport. As a result of the uncertainties associated with modeled wildfire plume rise, researchers face difficulties modeling the impacts of wildfire smoke on air quality and constraining fire emissions using inverse modeling techniques. Currently, several plume rise parameterizations exist that are able to determine the injection height of fire emissions; however, the success of these parameterizations has been mixed. With the advent of WRF-SFIRE, the wildfire plume rise and injection height can now be explicitly calculated using a fire spread model (SFIRE) that is dynamically linked with the atmosphere simulated by WRF. However, this model has only been tested on a limited basis due to computational costs. Here, we will test the performance of WRF-SFIRE in addition to several commonly adopted plume parameterizations (Freitas, Sofiev, and Briggs) for the 2013 Patch Springs (Utah) and 2012 Baker Canyon (Washington) fires, for both of which observations of plume rise heights are available. These plume rise techniques will then be incorporated within a Lagrangian atmospheric transport model (STILT) in order to simulate CO and CO2 concentrations during NASA's CARVE Earth Science Airborne Program over Alaska during the summer of 2012. Initial model results showed that STILT model simulations were unable to reproduce enhanced CO concentrations produced by Alaskan fires observed during 2012. Near-surface concentrations were drastically

  10. Global Atmosphere Watch Workshop on Measurement-Model ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The World Meteorological Organization’s (WMO) Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) Programme coordinates high-quality observations of atmospheric composition from global to local scales with the aim to drive high-quality and high-impact science while co-producing a new generation of products and services. In line with this vision, GAW’s Scientific Advisory Group for Total Atmospheric Deposition (SAG-TAD) has a mandate to produce global maps of wet, dry and total atmospheric deposition for important atmospheric chemicals to enable research into biogeochemical cycles and assessments of ecosystem and human health effects. The most suitable scientific approach for this activity is the emerging technique of measurement-model fusion for total atmospheric deposition. This technique requires global-scale measurements of atmospheric trace gases, particles, precipitation composition and precipitation depth, as well as predictions of the same from global/regional chemical transport models. The fusion of measurement and model results requires data assimilation and mapping techniques. The objective of the GAW Workshop on Measurement-Model Fusion for Global Total Atmospheric Deposition (MMF-GTAD), an initiative of the SAG-TAD, was to review the state-of-the-science and explore the feasibility and methodology of producing, on a routine retrospective basis, global maps of atmospheric gas and aerosol concentrations as well as wet, dry and total deposition via measurement-model

  11. Characterization of transient discharges under atmospheric-pressure conditions applying nitrogen photoemission and current measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, Sandra; Rajasekaran, Priyadarshini; Bibinov, Nikita; Awakowicz, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The plasma parameters such as electron distribution function and electron density of three atmospheric-pressure transient discharges namely filamentary and homogeneous dielectric barrier discharges in air, and the spark discharge of an argon plasma coagulation (APC) system are determined. A combination of numerical simulation as well as diagnostic methods including current measurement and optical emission spectroscopy (OES) based on nitrogen emissions is used. The applied methods supplement each other and resolve problems, which arise when these methods are used individually. Nitrogen is used as a sensor gas and is admixed in low amount to argon for characterizing the APC discharge. Both direct and stepwise electron-impact excitation of nitrogen emissions are included in the plasma-chemical model applied for characterization of these transient discharges using OES where ambiguity arises in the determination of plasma parameters under specific discharge conditions. It is shown that the measured current solves this problem by providing additional information useful for the determination of discharge-specific plasma parameters. (paper)

  12. Hyperspectral material identification on radiance data using single-atmosphere or multiple-atmosphere modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariano, Adrian V.; Grossmann, John M.

    2010-11-01

    Reflectance-domain methods convert hyperspectral data from radiance to reflectance using an atmospheric compensation model. Material detection and identification are performed by comparing the compensated data to target reflectance spectra. We introduce two radiance-domain approaches, Single atmosphere Adaptive Cosine Estimator (SACE) and Multiple atmosphere ACE (MACE) in which the target reflectance spectra are instead converted into sensor-reaching radiance using physics-based models. For SACE, known illumination and atmospheric conditions are incorporated in a single atmospheric model. For MACE the conditions are unknown so the algorithm uses many atmospheric models to cover the range of environmental variability, and it approximates the result using a subspace model. This approach is sometimes called the invariant method, and requires the choice of a subspace dimension for the model. We compare these two radiance-domain approaches to a Reflectance-domain ACE (RACE) approach on a HYDICE image featuring concealed materials. All three algorithms use the ACE detector, and all three techniques are able to detect most of the hidden materials in the imagery. For MACE we observe a strong dependence on the choice of the material subspace dimension. Increasing this value can lead to a decline in performance.

  13. RETADDII: modeling long-range atmospheric transport of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, B.D.

    1982-01-01

    A versatile model is described which estimates atmospheric dispersion based on plume trajectories calculated for the mixed layer. This model allows the treatment of the dispersal from a source at an arbitrary height while taking account of plume depletion by dry and wet deposition together with the decay of material to successor species. The plume depletion, decay and growth equations are solved in an efficient manner which can accommodate up to eight pollutants (i.e. a parent and seven serial decay products). The code is particularly suitable for applications involving radioactive chain decay or for cases involving chemical species with successor decay products. Arbitrary emission rates can be specified for the members of the chain or, as is commonly the case, a sole emission rate can be specified for the first member. The code, in its current configuration, uses readily available upper-air wind data for the North American continent

  14. Calculation of atmospheric neutrino flux using the interaction model calibrated with atmospheric muon data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, M.; Kajita, T.; Kasahara, K.; Midorikawa, S.; Sanuki, T.

    2007-01-01

    Using the 'modified DPMJET-III' model explained in the previous paper [T. Sanuki et al., preceding Article, Phys. Rev. D 75, 043005 (2007).], we calculate the atmospheric neutrino flux. The calculation scheme is almost the same as HKKM04 [M. Honda, T. Kajita, K. Kasahara, and S. Midorikawa, Phys. Rev. D 70, 043008 (2004).], but the usage of the 'virtual detector' is improved to reduce the error due to it. Then we study the uncertainty of the calculated atmospheric neutrino flux summarizing the uncertainties of individual components of the simulation. The uncertainty of K-production in the interaction model is estimated using other interaction models: FLUKA'97 and FRITIOF 7.02, and modifying them so that they also reproduce the atmospheric muon flux data correctly. The uncertainties of the flux ratio and zenith angle dependence of the atmospheric neutrino flux are also studied

  15. Current and future levels of mercury atmospheric pollution on a global scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacyna, J. M.; Travnikov, O.; De Simone, F.; Hedgecock, I. M.; Sundseth, K.; Pacyna, E. G.; Steenhuisen, F.; Pirrone, N.; Munthe, J.; Kindbom, K.

    2016-01-01

    An assessment of current and future emissions, air concentrations, and atmospheric deposition of mercury worldwide is presented on the basis of results obtained during the performance of the EU GMOS (Global Mercury Observation System) project. Emission estimates for mercury were prepared with the

  16. Current and future levels of mercury atmospheric pollution on global scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacyna, Jozef M.; Travnikov, Oleg; De Simone, Francesco; Hedgecock, Ian M.; Sundseth, Kyrre; Pacyna, Elisabeth G.; Steenhuisen, Frits; Pirrone, Nicola; Munthe, John; Kindbom, Karin

    2016-01-01

    An assessment of current and future emissions, air concentrations and atmospheric deposition of mercury world-wide are presented on the basis of results obtained during the performance of the EU GMOS (Global Mercury Observation System) project. Emission estimates for mercury were prepared with the

  17. Modeling the effects of atmospheric emissions on groundwater composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, T.J.

    1994-01-01

    A composite model of atmospheric, unsaturated and groundwater transport is developed to evaluate the processes determining the distribution of atmospherically derived contaminants in groundwater systems and to test the sensitivity of simulated contaminant concentrations to input parameters and model linkages. One application is to screen specific atmospheric emissions for their potential in determining groundwater age. Temporal changes in atmospheric emissions could provide a recognizable pattern in the groundwater system. The model also provides a way for quantifying the significance of uncertainties in the tracer source term and transport parameters on the contaminant distribution in the groundwater system, an essential step in using the distribution of contaminants from local, point source atmospheric emissions to examine conceptual models of groundwater flow and transport

  18. Using an atmospheric boundary layer model to force global ocean models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Rafael; Böning, Claus

    2014-05-01

    Current practices in the atmospheric forcing of ocean model simulations can lead to unphysical behaviours. The problem lies in the bulk formulation of the turbulent air-sea fluxes in the conjunction with a prescribed, and unresponsive, atmospheric state (as given by reanalysis products). This can have impacts both on mesoscale processes as well as on the dynamics of the large-scale circulation. First, a possible local mismatch between the given atmospheric state and evolving sea surface temperature (SST) signatures can occur, especially for mesoscale features such as frontal areas, eddies, or near the sea ice edge. Any ocean front shift or evolution of mesoscale anomalies results in excessive, unrealistic surface fluxes due to the lack of atmospheric adaptation. Second, a subtle distortion in the sensitive balance of feedback processes being critical for the thermohaline circulation. Since the bulk formulations assume an infinite atmospheric heat capacity, resulting SST anomalies are strongly damped even on basin-scales (e.g. from trends in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation). In consequence, an important negative feedback is eliminated, rendering the system excessively susceptible to small anomalies (or errors) in the freshwater fluxes. Previous studies (Seager et al., 1995, J. Clim.) have suggested a partial forcing issue remedy that aimed for a physically more realistic determination of air-sea fluxes by allowing some (thermodynamic) adaptation of the atmospheric boundary layer to SST changes. In this study a modernized formulation of this approach (Deremble et al., 2013, Mon. Weather Rev.; 'CheapAML') is implemented in a global ocean-ice model with moderate resolution (0.5°; ORCA05). In a set of experiments we explore the solution behaviour of this forcing approach (where only the winds are prescribed, while atmospheric temperature and humidity are computed), contrasting it with the solution obtained from the classical bulk formulation with a non

  19. Stellar atmosphere modeling of extremely hot, compact stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, Thomas; Ringat, Ellen; Werner, Klaus

    Present X-ray missions like Chandra and XMM-Newton provide excellent spectra of extremely hot white dwarfs, e.g. burst spectra of novae. Their analysis requires adequate NLTE model atmospheres. The Tuebingen Non-LTE Model-Atmosphere Package (TMAP) can calculate such model at-mospheres and spectral energy distributions at a high level of sophistication. We present a new grid of models that is calculated in the parameter range of novae and supersoft X-ray sources and show examples of their application.

  20. GEOS Atmospheric Model: Challenges at Exascale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putman, William M.; Suarez, Max J.

    2017-01-01

    The Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) model at NASA's Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) is used to simulate the multi-scale variability of the Earth's weather and climate, and is used primarily to assimilate conventional and satellite-based observations for weather forecasting and reanalysis. In addition, assimilations coupled to an ocean model are used for longer-term forecasting (e.g., El Nino) on seasonal to interannual times-scales. The GMAO's research activities, including system development, focus on numerous time and space scales, as detailed on the GMAO website, where they are tabbed under five major themes: Weather Analysis and Prediction; Seasonal-Decadal Analysis and Prediction; Reanalysis; Global Mesoscale Modeling, and Observing System Science. A brief description of the GEOS systems can also be found at the GMAO website. GEOS executes as a collection of earth system components connected through the Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF). The ESMF layer is supplemented with the MAPL (Modeling, Analysis, and Prediction Layer) software toolkit developed at the GMAO, which facilitates the organization of the computational components into a hierarchical architecture. GEOS systems run in parallel using a horizontal decomposition of the Earth's sphere into processing elements (PEs). Communication between PEs is primarily through a message passing framework, using the message passing interface (MPI), and through explicit use of node-level shared memory access via the SHMEM (Symmetric Hierarchical Memory access) protocol. Production GEOS weather prediction systems currently run at 12.5-kilometer horizontal resolution with 72 vertical levels decomposed into PEs associated with 5,400 MPI processes. Research GEOS systems run at resolutions as fine as 1.5 kilometers globally using as many as 30,000 MPI processes. Looking forward, these systems can be expected to see a 2 times increase in horizontal resolution every two to three years, as well as

  1. Atmospheric transport and deposition of pesticides: An assessment of current knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pul, W.A.J. van; Bidleman, T.F.; Brorström-Lunden, E.

    1999-01-01

    The current knowledge on atmospheric transport and deposition of pesticides is reviewed and discussed by a working group of experts during the Workshop on Fate of pesticides in the atmosphere; implications for risk assessment, held in Driebergen, the Netherlands, 22-24 April, 1998. In general...... in the exchange processes at the interface between air and soil/water/vegetation. In all process descriptions the uncertainty in the physicochemical properties play an important role. Particularly those in the vapour pressure, Henry's law constant and its temperature dependency. More accurate data...

  2. Accident consequence assessments with different atmospheric dispersion models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panitz, H.J.

    1989-11-01

    An essential aim of the improvements of the new program system UFOMOD for Accident Consequence Assessments (ACAs) was to substitute the straight-line Gaussian plume model conventionally used in ACA models by more realistic atmospheric dispersion models. To identify improved models which can be applied in ACA codes and to quantify the implications of different dispersion models on the results of an ACA, probabilistic comparative calculations with different atmospheric dispersion models have been performed. The study showed that there are trajectory models available which can be applied in ACAs and that they provide more realistic results of ACAs than straight-line Gaussian models. This led to a completely novel concept of atmospheric dispersion modelling in which two different distance ranges of validity are distinguished: the near range of some ten kilometres distance and the adjacent far range which are assigned to respective trajectory models. (orig.) [de

  3. Ozone transmittance in a model atmosphere at Ikeja, Lagos state ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variation of ozone transmittance with height in the atmosphere for radiation in the 9.6m absorption band was studied using Goody's model atmosphere, with cubic spline interpolation technique to improve the quality of the curve. The data comprising of pressure and temperature at different altitudes (0-22 km) for the month of ...

  4. UV- Radiation Absorption by Ozone in a Model Atmosphere using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UV- radiation absorption is studied through variation of ozone transmittance with altitude in the atmosphere for radiation in the 9.6μm absorption band using Goody's model atmosphere with cubic spline interpolation technique to improve the quality of the curve. The data comprising of pressure and temperature at different ...

  5. White Dwarf Model Atmospheres: Synthetic Spectra for Super Soft Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Rauch, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The T\\"ubingen NLTE Model-Atmosphere Package (TMAP) calculates fully metal-line blanketed white dwarf model atmospheres and spectral energy distributions (SEDs) at a high level of sophistication. Such SEDs are easily accessible via the German Astrophysical Virtual Observatory (GAVO) service TheoSSA. We discuss applications of TMAP models to (pre) white dwarfs during the hottest stages of their stellar evolution, e.g. in the parameter range of novae and super soft sources.

  6. White Dwarf Model Atmospheres: Synthetic Spectra for Supersoft Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The Tübingen NLTE Model-Atmosphere Package (TMAP) calculates fully metal-line blanketed white dwarf model atmospheres and spectral energy distributions (SEDs) at a high level of sophistication. Such SEDs are easily accessible via the German Astrophysical Virtual Observatory (GAVO) service TheoSSA. We discuss applications of TMAP models to (pre) white dwarfs during the hottest stages of their stellar evolution, e.g. in the parameter range of novae and supersoft sources.

  7. The effect of magnetic substorms on near-ground atmospheric current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Belova

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Ionosphere-magnetosphere disturbances at high latitudes, e.g. magnetic substorms, are accompanied by energetic particle precipitation and strong variations of the ionospheric electric fields and currents. These might reasonably be expected to modify the local atmospheric electric circuit. We have analysed air-earth vertical currents (AECs measured by a long wire antenna at Esrange, northern Sweden during 35 geomagnetic substorms. Using superposed epoch analysis we compare the air-earth current variations during the 3 h before and after the time of the magnetic X-component minimum with those for corresponding local times on 35 days without substorms. After elimination of the average daily variation we can conclude that the effect of substorms on AEC is small but distinguishable. It is speculated that the AEC increases observed during about 2 h prior to the geomagnetic X-component minimum, are due to enhancement of the ionospheric electric field. During the subsequent 2 h of the substorm recovery phase, the difference between "substorm" and "quiet" atmospheric currents decreases. The amplitude of this "substorm" variation of AEC is estimated to be less than 50% of the amplitude of the diurnal variation in AEC during the same time interval. The statistical significance of this result was confirmed using the Van der Waerden X-test. This method was further used to show that the average air-earth current and its fluctuations increase during late expansion and early recovery phases of substorms.Key words: Ionosphere (electric fields and currents · Magnetospheric physics (storms and substorms · Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (atmospheric electricity

  8. Superconducting current in a bisoliton superconductivity model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermakov, V.N.; Kruchinin, S.P.; Ponezha, E.A.

    1991-01-01

    It is shown that the transition into a superconducting state with the current which is described by a bisoliton superconductivity model is accompanied by the deformation of the spectrum of one-particle states of the current carriers. The deformation value is proportional to the conducting current force. The residuaby resistance in such state is absent

  9. Meteorological Uncertainty of atmospheric Dispersion model results (MUD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havskov Sørensen, Jens; Amstrup, Bjarne; Feddersen, Henrik

    The MUD project addresses assessment of uncertainties of atmospheric dispersion model predictions, as well as optimum presentation to decision makers. Previously, it has not been possible to estimate such uncertainties quantitatively, but merely to calculate the 'most likely' dispersion scenario....

  10. Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Regional Atmospheric Model: Samoa

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale numerical weather prediction model 7-day hourly forecast for the region surrounding the islands of Samoa at...

  11. Modeling of spectral atmosphere transmission for infrared radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiecek, B.; Olbrycht, R.

    2009-01-01

    IR radiation transmission of the atmosphere is an important factor during the thermovision remote sensing and measurement. Transmission coefficient of the atmosphere depends on its content and it is attenuated mainly due to the vapor concentration. Every calibrated thermal camera should be equipped with the digital system which implements the transmission model of the atmosphere. The model presented in this work is based on Beer and Bouguer laws. The proposed simplified model of transmission atmosphere is suitable for implementation in the thermal cameras. A simple digital controller of the camera can calculate the transmission coefficient and correct the temperature measurement. The model takes in account both scattering and absorption due the quantum effects when the photons are interacting with the molecules. (author)

  12. Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Regional Atmospheric Model: Guam

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale numerical weather prediction model 7-day hourly forecast for the region surrounding the island of Guam at...

  13. Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Regional Atmospheric Model: Oahu

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale numerical weather prediction model 3.5-day hourly forecast for the region surrounding the Hawaiian island of Oahu at...

  14. Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Regional Atmospheric Model: CNMI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale numerical weather prediction model 7-day hourly forecast for the region surrounding the Commonwealth of the Northern...

  15. Fast and simple model for atmospheric radiative transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seidel, F.C.; Kokhanovsky, A.A.; Schaepman, M.E.

    2010-01-01

    Radiative transfer models (RTMs) are of utmost importance for quantitative remote sensing, especially for compensating atmospheric perturbation. A persistent trade-off exists between approaches that prefer accuracy at the cost of computational complexity, versus those favouring simplicity at the

  16. AN ANALYTIC RADIATIVE-CONVECTIVE MODEL FOR PLANETARY ATMOSPHERES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, Tyler D.; Catling, David C.

    2012-01-01

    We present an analytic one-dimensional radiative-convective model of the thermal structure of planetary atmospheres. Our model assumes that thermal radiative transfer is gray and can be represented by the two-stream approximation. Model atmospheres are assumed to be in hydrostatic equilibrium, with a power-law scaling between the atmospheric pressure and the gray thermal optical depth. The convective portions of our models are taken to follow adiabats that account for condensation of volatiles through a scaling parameter to the dry adiabat. By combining these assumptions, we produce simple, analytic expressions that allow calculations of the atmospheric-pressure-temperature profile, as well as expressions for the profiles of thermal radiative flux and convective flux. We explore the general behaviors of our model. These investigations encompass (1) worlds where atmospheric attenuation of sunlight is weak, which we show tend to have relatively high radiative-convective boundaries; (2) worlds with some attenuation of sunlight throughout the atmosphere, which we show can produce either shallow or deep radiative-convective boundaries, depending on the strength of sunlight attenuation; and (3) strongly irradiated giant planets (including hot Jupiters), where we explore the conditions under which these worlds acquire detached convective regions in their mid-tropospheres. Finally, we validate our model and demonstrate its utility through comparisons to the average observed thermal structure of Venus, Jupiter, and Titan, and by comparing computed flux profiles to more complex models.

  17. ANALYTICAL MODELS OF EXOPLANETARY ATMOSPHERES. I. ATMOSPHERIC DYNAMICS VIA THE SHALLOW WATER SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heng, Kevin [Center for Space and Habitability, University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Workman, Jared, E-mail: kevin.heng@csh.unibe.ch, E-mail: jworkman@coloradomesa.edu [Colorado Mesa University, 1260 Kennedy Avenue, Grand Junction, CO 81501 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Within the context of exoplanetary atmospheres, we present a comprehensive linear analysis of forced, damped, magnetized shallow water systems, exploring the effects of dimensionality, geometry (Cartesian, pseudo-spherical, and spherical), rotation, magnetic tension, and hydrodynamic and magnetic sources of friction. Across a broad range of conditions, we find that the key governing equation for atmospheres and quantum harmonic oscillators are identical, even when forcing (stellar irradiation), sources of friction (molecular viscosity, Rayleigh drag, and magnetic drag), and magnetic tension are included. The global atmospheric structure is largely controlled by a single key parameter that involves the Rossby and Prandtl numbers. This near-universality breaks down when either molecular viscosity or magnetic drag acts non-uniformly across latitude or a poloidal magnetic field is present, suggesting that these effects will introduce qualitative changes to the familiar chevron-shaped feature witnessed in simulations of atmospheric circulation. We also find that hydrodynamic and magnetic sources of friction have dissimilar phase signatures and affect the flow in fundamentally different ways, implying that using Rayleigh drag to mimic magnetic drag is inaccurate. We exhaustively lay down the theoretical formalism (dispersion relations, governing equations, and time-dependent wave solutions) for a broad suite of models. In all situations, we derive the steady state of an atmosphere, which is relevant to interpreting infrared phase and eclipse maps of exoplanetary atmospheres. We elucidate a pinching effect that confines the atmospheric structure to be near the equator. Our suite of analytical models may be used to develop decisively physical intuition and as a reference point for three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of atmospheric circulation.

  18. Developing Tighter Constraints on Exoplanet Biosignatures by Modeling Atmospheric Haze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felton, Ryan; Neveu, Marc; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn David; Desch, Steven; Arney, Giada

    2018-01-01

    As we increase our capacity to resolve the atmospheric composition of exoplanets, we must continue to refine our ability to distinguish true biosignatures from false positives in order to ultimately distinguish a life-bearing from a lifeless planet. Of the possible true and false biosignatures, methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) are of interest, because on Earth geological and biological processes can produce them on large scales. To identify a biotic, Earth-like exoplanet, we must understand how these biosignatures shape their atmospheres. High atmospheric abundances of CH4 produce photochemical organic haze, which dramatically alters the photochemistry, climate, and spectrum of a planet. Arney et al. (2017) have suggested that haze-bearing atmospheres rich in CO2 may be a type of biosignature because the CH4 flux required to produce the haze is similar to the amount of biogenic CH4 on modern Earth. Atmospheric CH4 and CO2 both affect haze-formation photochemistry, and the potential for hazes to form in Earth-like atmospheres at abiotic concentrations of these gases has not been well studied. We will explore a wide range of parameter space of abiotic concentration levels of these gases to determine what spectral signatures are possible from abiotic environments and look for measurable differences between abiotic and biotic atmospheres. We use a 1D photochemical model with an upgraded haze production mechanism to compare Archean and modern Earth atmospheres to abiotic versions while varying atmospheric CH4 and CO2 levels and atmospheric pressure. We will vary CO2 from a trace gas to an amount such that it dominates atmospheric chemistry. For CH4, there is uncertainty regarding the amount of abiotic CH4 that comes from serpentinizing systems. To address this uncertainty, we will model three cases: 1) assume all CH4 comes from photochemistry; 2) use estimates of modern-day serpentinizing fluxes, assuming they are purely abiotic; and 3) assume serpentinizing

  19. The ECHAM3 atmospheric general circulation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The ECHAM model has been developed from the ECMWF model (cycle 31, November 1988). It contains several changes, mostly in the parameterization, in order to adjust the model for climate simulations. The technical details of the ECHAM operational model are described. (orig./KW)

  20. Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model 2010 Version: Users Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justh, H. L.

    2014-01-01

    This Technical Memorandum (TM) presents the Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model 2010 (Mars-GRAM 2010) and its new features. Mars-GRAM is an engineering-level atmospheric model widely used for diverse mission applications. Applications include systems design, performance analysis, and operations planning for aerobraking, entry, descent and landing, and aerocapture. Additionally, this TM includes instructions on obtaining the Mars-GRAM source code and data files as well as running Mars-GRAM. It also contains sample Mars-GRAM input and output files and an example of how to incorporate Mars-GRAM as an atmospheric subroutine in a trajectory code.

  1. Accelerating Atmospheric Modeling Through Emerging Multi-core Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Linford, John Christian

    2010-01-01

    The new generations of multi-core chipset architectures achieve unprecedented levels of computational power while respecting physical and economical constraints. The cost of this power is bewildering program complexity. Atmospheric modeling is a grand-challenge problem that could make good use of these architectures if they were more accessible to the average programmer. To that end, software tools and programming methodologies that greatly simplify the acceleration of atmospheric modeling...

  2. Discharge current measurements on Venera 13 & 14 - Evidence for charged aerosols in the Venus lower atmosphere?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Ralph D.

    2018-06-01

    Measurements of discharge currents on the Venera 13 and 14 landers during their descent in the lowest 35 km of the Venus atmosphere are interpreted as driven either by an ambient electric field, or by deposition of charge from aerosols. The latter hypothesis is favored (`triboelectric charging' in aeronautical parlance), and would entail an aerosol opacity and charge density somewhat higher than that observed in Saharan dust transported over long distances on Earth.

  3. Verification of atmospheric diffusion models with data of atmospheric diffusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hato, Shinji; Homma, Toshimitsu

    2009-02-01

    The atmospheric diffusion experiments were implemented by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) around Mount Tsukuba in 1989 and 1990, and the tracer gas concentration were monitored. In this study, the Gauss Plume Model and RAMS/HYPACT that are meteorological forecast code and atmospheric diffusion code with detailed physical law are made a comparison between monitored concentration. In conclusion, the Gauss Plume Model is better than RAM/HYPACT even complex topography if the estimation is around tens of kilometer form release point and the change in weather is constant for short time. This reason is difference of wind between RAMS and observation. (author)

  4. Technical discussions on Emissions and Atmospheric Modeling (TEAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, G. J.; Henderson, B.; Lefer, B. L.

    2017-12-01

    A new informal activity, Technical discussions on Emissions and Atmospheric Modeling (TEAM), aims to improve the scientific understanding of emissions and atmospheric processes by leveraging resources through coordination, communication and collaboration between scientists in the Nation's environmental agencies. TEAM seeks to close information gaps that may be limiting emission inventory development and atmospheric modeling and to help identify related research areas that could benefit from additional coordinated efforts. TEAM is designed around webinars and in-person meetings on particular topics that are intended to facilitate active and sustained informal communications between technical staff at different agencies. The first series of TEAM webinars focuses on emissions of nitrogen oxides, a criteria pollutant impacting human and ecosystem health and a key precursor of ozone and particulate matter. Technical staff at Federal agencies with specific interests in emissions and atmospheric modeling are welcome to participate in TEAM.

  5. On atmospheric stability in the dynamic wake meandering model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keck, Rolf-Erik; de Mare, Martin Tobias; Churchfield, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates a new approach for capturing the effects of atmospheric stability on wind turbine wake evolution and wake meandering by using the dynamic wake meandering model. The most notable impact of atmospheric stability on the wind is the changes in length and velocity scales...... spectra and applied to the dynamic wake meandering model to capture the correct wake meandering behaviour. The ambient turbulence in all stability classes is generated using the Mann turbulence model, where the effects of non-neutral atmospheric stability are approximated by the selection of input...... in the computational domain. The changes in the turbulent length scales due to the various atmospheric stability states impact the wake meandering characteristics and thus the power generation by the individual turbines. The proposed method is compared with results from both large-eddy simulation coupled...

  6. Atmospheric chemistry and transport modeling in the outer solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yuan-Tai (Anthony)

    2001-11-01

    This thesis consists of 1-D and 2-D photochemical- dynamical modeling in the upper atmospheres of outer planets. For 1-D modeling, a unified hydrocarbon photochemical model has been studied in Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Titan, by comparing with the Voyager observations, and the recent measurements of methyl radicals by ISO in Saturn and Neptune. The CH3 observation implies a kinetically sensitive test to the measured and estimated hydrocarbon rate constants at low temperatures. We identify the key reactions that control the concentrations of CH3 in the model, such as the three-body recombination reaction, CH3 + CH3 + M --> C 2H6 + M, and the recycling reaction H + CH3 + M --> CH4 + M. The results show reasonable agreement with ISO values. In Chapter 4, the detection of PH3 in the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere of Jupiter has provided a photochemical- dynamical coupling model to derive the eddy diffusion coefficient in the upper troposphere of Jupiter. Using a two-layers photochemical model with updated photodissociation cross-sections and chemical rate constants for NH3 and PH 3, we find that the upper tropospheric eddy diffusion coefficient 106 cm2 sec-1, are required to match the derived PH3 vertical profile by the observation. The best-fit functional form derivation of eddy diffusion coefficient in the upper troposphere of Jupiter above 400 mbar is K = 2.0 × 104 (n/2.2 × 1019)-0.5 cm 2 sec-1. On the other hand, Chapter 5 demonstrates a dynamical-only 2-D model of C2H6 providing a complete test for the current 2-D transport models in Jovian lower stratosphere and upper troposphere (270 to 0.1 mbar pressure levels). Different combinations of residual advection, horizontal eddy dispersion, and vertical eddy mixing are examined at different latitudes.

  7. High resolution transmission spectroscopy as a diagnostic for Jovian exoplanet atmospheres: constraints from theoretical models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kempton, Eliza M.-R. [Department of Physics, Grinnell College, Grinnell, IA 50112 (United States); Perna, Rosalba [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Heng, Kevin, E-mail: kemptone@grinnell.edu [University of Bern, Center for Space and Habitability, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland)

    2014-11-01

    We present high resolution transmission spectra of giant planet atmospheres from a coupled three-dimensional (3D) atmospheric dynamics and transmission spectrum model that includes Doppler shifts which arise from winds and planetary motion. We model Jovian planets covering more than two orders of magnitude in incident flux, corresponding to planets with 0.9-55 day orbital periods around solar-type stars. The results of our 3D dynamical models reveal certain aspects of high resolution transmission spectra that are not present in simple one-dimensional (1D) models. We find that the hottest planets experience strong substellar to anti-stellar (SSAS) winds, resulting in transmission spectra with net blueshifts of up to 3 km s{sup –1}, whereas less irradiated planets show almost no net Doppler shifts. We find only minor differences between transmission spectra for atmospheres with temperature inversions and those without. Compared to 1D models, peak line strengths are significantly reduced for the hottest atmospheres owing to Doppler broadening from a combination of rotation (which is faster for close-in planets under the assumption of tidal locking) and atmospheric winds. Finally, high resolution transmission spectra may be useful in studying the atmospheres of exoplanets with optically thick clouds since line cores for very strong transitions should remain optically thick to very high altitude. High resolution transmission spectra are an excellent observational test for the validity of 3D atmospheric dynamics models, because they provide a direct probe of wind structures and heat circulation. Ground-based exoplanet spectroscopy is currently on the verge of being able to verify some of our modeling predictions, most notably the dependence of SSAS winds on insolation. We caution that interpretation of high resolution transmission spectra based on 1D atmospheric models may be inadequate, as 3D atmospheric motions can produce a noticeable effect on the absorption

  8. Analytic modeling of axisymmetric disruption halo currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphreys, D.A.; Kellman, A.G.

    1999-01-01

    Currents which can flow in plasma facing components during disruptions pose a challenge to the design of next generation tokamaks. Induced toroidal eddy currents and both induced and conducted poloidal ''halo'' currents can produce design-limiting electromagnetic loads. While induction of toroidal and poloidal currents in passive structures is a well-understood phenomenon, the driving terms and scalings for poloidal currents flowing on open field lines during disruptions are less well established. A model of halo current evolution is presented in which the current is induced in the halo by decay of the plasma current and change in enclosed toroidal flux while being convected into the halo from the core by plasma motion. Fundamental physical processes and scalings are described in a simplified analytic version of the model. The peak axisymmetric halo current is found to depend on halo and core plasma characteristics during the current quench, including machine and plasma dimensions, resistivities, safety factor, and vertical stability growth rate. Two extreme regimes in poloidal halo current amplitude are identified depending on the minimum halo safety factor reached during the disruption. A 'type I' disruption is characterized by a minimum safety factor that remains relatively high (typically 2 - 3, comparable to the predisruption safety factor), and a relatively low poloidal halo current. A 'type II' disruption is characterized by a minimum safety factor comparable to unity and a relatively high poloidal halo current. Model predictions for these two regimes are found to agree well with halo current measurements from vertical displacement event disruptions in DIII-D [T. S. Taylor, K. H. Burrell, D. R. Baker, G. L. Jackson, R. J. La Haye, M. A. Mahdavi, R. Prater, T. C. Simonen, and A. D. Turnbull, open-quotes Results from the DIII-D Scientific Research Program,close quotes in Proceedings of the 17th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference, Yokohama, 1998, to be published in

  9. Currents, HF Radio-derived, Monterey Bay, Normal Model, Zonal, EXPERIMENTAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data is the zonal component of ocean surface currents derived from High Frequency Radio-derived measurements, with missing values filled in by a normal model....

  10. Physical oceanography - Developing end-to-end models of the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of this project is to develop spatially discrete end-to-end models of the California Current LME, linking oceanography, biogeochemistry, food web...

  11. Static current-sheet models of quiescent prominences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, F.; Low, B. C.

    1986-12-01

    A particular class of theoretical models idealize the prominence to be a discrete flat electric-current sheet suspended vertically in a potential magnetic field. The weight of the prominence is supported by the Lorentz force in the current sheet. These models can be extended to have curved electric-current sheets and to vary three-dimensionally. The equation for force balance is 1 over 4 pi (del times B) times Bdel p- p9 z=zero. Using Cartesian coordinates we take, for simplicity, a uniform gravity with constant acceleration g in the direction -z. If we are interested not in the detailed internal structure of the prominence, but in the global magnetic configuration around the prominence, we may take prominence plasma to be cold. Consideration is given to how such equilibrium states can be constructed. To simplify the mathematical problem, suppose there is no electric current in the atmosphere except for the discrete currents in the cold prominence sheet. Let us take the plane z =0 to be the base of the atmosphere and restrict our attention to the domain z greater than 0. The task we have is to solve for a magnetic field which is everywhere potential except on some free surface S, subject to suit able to boundary conditions. The surface S is determined by requiring that it possesses a discrete electric current density such that the Lorentz force on it is everywhere vertically upward to balance the weight of the material m(S). Since the magnetic field is potential in the external atmosphere, the latter is decoupled from the magnetic field and its plane parallel hydrostatic pressure and density can be prescribed.

  12. Regional atmospheric budgets of reduced nitrogen over the British isles assessed using a multi-layer atmospheric transport model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fournier, N.; Tang, Y.S.; Dragosits, U.; Kluizenaar, Y.de; Sutton, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Atmospheric budgets of reduced nitrogen for the major political regions of the British Isles are investigated with a multi-layer atmospheric transport model. The model is validated against measurements of NH3 concentration and is developed to provide atmospheric budgets for defined subdomains of the

  13. Computer modelling of superconductive fault current limiters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.A.; Campbell, A.M.; Coombs, T.A.; Cardwell, D.A.; Storey, R.J. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Interdisciplinary Research Centre in Superconductivity (IRC); Hancox, J. [Rolls Royce, Applied Science Division, Derby (United Kingdom)

    1998-05-01

    Investigations are being carried out on the use of superconductors for fault current limiting applications. A number of computer programs are being developed to predict the behavior of different `resistive` fault current limiter designs under a variety of fault conditions. The programs achieve solution by iterative methods based around real measured data rather than theoretical models in order to achieve accuracy at high current densities. (orig.) 5 refs.

  14. South African seasonal rainfall prediction performance by a coupled ocean-atmosphere model

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Landman, WA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Evidence is presented that coupled ocean-atmosphere models can already outscore computationally less expensive atmospheric models. However, if the atmospheric models are forced with highly skillful SST predictions, they may still be a very strong...

  15. Extension of the MSIS thermosphere model into the middle and lower atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedin, A.E.

    1991-01-01

    The MSIS-86 empirical model has been revised in the lower thermosphere and extended into the mesosphere and lower atmosphere to provide a single analytic model for calculating temperature and density profiles representative of the climatological average for various geophysical conditions. Tabulations from the Handbook for MAP 16 are the primary guide for the lower atmosphere and are supplemented by historical rocket and incoherent scatter data in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere. Low-order spherical harmonics and Fourier series are used to describe the major variations throughout the atmosphere including latitude, annual, semiannual, and simplified local time and longitude variations. While month to month details cannot be completely represented, lower atmosphere temperature data are fit to an overall standard deviation of 3 K and pressure to 2%. Comparison with rocket and other data indicates that the model represents current knowledge of the climatological average reasonably well, although there is some conflict as to details near the mesopause

  16. Numerical modeling of transformer inrush currents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardelli, E. [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Perugia, I-06125 Perugia (Italy); Center for Electric and Magnetic Applied Research (Italy); Faba, A., E-mail: faba@unipg.it [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Perugia, I-06125 Perugia (Italy); Center for Electric and Magnetic Applied Research (Italy)

    2014-02-15

    This paper presents an application of a vector hysteresis model to the prediction of the inrush current due the arbitrary initial excitation of a transformer after a fault. The approach proposed seems promising in order to predict the transient overshoot in current and the optimal time to close the circuit after the fault.

  17. Global atmospheric model for mercury including oxidation by bromine atoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. D. Holmes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Global models of atmospheric mercury generally assume that gas-phase OH and ozone are the main oxidants converting Hg0 to HgII and thus driving mercury deposition to ecosystems. However, thermodynamic considerations argue against the importance of these reactions. We demonstrate here the viability of atomic bromine (Br as an alternative Hg0 oxidant. We conduct a global 3-D simulation with the GEOS-Chem model assuming gas-phase Br to be the sole Hg0 oxidant (Hg + Br model and compare to the previous version of the model with OH and ozone as the sole oxidants (Hg + OH/O3 model. We specify global 3-D Br concentration fields based on our best understanding of tropospheric and stratospheric Br chemistry. In both the Hg + Br and Hg + OH/O3 models, we add an aqueous photochemical reduction of HgII in cloud to impose a tropospheric lifetime for mercury of 6.5 months against deposition, as needed to reconcile observed total gaseous mercury (TGM concentrations with current estimates of anthropogenic emissions. This added reduction would not be necessary in the Hg + Br model if we adjusted the Br oxidation kinetics downward within their range of uncertainty. We find that the Hg + Br and Hg + OH/O3 models are equally capable of reproducing the spatial distribution of TGM and its seasonal cycle at northern mid-latitudes. The Hg + Br model shows a steeper decline of TGM concentrations from the tropics to southern mid-latitudes. Only the Hg + Br model can reproduce the springtime depletion and summer rebound of TGM observed at polar sites; the snowpack component of GEOS-Chem suggests that 40% of HgII deposited to snow in the Arctic is transferred to the ocean and land reservoirs, amounting to a net deposition flux to the Arctic of 60 Mg a−1. Summertime events of depleted Hg0 at Antarctic sites due to subsidence are much better simulated by

  18. Chemical Thermodynamics of Aqueous Atmospheric Aerosols: Modeling and Microfluidic Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandy, L.; Dutcher, C. S.

    2017-12-01

    Accurate predictions of gas-liquid-solid equilibrium phase partitioning of atmospheric aerosols by thermodynamic modeling and measurements is critical for determining particle composition and internal structure at conditions relevant to the atmosphere. Organic acids that originate from biomass burning, and direct biogenic emission make up a significant fraction of the organic mass in atmospheric aerosol particles. In addition, inorganic compounds like ammonium sulfate and sea salt also exist in atmospheric aerosols, that results in a mixture of single, double or triple charged ions, and non-dissociated and partially dissociated organic acids. Statistical mechanics based on a multilayer adsorption isotherm model can be applied to these complex aqueous environments for predictions of thermodynamic properties. In this work, thermodynamic analytic predictive models are developed for multicomponent aqueous solutions (consisting of partially dissociating organic and inorganic acids, fully dissociating symmetric and asymmetric electrolytes, and neutral organic compounds) over the entire relative humidity range, that represent a significant advancement towards a fully predictive model. The model is also developed at varied temperatures for electrolytes and organic compounds the data for which are available at different temperatures. In addition to the modeling approach, water loss of multicomponent aerosol particles is measured by microfluidic experiments to parameterize and validate the model. In the experimental microfluidic measurements, atmospheric aerosol droplet chemical mimics (organic acids and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) samples) are generated in microfluidic channels and stored and imaged in passive traps until dehydration to study the influence of relative humidity and water loss on phase behavior.

  19. Key features of the IPSL ocean atmosphere model and its sensitivity to atmospheric resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marti, Olivier; Braconnot, P.; Bellier, J.; Brockmann, P.; Caubel, A.; Noblet, N. de; Friedlingstein, P.; Idelkadi, A.; Kageyama, M. [Unite Mixte CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, IPSL/LSCE, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Dufresne, J.L.; Bony, S.; Codron, F.; Fairhead, L.; Grandpeix, J.Y.; Hourdin, F.; Musat, I. [Unite Mixte CNRS-Ecole Polytechnique-ENS-UPCM, IPSL/LMD, Paris Cedex 05 (France); Benshila, R.; Guilyardi, E.; Levy, C.; Madec, G.; Mignot, J.; Talandier, C. [unite mixte CNRS-IRD-UPMC, IPLS/LOCEAN, Paris Cedex 05 (France); Cadule, P.; Denvil, S.; Foujols, M.A. [Institut Pierre Simon Laplace des Sciences de l' Environnement (IPSL), Paris Cedex 05 (France); Fichefet, T.; Goosse, H. [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut d' Astronomie et de Geophysique Georges Lemaitre, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Krinner, G. [Unite mixte CNRS-UJF Grenoble, LGGE, BP96, Saint-Martin-d' Heres (France); Swingedouw, D. [CNRS/CERFACS, Toulouse (France)

    2010-01-15

    This paper presents the major characteristics of the Institut Pierre Simon Laplace (IPSL) coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model. The model components and the coupling methodology are described, as well as the main characteristics of the climatology and interannual variability. The model results of the standard version used for IPCC climate projections, and for intercomparison projects like the Paleoclimate Modeling Intercomparison Project (PMIP 2) are compared to those with a higher resolution in the atmosphere. A focus on the North Atlantic and on the tropics is used to address the impact of the atmosphere resolution on processes and feedbacks. In the North Atlantic, the resolution change leads to an improved representation of the storm-tracks and the North Atlantic oscillation. The better representation of the wind structure increases the northward salt transports, the deep-water formation and the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. In the tropics, the ocean-atmosphere dynamical coupling, or Bjerknes feedback, improves with the resolution. The amplitude of ENSO (El Nino-Southern oscillation) consequently increases, as the damping processes are left unchanged. (orig.)

  20. Convenient models of the atmosphere: optics and solar radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Ginsburg; Victor, Frolkis; Irina, Melnikova; Sergey, Novikov; Dmitriy, Samulenkov; Maxim, Sapunov

    2017-11-01

    Simple optical models of clear and cloudy atmosphere are proposed. Four versions of atmospheric aerosols content are considered: a complete lack of aerosols in the atmosphere, low background concentration (500 cm-3), high concentrations (2000 cm-3) and very high content of particles (5000 cm-3). In a cloud scenario, the model of external mixture is assumed. The values of optical thickness and single scattering albedo for 13 wavelengths are calculated in the short wavelength range of 0.28-0.90 µm, with regard to the molecular absorption bands, that is simulated with triangle function. A comparison of the proposed optical parameters with results of various measurements and retrieval (lidar measurement, sampling, processing radiation measurements) is presented. For a cloudy atmosphere models of single-layer and two-layer atmosphere are proposed. It is found that cloud optical parameters with assuming the "external mixture" agrees with retrieved values from airborne observations. The results of calculating hemispherical fluxes of the reflected and transmitted solar radiation and the radiative divergence are obtained with the Delta-Eddington approach. The calculation is done for surface albedo values of 0, 0.5, 0.9 and for spectral values of the sandy surface. Four values of solar zenith angle: 0°, 30°, 40° and 60° are taken. The obtained values are compared with data of radiative airborne observations. Estimating the local instantaneous radiative forcing of atmospheric aerosols and clouds for considered models is presented together with the heating rate.

  1. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Science Plan. Current Status and Future Directions of the ARM Science Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackerman, Thomas P.; Del Genio, Anthony D.; Ellingson, Robert G.; Ferrare, Richard A.; Klein, Steve A.; McFarquhar, Gregory M.; Lamb, Peter J.; Long, Charles M.; Verlinde, Johannes

    2004-10-30

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program has matured into one of the key programs in the U.S. Climate Change Science Program. The ARM Program has achieved considerable scientific success in a broad range of activities, including site and instrument development, atmospheric radiative transfer, aerosol science, determination of cloud properties, cloud modeling, and cloud parameterization testing and development. The focus of ARM science has naturally shifted during the last few years to an increasing emphasis on modeling and parameterization studies to take advantage of the long time series of data now available. During the next 5 years, the principal focus of the ARM science program will be to: Maintain the data record at the fixed ARM sites for at least the next five years; Improve significantly our understanding of and ability to parameterize the 3-D cloud-radiation problem at scales from the local atmospheric column to the global climate model (GCM) grid square; Continue developing techniques to retrieve the properties of all clouds, with a special focus on ice clouds and mixed-phase clouds; Develop a focused research effort on the indirect aerosol problem that spans observations, physical models, and climate model parameterizations; Implement and evaluate an operational methodology to calculate broad-band heating rates in the atmospheric columns at the ARM sites; Develop and implement methodologies to use ARM data more effectively to test atmospheric models, both at the cloud-resolving model scale and the GCM scale; and, Use these methodologies to diagnose cloud parameterization performance and then refine these parameterizations to improve the accuracy of climate model simulations. In addition, the ARM Program is actively developing a new ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) that will be available for short deployments (several months to a year or more) in climatically important regions. The AMF will have much of the same instrumentation as the remote

  2. IMPACT - Integrated Modeling of Perturbations in Atmospheres for Conjunction Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    the primary source of drag acceleration uncertainty stem from inadequate knowledge of r and CD. Atmospheric mass densities are often inferred from...sophisticated GSI models are diffuse reflection with incomplete accommodation (DRIA) [18] and the Cercignani-Lampis-Lord ( CLL ) model [19]. The DRIA model has...been applied in satellite drag coefficient modeling for nearly 50 years; however, the CLL model was only recently applied to satellite drag

  3. Linearized vector radiative transfer model MCC++ for a spherical atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postylyakov, O.V.

    2004-01-01

    Application of radiative transfer models has shown that optical remote sensing requires extra characteristics of radiance field in addition to the radiance intensity itself. Simulation of spectral measurements, analysis of retrieval errors and development of retrieval algorithms are in need of derivatives of radiance with respect to atmospheric constituents under investigation. The presented vector spherical radiative transfer model MCC++ was linearized, which allows the calculation of derivatives of all elements of the Stokes vector with respect to the volume absorption coefficient simultaneously with radiance calculation. The model MCC++ employs Monte Carlo algorithm for radiative transfer simulation and takes into account aerosol and molecular scattering, gas and aerosol absorption, and Lambertian surface albedo. The model treats a spherically symmetrical atmosphere. Relation of the estimated derivatives with other forms of radiance derivatives: the weighting functions used in gas retrieval and the air mass factors used in the DOAS retrieval algorithms, is obtained. Validation of the model against other radiative models is overviewed. The computing time of the intensity for the MCC++ model is about that for radiative models treating sphericity of the atmosphere approximately and is significantly shorter than that for the full spherical models used in the comparisons. The simultaneous calculation of all derivatives (i.e. with respect to absorption in all model atmosphere layers) and the intensity is only 1.2-2 times longer than the calculation of the intensity only

  4. Students’ mental model in electric current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramesti, Y. S.; Setyowidodo, I.

    2018-05-01

    Electricity is one of essential topic in learning physics. This topic was studied in elementary until university level. Although electricity was related to our daily activities, but it doesn’t ensure that students have the correct concept. The aim of this research was to investigate and then categorized the students’ mental model. Subject consisted of 59 students of mechanical engineering that studied Physics for Engineering. This study was used a qualitative approach that used in this research is phenomenology. Data were analyzed qualitatively by using pre-test, post-test, and investigation for discovering further information. Three models were reported, showing a pattern which related to individual way of thinking about electric current. The mental model that was discovered in this research are: 1) electric current as a flow; 2) electric current as a source of energy, 3) electric current as a moving charge.

  5. Modeling emissions for three-dimensional atmospheric chemistry transport models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthias, Volker; Arndt, Jan A; Aulinger, Armin; Bieser, Johannes; Denier Van Der Gon, Hugo; Kranenburg, Richard; Kuenen, Jeroen; Neumann, Daniel; Pouliot, George; Quante, Markus

    2018-01-24

    Poor air quality is still a threat for human health in many parts of the world. In order to assess measures for emission reductions and improved air quality, three-dimensional atmospheric chemistry transport modeling systems are used in numerous research institutions and public authorities. These models need accurate emission data in appropriate spatial and temporal resolution as input. This paper reviews the most widely used emission inventories on global and regional scale and looks into the methods used to make the inventory data model ready. Shortcomings of using standard temporal profiles for each emission sector are discussed and new methods to improve the spatio-temporal distribution of the emissions are presented. These methods are often neither top-down nor bottom-up approaches but can be seen as hybrid methods that use detailed information about the emission process to derive spatially varying temporal emission profiles. These profiles are subsequently used to distribute bulk emissions like national totals on appropriate grids. The wide area of natural emissions is also summarized and the calculation methods are described. Almost all types of natural emissions depend on meteorological information, which is why they are highly variable in time and space and frequently calculated within the chemistry transport models themselves. The paper closes with an outlook for new ways to improve model ready emission data, for example by using external databases about road traffic flow or satellite data to determine actual land use or leaf area. In a world where emission patterns change rapidly, it seems appropriate to use new types of statistical and observational data to create detailed emission data sets and keep emission inventories up-to-date. Emission data is probably the most important input for chemistry transport model (CTM) systems. It needs to be provided in high temporal and spatial resolution and on a grid that is in agreement with the CTM grid. Simple

  6. Medicanes in an ocean-atmosphere coupled regional climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, N.; Brauch, J.; Dobler, A.; Béranger, K.; Ahrens, B.

    2014-08-01

    So-called medicanes (Mediterranean hurricanes) are meso-scale, marine, and warm-core Mediterranean cyclones that exhibit some similarities to tropical cyclones. The strong cyclonic winds associated with medicanes threaten the highly populated coastal areas around the Mediterranean basin. To reduce the risk of casualties and overall negative impacts, it is important to improve the understanding of medicanes with the use of numerical models. In this study, we employ an atmospheric limited-area model (COSMO-CLM) coupled with a one-dimensional ocean model (1-D NEMO-MED12) to simulate medicanes. The aim of this study is to assess the robustness of the coupled model in simulating these extreme events. For this purpose, 11 historical medicane events are simulated using the atmosphere-only model, COSMO-CLM, and coupled model, with different setups (horizontal atmospheric grid spacings of 0.44, 0.22, and 0.08°; with/without spectral nudging, and an ocean grid spacing of 1/12°). The results show that at high resolution, the coupled model is able to not only simulate most of medicane events but also improve the track length, core temperature, and wind speed of simulated medicanes compared to the atmosphere-only simulations. The results suggest that the coupled model is more proficient for systemic and detailed studies of historical medicane events, and that this model can be an effective tool for future projections.

  7. The current status of ARAC [Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability] and its application to the Chernobyl event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudiksen, P.H.; Sullivan, T.J.; Harvey, T.F.

    1986-10-01

    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) project, developed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), provides real-time dose assessments and estimates of the extent of surface contamination that may result from an atmospheric release of radioactivity. It utilizes advanced computer-based data communication and processing systems to acquire the meteorological and source term information needed by the three-dimensional atmospheric dispersion models to derive the consequence assessments. The ARAC responded to the recent Chernobyl reactor accident in the Soviet Union by estimating the source term and the radiation dose distribution due to exposure to the radioactive cloud over Europe and the Northern Hemisphere. This analysis revealed that approximately 50% of the estimated core inventories of I-131 and Cs-137 were released. The estimated committed effective dose equivalent due to inhalation of radioactivty during cloud passage is of the order of 10 mrem within parts of Scandinavia and eastern Europe, while most of the populations within central Europe were exposed to levels ranging from 1 to 10 mrem. The amount of Cs-137 released by the Chernobyl accident far exceeds that released by previous reactor accidents, but is only about 6% of the Cs-137 produced by the atmospheric weapon testing programs. 9 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  8. EXAMINING TATOOINE: ATMOSPHERIC MODELS OF NEPTUNE-LIKE CIRCUMBINARY PLANETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, E. M.; Rauscher, E. [University of Michigan (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Circumbinary planets experience a time-varying irradiation pattern as they orbit their two host stars. In this work, we present the first detailed study of the atmospheric effects of this irradiation pattern on known and hypothetical gaseous circumbinary planets. Using both a one-dimensional energy balance model (EBM) and a three-dimensional general circulation model (GCM), we look at the temperature differences between circumbinary planets and their equivalent single-star cases in order to determine the nature of the atmospheres of these planets. We find that for circumbinary planets on stable orbits around their host stars, temperature differences are on average no more than 1.0% in the most extreme cases. Based on detailed modeling with the GCM, we find that these temperature differences are not large enough to excite circulation differences between the two cases. We conclude that gaseous circumbinary planets can be treated as their equivalent single-star case in future atmospheric modeling efforts.

  9. Sustained diffusive alternating current gliding arc discharge in atmospheric pressure air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiajian; Gao, Jinlong; Li, Zhongshan; Ehn, Andreas; Aldén, Marcus; Larsson, Anders; Kusano, Yukihiro

    2014-12-01

    Rapid transition from glow discharge to thermal arc has been a common problem in generating stable high-power non-thermal plasmas especially at ambient conditions. A sustained diffusive gliding arc discharge was generated in a large volume in atmospheric pressure air, driven by an alternating current (AC) power source. The plasma column extended beyond the water-cooled stainless steel electrodes and was stabilized by matching the flow speed of the turbulent air jet with the rated output power. Comprehensive investigations were performed using high-speed movies measured over the plasma column, synchronized with simultaneously recorded current and voltage waveforms. Dynamic details of the novel non-equilibrium discharge are revealed, which is characterized by a sinusoidal current waveform with amplitude stabilized at around 200 mA intermediate between thermal arc and glow discharge, shedding light to the governing mechanism of the sustained spark-suppressed AC gliding arc discharge.

  10. Experimental modeling of eddy current inspection capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junker, W.R.; Clark, W.G.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter examines the experimental modeling of eddy current inspection capabilities based upon the use of liquid mercury samples designed to represent metal components containing discontinuities. A brief summary of past work with mercury modeling and a detailed discussion of recent experiments designed to further evaluate the technique are presented. The main disadvantages of the mercury modeling concept are that mercury is toxic and must be handled carefully, liquid mercury can only be used to represent nonferromagnetic materials, and wetting and meniscus problems can distort the effective size of artificial discontinuities. Artificial discontinuities placed in a liquid mercury sample can be used to represent discontinuities in solid metallic structures. Discontinuity size and type cannot be characterized from phase angle and signal amplitude data developed with a surface scanning, pancake-type eddy current probe. It is concluded that the mercury model approach can greatly enhance the overall understanding and applicability of eddy current inspection techniques

  11. A novel approach to modeling atmospheric convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, A.

    2016-12-01

    The inadequate representation of clouds continues to be a large source of uncertainty in the projections from global climate models (GCMs). With continuous advances in computational power, however, the ability for GCMs to explicitly resolve cumulus convection will soon be realized. For this purpose, Jung and Arakawa (2008) proposed the Vector Vorticity Model (VVM), in which vorticity is the predicted variable instead of momentum. This has the advantage of eliminating the pressure gradient force within the framework of an anelastic system. However, the VVM was designed for use on a planar quadrilateral grid, making it unsuitable for implementation in global models discretized on the sphere. Here we have proposed a modification to the VVM where instead the curl of the horizontal vorticity is the primary predicted variable. This allows us to maintain the benefits of the original VVM while working within the constraints of a non-quadrilateral mesh. We found that our proposed model produced results from a warm bubble simulation that were consistent with the VVM. Further improvements that can be made to the VVM are also discussed.

  12. Effective pollutant emission heights for atmospheric transport modelling based on real-world information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregger, Thomas; Friedrich, Rainer

    2009-02-01

    Emission data needed as input for the operation of atmospheric models should not only be spatially and temporally resolved. Another important feature is the effective emission height which significantly influences modelled concentration values. Unfortunately this information, which is especially relevant for large point sources, is usually not available and simple assumptions are often used in atmospheric models. As a contribution to improve knowledge on emission heights this paper provides typical default values for the driving parameters stack height and flue gas temperature, velocity and flow rate for different industrial sources. The results were derived from an analysis of the probably most comprehensive database of real-world stack information existing in Europe based on German industrial data. A bottom-up calculation of effective emission heights applying equations used for Gaussian dispersion models shows significant differences depending on source and air pollutant and compared to approaches currently used for atmospheric transport modelling.

  13. Modeled atmospheric radon concentrations from uranium mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Droppo, J.G.

    1985-04-01

    Uranium mining and milling operations result in the release of radon from numerous sources of various types and strengths. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the Clean Air Act, is assessing the health impact of air emissions of radon from underground uranium mines. In this case, the radon emissions may impact workers and residents in the mine vicinity. To aid in this assessment, the EPA needs to know how mine releases can affect the radon concentrations at populated locations. To obtain this type of information, Pacific Northwest Laboratory used the radon emissions, release characteristics and local meterological conditions for a number of mines to model incremental radon concentrations. Long-term, average, incremental radon concentrations were computed based on the best available information on release rates, plume rise parameters, number and locations of vents, and local dispersion climatology. Calculations are made for a model mine, individual mines, and multiple mines. Our approach was to start with a general case and then consider specific cases for comparison. A model underground uranium mine was used to provide definition of the order of magnitude of typical impacts. Then computations were made for specific mines using the best mine-specific information available for each mine. These case study results are expressed as predicted incremental radon concentration contours plotted on maps with local population data from a previous study. Finally, the effect of possible overlap of radon releases from nearby mines was studied by calculating cumulative radon concentrations for multiple mines in a region with many mines. The dispersion model, modeling assumptions, data sources, computational procedures, and results are documented in this report. 7 refs., 27 figs., 18 tabs.

  14. Modeled atmospheric radon concentrations from uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droppo, J.G.

    1985-04-01

    Uranium mining and milling operations result in the release of radon from numerous sources of various types and strengths. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the Clean Air Act, is assessing the health impact of air emissions of radon from underground uranium mines. In this case, the radon emissions may impact workers and residents in the mine vicinity. To aid in this assessment, the EPA needs to know how mine releases can affect the radon concentrations at populated locations. To obtain this type of information, Pacific Northwest Laboratory used the radon emissions, release characteristics and local meterological conditions for a number of mines to model incremental radon concentrations. Long-term, average, incremental radon concentrations were computed based on the best available information on release rates, plume rise parameters, number and locations of vents, and local dispersion climatology. Calculations are made for a model mine, individual mines, and multiple mines. Our approach was to start with a general case and then consider specific cases for comparison. A model underground uranium mine was used to provide definition of the order of magnitude of typical impacts. Then computations were made for specific mines using the best mine-specific information available for each mine. These case study results are expressed as predicted incremental radon concentration contours plotted on maps with local population data from a previous study. Finally, the effect of possible overlap of radon releases from nearby mines was studied by calculating cumulative radon concentrations for multiple mines in a region with many mines. The dispersion model, modeling assumptions, data sources, computational procedures, and results are documented in this report. 7 refs., 27 figs., 18 tabs

  15. Current density and continuity in discretized models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boykin, Timothy B; Luisier, Mathieu; Klimeck, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    Discrete approaches have long been used in numerical modelling of physical systems in both research and teaching. Discrete versions of the Schroedinger equation employing either one or several basis functions per mesh point are often used by senior undergraduates and beginning graduate students in computational physics projects. In studying discrete models, students can encounter conceptual difficulties with the representation of the current and its divergence because different finite-difference expressions, all of which reduce to the current density in the continuous limit, measure different physical quantities. Understanding these different discrete currents is essential and requires a careful analysis of the current operator, the divergence of the current and the continuity equation. Here we develop point forms of the current and its divergence valid for an arbitrary mesh and basis. We show that in discrete models currents exist only along lines joining atomic sites (or mesh points). Using these results, we derive a discrete analogue of the divergence theorem and demonstrate probability conservation in a purely localized-basis approach.

  16. Long-wave forcing for regional atmospheric modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storch, H. von; Langenberg, H.; Feser, F. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Hydrophysik

    1999-07-01

    A new method, named 'spectral nudging', of linking a regional model to the driving large-scale model simulated or analyzed by a global model is proposed and tested. Spectral nudging is based on the idea that regional-scale climate statistics are conditioned by the interplay between continental-scale atmospheric conditions and such regional features as marginal seas and mountain ranges. Following this 'downscaling' idea, the regional model is forced to satisfy not only boundary conditions, possibly in a boundary sponge region, but also large-scale flow conditions inside the integration area. We demonstrate that spectral nudging succeeds in keeping the simulated state close to the driving state at large scales, while generating smaller-scale features. We also show that the standard boundary forcing technique in current use allows the regional model to develop internal states conflicting with the large-scale state. It is concluded that spectral nudging may be seen as a suboptimal and indirect data assimilation technique. (orig.) [German] Eine neue Methode, genannt 'spektrales nudging', ein Regionalmodell an das durch ein Globalmodell simulierte grossskalige Antriebsfeld zu koppeln, wird vorgestellt und getestet. Das spektrale nudging basiert auf der Annahme, dass regionale Klimastatistik durch die Wechselwirkung zwischen dem kontinental-skaligen atmosphaerischen Zustand und regionalen Gegebenheiten, wie kleinere Seen und Gebirgszuege, bestimmt wird. Demnach muss das Regionalmodell nicht nur die Randbedingungen erfuellen, sondern auch die grossskaligen Zustaende innerhalb des Integrationsgebietes wiedergeben koennen. Wir zeigen, dass durch das spektrale nudging der grossskalige modellierte Zustand nahe an dem des Antriebsfeldes liegt, ohne die Modellierung regionaler Phaenomene zu beeintraechtigen. Ausserdem zeigen wir, dass das Regionalmodell durch die zur Zeit benutzte Antriebstechnik ueber den Modellrand interne Felder produzieren kann

  17. Ensemble atmospheric dispersion modeling for emergency response consequence assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addis, R.P.; Buckley, R.L.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Prognostic atmospheric dispersion models are used to generate consequence assessments, which assist decision-makers in the event of a release from a nuclear facility. Differences in the forecast wind fields generated by various meteorological agencies, differences in the transport and diffusion models themselves, as well as differences in the way these models treat the release source term, all may result in differences in the simulated plumes. This talk will address the U.S. participation in the European ENSEMBLE project, and present a perspective an how ensemble techniques may be used to enable atmospheric modelers to provide decision-makers with a more realistic understanding of how both the atmosphere and the models behave. Meteorological forecasts generated by numerical models from national and multinational meteorological agencies provide individual realizations of three-dimensional, time dependent atmospheric wind fields. These wind fields may be used to drive atmospheric dispersion (transport and diffusion) models, or they may be used to initiate other, finer resolution meteorological models, which in turn drive dispersion models. Many modeling agencies now utilize ensemble-modeling techniques to determine how sensitive the prognostic fields are to minor perturbations in the model parameters. However, the European Union programs RTMOD and ENSEMBLE are the first projects to utilize a WEB based ensemble approach to interpret the output from atmospheric dispersion models. The ensembles produced are different from those generated by meteorological forecasting centers in that they are ensembles of dispersion model outputs from many different atmospheric transport and diffusion models utilizing prognostic atmospheric fields from several different forecast centers. As such, they enable a decision-maker to consider the uncertainty in the plume transport and growth as a result of the differences in the forecast wind fields as well as the differences in the

  18. Challenges in Modeling of the Global Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjic, Zavisa; Djurdjevic, Vladimir; Vasic, Ratko; Black, Tom

    2015-04-01

    The massively parallel computer architectures require that some widely adopted modeling paradigms be reconsidered in order to utilize more productively the power of parallel processing. For high computational efficiency with distributed memory, each core should work on a small subdomain of the full integration domain, and exchange only few rows of halo data with the neighbouring cores. However, the described scenario implies that the discretization used in the model is horizontally local. The spherical geometry further complicates the problem. Various grid topologies will be discussed and examples will be shown. The latitude-longitude grid with local in space and explicit in time differencing has been an early choice and remained in use ever since. The problem with this method is that the grid size in the longitudinal direction tends to zero as the poles are approached. So, in addition to having unnecessarily high resolution near the poles, polar filtering has to be applied in order to use a time step of decent size. However, the polar filtering requires transpositions involving extra communications. The spectral transform method and the semi-implicit semi-Lagrangian schemes opened the way for a wide application of the spectral representation. With some variations, these techniques are used in most major centers. However, the horizontal non-locality is inherent to the spectral representation and implicit time differencing, which inhibits scaling on a large number of cores. In this respect the lat-lon grid with a fast Fourier transform represents a significant step in the right direction, particularly at high resolutions where the Legendre transforms become increasingly expensive. Other grids with reduced variability of grid distances such as various versions of the cubed sphere and the hexagonal/pentagonal ("soccer ball") grids were proposed almost fifty years ago. However, on these grids, large-scale (wavenumber 4 and 5) fictitious solutions ("grid imprinting

  19. Sustained diffusive alternating current gliding arc discharge in atmospheric pressure air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jiajian; Gao, Jinlong; Li, Zhongshan

    2014-01-01

    Rapid transition from glow discharge to thermal arc has been a common problem in generating stable high-power non-thermal plasmas especially at ambient conditions. A sustained diffusive gliding arc discharge was generated in a large volume in atmospheric pressure air, driven by an alternating...... current (AC) power source. The plasma column extended beyond the water-cooled stainless steel electrodes and was stabilized by matching the flow speed of the turbulent air jet with the rated output power. Comprehensive investigations were performed using high-speed movies measured over the plasma column...

  20. Model atmospheres for M (sub)dwarf stars. 1: The base model grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, France; Hauschildt, Peter H.

    1995-01-01

    We have calculated a grid of more than 700 model atmospheres valid for a wide range of parameters encompassing the coolest known M dwarfs, M subdwarfs, and brown dwarf candidates: 1500 less than or equal to T(sub eff) less than or equal to 4000 K, 3.5 less than or equal to log g less than or equal to 5.5, and -4.0 less than or equal to (M/H) less than or equal to +0.5. Our equation of state includes 105 molecules and up to 27 ionization stages of 39 elements. In the calculations of the base grid of model atmospheres presented here, we include over 300 molecular bands of four molecules (TiO, VO, CaH, FeH) in the JOLA approximation, the water opacity of Ludwig (1971), collision-induced opacities, b-f and f-f atomic processes, as well as about 2 million spectral lines selected from a list with more than 42 million atomic and 24 million molecular (H2, CH, NH, OH, MgH, SiH, C2, CN, CO, SiO) lines. High-resolution synthetic spectra are obtained using an opacity sampling method. The model atmospheres and spectra are calculated with the generalized stellar atmosphere code PHOENIX, assuming LTE, plane-parallel geometry, energy (radiative plus convective) conservation, and hydrostatic equilibrium. The model spectra give close agreement with observations of M dwarfs across a wide spectral range from the blue to the near-IR, with one notable exception: the fit to the water bands. We discuss several practical applications of our model grid, e.g., broadband colors derived from the synthetic spectra. In light of current efforts to identify genuine brown dwarfs, we also show how low-resolution spectra of cool dwarfs vary with surface gravity, and how the high-regulation line profile of the Li I resonance doublet depends on the Li abundance.

  1. Current Research in Lidar Technology Used for the Remote Sensing of Atmospheric Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comerón, Adolfo; Muñoz-Porcar, Constantino; Rocadenbosch, Francesc; Rodríguez-Gómez, Alejandro; Sicard, Michaël

    2017-01-01

    Lidars are active optical remote sensing instruments with unique capabilities for atmospheric sounding. A manifold of atmospheric variables can be profiled using different types of lidar: concentration of species, wind speed, temperature, etc. Among them, measurement of the properties of aerosol particles, whose influence in many atmospheric processes is important but is still poorly stated, stands as one of the main fields of application of current lidar systems. This paper presents a review on fundamentals, technology, methodologies and state-of-the art of the lidar systems used to obtain aerosol information. Retrieval of structural (aerosol layers profiling), optical (backscatter and extinction coefficients) and microphysical (size, shape and type) properties requires however different levels of instrumental complexity; this general outlook is structured following a classification that attends these criteria. Thus, elastic systems (detection only of emitted frequencies), Raman systems (detection also of Raman frequency-shifted spectral lines), high spectral resolution lidars, systems with depolarization measurement capabilities and multi-wavelength instruments are described, and the fundamentals in which the retrieval of aerosol parameters is based is in each case detailed. PMID:28632170

  2. Modelization and numerical simulation of atmospheric aerosols dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debry, Edouard

    2004-01-01

    Chemical-transport models are now able to describe in a realistic way gaseous pollutants behavior in the atmosphere. Nevertheless atmospheric pollution also exists as a fine suspended particles, called aerosols which interact with gaseous phase, solar radiation, and have their own dynamic behavior. The goal of this thesis is the modelization and numerical simulation of the General Dynamic Equation of aerosols (GDE). Part I deals with some theoretical aspects of aerosol modelization. Part II is dedicated to the building of one size resolved aerosol model (SIREAM). In part III we perform the reduction of this model in order to use it in dispersion models as POLAIR3D. Several modelization issues are still opened: organic aerosol matter, externally mixed aerosols, coupling with turbulent mixing, and nano-particles. (author) [fr

  3. Chemico-physical models of cometary atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebner, W.F.; Keady, J.J.; Boice, D.C.; Schmidt, H.U.; Wegmann, R.

    1985-01-01

    Sublimation (vaporization) of the icy component of a cometary nucleus determines the initial composition of the coma gas as it streams outward and escapes. Photolytic reactions in the inner coma, escape of fast, light species such as atomic and molecular hydrogen, and solar wind interaction in the outer coma alter the chemical composition and the physical nature of the coma gas. Models that describe these interactions must include (1) chemical kinetics, (2) coma energy balance, (3) multifluid flow for the rapidly escaping light components, the heavier bulk fluid, and the plasma with separate temperatures for electrons and the remainder of the gas, (4) transition from a collision dominated inner region to free molecular flow of neutrals in the outer region, (5) pickup of cometary ions by the solar wind, (6) counter and cross streaming of neutrals with respect to the plasma which outside of the contact surface also contains solar wind ions, and (7) magnetic fields carried by the solar wind. Progress on such models is described and results including velocity, temperature, and number density profiles for important chemical species are presented and compared with observations

  4. Atmospheric multidecadal variations in the North Atlantic realm: proxy data, observations, and atmospheric circulation model studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Grosfeld

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the spatial and temporal characteristics of multidecadal climate variability in the North Atlantic realm, using observational data, proxy data and model results. The dominant pattern of multidecadal variability of SST depicts a monopolar structure in the North Atlantic during the instrumental period with cold (warm phases during 1900–1925 and 1970–1990 (1870–1890 and 1940–1960. Two atmospheric general circulation models of different complexity forced with global SST over the last century show SLP anomaly patterns from the warm and cold phases of the North Atlantic similar to the corresponding observed patterns. The analysis of a sediment core from Cariaco Basin, a coral record from the northern Red Sea, and a long-term sea level pressure (SLP reconstruction reveals that the multidecadal mode of the atmospheric circulation characterizes climate variability also in the pre-industrial era. The analyses of SLP reconstruction and proxy data depict a persistent atmospheric mode at least over the last 300 years, where SLP shows a dipolar structure in response to monopolar North Atlantic SST, in a similar way as the models' responses do. The combined analysis of observational and proxy data with model experiments provides an understanding of multidecadal climate modes during the late Holocene. The related patterns are useful for the interpretation of proxy data in the North Atlantic realm.

  5. Towards a Global Unified Model of Europa's Tenuous Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plainaki, Christina; Cassidy, Tim A.; Shematovich, Valery I.; Milillo, Anna; Wurz, Peter; Vorburger, Audrey; Roth, Lorenz; Galli, André; Rubin, Martin; Blöcker, Aljona; Brandt, Pontus C.; Crary, Frank; Dandouras, Iannis; Jia, Xianzhe; Grassi, Davide; Hartogh, Paul; Lucchetti, Alice; McGrath, Melissa; Mangano, Valeria; Mura, Alessandro; Orsini, Stefano; Paranicas, Chris; Radioti, Aikaterini; Retherford, Kurt D.; Saur, Joachim; Teolis, Ben

    2018-02-01

    Despite the numerous modeling efforts of the past, our knowledge on the radiation-induced physical and chemical processes in Europa's tenuous atmosphere and on the exchange of material between the moon's surface and Jupiter's magnetosphere remains limited. In lack of an adequate number of in situ observations, the existence of a wide variety of models based on different scenarios and considerations has resulted in a fragmentary understanding of the interactions of the magnetospheric ion population with both the moon's icy surface and neutral gas envelope. Models show large discrepancy in the source and loss rates of the different constituents as well as in the determination of the spatial distribution of the atmosphere and its variation with time. The existence of several models based on very different approaches highlights the need of a detailed comparison among them with the final goal of developing a unified model of Europa's tenuous atmosphere. The availability to the science community of such a model could be of particular interest in view of the planning of the future mission observations (e.g., ESA's JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (JUICE) mission, and NASA's Europa Clipper mission). We review the existing models of Europa's tenuous atmosphere and discuss each of their derived characteristics of the neutral environment. We also discuss discrepancies among different models and the assumptions of the plasma environment in the vicinity of Europa. A summary of the existing observations of both the neutral and the plasma environments at Europa is also presented. The characteristics of a global unified model of the tenuous atmosphere are, then, discussed. Finally, we identify needed future experimental work in laboratories and propose some suitable observation strategies for upcoming missions.

  6. TMAP: Tübingen NLTE Model-Atmosphere Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Klaus; Dreizler, Stefan; Rauch, Thomas

    2012-12-01

    The Tübingen NLTE Model-Atmosphere Package (TMAP) is a tool to calculate stellar atmospheres in spherical or plane-parallel geometry in hydrostatic and radiative equilibrium allowing departures from local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) for the population of atomic levels. It is based on the Accelerated Lambda Iteration (ALI) method and is able to account for line blanketing by metals. All elements from hydrogen to nickel may be included in the calculation with model atoms which are tailored for the aims of the user.

  7. MASCOTTE: analytical model of eddy current signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delsarte, G.; Levy, R.

    1992-01-01

    Tube examination is a major application of the eddy current technique in the nuclear and petrochemical industries. Such examination configurations being specially adapted to analytical modes, a physical model is developed on portable computers. It includes simple approximations made possible by the effective conditions of the examinations. The eddy current signal is described by an analytical formulation that takes into account the tube dimensions, the sensor conception, the physical characteristics of the defect and the examination parameters. Moreover, the model makes it possible to associate real signals and simulated signals

  8. Learning About Climate and Atmospheric Models Through Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, D. D.

    2017-12-01

    From the analysis of ensemble variability to improving simulation performance, machine learning algorithms can play a powerful role in understanding the behavior of atmospheric and climate models. To learn about model behavior, we create training and testing data sets through ensemble techniques that sample different model configurations and values of input parameters, and then use supervised machine learning to map the relationships between the inputs and outputs. Following this procedure, we have used support vector machines, random forests, gradient boosting and other methods to investigate a variety of atmospheric and climate model phenomena. We have used machine learning to predict simulation crashes, estimate the probability density function of climate sensitivity, optimize simulations of the Madden Julian oscillation, assess the impacts of weather and emissions uncertainty on atmospheric dispersion, and quantify the effects of model resolution changes on precipitation. This presentation highlights recent examples of our applications of machine learning to improve the understanding of climate and atmospheric models. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  9. MODELING ATMOSPHERIC EMISSION FOR CMB GROUND-BASED OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Errard, J.; Borrill, J. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Ade, P. A. R. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3XQ (United Kingdom); Akiba, Y.; Chinone, Y. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Arnold, K.; Atlas, M.; Barron, D.; Elleflot, T. [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093-0424 (United States); Baccigalupi, C.; Fabbian, G. [International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA), Trieste I-34014 (Italy); Boettger, D. [Department of Astronomy, Pontifica Universidad Catolica de Chile (Chile); Chapman, S. [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, B3H 4R2 (Canada); Cukierman, A. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Delabrouille, J. [AstroParticule et Cosmologie, Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Obs de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité (France); Dobbs, M.; Gilbert, A. [Physics Department, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 0G4 (Canada); Ducout, A.; Feeney, S. [Department of Physics, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Feng, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine (United States); and others

    2015-08-10

    Atmosphere is one of the most important noise sources for ground-based cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments. By increasing optical loading on the detectors, it amplifies their effective noise, while its fluctuations introduce spatial and temporal correlations between detected signals. We present a physically motivated 3D-model of the atmosphere total intensity emission in the millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelengths. We derive a new analytical estimate for the correlation between detectors time-ordered data as a function of the instrument and survey design, as well as several atmospheric parameters such as wind, relative humidity, temperature and turbulence characteristics. Using an original numerical computation, we examine the effect of each physical parameter on the correlations in the time series of a given experiment. We then use a parametric-likelihood approach to validate the modeling and estimate atmosphere parameters from the polarbear-i project first season data set. We derive a new 1.0% upper limit on the linear polarization fraction of atmospheric emission. We also compare our results to previous studies and weather station measurements. The proposed model can be used for realistic simulations of future ground-based CMB observations.

  10. Finite-volume Atmospheric Model of the IAP/LASG (FAMIL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Q.

    2015-12-01

    The Finite-volume Atmospheric Model of the IAP/LASG (FAMIL) is introduced in this work. FAMIL have the flexible horizontal and vertical resolutions up to 25km and 1Pa respectively, which currently running on the "Tianhe 1A&2" supercomputers. FAMIL is the atmospheric component of the third-generation Flexible Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land climate System model (FGOALS3) which will participate in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6). In addition to describing the dynamical core and physical parameterizations of FAMIL, this talk describes the simulated characteristics of energy and water balances, precipitation, Asian Summer Monsoon and stratospheric circulation, and compares them with observational/reanalysis data. Finally, the model biases as well as possible solutions are discussed.

  11. Radial Distribution of the Nanosecond Dielectric Barrier Discharge Current in Atmospheric-Pressure Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malashin, M. V.; Moshkunov, S. I.; Khomich, V. Yu.; Shershunova, E. A.

    2018-01-01

    Experimental results on the radial distribution of the nanosecond dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) current in flat millimeter air gaps under atmospheric pressure and natural humidity of 40-60% at a voltage rise rate at the electrodes of 250 V/ns are presented. The time delay of the appearance of discharge currents was observed to increase from the center to the periphery of the air gap at discharge gap heights above 3 mm, which correlated with the appearance of constricted channels against the background of the volume DBD plasma. Based on the criterion of the avalanche-streamer transition, it is found out that the development of a nanosecond DBD in air gaps of 1-3 mm occurs by the streamer mechanism.

  12. The GEOS-5 Atmospheric General Circulation Model: Mean Climate and Development from MERRA to Fortuna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molod, Andrea; Takacs, Lawrence; Suarez, Max; Bacmeister, Julio; Song, In-Sun; Eichmann, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This report is a documentation of the Fortuna version of the GEOS-5 Atmospheric General Circulation Model (AGCM). The GEOS-5 AGCM is currently in use in the NASA Goddard Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) for simulations at a wide range of resolutions, in atmosphere only, coupled ocean-atmosphere, and data assimilation modes. The focus here is on the development subsequent to the version that was used as part of NASA s Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA). We present here the results of a series of 30-year atmosphere-only simulations at different resolutions, with focus on the behavior of the 1-degree resolution simulation. The details of the changes in parameterizations subsequent to the MERRA model version are outlined, and results of a series of 30-year, atmosphere-only climate simulations at 2-degree resolution are shown to demonstrate changes in simulated climate associated with specific changes in parameterizations. The GEOS-5 AGCM presented here is the model used for the GMAO s atmosphere-only and coupled CMIP-5 simulations.

  13. Influence of the Atmospheric Model on Hanle Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Ryohko; Uitenbroek, Han; Goto, Motoshi; Iida, Yusuke; Tsuneta, Saku

    2018-05-01

    We clarify the uncertainty in the inferred magnetic field vector via the Hanle diagnostics of the hydrogen Lyman-α line when the stratification of the underlying atmosphere is unknown. We calculate the anisotropy of the radiation field with plane-parallel semi-empirical models under the nonlocal thermal equilibrium condition and derive linear polarization signals for all possible parameters of magnetic field vectors based on an analytical solution of the atomic polarization and Hanle effect. We find that the semi-empirical models of the inter-network region (FAL-A) and network region (FAL-F) show similar degrees of anisotropy in the radiation field, and this similarity results in an acceptable inversion error ( e.g., {˜} 40 G instead of 50 G in field strength and {˜} 100° instead of 90° in inclination) when FAL-A and FAL-F are swapped. However, the semi-empirical models of FAL-C (averaged quiet-Sun model including both inter-network and network regions) and FAL-P (plage regions) yield an atomic polarization that deviates from all other models, which makes it difficult to precisely determine the magnetic field vector if the correct atmospheric model is not known ( e.g., the inversion error is much larger than 40% of the field strength; {>} 70 G instead of 50 G). These results clearly demonstrate that the choice of model atmosphere is important for Hanle diagnostics. As is well known, one way to constrain the average atmospheric stratification is to measure the center-to-limb variation of the linear polarization signals. The dependence of the center-to-limb variations on the atmospheric model is also presented in this paper.

  14. Direct current plasma jet at atmospheric pressure operating in nitrogen and air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, X. L.; Nikiforov, A. Yu.; Vanraes, P.; Leys, Ch.

    2013-01-01

    An atmospheric pressure direct current (DC) plasma jet is investigated in N2 and dry air in terms of plasma properties and generation of active species in the active zone and the afterglow. The influence of working gases and the discharge current on plasma parameters and afterglow properties are studied. The electrical diagnostics show that discharge can be sustained in two different operating modes, depending on the current range: a self-pulsing regime at low current and a glow regime at high current. The gas temperature and the N2 vibrational temperature in the active zone of the jet and in the afterglow are determined by means of emission spectroscopy, based on fitting spectra of N2 second positive system (C3Π-B3Π) and the Boltzmann plot method, respectively. The spectra and temperature differences between the N2 and the air plasma jet are presented and analyzed. Space-resolved ozone and nitric oxide density measurements are carried out in the afterglow of the jet. The density of ozone, which is formed in the afterglow of nitrogen plasma jet, is quantitatively detected by an ozone monitor. The density of nitric oxide, which is generated only in the air plasma jet, is determined by means of mass-spectroscopy techniques.

  15. Improving InSAR geodesy using Global Atmospheric Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolivet, Romain; Agram, Piyush Shanker; Lin, Nina Y.; Simons, Mark; Doin, Marie-Pierre; Peltzer, Gilles; Li, Zhenghong

    2014-03-01

    Spatial and temporal variations of pressure, temperature, and water vapor content in the atmosphere introduce significant confounding delays in interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) observations of ground deformation and bias estimates of regional strain rates. Producing robust estimates of tropospheric delays remains one of the key challenges in increasing the accuracy of ground deformation measurements using InSAR. Recent studies revealed the efficiency of global atmospheric reanalysis to mitigate the impact of tropospheric delays, motivating further exploration of their potential. Here we explore the effectiveness of these models in several geographic and tectonic settings on both single interferograms and time series analysis products. Both hydrostatic and wet contributions to the phase delay are important to account for. We validate these path delay corrections by comparing with estimates of vertically integrated atmospheric water vapor content derived from the passive multispectral imager Medium-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer, onboard the Envisat satellite. Generally, the performance of the prediction depends on the vigor of atmospheric turbulence. We discuss (1) how separating atmospheric and orbital contributions allows one to better measure long-wavelength deformation and (2) how atmospheric delays affect measurements of surface deformation following earthquakes, and (3) how such a method allows us to reduce biases in multiyear strain rate estimates by reducing the influence of unevenly sampled seasonal oscillations of the tropospheric delay.

  16. Cathode fall model and current-voltage characteristics of field emission driven direct current microplasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkattraman, Ayyaswamy [Department of Applied Mechanics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)

    2013-11-15

    The post-breakdown characteristics of field emission driven microplasma are studied theoretically and numerically. A cathode fall model assuming a linearly varying electric field is used to obtain equations governing the operation of steady state field emission driven microplasmas. The results obtained from the model by solving these equations are compared with particle-in-cell with Monte Carlo collisions simulation results for parameters including the plasma potential, cathode fall thickness, ion number density in the cathode fall, and current density vs voltage curves. The model shows good overall agreement with the simulations but results in slightly overpredicted values for the plasma potential and the cathode fall thickness attributed to the assumed electric field profile. The current density vs voltage curves obtained show an arc region characterized by negative slope as well as an abnormal glow discharge characterized by a positive slope in gaps as small as 10 μm operating at atmospheric pressure. The model also retrieves the traditional macroscale current vs voltage theory in the absence of field emission.

  17. Cathode fall model and current-voltage characteristics of field emission driven direct current microplasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkattraman, Ayyaswamy

    2013-01-01

    The post-breakdown characteristics of field emission driven microplasma are studied theoretically and numerically. A cathode fall model assuming a linearly varying electric field is used to obtain equations governing the operation of steady state field emission driven microplasmas. The results obtained from the model by solving these equations are compared with particle-in-cell with Monte Carlo collisions simulation results for parameters including the plasma potential, cathode fall thickness, ion number density in the cathode fall, and current density vs voltage curves. The model shows good overall agreement with the simulations but results in slightly overpredicted values for the plasma potential and the cathode fall thickness attributed to the assumed electric field profile. The current density vs voltage curves obtained show an arc region characterized by negative slope as well as an abnormal glow discharge characterized by a positive slope in gaps as small as 10 μm operating at atmospheric pressure. The model also retrieves the traditional macroscale current vs voltage theory in the absence of field emission

  18. Atmospheric dispersion modeling: Challenges of the Fukushima Daiichi response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiyama, Gayle [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Nasstrom, John [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pobanz, Brenda [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Foster, Kevin [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Simpson, Matthew [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Vogt, Phil [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Aluzzi, Fernando [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Homann, Steve [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2012-05-01

    In this research, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) provided a wide range of predictions and analyses as part of the response to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident including: daily Japanese weather forecasts and atmospheric transport predictions to inform planning for field monitoring operations and to provide U.S. government agencies with ongoing situational awareness of meteorological conditions; estimates of possible dose in Japan based on hypothetical U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission scenarios of potential radionuclide releases to support protective action planning for U.S. citizens; predictions of possible plume arrival times and dose levels at U.S. locations; and source estimation and plume model refinement based on atmospheric dispersion modeling and available monitoring data.

  19. Atomistic modeling of carbon Cottrell atmospheres in bcc iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, R. G. A.; Perez, M.; Becquart, C. S.; Domain, C.

    2013-01-01

    Atomistic simulations with an EAM interatomic potential were used to evaluate carbon-dislocation binding energies in bcc iron. These binding energies were then used to calculate the occupation probability of interstitial sites in the vicinity of an edge and a screw dislocation. The saturation concentration due to carbon-carbon interactions was also estimated by atomistic simulations in the dislocation core and taken as an upper limit for carbon concentration in a Cottrell atmosphere. We obtained a maximum concentration of 10 ± 1 at.% C at T = 0 K within a radius of 1 nm from the dislocation lines. The spatial carbon distributions around the line defects revealed that the Cottrell atmosphere associated with an edge dislocation is denser than that around a screw dislocation, in contrast with the predictions of the classical model of Cochardt and colleagues. Moreover, the present Cottrell atmosphere model is in reasonable quantitative accord with the three-dimensional atom probe data available in the literature.

  20. THE LOS ALAMOS NATIONAL LABORATORY ATMOSPHERIC TRANSPORT AND DIFFUSION MODELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. WILLIAMS [and others

    1999-08-01

    The LANL atmospheric transport and diffusion models are composed of two state-of-the-art computer codes. The first is an atmospheric wind model called HOThlAC, Higher Order Turbulence Model for Atmospheric circulations. HOTMAC generates wind and turbulence fields by solving a set of atmospheric dynamic equations. The second is an atmospheric diffusion model called RAPTAD, Random Particle Transport And Diffusion. RAPTAD uses the wind and turbulence output from HOTMAC to compute particle trajectories and concentration at any location downwind from a source. Both of these models, originally developed as research codes on supercomputers, have been modified to run on microcomputers. Because the capability of microcomputers is advancing so rapidly, the expectation is that they will eventually become as good as today's supercomputers. Now both models are run on desktop or deskside computers, such as an IBM PC/AT with an Opus Pm 350-32 bit coprocessor board and a SUN workstation. Codes have also been modified so that high level graphics, NCAR Graphics, of the output from both models are displayed on the desktop computer monitors and plotted on a laser printer. Two programs, HOTPLT and RAPLOT, produce wind vector plots of the output from HOTMAC and particle trajectory plots of the output from RAPTAD, respectively. A third CONPLT provides concentration contour plots. Section II describes step-by-step operational procedures, specifically for a SUN-4 desk side computer, on how to run main programs HOTMAC and RAPTAD, and graphics programs to display the results. Governing equations, boundary conditions and initial values of HOTMAC and RAPTAD are discussed in Section III. Finite-difference representations of the governing equations, numerical solution procedures, and a grid system are given in Section IV.

  1. PHOTOCHEMISTRY IN TERRESTRIAL EXOPLANET ATMOSPHERES. I. PHOTOCHEMISTRY MODEL AND BENCHMARK CASES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu Renyu; Seager, Sara; Bains, William, E-mail: hury@mit.edu [Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2012-12-20

    We present a comprehensive photochemistry model for exploration of the chemical composition of terrestrial exoplanet atmospheres. The photochemistry model is designed from the ground up to have the capacity to treat all types of terrestrial planet atmospheres, ranging from oxidizing through reducing, which makes the code suitable for applications for the wide range of anticipated terrestrial exoplanet compositions. The one-dimensional chemical transport model treats up to 800 chemical reactions, photochemical processes, dry and wet deposition, surface emission, and thermal escape of O, H, C, N, and S bearing species, as well as formation and deposition of elemental sulfur and sulfuric acid aerosols. We validate the model by computing the atmospheric composition of current Earth and Mars and find agreement with observations of major trace gases in Earth's and Mars' atmospheres. We simulate several plausible atmospheric scenarios of terrestrial exoplanets and choose three benchmark cases for atmospheres from reducing to oxidizing. The most interesting finding is that atomic hydrogen is always a more abundant reactive radical than the hydroxyl radical in anoxic atmospheres. Whether atomic hydrogen is the most important removal path for a molecule of interest also depends on the relevant reaction rates. We also find that volcanic carbon compounds (i.e., CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2}) are chemically long-lived and tend to be well mixed in both reducing and oxidizing atmospheres, and their dry deposition velocities to the surface control the atmospheric oxidation states. Furthermore, we revisit whether photochemically produced oxygen can cause false positives for detecting oxygenic photosynthesis, and find that in 1 bar CO{sub 2}-rich atmospheres oxygen and ozone may build up to levels that have conventionally been accepted as signatures of life, if there is no surface emission of reducing gases. The atmospheric scenarios presented in this paper can serve as the

  2. Current definition and a generalized federbush model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, L.P.S.; Hagen, C.R.

    1978-01-01

    The Federbush model is studied, with particular attention being given to the definition of currents. Inasmuch as there is no a priori restriction of local gauge invariance, the currents in the interacting case can be defined more generally than in Q.E.D. It is found that two arbitrary parameters are thereby introduced into the theory. Lowest order perturbation calculations for the current correlation functions and the Fermion propagators indicate that the theory admits a whole class of solutions dependent upon these parameters with the closed solution of Federbush emerging as a special case. The theory is shown to be locally covariant, and a conserved energy--momentum tensor is displayed. One finds in addition that the generators of gauge transformations for the fields are conserved. Finally it is shown that the general theory yields the Federbush solution if suitable Thirring model type counterterms are added

  3. Virtual Universities: Current Models and Future Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guri-Rosenblit, Sarah

    2001-01-01

    Describes current models of distance education (single-mode distance teaching universities, dual- and mixed-mode universities, extension services, consortia-type ventures, and new technology-based universities), including their merits and problems. Discusses future trends in potential student constituencies, faculty roles, forms of knowledge…

  4. Microscopic models for bridging electrostatics and currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, L.; DeAmbrosis, A.; Mascheretti, P.

    2007-03-01

    A teaching sequence based on the use of microscopic models to link electrostatic phenomena with direct currents is presented. The sequence, devised for high school students, was designed after initial work carried out with student teachers attending a school of specialization for teaching physics at high school, at the University of Pavia. The results obtained with them are briefly presented, because they directed our steps for the development of the teaching sequence. For both the design of the experiments and their interpretation, we drew inspiration from the original works of Alessandro Volta; in addition, a structural model based on the particular role of electrons as elementary charges both in electrostatic phenomena and in currents was proposed. The teaching sequence starts from experiments on charging objects by rubbing and by induction, and engages students in constructing microscopic models to interpret their observations. By using these models and by closely examining the ideas of tension and capacitance, the students acknowledge that a charging (or discharging) process is due to the motion of electrons that, albeit for short time intervals, represent a current. Finally, they are made to see that the same happens in transients of direct current circuits.

  5. Dynamical Analysis of the Lorenz-84 Atmospheric Circulation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamical behaviors of the Lorenz-84 atmospheric circulation model are investigated based on qualitative theory and numerical simulations. The stability and local bifurcation conditions of the Lorenz-84 atmospheric circulation model are obtained. It is also shown that when the bifurcation parameter exceeds a critical value, the Hopf bifurcation occurs in this model. Then, the conditions of the supercritical and subcritical bifurcation are derived through the normal form theory. Finally, the chaotic behavior of the model is also discussed, the bifurcation diagrams and Lyapunov exponents spectrum for the corresponding parameter are obtained, and the parameter interval ranges of limit cycle and chaotic attractor are calculated in further. Especially, a computer-assisted proof of the chaoticity of the model is presented by a topological horseshoe theory.

  6. Results of an interactively coupled atmospheric chemistry – general circulation model: Comparison with observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hein

    Full Text Available The coupled climate-chemistry model ECHAM4.L39(DLR/CHEM is presented which enables a simultaneous treatment of meteorology and atmospheric chemistry and their feedbacks. This is the first model which interactively combines a general circulation model with a chemical model, employing most of the important reactions and species necessary to describe the stratospheric and upper tropospheric ozone chemistry, and which is computationally fast enough to allow long-term integrations with currently available computer resources. This is possible as the model time-step used for the chemistry can be chosen as large as the integration time-step for the dynamics. Vertically the atmosphere is discretized by 39 levels from the surface up to the top layer which is centred at 10 hPa, with a relatively high vertical resolution of approximately 700 m near the extra-tropical tropopause. We present the results of a control simulation representing recent conditions (1990 and compare it to available observations. The focus is on investigations of stratospheric dynamics and chemistry relevant to describe the stratospheric ozone layer. ECHAM4.L39(DLR/CHEM reproduces main features of stratospheric dynamics in the arctic vortex region, including stratospheric warming events. This constitutes a major improvement compared to earlier model versions. However, apparent shortcomings in Antarctic circulation and temperatures persist. The seasonal and interannual variability of the ozone layer is simulated in accordance with observations. Activation and deactivation of chlorine in the polar stratospheric vortices and their inter-hemispheric differences are reproduced. Considering methane oxidation as part of the dynamic-chemistry feedback results in an improved representation of the spatial distribution of stratospheric water vapour concentrations. The current model constitutes a powerful tool to investigate, for instance, the combined direct and indirect effects of anthropogenic

  7. Modelling atmospheric OH-reactivity in a boreal forest ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, D.; Smolander, S.; Sogachev, Andrey

    2011-01-01

    We have modelled the total atmospheric OH-reactivity in a boreal forest and investigated the individual contributions from gas phase inorganic species, isoprene, monoterpenes, and methane along with other important VOCs. Daily and seasonal variation in OH-reactivity for the year 2008 was examined...

  8. Meteorological Uncertainty of atmospheric Dispersion model results (MUD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havskov Sørensen, Jens; Amstrup, Bjarne; Feddersen, Henrik

    The MUD project addresses assessment of uncertainties of atmospheric dispersion model predictions, as well as possibilities for optimum presentation to decision makers. Previously, it has not been possible to estimate such uncertainties quantitatively, but merely to calculate the ‘most likely’ di...

  9. Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS) version le as coupled to the NCAR community climate model. Technical note. [NCAR (National Center for Atmospheric Research)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickinson, R.E.; Henderson-Sellers, A.; Kennedy, P.J.

    1993-08-01

    A comprehensive model of land-surface processes has been under development suitable for use with various National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) General Circulation Models (GCMs). Special emphasis has been given to describing properly the role of vegetation in modifying the surface moisture and energy budgets. The result of these efforts has been incorporated into a boundary package, referred to as the Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS). The current frozen version, BATS1e is a piece of software about four thousand lines of code that runs as an offline version or coupled to the Community Climate Model (CCM).

  10. Neutron star model atmospheres - a comparison with MXB 1728-34

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, A.J.; Fabian, A.C.; Ross, R.R.

    1986-01-01

    A detailed comparison between the X-ray spectra calculated for model atmospheres in neutron stars and the observed spectra of X-ray bursts is presented. Comptonization and free - free absorption and emission processes are taken into account, as are the effects of iron in its last three states of ionization. Two types of model are formulated: (i) a constant density atmosphere and (ii) an atmosphere in approximate hydrostatic equilibrium. The models have been fitted to X-ray burst data obtained with EXOSAT from the source MXB 1728-34. It is possible simultaneously to fit a sub-Eddington burst luminosity, a neutron star radius consistent with current equations of state, and a distance in agreement with optical estimates. (author)

  11. Effects of atmospheric air plasma treatment of graphite and carbon felt electrodes on the anodic current from Shewanella attached cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epifanio, Monica; Inguva, Saikumar; Kitching, Michael; Mosnier, Jean-Paul; Marsili, Enrico

    2015-12-01

    The attachment of electrochemically active microorganisms (EAM) on an electrode is determined by both the chemistry and topography of the electrode surface. Pre-treatment of the electrode surface by atmospheric air plasma introduces hydrophilic functional groups, thereby increasing cell attachment and electroactivity in short-term experiments. In this study, we use graphite and carbon felt electrodes to grow the model EAM Shewanella loihica PV-4 at oxidative potential (0.2 V vs. Ag/AgCl). Cell attachment and electroactivity are measured through electrodynamic methods. Atmospheric air plasma pre-treatment increases cell attachment and current output at graphite electrodes by 25%, while it improves the electroactivity of the carbon felt electrodes by 450%. Air plasma pre-treatment decreased the coulombic efficiency on both carbon felt and graphite electrodes by 60% and 80%, respectively. Microbially produced flavins adsorb preferentially at the graphite electrode, and air plasma pre-treatment results in lower flavin adsorption at both graphite and carbon felt electrodes. Results show that air plasma pre-treatment is a feasible option to increase current output in bioelectrochemical systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Modeling land-surface/atmosphere dynamics for CHAMMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutowski, W.J. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Project progress is described on a DOE CHAMP project to model the land-surface/atmosphere coupling in a heterogeneous environment. This work is a collaboration between scientists at Iowa State University and the University of New Hampshire. Work has proceeded in two areas: baseline model coupling and data base development for model validation. The core model elements (land model, atmosphere model) have been ported to the Principal Investigator's computing system and baseline coupling has commenced. The initial target data base is the set of observations from the FIFE field campaign, which is in the process of being acquired. For the remainder of the project period, additional data from the region surrounding the FIFE site and from other field campaigns will be acquired to determine how to best extrapolate results from the initial target region to the rest of the globe. In addition, variants of the coupled model will be used to perform experiments examining resolution requirements and coupling strategies for land-atmosphere coupling in a heterogeneous environment

  13. Toward GEOS-6, A Global Cloud System Resolving Atmospheric Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putman, William M.

    2010-01-01

    NASA is committed to observing and understanding the weather and climate of our home planet through the use of multi-scale modeling systems and space-based observations. Global climate models have evolved to take advantage of the influx of multi- and many-core computing technologies and the availability of large clusters of multi-core microprocessors. GEOS-6 is a next-generation cloud system resolving atmospheric model that will place NASA at the forefront of scientific exploration of our atmosphere and climate. Model simulations with GEOS-6 will produce a realistic representation of our atmosphere on the scale of typical satellite observations, bringing a visual comprehension of model results to a new level among the climate enthusiasts. In preparation for GEOS-6, the agency's flagship Earth System Modeling Framework [JDl] has been enhanced to support cutting-edge high-resolution global climate and weather simulations. Improvements include a cubed-sphere grid that exposes parallelism; a non-hydrostatic finite volume dynamical core, and algorithm designed for co-processor technologies, among others. GEOS-6 represents a fundamental advancement in the capability of global Earth system models. The ability to directly compare global simulations at the resolution of spaceborne satellite images will lead to algorithm improvements and better utilization of space-based observations within the GOES data assimilation system

  14. Modeling seasonal changes of atmospheric carbon dioxide and carbon 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillette, D.A.; Box, E.O.

    1986-01-01

    A two-dimensional (latitude-altitude) model of atmospheric CO 2 and δ 13 C was constructed to simulate some features of seasonal carbon cycle fluctuations. The model simulates air-sea exchange, atmospheric diffusion, and fossil fuel carbon sources, which are functions of time and latitude. In addition, it uses biosphere-atmosphere fluxes of carbon that are based on global-scale biological models of vegetation growth and decay. Results of the model show fair agreement with observational results for CO 2 and δ 13 C seasonal fluctuations. Their model results have far northern fluctuations with smaller amplitudes than are observed. Analysis of sources of CO 2 change at given latitudes shows that, for far southern latitudes, southern hemisphere biospheric fluxes are dominant in affecting the seasonal CO 2 fluctuations. Long-term decrease of δ 13 C for the model is larger than for observations. This may be due to errors in the formulation for oceanic fluxes for 13 C in the model or to a net uptake of carbon by the biosphere

  15. Coupled atmosphere-ocean models of Titan's past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckay, Christopher P.; Pollack, James B.; Lunine, Jonathan I.; Courtin, Regis

    1993-01-01

    The behavior and possible past evolution of fully coupled atmosphere and ocean model of Titan are investigated. It is found that Titan's surface temperature was about 20 K cooler at 4 Gyr ago and will be about 5 K warmer 0.5 Gyr in the future. The change in solar luminosity and the conversion of oceanic CH4 to C2H6 drive the evolution of the ocean and atmosphere over time. Titan appears to have experienced a frozen epoch about 3 Gyr ago independent of whether an ocean is present or not. This finding may have important implications for understanding the inventory of Titan's volatile compounds.

  16. Observations of leaf stomatal conductance at the canopy scale: an atmospheric modeling perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avissar, R.

    1993-01-01

    Plant stomata play a key role in the redistribution of energy received on vegetated land into sensible and latent heat. As a result, they have a considerable impact on the atmospheric planetary boundary layer, the hydrologic cycle, the climate, and the weather. Current parameterizations of the stomatal mechanism in state-of-the-art atmospheric models are based on empirical relations that are established at the leaf scale between stomatal conductance and environmental conditions. In order to evaluate these parameterizations, an experiment was carried out on a potato field in New Jersey during the summer of 1989. Stomatal conductances were measured within a small homogeneous area in the middle of the potato field and under a relatively broad range of atmospheric conditions. A large variability of stomatal conductances was observed. This variability, which was associated with the variability of micro-environmental and physiological conditions that is found even in a homogeneous canopy, cannot be simulated explicitly on the scale of a single agricultural field and,a fortiori, on the scale of atmospheric models. Furthermore, this variability could not be related to the environmental conditions measured at a height of 2 m above the plant canopy simultaneously with the conductances, reinforcing the concept of scale decoupling suggested by Jarvis and McNaughton (1986) and McNaughton and Jarvis (1991). Thus, for atmospheric modeling purposes, a parameterization of stomatal conductance at the canopy scale using external environmental forcing conditions seems more appropriate than a parameterization based on leaf-scale stomatal conductance, as currently adopted in state-of-the-art atmospheric models. The measured variability was characterized by a lognormal probability density function (pdf) that remained relatively stable during the entire measuring period. These observations support conclusions by McNaughton and Jarvis (1991) that, unlike current parameterizations, a

  17. Observations of leaf stomatal conductance at the canopy scale: an atmospheric modeling perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avissar, R.

    1993-01-01

    Plant stomata play a key role in the redistribution of energy received on vegetated land into sensible and latent heat. As a result, they have a considerable impact on the atmospheric planetary boundary layer, the hydrologic cycle, the climate, and the weather. Current parameterizations of the stomatal mechanism in state-of-the-art atmospheric models are based on empirical relations that are established at the leaf scale between stomatal conductance and environmental conditions. In order to evaluate these parameterizations, an experiment was carried out on a potato field in New Jersey during the summer of 1989. Stomatal conductances were measured within a small homogeneous area in the middle of the potato field and under a relatively broad range of atmospheric conditions. A large variability of stomatal conductances was observed. This variability, which was associated with the variability of micro-environmental and physiological conditions that is found even in a homogeneous canopy, cannot be simulated explicitly on the scale of a single agricultural field and, a fortiori, on the scale of atmospheric models. Furthermore, this variability could not be related to the environmental conditions measured at a height of 2 m above the plant canopy simultaneously with the conductances, reinforcing the concept of scale decoupling suggested by Jarvis and McNaughton (1986) and McNaughton and Jarvis (1991). Thus, for atmospheric modeling purposes, a parameterization of stomatal conductance at the canopy scale using external environmental forcing conditions seems more appropriate than a parameterization based on leaf-scale stomatal conductance, as currently adopted in state-of-the-art atmospheric models. The measured variability was characterized by a lognormal probability density function (pdf) that remained relatively stable during the entire measuring period. These observations support conclusions by McNaughton and Jarvis (1991) that, unlike current parameterizations, a

  18. ATR, Radiation Transport Models in Atmosphere at Various Altitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: ATR is a user-oriented code for calculating quickly and simply radiation environment problems at all altitudes in the atmosphere. The code is based on parametric models of a comprehensive data base of air transport results which were generated using discrete ordinates transport techniques for infinite homogeneous air. The effects of air-ground interface and non-uniform air density are treated as perturbation corrections on homogeneous air results. ATR includes parametric models for neutrons and secondary gamma rays as a function of space, energy and source- target angle out to angles of 550 g/cm 2 of air. ATR contains parameterizations of infinite medium air transport of neutrons and secondary gamma rays and correction factors for the air-ground interface and high altitude exponential air. It responds to a series of user-oriented commands which specify the source, geometry and print options to output a variety of useful air transport information, including energy-angle dependent fluence, dose, current, and isodose ranges. 2 - Method of solution: The version 3 differs from earlier versions in that version 3 contains the parameterization of the new neutron and secondary gamma rays data base that was calculated using the latest DNA approved cross sections for air. Other improvements to the ATR code include: parameterization and inclusion into ATR of new air- over-ground correction factors, low energy x-rays calculations, new fission source, and new convenience options. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: ATR takes approximately 36,000 decimal words of storage. This can be lessened by overlaying different parts of the code

  19. Atmospheric radiative transfer modeling: a summary of the AER codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clough, S.A. [Atmospheric and Environmental Research (AER) Inc., 131 Hartwell Avenue, Lexington, MA 02421-3126 (United States); Shephard, M.W. [Atmospheric and Environmental Research (AER) Inc., 131 Hartwell Avenue, Lexington, MA 02421-3126 (United States)]. E-mail: mshephar@aer.com; Mlawer, E.J. [Atmospheric and Environmental Research (AER) Inc., 131 Hartwell Avenue, Lexington, MA 02421-3126 (United States); Delamere, J.S. [Atmospheric and Environmental Research (AER) Inc., 131 Hartwell Avenue, Lexington, MA 02421-3126 (United States); Iacono, M.J. [Atmospheric and Environmental Research (AER) Inc., 131 Hartwell Avenue, Lexington, MA 02421-3126 (United States); Cady-Pereira, K. [Atmospheric and Environmental Research (AER) Inc., 131 Hartwell Avenue, Lexington, MA 02421-3126 (United States); Boukabara, S. [Atmospheric and Environmental Research (AER) Inc., 131 Hartwell Avenue, Lexington, MA 02421-3126 (United States); Brown, P.D. [Atmospheric and Environmental Research (AER) Inc., 131 Hartwell Avenue, Lexington, MA 02421-3126 (United States)

    2005-03-01

    The radiative transfer models developed at AER are being used extensively for a wide range of applications in the atmospheric sciences. This communication is intended to provide a coherent summary of the various radiative transfer models and associated databases publicly available from AER (http://www.rtweb.aer.com). Among the communities using the models are the remote sensing community (e.g. TES, IASI), the numerical weather prediction community (e.g. ECMWF, NCEP GFS, WRF, MM5), and the climate community (e.g. ECHAM5). Included in this communication is a description of the central features and recent updates for the following models: the line-by-line radiative transfer model (LBLRTM); the line file creation program (LNFL); the longwave and shortwave rapid radiative transfer models, RRTM{sub L}W and RRTM{sub S}W; the Monochromatic Radiative Transfer Model (MonoRTM); the MT{sub C}KD Continuum; and the Kurucz Solar Source Function. LBLRTM and the associated line parameter database (e.g. HITRAN 2000 with 2001 updates) play a central role in the suite of models. The physics adopted for LBLRTM has been extensively analyzed in the context of closure experiments involving the evaluation of the model inputs (e.g. atmospheric state), spectral radiative measurements and the spectral model output. The rapid radiative transfer models are then developed and evaluated using the validated LBLRTM model.

  20. Characteristics of cold atmospheric plasma source based on low-current pulsed discharge with coaxial electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureyev, O. A.; Surkov, Yu S.; Spirina, A. V.

    2017-05-01

    This work investigates the characteristics of the gas discharge system used to create an atmospheric pressure plasma flow. The plasma jet design with a cylindrical graphite cathode and an anode rod located on the axis of the system allows to realize regularly reproducible spark breakdowns mode with a frequency ∼ 5 kHz and a duration ∼ 40 μs. The device generates a cold atmospheric plasma flame with 1 cm in diameter in the flow of various plasma forming gases including nitrogen and air at about 100 mA average discharge current. In the described construction the cathode spots of individual spark channels randomly move along the inner surface of the graphite electrode creating the secondary plasma stream time-average distributed throughout the whole exit aperture area after the decay of numerous filamentary discharge channels. The results of the spectral diagnostics of plasma in the discharge gap and in the stream coming out of the source are presented. Despite the low temperature of atoms and molecules in plasma stream the cathode spots operation with temperature of ∼ 4000 °C at a graphite electrode inside a discharge system enables to saturate the plasma by CN-radicals and atomic carbon in the case of using nitrogen as the working gas.

  1. Some current problems in atmospheric ozone chemistry; role of chemical kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, R.A.

    1987-03-01

    A review is given on selected aspects of the reaction mechanisms of current interest in the chemistry of atmospheric ozone. Atmospheric ozone is produced and removed by a complex series of elementary gas-phase photochemical reactions involving O/sub x/, HO/sub x/, NO/sub x/, CIO/sub x/ and hydrocarbon species. At the present time there is a good knowledge of the basic processes involved in ozone chemistry in the stratosphere and the troposphere and the kinetics of most of the key reactions are well defined. There are a number of difficulties in the theoretical descriptions of observed ozone behaviour which may be due to uncertainties in the chemistry. Examples are the failure to predict present day ozone in the photochemically controlled region above 35 Km altitude and the large reductions in the ozone column in the Antartic Spring which has been observed in recent years. In the troposphere there is growing evidence that ozone and other trace gases have changed appreciably from pre-industrial concentrations, due to chemical reactions involving man-made pollutants. Quantitative investigation of the mechanisms by which these changes may occur requires a sound laboratory kinetics data base.

  2. Modeling atmospheric effects of the September 1859 Solar Flare

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Brian; Jackman, Charles; Melott, Adrian

    2006-01-01

    We have modeled atmospheric effects, especially ozone depletion, due to a solar proton event which probably accompanied the extreme magnetic storm of 1-2 September 1859. We use an inferred proton fluence for this event as estimated from nitrate levels in Greenland ice cores. We present results showing production of odd nitrogen compounds and their impact on ozone. We also compute rainout of nitrate in our model and compare to values from ice core data.

  3. MODELING OF AN AIRPLANE WING MOMENTS INDUCED BY ATMOSPHERIC TURBULENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Antonova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We have used Diederich’s theory of wingspan average correlation functions to obtain analytical expressions for the local spectral density of aircraft wing moments induced by horizontal and vertical wind gusts. We have assumed that the correlation functions of atmospheric turbulence belong to the Bullen family which includes both partial cases of known Dryden’s model as well as von Karman’s  model.

  4. Improving 1D Stellar Models with 3D Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rørsted Mosumgaard, Jakob; Silva Aguirre, Víctor; Weiss, Achim; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jørgen; Trampedach, Regner

    2017-10-01

    Stellar evolution codes play a major role in present-day astrophysics, yet they share common issues. In this work we seek to remedy some of those by the use of results from realistic and highly detailed 3D hydrodynamical simulations of stellar atmospheres. We have implemented a new temperature stratification extracted directly from the 3D simulations into the Garching Stellar Evolution Code to replace the simplified atmosphere normally used. Secondly, we have implemented the use of a variable mixing-length parameter, which changes as a function of the stellar surface gravity and temperature - also derived from the 3D simulations. Furthermore, to make our models consistent, we have calculated new opacity tables to match the atmospheric simulations. Here, we present the modified code and initial results on stellar evolution using it.

  5. Current algebra, statistical mechanics and quantum models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela Mendes, R.

    2017-11-01

    Results obtained in the past for free boson systems at zero and nonzero temperatures are revisited to clarify the physical meaning of current algebra reducible functionals which are associated to systems with density fluctuations, leading to observable effects on phase transitions. To use current algebra as a tool for the formulation of quantum statistical mechanics amounts to the construction of unitary representations of diffeomorphism groups. Two mathematical equivalent procedures exist for this purpose. One searches for quasi-invariant measures on configuration spaces, the other for a cyclic vector in Hilbert space. Here, one argues that the second approach is closer to the physical intuition when modelling complex systems. An example of application of the current algebra methodology to the pairing phenomenon in two-dimensional fermion systems is discussed.

  6. Dual resonance models and their currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.A.

    1978-01-01

    It is shown how dual resonance models were rederived from the concept of a string tracing out a surface in space-time. Thus, interacting strings reproduce the dual amplitudes. A scheme for tackling the unitarity problem began to develop. As a consistent theory of hadronic processes began to be built, workers at the same time were naturally led to expect that leptons could be included with hadrons in a unified dual theory. Thus, there is a search for dual amplitudes which would describe interactions between hadrons and currents (for example, electrons), as well as interactions involving only hadrons. Such amplitudes, it is believed, will be the correct ones, describing the real world. Such amplitudes will provide valuable information concerning such things as hadronic form factors. The great difficulties in building current-amplitudes with the required properties of proper factorization on a good spectrum, duality, current algebra, and proper asymptotic behavior are described. Dual models at the present time require for consistency, an intercept value of α 0 = 1 and a dimension value of d = 26 (or d = 10). There have been speculations that the unphysical dimension may be made physical by associating the ''extra dimensions'' with certain internal degrees of freedom. However, it is desired that the theory itself, force the dimension d = 4. It is quite possible that the dimension problem and the intercept problem are tied together and that resolving either problem will resolve the other. Order by order, a new dual current is constructed that is manifestly factorizable and which appears to be valid for arbitrary space-time dimension. The fact that this current is not bound at d = 26, leads to interesting speculations on the nature of dual currents

  7. Comparison of direct and alternating current vacuum ultraviolet lamps in atmospheric pressure photoionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaikkinen, Anu; Haapala, Markus; Kersten, Hendrik; Benter, Thorsten; Kostiainen, Risto; Kauppila, Tiina J

    2012-02-07

    A direct current induced vacuum ultraviolet (dc-VUV) krypton discharge lamp and an alternating current, radio frequency (rf) induced VUV lamp that are essentially similar to lamps in commercial atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) ion sources were compared. The emission distributions along the diameter of the lamp exit window were measured, and they showed that the beam of the rf lamp is much wider than that of the dc lamp. Thus, the rf lamp has larger efficient ionization area, and it also emits more photons than the dc lamp. The ionization efficiencies of the lamps were compared using identical spray geometries with both lamps in microchip APPI mass spectrometry (μAPPI-MS) and desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization-mass spectrometry (DAPPI-MS). A comprehensive view on the ionization was gained by studying six different μAPPI solvent compositions, five DAPPI spray solvents, and completely solvent-free DAPPI. The observed reactant ions for each solvent composition were very similar with both lamps except for toluene, which showed a higher amount of solvent originating oxidation products with the rf lamp than with the dc lamp in μAPPI. Moreover, the same analyte ions were detected with both lamps, and thus, the ionization mechanisms with both lamps are similar. The rf lamp showed a higher ionization efficiency than the dc lamp in all experiments. The difference between the lamp ionization efficiencies was greatest when high ionization energy (IE) solvent compositions (IEs above 10 eV), i.e., hexane, methanol, and methanol/water, (1:1 v:v) were used. The higher ionization efficiency of the rf lamp is likely due to the larger area of high intensity light emission, and the resulting larger efficient ionization area and higher amount of photons emitted. These result in higher solvent reactant ion production, which in turn enables more efficient analyte ion production. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  8. HEATING MECHANISMS IN THE LOW SOLAR ATMOSPHERE THROUGH MAGNETIC RECONNECTION IN CURRENT SHEETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Lei; Lin, Jun [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China); Roussev, Ilia I. [Division of Geosciences, National Science Foundation Arlington, Virginia (United States); Schmieder, Brigitte, E-mail: leini@ynao.ac.cn [Observatoire de Paris, LESIA, Meudon (France)

    2016-12-01

    We simulate several magnetic reconnection processes in the low solar chromosphere/photosphere; the radiation cooling, heat conduction and ambipolar diffusion are all included. Our numerical results indicate that both the high temperature (≳8 × 10{sup 4} K) and low temperature (∼10{sup 4} K) magnetic reconnection events can happen in the low solar atmosphere (100–600 km above the solar surface). The plasma β controlled by plasma density and magnetic fields is one important factor to decide how much the plasma can be heated up. The low temperature event is formed in a high β magnetic reconnection process, Joule heating is the main mechanism to heat plasma and the maximum temperature increase is only several thousand Kelvin. The high temperature explosions can be generated in a low β magnetic reconnection process, slow and fast-mode shocks attached at the edges of the well developed plasmoids are the main physical mechanisms to heat the plasma from several thousand Kelvin to over 8 × 10{sup 4} K. Gravity in the low chromosphere can strongly hinder the plasmoid instability and the formation of slow-mode shocks in a vertical current sheet. Only small secondary islands are formed; these islands, however, are not as well developed as those in the horizontal current sheets. This work can be applied to understand the heating mechanism in the low solar atmosphere and could possibly be extended to explain the formation of common low temperature Ellerman bombs (∼10{sup 4} K) and the high temperature Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) bombs (≳8 × 10{sup 4}) in the future.

  9. Source term identification in atmospheric modelling via sparse optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Lukas; Branda, Martin; Hamburger, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Inverse modelling plays an important role in identifying the amount of harmful substances released into atmosphere during major incidents such as power plant accidents or volcano eruptions. Another possible application of inverse modelling lies in the monitoring the CO2 emission limits where only observations at certain places are available and the task is to estimate the total releases at given locations. This gives rise to minimizing the discrepancy between the observations and the model predictions. There are two standard ways of solving such problems. In the first one, this discrepancy is regularized by adding additional terms. Such terms may include Tikhonov regularization, distance from a priori information or a smoothing term. The resulting, usually quadratic, problem is then solved via standard optimization solvers. The second approach assumes that the error term has a (normal) distribution and makes use of Bayesian modelling to identify the source term. Instead of following the above-mentioned approaches, we utilize techniques from the field of compressive sensing. Such techniques look for a sparsest solution (solution with the smallest number of nonzeros) of a linear system, where a maximal allowed error term may be added to this system. Even though this field is a developed one with many possible solution techniques, most of them do not consider even the simplest constraints which are naturally present in atmospheric modelling. One of such examples is the nonnegativity of release amounts. We believe that the concept of a sparse solution is natural in both problems of identification of the source location and of the time process of the source release. In the first case, it is usually assumed that there are only few release points and the task is to find them. In the second case, the time window is usually much longer than the duration of the actual release. In both cases, the optimal solution should contain a large amount of zeros, giving rise to the

  10. Meteorological uncertainty of atmospheric dispersion model results (MUD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havskov Soerensen, J.; Amstrup, B.; Feddersen, H. [Danish Meteorological Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark)] [and others

    2013-08-15

    The MUD project addresses assessment of uncertainties of atmospheric dispersion model predictions, as well as possibilities for optimum presentation to decision makers. Previously, it has not been possible to estimate such uncertainties quantitatively, but merely to calculate the 'most likely' dispersion scenario. However, recent developments in numerical weather prediction (NWP) include probabilistic forecasting techniques, which can be utilised also for long-range atmospheric dispersion models. The ensemble statistical methods developed and applied to NWP models aim at describing the inherent uncertainties of the meteorological model results. These uncertainties stem from e.g. limits in meteorological observations used to initialise meteorological forecast series. By perturbing e.g. the initial state of an NWP model run in agreement with the available observational data, an ensemble of meteorological forecasts is produced from which uncertainties in the various meteorological parameters are estimated, e.g. probabilities for rain. Corresponding ensembles of atmospheric dispersion can now be computed from which uncertainties of predicted radionuclide concentration and deposition patterns can be derived. (Author)

  11. Meteorological uncertainty of atmospheric dispersion model results (MUD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havskov Soerensen, J.; Amstrup, B.; Feddersen, H.

    2013-08-01

    The MUD project addresses assessment of uncertainties of atmospheric dispersion model predictions, as well as possibilities for optimum presentation to decision makers. Previously, it has not been possible to estimate such uncertainties quantitatively, but merely to calculate the 'most likely' dispersion scenario. However, recent developments in numerical weather prediction (NWP) include probabilistic forecasting techniques, which can be utilised also for long-range atmospheric dispersion models. The ensemble statistical methods developed and applied to NWP models aim at describing the inherent uncertainties of the meteorological model results. These uncertainties stem from e.g. limits in meteorological observations used to initialise meteorological forecast series. By perturbing e.g. the initial state of an NWP model run in agreement with the available observational data, an ensemble of meteorological forecasts is produced from which uncertainties in the various meteorological parameters are estimated, e.g. probabilities for rain. Corresponding ensembles of atmospheric dispersion can now be computed from which uncertainties of predicted radionuclide concentration and deposition patterns can be derived. (Author)

  12. Sensitivity model study of regional mercury dispersion in the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gencarelli, Christian N.; Bieser, Johannes; Carbone, Francesco; De Simone, Francesco; Hedgecock, Ian M.; Matthias, Volker; Travnikov, Oleg; Yang, Xin; Pirrone, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    Atmospheric deposition is the most important pathway by which Hg reaches marine ecosystems, where it can be methylated and enter the base of food chain. The deposition, transport and chemical interactions of atmospheric Hg have been simulated over Europe for the year 2013 in the framework of the Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS) project, performing 14 different model sensitivity tests using two high-resolution three-dimensional chemical transport models (CTMs), varying the anthropogenic emission datasets, atmospheric Br input fields, Hg oxidation schemes and modelling domain boundary condition input. Sensitivity simulation results were compared with observations from 28 monitoring sites in Europe to assess model performance and particularly to analyse the influence of anthropogenic emission speciation and the Hg0(g) atmospheric oxidation mechanism. The contribution of anthropogenic Hg emissions, their speciation and vertical distribution are crucial to the simulated concentration and deposition fields, as is also the choice of Hg0(g) oxidation pathway. The areas most sensitive to changes in Hg emission speciation and the emission vertical distribution are those near major sources, but also the Aegean and the Black seas, the English Channel, the Skagerrak Strait and the northern German coast. Considerable influence was found also evident over the Mediterranean, the North Sea and Baltic Sea and some influence is seen over continental Europe, while this difference is least over the north-western part of the modelling domain, which includes the Norwegian Sea and Iceland. The Br oxidation pathway produces more HgII(g) in the lower model levels, but overall wet deposition is lower in comparison to the simulations which employ an O3 / OH oxidation mechanism. The necessity to perform continuous measurements of speciated Hg and to investigate the local impacts of Hg emissions and deposition, as well as interactions dependent on land use and vegetation, forests, peat

  13. Coupled Photochemical and Condensation Model for the Venus Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierson, Carver; Zhang, Xi; Mendonca, Joao; Liang, Mao-Chang

    2017-10-01

    Ground based and Venus Express observations have provided a wealth of information on the vertical and latitudinal distribution of many chemical species in the Venus atmosphere [1,2]. Previous 1D models have focused on the chemistry of either the lower [3] or middle atmosphere [4,5]. Photochemical models focusing on the sulfur gas chemistry have also been independent from models of the sulfuric acid haze and cloud formation [6,7]. In recent years sulfur-bearing particles have become important candidates for the observed SO2 inversion above 80 km [5]. To test this hypothesis it is import to create a self-consistent model that includes photochemistry, transport, and cloud condensation.In this work we extend the domain of the 1D chemistry model of Zhang et al. (2012) [5] to encompass the region between the surface to 110 km. This model includes a simple sulfuric acid condensation scheme with gravitational settling. It simultaneously solves for the chemistry and condensation allowing for self-consistent cloud formation. We compare the resulting chemical distributions to observations at all altitudes. We have also validated our model cloud mass against pioneer Venus observations [8]. This updated full atmosphere chemistry model is also being applied in our 2D solver (altitude and altitude). With this 2D model we can model how the latitudinal distribution of chemical species depends on the meridional circulation. This allows us to use the existing chemical observations to place constraints on Venus GCMs [9-11].References: [1] Arney et al., JGR:Planets, 2014 [2] Vandaele et al., Icarus 2017 (pt. 1 & 2) [3] Krasnopolsky, Icarus, 2007 [4] Krasnopolsky, Icarus, 2012 [5] Zhang et al., Icarus 2012 [6] Gao et al., Icarus, 2014 [7] Krasnopolsky, Icarus, 2015 [8] Knollenberg and Hunten, JGR:Space Physics, 1980 [9] Lee et al., JGR:Planets, 2007 [10] Lebonnois et al., Towards Understanding the Climate of Venus, 2013 [11] Mendoncca and Read, Planetary and Space Science, 2016

  14. KNOW YOUR NEIGHBORHOOD: A DETAILED MODEL ATMOSPHERE ANALYSIS OF NEARBY WHITE DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giammichele, N.; Bergeron, P. [Kitt Peak National Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation (United States); Dufour, P., E-mail: noemi.giammichele@astro.umontreal.ca, E-mail: pierre.bergeron@astro.umontreal.ca, E-mail: patrick.dufour@astro.umontreal.ca [Departement de Physique, Universite de Montreal, C.P. 6128, Succ. Centre-Ville, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7 (Canada)

    2012-04-01

    We present improved atmospheric parameters of nearby white dwarfs lying within 20 pc of the Sun. The aim of the current study is to obtain the best statistical model of the least-biased sample of the white dwarf population. A homogeneous analysis of the local population is performed combining detailed spectroscopic and photometric analyses based on improved model atmosphere calculations for various spectral types including DA, DB, DC, DQ, and DZ stars. The spectroscopic technique is applied to all stars in our sample for which optical spectra are available. Photometric energy distributions, when available, are also combined to trigonometric parallax measurements to derive effective temperatures, stellar radii, as well as atmospheric compositions. A revised catalog of white dwarfs in the solar neighborhood is presented. We provide, for the first time, a comprehensive analysis of the mass distribution and the chemical distribution of white dwarf stars in a volume-limited sample.

  15. An Atmospheric Variability Model for Venus Aerobraking Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolson, Robert T.; Prince, Jill L. H.; Konopliv, Alexander A.

    2013-01-01

    Aerobraking has proven to be an enabling technology for planetary missions to Mars and has been proposed to enable low cost missions to Venus. Aerobraking saves a significant amount of propulsion fuel mass by exploiting atmospheric drag to reduce the eccentricity of the initial orbit. The solar arrays have been used as the primary drag surface and only minor modifications have been made in the vehicle design to accommodate the relatively modest aerothermal loads. However, if atmospheric density is highly variable from orbit to orbit, the mission must either accept higher aerothermal risk, a slower pace for aerobraking, or a tighter corridor likely with increased propulsive cost. Hence, knowledge of atmospheric variability is of great interest for the design of aerobraking missions. The first planetary aerobraking was at Venus during the Magellan mission. After the primary Magellan science mission was completed, aerobraking was used to provide a more circular orbit to enhance gravity field recovery. Magellan aerobraking took place between local solar times of 1100 and 1800 hrs, and it was found that the Venusian atmospheric density during the aerobraking phase had less than 10% 1 sigma orbit to orbit variability. On the other hand, at some latitudes and seasons, Martian variability can be as high as 40% 1 sigmaFrom both the MGN and PVO mission it was known that the atmosphere, above aerobraking altitudes, showed greater variability at night, but this variability was never quantified in a systematic manner. This paper proposes a model for atmospheric variability that can be used for aerobraking mission design until more complete data sets become available.

  16. CCIEA data and model output - California Current Integrated Ecosystem Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The California Current Integrated Ecosystem Assessment (CCIEA) is a joint project between staff at the NWFSC, SWFSC, NMML, ONMS, and WCRO to provide managers and...

  17. Modelling of nonhomogeneous atmosphere in NPP containment using lumped-parameter model based on CFD calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kljenak, I.; Mavko, B.; Babic, M.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The modelling and simulation of atmosphere mixing and stratification in nuclear power plant containments is a topic, which is currently being intensely investigated. With the increase of computer power, it has now become possible to model these phenomena with a local instantaneous description, using so-called Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes. However, calculations with these codes still take relatively long times. An alternative faster approach, which is also being applied, is to model nonhomogeneous atmosphere with lumped-parameter codes by dividing larger control volumes into smaller volumes, in which conditions are modelled as homogeneous. The flow between smaller volumes is modelled using one-dimensional approaches, which includes the prescription of flow loss coefficients. However, some authors have questioned this approach, as it appears that atmosphere stratification may sometimes be well simulated only by adjusting flow loss coefficients to adequate 'artificial' values that are case-dependent. To start the resolution of this issue, a modelling of nonhomogeneous atmosphere with a lumped-parameter code is proposed, where the subdivision of a large volume into smaller volumes is based on results of CFD simulations. The basic idea is to use the results of a CFD simulation to define regions, in which the flow velocities have roughly the same direction. These regions are then modelled as control volumes in a lumped-parameter model. In the proposed work, this procedure was applied to a simulation of an experiment of atmosphere mixing and stratification, which was performed in the TOSQAN facility. The facility is located at the Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN) in Saclay (France) and consists of a cylindrical vessel (volume: 7 m3), in which gases are injected. In the experiment, which was also proposed for the OECD/NEA International Standard Problem No.47, air was initially present in the vessel, and

  18. An Overview of Modeling Middle Atmospheric Odd Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Charles H.; Kawa, S. Randolph; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Odd nitrogen (N, NO, NO2, NO3, N2O5, HNO3, HO2NO2, ClONO2, and BrONO2) constituents are important components in the control of middle atmospheric ozone. Several processes lead to the production of odd nitrogen (NO(sub y)) in the middle atmosphere (stratosphere and mesosphere) including the oxidation of nitrous oxide (N2O), lightning, downflux from the thermosphere, and energetic charged particles (e.g., galactic cosmic rays, solar proton events, and energetic electron precipitation). The dominant production mechanism of NO(sub y) in the stratosphere is N2O oxidation, although other processes contribute. Mesospheric NO(sub y) is influenced by N2O oxidation, downflux from the thermosphere, and energetic charged particles. NO(sub y) is destroyed in the middle atmosphere primarily via two processes: 1) dissociation of NO to form N and O followed by N + NO yielding N2 + O to reform even nitrogen; and 2) transport to the troposphere where HNO3 can be rapidly scavenged in water droplets and rained out of the atmosphere. There are fairly significant differences among global models that predict NO(sub y). NO(sub y) has a fairly long lifetime in the stratosphere (months to years), thus disparate transport in the models probably contributes to many of these differences. Satellite and aircraft measurement provide modeling tests of the various components of NO(sub y). Although some recent reaction rate measurements have led to improvements in model/measurement agreement, significant differences do remain. This presentation will provide an overview of several proposed sources and sinks of NO(sub y) and their regions of importance. Multi-dimensional modeling results for NO(sub y) and its components with comparisons to observations will also be presented.

  19. Improved dust representation in the Community Atmosphere Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albani, S.; Mahowald, N. M.; Perry, A. T.; Scanza, R. A.; Zender, C. S.; Heavens, N. G.; Maggi, V.; Kok, J. F.; Otto-Bliesner, B. L.

    2014-09-01

    Aerosol-climate interactions constitute one of the major sources of uncertainty in assessing changes in aerosol forcing in the anthropocene as well as understanding glacial-interglacial cycles. Here we focus on improving the representation of mineral dust in the Community Atmosphere Model and assessing the impacts of the improvements in terms of direct effects on the radiative balance of the atmosphere. We simulated the dust cycle using different parameterization sets for dust emission, size distribution, and optical properties. Comparing the results of these simulations with observations of concentration, deposition, and aerosol optical depth allows us to refine the representation of the dust cycle and its climate impacts. We propose a tuning method for dust parameterizations to allow the dust module to work across the wide variety of parameter settings which can be used within the Community Atmosphere Model. Our results include a better representation of the dust cycle, most notably for the improved size distribution. The estimated net top of atmosphere direct dust radiative forcing is -0.23 ± 0.14 W/m2 for present day and -0.32 ± 0.20 W/m2 at the Last Glacial Maximum. From our study and sensitivity tests, we also derive some general relevant findings, supporting the concept that the magnitude of the modeled dust cycle is sensitive to the observational data sets and size distribution chosen to constrain the model as well as the meteorological forcing data, even within the same modeling framework, and that the direct radiative forcing of dust is strongly sensitive to the optical properties and size distribution used.

  20. Spectral model for clear sky atmospheric longwave radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengying; Liao, Zhouyi; Coimbra, Carlos F. M.

    2018-04-01

    An efficient spectrally resolved radiative model is used to calculate surface downwelling longwave (DLW) radiation (0 ∼ 2500 cm-1) under clear sky (cloud free) conditions at the ground level. The wavenumber spectral resolution of the model is 0.01 cm-1 and the atmosphere is represented by 18 non-uniform plane-parallel layers with pressure in each layer determined on a pressure-based coordinate system. The model utilizes the most up-to-date (2016) HITRAN molecular spectral data for 7 atmospheric gases: H2O, CO2, O3, CH4, N2O, O2 and N2. The MT_CKD model is used to calculate water vapor and CO2 continuum absorption coefficients. Longwave absorption and scattering coefficients for aerosols are modeled using Mie theory. For the non-scattering atmosphere (aerosol free), the surface DLW agrees within 2.91% with mean values from the InterComparison of Radiation Codes in Climate Models (ICRCCM) program, with spectral deviations below 0.035 W cm m-2. For a scattering atmosphere with typical aerosol loading, the DLW calculated by the proposed model agrees within 3.08% relative error when compared to measured values at 7 climatologically diverse SURFRAD stations. This relative error is smaller than a calibrated parametric model regressed from data for those same 7 stations, and within the uncertainty (+/- 5 W m-2) of pyrgeometers commonly used for meteorological and climatological applications. The DLW increases by 1.86 ∼ 6.57 W m-2 when compared with aerosol-free conditions, and this increment decreases with increased water vapor content due to overlap with water vapor bands. As expected, the water vapor content at the layers closest to the surface contributes the most to the surface DLW, especially in the spectral region 0 ∼ 700 cm-1. Additional water vapor content (mostly from the lowest 1 km of the atmosphere) contributes to the spectral range of 400 ∼ 650 cm-1. Low altitude aerosols ( ∼ 3.46 km or less) contribute to the surface value of DLW mostly in the

  1. Current 2-μm dial measurements of atmospheric CO2 and expected results from space using new MCT APDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, A.; Gibert, F.; Rothman, J.; Édouart, D.; Le Mounier, F.; Cénac, C.

    2017-11-01

    In the framework of CO2 monitoring in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL), a ground-based 2-μm Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) has been developed at the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique (LMD) in Palaiseau. In order to derive flux information, this system has been set up with coherent detection, which allows to combine CO2 density measurements with wind velocity measurements. On the other hand, new advances in the field of Mercury Cadmium Tellure (MCT) Avalanche Photodiodes (APDs) open the way for high-precision measurements in direct detection ultimately from space. In this study, we first report on state of the art measurements obtained with the current coherent DIAL system before presenting expected results for a similar laser transmitter equipped with MCT APDs. For this latter part, we use a numerical model which relies on APDs performance data provided by the Laboratoire d'Électronique et de Technologie de l'Information (LETI).

  2. Study of a new direct current atmospheric pressure glow discharge in helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gielniak, B. [University of Hamburg, Institute for Inorganic and Applied Chemistry, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 6, 20146 Hamburg (Germany); Fiedler, T. [Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Institute for Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Duesbergweg 10-14, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Broekaert, J.A.C., E-mail: jose.broekaert@chemie.uni-hamburg.de [University of Hamburg, Institute for Inorganic and Applied Chemistry, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 6, 20146 Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    In this study a new DC-APGD operated in He was developed and characterized. The discharge is operated at 0.9 kV and about 25-35 mA and at a gas flow of 100 ml/min. The source was spectroscopically studied and parameters such as the rotational temperature (T{sub rot}), the excitation temperature (T{sub exc}), the ionization temperature (T{sub ion}) and the electron number density (n{sub e}) were determined. The current-voltage characteristic of the source was studied as well. At optimized conditions the discharge operates in the normal region of the current-voltage characteristic. Rotational and excitation temperatures determined with the use of OH band and Fe I lines as thermometric species were of the order of about 900-1200 and 4500-5500 K, respectively. This indicates that despite of the atmospheric pressure, the discharge is not in LTE. Spatially resolved temperature measurements were performed with axial as well as radial resolution and showed relatively flat profiles. Axially resolved emission intensity profiles for several species such as H, N{sub 2}, N{sub 2}{sup +}, OH, He and Hg were determined. It also was found that H{sub 2} introduced into the He by electrolysis of acid solutions such as in ECHG considerably increases the spectroscopically measured gas temperatures but decreases the analyte line intensities, as shown for Hg.

  3. Study of a new direct current atmospheric pressure glow discharge in helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gielniak, B.; Fiedler, T.; Broekaert, J.A.C.

    2011-01-01

    In this study a new DC-APGD operated in He was developed and characterized. The discharge is operated at 0.9 kV and about 25-35 mA and at a gas flow of 100 ml/min. The source was spectroscopically studied and parameters such as the rotational temperature (T rot ), the excitation temperature (T exc ), the ionization temperature (T ion ) and the electron number density (n e ) were determined. The current-voltage characteristic of the source was studied as well. At optimized conditions the discharge operates in the normal region of the current-voltage characteristic. Rotational and excitation temperatures determined with the use of OH band and Fe I lines as thermometric species were of the order of about 900-1200 and 4500-5500 K, respectively. This indicates that despite of the atmospheric pressure, the discharge is not in LTE. Spatially resolved temperature measurements were performed with axial as well as radial resolution and showed relatively flat profiles. Axially resolved emission intensity profiles for several species such as H, N 2 , N 2 + , OH, He and Hg were determined. It also was found that H 2 introduced into the He by electrolysis of acid solutions such as in ECHG considerably increases the spectroscopically measured gas temperatures but decreases the analyte line intensities, as shown for Hg.

  4. Evaluation of atmospheric dispersion/consequence models supporting safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Kula, K.R.; Lazaro, M.A.; Woodard, K.

    1996-01-01

    Two DOE Working Groups have completed evaluation of accident phenomenology and consequence methodologies used to support DOE facility safety documentation. The independent evaluations each concluded that no one computer model adequately addresses all accident and atmospheric release conditions. MACCS2, MATHEW/ADPIC, TRAC RA/HA, and COSYMA are adequate for most radiological dispersion and consequence needs. ALOHA, DEGADIS, HGSYSTEM, TSCREEN, and SLAB are recommended for chemical dispersion and consequence applications. Additional work is suggested, principally in evaluation of new models, targeting certain models for continued development, training, and establishing a Web page for guidance to safety analysts

  5. Comparative calculations and validation studies with atmospheric dispersion models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paesler-Sauer, J.

    1986-11-01

    This report presents the results of an intercomparison of different mesoscale dispersion models and measured data of tracer experiments. The types of models taking part in the intercomparison are Gaussian-type, numerical Eulerian, and Lagrangian dispersion models. They are suited for the calculation of the atmospherical transport of radionuclides released from a nuclear installation. For the model intercomparison artificial meteorological situations were defined and corresponding arithmetical problems were formulated. For the purpose of model validation real dispersion situations of tracer experiments were used as input data for model calculations; in these cases calculated and measured time-integrated concentrations close to the ground are compared. Finally a valuation of the models concerning their efficiency in solving the problems is carried out by the aid of objective methods. (orig./HP) [de

  6. Model projections of atmospheric steering of Sandy-like superstorms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Elizabeth A; Polvani, Lorenzo M; Sobel, Adam H

    2013-09-17

    Superstorm Sandy ravaged the eastern seaboard of the United States, costing a great number of lives and billions of dollars in damage. Whether events like Sandy will become more frequent as anthropogenic greenhouse gases continue to increase remains an open and complex question. Here we consider whether the persistent large-scale atmospheric patterns that steered Sandy onto the coast will become more frequent in the coming decades. Using the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, phase 5 multimodel ensemble, we demonstrate that climate models consistently project a decrease in the frequency and persistence of the westward flow that led to Sandy's unprecedented track, implying that future atmospheric conditions are less likely than at present to propel storms westward into the coast.

  7. A Coupled Atmospheric and Wave Modeling System for Storm Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Jianting; Larsén, Xiaoli Guo; Bolanos, R.

    2015-01-01

    to parametrize z0. The results are validated through QuikScat data and point measurements from an open ocean site Ekosk and a coastal, relatively shallow water site Horns Rev. It is found that the modeling system captures in general better strong wind and strong wave characteristics for open ocean condition than......This study aims at improving the simulation of wind and waves during storms in connection with wind turbine design and operations in coastal areas. For this particular purpose, we investigated the Coupled-Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) Modeling System which couples the Weather...... resolution ranging from 25km to 2km. Meanwhile, the atmospheric forcing data of dierent spatial resolution, with one about 100km (FNL) and the other about 38km (CFSR) are both used. In addition, bathymatry data of diferent resolutions (1arc-minute and 30arc-seconds) are used. We used three approaches...

  8. Computer modelling of eddy current probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, S.P.

    1992-01-01

    Computer programs have been developed for modelling impedance and transmit-receive eddy current probes in two-dimensional axis-symmetric configurations. These programs, which are based on analytic equations, simulate bobbin probes in infinitely long tubes and surface probes on plates. They calculate probe signal due to uniform variations in conductor thickness, resistivity and permeability. These signals depend on probe design and frequency. A finite element numerical program has been procured to calculate magnetic permeability in non-linear ferromagnetic materials. Permeability values from these calculations can be incorporated into the above analytic programs to predict signals from eddy current probes with permanent magnets in ferromagnetic tubes. These programs were used to test various probe designs for new testing applications. Measurements of magnetic permeability in magnetically biased ferromagnetic materials have been performed by superimposing experimental signals, from special laboratory ET probes, on impedance plane diagrams calculated using these programs. (author). 3 refs., 2 figs

  9. Effective pollutant emission heights for atmospheric transport modelling based on real-world information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pregger, Thomas; Friedrich, Rainer

    2009-01-01

    Emission data needed as input for the operation of atmospheric models should not only be spatially and temporally resolved. Another important feature is the effective emission height which significantly influences modelled concentration values. Unfortunately this information, which is especially relevant for large point sources, is usually not available and simple assumptions are often used in atmospheric models. As a contribution to improve knowledge on emission heights this paper provides typical default values for the driving parameters stack height and flue gas temperature, velocity and flow rate for different industrial sources. The results were derived from an analysis of the probably most comprehensive database of real-world stack information existing in Europe based on German industrial data. A bottom-up calculation of effective emission heights applying equations used for Gaussian dispersion models shows significant differences depending on source and air pollutant and compared to approaches currently used for atmospheric transport modelling. - The comprehensive analysis of real-world stack data provides detailed default parameter values for improving vertical emission distribution in atmospheric modelling

  10. Meteorological fluid dynamics asymptotic modelling, stability and chaotic atmospheric motion

    CERN Document Server

    Zeytounian, Radyadour K

    1991-01-01

    The author considers meteorology as a part of fluid dynamics. He tries to derive the properties of atmospheric flows from a rational analysis of the Navier-Stokes equations, at the same time analyzing various types of initial and boundary problems. This approach to simulate nature by models from fluid dynamics will be of interest to both scientists and students of physics and theoretical meteorology.

  11. Methane Feedback on Atmospheric Chemistry: Methods, Models, and Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Christopher D.

    2018-04-01

    The atmospheric methane (CH4) chemical feedback is a key process for understanding the behavior of atmospheric CH4 and its environmental impact. This work reviews how the feedback is defined and used, then examines the meteorological, chemical, and emission factors that control the feedback strength. Geographical and temporal variations in the feedback are described and explained by HOx (HOx = OH + HO2) production and partitioning. Different CH4 boundary conditions used by models, however, make no meaningful difference to the feedback calculation. The strength of the CH4 feedback depends on atmospheric composition, particularly the atmospheric CH4 burden, and is therefore not constant. Sensitivity tests show that the feedback depends very weakly on temperature, insolation, water vapor, and emissions of NO. While the feedback strength has likely remained within 10% of its present value over the industrial era and likely will over the twenty-first century, neglecting these changes biases our understanding of CH4 impacts. Most environmental consequences per kg of CH4 emissions, including its global warming potential (GWP), scale with the perturbation time, which may have grown as much as 40% over the industrial era and continues to rise.

  12. Mesoscale modelling of atmospheric CO2 across Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lansø, Anne Sofie

    2016-01-01

    of the simulated atmospheric CO2 across Denmark was, in particular, affected by the Danish terrestrial surface exchanges and its temporal variability. This study urges all future modelling studies of air–sea CO2 to include short-term variability in pCO2. To capture the full heterogeneity of the surface exchanges......It is scientifically well-established that the increase of atmospheric CO2 affects the entire globe and will lead to higher surface temperatures. Although anthropogenic CO2is emitted straight into the atmosphere, it does not all contribute to the existing atmospheric CO2 reservoir. Approximately 29......% is taken up by the global oceans, due to under-saturation of CO2 in the surface waters, while another 33 % is taken up by the terrestrial biosphere, via photosynthesis. In order to estimate the effects of increasing anthropogenic emissions of CO2 more accurately in the future, it is essential to understand...

  13. Atmospheric aerosol dispersion models and their applications to environmental risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Mazur

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Numerical models of dispersion of atmospheric pollutants are widely used to forecast the spread of contaminants in the air and to analyze the effects of this phenomenon. The aim of the study is to investigate the possibilities and the quality of diagnosis and prediction of atmospheric transport of aerosols in the air using the dispersion model of atmospheric pollutants, developed at the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management (IMWM in Warsaw. Material and methods. A model of the dispersion of atmospheric pollutants, linked with meteorological models in a diagnostic mode, was used to simulate the transport of the cloud of aerosols released during the crash near the town of Ożydiw (Ukraine and of volcanic ash – during the volcanic eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in Iceland. Results. Possible directions of dispersion of pollutants in the air and its concentration in the atmosphere and deposition to the soil were assessed. The analysis of temporal variability of concentrations of aerosols in the atmosphere confirmed that the model developed at IMWM is an effective tool for diagnosis of air quality in the area of Poland as well as for determination of exposure duration to the aerosol clouds for different weather scenarios. Conclusions. The results are a confirmation of the thesis, that because in the environmental risk assessment, an important element is not only current information on the level of pollution concentrations, but also the time of exposure to pollution and forecast of these elements, and consequently the predicted effects on man or the environment in general; so it is necessary to use forecasting tools, similar to presented application. The dispersion model described in the paper is an operational tool for description, analysis and forecasting of emergency situations in case of emissions of hazardous substances.

  14. Optimization of a prognostic biosphere model for terrestrial biomass and atmospheric CO2 variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, M.; Ito, A.; Maksyutov, S.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the capacity of a prognostic biosphere model to simulate global variability in atmospheric CO 2 concentrations and vegetation carbon dynamics under current environmental conditions. Global data sets of atmospheric CO 2 concentrations, above-ground biomass (AGB), and net primary productivity (NPP) in terrestrial vegetation were assimilated into the biosphere model using an inverse modeling method combined with an atmospheric transport model. In this process, the optimal physiological parameters of the biosphere model were estimated by minimizing the misfit between observed and modeled values, and parameters were generated to characterize various biome types. Results obtained using the model with the optimized parameters correspond to the observed seasonal variations in CO 2 concentration and their annual amplitudes in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. In simulating the mean annual AGB and NPP, the model shows improvements in estimating the mean magnitudes and probability distributions for each biome, as compared with results obtained using prior simulation parameters. However, the model is less efficient in its simulation of AGB for forest type biomes. This misfit suggests that more accurate values of input parameters, specifically, grid mean AGB values and seasonal variabilities in physiological parameters, are required to improve the performance of the simulation model. (authors)

  15. Modeling the dynamics of carbon dioxide removal in the atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Sundar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The temperature of Earth's surface is increasing over the past few years due to emission of global warming gases such as CO2, CH4 and NOx from industries, power plants, etc., leading to several adverse effects on human and his environment. Therefore, the question of their removal/reduction from the atmosphere is very important. In this paper, a nonlinear mathematical model to study the removal/reduction of carbon dioxide by using suitable absorbent (such as aqueous ammonia solution, amines, sodium hydroxide, etc. near the source of emission and externally introducing liquid species in the atmosphere is presented. Dynamical properties of the model which include local and global stabilities for the equilibrium are analyzed carefully. Model analysis is performed by considering three physical situations i.e. when both absorbent and the liquid species are used, only absorbent is used and only liquid species is used. It is shown that the concentration of carbon dioxide decreases as the rate of introduction of absorbent in the absorber increases. It decreases further as the rate of introduction of liquid species. Thus, the concentration of carbon dioxide would be reduced by a large amount if adequate amount of absorbent is used near the source of emission. The remaining amount can be reduced further by infusing liquid drops in the atmosphere. Numerical simulations are also carried out to support the analytical results.

  16. Modeling concentrations and fluxes of atmospheric CO2 in the North East Atlantic region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geels, C.; Christensen, J.H.; Hansen, A.W.

    2001-01-01

    As part of the Danish NEAREX project a three-dimensional Eulerian hemispheric air pollution model is used to study the transport and concentrations of atmospheric CO2 in the North East Atlantic region. The model domain covers the major part of the Northern Hemisphere and currently the model...

  17. On the physical processes ruling an atmospheric pressure air glow discharge operating in an intermediate current regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prevosto, L.; Mancinelli, B.; Chamorro, J. C.; Cejas, E.; Kelly, H.

    2015-01-01

    Low-frequency (100 Hz), intermediate-current (50 to 200 mA) glow discharges were experimentally investigated in atmospheric pressure air between blunt copper electrodes. Voltage–current characteristics and images of the discharge for different inter-electrode distances are reported. A cathode-fall voltage close to 360 V and a current density at the cathode surface of about 11 A/cm 2 , both independent of the discharge current, were found. The visible emissive structure of the discharge resembles to that of a typical low-pressure glow, thus suggesting a glow-like electric field distribution in the discharge. A kinetic model for the discharge ionization processes is also presented with the aim of identifying the main physical processes ruling the discharge behavior. The numerical results indicate the presence of a non-equilibrium plasma with rather high gas temperature (above 4000 K) leading to the production of components such as NO, O, and N which are usually absent in low-current glows. Hence, the ionization by electron-impact is replaced by associative ionization, which is independent of the reduced electric field. This leads to a negative current-voltage characteristic curve, in spite of the glow-like features of the discharge. On the other hand, several estimations show that the discharge seems to be stabilized by heat conduction; being thermally stable due to its reduced size. All the quoted results indicate that although this discharge regime might be considered to be close to an arc, it is still a glow discharge as demonstrated by its overall properties, supported also by the presence of thermal non-equilibrium

  18. Vertical distribution of deuterium in atmospheric water vapour: problems in application to assess atmospheric condensation models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, C.B.

    1984-01-01

    The paper assesses the use of the author's data by Rozanski and Sonntag to support a multi-box model of the vertical distribution of deuterium in atmospheric water vapour, in which exchange between vapour and falling precipitation produces a steeper deuterium concentration profile than simpler condensation models. The mean deuterium/altitude profile adopted by Rozanski and Sonntag for this purpose is only one of several very different mean profiles obtainable from the data by arbitrary selection and weighting procedures; although it can be made to match the specified multi-box model calculations for deuterium, there is a wide discrepancy between the actual and model mean mixing ratio profiles which cannot be ignored. Taken together, the mixing ratio and deuterium profiles indicate that mean vapour of the middle troposphere has been subjected to condensation at greater heights and lower temperatures than those considered in the model calculations. When this is taken into account, the data actually fit much better to the simpler condensation models. But the vapour samples represent meteorological situations too remote in time from primary precipitation events to permit definite conclusions on cloud system mechanisms. (Auth.)

  19. Modelling iodide – iodate speciation in atmospheric aerosol: Contributions of inorganic and organic iodine chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pechtl

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The speciation of iodine in atmospheric aerosol is currently poorly understood. Models predict negligible iodide concentrations but accumulation of iodate in aerosol, both of which is not confirmed by recent measurements. We present an updated aqueous phase iodine chemistry scheme for use in atmospheric chemistry models and discuss sensitivity studies with the marine boundary layer model MISTRA. These studies show that iodate can be reduced in acidic aerosol by inorganic reactions, i.e., iodate does not necessarily accumulate in particles. Furthermore, the transformation of particulate iodide to volatile iodine species likely has been overestimated in previous model studies due to negligence of collision-induced upper limits for the reaction rates. However, inorganic reaction cycles still do not seem to be sufficient to reproduce the observed range of iodide – iodate speciation in atmospheric aerosol. Therefore, we also investigate the effects of the recently suggested reaction of HOI with dissolved organic matter to produce iodide. If this reaction is fast enough to compete with the inorganic mechanism, it would not only directly lead to enhanced iodide concentrations but, indirectly via speed-up of the inorganic iodate reduction cycles, also to a decrease in iodate concentrations. Hence, according to our model studies, organic iodine chemistry, combined with inorganic reaction cycles, is able to reproduce observations. The presented chemistry cycles are highly dependent on pH and thus offer an explanation for the large observed variability of the iodide – iodate speciation in atmospheric aerosol.

  20. Dose Assessment Model for Chronic Atmospheric Releases of Tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Huifang; Yao Rentai

    2010-01-01

    An improved dose assessment model for chronic atmospheric releases of tritium was proposed. The proposed model explicitly considered two chemical forms of tritium.It was based on conservative assumption of transfer of tritiated water (HTO) from air to concentration of HTO and organic beam tritium (OBT) in vegetable and animal products.The concentration of tritium in plant products was calculated based on considering dividedly leafy plant and not leafy plant, meanwhile the concentration contribution of tritium in the different plants from the tritium in soil was taken into account.Calculating the concentration of HTO in animal products, average water fraction of animal products and the average weighted tritium concentration of ingested water based on the fraction of water supplied by each source were considered,including skin absorption, inhalation, drinking water and food.Calculating the annual doses, the ingestion doses were considered, at the same time the contribution of inhalation and skin absorption to the dose was considered. Concentrations in foodstuffs and dose of annual adult calculated with the specific activity model, NEWTRI model and the model proposed by the paper were compared. The results indicate that the model proposed by the paper can predict accurately tritium doses through the food chain from chronic atmospheric releases. (authors)

  1. Modeling the transformation of atmospheric CO2 into microalgal biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Mohammed Fahad; Vogt, Frank

    2017-10-23

    Marine phytoplankton acts as a considerable sink of atmospheric CO 2 as it sequesters large quantities of this greenhouse gas for biomass production. To assess microalgae's counterbalancing of global warming, the quantities of CO 2 they fix need to be determined. For this task, it is mandatory to understand which environmental and physiological parameters govern this transformation from atmospheric CO 2 to microalgal biomass. However, experimental analyses are challenging as it has been found that the chemical environment has a major impact on the physiological properties of the microalgae cells (diameter typ. 5-20 μm). Moreover, the cells can only chemically interact with their immediate vicinity and thus compound sequestration needs to be studied on a microscopic spatial scale. Due to these reasons, computer simulations are a more promising approach than the experimental studies. Modeling software has been developed that describes the dissolution of atmospheric CO 2 into oceans followed by the formation of HCO 3 - which is then transported to individual microalgae cells. The second portion of this model describes the competition of different cell species for this HCO 3 - , a nutrient, as well as its uptake and utilization for cell production. Two microalgae species, i.e. Dunaliella salina and Nannochloropsis oculata, were cultured individually and in a competition situation under different atmospheric CO 2 conditions. It is shown that this novel model's predictions of biomass production are in very good agreement with the experimental flow cytometry results. After model validation, it has been applied to long-term prediction of phytoplankton generation. These investigations were motivated by the question whether or not cell production slows down as cultures grow. This is of relevance as a reduced cell production rate means that the increase in a culture's CO 2 -sinking capacity slows down as well. One implication resulting from this is that an increase in

  2. Modeling of Tsunami Currents in Harbors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynett, P. J.

    2010-12-01

    Extreme events, such as large wind waves and tsunamis, are well recognized as a damaging hazard to port and harbor facilities. Wind wave events, particularly those with long period spectral components or infragravity wave generation, can excite resonance inside harbors leading to both large vertical motions and strong currents. Tsunamis can cause great damage as well. The geometric amplification of these very long waves can create large vertical motions in the interior of a harbor. Additionally, if the tsunami is composed of a train of long waves, which it often is, resonance can be easily excited. These long wave motions create strong currents near the node locations of resonant motions, and when interacting with harbor structures such as breakwaters, can create intense turbulent rotational structures, typical in the form of large eddies or gyres. These gyres have tremendous transport potential, and have been observed to break mooring lines, and even cause ships to be trapped inside the rotation, moving helplessly with the flow until collision, grounding, or dissipation of the eddy (e.g. Okal et al., 2006). This presentation will introduce the traditional theory used to predict wave impacts on harbors, discussing both how these models are practically useful and in what types of situations require a more accurate tool. State-of-the-art numerical models will be introduced, with a focus on recent developments in Boussinesq-type modeling. The Boussinesq equations model can account the dispersive, turbulent and rotational flow properties frequently observed in nature. Also they have the ability to coupling currents and waves and can predict nonlinear wave propagation over uneven bottom from deep (or intermediate) water area to shallow water area. However, during the derivation of a 2D-horizontal equation set, some 3D flow features, such those driven by as the dispersive stresses and the effects of the unresolved small scale 3D turbulence, are excluded. Consequently

  3. Thermal shallow water models of geostrophic turbulence in Jovian atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warneford, Emma S.; Dellar, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Conventional shallow water theory successfully reproduces many key features of the Jovian atmosphere: a mixture of coherent vortices and stable, large-scale, zonal jets whose amplitude decreases with distance from the equator. However, both freely decaying and forced-dissipative simulations of the shallow water equations in Jovian parameter regimes invariably yield retrograde equatorial jets, while Jupiter itself has a strong prograde equatorial jet. Simulations by Scott and Polvani [“Equatorial superrotation in shallow atmospheres,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L24202 (2008)] have produced prograde equatorial jets through the addition of a model for radiative relaxation in the shallow water height equation. However, their model does not conserve mass or momentum in the active layer, and produces mid-latitude jets much weaker than the equatorial jet. We present the thermal shallow water equations as an alternative model for Jovian atmospheres. These equations permit horizontal variations in the thermodynamic properties of the fluid within the active layer. We incorporate a radiative relaxation term in the separate temperature equation, leaving the mass and momentum conservation equations untouched. Simulations of this model in the Jovian regime yield a strong prograde equatorial jet, and larger amplitude mid-latitude jets than the Scott and Polvani model. For both models, the slope of the non-zonal energy spectra is consistent with the classic Kolmogorov scaling, and the slope of the zonal energy spectra is consistent with the much steeper spectrum observed for Jupiter. We also perform simulations of the thermal shallow water equations for Neptunian parameter values, with a radiative relaxation time scale calculated for the same 25 mbar pressure level we used for Jupiter. These Neptunian simulations reproduce the broad, retrograde equatorial jet and prograde mid-latitude jets seen in observations. The much longer radiative time scale for the colder planet Neptune

  4. Improving estimations of greenhouse gas transfer velocities by atmosphere-ocean couplers in Earth-System and regional models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, V. M. N. C. S.; Sahlée, E.; Jurus, P.; Clementi, E.; Pettersson, H.; Mateus, M.

    2015-09-01

    Earth-System and regional models, forecasting climate change and its impacts, simulate atmosphere-ocean gas exchanges using classical yet too simple generalizations relying on wind speed as the sole mediator while neglecting factors as sea-surface agitation, atmospheric stability, current drag with the bottom, rain and surfactants. These were proved fundamental for accurate estimates, particularly in the coastal ocean, where a significant part of the atmosphere-ocean greenhouse gas exchanges occurs. We include several of these factors in a customizable algorithm proposed for the basis of novel couplers of the atmospheric and oceanographic model components. We tested performances with measured and simulated data from the European coastal ocean, having found our algorithm to forecast greenhouse gas exchanges largely different from the forecasted by the generalization currently in use. Our algorithm allows calculus vectorization and parallel processing, improving computational speed roughly 12× in a single cpu core, an essential feature for Earth-System models applications.

  5. MESOI, an interactive atmospheric dispersion model for emergency response applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsdell, J.V.; Athey, G.F.; Glantz, C.S.

    1984-01-01

    MESOI is an interactive atmospheric dispersion model that has been developed for use by the U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission in responding to emergencies at nuclear facilities. MESOI uses both straight-line Gaussian plume and Lagrangian trajectory Gaussian puff models to estimate time-integrated ground-level air and surface concentrations. Puff trajectories are determined from temporally and spatially varying horizontal wind fields that are defined in 3 dimensions. Other processes treated in MESOI include dry deposition, wet deposition and radioactive decay

  6. MESOI, an interactive atmospheric dispersion model for emergency response applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsdell, J.V.; Athey, G.F.; Glantz, C.S.

    1983-12-01

    MESOI is an interactive atmospheric despersion model that has been developed for use by the US Department of Energy, and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in responding to emergencies at nuclear facilities. MESOI uses both straight-line Gaussian plume and Lagrangian trajectory Gaussian puff models to estimate time-integrated ground-level air and surface concentrations. Puff trajectories are determined from temporally and spatially varying horizontal wind fields that are defined in 3 dimensions. Other processes treated in MESOI include dry deposition, wet deposition and radioactive decay. 9 references

  7. A contribution to the modelling of atmospheric corrosion of iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoerle, S.; Mazaudier, F.

    2003-01-01

    With the aim of predicting the long term atmospheric corrosion behaviour of iron, the characteristics of the rust layer formed during this process and the mechanisms occurring inside the rust layer during a wet-dry cycle are considered. A first step in modelling the behaviour is proposed, based on the description of the cathodic reactions associated with iron oxidation: reduction of a part of the rust layer (lepidocrocite) and reduction of dissolved oxygen on the rust layer. The modelling, by including some composition and morphological data of the rust layer as parameters, is able to account for the metal damage after one Wet-Dry cycle. (authors)

  8. Non-LTE model atmosphere analysis of Nova Cygni 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauschildt, P. H.; Starrfield, S.; Austin, S.; Wagner, R. M.; Shore, S. N.; Sonneborn, G.

    1994-01-01

    We use spherically symmetric non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE), line-blanketed, expanding model atmospheres to analyze the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) and optical spectra of Nova Cygni 1992 during the early phases of its outburst. We find that the first IUE spectrum obtained just after discovery on 1992 February 20, is best reproduced by a model atmosphere with a steep density gradient and homologous expansion, whereas the IUE and optical spectra obtained on February 24 show an extended, optically thick, wind structure. Therefore, we distinguish two phases of the early evolution of the nova photosphere: the initial, rapid, 'fireball' phase and the subsequent, much longer, optically thick 'wind' phase. The importance of line-blanketing in nova spectra is demonstrated. Our preliminary abundance analysis implies that hydrogen is depeleted in the ejecta, corresponding to abundance enhancements of Fe by a factor of approximately 2 and of CNO by more than a factor of 10 when compared to solar abundances. The synthetic spectra reproduce both the observed pseudo-continua as well as most of the observed features from the UV to the optical spectral range and demonstrate the importance of obtaining nearly simultaneous UV and optical spectra for performing accurate analyses of expanding stellar atmospheres (for both novae and supernovae).

  9. A tool model for predicting atmospheric kinetics with sensitivity analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A package( a tool model) for program of predicting atmospheric chemical kinetics with sensitivity analysis is presented. The new direct method of calculating the first order sensitivity coefficients using sparse matrix technology to chemical kinetics is included in the tool model, it is only necessary to triangularize the matrix related to the Jacobian matrix of the model equation. The Gear type procedure is used to integrate amodel equation and its coupled auxiliary sensitivity coefficient equations. The FORTRAN subroutines of the model equation, the sensitivity coefficient equations, and their Jacobian analytical expressions are generated automatically from a chemical mechanism. The kinetic representation for the model equation and its sensitivity coefficient equations, and their Jacobian matrix is presented. Various FORTRAN subroutines in packages, such as SLODE, modified MA28, Gear package, with which the program runs in conjunction are recommended.The photo-oxidation of dimethyl disulfide is used for illustration.

  10. Evacuation emergency response model coupling atmospheric release advisory capability output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, L.C.; Lawver, B.S.; Buckley, D.W.; Finn, S.P.; Swenson, J.B.

    1983-01-01

    A Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) sponsored project to develop a coupled set of models between those of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) system and candidate evacuation models is discussed herein. This report describes the ARAC system and discusses the rapid computer code developed and the coupling with ARAC output. The computer code is adapted to the use of color graphics as a means to display and convey the dynamics of an emergency evacuation. The model is applied to a specific case of an emergency evacuation of individuals surrounding the Rancho Seco Nuclear Power Plant, located approximately 25 miles southeast of Sacramento, California. The graphics available to the model user for the Rancho Seco example are displayed and noted in detail. Suggestions for future, potential improvements to the emergency evacuation model are presented

  11. Regional forecasting with global atmospheric models; Third year report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowley, T.J.; North, G.R.; Smith, N.R. [Applied Research Corp., College Station, TX (United States)

    1994-05-01

    This report was prepared by the Applied Research Corporation (ARC), College Station, Texas, under subcontract to Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as part of a global climate studies task. The task supports site characterization work required for the selection of a potential high-level nuclear waste repository and is part of the Performance Assessment Scientific Support (PASS) Program at PNL. The work is under the overall direction of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), US Department of Energy Headquarters, Washington, DC. The scope of the report is to present the results of the third year`s work on the atmospheric modeling part of the global climate studies task. The development testing of computer models and initial results are discussed. The appendices contain several studies that provide supporting information and guidance to the modeling work and further details on computer model development. Complete documentation of the models, including user information, will be prepared under separate reports and manuals.

  12. Regional forecasting with global atmospheric models; Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowley, T.J.; Smith, N.R. [Applied Research Corp., College Station, TX (United States)

    1994-05-01

    The purpose of the project was to conduct model simulations for past and future climate change with respect to the proposed Yucca Mtn. repository. The authors report on three main topics, one of which is boundary conditions for paleo-hindcast studies. These conditions are necessary for the conduction of three to four model simulations. The boundary conditions have been prepared for future runs. The second topic is (a) comparing the atmospheric general circulation model (GCM) with observations and other GCMs; and (b) development of a better precipitation data base for the Yucca Mtn. region for comparisons with models. These tasks have been completed. The third topic is preliminary assessments of future climate change. Energy balance model (EBM) simulations suggest that the greenhouse effect will likely dominate climate change at Yucca Mtn. for the next 10,000 years. The EBM study should improve rational choice of GCM CO{sub 2} scenarios for future climate change.

  13. NASA's Upper Atmosphere Research Program UARP and Atmospheric Chemistry Modeling and Analysis Program (ACMAP): Research Summaries 1994 - 1996. Report to Congress and the Environmental Protection Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Rose (Compiler); Wolfe, Kathy (Compiler)

    1997-01-01

    Under the mandate contained in the FY 1976 NASA Authorization Act, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has developed and is implementing a comprehensive program of research, technology, and monitoring of the Earth's upper atmosphere, with emphasis on the stratosphere. This program aims at expanding our understanding to permit both the quantitative analysis of current perturbations as well as the assessment of possible future changes in this important region of our environment. It is carried out jointly by the Upper Atmosphere Research Program (UARP) and the Atmospheric Chemistry Modeling and Analysis Program (ACMAP), both managed within the Science Division in the Office of Mission to Planet Earth at NASA. Significant contributions to this effort are also provided by the Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project (AEAP) of NASA's Office of Aeronautics. The long-term objectives of the present program are to perform research to: understand the physics, chemistry, and transport processes of the upper atmosphere and their effect on the distribution of chemical species in the stratosphere, such as ozone; understand the relationship of the trace constituent composition of the lower stratosphere and the lower troposphere to the radiative balance and temperature distribution of the Earth's atmosphere; and accurately assess possible perturbations of the upper atmosphere caused by human activities as well as by natural phenomena. In compliance with the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, Public Law 101-549, NASA has prepared a report on the state of our knowledge of the Earth's upper atmosphere, particularly the stratosphere, and on the progress of UARP and ACMAP. The report for the year 1996 is composed of two parts. Part 1 summarizes the objectives, status, and accomplishments of the research tasks supported under NASA UARP and ACMAP in a document entitled, Research Summary 1994-1996. Part 2 is entitled Present State of Knowledge of the Upper Atmosphere

  14. Significant Atmospheric Boundary Layer Change Observed above an Agulhas Current Warm Cored Eddy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Messager

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The air-sea impact of a warm cored eddy ejected from the Agulhas Retroflection region south of Africa was assessed through both ocean and atmospheric profiling measurements during the austral summer. The presence of the eddy causes dramatic atmospheric boundary layer deepening, exceeding what was measured previously over such a feature in the region. This deepening seems mainly due to the turbulent heat flux anomaly above the warm eddy inducing extensive deep and persistent changes in the atmospheric boundary layer thermodynamics. The loss of heat by turbulent processes suggests that this kind of oceanic feature is an important and persistent source of heat for the atmosphere.

  15. Discovering Parameters for Ancient Mars Atmospheric Profiles by Modeling Volcanic Eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, A.; Clarke, A. B.; Van Eaton, A. R.; Mastin, L. G.

    2017-12-01

    Evidence of explosive volcanic deposits on Mars motivates questions about the behavior of eruption plumes in the Ancient and current Martian atmosphere. Early modeling studies suggested that Martian plumes may rise significantly higher than their terrestrial equivalents (Wilson and Head, 1994, Rev. Geophys., 32, 221-263). We revisit the issue using a steady-state 1-D model of volcanic plumes (Plumeria: Mastin, 2014, JGR, doi:10.1002/2013JD020604) along with a range of reasonable temperature and pressures. The model assumes perfect coupling of particles with the gas phase in the plume, and Stokes number analysis indicates that this is a reasonable assumption for particle diameters less than 5 mm to 1 micron. Our estimates of Knudsen numbers support the continuum assumption. The tested atmospheric profiles include an estimate of current Martian atmosphere based on data from voyager mission (Seif, A., Kirk, D.B., (1977) Geophys., 82,4364-4378), a modern Earth-like atmosphere, and several other scenarios based on variable tropopause heights and near-surface atmospheric density estimates from the literature. We simulated plume heights using mass eruption rates (MER) ranging from 1 x 103 to 1 x 1010 kg s-1 to create a series of new theoretical MER-plume height scaling relationships that may be useful for considering plume injection heights, climate impacts, and global-scale ash dispersal patterns in Mars' recent and ancient geological past. Our results show that volcanic plumes in a modern Martian atmosphere may rise up to three times higher than those on Earth. We also find that the modern Mars atmosphere does not allow eruption columns to collapse, and thus does not allow for the formation of column-collapse pyroclastic density currents, a phenomenon thought to have occurred in Mars' past based on geological observations. The atmospheric density at the surface, and especially the height of the tropopause, affect the slope of the MER-plume height curve and control

  16. Optical emission spectroscopy diagnostics of an atmospheric pressure direct current microplasma jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sismanoglu, B.N., E-mail: bogos@ita.b [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, Comando-Geral de Tecnologia Aeroespacial, Pca Marechal Eduardo Gomes 50, 12 228-900, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Amorim, J., E-mail: jayr.amorim@bioetanol.org.b [Centro de Ciencia e Tecnologia do Bioetanol - CTBE, Caixa Postal 6170, 13083-970 Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Souza-Correa, J.A., E-mail: jorge.correa@bioetanol.org.b [Centro de Ciencia e Tecnologia do Bioetanol - CTBE, Caixa Postal 6170, 13083-970 Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Oliveira, C., E-mail: carlosf@ita.b [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, Comando-Geral de Tecnologia Aeroespacial, Pca Marechal Eduardo Gomes 50, 12 228-900, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Gomes, M.P., E-mail: gomesmp@ita.b [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, Comando-Geral de Tecnologia Aeroespacial, Pca Marechal Eduardo Gomes 50, 12 228-900, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2009-11-15

    This paper is about the use of optical emission spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool to determine the gas discharge parameters of a direct current (98% Ar-2% H{sub 2}) non-thermal microplasma jet, operated at atmospheric pressure. The electrical and optical behaviors were studied to characterize this glow discharge. The microplasma jet was investigated in the normal and abnormal glow regimes, for current ranging from 10 to 130 mA, at approx 220 V of applied voltage for copper cathode. OH (A {sup 2}SIGMA{sup +}, nu = 0 -> X {sup 2}PI, nu' = 0) rotational bands at 306.357 nm and also the 603.213 nm Ar I line, which is sensitive to van der Waals broadening, were used to determine the gas temperature, which ranges from 550 to 800 K. The electron number densities, ranging from 6.0 x 10{sup 14} to 1.4 x 10{sup 15} cm{sup -3}, were determined through a careful analysis of the main broadening mechanisms of the H{sub beta} line. From both 603.213 nm and 565.070 nm Ar I line broadenings, it was possible to obtain simultaneously electron number density and temperature (approx 8000 K). Excitation temperatures were also measured from two methods: from two Cu I lines and from Boltzmann-plot of 4p-4s and 5p-4s Ar I transitions. By employing H{sub alpha} line, the hydrogen atoms' H temperature was estimated (approx 18,000 K) and found to be surprisingly hotter than the excitation temperature.

  17. Characterizing the Upper Atmosphere of Titan using the Titan Global Ionosphere- Thermosphere Model: Nitrogen and Methane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, J. M.; Waite, J. H.; Bar-Nun, A.; Bougher, S. W.; Ridley, A. J.; Magee, B.

    2008-12-01

    Recently, a great deal of effort has been put forth to explain the Cassini Ion-Neutral Mass Spectrometer (Waite et al [2004]) in-situ measurements of Titan's upper atmosphere (e.g. Muller-Wodarg [2008], Strobel [2008], Yelle et al [2008]). Currently, the community seems to agree that large amounts of CH4 are escaping from Titan's upper atmosphere at a rate of roughly 2.0 x 1027 molecules of CH4/s (3.33 x 1028 amu/s), representing a significant mass source to the Kronian Magnetosphere. However, such large escape fluxes from Titan are currently not corroborated by measurements onboard the Cassini Spacecraft. Thus, we posit another potential scenario: Aerosol depletion of atmospheric methane. Using the three-dimensional Titan Global Ionosphere-Thermosphere Model (T-GITM) (Bell et al [2008]), we explore the possible removal mechanisms of atmospheric gaseous constituents by these aerosols. Titan simulations are directly compared against Cassini Ion-Neutral Mass Spectrometer in-situ densities of N2 and CH4. From this work, we can then compare and contrast this aerosol depletion scenario against the currently posited hydrodynamic escape scenario, illustrating the merits and shortcomings of both.

  18. Model calculating annual mean atmospheric dispersion factor for coastal site of nuclear power plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes an atmospheric dispersion field experiment performed on the coastal site of nuclear power plant in the east part of China during 1995 to 1996. The three-dimension joint frequency are obtained by hourly observation of wind and temperature on a 100m high tower; the frequency of the “event day of land and sea breezes” are given by observation of surface wind and land and sea breezes; the diffusion parameters are got from measurements of turbulent and wind tunnel simulation test.A new model calculating the annual mean atmospheric dispersion factor for coastal site of nuclear power plant is developed and established.This model considers not only the effect from mixing release and mixed layer but also the effect from the internal boundary layer and variation of diffusion parameters due to the distance from coast.The comparison between results obtained by the new model and current model shows that the ratio of annual mean atmospheric dispersion factor gained by the new model and the current one is about 2.0.

  19. Current Status of the Validation of the Atmospheric Chemistry Instruments on Envisat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecomte, P.; Koopman, R.; Zehner, C.; Laur, H.; Attema, E.; Wursteisen, P.; Snoeij, P.

    2003-04-01

    . As a first step the intention is to arrive at a first quality assessment of the data products for near-real time distribution. This core validation was performed during the commissioning and validation phase of Envisat. The results of this exercise have been presented at the Envisat Validation Workshop. It was already anticipated early in the program that more work needed to be done after this workshop on all Envisat data products both for near-real time and for off-line distribution. The algorithms designed to derive estimates of the atmospheric constitutes need to be verified. For this a large number of correlative observations under a wide range of conditions are needed to arrive at a representative and statistically significant data quality assessment, and to provide insight into sources of error both in the Envisat data and the correlative data sets. In order to achieve this within the tight time schedule the best use must be made of the available resources. For the Atmospheric Chemistry Instruments on Envisat it has therefore been decided to plan a joint geophysical validation programme that is not instrument specific but serves all three instruments. For the co-ordination of the activities the Atmospheric Chemistry Validation Team was formed (ACVT). The ACVT methods can roughly be categorised into different approaches and consistent with these the group is divided into different subgroups on · balloon and aircraft campaigns · ground-based measurements · model assimilation and satellite intercomparison The data coming from the various validation campaigns are stored within a central data storage facility established at the Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU) in Norway. NILU provides access to correlative measurements from sensors on-board satellites, aircraft, balloons and ships, as well as from ground-based instruments and numerical models, such as that of the ECMWF. Particular emphasis has been put on the quality control of such data. Users are

  20. TRANSMISSION SPECTRA OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL HOT JUPITER MODEL ATMOSPHERES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortney, J. J.; Shabram, M.; Showman, A. P.; Lian, Y.; Lewis, N. K.; Freedman, R. S.; Marley, M. S.

    2010-01-01

    We compute models of the transmission spectra of planets HD 209458b, HD 189733b, and generic hot Jupiters. We examine the effects of temperature, surface gravity, and metallicity for the generic planets as a guide to understanding transmission spectra in general. We find that carbon dioxide absorption at 4.4 and 15 μm is prominent at high metallicity, and is a clear metallicity indicator. For HD 209458b and HD 189733b, we compute spectra for both one-dimensional and three-dimensional model atmospheres and examine the differences between them. The differences are usually small, but can be large if atmospheric temperatures are near important chemical abundance boundaries. The calculations for the three-dimensional atmospheres, and their comparison with data, serve as constraints on these dynamical models that complement the secondary eclipse and light curve data sets. For HD 209458b, even if TiO and VO gases are abundant on the dayside, their abundances can be considerably reduced on the cooler planetary limb. However, given the predicted limb temperatures and TiO abundances, the model's optical opacity is too high. For HD 189733b we find a good match with some infrared data sets and constrain the altitude of a postulated haze layer. For this planet, substantial differences can exist between the transmission spectra of the leading and trailing hemispheres, which are an excellent probe of carbon chemistry. In thermochemical equilibrium, the cooler leading hemisphere is methane-dominated, and the hotter trailing hemisphere is CO-dominated, but these differences may be eliminated by non-equilibrium chemistry due to vertical mixing. It may be possible to constrain the carbon chemistry of this planet, and its spatial variation, with James Webb Space Telescope.

  1. Ocean-atmosphere coupled climate model development at SAWS: description and diagnosis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Beraki, A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the South African Weather Service's coupled ocean-atmosphere model. The paper also demonstrates the advances made in configuring an operational coupled ocean-atmosphere model in South Africa for seasonal forecast production...

  2. Volcanic Ash Data Assimilation System for Atmospheric Transport Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, K.; Shimbori, T.; Sato, E.; Tokumoto, T.; Hayashi, Y.; Hashimoto, A.

    2017-12-01

    The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) has two operations for volcanic ash forecasts, which are Volcanic Ash Fall Forecast (VAFF) and Volcanic Ash Advisory (VAA). In these operations, the forecasts are calculated by atmospheric transport models including the advection process, the turbulent diffusion process, the gravitational fall process and the deposition process (wet/dry). The initial distribution of volcanic ash in the models is the most important but uncertain factor. In operations, the model of Suzuki (1983) with many empirical assumptions is adopted to the initial distribution. This adversely affects the reconstruction of actual eruption plumes.We are developing a volcanic ash data assimilation system using weather radars and meteorological satellite observation, in order to improve the initial distribution of the atmospheric transport models. Our data assimilation system is based on the three-dimensional variational data assimilation method (3D-Var). Analysis variables are ash concentration and size distribution parameters which are mutually independent. The radar observation is expected to provide three-dimensional parameters such as ash concentration and parameters of ash particle size distribution. On the other hand, the satellite observation is anticipated to provide two-dimensional parameters of ash clouds such as mass loading, top height and particle effective radius. In this study, we estimate the thickness of ash clouds using vertical wind shear of JMA numerical weather prediction, and apply for the volcanic ash data assimilation system.

  3. Atmospheric transport of persistent organic pollutants - development of a 3-d dynamical transport model covering the northern hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, K. M.; Christensen, J. H.; Geels, C.; Frohn, L. M.; Brandt, J.

    2003-04-01

    The Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model (DEHM) is a 3-D dynamical atmospheric transport model originally developed to describe the atmospheric transport of sulphur, lead, and mercury to the Arctic. The model has been validated carefully for these compounds. A new version of DEHM is currently being developed to describe the atmospheric transport of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) which are toxic, lipophilic and bio-accumulating compounds showing great persistence in the environment. The model has a horizontal resolution of 150 km x 150 km and 18 vertical layers, and it is driven by meteorological data from the numerical weather prediction model MM5V2. During environmental cycling POPs can be deposited and re-emitted several times before reaching a final destination. A description of the exchange processes between the land/ocean surfaces and the atmosphere is included in the model to account for this multi-hop transport. The present model version describes the atmospheric transport of the pesticide alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane (alpha-HCH). Other POPs may be included when proper data on emissions and physical-chemical parameters becomes available. The model-processes and the first model results are presented. The atmospheric transport of alpha-HCH for the 1990s is well described by the model.

  4. Mesoscale atmospheric modeling of accidental toxic and radioactive releases for emergency response at SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Steen, B.L.; Fast, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    In August of 1991, the Environmental Transport Group (ETG) began the development of an advanced Emergency Response (ER) system based upon the Colorado State University Regional Atmospheric Modeling System 1 (RAMS). This model simulates the three-dimensional, time-dependent, flow field and thermodynamic structure of the planetary boundary layer (PBL). A companion Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model 2 (LPDM) simulates contaminant transport based on the flow and turbulence fields generated by RAMS. The current report describes progress to date on this project in the areas of data development, data assimilation, and operational (real-time) procedures. In particular, a diagnostic capability for simulating contaminant transport is demonstrated

  5. A review of measurement and modelling results of particle atmosphere-surface exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pryor, Sara; Gallagher, M.; Sievering, H.

    2008-01-01

    Atmosphere-surface exchange represents one mechanism by which atmospheric particle mass and number size distributions are modified. Deposition velocities (upsilon(d)) exhibit a pronounced dependence on surface type, due in part to turbulence structure (as manifest in friction velocity), with minima...... agreement between models and observations is found over less-rough surfaces though those data also imply substantially higher surface collection efficiencies than were originally proposed and are manifest in current models. We review theorized dependencies for particle fluxes, describe and critique model...... of approximately 0.01 and 0.2 cm s(-1) over grasslands and 0.1-1 cm s(-1) over forests. However, as noted over 20 yr ago, observations over forests generally do not support the pronounced minimum of deposition velocity (upsilon(d)) for particle diameters of 0.1-2 mu m as manifest in theoretical predictions. Closer...

  6. Modeling The Atmosphere In The Era Of Big Data From Extremely Wide Field-Of-View Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Quiles, Junellie; Nordin, Jakob

    2018-01-01

    Surveys like the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), Pan-STARRS and the Palomar Transient Factory Survey (PTF) receive large amounts of data, which need to be processed and calibrated in order to correct for various factors. One of the limiting factors in obtaining high quality data is the atmosphere, and it is therefore essential to find the appropriate calibration for the atmospheric extinction. It is to be expected that a physical atmospheric model, compared to a photometric calibration used currently by PTF, is more effective in calibrating for the atmospheric extinction due to its ability to account for rapid atmospheric fluctuation and objects of different colors. We focused on creating tools to model the atmospheric extinction for the upcoming Zwicky Transient Factory Survey (ZTF). In order to model the atmosphere, we created a program that combines input data and catalogue values, and efficiently handles them. Then, using PTF data and the SDSS catalogue, we created several models to fit the data, and tested the quality of the fits by chi-square minimization. This will allow us to optimize atmospheric extinction for the upcoming ZTF in the near future.

  7. Comparing atmospheric transport models for future regional inversions over Europe - Part 1: mapping the atmospheric CO2 signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geels, C.; Brandt, J.; Christensen, J.H.; Frohn, L.M.; Gloor, M.; Ciais, P.; Bousquet, P.; Peylin, P.; Dargaville, R.; Ramonet, M.; Vermeulen, A.T.; Aalto, T.; Haszpra, L.; Karstens, U.; Rodenbeck, C.; Carboni, G.; Santaguida, R.

    2007-01-01

    The CO 2 source and sink distribution across Europe can be estimated in principle through inverse methods by combining CO 2 observations and atmospheric transport models. Uncertainties of such estimates are mainly due to insufficient spatio-temporal coverage of CO 2 observations and biases of the models. In order to assess the biases related to the use of different models the CO 2 concentration field over Europe has been simulated with five different Eulerian atmospheric transport models as part of the EU-funded AEROCARB project, which has the main goal to estimate the carbon balance of Europe. In contrast to previous comparisons, here both global coarse-resolution and regional higher-resolution models are included. Continuous CO 2 observations from continental, coastal and mountain sites as well as flasks sampled on aircraft are used to evaluate the models ability to capture the spatio-temporal variability and distribution of lower troposphere CO 2 across Europe. 14 CO 2 is used in addition to evaluate separately fossil fuel signal predictions. The simulated concentrations show a large range of variation, with up to similar to 10 ppm higher surface concentrations over Western and Central Europe in the regional models with highest (mesoscale) spatial resolution. The simulation-data comparison reveals that generally high-resolution models are more successful than coarse models in capturing the amplitude and phasing of the observed short-term variability. At high-altitude stations the magnitude of the differences between observations and models and in between models is less pronounced, but the timing of the diurnal cycle is not well captured by the models. The data comparisons show also that the timing of the observed variability on hourly to daily time scales at low-altitude stations is generally well captured by all models. However, the amplitude of the variability tends to be underestimated. While daytime values are quite well predicted, nighttime values are

  8. Comparing atmospheric transport models for future regional inversions over Europe - Part 1: mapping the atmospheric CO{sub 2} signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geels, C.; Brandt, J.; Christensen, J.H.; Frohn, L.M. [Univ Aarhus, Natl Environm Res Inst, DK-4000 Roskilde, (Denmark); Gloor, M. [Univ Leeds, Leeds, W Yorkshire, (United Kingdom); Ciais, P.; Bousquet, P.; Peylin, P.; Dargaville, R.; Ramonet, M. [CEA, CNRS, UMR 1572, Lab Sci Climat and Environm, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, (France); Vermeulen, A.T. [ECN, NL-1755 ZG Petten, (Netherlands); Aalto, T. [Finnish Meteorol Inst Air Qual Res, Helsinki 00810, (Finland); Haszpra, L. [Hungarian Meteorol Serv, H-1675 Budapest, (Hungary); Karstens, U.; Rodenbeck, C. [Max Planck Inst Biogeochem, D-07701 Jena, (Germany); Carboni, G. [CESI ApA, I-20134 Milan, (Italy); Santaguida, R. [Italian AF Meteorol Serv, I-41029 Sestola, MO, (Italy)

    2007-07-01

    The CO{sub 2} source and sink distribution across Europe can be estimated in principle through inverse methods by combining CO{sub 2} observations and atmospheric transport models. Uncertainties of such estimates are mainly due to insufficient spatio-temporal coverage of CO{sub 2} observations and biases of the models. In order to assess the biases related to the use of different models the CO{sub 2} concentration field over Europe has been simulated with five different Eulerian atmospheric transport models as part of the EU-funded AEROCARB project, which has the main goal to estimate the carbon balance of Europe. In contrast to previous comparisons, here both global coarse-resolution and regional higher-resolution models are included. Continuous CO{sub 2} observations from continental, coastal and mountain sites as well as flasks sampled on aircraft are used to evaluate the models ability to capture the spatio-temporal variability and distribution of lower troposphere CO{sub 2} across Europe. {sup 14}CO{sub 2} is used in addition to evaluate separately fossil fuel signal predictions. The simulated concentrations show a large range of variation, with up to similar to 10 ppm higher surface concentrations over Western and Central Europe in the regional models with highest (mesoscale) spatial resolution. The simulation-data comparison reveals that generally high-resolution models are more successful than coarse models in capturing the amplitude and phasing of the observed short-term variability. At high-altitude stations the magnitude of the differences between observations and models and in between models is less pronounced, but the timing of the diurnal cycle is not well captured by the models. The data comparisons show also that the timing of the observed variability on hourly to daily time scales at low-altitude stations is generally well captured by all models. However, the amplitude of the variability tends to be underestimated. While daytime values are quite

  9. Comparing atmospheric transport models for future regional inversions over Europe ─ Part 1: mapping the atmospheric CO2 signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ramonet

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The CO2 source and sink distribution across Europe can be estimated in principle through inverse methods by combining CO2 observations and atmospheric transport models. Uncertainties of such estimates are mainly due to insufficient spatiotemporal coverage of CO2 observations and biases of the models. In order to assess the biases related to the use of different models the CO2 concentration field over Europe has been simulated with five different Eulerian atmospheric transport models as part of the EU-funded AEROCARB project, which has the main goal to estimate the carbon balance of Europe. In contrast to previous comparisons, here both global coarse-resolution and regional higher-resolution models are included. Continuous CO2 observations from continental, coastal and mountain sites as well as flasks sampled on aircrafts are used to evaluate the models' ability to capture the spatiotemporal variability and distribution of lower troposphere CO2 across Europe. 14CO2 is used in addition to evaluate separately fossil fuel signal predictions. The simulated concentrations show a large range of variation, with up to ~10 ppm higher surface concentrations over Western and Central Europe in the regional models with highest (mesoscale spatial resolution. The simulation – data comparison reveals that generally high-resolution models are more successful than coarse models in capturing the amplitude and phasing of the observed short-term variability. At high-altitude stations the magnitude of the differences between observations and models and in between models is less pronounced, but the timing of the diurnal cycle is not well captured by the models. The data comparisons show also that the timing of the observed variability on hourly to daily time scales at low-altitude stations is generally well captured by all models. However, the amplitude of the variability tends to be underestimated. While daytime values are quite well predicted, nighttime values are

  10. Atmospheric statistical dynamic models. Climate experiments: albedo experiments with a zonal atmospheric model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, G.L.; Ellsaesser, H.W.; MacCracken, M.C.; Luther, F.M.

    1978-06-01

    The zonal model experiments with modified surface boundary conditions suggest an initial chain of feedback processes that is largest at the site of the perturbation: deforestation and/or desertification → increased surface albedo → reduced surface absorption of solar radiation → surface cooling and reduced evaporation → reduced convective activity → reduced precipitation and latent heat release → cooling of upper troposphere and increased tropospheric lapse rates → general global cooling and reduced precipitation. As indicated above, although the two experiments give similar overall global results, the location of the perturbation plays an important role in determining the response of the global circulation. These two-dimensional model results are also consistent with three-dimensional model experiments. These results have tempted us to consider the possibility that self-induced growth of the subtropical deserts could serve as a possible mechanism to cause the initial global cooling that then initiates a glacial advance thus activating the positive feedback loop involving ice-albedo feedback (also self-perpetuating). Reversal of the cycle sets in when the advancing ice cover forces the wave-cyclone tracks far enough equatorward to quench (revegetate) the subtropical deserts

  11. The Greenhouse effect within an analytic model of the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehnen, Heinz [Konstanz Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich Physik

    2009-01-15

    Within a simplified atmospheric model the greenhouse effect is treated by analytical methods starting from physical first principles. The influence of solar radiation, absorption cross sections of the greenhouse molecules, and cloud formation on the earth's temperature is shown and discussed explicitly by mathematical formulae in contrast to the climate simulations. The application of our analytical results on the production of 20 .10{sup 9} t of CO{sub 2} per year yields an enlargement of the earth's surface temperature of 2.3 .10{sup -2} C per year in agreement with other estimations. (orig.)

  12. Open-source Software for Exoplanet Atmospheric Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubillos, Patricio; Blecic, Jasmina; Harrington, Joseph

    2018-01-01

    I will present a suite of self-standing open-source tools to model and retrieve exoplanet spectra implemented for Python. These include: (1) a Bayesian-statistical package to run Levenberg-Marquardt optimization and Markov-chain Monte Carlo posterior sampling, (2) a package to compress line-transition data from HITRAN or Exomol without loss of information, (3) a package to compute partition functions for HITRAN molecules, (4) a package to compute collision-induced absorption, and (5) a package to produce radiative-transfer spectra of transit and eclipse exoplanet observations and atmospheric retrievals.

  13. Developing of a New Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation (AIR) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clem, John M.; deAngelis, Giovanni; Goldhagen, Paul; Wilson, John W.

    2003-01-01

    As a result of the research leading to the 1998 AIR workshop and the subsequent analysis, the neutron issues posed by Foelsche et al. and further analyzed by Hajnal have been adequately resolved. We are now engaged in developing a new atmospheric ionizing radiation (AIR) model for use in epidemiological studies and air transportation safety assessment. A team was formed to examine a promising code using the basic FLUKA software but with modifications to allow multiple charged ion breakup effects. A limited dataset of the ER-2 measurements and other cosmic ray data will be used to evaluate the use of this code.

  14. Experiments of reconstructing discrete atmospheric dynamic models from data (I)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhenshan; Zhu, Yanyu; Deng, Ziwang

    1995-03-01

    In this paper, we give some experimental results of our study in reconstructing discrete atmospheric dynamic models from data. After a great deal of numerical experiments, we found that the logistic map, x n + 1 = 1- μx {2/n}, could be used in monthly mean temperature prediction when it was approaching the chaotic region, and its predictive results were in reverse states to the practical data. This means that the nonlinear developing behavior of the monthly mean temperature system is bifurcating back into the critical chaotic states from the chaotic ones.

  15. Model atmospheres and parameters of central stars of planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patriarchi, P.; Cerruti-sola, M.; Perinotto, M.

    1989-01-01

    Non-LTE hydrogen and helium model atmospheres have been obtained for temperatures and gravities relevant to the central stars of planetary nebulae. Low-resolution and high-resolution observations obtained by the IUE satellite have been used along with optical data to determine Zanstra temperatures of the central stars of NGC 1535, NGC 6210, NGC 7009, IC 418, and IC 4593. Comparison of the observed stellar continuum of these stars with theoretical results allowed further information on the stellar temperature to be derived. The final temperatures are used to calculate accurate stellar parameters. 62 refs

  16. Modeling of Atmospheric Turbulence Effect on Terrestrial FSO Link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Prokes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric turbulence results in many effects causing fluctuation in the received optical power. Terrestrial laser beam communication is affected above all by scintillations. The paper deals with modeling the influence of scintillation on link performance, using the modified Rytov theory. The probability of correct signal detection in direct detection system in dependence on many parameters such as link distance, power link margin, refractive-index structure parameter, etc. is discussed and different approaches to the evaluation of scintillation effect are compared. The simulations are performed for a horizontal-path propagation of the Gaussian-beam wave.

  17. A NEW ASTROBIOLOGICAL MODEL OF THE ATMOSPHERE OF TITAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willacy, K. [MS 169-507, Caltech/Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Allen, M. [Caltech/Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Yung, Y., E-mail: Karen.Willacy@jpl.nasa.gov [Division of Geological and Planetary Science, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2016-10-01

    We present results of an investigation into the formation of nitrogen-bearing molecules in the atmosphere of Titan. We extend a previous model to cover the region below the tropopause, so the new model treats the atmosphere from Titan’s surface to an altitude of 1500 km. We consider the effects of condensation and sublimation using a continuous, numerically stable method. This is coupled with parameterized treatments of the sedimentation of the aerosols and their condensates, and the formation of haze particles. These processes affect the abundances of heavier species such as the nitrogen-bearing molecules, but have less effect on the abundances of lighter molecules. Removal of molecules to form aerosols also plays a role in determining the mixing ratios, particularly of HNC, HC{sub 3}N, and HCN. We find good agreement with the recently detected mixing ratios of C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CN, with condensation playing an important role in determining the abundance of this molecule below 500 km. Of particular interest is the chemistry of acrylonitrile (C{sub 2}H{sub 3}CN) which has been suggested by Stevenson et al. as a molecule that could form biological membranes in an oxygen-deficient environment. With the inclusion of haze formation, we find good agreement of our model predictions of acrylonitrile with the available observations.

  18. Uncertainties in (E)UV model atmosphere fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, T.

    2008-04-01

    Context: During the comparison of synthetic spectra calculated with two NLTE model atmosphere codes, namely TMAP and TLUSTY, we encounter systematic differences in the EUV fluxes due to the treatment of level dissolution by pressure ionization. Aims: In the case of Sirius B, we demonstrate an uncertainty in modeling the EUV flux reliably in order to challenge theoreticians to improve the theory of level dissolution. Methods: We calculated synthetic spectra for hot, compact stars using state-of-the-art NLTE model-atmosphere techniques. Results: Systematic differences may occur due to a code-specific cutoff frequency of the H I Lyman bound-free opacity. This is the case for TMAP and TLUSTY. Both codes predict the same flux level at wavelengths lower than about 1500 Å for stars with effective temperatures (T_eff) below about 30 000 K only, if the same cutoff frequency is chosen. Conclusions: The theory of level dissolution in high-density plasmas, which is available for hydrogen only should be generalized to all species. Especially, the cutoff frequencies for the bound-free opacities should be defined in order to make predictions of UV fluxes more reliable.

  19. A NEW ASTROBIOLOGICAL MODEL OF THE ATMOSPHERE OF TITAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willacy, K.; Allen, M.; Yung, Y.

    2016-01-01

    We present results of an investigation into the formation of nitrogen-bearing molecules in the atmosphere of Titan. We extend a previous model to cover the region below the tropopause, so the new model treats the atmosphere from Titan’s surface to an altitude of 1500 km. We consider the effects of condensation and sublimation using a continuous, numerically stable method. This is coupled with parameterized treatments of the sedimentation of the aerosols and their condensates, and the formation of haze particles. These processes affect the abundances of heavier species such as the nitrogen-bearing molecules, but have less effect on the abundances of lighter molecules. Removal of molecules to form aerosols also plays a role in determining the mixing ratios, particularly of HNC, HC 3 N, and HCN. We find good agreement with the recently detected mixing ratios of C 2 H 5 CN, with condensation playing an important role in determining the abundance of this molecule below 500 km. Of particular interest is the chemistry of acrylonitrile (C 2 H 3 CN) which has been suggested by Stevenson et al. as a molecule that could form biological membranes in an oxygen-deficient environment. With the inclusion of haze formation, we find good agreement of our model predictions of acrylonitrile with the available observations.

  20. Design and development of a low cost, high current density power supply for streamer free atmospheric pressure DBD plasma generation in air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Vishal; Visani, Anand; Srinivasan, R; Agarwal, Vivek

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents a new power supply architecture for generating a uniform dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma in air medium at atmospheric pressure. It is quite a challenge to generate atmospheric pressure uniform glow discharge plasma, especially in air. This is because air plasma needs very high voltage for initiation of discharge. If the high voltage is used along with high current density, it leads to the formation of streamers, which is undesirable for most applications like textile treatment, etc. Researchers have tried to generate high-density plasma using a RF source, nanosecond pulsed DC source, and medium frequency AC source. However, these solutions suffer from low current discharge and low efficiency due to the addition of an external resistor to control the discharge current. Moreover, they are relatively costly and bulky. This paper presents a new power supply configuration which is very compact and generates high average density (∼0.28 W/cm 2 ) uniform glow DBD plasma in air at atmospheric pressure. The efficiency is also higher as no external resistor is required to control the discharge current. An inherent feature of this topology is that it can drive higher current oscillations (∼50 A peak and 2-3 MHz frequency) into the plasma that damp out due to the plasma dissipation only. A newly proposed model has been used with experimental validation in this paper. Simulations and experimental validation of the proposed topology are included. Also, the application of the generated plasma for polymer film treatment is demonstrated.

  1. Puff models for simulation of fugitive radioactive emissions in atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Camila P. da, E-mail: camila.costa@ufpel.edu.b [Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel), RS (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica e Matematica. Dept. de Matematica e Estatistica; Pereira, Ledina L., E-mail: ledinalentz@yahoo.com.b [Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense (UNESC), Criciuma, SC (Brazil); Vilhena, Marco T., E-mail: vilhena@pq.cnpq.b [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica; Tirabassi, Tiziano, E-mail: t.tirabassi@isac.cnr.i [Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate (CNR/ISAC), Bologna (Italy)

    2009-07-01

    A puff model for the dispersion of material from fugitive radioactive emissions is presented. For vertical diffusion the model is based on general techniques for solving time dependent advection-diffusion equation: the ADMM (Advection Diffusion Multilayer Method) and GILTT (Generalized Integral Laplace Transform Technique) techniques. The first one is an analytical solution based on a discretization of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) in sub-layers where the advection-diffusion equation is solved by the Laplace transform technique. The solution is given in integral form. The second one is a well-known hybrid method that had solved a wide class of direct and inverse problems mainly in the area of Heat Transfer and Fluid Mechanics and the solution is given in series form. Comparisons between values predicted by the models against experimental ground-level concentrations are shown. (author)

  2. Puff models for simulation of fugitive radioactive emissions in atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Camila P. da; Vilhena, Marco T.

    2009-01-01

    A puff model for the dispersion of material from fugitive radioactive emissions is presented. For vertical diffusion the model is based on general techniques for solving time dependent advection-diffusion equation: the ADMM (Advection Diffusion Multilayer Method) and GILTT (Generalized Integral Laplace Transform Technique) techniques. The first one is an analytical solution based on a discretization of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) in sub-layers where the advection-diffusion equation is solved by the Laplace transform technique. The solution is given in integral form. The second one is a well-known hybrid method that had solved a wide class of direct and inverse problems mainly in the area of Heat Transfer and Fluid Mechanics and the solution is given in series form. Comparisons between values predicted by the models against experimental ground-level concentrations are shown. (author)

  3. Synergies Between Grace and Regional Atmospheric Modeling Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusche, J.; Springer, A.; Ohlwein, C.; Hartung, K.; Longuevergne, L.; Kollet, S. J.; Keune, J.; Dobslaw, H.; Forootan, E.; Eicker, A.

    2014-12-01

    In the meteorological community, efforts converge towards implementation of high-resolution (precipitation, evapotranspiration and runoff data; confirming that the model does favorably at representing observations. We show that after GRACE-derived bias correction, basin-average hydrological conditions prior to 2002 can be reconstructed better than before. Next, comparing GRACE with CLM forced by EURO-CORDEX simulations allows identifying processes needing improvement in the model. Finally, we compare COSMO-EU atmospheric pressure, a proxy for mass corrections in satellite gravimetry, with ERA-Interim over Europe at timescales shorter/longer than 1 month, and spatial scales below/above ERA resolution. We find differences between regional and global model more pronounced at high frequencies, with magnitude at sub-grid scale and larger scale corresponding to 1-3 hPa (1-3 cm EWH); relevant for the assessment of post-GRACE concepts.

  4. Development of scheme for predicting atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides during nuclear emergency by using atmospheric dynamic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagai, Haruyasu; Chino, Masamichi; Yamazawa, Hiromi (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan))

    1999-07-01

    The meteorological forecast models are critically important for the accuracy of predicting the atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides discharged into atmosphere during nuclear emergencies. Thus, this paper describes a new scheme for predicting environmental impacts due to accidental release of radionuclides by using an atmospheric dynamic model PHYSIC. The advantages of introducing PHYSIC are, (1) three-dimensional local meteorological forecasts can be conducted, (2) synoptic meteorological changes can be considered by inputting grid data of synoptic forecasts from Japan Meteorological Agency to PHYSIC as initial and boundary conditions, (3) forecasts can be improved by nudging method using local meteorological observations, and (4) atmospheric dispersion model can consider the variation of the mixed layer. (author)

  5. Development of scheme for predicting atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides during nuclear emergency by using atmospheric dynamic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Haruyasu; Chino, Masamichi; Yamazawa, Hiromi

    1999-01-01

    The meteorological forecast models are critically important for the accuracy of predicting the atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides discharged into atmosphere during nuclear emergencies. Thus, this paper describes a new scheme for predicting environmental impacts due to accidental release of radionuclides by using an atmospheric dynamic model PHYSIC. The advantages of introducing PHYSIC are, (1) three-dimensional local meteorological forecasts can be conducted, (2) synoptic meteorological changes can be considered by inputting grid data of synoptic forecasts from Japan Meteorological Agency to PHYSIC as initial and boundary conditions, (3) forecasts can be improved by nudging method using local meteorological observations, and (4) atmospheric dispersion model can consider the variation of the mixed layer. (author)

  6. ATTILA - Atmospheric Tracer Transport In a Langrangian Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reithmeier, C.; Sausen, R.

    2000-07-01

    The Lagrangian model ATTILA (atmospheric tracer transport in a Lagrangian model) has been developed to treat the global-scale transport of passive trace species in the atmosphere within the framework of a general circulation model (GCM). ATTILA runs online within the GCM ECHAM4 and uses the GCM produced wind field to advect the centrois of 80.000 to 180.000 constant mass air parcels into which the model atmosphere is divided. Each trace constituent is thereby represented by a mass mixing ratio in each parcel. ATTILA contains state-of-the-art parameterizations of convection, turbulent boundary layer mixing, and interparcel transport and provides an algorithm to map the tracer concentrations from the trajectories to the ECHAM model grid. We use two experiments to evaluate the transport characteristics of ATTILA against observations and the standard semiLagrangian transport scheme of ECHAM. In the first experiment we simulate the distribution of the short-lived tracer Radon ({sup 222}Rn) in order to examine fast vertical transport over continents, and long-range transport from the continents to remote areas. In the second experiment, we simulate the distribution of radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) that was injected into the northern stratosphere during the nuclear weapon tests in the early 60ties, in order to examine upper tropospheric and stratospheric transport characteristics. ATTILA compares well to the observations and in many respects to the semiLagrangian scheme. However, contrary to the semiLagrangian scheme, ATTILA shows a greatly reduced meridional transport in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, and a reduced downward flux from the stratosphere to the troposphere, especially in midlatitudes. Since both transport schemes use the same model meteorology, we conclude that the often cited enhanced meridional transport and overestimated downward flux in ECHAM as described above is rather due to the numerical properties of the semiLagrangian scheme than due to an

  7. A Model of Volcanic Outgassing for Earth's Early Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaliwal, J. K.; Kasting, J. F.; Zhang, Z.

    2017-12-01

    We build on historical paradigms of volcanic degassing [1] to account for non-linear relations among C-O-H-S volatiles, their speciation, solubility and concentrations in magmatic melts, and the resulting contribution to atmospheric volatile inventories. We focus on the build-up of greenhouse-relevant carbon species (CO2 and CH4) and molecular oxygen to better understand the environments of early life and the Great Oxygenation Event [2,3,4]. The mantle is an important reservoir of C-O-H-S volatiles [5], and melt concentrations depend on temperature, pressure and oxygen fugacity. We present a preliminary chemical model that simulates volatile concentrations released into the Earth's atmosphere at 1 bar, or pressures corresponding to the early Earth prior to 2.4 Ga. We maintain redox balance in the system using H+ [2, 6] because the melt oxidation state evolves with volatile melt concentrations [7] and affects the composition of degassed compounds. For example, low fO2 in the melt degasses CO, CH4, H2S and H2 while high fO2 yields CO2, SO2 and H2O [1,8,9]. Our calculations incorporate empirical relations from experimental petrology studies [e.g., 10, 11] to account for inter-dependencies among volatile element solubility trends. This model has implications for exploring planetary atmospheric evolution and potential greenhouse effects on Venus and Mars [12]­, and possibly exoplanets. A future direction of this work would be to link this chemical degassing model with different tectonic regimes [13] to account for degassing and ingassing, such as during subduction. References: [1] Holland, H. D. (1984) The chemical evolution of the atmosphere and oceans [2] Kasting, J. F. (2013) Chem. Geo. 362, 13-25 [3] Kasting, J.F. (1993) Sci. 259, 920-926 [4] Duncan, M.S. & Dasgupta, R. (2017) Nat. Geoscience 10, 387-392. [5] Hier-Majumder, S. & Hirschmann, M.M. (2017) G3, doi: 10.1002/2017GC006937 [6] Gaillard, F. et al. (2003) GCA 67, 2427- 2441 [7] Moussalam, Y. et al. (2014

  8. Ecological models and pesticide risk assessment: current modeling practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmolke, Amelie; Thorbek, Pernille; Chapman, Peter; Grimm, Volker

    2010-04-01

    Ecological risk assessments of pesticides usually focus on risk at the level of individuals, and are carried out by comparing exposure and toxicological endpoints. However, in most cases the protection goal is populations rather than individuals. On the population level, effects of pesticides depend not only on exposure and toxicity, but also on factors such as life history characteristics, population structure, timing of application, presence of refuges in time and space, and landscape structure. Ecological models can integrate such factors and have the potential to become important tools for the prediction of population-level effects of exposure to pesticides, thus allowing extrapolations, for example, from laboratory to field. Indeed, a broad range of ecological models have been applied to chemical risk assessment in the scientific literature, but so far such models have only rarely been used to support regulatory risk assessments of pesticides. To better understand the reasons for this situation, the current modeling practice in this field was assessed in the present study. The scientific literature was searched for relevant models and assessed according to nine characteristics: model type, model complexity, toxicity measure, exposure pattern, other factors, taxonomic group, risk assessment endpoint, parameterization, and model evaluation. The present study found that, although most models were of a high scientific standard, many of them would need modification before they are suitable for regulatory risk assessments. The main shortcomings of currently available models in the context of regulatory pesticide risk assessments were identified. When ecological models are applied to regulatory risk assessments, we recommend reviewing these models according to the nine characteristics evaluated here. (c) 2010 SETAC.

  9. Modelling Chemical Patterns of Atmospheric Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratola, Nuno; Jiménez-Guerrero, Pedro

    2013-04-01

    Semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) such as PBDEs, PCBs, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) or PAHs, are widespread and generated in a multitude of anthropogenic (and natural for PAHs) processes and although they are found in the environment at low concentrations, possess an extraordinary carcinogenic capacity (Baussant et al., 2001) and high ecotoxicity due to their persistence in different matrices (air, soil, water, living organisms). In particular, PAHs are originated by combustion processes or release from fossil fuels and can be transported in the atmosphere over long distances in gaseous or particulate matter (Baek et al., 1991). The establishment of strategies for sampling and chemical transport modelling of SVOCs in the atmosphere aiming the definition and validation of the spatial, temporal and chemical transport patterns of contaminants can be achieved by an integrated system of third-generation models that represent the current state of knowledge in air quality modelling and experimental data collected in field campaigns. This has implications in the fields of meteorology, atmospheric chemistry and even climate change. In this case, an extensive database already obtained on levels of atmospheric PAHs from biomonitoring schemes in the Iberian Peninsula fuelled the establishment of the first models of behaviour for PAHs. The modelling system WRF+CHIMERE was implemented with high spatial and temporal resolution to the Iberian Peninsula in this first task (9 km for the Iberian Peninsula, 3 km to Portugal, 1 hour), using PAHs atmospheric levels collected over a year-long sampling scheme comprising 4 campaigns (one per season) in over 30 sites. Daily information on meteorological parameters such as air temperature, humidity, rainfall or wind speed and direction was collected from the weather stations closest to the sampling sites. Diagnosis and forecasts of these meteorological variables using MM5 or WRF were used to feed a chemistry transport model

  10. Magnetic Hydrogen Atmosphere Models and the Neutron Star RX J1856.5-3754

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Wynn C.G.; /MIT, MKI /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Kaplan, David L.; /MIT, MKI; Chang, Philip; /UC, Berkeley, Astron. Dept. /UC, Santa Barbara; van Adelsberg, Matthew; /Cornell; Potekhin, Alexander Y.; /Cornell U., Astron. Dept. /Ioffe Phys. Tech. Inst.

    2006-12-08

    RX J1856.5-3754 is one of the brightest nearby isolated neutron stars, and considerable observational resources have been devoted to it. However, current models are unable to satisfactorily explain the data. We show that our latest models of a thin, magnetic, partially ionized hydrogen atmosphere on top of a condensed surface can fit the entire spectrum, from X-rays to optical, of RX J1856.5-3754, within the uncertainties. In our simplest model, the best-fit parameters are an interstellar column density N{sub H} {approx} 1 x 10{sup 20} cm{sup -2} and an emitting area with R{sup {infinity}} {approx} 17 km (assuming a distance to RX J1856.5-3754 of 140 pc), temperature T{sup {infinity}} {approx} 4.3 x 10{sup 5} K, gravitational redshift z{sub g} {approx} 0.22, atmospheric hydrogen column y{sub H} {approx} 1 g cm{sup -2}, and magnetic field B {approx} (3-4) x 10{sup 12} G; the values for the temperature and magnetic field indicate an effective average over the surface. We also calculate a more realistic model, which accounts for magnetic field and temperature variations over the neutron star surface as well as general relativistic effects, to determine pulsations; we find there exist viewing geometries that produce pulsations near the currently observed limits. The origin of the thin atmospheres required to fit the data is an important question, and we briefly discuss mechanisms for producing these atmospheres. Our model thus represents the most self-consistent picture to date for explaining all the observations of RX J1856.5-3754.

  11. Evolution and challenges of dynamic global vegetation models for some aspects of plant physiology and elevated atmospheric CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, L F C; Arenque, B C; Aidar, S T; Moura, M S B; Von Randow, C; Tourigny, E; Menezes, R S C; Ometto, J P H B

    2016-07-01

    Dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) simulate surface processes such as the transfer of energy, water, CO2, and momentum between the terrestrial surface and the atmosphere, biogeochemical cycles, carbon assimilation by vegetation, phenology, and land use change in scenarios of varying atmospheric CO2 concentrations. DGVMs increase the complexity and the Earth system representation when they are coupled with atmospheric global circulation models (AGCMs) or climate models. However, plant physiological processes are still a major source of uncertainty in DGVMs. The maximum velocity of carboxylation (Vcmax), for example, has a direct impact over productivity in the models. This parameter is often underestimated or imprecisely defined for the various plant functional types (PFTs) and ecosystems. Vcmax is directly related to photosynthesis acclimation (loss of response to elevated CO2), a widely known phenomenon that usually occurs when plants are subjected to elevated atmospheric CO2 and might affect productivity estimation in DGVMs. Despite this, current models have improved substantially, compared to earlier models which had a rudimentary and very simple representation of vegetation-atmosphere interactions. In this paper, we describe this evolution through generations of models and the main events that contributed to their improvements until the current state-of-the-art class of models. Also, we describe some main challenges for further improvements to DGVMs.

  12. Modelling earth current precursors in earthquake prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Di Maio

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the theory of earth current precursors of earthquake. A dilatancy-diffusion-polarization model is proposed to explain the anomalies of the electric potential, which are observed on the ground surface prior to some earthquakes. The electric polarization is believed to be the electrokinetic effect due to the invasion of fluids into new pores, which are opened inside a stressed-dilated rock body. The time and space variation of the distribution of the electric potential in a layered earth as well as in a faulted half-space is studied in detail. It results that the surface response depends on the underground conductivity distribution and on the relative disposition of the measuring dipole with respect to the buried bipole source. A field procedure based on the use of an areal layout of the recording sites is proposed, in order to obtain the most complete information on the time and space evolution of the precursory phenomena in any given seismic region.

  13. A regulator's perspective on the use of atmospheric dispersion models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, C.R.

    1992-01-01

    On 1 April 1991 a new regime for industrial pollution control was introduced in England and Wales: Integrated Pollution Regulation (IPR). For those industrial processes which involve releases of pollutants into the atmosphere, the relevant primary legislation includes: the Environmental Protection Act 1990, which established a system of Integrated Pollution Control for those industries which have the greatest potential to cause pollution, and the Radioactive Substances Act 1960, which is concerned with the regulation of radioactive releases. There is a requirement for the operator of a process to make an application to HMIP for authorization to operate the process and dispose of waste arisings, and an environmental impact assessment must form part of that application. HMIP does not prescribe the type of assessment techniques that the applicant should use. But the Inspectorate will audit the applicant's assessment, and also carry out its own calculations if appropriate. The assessment standards used by HMIP are being published in the form of ''Chief Inspector's Guidance to Inspectors'', which can be referred to by applicants. HMIP makes use of both short-range and longer-range atmospheric dispersion models to fulfill its regulatory duties. Within the former category, the Inspectorate is one of the UK organisations which is sponsoring the development of the UK-ADMS model. (AB)

  14. Modeling of urban atmospheric pollution and impact on health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myrto, Valari

    2009-10-01

    The goal of this dissertation, is to develop a methodology that provides an improved knowledge of the associations between atmospheric contaminant concentrations and health impact. The propagation of uncertainties from input data to the output concentrations through a Chemistry Transport Model was first studied. The influence of the resolutions of meteorological parameters and emissions data were studied separately, and their relative role was compared. It was found that model results do not improve linearly with the resolution of emission input. A critical resolution was found, beyond which model error becomes higher and the model breaks down. Based on this first investigation concerning the direct down scaling, further research focused on sub grid scale modeling. Thus, a statistical down scaling approach was adopted for the modeling of sub grid-scale concentration variability due to heterogeneous surface emissions. Emission fractions released from different types of sources (industry, roads, residential, natural etc.) were calculated from a high-resolution emission inventory. Then emission fluxes were mapped on surfaces emitting source-specific species. Simulations were run independently over the defined micro-environments allowing the modeling of sub grid-scale concentration variability. Sub grid scale concentrations were therefore combined with demographic and human activity data to provide exposure estimates. The spatial distribution of human exposure was parameterized through a Monte-Carlo model. The new information concerning exposure variability was added to an existing epidemiological model to study relative health risks. A log-linear Poisson regression model was used for this purpose. The principal outcome of the investigation was that a new functionality was added to the regression model which allows the dissociation of the health risk associated with each pollutant (e.g. NO 2 and PM 2.5 ). (author)

  15. Visualization in hydrological and atmospheric modeling and observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbig, C.; Rink, K.; Kolditz, O.

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, visualization of geoscientific and climate data has become increasingly important due to challenges such as climate change, flood prediction or the development of water management schemes for arid and semi-arid regions. Models for simulations based on such data often have a large number of heterogeneous input data sets, ranging from remote sensing data and geometric information (such as GPS data) to sensor data from specific observations sites. Data integration using such information is not straightforward and a large number of potential problems may occur due to artifacts, inconsistencies between data sets or errors based on incorrectly calibrated or stained measurement devices. Algorithms to automatically detect various of such problems are often numerically expensive or difficult to parameterize. In contrast, combined visualization of various data sets is often a surprisingly efficient means for an expert to detect artifacts or inconsistencies as well as to discuss properties of the data. Therefore, the development of general visualization strategies for atmospheric or hydrological data will often support researchers during assessment and preprocessing of the data for model setup. When investigating specific phenomena, visualization is vital for assessing the progress of the ongoing simulation during runtime as well as evaluating the plausibility of the results. We propose a number of such strategies based on established visualization methods that - are applicable to a large range of different types of data sets, - are computationally inexpensive to allow application for time-dependent data - can be easily parameterized based on the specific focus of the research. Examples include the highlighting of certain aspects of complex data sets using, for example, an application-dependent parameterization of glyphs, iso-surfaces or streamlines. In addition, we employ basic rendering techniques allowing affine transformations, changes in opacity as well

  16. Modelling atmospheric deposition flux of Cadmium and Lead in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherin, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    According to WHO, air pollution is responsible for more than 3.7 million premature deaths each year (OMS, 2014). Moreover, among these deaths, more than 70 within urban areas. Consequently, the health and environmental impacts of pollutants within these urban areas are of great concern in air quality studies. The deposition fluxes of air pollutants, which can be significant near sources of pollution, have rarely been modeled within urban areas. Historically, atmospheric deposition studies have focused mostly on remote areas to assess the potential impacts on ecosystems of acid deposition and nitrogen loading. Therefore, current atmospheric deposition models may not be suitable to simulate deposition fluxes in urban areas, which include complex surface geometries and diverse land use types. Atmospheric dry deposition is typically modeled using an average roughness length, which depends on land use. This classical roughness-length approach cannot account for the spatial variability of dry deposition in complex settings such as urban areas. Urban canopy models have been developed to parameterize momentum and heat transfer. We extend this approach here to mass transfer, and a new dry deposition model based on the urban canyon concept is presented. It uses a local mixing-length parameterization of turbulence within the canopy, and a description of the urban canopy via key parameters to provide spatially distributed dry deposition fluxes. This approach provides spatially distributed dry deposition fluxes depending on surfaces (streets, walls, roofs) and flow regimes (recirculation and ventilation) within the urban area. (author) [fr

  17. Atmospheric Energy Deposition Modeling and Inference for Varied Meteoroid Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Lorien; Mathias, Donovan; Stokan, Edward; Brown, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Asteroids populations are highly diverse, ranging from coherent monoliths to loosely-bound rubble piles with a broad range of material and compositional properties. These different structures and properties could significantly affect how an asteroid breaks up and deposits energy in the atmosphere, and how much ground damage may occur from resulting blast waves. We have previously developed a fragment-cloud model (FCM) for assessing the atmospheric breakup and energy deposition of asteroids striking Earth. The approach represents ranges of breakup characteristics by combining progressive fragmentation with releases of variable fractions of debris and larger discrete fragments. In this work, we have extended the FCM to also represent asteroids with varied initial structures, such as rubble piles or fractured bodies. We have used the extended FCM to model the Chelyabinsk, Benesov, Kosice, and Tagish Lake meteors, and have obtained excellent matches to energy deposition profiles derived from their light curves. These matches provide validation for the FCM approach, help guide further model refinements, and enable inferences about pre-entry structure and breakup behavior. Results highlight differences in the amount of small debris vs. discrete fragments in matching the various flare characteristics of each meteor. The Chelyabinsk flares were best represented using relatively high debris fractions, while Kosice and Benesov cases were more notably driven by their discrete fragmentation characteristics, perhaps indicating more cohesive initial structures. Tagish Lake exhibited a combination of these characteristics, with lower-debris fragmentation at high altitudes followed by sudden disintegration into small debris in the lower flares. Results from all cases also suggest that lower ablation coefficients and debris spread rates may be more appropriate for the way in which debris clouds are represented in FCM, offering an avenue for future model refinement.

  18. Integrating Biodiversity into Biosphere-Atmosphere Interactions Using Individual-Based Models (IBM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B.; Shugart, H. H., Jr.; Lerdau, M.

    2017-12-01

    A key component regulating complex, nonlinear, and dynamic biosphere-atmosphere interactions is the inherent diversity of biological systems. The model frameworks currently widely used, i.e., Plant Functional Type models) do not even begin to capture the metabolic and taxonomic diversity found in many terrestrial systems. We propose that a transition from PFT-based to individual-based modeling approaches (hereafter referred to as IBM) is essential for integrating biodiversity into research on biosphere-atmosphere interactions. The proposal emerges from our studying the interactions of forests with atmospheric processes in the context of climate change using an individual-based forest volatile organic compounds model, UVAFME-VOC. This individual-based model can explicitly simulate VOC emissions based on an explicit modelling of forest dynamics by computing the growth, death, and regeneration of each individual tree of different species and their competition for light, moisture, and nutrient, from which system-level VOC emissions are simulated by explicitly computing and summing up each individual's emissions. We found that elevated O3 significantly altered the forest dynamics by favoring species that are O3-resistant, which, meanwhile, are producers of isoprene. Such compositional changes, on the one hand, resulted in unsuppressed forest productivity and carbon stock because of the compensation by O3-resistant species. On the other hand, with more isoprene produced arising from increased producers, a possible positive feedback loop between tropospheric O3 and forest thereby emerged. We also found that climate warming will not always stimulate isoprene emissions because warming simultaneously reduces isoprene emissions by causing a decline in the abundance of isoprene-emitting species. These results suggest that species diversity is of great significance and that individual-based modelling strategies should be applied in studying biosphere-atmosphere interactions.

  19. Analysis of different atmospheric physical parameterizations in COAWST modeling system for the Tropical Storm Nock-ten application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Danqin; Du, Jianting; Hua, Feng

    2016-01-01

    the storm center area. As a result, using Kain–Fritsch cumulus scheme, Goddard shortwave radiation scheme and RRTM longwave radiation scheme in WRF may lead to much larger wind intensity, significant wave height, current intensity, as well as lower SST and sea surface pressure. Thus......A coupled ocean–atmosphere–wave–sediment transport modeling system was applied to study the atmosphere and ocean dynamics during Tropical Storm Nock-ten. Different atmospheric physical parameterizations in WRF model were investigated through ten groups of numerical experiments. Results...... of atmosphere, ocean wave and current features were compared with storm observations, ERA-Interim data, NOAA sea surface temperature data, AVISO current data and HYCOM data, respectively. It was found that the storm track and intensity are sensitive to the cumulus and radiation schemes in WRF, especially around...

  20. Computer Modeling of the Effects of Atmospheric Conditions on Sound Signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    simulation. 11 5. References 1. Attenborough K. Sound propagation in the atmosphere. In: Rossing TD, editor. Springer handbook of...ARL-TR-7602 ● FEB 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Computer Modeling of the Effects of Atmospheric Conditions on Sound ...Laboratory Computer Modeling of the Effects of Atmospheric Conditions on Sound Signatures by Sarah Wagner Science and Engineering Apprentice

  1. Simulation of a Large Wildfire in a Coupled Fire-Atmosphere Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Baptiste Filippi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The Aullene fire devastated more than 3000 ha of Mediterranean maquis and pine forest in July 2009. The simulation of combustion processes, as well as atmospheric dynamics represents a challenge for such scenarios because of the various involved scales, from the scale of the individual flames to the larger regional scale. A coupled approach between the Meso-NH (Meso-scale Non-Hydrostatic atmospheric model running in LES (Large Eddy Simulation mode and the ForeFire fire spread model is proposed for predicting fine- to large-scale effects of this extreme wildfire, showing that such simulation is possible in a reasonable time using current supercomputers. The coupling involves the surface wind to drive the fire, while heat from combustion and water vapor fluxes are injected into the atmosphere at each atmospheric time step. To be representative of the phenomenon, a sub-meter resolution was used for the simulation of the fire front, while atmospheric simulations were performed with nested grids from 2400-m to 50-m resolution. Simulations were run with or without feedback from the fire to the atmospheric model, or without coupling from the atmosphere to the fire. In the two-way mode, the burnt area was reproduced with a good degree of realism at the local scale, where an acceleration in the valley wind and over sloping terrain pushed the fire line to locations in accordance with fire passing point observations. At the regional scale, the simulated fire plume compares well with the satellite image. The study explores the strong fire-atmosphere interactions leading to intense convective updrafts extending above the boundary layer, significant downdrafts behind the fire line in the upper plume, and horizontal wind speeds feeding strong inflow into the base of the convective updrafts. The fire-induced dynamics is induced by strong near-surface sensible heat fluxes reaching maximum values of 240 kW m − 2 . The dynamical production of turbulent kinetic

  2. NOAA/NCEP Global Forecast System (GFS) Atmospheric Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Global Forecast System (GFS) numerical weather...

  3. Interlaboratory model comparisons of atmospheric concentrations with and without deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kern, C.D.; Cooper, R.E.

    1978-01-01

    To calculate the dose to the regional and U.S. populations, the pollutant concentration both with and without deposition and the amount of material deposited on the ground and watersheds around such a facility must be known. The following report (Article 50) of this document contains some initial estimates of population exposure from atmospheric effluents. The expertise of laboratories supported by U.S. Department of Energy funds ensures that the latest methods and data are available. Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) performed regional calculations (out to distances of the order of 200 km from a hypothetical fuel reprocessing plant). The Air Resources Laboratory (ARL) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) performed U.S. scale calculations, and ARL also did the global calculations. Data from a winter and summer period were used to make comparisons of calculations by LLL, ARL, and PNL to determine which model should be used for the final calculations and to determine if a 200-km square area centered on the site would be large enough for dose calculations via the water and food pathways

  4. Triton: Scattering models and surface/atmosphere constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, W.R.

    1989-01-01

    Modeling of Triton's spectrum indicates a bright scattering layer of optical depth τ≅3 overlying an optically deep layer of CH 4 with high absorption and little scattering. UV absorption in the spectrum indicates τ≅0.3 of red-yellow haze, although some color may also arise from complex organics partially visible on the surface. An analysis of this and other (spectro)photometric evidence indicates that Triton most likely has a bright surface, which was partially visible in 1977-1980. Geometric albedo p=0.62 +0.18 -0.12 , radius r = 1480 ± 180 km, and temperature T = 48 ± 6 K. With scattering optical depths of 0.3-3 and ∼1-10 mb of N 2 , a Mars-like atmospheric density and surface visibility pertain. Imaging with the 0.62μm CH 4 filter of the Voyager 2 wide angle camera could show ∼20% contrast between the average surface and clean exposures of CH 4 ice (which is not limited to the polar caps). Low far-infrared atmospheric opacity will in principle allow the detection of thermal gradients in the surface caused by optically transmitting but infrared opaque CH 4 and N 2 ice

  5. Neutrons and gamma transport in atmosphere by Tripoli-2 code. Energy deposit and electron current time function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergnaud, T.; Nimal, J.C.; Ulpat, J.P.; Faucheux, G.

    1988-01-01

    The Tripoli-2 computer code has been adapted to calculate, in addition to energy deposit in matter by neutrons (Kerma) the energy deposit by gamma produced in neutronic impacts and the induced recoil electron current. The energy deposit conduces at air ionization, consequently at a conductibility. This knowledge added at that of electron current permit to resolve the Maxwell equations of electromagnetic field. The study is realized for an atmospheric explosion 100 meters high. The calculations of energy deposit and electron current have been conducted as far as 2.5km [fr

  6. Atmospheric boundary layers in storms: advanced theory and modelling applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Zilitinkevich

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Turbulent planetary boundary layers (PBLs control the exchange processes between the atmosphere and the ocean/land. The key problems of PBL physics are to determine the PBL height, the momentum, energy and matter fluxes at the surface and the mean wind and scalar profiles throughout the layer in a range of regimes from stable and neutral to convective. Until present, the PBLs typical of stormy weather were always considered as neutrally stratified. Recent works have disclosed that such PBLs are in fact very strongly affected by the static stability of the free atmosphere and must be treated as factually stable (we call this type of the PBL "conventionally neutral" in contract to the "truly neutral" PBLs developed against the neutrally stratified free flow. It is common knowledge that basic features of PBLs exhibit a noticeable dependence on the free-flow static stability and baroclinicity. However, the concern of the traditional theory of neural and stable PBLs was almost without exception the barotropic nocturnal PBL, which develops at mid latitudes during a few hours in the night, on the background of a neutral or slightly stable residual layer. The latter separates this type of the PBL from the free atmosphere. It is not surprising that the nature of turbulence in such regimes is basically local and does not depend on the properties of the free atmosphere. Alternatively, long-lived neutral (in fact only conditionally neutral or stable PBLs, which have much more time to grow up, are placed immediately below the stably stratified free flow. Under these conditions, the turbulent transports of momentum and scalars even in the surface layer - far away from the PBL outer boundary - depend on the free-flow Brunt-Väisälä frequency, N. Furthermore, integral measures of the long-lived PBLs (their depths and the resistance law functions depend on N and also on the baroclinic shear, S. In the traditional PBL models both non-local parameters N and S

  7. Consistency and discrepancy in the atmospheric response to Arctic sea-ice loss across climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screen, James A.; Deser, Clara; Smith, Doug M.; Zhang, Xiangdong; Blackport, Russell; Kushner, Paul J.; Oudar, Thomas; McCusker, Kelly E.; Sun, Lantao

    2018-03-01

    The decline of Arctic sea ice is an integral part of anthropogenic climate change. Sea-ice loss is already having a significant impact on Arctic communities and ecosystems. Its role as a cause of climate changes outside of the Arctic has also attracted much scientific interest. Evidence is mounting that Arctic sea-ice loss can affect weather and climate throughout the Northern Hemisphere. The remote impacts of Arctic sea-ice loss can only be properly represented using models that simulate interactions among the ocean, sea ice, land and atmosphere. A synthesis of six such experiments with different models shows consistent hemispheric-wide atmospheric warming, strongest in the mid-to-high-latitude lower troposphere; an intensification of the wintertime Aleutian Low and, in most cases, the Siberian High; a weakening of the Icelandic Low; and a reduction in strength and southward shift of the mid-latitude westerly winds in winter. The atmospheric circulation response seems to be sensitive to the magnitude and geographic pattern of sea-ice loss and, in some cases, to the background climate state. However, it is unclear whether current-generation climate models respond too weakly to sea-ice change. We advocate for coordinated experiments that use different models and observational constraints to quantify the climate response to Arctic sea-ice loss.

  8. Atmosphere-soil-vegetation model including CO2 exchange processes: SOLVEG2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Haruyasu

    2004-11-01

    A new atmosphere-soil-vegetation model named SOLVEG2 (SOLVEG version 2) was developed to study the heat, water, and CO 2 exchanges between the atmosphere and land-surface. The model consists of one-dimensional multilayer sub-models for the atmosphere, soil, and vegetation. It also includes sophisticated processes for solar and long-wave radiation transmission in vegetation canopy and CO 2 exchanges among the atmosphere, soil, and vegetation. Although the model usually simulates only vertical variation of variables in the surface-layer atmosphere, soil, and vegetation canopy by using meteorological data as top boundary conditions, it can be used by coupling with a three-dimensional atmosphere model. In this paper, details of SOLVEG2, which includes the function of coupling with atmosphere model MM5, are described. (author)

  9. Current approaches to gene regulatory network modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brazma Alvis

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many different approaches have been developed to model and simulate gene regulatory networks. We proposed the following categories for gene regulatory network models: network parts lists, network topology models, network control logic models, and dynamic models. Here we will describe some examples for each of these categories. We will study the topology of gene regulatory networks in yeast in more detail, comparing a direct network derived from transcription factor binding data and an indirect network derived from genome-wide expression data in mutants. Regarding the network dynamics we briefly describe discrete and continuous approaches to network modelling, then describe a hybrid model called Finite State Linear Model and demonstrate that some simple network dynamics can be simulated in this model.

  10. Optimization of atmospheric transport models on HPC platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cruz, Raúl; Folch, Arnau; Farré, Pau; Cabezas, Javier; Navarro, Nacho; Cela, José María

    2016-12-01

    The performance and scalability of atmospheric transport models on high performance computing environments is often far from optimal for multiple reasons including, for example, sequential input and output, synchronous communications, work unbalance, memory access latency or lack of task overlapping. We investigate how different software optimizations and porting to non general-purpose hardware architectures improve code scalability and execution times considering, as an example, the FALL3D volcanic ash transport model. To this purpose, we implement the FALL3D model equations in the WARIS framework, a software designed from scratch to solve in a parallel and efficient way different geoscience problems on a wide variety of architectures. In addition, we consider further improvements in WARIS such as hybrid MPI-OMP parallelization, spatial blocking, auto-tuning and thread affinity. Considering all these aspects together, the FALL3D execution times for a realistic test case running on general-purpose cluster architectures (Intel Sandy Bridge) decrease by a factor between 7 and 40 depending on the grid resolution. Finally, we port the application to Intel Xeon Phi (MIC) and NVIDIA GPUs (CUDA) accelerator-based architectures and compare performance, cost and power consumption on all the architectures. Implications on time-constrained operational model configurations are discussed.

  11. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-01-30

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  12. Interception of wet deposited atmospheric pollutants by herbaceous vegetation: Data review and modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonze, M.-A., E-mail: marc-andre.gonze@irsn.fr; Sy, M.M.

    2016-09-15

    Better understanding and predicting interception of wet deposited pollutants by vegetation remains a key issue in risk assessment studies of atmospheric pollution. We develop different alternative models, following either empirical or semi-mechanistic descriptions, on the basis of an exhaustive dataset consisting of 440 observations obtained in controlled experiments, from 1970 to 2014, for a wide variety of herbaceous plants, radioactive substances and rainfall conditions. The predictive performances of the models and the uncertainty/variability of the parameters are evaluated under Hierarchical Bayesian modelling framework. It is demonstrated that the variability of the interception fraction is satisfactorily explained and quite accurately modelled by a process-based alternative in which absorption of ionic substances onto the foliage surfaces is determined by their electrical valence. Under this assumption, the 95% credible interval of the predicted interception fraction encompasses 81% of the observations, including situations where either plant biomass or rainfall intensity are unknown. This novel approach is a serious candidate to challenge existing empirical relationships in radiological or chemical risk assessment tools. - Highlights: • Literature data on the interception of atmospheric pollutants by herbs were reviewed • Predictive models were developed and evaluated in the Bayesian modelling framework • Sensitivity of interception to environmental conditions was satisfactorily explained • 81% of the observations were satisfactorily predicted by a semi-mechanistic model • This model challenges empirical relationships currently used in risk assessment tools.

  13. Stable isotope composition of atmospheric carbon monoxide. A modelling study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gromov, Sergey S.

    2014-01-01

    This study aims at an improved understanding of the stable carbon and oxygen isotope composition of the carbon monoxide (CO) in the global atmosphere by means of numerical simulations. At first, a new kinetic chemistry tagging technique for the most complete parameterisation of isotope effects has been introduced into the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) framework. Incorporated into the ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) general circulation model, an explicit treatment of the isotope effects on the global scale is now possible. The expanded model system has been applied to simulate the chemical system containing up to five isotopologues of all carbon- and oxygen-bearing species, which ultimately determine the δ 13 C, δ 18 O and Δ 17 O isotopic signatures of atmospheric CO. As model input, a new stable isotope-inclusive emission inventory for the relevant trace gases has been compiled. The uncertainties of the emission estimates and of the resulting simulated mixing and isotope ratios have been analysed. The simulated CO mixing and stable isotope ratios have been compared to in-situ measurements from ground-based observatories and from the civil-aircraft-mounted CARIBIC-1 measurement platform. The systematically underestimated 13 CO/ 12 CO ratios of earlier, simplified modelling studies can now be partly explained. The EMAC simulations do not support the inferences of those studies, which suggest for CO a reduced input of the highly depleted in 13 C methane oxidation source. In particular, a high average yield of 0.94 CO per reacted methane (CH 4 ) molecule is simulated in the troposphere, to a large extent due to the competition between the deposition and convective transport processes affecting the CH 4 to CO reaction chain intermediates. None of the other factors, assumed or disregarded in previous studies, however hypothesised to have the potential in enriching tropospheric CO in 13 C, were found significant when explicitly simulated. The

  14. Design basis for the operational modelling of the atmospheric dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doury, A.

    1987-10-01

    Based on the latest practices at the Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire of the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA), we shall first present the basis elements used for a simple and adequate modelling method for assessing hypothetical atmospheric pollution from transient or continuous discharge with any given kinetics under various weather conditions which are not necessarily stationary or uniform, which are likely to occur even with little or no wind. Discharges shall be considered as sequences of instantaneous successive puffs. The parameters deduced experimentally or from observations are functions of the transfer time and cover all time and space scales. The restrictions of use are indicated, especially concerning heavy gases. Finally, simple formulas are proposed for concentrations and depositions so as to be able to make a rapid estimation of the orders of magnitude with almost no computation [fr

  15. Design basis for the operational modelling of the atmospheric dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doury, A.

    1987-11-01

    Based on the latest practices at the Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire of the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA), we shall first present the basis elements used for a simple and adequate modelling method for assessing hypothetical atmospheric pollution from transient or continuous discharge with any given kinetics under various weather conditions which are not necessarily stationary or uniform, which are likely to occur even with little or no wind. Discharges shall be considered as sequences of instantaneous successive puffs. The parameters deduced experimentally or from observations are functions of the transfer time and cover all time and space scales. The restrictions of use are indicated, especially concerning heavy gases. Finally, simple formulas are proposed for concentrations and depositions so as to be able to make a rapid estimation of the orders of magnitude with almost no computation [fr

  16. Improving the Ni I atomic model for solar and stellar atmospheric models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieytes, M. C.; Fontenla, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Neutral nickel (Ni I) is abundant in the solar atmosphere and is one of the important elements that contribute to the emission and absorption of radiation in the spectral range between 1900 and 3900 Å. Previously, the Solar Radiation Physical Modeling (SRPM) models of the solar atmosphere only considered a few levels of this species. Here, we improve the Ni I atomic model by taking into account 61 levels and 490 spectral lines. We compute the populations of these levels in full NLTE using the SRPM code and compare the resulting emerging spectrum with observations. The present atomic model significantly improves the calculation of the solar spectral irradiance at near-UV wavelengths, which is important for Earth atmospheric studies, and particularly for ozone chemistry.

  17. Improving the Ni I atomic model for solar and stellar atmospheric models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieytes, M. C. [Instituto de de Astronomía y Física del Espacio, CONICET and UNTREF, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Fontenla, J. M., E-mail: mariela@iafe.uba.ar, E-mail: johnf@digidyna.com [North West Research Associates, 3380 Mitchell Lane, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Neutral nickel (Ni I) is abundant in the solar atmosphere and is one of the important elements that contribute to the emission and absorption of radiation in the spectral range between 1900 and 3900 Å. Previously, the Solar Radiation Physical Modeling (SRPM) models of the solar atmosphere only considered a few levels of this species. Here, we improve the Ni I atomic model by taking into account 61 levels and 490 spectral lines. We compute the populations of these levels in full NLTE using the SRPM code and compare the resulting emerging spectrum with observations. The present atomic model significantly improves the calculation of the solar spectral irradiance at near-UV wavelengths, which is important for Earth atmospheric studies, and particularly for ozone chemistry.

  18. Forcing of global ocean models using an atmospheric boundary layer model: assessing consequences for the simulation of the AMOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Rafael; Boening, Claus

    2015-04-01

    Current practice in the atmospheric forcing of ocean model simulations can lead to unphysical behaviours. The problem lies in the bulk formulation of the turbulent air-sea fluxes in conjunction with a prescribed, and unresponsive, atmospheric state as given, e.g., by reanalysis products. This forcing formulation corresponds to assuming an atmosphere with infinite heat capacity, and effectively damps SST anomalies even on basin scales. It thus curtails an important negative feedback between meridional ocean heat transport and SST in the North Atlantic, rendering simulations of the AMOC in such models excessively sensitive to details in the freshwater fluxes. As a consequence, such simulations are known for spurious drift behaviors which can only partially controlled by introducing some (and sometimes strong) unphysical restoring of sea surface salinity. There have been several suggestions during the last 20 years for at least partially alleviating the problem by including some simplified model of the atmospheric boundary layer (AML) which allows a feedback of SST anomalies on the near-surface air temperature and humidity needed to calculate the surface fluxes. We here present simulations with a simple, only thermally active AML formulation (based on the 'CheapAML' proposed by Deremble et al., 2013) implemented in a global model configuration based on NEMO (ORCA05). In a suite of experiments building on the CORE-bulk forcing methodology, we examine some general features of the AML-solutions (in which only the winds are prescribed) in comparison to solutions with a prescribed atmosperic state. The focus is on the North Atlantic, where we find that the adaptation of the atmospheric temperature the simulated ocean state can lead to strong local modifications in the surface heat fluxes in frontal regions (e.g., the 'Northwest Corner'). We particularly assess the potential of the AML-forcing concept for obtaining AMOC-simulations with reduced spurious drift, without

  19. Extracting Urban Morphology for Atmospheric Modeling from Multispectral and SAR Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittke, S.; Karila, K.; Puttonen, E.; Hellsten, A.; Auvinen, M.; Karjalainen, M.

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents an approach designed to derive an urban morphology map from satellite data while aiming to minimize the cost of data and user interference. The approach will help to provide updates to the current morphological databases around the world. The proposed urban morphology maps consist of two layers: 1) Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and 2) land cover map. Sentinel-2 data was used to create a land cover map, which was realized through image classification using optical range indices calculated from image data. For the purpose of atmospheric modeling, the most important classes are water and vegetation areas. The rest of the area includes bare soil and built-up areas among others, and they were merged into one class in the end. The classification result was validated with ground truth data collected both from field measurements and aerial imagery. The overall classification accuracy for the three classes is 91 %. TanDEM-X data was processed into two DEMs with different grid sizes using interferometric SAR processing. The resulting DEM has a RMSE of 3.2 meters compared to a high resolution DEM, which was estimated through 20 control points in flat areas. Comparing the derived DEM with the ground truth DEM from airborne LIDAR data, it can be seen that the street canyons, that are of high importance for urban atmospheric modeling are not detectable in the TanDEM-X DEM. However, the derived DEM is suitable for a class of urban atmospheric models. Based on the numerical modeling needs for regional atmospheric pollutant dispersion studies, the generated files enable the extraction of relevant parametrizations, such as Urban Canopy Parameters (UCP).

  20. EXTRACTING URBAN MORPHOLOGY FOR ATMOSPHERIC MODELING FROM MULTISPECTRAL AND SAR SATELLITE IMAGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Wittke

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an approach designed to derive an urban morphology map from satellite data while aiming to minimize the cost of data and user interference. The approach will help to provide updates to the current morphological databases around the world. The proposed urban morphology maps consist of two layers: 1 Digital Elevation Model (DEM and 2 land cover map. Sentinel-2 data was used to create a land cover map, which was realized through image classification using optical range indices calculated from image data. For the purpose of atmospheric modeling, the most important classes are water and vegetation areas. The rest of the area includes bare soil and built-up areas among others, and they were merged into one class in the end. The classification result was validated with ground truth data collected both from field measurements and aerial imagery. The overall classification accuracy for the three classes is 91 %. TanDEM-X data was processed into two DEMs with different grid sizes using interferometric SAR processing. The resulting DEM has a RMSE of 3.2 meters compared to a high resolution DEM, which was estimated through 20 control points in flat areas. Comparing the derived DEM with the ground truth DEM from airborne LIDAR data, it can be seen that the street canyons, that are of high importance for urban atmospheric modeling are not detectable in the TanDEM-X DEM. However, the derived DEM is suitable for a class of urban atmospheric models. Based on the numerical modeling needs for regional atmospheric pollutant dispersion studies, the generated files enable the extraction of relevant parametrizations, such as Urban Canopy Parameters (UCP.

  1. Implicit coupling of turbulent diffusion with chemical reaction mechanisms for prognostic atmospheric dispersion models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berlowitz, D.R.

    1996-11-01

    In the last few decades the negative impact by humans on the thin atmospheric layer enveloping the earth, the basis for life on this planet, has increased steadily. In order to halt, or at least slow down this development, the knowledge and study of these anthropogenic influence has to be increased and possible remedies have to be suggested. An important tool for these studies are computer models. With their help the atmospheric system can be approximated and the various processes, which have led to the current situation can be quantified. They also serve as an instrument to assess short or medium term strategies to reduce this human impact. However, to assure efficiency as well as accuracy, a careful analysis of the numerous processes involved in the dispersion of pollutants in the atmosphere is called for. This should help to concentrate on the essentials and also prevent excessive usage of sometimes scarce computing resources. The basis of the presented work is the EUMAC Zooming Model (ETM), and particularly the component calculating the dispersion of pollutants in the atmosphere, the model MARS. The model has two main parts: an explicit solver, where the advection and the horizontal diffusion of pollutants are calculated, and an implicit solution mechanism, allowing the joint computation of the change of concentration due to chemical reactions, coupled with the respective influence of the vertical diffusion of the species. The aim of this thesis is to determine particularly the influence of the horizontal components of the turbulent diffusion on the existing implicit solver of the model. Suggestions for a more comprehensive inclusion of the full three dimensional diffusion operator in the implicit solver are made. This is achieved by an appropriate operator splitting. A selection of numerical approaches to tighten the coupling of the diffusion processes with the calculation of the applied chemical reaction mechanisms are examined. (author) figs., tabs., refs.

  2. Quantifying atmospheric transport, chemistry, and mixing using a new trajectory-box model and a global atmospheric-chemistry GCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Riede

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel method for the quantification of transport, chemistry, and mixing along atmospheric trajectories based on a consistent model hierarchy. The hierarchy consists of the new atmospheric-chemistry trajectory-box model CAABA/MJT and the three-dimensional (3-D global ECHAM/MESSy atmospheric-chemistry (EMAC general circulation model. CAABA/MJT employs the atmospheric box model CAABA in a configuration using the atmospheric-chemistry submodel MECCA (M, the photochemistry submodel JVAL (J, and the new trajectory submodel TRAJECT (T, to simulate chemistry along atmospheric trajectories, which are provided offline. With the same chemistry submodels coupled to the 3-D EMAC model and consistent initial conditions and physical parameters, a unique consistency between the two models is achieved. Since only mixing processes within the 3-D model are excluded from the model consistency, comparisons of results from the two models allow to separate and quantify contributions of transport, chemistry, and mixing along the trajectory pathways. Consistency of transport between the trajectory-box model CAABA/MJT and the 3-D EMAC model is achieved via calculation of kinematic trajectories based on 3-D wind fields from EMAC using the trajectory model LAGRANTO. The combination of the trajectory-box model CAABA/MJT and the trajectory model LAGRANTO can be considered as a Lagrangian chemistry-transport model (CTM moving isolated air parcels. The procedure for obtaining the necessary statistical basis for the quantification method is described as well as the comprehensive diagnostics with respect to chemistry.

    The quantification method presented here allows to investigate the characteristics of transport, chemistry, and mixing in a grid-based 3-D model. The analysis of chemical processes within the trajectory-box model CAABA/MJT is easily extendable to include, for example, the impact of different transport pathways or of mixing processes onto

  3. Modeling Daily Rainfall Conditional on Atmospheric Predictors: An application to Western Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langousis, Andreas; Kaleris, Vassilios

    2013-04-01

    Due to its intermittent and highly variable character, daily precipitation is the least well reproduced hydrologic variable by both General Circulation Models (GCMs) and Limited Area Models (LAMs). To that extent, several statistical procedures (usually referred to as downscaling schemes) have been suggested to generate synthetic rainfall time series conditional on predictor variables that are descriptive of the atmospheric circulation at the mesoscale. In addition to be more accurately simulated by GCMs and LAMs, large-scale atmospheric predictors are important indicators of the local weather. Currently used downscaling methods simulate rainfall series using either stable statistical relationships (usually referred to as transfer functions) between certain characteristics of the rainfall process and mesoscale atmospheric predictor variables, or simple stochastic schemes (e.g. properly transformed autoregressive models) with parameters that depend on the large-scale atmospheric conditions. The latter are determined by classifying large-scale circulation patterns into broad categories of weather states, using empirical or theoretically based classification schemes, and modeled by resampling from those categories; a process usually referred to as weather generation. In this work we propose a statistical framework to generate synthetic rainfall timeseries at a daily level, conditional on large scale atmospheric predictors. The latter include the mean sea level pressure (MSLP), the magnitude and direction of upper level geostrophic winds, and the 500 hPa geopotential height, relative vorticity and divergence. The suggested framework operates in continuous time, avoiding the use of transfer functions, and weather classification schemes. The suggested downscaling approach is validated using atmospheric data from the ERA-Interim archive (see http://www.ecmwf.int/research/era/do/get/index), and daily rainfall data from Western Greece, for the 14-year period from 01 October

  4. Stochastic Parametrisations and Regime Behaviour of Atmospheric Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Hannah; Moroz, Irene; Palmer, Tim

    2013-04-01

    The presence of regimes is a characteristic of non-linear, chaotic systems (Lorenz, 2006). In the atmosphere, regimes emerge as familiar circulation patterns such as the El-Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and Scandinavian Blocking events. In recent years there has been much interest in the problem of identifying and studying atmospheric regimes (Solomon et al, 2007). In particular, how do these regimes respond to an external forcing such as anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions? The importance of regimes in observed trends over the past 50-100 years indicates that in order to predict anthropogenic climate change, our climate models must be able to represent accurately natural circulation regimes, their statistics and variability. It is well established that representing model uncertainty as well as initial condition uncertainty is important for reliable weather forecasts (Palmer, 2001). In particular, stochastic parametrisation schemes have been shown to improve the skill of weather forecast models (e.g. Berner et al., 2009; Frenkel et al., 2012; Palmer et al., 2009). It is possible that including stochastic physics as a representation of model uncertainty could also be beneficial in climate modelling, enabling the simulator to explore larger regions of the climate attractor including other flow regimes. An alternative representation of model uncertainty is a perturbed parameter scheme, whereby physical parameters in subgrid parametrisation schemes are perturbed about their optimal value. Perturbing parameters gives a greater control over the ensemble than multi-model or multiparametrisation ensembles, and has been used as a representation of model uncertainty in climate prediction (Stainforth et al., 2005; Rougier et al., 2009). We investigate the effect of including representations of model uncertainty on the regime behaviour of a simulator. A simple chaotic model of the atmosphere, the Lorenz '96 system, is used to study

  5. High Resolution Atmospheric Modeling for Wind Energy Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, M; Bulaevskaya, V; Glascoe, L; Singer, M

    2010-03-18

    The ability of the WRF atmospheric model to forecast wind speed over the Nysted wind park was investigated as a function of time. It was found that in the time period we considered (August 1-19, 2008), the model is able to predict wind speeds reasonably accurately for 48 hours ahead, but that its forecast skill deteriorates rapidly after 48 hours. In addition, a preliminary analysis was carried out to investigate the impact of vertical grid resolution on the forecast skill. Our preliminary finding is that increasing vertical grid resolution does not have a significant impact on the forecast skill of the WRF model over Nysted wind park during the period we considered. Additional simulations during this period, as well as during other time periods, will be run in order to validate the results presented here. Wind speed is a difficult parameter to forecast due the interaction of large and small length scale forcing. To accurately forecast the wind speed at a given location, the model must correctly forecast the movement and strength of synoptic systems, as well as the local influence of topography / land use on the wind speed. For example, small deviations in the forecast track or strength of a large-scale low pressure system can result in significant forecast errors for local wind speeds. The purpose of this study is to provide a preliminary baseline of a high-resolution limited area model forecast performance against observations from the Nysted wind park. Validating the numerical weather prediction model performance for past forecasts will give a reasonable measure of expected forecast skill over the Nysted wind park. Also, since the Nysted Wind Park is over water and some distance from the influence of terrain, the impact of high vertical grid spacing for wind speed forecast skill will also be investigated.

  6. Atmospheric dispersion modelling over complex terrain at small scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosek, S.; Janour, Z.; Kukacka, L.; Jurcakova, K.; Kellnerova, R.; Gulikova, E.

    2014-03-01

    Previous study concerned of qualitative modelling neutrally stratified flow over open-cut coal mine and important surrounding topography at meso-scale (1:9000) revealed an important area for quantitative modelling of atmospheric dispersion at small-scale (1:3300). The selected area includes a necessary part of the coal mine topography with respect to its future expansion and surrounding populated areas. At this small-scale simultaneous measurement of velocity components and concentrations in specified points of vertical and horizontal planes were performed by two-dimensional Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) and Fast-Response Flame Ionization Detector (FFID), respectively. The impact of the complex terrain on passive pollutant dispersion with respect to the prevailing wind direction was observed and the prediction of the air quality at populated areas is discussed. The measured data will be used for comparison with another model taking into account the future coal mine transformation. Thus, the impact of coal mine transformation on pollutant dispersion can be observed.

  7. Intercomparison of middle-atmospheric wind in observations and models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rüfenacht

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Wind profile information throughout the entire upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere (USLM is important for the understanding of atmospheric dynamics but became available only recently, thanks to developments in remote sensing techniques and modelling approaches. However, as wind measurements from these altitudes are rare, such products have generally not yet been validated with (other observations. This paper presents the first long-term intercomparison of wind observations in the USLM by co-located microwave radiometer and lidar instruments at Andenes, Norway (69.3° N, 16.0° E. Good correspondence has been found at all altitudes for both horizontal wind components for nighttime as well as daylight conditions. Biases are mostly within the random errors and do not exceed 5–10 m s−1, which is less than 10 % of the typically encountered wind speeds. Moreover, comparisons of the observations with the major reanalyses and models covering this altitude range are shown, in particular with the recently released ERA5, ECMWF's first reanalysis to cover the whole USLM region. The agreement between models and observations is very good in general, but temporally limited occurrences of pronounced discrepancies (up to 40 m s−1 exist. In the article's Appendix the possibility of obtaining nighttime wind information about the mesopause region by means of microwave radiometry is investigated.

  8. Stochastic Models for Laser Propagation in Atmospheric Turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leland, Robert Patton

    In this dissertation, stochastic models for laser propagation in atmospheric turbulence are considered. A review of the existing literature on laser propagation in the atmosphere and white noise theory is presented, with a view toward relating the white noise integral and Ito integral approaches. The laser beam intensity is considered as the solution to a random Schroedinger equation, or forward scattering equation. This model is formulated in a Hilbert space context as an abstract bilinear system with a multiplicative white noise input, as in the literature. The model is also modeled in the Banach space of Fresnel class functions to allow the plane wave case and the application of path integrals. Approximate solutions to the Schroedinger equation of the Trotter-Kato product form are shown to converge for each white noise sample path. The product forms are shown to be physical random variables, allowing an Ito integral representation. The corresponding Ito integrals are shown to converge in mean square, providing a white noise basis for the Stratonovich correction term associated with this equation. Product form solutions for Ornstein -Uhlenbeck process inputs were shown to converge in mean square as the input bandwidth was expanded. A digital simulation of laser propagation in strong turbulence was used to study properties of the beam. Empirical distributions for the irradiance function were estimated from simulated data, and the log-normal and Rice-Nakagami distributions predicted by the classical perturbation methods were seen to be inadequate. A gamma distribution fit the simulated irradiance distribution well in the vicinity of the boresight. Statistics of the beam were seen to converge rapidly as the bandwidth of an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process was expanded to its white noise limit. Individual trajectories of the beam were presented to illustrate the distortion and bending of the beam due to turbulence. Feynman path integrals were used to calculate an

  9. An alternative atmospheric diffusion model for control room habitability assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsdell, J.V. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory (NRC) staff uses procedures to evaluate control room designs for compliance with General Design Criterion 19 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Appendix A, 10 CRF Part 50. These procedures deal primarily with radiation protection. However, other hazardous materials, for example, chlorine, pose a potential threat to control room habitability. The NRC is considering changes in their current procedures to update methods and extend their applicability. Two changes to the current procedures are suggested: using a puff diffusion model to estimate concentrations at air intakes and using a new method to estimate diffusion coefficients

  10. Atmospheric Boundary Layer Modeling for Combined Meteorology and Air Quality Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmospheric Eulerian grid models for mesoscale and larger applications require sub-grid models for turbulent vertical exchange processes, particularly within the Planetary Boundary Layer (PSL). In combined meteorology and air quality modeling systems consistent PSL modeling of wi...

  11. Fine modeling of energy exchanges between buildings and urban atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daviau-Pellegrin, Noelie

    2016-01-01

    This thesis work is about the effect of buildings on the urban atmosphere and more precisely the energetic exchanges that take place between these two systems. In order to model more finely the thermal effects of buildings on the atmospheric flows in simulations run under the CFD software Code-Saturne, we proceed to couple this tool with the building model BuildSysPro. This library is run under Dymola and can generate matrices describing the building thermal properties that can be used outside this software. In order to carry out the coupling, we use these matrices in a code that allows the building thermal calculations and the CFD to exchange their results. After a review about the physical phenomena and the existing models, we explain the interactions between the atmosphere and the urban elements, especially buildings. The latter can impact the air flows dynamically, as they act as obstacles, and thermally, through their surface temperatures. At first, we analyse the data obtained from the measurement campaign EM2PAU that we use in order to validate the coupled model. EM2PAU was carried out in Nantes in 2011 and represents a canyon street with two rows of four containers. Its distinctive feature lies in the simultaneous measurements of the air and wall temperatures as well as the wind speeds with anemometers located on a 10 m-high mast for the reference wind and on six locations in the canyon. This aims for studying the thermal influence of buildings on the air flows. Then the numerical simulations of the air flows in EM2PAU is carried out with different methods that allow us to calculate or impose the surface temperature we use for each of the container walls. The first method consists in imposing their temperatures from the measurements. For each wall, we set the temperature to the surface temperature that was measured during the EM2PAU campaign. The second method involves imposing the outdoor air temperature that was measured at a given time to all the

  12. The Middle Miocene climate as modelled in an atmosphere-ocean-biosphere model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Krapp

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We present simulations with a coupled atmosphere-ocean-biosphere model for the Middle Miocene 15 million years ago. The model is insofar more consistent than previous models because it captures the essential interactions between ocean and atmosphere and between atmosphere and vegetation. The Middle Miocene topography, which alters both large-scale ocean and atmospheric circulations, causes a global warming of 0.7 K compared to present day. Higher than present-day CO2 levels of 480 and 720 ppm cause a global warming of 2.8 and 4.9 K. The associated water vapour feedback enhances the greenhouse effect which leads to a polar amplification of the warming. These results suggest that higher than present-day CO2 levels are necessary to drive the warm Middle Miocene climate, also because the dynamic vegetation model simulates a denser vegetation which is in line with fossil records. However, we do not find a flatter than present-day equator-to-pole temperature gradient as has been suggested by marine and terrestrial proxies. Instead, a compensation between atmospheric and ocean heat transport counteracts the flattening of the temperature gradient. The acclaimed role of the large-scale ocean circulation in redistributing heat cannot be supported by our results. Including full ocean dynamics, therefore, does not solve the problem of the flat temperature gradient during the Middle Miocene.

  13. Atmospheric environmental protection in China: Current status, developmental trend and research emphasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Honghong; Hao, Jiming; Tang, Xiaolong

    2007-01-01

    Atmospheric environmental quality in China has been improving due to a variety of programs implemented by the Chinese government in recent decades. However, air pollution is still serious because of rapid socioeconomic development and increased energy consumption. Atmospheric environmental problems appear to be complex and regional in nature, and China's climate is aggravated by global climatic change. Air pollution originates from multiple sources and the effect on public human health will increase. The influence of acid rain in southern China will be long term, and the impact of climate change will rise. In order to reduce the adverse effects of air pollutants on the environment, the total number of emission sources from major industry, fine particle pollutants, SO 2 emissions from power plants and the vehicle exhaust must be lowered and strictly controlled. The energy structure will affect the quality of the atmosphere for a long time. Increased energy efficiency, optimization of energy structure and the generation of a sustainable consumption and production patterns will provide opportunities to resolve regional and the global environmental problems

  14. Assessing 1D Atmospheric Solar Radiative Transfer Models: Interpretation and Handling of Unresolved Clouds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, H. W.; Stephens, G. L.; Partain, P. T.; Bergman, J. W.; Bonnel, B.; Campana, K.; Clothiaux, E. E.; Clough, S.; Cusack, S.; Delamere, J.; Edwards, J.; Evans, K. F.; Fouquart, Y.; Freidenreich, S.; Galin, V.; Hou, Y.; Kato, S.; Li, J.;  Mlawer, E.;  Morcrette, J.-J.;  O'Hirok, W.;  Räisänen, P.;  Ramaswamy, V.;  Ritter, B.;  Rozanov, E.;  Schlesinger, M.;  Shibata, K.;  Sporyshev, P.;  Sun, Z.;  Wendisch, M.;  Wood, N.;  Yang, F.

    2003-08-01

    The primary purpose of this study is to assess the performance of 1D solar radiative transfer codes that are used currently both for research and in weather and climate models. Emphasis is on interpretation and handling of unresolved clouds. Answers are sought to the following questions: (i) How well do 1D solar codes interpret and handle columns of information pertaining to partly cloudy atmospheres? (ii) Regardless of the adequacy of their assumptions about unresolved clouds, do 1D solar codes perform as intended?One clear-sky and two plane-parallel, homogeneous (PPH) overcast cloud cases serve to elucidate 1D model differences due to varying treatments of gaseous transmittances, cloud optical properties, and basic radiative transfer. The remaining four cases involve 3D distributions of cloud water and water vapor as simulated by cloud-resolving models. Results for 25 1D codes, which included two line-by-line (LBL) models (clear and overcast only) and four 3D Monte Carlo (MC) photon transport algorithms, were submitted by 22 groups. Benchmark, domain-averaged irradiance profiles were computed by the MC codes. For the clear and overcast cases, all MC estimates of top-of-atmosphere albedo, atmospheric absorptance, and surface absorptance agree with one of the LBL codes to within ±2%. Most 1D codes underestimate atmospheric absorptance by typically 15-25 W m-2 at overhead sun for the standard tropical atmosphere regardless of clouds.Depending on assumptions about unresolved clouds, the 1D codes were partitioned into four genres: (i) horizontal variability, (ii) exact overlap of PPH clouds, (iii) maximum/random overlap of PPH clouds, and (iv) random overlap of PPH clouds. A single MC code was used to establish conditional benchmarks applicable to each genre, and all MC codes were used to establish the full 3D benchmarks. There is a tendency for 1D codes to cluster near their respective conditional benchmarks, though intragenre variances typically exceed those for

  15. The Importance and Current Limitations of Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) Retrieval from Space for Land-Atmosphere Coupling Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santanello, J. A., Jr.; Schaefer, A.

    2016-12-01

    There is an established need for improved PBL remote sounding over land for hydrology, land-atmosphere (L-A), PBL, cloud/convection, pollution/chemistry studies and associated model evaluation and development. Most notably, the connection of surface hydrology (through soil moisture) to clouds and precipitation relies on proper quantification of water's transport through the coupled system, which is modulated strongly by PBL structure, growth, and feedback processes such as entrainment. In-situ (ground-based or radiosonde) measurements will be spatially limited to small field campaigns for the foreseeable future, so satellite data is a must in order to understand these processes globally. The scales of these applications require diurnal resolution (e.g. 3-hourly or finer) at land-PBL coupling and water and energy cycles at their native scales. Today's satellite sensors (e.g. advanced IR, GEO, lidar, GPS-RO) do not reach close to these targets in terms of accuracy or resolution, and each of these sensors has some advantages but even more limitations that make them impractical for PBL and L-A studies. Unfortunately, there is very little attention or planning (short or long-term) in place for improving lower tropospheric sounding over land, and as a result PBL and L-A interactions have been identified as `gaps' in current programmatic focal areas. It is therefore timely to assess how these technologies can be leveraged, combined, or evolved in order to form a dedicated mission or sub-mission to routinely monitor the PBL on diurnal timescales. In addition, improved PBL monitoring from space needs to be addressed in the next Decadal Survey. In this talk, the importance of PBL information (structure, evolution) for L-A coupling diagnostics and model development will be summarized. The current array of PBL retrieval methods and products from space will then be assessed in terms of meeting the needs of these models, diagnostics, and scales, with a look forward as to how

  16. Advances in understanding, models and parameterizations of biosphere-atmosphere ammonia exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flechard, C. R.; Massad, R.-S.; Loubet, B.; Personne, E.; Simpson, D.; Bash, J. O.; Cooter, E. J.; Nemitz, E.; Sutton, M. A.

    2013-07-01

    Atmospheric ammonia (NH3) dominates global emissions of total reactive nitrogen (Nr), while emissions from agricultural production systems contribute about two-thirds of global NH3 emissions; the remaining third emanates from oceans, natural vegetation, humans, wild animals and biomass burning. On land, NH3 emitted from the various sources eventually returns to the biosphere by dry deposition to sink areas, predominantly semi-natural vegetation, and by wet and dry deposition as ammonium (NH4+) to all surfaces. However, the land/atmosphere exchange of gaseous NH3 is in fact bi-directional over unfertilized as well as fertilized ecosystems, with periods and areas of emission and deposition alternating in time (diurnal, seasonal) and space (patchwork landscapes). The exchange is controlled by a range of environmental factors, including meteorology, surface layer turbulence, thermodynamics, air and surface heterogeneous-phase chemistry, canopy geometry, plant development stage, leaf age, organic matter decomposition, soil microbial turnover, and, in agricultural systems, by fertilizer application rate, fertilizer type, soil type, crop type, and agricultural management practices. We review the range of processes controlling NH3 emission and uptake in the different parts of the soil-canopy-atmosphere continuum, with NH3 emission potentials defined at the substrate and leaf levels by different [NH4+] / [H+] ratios (Γ). Surface/atmosphere exchange models for NH3 are necessary to compute the temporal and spatial patterns of emissions and deposition at the soil, plant, field, landscape, regional and global scales, in order to assess the multiple environmental impacts of airborne and deposited NH3 and NH4+. Models of soil/vegetation/atmosphere NH3 exchange are reviewed from the substrate and leaf scales to the global scale. They range from simple steady-state, "big leaf" canopy resistance models, to dynamic, multi-layer, multi-process, multi-chemical species schemes

  17. Advances in understanding, models and parameterizations of biosphere-atmosphere ammonia exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Flechard

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric ammonia (NH3 dominates global emissions of total reactive nitrogen (Nr, while emissions from agricultural production systems contribute about two-thirds of global NH3 emissions; the remaining third emanates from oceans, natural vegetation, humans, wild animals and biomass burning. On land, NH3 emitted from the various sources eventually returns to the biosphere by dry deposition to sink areas, predominantly semi-natural vegetation, and by wet and dry deposition as ammonium (NH4+ to all surfaces. However, the land/atmosphere exchange of gaseous NH3 is in fact bi-directional over unfertilized as well as fertilized ecosystems, with periods and areas of emission and deposition alternating in time (diurnal, seasonal and space (patchwork landscapes. The exchange is controlled by a range of environmental factors, including meteorology, surface layer turbulence, thermodynamics, air and surface heterogeneous-phase chemistry, canopy geometry, plant development stage, leaf age, organic matter decomposition, soil microbial turnover, and, in agricultural systems, by fertilizer application rate, fertilizer type, soil type, crop type, and agricultural management practices. We review the range of processes controlling NH3 emission and uptake in the different parts of the soil-canopy-atmosphere continuum, with NH3 emission potentials defined at the substrate and leaf levels by different [NH4+] / [H+] ratios (Γ. Surface/atmosphere exchange models for NH3 are necessary to compute the temporal and spatial patterns of emissions and deposition at the soil, plant, field, landscape, regional and global scales, in order to assess the multiple environmental impacts of airborne and deposited NH3 and NH4+. Models of soil/vegetation/atmosphere NH3 exchange are reviewed from the substrate and leaf scales to the global scale. They range from simple steady-state, "big leaf" canopy resistance models, to dynamic, multi-layer, multi-process, multi

  18. Atmospheric resuspension of radionuclides. Model testing using Chernobyl data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garger, E.; Lev, T.; Talerko, N.; Galeriu, D.; Garland, J.; Hoffman, O.; Nair, S.; Thiessen, K.; Miller, C.; Mueller, H.; Kryshev, A.

    1996-10-01

    Resuspension can be an important secondary source of contamination after a release has stopped, as well as a source of contamination for people and areas not exposed to the original release. The inhalation of resuspended radionuclides contributes to the overall dose received by exposed individuals. Based on measurements collected after the Chernobyl accident, Scenario R was developed to provide an opportunity to test existing mathematical models of contamination resuspension. In particular, this scenario provided the opportunity to examine data and test models for atmospheric resuspension of radionuclides at several different locations from the release, to investigate resuspension processes on both local and regional scales, and to investigate the importance of seasonal variations of these processes. Participants in the test exercise were provided with information for three different types of locations: (1) within the 30-km zone, where local resuspension processes are expected to dominate; (2) a large urban location (Kiev) 120 km from the release site, where vehicular traffic is expected to be the dominant mechanism for resuspension; and (3) an agricultural area 40-60 km from the release site, where highly contaminated upwind 'hot spots' are expected to be important. Input information included characteristics of the ground contamination around specific sites, climatological data for the sites, characteristics of the terrain and topography, and locations of the sampling sites. Participants were requested to predict the average (quarterly and yearly) concentrations of 137 Cs in air at specified locations due to resuspension of Chernobyl fallout; predictions for 90 Sr and 239 + 240 Pu were also requested for one location and time point. Predictions for specified resuspension factors and rates were also requested. Most participants used empirical models for the resuspension factor as a function of time K(t), as opposed to process-based models. While many of these

  19. Evolution of Earth-like Extrasolar Planetary Atmospheres: Assessing the Atmospheres and Biospheres of Early Earth Analog Planets with a Coupled Atmosphere Biogeochemical Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebauer, S; Grenfell, J L; Stock, J W; Lehmann, R; Godolt, M; von Paris, P; Rauer, H

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the evolution of Earth and potentially habitable Earth-like worlds is essential to fathom our origin in the Universe. The search for Earth-like planets in the habitable zone and investigation of their atmospheres with climate and photochemical models is a central focus in exoplanetary science. Taking the evolution of Earth as a reference for Earth-like planets, a central scientific goal is to understand what the interactions were between atmosphere, geology, and biology on early Earth. The Great Oxidation Event in Earth's history was certainly caused by their interplay, but the origin and controlling processes of this occurrence are not well understood, the study of which will require interdisciplinary, coupled models. In this work, we present results from our newly developed Coupled Atmosphere Biogeochemistry model in which atmospheric O 2 concentrations are fixed to values inferred by geological evidence. Applying a unique tool (Pathway Analysis Program), ours is the first quantitative analysis of catalytic cycles that governed O 2 in early Earth's atmosphere near the Great Oxidation Event. Complicated oxidation pathways play a key role in destroying O 2 , whereas in the upper atmosphere, most O 2 is formed abiotically via CO 2 photolysis. The O 2 bistability found by Goldblatt et al. ( 2006 ) is not observed in our calculations likely due to our detailed CH 4 oxidation scheme. We calculate increased CH 4 with increasing O 2 during the Great Oxidation Event. For a given atmospheric surface flux, different atmospheric states are possible; however, the net primary productivity of the biosphere that produces O 2 is unique. Mixing, CH 4 fluxes, ocean solubility, and mantle/crust properties strongly affect net primary productivity and surface O 2 fluxes. Regarding exoplanets, different "states" of O 2 could exist for similar biomass output. Strong geological activity could lead to false negatives for life (since our analysis suggests that reducing gases

  20. A Description of the Framework of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer Environment (ABLE) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    between soil, urban, vegetation , and/or surface water and the atmosphere and radiation. We seek to fill a gap in Army capabilities by developing a...the Atmosphere; Cambridge Univ. Press, 393 pp, 2010. Wyngaard, J. C. Toward Numerical Modeling in the “ Terra Incognita.” Journal of Atmospheric

  1. Global atmospheric dispersion modelling after the Fukushima accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, K.S.; Youm, M.K.; Lee, B.G.; Min, B.I. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Raul, P. [Universidad de Sevilla (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    A large amount of radioactive material was released to the atmosphere due to the Fukushima nuclear accident in March 2011. The radioactive materials released into the atmosphere were mostly transported to the Pacific Ocean, but some of them were fallen on the surface due to dry and wet depositions in the northwest area from the Fukushima nuclear site. Therefore, northwest part of the nuclear site was seriously contaminated and it was designated with the restricted zone within a radius of 20 ∼ 30 km around the Fukushima nuclear site. In the early phase of the accident from 11 March to 30 March, the radioactive materials were dispersed to an area of the inland and offshore of the nuclear site by the variations of the wind. After the Fukushima accident, the radionuclides were detected through the air monitoring in the many places over the world. The radioactive plume was transported to the east part off the site by the westerly jet stream. It had detected in the North America during March 17-21, in European countries during March 23-24, and in Asia during from March 24 to April 6, 2011. The radioactive materials were overall detected across the northern hemisphere passed by 15 ∼ 20 days after the accident. Three dimensional numerical model was applied to evaluate the dispersion characteristics of the radionuclides released into the air. Simulated results were compared with measurements in many places over the world. Comparative results had good agreements in some places, but they had a little differences in some locations. The difference between the calculations and measurements are due to the meteorological data and relatively coarse resolutions in the model. Some radioactive materials were measured in Philippines, Taiwan, Hon Kong and South Korea during from March 23-28. It inferred that it was directly transported from the Fukushima by the northeastern monsoon winds. This event was well represented in the numerical model. Generally, the simulations had a good

  2. Statistical modelling of discharge behavior of atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tay, W. H.; Kausik, S. S.; Wong, C. S., E-mail: cswong@um.edu.my; Yap, S. L.; Muniandy, S. V. [Plasma Technology Research Centre, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2014-11-15

    In this work, stochastic behavior of atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) has been investigated. The experiment is performed in a DBD reactor consisting of a pair of stainless steel parallel plate electrodes powered by a 50 Hz ac high voltage source. Current pulse amplitude distributions for different space gaps and the time separation between consecutive current pulses are studied. A probability distribution function is proposed to predict the experimental distribution function for the current pulse amplitudes and the occurrence of the transition regime of the pulse distribution. Breakdown voltage at different positions on the dielectric surface is suggested to be stochastic in nature. The simulated results based on the proposed distribution function agreed well with the experimental results and able to predict the regime of transition voltage. This model would be useful for the understanding of stochastic behaviors of DBD and the design of DBD device for effective operation and applications.

  3. A thermal model for photovoltaic panels under varying atmospheric conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, S.; Hurley, W.G.

    2010-01-01

    The response of the photovoltaic (PV) panel temperature is dynamic with respect to the changes in the incoming solar radiation. During periods of rapidly changing conditions, a steady state model of the operating temperature cannot be justified because the response time of the PV panel temperature becomes significant due to its large thermal mass. Therefore, it is of interest to determine the thermal response time of the PV panel. Previous attempts to determine the thermal response time have used indoor measurements, controlling the wind flow over the surface of the panel with fans or conducting the experiments in darkness to avoid radiative heat loss effects. In real operating conditions, the effective PV panel temperature is subjected to randomly varying ambient temperature and fluctuating wind speeds and directions; parameters that are not replicated in controlled, indoor experiments. A new thermal model is proposed that incorporates atmospheric conditions; effects of PV panel material composition and mounting structure. Experimental results are presented which verify the thermal behaviour of a photovoltaic panel for low to strong winds.

  4. Non-LTE models of Titan's upper atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelle, Roger V.

    1991-01-01

    Models for the thermal structure of Titan's upper atmosphere, between 0.1 mbar and 0.01 nbar are presented. The calculations include non-LTE heating/cooling in the rotation-vibration bands of CH4, C2H2, and C2H6, absorption of solar IR radiation in the near-IR bands of CH4 and subsequent cascading to the nu-4 band of CH4, absorption of solar EUV and UV radiation, thermal conduction and cooling by HCN rotational lines. Unlike earlier models, the calculated exospheric temperature agrees well with observations, because of the importance of HCN cooling. The calculations predict a well-developed mesopause with a temperature of 135-140 K at an altitude of approximately 600 km and pressure of about 0.1 microbar. The mesopause is at a higher pressure than predicted by earlier calculations because non-LTE radiative transfer in the rotation-vibration bands of CH4, C2H2, and C2H6 is treated in an accurate manner. The accuracy of the LTE approximation for source functions and heating rates is discussed.

  5. Land-Surface-Atmosphere Coupling in Observations and Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan K Betts

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The diurnal cycle and the daily mean at the land-surface result from the coupling of many physical processes. The framework of this review is largely conceptual; looking for relationships and information in the coupling of processes in models and observations. Starting from the surface energy balance, the role of the surface and cloud albedos in the shortwave and longwave fluxes is discussed. A long-wave radiative scaling of the diurnal temperature range and the night-time boundary layer is summarized. Several aspects of the local surface energy partition are presented: the role of soilwater availability and clouds; vector methods for understanding mixed layer evolution, and the coupling between surface and boundary layer that determines the lifting condensation level. Moving to larger scales, evaporation-precipitation feedback in models is discussed; and the coupling of column water vapor, clouds and precipitation to vertical motion and moisture convergence over the Amazon. The final topic is a comparison of the ratio of surface shortwave cloud forcing to the diabatic precipitation forcing of the atmosphere in ERA-40 with observations.

  6. Prompt atmospheric neutrino fluxes: perturbative QCD models and nuclear effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Atri [Department of Physics, University of Arizona,1118 E. 4th St. Tucson, AZ 85704 (United States); Space sciences, Technologies and Astrophysics Research (STAR) Institute,Université de Liège,Bât. B5a, 4000 Liège (Belgium); Enberg, Rikard [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University,Box 516, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Jeong, Yu Seon [Department of Physics and IPAP, Yonsei University,50 Yonsei-ro Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722 (Korea, Republic of); National Institute of Supercomputing and Networking, KISTI,245 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, C.S. [Department of Physics and IPAP, Yonsei University,50 Yonsei-ro Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722 (Korea, Republic of); Reno, Mary Hall [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa,Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Sarcevic, Ina [Department of Physics, University of Arizona,1118 E. 4th St. Tucson, AZ 85704 (United States); Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona,933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Stasto, Anna [Department of Physics, 104 Davey Lab, The Pennsylvania State University,University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2016-11-28

    We evaluate the prompt atmospheric neutrino flux at high energies using three different frameworks for calculating the heavy quark production cross section in QCD: NLO perturbative QCD, k{sub T} factorization including low-x resummation, and the dipole model including parton saturation. We use QCD parameters, the value for the charm quark mass and the range for the factorization and renormalization scales that provide the best description of the total charm cross section measured at fixed target experiments, at RHIC and at LHC. Using these parameters we calculate differential cross sections for charm and bottom production and compare with the latest data on forward charm meson production from LHCb at 7 TeV and at 13 TeV, finding good agreement with the data. In addition, we investigate the role of nuclear shadowing by including nuclear parton distribution functions (PDF) for the target air nucleus using two different nuclear PDF schemes. Depending on the scheme used, we find the reduction of the flux due to nuclear effects varies from 10% to 50% at the highest energies. Finally, we compare our results with the IceCube limit on the prompt neutrino flux, which is already providing valuable information about some of the QCD models.

  7. Spatio-temporal statistical models with applications to atmospheric processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wikle, C.K.

    1996-01-01

    This doctoral dissertation is presented as three self-contained papers. An introductory chapter considers traditional spatio-temporal statistical methods used in the atmospheric sciences from a statistical perspective. Although this section is primarily a review, many of the statistical issues considered have not been considered in the context of these methods and several open questions are posed. The first paper attempts to determine a means of characterizing the semiannual oscillation (SAO) spatial variation in the northern hemisphere extratropical height field. It was discovered that the midlatitude SAO in 500hPa geopotential height could be explained almost entirely as a result of spatial and temporal asymmetries in the annual variation of stationary eddies. It was concluded that the mechanism for the SAO in the northern hemisphere is a result of land-sea contrasts. The second paper examines the seasonal variability of mixed Rossby-gravity waves (MRGW) in lower stratospheric over the equatorial Pacific. Advanced cyclostationary time series techniques were used for analysis. It was found that there are significant twice-yearly peaks in MRGW activity. Analyses also suggested a convergence of horizontal momentum flux associated with these waves. In the third paper, a new spatio-temporal statistical model is proposed that attempts to consider the influence of both temporal and spatial variability. This method is mainly concerned with prediction in space and time, and provides a spatially descriptive and temporally dynamic model

  8. Intermediate Models of Planetary Circulations in the Atmosphere and Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, James C.; Gent, Peter R.

    1980-08-01

    Large-scale extratropical motions (with dimensions comparable to, or somewhat smaller than, the planetary radius) in the atmosphere and ocean exhibit a more restricted range of phenomena than are admissible in the primitive equations for fluid motions, and there have been many previous proposals for simpler, more phenomenologically limited models of these motions. The oldest and most successful of these is the quasi-geostrophic model. An extensive discussion is made of models intermediate between the quasi-geostrophic and primitive ones, some of which have been previously proposed [e.g., the balance equations (BE), where tendencies in the equation for the divergent component of velocity are neglected, or the geostrophic momentum approximation (GM), where ageostrophic accelerations are neglected relative to geostrophic ones] and some of which are derived here. Virtues of these models are assessed in the dual measure of nearly geostrophic momentum balance (i.e., small Rossby number) and approximate frontal structure (i.e., larger along-axis velocities and length scales than their cross-axis counterparts), since one or both of these circumstances is usually characteristic of planetary motions. Consideration is also given to various coordinate transformations, since they can yield simpler expressions for the governing differential equations of the intermediate models. In particular, a new set of coordinates is proposed, isentropic geostrophic coordinates,(IGC), which has the advantage of making implicit the advections due to ageostrophic horizontal and vertical velocities under various approximations. A generalization of quasi-geostrophy is made. named hypo-geostrophy (HG), which is an asymptotic approximation of one higher order accuracy in Rossby number. The governing equations are simplest in IGC for both HG and GM; we name the latter in these coordinates isentropic semi-geostrophy (ISG), in analogy to Hoskins' (1975) semi-geostrophy (SG). HG, GM and BE are, in our

  9. Modeling Exoplanetary Atmospheres using BART, TEA, and Drift-RHD; Theoretical studies and Observational Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs-Dixon, Ian

    The explosion in the number of exoplanets detected to date has revealed a surprising diversity. When attempting to model this diversity, it is crucial to account for the uncertainties resulting from our limited knowledge of chemical, dynamical, and cloud formation processes in their atmospheres. Combining a retrieval technique with theorydriven models is a particularly promising way to address these processes and constrain a physically plausible atmospheric structure. In particular, a detailed micro-physical treatment of clouds and the longitudinal and latitudinal assessments of temperature and chemical profiles, have yet to be addressed in the field. Our team members are experts in radiative-hydrodynamic modeling (Dr. Ian DobbsDixon), cloud kinetics (Dr. Christiana Helling), retrievals and thermo-equilibrium chemistry (Dr. Jasmina Blecic), and observational diagnostics and predictions (Dr. Thomas Greene). The key goals of this proposal are to extend our understanding of the 3D atmospheric structure of gas-giant exoplanets by coupling state-of-the-art selfconsistent models together with a retrieval framework to 1) address cloud kinetics in retrievals, 2) assess 3D temperature and chemical structures in retrievals, 3) model a suite of well-observed planets within the framework of our models, and 4) make observational predictions for current and future NASA missions. To address these goals we have developed a number of tools: Drift-RHD, TEA, BART, and OBS. Drift-RHD solves both the 3D radiative-hydrodynamic equations and a time dependent kinetic cloud model. TEA, Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances, calculates abundances of chemical species present in the atmosphere. BART, a Bayesian Atmospheric Radiative Transfer code, is a statistical retrieval framework to explore the parameter space of atmospheric chemical abundances and thermal profiles. OBS is a suite of tools developed to simulate observations. Though these tools exist and have been utilized independently in

  10. Modelling dynamics of atmosphere ventilation and industrial city’s air pollution analysis: New approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glushkov, A. V.; Khetselius, O. Yu; Agayar, E. V.; Buyadzhi, V. V.; Romanova, A. V.; Mansarliysky, V. F.

    2017-10-01

    We present a new effective approach to analysis and modelling the natural air ventilation in an atmosphere of the industrial city, which is based on the Arakawa-Schubert and Glushkov models, modified to calculate the current involvement of the ensemble of clouds, and advanced mathematical methods of modelling an unsteady turbulence in the urban area. For the first time the methods of a plane complex field and spectral expansion algorithms are applied to calculate the air circulation for the cloud layer arrays, penetrating into the territory of the industrial city. We have also taken into account for the mechanisms of transformation of the cloud system advection over the territory of the urban area. The results of test computing the air ventilation characteristics are presented for the Odessa city. All above cited methods and models together with the standard monitoring and management systems can be considered as a basis for comprehensive “Green City” construction technology.

  11. Atmospheric Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aplin, Karen; Fischer, Georg

    2018-02-01

    Electricity occurs in atmospheres across the Solar System planets and beyond, spanning spectacular lightning displays in clouds of water or dust, to more subtle effects of charge and electric fields. On Earth, lightning is likely to have existed for a long time, based on evidence from fossilized lightning strikes in ancient rocks, but observations of planetary lightning are necessarily much more recent. The generation and observations of lightning and other atmospheric electrical processes, both from within-atmosphere measurements, and spacecraft remote sensing, can be readily studied using a comparative planetology approach, with Earth as a model. All atmospheres contain charged molecules, electrons, and/or molecular clusters created by ionization from cosmic rays and other processes, which may affect an atmosphere's energy balance both through aerosol and cloud formation, and direct absorption of radiation. Several planets are anticipated to host a "global electric circuit" by analogy with the circuit occurring on Earth, where thunderstorms drive current of ions or electrons through weakly conductive parts of the atmosphere. This current flow may further modulate an atmosphere's radiative properties through cloud and aerosol effects. Lightning could potentially have implications for life through its effects on atmospheric chemistry and particle transport. It has been observed on many of the Solar System planets (Earth, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune) and it may also be present on Venus and Mars. On Earth, Jupiter, and Saturn, lightning is thought to be generated in deep water and ice clouds, but discharges can be generated in dust, as for terrestrial volcanic lightning, and on Mars. Other, less well-understood mechanisms causing discharges in non-water clouds also seem likely. The discovery of thousands of exoplanets has recently led to a range of further exotic possibilities for atmospheric electricity, though lightning detection beyond our Solar System

  12. Single-Column Modeling, GCM Parameterizations and Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somerville, R.C.J.; Iacobellis, S.F.

    2005-01-01

    Our overall goal is identical to that of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program: the development of new and improved parameterizations of cloud-radiation effects and related processes, using ARM data at all three ARM sites, and the implementation and testing of these parameterizations in global and regional models. To test recently developed prognostic parameterizations based on detailed cloud microphysics, we have first compared single-column model (SCM) output with ARM observations at the Southern Great Plains (SGP), North Slope of Alaska (NSA) and Topical Western Pacific (TWP) sites. We focus on the predicted cloud amounts and on a suite of radiative quantities strongly dependent on clouds, such as downwelling surface shortwave radiation. Our results demonstrate the superiority of parameterizations based on comprehensive treatments of cloud microphysics and cloud-radiative interactions. At the SGP and NSA sites, the SCM results simulate the ARM measurements well and are demonstrably more realistic than typical parameterizations found in conventional operational forecasting models. At the TWP site, the model performance depends strongly on details of the scheme, and the results of our diagnostic tests suggest ways to develop improved parameterizations better suited to simulating cloud-radiation interactions in the tropics generally. These advances have made it possible to take the next step and build on this progress, by incorporating our parameterization schemes in state-of-the-art 3D atmospheric models, and diagnosing and evaluating the results using independent data. Because the improved cloud-radiation results have been obtained largely via implementing detailed and physically comprehensive cloud microphysics, we anticipate that improved predictions of hydrologic cycle components, and hence of precipitation, may also be achievable. We are currently testing the performance of our ARM-based parameterizations in state-of-the--art global and regional

  13. On the presence of electric currents in the solar atmosphere. I - A theoretical framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagyard, M.; Low, B. C.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.

    1981-01-01

    The general magnetic field above the solar photosphere is divided by an elementary analysis based on Ampere's law into two parts: a potential field due to electric currents below the photosphere and a field produced by electric currents above the photosphere combined with the induced mirror currents. The latter, by symmetry, has a set of field lines lying in the plane taken to be the photosphere which may be constructed from given vector magnetograph measurements. These field lines also represent all the information on the electric currents above the photosphere that a magnetograph can provide. Theoretical illustrations are given, and implications for data analysis are discussed.

  14. Dust Composition in Climate Models: Current Status and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez García-Pando, C.; Miller, R. L.; Perlwitz, J. P.; Kok, J. F.; Scanza, R.; Mahowald, N. M.

    2015-12-01

    Mineral dust created by wind erosion of soil particles is the dominant aerosol by mass in the atmosphere. It exerts significant effects on radiative fluxes, clouds, ocean biogeochemistry, and human health. Models that predict the lifecycle of mineral dust aerosols generally assume a globally uniform mineral composition. However, this simplification limits our understanding of the role of dust in the Earth system, since the effects of dust strongly depend on the particles' physical and chemical properties, which vary with their mineral composition. Hence, not only a detailed understanding of the processes determining the dust emission flux is needed, but also information about its size dependent mineral composition. Determining the mineral composition of dust aerosols is complicated. The largest uncertainty derives from the current atlases of soil mineral composition. These atlases provide global estimates of soil mineral fractions, but they are based upon massive extrapolation of a limited number of soil samples assuming that mineral composition is related to soil type. This disregards the potentially large variability of soil properties within each defined soil type. In addition, the analysis of these soil samples is based on wet sieving, a technique that breaks the aggregates found in the undisturbed parent soil. During wind erosion, these aggregates are subject to partial fragmentation, which generates differences on the size distribution and composition between the undisturbed parent soil and the emitted dust aerosols. We review recent progress on the representation of the mineral and chemical composition of dust in climate models. We discuss extensions of brittle fragmentation theory to prescribe the emitted size-resolved dust composition, and we identify key processes and uncertainties based upon model simulations and an unprecedented compilation of observations.

  15. Ocean-atmosphere dynamics during Hurricane Ida and Nor'Ida: An application of the coupled ocean-atmosphere-wave-sediment transport (COAWST) modeling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olabarrieta, Maitane; Warner, John C.; Armstrong, Brandy N.; Zambon, Joseph B.; He, Ruoying

    2012-01-01

    The coupled ocean–atmosphere–wave–sediment transport (COAWST) modeling system was used to investigate atmosphere–ocean–wave interactions in November 2009 during Hurricane Ida and its subsequent evolution to Nor’Ida, which was one of the most costly storm systems of the past two decades. One interesting aspect of this event is that it included two unique atmospheric extreme conditions, a hurricane and a nor’easter storm, which developed in regions with different oceanographic characteristics. Our modeled results were compared with several data sources, including GOES satellite infrared data, JASON-1 and JASON-2 altimeter data, CODAR measurements, and wave and tidal information from the National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) and the National Tidal Database. By performing a series of numerical runs, we were able to isolate the effect of the interaction terms between the atmosphere (modeled with Weather Research and Forecasting, the WRF model), the ocean (modeled with Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS)), and the wave propagation and generation model (modeled with Simulating Waves Nearshore (SWAN)). Special attention was given to the role of the ocean surface roughness. Three different ocean roughness closure models were analyzed: DGHQ (which is based on wave age), TY2001 (which is based on wave steepness), and OOST (which considers both the effects of wave age and steepness). Including the ocean roughness in the atmospheric module improved the wind intensity estimation and therefore also the wind waves, surface currents, and storm surge amplitude. For example, during the passage of Hurricane Ida through the Gulf of Mexico, the wind speeds were reduced due to wave-induced ocean roughness, resulting in better agreement with the measured winds. During Nor’Ida, including the wave-induced surface roughness changed the form and dimension of the main low pressure cell, affecting the intensity and direction of the winds. The combined wave age- and wave steepness

  16. An analytical model for soil-atmosphere feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaefli, B.; Van der Ent, R.J.; Woods, R.; Savenije, H.H.G.

    2012-01-01

    Soil-atmosphere feedback is a key for understanding the hydrological cycle and the direction of potential system changes. This paper presents an analytical framework to study the interplay between soil and atmospheric moisture, using as input only the boundary conditions at the upstream end of

  17. High performance modeling of atmospheric re-entry vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Alexandre; Scalabrin, Leonardo C; Boyd, Iain D

    2012-01-01

    Re-entry vehicles designed for space exploration are usually equipped with thermal protection systems made of ablative material. In order to properly model and predict the aerothermal environment of the vehicle, it is imperative to account for the gases produced by ablation processes. In the case of charring ablators, where an inner resin is pyrolyzed at a relatively low temperature, the composition of the gas expelled into the boundary layer is complex and may lead to thermal chemical reactions that cannot be captured with simple flow chemistry models. In order to obtain better predictions, an appropriate gas flow chemistry model needs to be included in the CFD calculations. Using a recently developed chemistry model for ablating carbon-phenolic-in-air species, a CFD calculation of the Stardust re-entry at 71 km is presented. The code used for that purpose has been designed to take advantage of the nature of the problem and therefore remains very efficient when a high number of chemical species are involved. The CFD result demonstrates the need for such chemistry model when modeling the flow field around an ablative material. Modeling of the nonequilibrium radiation spectra is also presented, and compared to the experimental data obtained during Stardust re-entry by the Echelle instrument. The predicted emission from the CN lines compares quite well with the experimental results, demonstrating the validity of the current approach.

  18. Current Density and Continuity in Discretized Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boykin, Timothy B.; Luisier, Mathieu; Klimeck, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    Discrete approaches have long been used in numerical modelling of physical systems in both research and teaching. Discrete versions of the Schrodinger equation employing either one or several basis functions per mesh point are often used by senior undergraduates and beginning graduate students in computational physics projects. In studying…

  19. Weather regimes in past climate atmospheric general circulation model simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kageyama, M.; Ramstein, G. [CEA Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Lab. des Sci. du Climat et de l' Environnement; D' Andrea, F.; Vautard, R. [Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique, Ecole Normale Superieure, Paris (France); Valdes, P.J. [Department of Meteorology, University of Reading (United Kingdom)

    1999-10-01

    We investigate the climates of the present-day, inception of the last glaciation (115000 y ago) and last glacial maximum (21000 y ago) in the extratropical north Atlantic and Europe, as simulated by the laboratoire de Meteorologie dynamique atmospheric general circulation model. We use these simulations to investigate the low-frequency variability of the model in different climates. The aim is to evaluate whether changes in the intraseasonal variability, which we characterize using weather regimes, can help describe the impact of different boundary conditions on climate and give a better understanding of climate change processes. Weather regimes are defined as the most recurrent patterns in the 500 hPa geopotential height, using a clustering algorithm method. The regimes found in the climate simulations of the present-day and inception of the last glaciation are similar in their number and their structure. It is the regimes' populations which are found to be different for these climates, with an increase of the model's blocked regime and a decrease in the zonal regime at the inception of the last glaciation. This description reinforces the conclusions from a study of the differences between the climatological averages of the different runs and confirms the northeastward shift to the tail of the Atlantic storm-track, which would favour more precipitation over the site of growth of the Fennoscandian ice-sheet. On the other hand, the last glacial maximum results over this sector are not found to be classifiable, showing that the change in boundary conditions can be responsible for severe changes in the weather regime and low-frequency dynamics. The LGM Atlantic low-frequency variability appears to be dominated by a large-scale retrogressing wave with a period 40 to 50 days. (orig.)

  20. Isotope techniques in the study of past and current environmental changes in the hydrosphere and the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Expanding economic and technological activities of mankind are contributing to rapid and potentially stressful changes in the global ecosystem. These changes may have harmful, far-reaching consequences in the near future. The current changes in the global ecosystem are also affecting the hydrological cycle. Environmental isotopes, whose distribution in natural compounds is governed by environmental conditions, are among the most powerful tools for investigating past and current environmental changes. Thorough understanding of the past environment is a prerequisite for any meaningful prediction of the Earth's ecosystem behaviour. Important conclusions on past environment conditions can be derived from the analysis of isotope ratios preserved in various environmental archives. The present worked covers both the 'present' and the 'past' of the global atmosphere/hydrosphere system. The presentations were organized in five major topics: (i) isotopes in atmospheric studies; (ii) isotopes in the soil-plants-atmosphere system; (iii) degradation of water resources; (iv) palaeohydrology and palaeowaters; and (v) isotope indicators of climatic changes. Refs, figs and tabs

  1. Evaluation of three atmospheric dispersion models using tracer release experiment data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daoo, V.J.; Oza, R.B.; Pandit, G.G.; Sadasivan, S.; Venkat Raj, V.

    2004-01-01

    Performance of three atmospheric dispersion models viz: (1) Gaussian Plume Model (GPM), (2) Equi-Distance PUFF Model (EDPUFFM) and (3) Particle Trajectory Model (PTM) is evaluated using field data collected from a tracer (SF 6 ) release experiment. The experiment was conducted within the campus of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), located at Trombay, Mumbai, India. The three models used are currently in operation at the BARC. The first one is a standard, well-documented empirical model while the other two models have been developed at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre. The PTM is a numerical model while the EDPUFFM is a hybrid model combining both the numerical and analytical techniques. The procedure for evaluation is as per the recommendations of 1980 AMS (American Meteorological Society) workshop on atmospheric dispersion models performance evaluation. In addition, linear regression analysis has also been carried out. The regression analysis reveals that on an average, the EDPUFFM and the GPM predictions are higher by a factor of about 1.5 while the PTM predictions are lower by a factor of about 4. Comparison of various performance measures reveals that the performance of the EDPUFFM is marginally better than that of the GPM while the PTM performance is comparatively poor. The uncertainty factors obtained in this study, especially for higher concentration range ( > 100 ppt) are similar to those obtained in other validation study carried out elsewhere to validate the GPM predictions. However, for lower concentration range and for the conditions after the source is switched off, all the three models perform poorly in predicting the concentration. (author)

  2. Novel Atmospheric and Sea State Modeling in Ocean Energy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallos, George; Galanis, George; Kalogeri, Christina; Larsen, Xiaoli Guo

    2013-04-01

    The rapidly increasing use of renewable energy sources poses new challenges for the research and technological community today. The integration of the, usually, highly variable wind and wave energy amounts into the general grid, the optimization of energy transition and the forecast of extreme values that could lead to instabilities and failures of the system can be listed among them. In the present work, novel methodologies based on state of the art numerical wind/wave simulation systems and advanced statistical techniques addressing such type of problems are discussed. In particular, extremely high resolution modeling systems simulating the atmospheric and sea state conditions with spatial resolution of 100 meters or less and temporal discretization of a few seconds are utilized in order to simulate in the most detailed way the combined wind-wave energy potential at offshore sites. In addition, a statistical analysis based on a variety of mean and variation measures as well as univariate and bivariate probability distributions is used for the estimation of the variability of the power potential revealing the advantages of the use of combined forms of energy by offshore platforms able to produce wind and wave power simultaneously. The estimation and prediction of extreme wind/wave conditions - a critical issue both for site assessment and infrastructure maintenance - is also studied by means of the 50-year return period over areas with increased power potential. This work has been carried out within the framework of the FP7 project MARINA Platform (http://www.marina-platform.info/index.aspx).

  3. Modelling of Argon Cold Atmospheric Plasmas for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanasova, M.; Benova, E.; Degrez, G.; van der Mullen, J. A. M.

    2018-02-01

    Plasmas for biomedical applications are one of the newest fields of plasma utilization. Especially high is the interest toward plasma usage in medicine. Promising results are achieved in blood coagulation, wound healing, treatment of some forms of cancer, diabetic complications, etc. However, the investigations of the biomedical applications from biological and medical viewpoint are much more advanced than the studies on the dynamics of the plasma. In this work we aim to address some specific challenges in the field of plasma modelling, arising from biomedical applications - what are the plasma reactive species’ and electrical fields’ spatial distributions as well as their production mechanisms; what are the fluxes and energies of the various components of the plasma delivers to the treated surfaces; what is the gas flow pattern? The focus is on two devices, namely the capacitive coupled plasma jet and the microwave surface wave sustained discharge. The devices are representatives of the so called cold atmospheric plasmas (CAPs). These are discharges characterized by low gas temperature - less than 40°C at the point of application - and non-equilibrium chemistry.

  4. Current understanding of the driving mechanisms for spatiotemporal variations of atmospheric speciated mercury: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric mercury (Hg is a global pollutant and thought to be the main source of mercury in oceanic and remote terrestrial systems, where it becomes methylated and bioavailable; hence, atmospheric mercury pollution has global consequences for both human and ecosystem health. Understanding of spatial and temporal variations of atmospheric speciated mercury can advance our knowledge of mercury cycling in various environments. This review summarized spatiotemporal variations of total gaseous mercury or gaseous elemental mercury (TGM/GEM, gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM, and particulate-bound mercury (PBM in various environments including oceans, continents, high elevation, the free troposphere, and low to high latitudes. In the marine boundary layer (MBL, the oxidation of GEM was generally thought to drive the diurnal and seasonal variations of TGM/GEM and GOM in most oceanic regions, leading to lower GEM and higher GOM from noon to afternoon and higher GEM during winter and higher GOM during spring–summer. At continental sites, the driving mechanisms of TGM/GEM diurnal patterns included surface and local emissions, boundary layer dynamics, GEM oxidation, and for high-elevation sites mountain–valley winds, while oxidation of GEM and entrainment of free tropospheric air appeared to control the diurnal patterns of GOM. No pronounced diurnal variation was found for Tekran measured PBM at MBL and continental sites. Seasonal variations in TGM/GEM at continental sites were attributed to increased winter combustion and summertime surface emissions, and monsoons in Asia, while those in GOM were controlled by GEM oxidation, free tropospheric transport, anthropogenic emissions, and wet deposition. Increased PBM at continental sites during winter was primarily due to local/regional coal and wood combustion emissions. Long-term TGM measurements from the MBL and continental sites indicated an overall declining trend. Limited measurements suggested TGM

  5. Current understanding of the driving mechanisms for spatiotemporal variations of atmospheric speciated mercury: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Huiting; Cheng, Irene; Zhang, Leiming

    2016-10-01

    Atmospheric mercury (Hg) is a global pollutant and thought to be the main source of mercury in oceanic and remote terrestrial systems, where it becomes methylated and bioavailable; hence, atmospheric mercury pollution has global consequences for both human and ecosystem health. Understanding of spatial and temporal variations of atmospheric speciated mercury can advance our knowledge of mercury cycling in various environments. This review summarized spatiotemporal variations of total gaseous mercury or gaseous elemental mercury (TGM/GEM), gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM), and particulate-bound mercury (PBM) in various environments including oceans, continents, high elevation, the free troposphere, and low to high latitudes. In the marine boundary layer (MBL), the oxidation of GEM was generally thought to drive the diurnal and seasonal variations of TGM/GEM and GOM in most oceanic regions, leading to lower GEM and higher GOM from noon to afternoon and higher GEM during winter and higher GOM during spring-summer. At continental sites, the driving mechanisms of TGM/GEM diurnal patterns included surface and local emissions, boundary layer dynamics, GEM oxidation, and for high-elevation sites mountain-valley winds, while oxidation of GEM and entrainment of free tropospheric air appeared to control the diurnal patterns of GOM. No pronounced diurnal variation was found for Tekran measured PBM at MBL and continental sites. Seasonal variations in TGM/GEM at continental sites were attributed to increased winter combustion and summertime surface emissions, and monsoons in Asia, while those in GOM were controlled by GEM oxidation, free tropospheric transport, anthropogenic emissions, and wet deposition. Increased PBM at continental sites during winter was primarily due to local/regional coal and wood combustion emissions. Long-term TGM measurements from the MBL and continental sites indicated an overall declining trend. Limited measurements suggested TGM/GEM increasing from the

  6. Modeling large offshore wind farms under different atmospheric stability regimes with the Park wake model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peña, Alfredo; Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan; Rathmann, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Here, we evaluate a modified version of the Park wake model against power data from a west-east row in the middle of the Horns Rev I offshore wind farm. The evaluation is performed on data classified in four different atmospheric stability conditions, for a narrow wind speed range, and a wide ran...

  7. Aerodynamic modeling of the lower part of the atmospheric boundary layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, K.S.

    1992-01-01

    In this thesis , we present a study dealing with the basic meteorology concepts commonly used in air pollution. The pollutant motion in the atmosphere together with its basic mathematical concepts have been reviewed. This review includes; atmospheric forces acting on a particle, atmospheric turbulence, atmospheric stability and the most widely used atmospheric diffusion models. The resistance for pollutant transfer for different atmospheric stability classes has been derived in terms of both wind velocity profile parameters and diffusion coefficients. Therefrom, the residence time of a pollutant in the atmosphere is obtained. The dust particle trajectory and deposition in case of neutral atmosphere is formulated mathematically adopting particle Gaussian distribution. An analytical treatment for the diffusion equation with extension of the boundary conditions to include the ground surface absorption of pollutants and presence of elevated inversion layer, has been presented . The concept of decay distance is introduced and applied in a sample calculation for the dispersion of pollutants over growing wheat field

  8. A Unified Air-Sea Interface in Fully Coupled Atmosphere-Wave-Ocean Models for Data Assimilation and Ensemble Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuyi; Curcic, Milan; Donelan, Mark; Campbell, Tim; Smith, Travis; Chen, Sue; Allard, Rick; Michalakes, John

    2014-05-01

    The goals of this study are to 1) better understand the physical processes controlling air-sea interaction and their impact on coastal marine and storm predictions, 2) explore the use of coupled atmosphere-ocean observations in model verification and data assimilation, and 3) develop a physically based and computationally efficient coupling at the air-sea interface that is flexible for use in a multi-model system and portable for transition to the next generation research and operational coupled atmosphere-wave-ocean-land models. We have developed a unified air-sea interface module that couples multiple atmosphere, wave, and ocean models using the Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF). This standardized coupling framework allows researchers to develop and test air-sea coupling parameterizations and coupled data assimilation, and to better facilitate research-to-operation activities. It also allows for future ensemble forecasts using coupled models that can be used for coupled data assimilation and assessment of uncertainties in coupled model predictions. The current component models include two atmospheric models (WRF and COAMPS), two ocean models (HYCOM and NCOM), and two wave models (UMWM and SWAN). The coupled modeling systems have been tested and evaluated using the coupled air-sea observations (e.g., GPS dropsondes and AXBTs, drifters and floats) collected in recent field campaigns in the Gulf of Mexico and tropical cyclones in the Atlantic and Pacific basins. This talk will provide an overview of the unified air-sea interface model and fully coupled atmosphere-wave-ocean model predictions over various coastal regions and tropical cyclones in the Pacific and Atlantic basins including an example from coupled ensemble prediction of Superstorm Sandy (2012).

  9. Model for the resistive critical current transition in composite superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warnes, W.H.

    1988-01-01

    Much of the research investigating technological type-II superconducting composites relies on the measurement of the resistive critical current transition. We have developed a model for the resistive transition which improves on older models by allowing for the very different nature of monofilamentary and multifilamentary composite structures. The monofilamentary model allows for axial current flow around critical current weak links in the superconducting filament. The multifilamentary model incorporates an additional radial current transfer between neighboring filaments. The development of both models is presented. It is shown that the models are useful for extracting more information from the experimental data than was formerly possible. Specific information obtainable from the experimental voltage-current characteristic includes the distribution of critical currents in the composite, the average critical current of the distribution, the range of critical currents in the composite, the field and temperature dependence of the distribution, and the fraction of the composite dissipating energy in flux flow at any current. This additional information about the distribution of critical currents may be helpful in leading toward a better understanding of flux pinning in technological superconductors. Comparison of the models with several experiments is given and shown to be in reasonable agreement. Implications of the models for the measurement of critical currents in technological composites is presented and discussed with reference to basic flux pinning studies in such composites

  10. A computational model for lower hybrid current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Englade, R.C.; Bonoli, P.T.; Porkolab, M.

    1983-01-01

    A detailed simulation model for lower hybrid (LH) current drive in toroidal devices is discussed. This model accounts reasonably well for the magnitude of radio frequency (RF) current observed in the PLT and Alcator C devices. It also reproduces the experimental dependencies of RF current generation on toroidal magnetic field and has provided insights about mechanisms which may underlie the observed density limit of current drive. (author)

  11. Development of a three-dimensional local scale atmospheric model with turbulence closure model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazawa, Hiromi

    1989-05-01

    Through the study to improve SPEEDI's capability, a three-dimensional numerical atmospheric model PHYSIC (Prognostic HYdroStatic model Including turbulence Closure model) was developed to apply it to the transport and diffusion evaluation over complex terrains. The detailed description of the atmospheric model was given. This model consists of five prognostic equations; the momentum equations of horizontal components with the so-called Boussinesq and hydrostatic assumptions, the conservation equations of heat, turbulence kinetic energy and turbulence length scale. The coordinate system used is the terrain following z * coordinate system which allows the existence of complex terrain. The minute formula of the turbulence closure calculation, the surface layer process, the ground surface heat budget, and the atmospheric and solar radiation were also presented. The time integration method used in this model is the Alternating Direction Implicit (A.D.I.) method with a vertically and horizontally staggered grid system. The memory storage needed to execute this model with 31 x 31 x 16 grid points, five layers in soil and double precision variables is about 5.3 MBytes. The CPU time is about 2.2 x 10 -5 s per one step per one grid point with a vector processor FACOM VP-100. (author)

  12. Atmospheric resuspension of radionuclides. Model testing using Chernobyl data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garger, E.; Lev, T.; Talerko, N. [Inst. of Radioecology UAAS, Kiev (Ukraine); Galeriu, D. [Institute of Atomic Physics, Bucharest (Romania); Garland, J. [Consultant (United Kingdom); Hoffman, O.; Nair, S.; Thiessen, K. [SENES, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Miller, C. [Centre for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA (United States); Mueller, H. [GSF - Inst. fuer Strahlenschultz, Neuherberg (Germany); Kryshev, A. [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation)

    1996-10-01

    Resuspension can be an important secondary source of contamination after a release has stopped, as well as a source of contamination for people and areas not exposed to the original release. The inhalation of resuspended radionuclides contributes to the overall dose received by exposed individuals. Based on measurements collected after the Chernobyl accident, Scenario R was developed to provide an opportunity to test existing mathematical models of contamination resuspension. In particular, this scenario provided the opportunity to examine data and test models for atmospheric resuspension of radionuclides at several different locations from the release, to investigate resuspension processes on both local and regional scales, and to investigate the importance of seasonal variations of these processes. Participants in the test exercise were provided with information for three different types of locations: (1) within the 30-km zone, where local resuspension processes are expected to dominate; (2) a large urban location (Kiev) 120 km from the release site, where vehicular traffic is expected to be the dominant mechanism for resuspension; and (3) an agricultural area 40-60 km from the release site, where highly contaminated upwind 'hot spots' are expected to be important. Input information included characteristics of the ground contamination around specific sites, climatological data for the sites, characteristics of the terrain and topography, and locations of the sampling sites. Participants were requested to predict the average (quarterly and yearly) concentrations of 137 Cs in air at specified locations due to resuspension of Chernobyl fallout; predictions for 90 Sr and 239 + 240 Pu were also requested for one location and time point. Predictions for specified resuspension factors and rates were also requested. Most participants used empirical models for the resuspension factor as a function of time K(t), as opposed to process-based models. While many of

  13. CRUNCH, Dispersion Model for Continuous Dense Vapour Release in Atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagger, S.F.

    1987-01-01

    ambient atmospheric turbulence, and to follow the dispersion processes down to low concentrations, especially important for toxic gases, a virtual source passive dispersion model is fitted to the slumping plume. 2 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Acceleration of the plume to the wind velocity is not considered, since an analysis of inertial effects has shown that the time for which these are important is short, compared to the dispersion time. Additionally, wind shear effects on cloud structure are not included; for a puff release producing a cloud of finite extent, this may not be valid but for a plume, extending to large downwind distances, they can be argued to have only a minor influence at the advancing front

  14. Advances in understanding, models and parameterisations of biosphere-atmosphere ammonia exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flechard, C. R.; Massad, R.-S.; Loubet, B.; Personne, E.; Simpson, D.; Bash, J. O.; Cooter, E. J.; Nemitz, E.; Sutton, M. A.

    2013-03-01

    Atmospheric ammonia (NH3) dominates global emissions of total reactive nitrogen (Nr), while emissions from agricultural production systems contribute about two thirds of global NH3 emissions; the remaining third emanates from oceans, natural vegetation, humans, wild animals and biomass burning. On land, NH3 emitted from the various sources eventually returns to the biosphere by dry deposition to sink areas, predominantly semi-natural vegetation, and by wet and dry deposition as ammonium (NH4+) to all surfaces. However, the land/atmosphere exchange of gaseous NH3 is in fact bi-directional over unfertilized as well as fertilized ecosystems, with periods and areas of emission and deposition alternating in time (diurnal, seasonal) and space (patchwork landscapes). The exchange is controlled by a range of environmental factors, including meteorology, surface layer turbulence, thermodynamics, air and surface heterogeneous-phase chemistry, canopy geometry, plant development stage, leaf age, organic matter decomposition, soil microbial turnover, and, in agricultural systems, by fertilizer application rate, fertilizer type, soil type, crop type, and agricultural management practices. We review the range of processes controlling NH3 emission and uptake in the different parts of the soil-canopy-atmosphere continuum, with NH3 emission potentials defined at the substrate and leaf levels by different [NH4+] / [H+] ratios (Γ). Surface/atmosphere exchange models for NH3 are necessary to compute the temporal and spatial patterns of emissions and deposition at the soil, plant, field, landscape, regional and global scales, in order to assess the multiple environmental impacts of air-borne and deposited NH3 and NH4+. Models of soil/vegetation/atmosphereem NH3 exchange are reviewed from the substrate and leaf scales to the global scale. They range from simple steady-state, "big leaf" canopy resistance models, to dynamic, multi-layer, multi-process, multi

  15. Southeast Atmosphere Studies: learning from model-observation syntheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concentrations of atmospheric trace species in the United States have changed dramatically over the past several decades in response to pollution control strategies, shifts in domestic energy policy and economics, and economic development (and resulting emission changes) elsewher...

  16. Modelling of pollution dispersion in atmosphere; Modelowanie procesow propagacji skazen w atmosferze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borysiewicz, M; Stankiewicz, R

    1994-12-31

    The paper contains the review of the mathematical foundation of atmospheric dispersion models. The atmospheric phenomena relevant to atmospheric dispersion model are discussed. In particular the parametrization of processes with time and space scales smaller than numerical grid size, limited by available computer power, is presented. The special attention was devoted to similarity theory and parametrization of boundary layer. The numerical methods are analysed and the drawbacks of the method are presented. (author). 99 refs, 15 figs, 3 tabs.

  17. Development of mathematical techniques for the assimilation of remote sensing data into atmospheric models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seinfeld, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    The problem of the assimilation of remote sensing data into mathematical models of atmospheric pollutant species was investigated. The data assimilation problem is posed in terms of the matching of spatially integrated species burden measurements to the predicted three-dimensional concentration fields from atmospheric diffusion models. General conditions were derived for the reconstructability of atmospheric concentration distributions from data typical of remote sensing applications, and a computational algorithm (filter) for the processing of remote sensing data was developed

  18. Development of mathematical techniques for the assimilation of remote sensing data into atmospheric models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seinfeld, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    The problem of the assimilation of remote sensing data into mathematical models of atmospheric pollutant species was investigated. The problem is posed in terms of the matching of spatially integrated species burden measurements to the predicted three dimensional concentration fields from atmospheric diffusion models. General conditions are derived for the reconstructability of atmospheric concentration distributions from data typical of remote sensing applications, and a computational algorithm (filter) for the processing of remote sensing data is developed

  19. Multinucleon Ejection Model for Two Body Current Neutrino Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobczyk, Jan T.; /Fermilab

    2012-06-01

    A model is proposed to describe nucleons ejected from a nucleus as a result of two-body-current neutrino interactions. The model can be easily implemented in Monte Carlo neutrino event generators. Various possibilities to measure the two-body-current contribution are discussed. The model can help identify genuine charge current quasielastic events and allow for a better determination of the systematic error on neutrino energy reconstruction in neutrino oscillation experiments.

  20. Modelling atmospheric transport of persistent organic pollutants in the Northern Hemisphere with a 3-D dynamical model: DEHM-POP

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen , K. M.; Christensen , J. H.; Brandt , J.; Frohn , L. M.; Geels , C.

    2004-01-01

    International audience; The Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model (DEHM) is a 3-D dynamical atmospheric transport model originally developed to describe the atmospheric transport of sulphur into the Arctic. A new version of the model, DEHM-POP, developed to study the atmospheric transport and environmental fate of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is presented. During environmental cycling, POPs can be deposited and re-emitted several times before reaching a final destination. A description of...

  1. Research Opportunities from Emerging Atmospheric Observing and Modeling Capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabberdt, Walter F.; Schlatter, Thomas W.

    1996-02-01

    The Second Prospectus Development Team (PDT-2) of the U.S. Weather Research Program was charged with identifying research opportunities that are best matched to emerging operational and experimental measurement and modeling methods. The overarching recommendation of PDT-2 is that inputs for weather forecast models can best be obtained through the use of composite observing systems together with adaptive (or targeted) observing strategies employing both in situ and remote sensing. Optimal observing systems and strategies are best determined through a three-part process: observing system simulation experiments, pilot field measurement programs, and model-assisted data sensitivity experiments. Furthermore, the mesoscale research community needs easy and timely access to the new operational and research datasets in a form that can readily be reformatted into existing software packages for analysis and display. The value of these data is diminished to the extent that they remain inaccessible.The composite observing system of the future must combine synoptic observations, routine mobile observations, and targeted observations, as the current or forecast situation dictates. High costs demand fuller exploitation of commercial aircraft, meteorological and navigation [Global Positioning System (GPS)] satellites, and Doppler radar. Single observing systems must be assessed in the context of a composite system that provides complementary information. Maintenance of the current North American rawinsonde network is critical for progress in both research-oriented and operational weather forecasting.Adaptive sampling strategies are designed to improve large-scale and regional weather prediction but they will also improve diagnosis and prediction of flash flooding, air pollution, forest fire management, and other environmental emergencies. Adaptive measurements can be made by piloted or unpiloted aircraft. Rawinsondes can be launched and satellites can be programmed to make

  2. Electromagnetic model of a lightning dart leader in the earth atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordeev, A.V.; Losseva, T.V.

    2005-01-01

    The fundamentally new approach to the lightning dart leader structure investigation is suggested, which is connected with the charge separation and the appearance of the Hall potential in the current-channel magnetic field of the lightning dart leader. Generation of the strong radial electric field provides both the relativistic electron drift along the lightning channel and the breakdown in the Earth atmosphere at the front of the propagating filament. The magnetic selfinsulation in the current channel ensures the propagation of the current filament with the relativistic electrons up to the Earth surface. After this stage the reflected magnetic selfinsulation wave realizes the return stroke stage of the lightning that is accompanied by the strong gas heating in the lightning channel. The current data in the lightning dart leader channel (4-11 kA) and the range of the X-ray emission from the lightning channel (30-250 keV), which are obtained in in-situ observations, are in reasonably good agreement with the estimates made in the frame of this model. Profiles of magnetic field Bq, electron concentration ne, electron velocity v ez and radial electric field E r in current channel for the current value 11 kA are presented. (author)

  3. Current models of positive mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Dragana Z.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of positive mental health represents not merely the absence of mental disease but presence of high level of happiness and well-being. In this paper we mentioned shortly the earliest concept of mental health, presented by Marie Jahoda in the mid-twentieth century. After that, we described two traditions in understanding and researching of subjective well-being: hedonic and eudaimonic approach. First approach focuses on investigation of positive affects and happiness as emotional and life satisfaction as cognitive component of subjective well-being. Second tradition emphasizes potentials and competences that person develops to the highest level, in personal and social area. Both psychological and social well-being are core concept of positive mental health psychology, designated together as positive functioning. The psychological well-being comprises six dimensions: self-acceptance, positive relations with others, environmental mastery, autonomy, purpose of life and personal growth. Social well-being consists of five dimensions: social integration, social acceptance, social contribution, social actualization and social coherence. By integrating hedonic and eudaimonic well-being as well as absence of mental disease, Corey Keyes introduced concept of complete mental health. People with complete mental health have reported absence of disease during past year and presence of high level of emotional, psychological and social well-being (flourishing. People with incomplete mental health have also reported absence of mental disease but low level of positive functioning (languishing. Keyes thought there are people with complete and incomplete mental illness; both groups report presence of mental disease, but second group has high level of positive functioning. Models of positive mental health are widely used in research studies as well as in programs for prevention and promotion of mental health. .

  4. Bioavailable atmospheric phosphorous supply to the global ocean: a 3-D global modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myriokefalitakis, Stelios; Nenes, Athanasios; Baker, Alex R.; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos; Kanakidou, Maria

    2016-12-01

    The atmospheric cycle of phosphorus (P) is parameterized here in a state-of-the-art global 3-D chemistry transport model, taking into account primary emissions of total P (TP) and soluble P (DP) associated with mineral dust, combustion particles from natural and anthropogenic sources, bioaerosols, sea spray and volcanic aerosols. For the present day, global TP emissions are calculated to be roughly 1.33 Tg-P yr-1, with the mineral sources contributing more than 80 % to these emissions. The P solubilization from mineral dust under acidic atmospheric conditions is also parameterized in the model and is calculated to contribute about one-third (0.14 Tg-P yr-1) of the global DP atmospheric source. To our knowledge, a unique aspect of our global study is the explicit modeling of the evolution of phosphorus speciation in the atmosphere. The simulated present-day global annual DP deposition flux is 0.45 Tg-P yr-1 (about 40 % over oceans), showing a strong spatial and temporal variability. Present-day simulations of atmospheric P aerosol concentrations and deposition fluxes are satisfactory compared with available observations, indicating however an underestimate of about 70 % on current knowledge of the sources that drive the P atmospheric cycle. Sensitivity simulations using preindustrial (year 1850) anthropogenic and biomass burning emission scenarios showed a present-day increase of 75 % in the P solubilization flux from mineral dust, i.e., the rate at which P is converted into soluble forms, compared to preindustrial times, due to increasing atmospheric acidity over the last 150 years. Future reductions in air pollutants due to the implementation of air-quality regulations are expected to decrease the P solubilization flux from mineral dust by about 30 % in the year 2100 compared to the present day. Considering, however, that all the P contained in bioaerosols is readily available for uptake by marine organisms, and also accounting for all other DP sources, a total

  5. Modelling Monsoons: Understanding and Predicting Current and Future Behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, A; Sperber, K R; Slingo, J M; Meehl, G A; Mechoso, C R; Kimoto, M; Giannini, A

    2008-09-16

    including, but not limited to, the Mei-Yu/Baiu sudden onset and withdrawal, low-level jet orientation and variability, and orographic forced rainfall. Under anthropogenic climate change many competing factors complicate making robust projections of monsoon changes. Without aerosol effects, increased land-sea temperature contrast suggests strengthened monsoon circulation due to climate change. However, increased aerosol emissions will reflect more solar radiation back to space, which may temper or even reduce the strength of monsoon circulations compared to the present day. A more comprehensive assessment is needed of the impact of black carbon aerosols, which may modulate that of other anthropogenic greenhouse gases. Precipitation may behave independently from the circulation under warming conditions in which an increased atmospheric moisture loading, based purely on thermodynamic considerations, could result in increased monsoon rainfall under climate change. The challenge to improve model parameterizations and include more complex processes and feedbacks pushes computing resources to their limit, thus requiring continuous upgrades of computational infrastructure to ensure progress in understanding and predicting the current and future behavior of monsoons.

  6. Bidimensional characterization of the emission spectra in a direct current atmospheric pressure glow discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orejas, Jaime; Pisonero, Jorge; Bordel, Nerea; Nelis, Thomas; Guillot, Philippe; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2012-01-01

    An in-house atmospheric pressure glow discharge source, designed to be used as ionization/desorption source for ambient mass spectrometry, has been electrically characterized, and its optical emission spectra evaluated in detail. Electrical characterization showed that the plasma regime can vary from glow discharge to arc discharge depending on operating conditions (i.e. He flow rate and inter electrode distance). Furthermore, bidimensional images of the optical emission of some plasma species using filters as wavelength selectors, were registered from inside and outside the discharge chamber (inner region and afterglow region respectively), showing the spatial distribution of excited species (i.e. He*, N 2 + and O*). These distribution patterns are useful to study the chemistry of the discharge plasma, since different production pathways and different excitation energies affect the presence of these species in the plasma regions. - Highlights: ► An in-house APGD is characterized through electrical and OES measurements. ► Interelectrode distance had more effect on electric regime than He flow rate. ► Internal plume images showed differences on the production pathways for each species. ► Higher interelectrode distances and He flow rates showed better afterglow conditions.

  7. Bidimensional characterization of the emission spectra in a direct current atmospheric pressure glow discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orejas, Jaime [University of Oviedo, Department of Physics, C/ Gonzazlez Quiros S/N, Mieres (Spain); Pisonero, Jorge, E-mail: pisonerojorge@uniovi.es [University of Oviedo, Department of Physics, C/ Gonzazlez Quiros S/N, Mieres (Spain); Bordel, Nerea [University of Oviedo, Department of Physics, C/ Gonzazlez Quiros S/N, Mieres (Spain); Nelis, Thomas [Bern University of Applied Sciences, Quellgasse 21, 2501 Bienne (Switzerland); Guillot, Philippe [DPHE, CUFR J. F. Champollion, Universite de Toulouse, Place de Verdun, Albi (France); Sanz-Medel, Alfredo, E-mail: asm@uniovi.es [University of Oviedo, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, C/ Julian Claveria 8, Oviedo (Spain)

    2012-10-15

    An in-house atmospheric pressure glow discharge source, designed to be used as ionization/desorption source for ambient mass spectrometry, has been electrically characterized, and its optical emission spectra evaluated in detail. Electrical characterization showed that the plasma regime can vary from glow discharge to arc discharge depending on operating conditions (i.e. He flow rate and inter electrode distance). Furthermore, bidimensional images of the optical emission of some plasma species using filters as wavelength selectors, were registered from inside and outside the discharge chamber (inner region and afterglow region respectively), showing the spatial distribution of excited species (i.e. He*, N{sub 2}{sup +} and O*). These distribution patterns are useful to study the chemistry of the discharge plasma, since different production pathways and different excitation energies affect the presence of these species in the plasma regions. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An in-house APGD is characterized through electrical and OES measurements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interelectrode distance had more effect on electric regime than He flow rate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Internal plume images showed differences on the production pathways for each species. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Higher interelectrode distances and He flow rates showed better afterglow conditions.

  8. Historical and current use of spanish moss as a monitor of atmospheric trace metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitten, M.L.; Mossler, M.A.; Kosalwat, P.; Newman, J.R. [KBN Engineering and Applied Sciences, Inc., Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Spanish moss (Tillandsia usnesoides) is an epiphytic member of the pineapple family, Historically, tissue levels in this plant have illustrated the elevated concentration of lead near well traveled roads, as well as nickel and tin in the vicinity of battery fabrication or smelting facilities, respectively. From a survey of Spanish moss plants growing throughout the Southeast, mercury at or slightly above the limit of detection was present in eight of 128 samples. Five of these samples were collected in Florida. As part of a biomonitoring project, Spanish moss was collected from 1991 to 1993 around a waste-to-energy facility in Lake County, Florida, After three years, the percentage of Spanish moss samples which contained detectable levels of arsenic and cadmium decreased over time. Lead was detected in all samples collected throughout the monitoring period, but the mean concentration decreased from 3.7 mg/kg on a dry weight basis (1991) to 1.4 mg/kg (1993). This trend in lead levels may indicate clearance that is occurring due to the discontinuation of leaded gasoline. The percentage of moss samples containing mercury above the limit of detection increased from 67% (1991) to 97% (1993); however, mean concentrations do not support a trend in increasing concentration of this element (0.30 mg/kg on a fresh weight basis in 1991 vs. 0.19 mg/kg in 1993). Apparently, atmospheric metal concentrations are not increasing in the vicinity of the facility at this time.

  9. Microwave propagation and remote sensing atmospheric influences with models and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Karmakar, Pranab Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Because prevailing atmospheric/troposcopic conditions greatly influence radio wave propagation above 10 GHz, the unguided propagation of microwaves in the neutral atmosphere can directly impact many vital applications in science and engineering. These include transmission of intelligence, and radar and radiometric applications used to probe the atmosphere, among others. Where most books address either one or the other, Microwave Propagation and Remote Sensing: Atmospheric Influences with Models and Applications melds coverage of these two subjects to help readers develop solutions to the problems they present. This reference offers a brief, elementary account of microwave propagation through the atmosphere and discusses radiometric applications in the microwave band used to characterize and model atmospheric constituents, which is also known as remote sensing. Summarizing the latest research results in the field, as well as radiometric models and measurement methods, this book covers topics including: Free sp...

  10. Atmospheric modelling and prediction at time scales from days to seasons

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Landman, WA

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available to seasonal forecasts, and produce multi-decadal climate change projections. This paper focuses on the shorter time-range from days to seasons. The conformal-cubic atmospheric model (CCAM) is an atmospheric global circulation model (AGCM) that can operate...

  11. Atmospheric models in the numerical simulation system (SPEEDI-MP) for environmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Haruyasu; Terada, Hiroaki

    2007-01-01

    As a nuclear emergency response system, numerical models to predict the atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides have been developed at Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). Evolving these models by incorporating new schemes for physical processes and up-to-date computational technologies, a numerical simulation system, which consists of dynamical models and material transport models for the atmospheric, terrestrial, and oceanic environments, has been constructed to apply for various environmental studies. In this system, the combination of a non-hydrostatic atmospheric dynamic model and Lagrangian particle dispersion model is used for the emergency response system. The utilization of detailed meteorological field by the atmospheric model improves the model performance for diffusion and deposition calculations. It also calculates a large area domain with coarse resolution and local area domain with high resolution simultaneously. The performance of new model system was evaluated using measurements of surface deposition of 137 Cs over Europe during the Chernobyl accident. (author)

  12. Self-consistent atmosphere modeling with cloud formation for low-mass stars and exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juncher, Diana; Jørgensen, Uffe G.; Helling, Christiane

    2017-12-01

    Context. Low-mass stars and extrasolar planets have ultra-cool atmospheres where a rich chemistry occurs and clouds form. The increasing amount of spectroscopic observations for extrasolar planets requires self-consistent model atmosphere simulations to consistently include the formation processes that determine cloud formation and their feedback onto the atmosphere. Aims: Our aim is to complement the MARCS model atmosphere suit with simulations applicable to low-mass stars and exoplanets in preparation of E-ELT, JWST, PLATO and other upcoming facilities. Methods: The MARCS code calculates stellar atmosphere models, providing self-consistent solutions of the radiative transfer and the atmospheric structure and chemistry. We combine MARCS with a kinetic model that describes cloud formation in ultra-cool atmospheres (seed formation, growth/evaporation, gravitational settling, convective mixing, element depletion). Results: We present a small grid of self-consistently calculated atmosphere models for Teff = 2000-3000 K with solar initial abundances and log (g) = 4.5. Cloud formation in stellar and sub-stellar atmospheres appears for Teff day-night energy transport and no temperature inversion.

  13. Historical and current atmospheric deposition to the epilithic lichen Xanthoparmelia in Maricopa County, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zschau, T.; Getty, S.; Gries, C.; Ameron, Y.; Zambrano, A.; Nash, T.H

    2003-09-01

    Spatial variation of elemental deposition to lichen receptors across Maricopa County, Arizona, USA is documented for 1998 and historical trends relative to 1974 are documented. - Spatial patterns of atmospheric deposition of trace elements to an epilithic lichen were assessed using a spatial grid of 28 field sites in 1998 throughout Maricopa County, Arizona, USA. In addition, samples of Xanthoparmelia spp. from Arizona State University lichen herbarium material (1975-1976) was utilized for a limited number of sites in order to explore temporal trends. The lichen material was cleaned, wet digested and analyzed by ICP-MS for a suite of elemental concentrations [antimony (Sb), cadmium (Cd), cerium (Ce), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), dysprosium (Dy), europium (Eu), gadolinium (Gd), gold (Au), holmium (Ho), lead (Pb), lutetium (Lu), neodymium (Nd), nickel (Ni), palladium (Pd), platinum (Pt), praseodymium (Pr), samarium (Sm), scandium (Sc), silver (Ag), terbium (Tb), thulium (Tm), tin (Sn), uranium (U), ytterbium (Yb), yttrium (Y), and zinc (Zn)]. Cluster analysis and principal component analysis suggest three major factors, which, depending on regional aerosol fractionation, explain most of the variation in elemental signatures: (1) a group of widely distributed rare earth elements (2) a highly homogenous Co, Cr, Ni, and Sc component representing the influence of mafic rocks, and (3) anthropogenic emissions. Elemental concentrations in Maricopa County lichens were generally comparable to those reported for relatively unpolluted areas. Only highly urbanized regions, such as the greater Phoenix Metropolitan Area and the NW corner of the county, exhibited elevated concentrations for Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd. Lead levels in lichens have fallen over the last 30 years by 71%, while Zn concentrations for some regions have increased by as much as 245%. From the spatial pattern of elemental deposition for Cd, Cu, Ni, Pr, Pb, and Cu, we infer that agriculture, mining

  14. Historical and current atmospheric deposition to the epilithic lichen Xanthoparmelia in Maricopa County, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zschau, T.; Getty, S.; Gries, C.; Ameron, Y.; Zambrano, A.; Nash, T.H.

    2003-01-01

    Spatial variation of elemental deposition to lichen receptors across Maricopa County, Arizona, USA is documented for 1998 and historical trends relative to 1974 are documented. - Spatial patterns of atmospheric deposition of trace elements to an epilithic lichen were assessed using a spatial grid of 28 field sites in 1998 throughout Maricopa County, Arizona, USA. In addition, samples of Xanthoparmelia spp. from Arizona State University lichen herbarium material (1975-1976) was utilized for a limited number of sites in order to explore temporal trends. The lichen material was cleaned, wet digested and analyzed by ICP-MS for a suite of elemental concentrations [antimony (Sb), cadmium (Cd), cerium (Ce), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), dysprosium (Dy), europium (Eu), gadolinium (Gd), gold (Au), holmium (Ho), lead (Pb), lutetium (Lu), neodymium (Nd), nickel (Ni), palladium (Pd), platinum (Pt), praseodymium (Pr), samarium (Sm), scandium (Sc), silver (Ag), terbium (Tb), thulium (Tm), tin (Sn), uranium (U), ytterbium (Yb), yttrium (Y), and zinc (Zn)]. Cluster analysis and principal component analysis suggest three major factors, which, depending on regional aerosol fractionation, explain most of the variation in elemental signatures: (1) a group of widely distributed rare earth elements (2) a highly homogenous Co, Cr, Ni, and Sc component representing the influence of mafic rocks, and (3) anthropogenic emissions. Elemental concentrations in Maricopa County lichens were generally comparable to those reported for relatively unpolluted areas. Only highly urbanized regions, such as the greater Phoenix Metropolitan Area and the NW corner of the county, exhibited elevated concentrations for Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd. Lead levels in lichens have fallen over the last 30 years by 71%, while Zn concentrations for some regions have increased by as much as 245%. From the spatial pattern of elemental deposition for Cd, Cu, Ni, Pr, Pb, and Cu, we infer that agriculture, mining

  15. Current-voltage model of LED light sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beczkowski, Szymon; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2012-01-01

    Amplitude modulation is rarely used for dimming light-emitting diodes in polychromatic luminaires due to big color shifts caused by varying magnitude of LED driving current and nonlinear relationship between intensity of a diode and driving current. Current-voltage empirical model of light...

  16. Fair weather atmospheric electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, R G

    2011-01-01

    Not long after Franklin's iconic studies, an atmospheric electric field was discovered in 'fair weather' regions, well away from thunderstorms. The origin of the fair weather field was sought by Lord Kelvin, through development of electrostatic instrumentation and early data logging techniques, but was ultimately explained through the global circuit model of C.T.R. Wilson. In Wilson's model, charge exchanged by disturbed weather electrifies the ionosphere, and returns via a small vertical current density in fair weather regions. New insights into the relevance of fair weather atmospheric electricity to terrestrial and planetary atmospheres are now emerging. For example, there is a possible role of the global circuit current density in atmospheric processes, such as cloud formation. Beyond natural atmospheric processes, a novel practical application is the use of early atmospheric electrostatic investigations to provide quantitative information on past urban air pollution.

  17. Modeling study on the effects of pulse rise rate in atmospheric pulsed discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan-Tao; Wang, Yan-Hui

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we present a modeling study on the discharge characteristics driven by short pulsed voltages, focusing on the effects of pulse rise rate based on the fluid description of atmospheric plasmas. The numerical results show that the breakdown voltage of short pulsed discharge is almost linearly dependent on the pulse rise rate, which is also confirmed by the derived equations from the fluid model. In other words, if the pulse rise rate is fixed as a constant, the simulation results clearly suggest that the breakdown voltage is almost unchanged, although the amplitude of pulsed voltage increases significantly. The spatial distribution of the electric field and electron density are given to reveal the underpinning physics. Additionally, the computational data and the analytical expression also indicate that an increased repetition frequency can effectively decrease the breakdown voltage and current density, which is consistent with the experimental observation.

  18. Modeling of air currents in the Gulf Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, T.J.; Ellis, J.S.; Foster, C.S.; Foster, K.T.; Baskett, R.L.; Nasstrom, J.S.; Schalk, W.W.

    1992-01-01

    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability modeled the wind flow in the Gulf Region in order to make projections of the Kuwait oil fires pollution dispersion. Extensive meteorological models incorporating explicit terrain influences to the flow fields were routinely employed through a six month international assessment support effort organized by the World Meteorological Organization and US scientific research agencies. Results show generally close agreement with visible imagery of the smoke plumes as detected by meteorological satellites. However, there are some examples of significant disagreement or failure of the meteorological models. These failures are most likely directly linked to missing or unavailable weather observations

  19. Inactivation of Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis by a direct-current, cold atmospheric-pressure air plasma microjet☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ye; Sun, Peng; Wu, Haiyan; Bai, Na; Wang, Ruixue; Zhu, Weidong; Zhang, Jue; Liu, Fuxiang

    2010-01-01

    Objective A direct-current, cold atmospheric-pressure air plasma microjet (PMJ) was performed to inactivate Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) in air. The process of sterilization and morphology of bacteria was observed. We wish to know the possible inactivation mechanisms of PMJ and explore a potential application in dental and other temperature sensitive treatment. Methods In this study, we employed a direct current, atmospheric pressure, cold air PMJ to inactivate bacterias. Scanning electron microscopy was employed to evaluate the morphology of S. aureus and showed rupture of cell walls after the plasma treatment and Optical emission spectrum (OES) were used to understand the possible inactivation mechanisms of PMJ. Results The inactivation rates could reach 100% in 5 min. When the distance between the exit nozzle of the PMJ device and Petri dish was extended from 1 cm to 3 cm, effective inactivation was also observed with a similar inactivation curve. Conclusion The inactivation of bacteria is attributed to the abundant reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, as well as ultroviolet radiation in the plasma. Different life spans and defensibilities of these killing agents may hold the key to understanding the different inactivation curves at different treatment distances. PMID:23554639

  20. Inactivation of Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis by a direct-current, cold atmospheric-pressure air plasma microjet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ye; Sun, Peng; Wu, Haiyan; Bai, Na; Wang, Ruixue; Zhu, Weidong; Zhang, Jue; Liu, Fuxiang

    2010-07-01

    A direct-current, cold atmospheric-pressure air plasma microjet (PMJ) was performed to inactivate Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) in air. The process of sterilization and morphology of bacteria was observed. We wish to know the possible inactivation mechanisms of PMJ and explore a potential application in dental and other temperature sensitive treatment. In this study, we employed a direct current, atmospheric pressure, cold air PMJ to inactivate bacterias. Scanning electron microscopy was employed to evaluate the morphology of S. aureus and showed rupture of cell walls after the plasma treatment and Optical emission spectrum (OES) were used to understand the possible inactivation mechanisms of PMJ. The inactivation rates could reach 100% in 5 min. When the distance between the exit nozzle of the PMJ device and Petri dish was extended from 1 cm to 3 cm, effective inactivation was also observed with a similar inactivation curve. The inactivation of bacteria is attributed to the abundant reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, as well as ultroviolet radiation in the plasma. Different life spans and defensibilities of these killing agents may hold the key to understanding the different inactivation curves at different treatment distances.

  1. MODEL FOR UNSTEADY OF DIFFUSION –ADVECTION OF RADON IN SOIL – ATMOSPHERE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parovik R.I.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We consider a mathematical model for unsteady transport of radon from the constant coefficients in the soil – atmosphere. An explicit analytical solution for this model and built at different times of his profiles.

  2. Modeling the current distribution in HTS tapes with transport current and applied magnetic field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yazawa, T.; Yazawa, Takashi; Rabbers, J.J.; Chevtchenko, O.A.; ten Haken, Bernard; ten Kate, Herman H.J.; Maeda, Hideaki

    1999-01-01

    A numerical model is developed for the current distribution in a high temperature superconducting (HTS) tape, (Bi,Pb)2Sr2 Ca2Cu3Ox-Ag, subjected to a combination of a transport current and an applied magnetic field. This analysis is based on a two-dimensional formulation of Maxwell's equations in

  3. Biophysical models of larval dispersal in the Benguela Current ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We synthesise and update results from the suite of biophysical, larval-dispersal models developed in the Benguela Current ecosystem. Biophysical models of larval dispersal use outputs of physical hydrodynamic models as inputs to individual-based models in which biological processes acting during the larval life are ...

  4. Applying geochemical signatures of atmospheric dust to distinguish current mine emissions from legacy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chenyin; Taylor, Mark Patrick

    2017-07-01

    Resolving the source of environmental contamination is the critical first step in remediation and exposure prevention. Australia's oldest silver-zinc-lead mine at Broken Hill (>130 years old) has generated a legacy of contamination and is associated with persistent elevated childhood blood lead (Pb) levels. However, the source of environmental Pb remains in dispute: current mine emissions; remobilized mine-legacy lead in soils and dusts; and natural lead from geological weathering of the gossan ore body. Multiple lines of evidence used to resolve this conundrum at Broken Hill include spatial and temporal variations in dust Pb concentrations and bioaccessibility, Pb isotopic compositions, particle morphology and mineralogy. Total dust Pb loading (mean 255 μg/m2/day) and its bioaccessibility (mean 75% of total Pb) is greatest adjacent to the active mining operations. Unweathered galena (PbS) found in contemporary dust deposits contrast markedly to Pb-bearing particles from mine-tailings and weathered gossan samples. Contemporary dust particles were more angular, had higher sulfur content and had little or no iron and manganese. Dust adjacent to the mine has Pb isotopic compositions (208Pb/207Pb: 2.3197; 206Pb/207Pb: 1.0406) that are a close match (99%) to the ore body with values slightly lower (94%) at the edge of the city. The weight of evidence supports the conclusion that contemporary dust Pb contamination in Broken Hill is sourced primarily from current mining activities and not from weathering or legacy sources.

  5. Theoretical oscillation frequencies for solar-type dwarfs from stellar models with <3D >-atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Andreas Christ Sølvsten; Weiss, Achim; Mosumgaard, Jakob Rorsted

    2017-01-01

    We present a new method for replacing the outermost layers of stellar models with interpolated atmospheres based on results from 3D simulations, in order to correct for structural inadequacies of these layers. This replacement is known as patching. Tests, based on 3D atmospheres from three......, and the mismatch in T-eff and log g between the un-patched model and patched 3D atmosphere. We find the eigen frequencies to be unaltered by the patching depth deep within the adiabatic region, while changing the patching quantity or the employed atmosphere grid leads to frequency shifts that may exceed 1 mu Hz....... Likewise, the eigen frequencies are sensitive to mismatches in T-eff or log g. A thorough investigation of the accuracy of a new scheme, for interpolating mean 3D stratifications within the atmosphere grids, is furthermore performed. Throughout large parts of the atmosphere grids, our interpolation scheme...

  6. Simulating carbon exchange using a regional atmospheric model coupled to an advanced land-surface model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ter Maat, H.W.; Hutjes, R.W.A.; Miglietta, F.; Gioli, B.; Bosveld, F.C.; Vermeulen, A.T.; Fritsch, H.

    2010-08-01

    This paper is a case study to investigate what the main controlling factors are that determine atmospheric carbon dioxide content for a region in the centre of The Netherlands. We use the Regional Atmospheric Modelling System (RAMS), coupled with a land surface scheme simulating carbon, heat and momentum fluxes (SWAPS-C), and including also submodels for urban and marine fluxes, which in principle should include the dominant mechanisms and should be able to capture the relevant dynamics of the system. To validate the model, observations are used that were taken during an intensive observational campaign in central Netherlands in summer 2002. These include flux-tower observations and aircraft observations of vertical profiles and spatial fluxes of various variables.

  7. Skill Assessment of a Spectral Ocean-Atmosphere Radiative Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Watson, W.; Casey, Nancy W.

    2009-01-01

    Ocean phytoplankton, detrital material, and water absorb and scatter light spectrally. The Ocean- Atmosphere Spectral Irradiance Model (OASIM) is intended to provide surface irradiance over the oceans with sufficient spectral resolution to support ocean ecology, biogeochemistry, and heat exchange investigations, and of sufficient duration to support inter-annual and decadal investigations. OASIM total surface irradiance (integrated 200 nm to 4 microns) was compared to in situ data and three publicly available global data products at monthly 1-degree resolution. OASIM spectrally-integrated surface irradiance had root mean square (RMS) difference= 20.1 W/sq m (about 11%), bias=1.6 W/sq m (about 0.8%), regression slope= 1.01 and correlation coefficient= 0.89, when compared to 2322 in situ observations. OASIM had the lowest bias of any of the global data products evaluated (ISCCP-FD, NCEP, and ISLSCP 11), and the best slope (nearest to unity). It had the second best RMS, and the third best correlation coefficient. OASIM total surface irradiance compared well with ISCCP-FD (RMS= 20.7 W/sq m; bias=-11.4 W/sq m, r=0.98) and ISLSCP II (RMS =25.2 W/sq m; bias= -13.8 W/sq m; r=0.97), but less well with NCEP (RMS =43.0 W/sq m ;bias=-22.6 W/sq m; x=0.91). Comparisons of OASIM photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) with PAR derived from SeaWiFS showed low bias (-1.8 mol photons /sq m/d, or about 5%), RMS (4.25 mol photons /sq m/d ' or about 12%), near unity slope (1.03) and high correlation coefficient (0.97). Coupled with previous estimates of clear sky spectral irradiance in OASIM (6.6% RMS at 1 nm resolution), these results suggest that OASIM provides reasonable estimates of surface broadband and spectral irradiance in the oceans, and can support studies on ocean ecosystems, carbon cycling, and heat exchange.

  8. Trace gas concentrations, intertropical convergence, atmospheric fronts, and ocean currents in the tropical Pacific m(Paper 8C1060)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkniss, P.E.; Rodgers, E.B.; Swinnerton, J.W.; Larson, R.E.; Lamontagne, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    Shipboard measurements of atmospheric 222 Rn, CO, and CH 4 and of dissolved CO in surface waters have been carried out in the equatorial Pacific on a cruise from Ecuador to Hawaii, Tahiti and Panama in March and April of 1974, and during transit from Los Angeles to Antarctica in November and December of 1972. The trace gas results, combined with conventional meteorological data and with satellite images from Nimbus 5 and the defense meteorological satellite project (DMSP), have provided descriptions of the intertropical convergence zones (ITCZ) near 04 0 N, 102 0 W and 03 0 N, 154 0 W in March of 1974, near 04 0 N, 86 0 W in April of 1974, and near 05 0 N, 139 0 W in November of 1972. In all cases the ITCZ seems to be located north of the south equatorial current (SEC) as shown by dissolved CO peaks in surface waters. In April of 1974 a 'second' ITCZ was observed near 01 0 S, 102 0 W just south of the SEC. A stationary front near Hawaii (20 0 N, 147 0 W) in March of 1974 was investigated. The ITCZ was marked by light shifting winds near a zone of heavy cloud cover and precipitation. In the eastern Tropical Pacific atmospheric 222 Rn increases distinctly north of the ITCZ and thus serves as an indicator for the ITCZ. CO and CH 4 do not always increase coincident with atmospheric 222 Rn. The atmospheric features of the stationary front near Hawaii are in many ways similar to those observed for the ITCZ. The front is marked by cloud cover, precipitation zone and light shifting winds. 222 Rn, CO and CH 4 increase signifantly behind the front in subsiding air which was traced back to the Asian continent. The variation of atmospheric 222 Rn, CO and CH 4 with time and geographical area over the equatorial Pacific seems to be a consequence of seasonal variations of the trade wind field and long range transport to the central Pacific from Asia and to the eastern equatorial Pacific from North and Central America

  9. Characterization and Modeling of Atmospheric Flow Within and Above Plant Canopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza Freire Grion, Livia

    upper-half of the canopy, and partially mixed conditions in the lower half of the canopy. During the night, most of the canopy (except for the upper 20%) is either partially or poorly mixed, resulting in mixing timescales of up to several hours. For the specific case of ozone, the mixing timescales observed during the day are much lower than the chemical and deposition timescales, whereas chemical processes and turbulence have comparable timescales during the night. In addition, the high day-to-day variability in mixing conditions and the fast increase in mixing during the morning transition period indicate that turbulence within the canopy needs to be properly investigated and modeled in many studies involving plant-atmosphere interactions. Motivated by the findings described above, this work proposes and tests a new approach for modeling canopy flows. Typically, vertical profiles of flow statistics are needed to represent canopy-atmosphere exchanges in chemical and biophysical processes happening within the canopy. Current single-column models provide only steady-state (equilibrium) profiles, and rely on closure assumptions that do not represent the dominant non-local turbulent fluxes present in canopy flows. We overcome these issues by adapting the one-dimensional turbulent (ODT) model to represent atmospheric flows from the ground up to the top of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). The ODT model numerically resolves the one-dimensional diffusion equation along a vertical line (representing a horizontally homogeneous ABL column), and the presence of three-dimensional turbulence is added through the effect of stochastic eddies. Simulations of ABL without canopy were performed for different atmospheric stabilities and a diurnal cycle, to test the capabilities of this modeling approach in representing unsteady flows with strong non-local transport. In addition, four different types of canopies were simulated, one of them including the transport of scalar with a point

  10. Reference dataset of volcanic ash physicochemical and optical properties for atmospheric measurement retrievals and transport modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Andreas; Durant, Adam; Sytchkova, Anna; Diplas, Spyros; Bonadonna, Costanza; Scarnato, Barbara; Krüger, Kirstin; Kylling, Arve; Kristiansen, Nina; Stohl, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Explosive volcanic eruptions emit up to 50 wt.% (total erupted mass) of fine ash particles (estimates of the volcanic source term and the nature of the constituent volcanic ash properties. Consequently, it is important to include a quantitative assessment of measurement uncertainties of ash properties to provide realistic ash forecast uncertainty. Currently, information on volcanic ash physicochemical and optical properties is derived from a small number of somewhat dated publications. In this study, we provide a reference dataset for physical (size distribution and shape), chemical (bulk vs. surface chemistry) and optical properties (complex refractive index in the UV-vis-NIR range) of a representative selection of volcanic ash samples from 10 different volcanic eruptions covering the full variability in silica content (40-75 wt.% SiO2). Through the combination of empirical analytical methods (e.g., image analysis, Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy and UV/Vis/NIR/FTIR Spectroscopy) and theoretical models (e.g., Bruggeman effective medium approach), it was possible to fully capture the natural variability of ash physicochemical and optical characteristics. The dataset will be applied in atmospheric measurement retrievals and atmospheric transport modelling to determine the sensitivity to uncertainty in ash particle characteristics.

  11. Improved atmospheric dispersion modelling in the new program system UFOMOD for accident consequence assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panitz, H.J.

    1988-01-01

    An essential aim of the improvements of the new program system UFOMOD for Accident Consequence Assessments (ACAs) was to substitute the straightline Gaussian plume model conventionally used in ACA models by more realistic atmospheric dispersion models. To identify improved models which can be applied in ACA codes and to quantify the implications of different concepts of dispersion modelling on the results of an ACA, probabilistic comparative calculations with different atmospheric dispersion models have been carried out. The study showed that there are trajectory models available which can be applied in ACAs and that these trajectory models provide more realistic results of ACAs than straight-line Gaussian models. This led to a completly novel concept of atmospheric dispersion modelling which distinguish between two different distance ranges of validity: the near range ( 50 km). The two ranges are assigned to respective trajectory models

  12. Sonora: A New Generation Model Atmosphere Grid for Brown Dwarfs and Young Extrasolar Giant Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, Mark S.; Saumon, Didier; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Morley, Caroline; Lupu, Roxana Elena; Freedman, Richard; Visscher, Channon

    2017-01-01

    Brown dwarf and giant planet atmospheric structure and composition has been studied both by forward models and, increasingly so, by retrieval methods. While indisputably informative, retrieval methods are of greatest value when judged in the context of grid model predictions. Meanwhile retrieval models can test the assumptions inherent in the forward modeling procedure. In order to provide a new, systematic survey of brown dwarf atmospheric structure, emergent spectra, and evolution, we have constructed a new grid of brown dwarf model atmospheres. We ultimately aim for our grid to span substantial ranges of atmospheric metallilcity, C/O ratios, cloud properties, atmospheric mixing, and other parameters. Spectra predicted by our modeling grid can be compared to both observations and retrieval results to aid in the interpretation and planning of future telescopic observations. We thus present Sonora, a new generation of substellar atmosphere models, appropriate for application to studies of L, T, and Y-type brown dwarfs and young extrasolar giant planets. The models describe the expected temperature-pressure profile and emergent spectra of an atmosphere in radiative-convective equilibrium for ranges of effective temperatures and gravities encompassing 200 less than or equal to T(sub eff) less than or equal to 2400 K and 2.5 less than or equal to log g less than or equal to 5.5. In our poster we briefly describe our modeling methodology, enumerate various updates since our group's previous models, and present our initial tranche of models for cloudless, solar metallicity, and solar carbon-to-oxygen ratio, chemical equilibrium atmospheres. These models will be available online and will be updated as opacities and cloud modeling methods continue to improve.

  13. Improving Wind Predictions in the Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer through Parameter Estimation in a Single-Column Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jared A.; Hacker, Joshua P.; Delle Monache, Luca; Kosović, Branko; Clifton, Andrew; Vandenberghe, Francois; Rodrigo, Javier Sanz

    2016-12-14

    A current barrier to greater deployment of offshore wind turbines is the poor quality of numerical weather prediction model wind and turbulence forecasts over open ocean. The bulk of development for atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) parameterization schemes has focused on land, partly due to a scarcity of observations over ocean. The 100-m FINO1 tower in the North Sea is one of the few sources worldwide of atmospheric profile observations from the sea surface to turbine hub height. These observations are crucial to developing a better understanding and modeling of physical processes in the marine ABL. In this study, we use the WRF single column model (SCM), coupled with an ensemble Kalman filter from the Data Assimilation Research Testbed (DART), to create 100-member ensembles at the FINO1 location. The goal of this study is to determine the extent to which model parameter estimation can improve offshore wind forecasts.

  14. Black carbon ageing in the Canadian Centre for Climate modelling and analysis atmospheric general circulation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Croft

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Black carbon (BC particles in the atmosphere have important impacts on climate. The amount of BC in the atmosphere must be carefully quantified to allow evaluation of the climate effects of this type of aerosol. In this study, we present the treatment of BC aerosol in the developmental version of the 4th generation Canadian Centre for Climate modelling and analysis (CCCma atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM. The focus of this work is on the conversion of insoluble BC to soluble/mixed BC by physical and chemical ageing. Physical processes include the condensation of sulphuric and nitric acid onto the BC aerosol, and coagulation with more soluble aerosols such as sulphates and nitrates. Chemical processes that may age the BC aerosol include the oxidation of organic coatings by ozone. Four separate parameterizations of the ageing process are compared to a control simulation that assumes no ageing occurs. These simulations use 1 an exponential decay with a fixed 24h half-life, 2 a condensation and coagulation scheme, 3 an oxidative scheme, and 4 a linear combination of the latter two ageing treatments. Global BC burdens are 2.15, 0.15, 0.11, 0.21, and 0.11TgC for the control run, and four ageing schemes, respectively. The BC lifetimes are 98.1, 6.6, 5.0, 9.5, and 4.9 days, respectively. The sensitivity of modelled BC burdens, and concentrations to the factor of two uncertainty in the emissions inventory is shown to be greater than the sensitivity to the parameterization used to represent the BC ageing, except for the oxidation based parameterization. A computationally efficient parameterization that represents the processes of condensation, coagulation, and oxidation is shown to simulate BC ageing well in the CCCma AGCM. As opposed to the globally fixed ageing time scale, this treatment of BC ageing is responsive to varying atmospheric composition.

  15. Mean atmospheric temperature model estimation for GNSS meteorology using AIRS and AMSU data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rata Suwantong

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the problem of modeling the relationship between the mean atmospheric and air surface temperatures is addressed. Particularly, the major goal is to estimate the model parameters at a regional scale in Thailand. To formulate the relationship between the mean atmospheric and air surface temperatures, a triply modulated cosine function was adopted to model the surface temperature as a periodic function. The surface temperature was then converted to mean atmospheric temperature using a linear function. The parameters of the model were estimated using an extended Kalman filter. Traditionally, radiosonde data is used. In this paper, satellite data from an atmospheric infrared sounder, and advanced microwave sounding unit sensors was used because it is open source data and has global coverage with high temporal resolution. The performance of the proposed model was tested against that of a global model via an accuracy assessment of the computed GNSS-derived PWV.

  16. Simulating carbon exchange using a regional atmospheric model coupled to an advanced land-surface model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. W. Ter Maat

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a case study to investigate what the main controlling factors are that determine atmospheric carbon dioxide content for a region in the centre of The Netherlands. We use the Regional Atmospheric Modelling System (RAMS, coupled with a land surface scheme simulating carbon, heat and momentum fluxes (SWAPS-C, and including also submodels for urban and marine fluxes, which in principle should include the dominant mechanisms and should be able to capture the relevant dynamics of the system. To validate the model, observations are used that were taken during an intensive observational campaign in central Netherlands in summer 2002. These include flux-tower observations and aircraft observations of vertical profiles and spatial fluxes of various variables.

    The simulations performed with the coupled regional model (RAMS-SWAPS-C are in good qualitative agreement with the observations. The station validation of the model demonstrates that the incoming shortwave radiation and surface fluxes of water and CO2 are well simulated. The comparison against aircraft data shows that the regional meteorology (i.e. wind, temperature is captured well by the model. Comparing spatially explicitly simulated fluxes with aircraft observed fluxes we conclude that in general latent heat fluxes are underestimated by the model compared to the observations but that the latter exhibit large variability within all flights. Sensitivity experiments demonstrate the relevance of the urban emissions of carbon dioxide for the carbon balance in this particular region. The same tests also show the relation between uncertainties in surface fluxes and those in atmospheric concentrations.

  17. Modeling Effectivity of Atmospheric Advection-Diffusion Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brojewski, R.

    1999-01-01

    Some methods of solving the advection-diffusion problems useful in the field of atmospheric physics are presented and analyzed in the paper. The most effective one ( from the point of view of computer applications) was chosen. This is the method of problem decomposition with respect to the directions followed by secondary decomposition of the problem with respect to the physical phenomena. Introducing some corrections to the classical numerical methods of solving the problems, a hybrid composed of the finite element method for the advection problems and the implicit method with averaging for the diffusion processes was achieved. This hybrid method and application of the corrections produces a very effective means for solving the problems of substance transportation in atmosphere. (author)

  18. Challenges and Opportunities in Modeling of the Global Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjic, Zavisa; Djurdjevic, Vladimir; Vasic, Ratko

    2016-04-01

    Modeling paradigms on global scales may need to be reconsidered in order to better utilize the power of massively parallel processing. For high computational efficiency with distributed memory, each core should work on a small subdomain of the full integration domain, and exchange only few rows of halo data with the neighbouring cores. Note that the described scenario strongly favors horizontally local discretizations. This is relatively easy to achieve in regional models. However, the spherical geometry complicates the problem. The latitude-longitude grid with local in space and explicit in time differencing has been an early choice and remained in use ever since. The problem with this method is that the grid size in the longitudinal direction tends to zero as the poles are approached. So, in addition to having unnecessarily high resolution near the poles, polar filtering has to be applied in order to use a time step of a reasonable size. However, the polar filtering requires transpositions involving extra communications as well as more computations. The spectral transform method and the semi-implicit semi-Lagrangian schemes opened the way for application of spectral representation. With some variations, such techniques are currently dominating in global models. Unfortunately, the horizontal non-locality is inherent to the spectral representation and implicit time differencing, which inhibits scaling on a large number of cores. In this respect the lat-lon grid with polar filtering is a step in the right direction, particularly at high resolutions where the Legendre transforms become increasingly expensive. Other grids with reduced variability of grid distances, such as various versions of the cubed sphere and the hexagonal/pentagonal ("soccer ball") grids, were proposed almost fifty years ago. However, on these grids, large-scale (wavenumber 4 and 5) fictitious solutions ("grid imprinting") with significant amplitudes can develop. Due to their large scales, that

  19. Atmospheric Renewable Energy Research, Volume 5 (Solar Radiation Flux Model)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    sources, namely photovoltaic (PV) panels, to roughly determine the energy producing potential of an installation’s solar array. The implicit...power resources assembled as a single system (generator, storage, distribution and load), with the ability to run independently as an “island” and/or...atmospheric layers that will act on the solar radiation as it traverses strata. These terms are a function of cloud type, size , and density. To create a

  20. Modelling the motion of meteors in the Earth's atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Hilário

    2013-01-01

    This work discusses the motion of meteors in the Earth's atmosphere. The equations of motion of the projectile are presented and a simplified numerical approach to solve them is discussed. An algorithm for solving the equations of motion is constructed, and implemented in a very simple way using Excel software. The paper is intended as an example of the application of Newton's laws of motion at undergraduate level. (paper)

  1. Dust in the Sky: Atmospheric Composition. Modeling of Aerosol Optical Thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Mian; Ginoux, Paul; Kinne, Stefan; Torres, Omar; Holben, Brent; Duncan, Bryan; Martin, Randall; Logan, Jennifer; Higurashi, Akiko; Nakajima, Teruyuki

    2000-01-01

    Aerosol is any small particle of matter that rests suspended in the atmosphere. Natural sources, such as deserts, create some aerosols; consumption of fossil fuels and industrial activity create other aerosols. All the microscopic aerosol particles add up to a large amount of material floating in the atmosphere. You can see the particles in the haze that floats over polluted cities. Beyond this visible effect, aerosols can actually lower temperatures. They do this by blocking, or scattering, a portion of the sun's energy from reaching the surface. Because of this influence, scientists study the physical properties of atmospheric aerosols. Reliable numerical models for atmospheric aerosols play an important role in research.

  2. Modelling of the ring current in Saturn's magnetosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Giampieri

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The existence of a ring current inside Saturn's magnetosphere was first suggested by Smith et al. (1980 and Ness et al. (1981, 1982, in order to explain various features in the magnetic field observations from the Pioneer 11 and Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft. Connerney et al. (1983 formalized the equatorial current model, based on previous modelling work of Jupiter's current sheet and estimated its parameters from the two Voyager data sets. Here, we investigate the model further, by reconsidering the data from the two Voyager spacecraft, as well as including the Pioneer 11 flyby data set. First, we obtain, in closed form, an analytic expression for the magnetic field produced by the ring current. We then fit the model to the external field, that is the difference between the observed field and the internal magnetic field, considering all the available data. In general, through our global fit we obtain more accurate parameters, compared to previous models. We point out differences between the model's parameters for the three flybys, and also investigate possible deviations from the axial and planar symmetries assumed in the model. We conclude that an accurate modelling of the Saturnian disk current will require taking into account both of the temporal variations related to the condition of the magnetosphere, as well as non-axisymmetric contributions due to local time effects. Key words. Magnetospheric physics (current systems; planetary magnetospheres; plasma sheet

  3. radionuclides modelling dispersion of in the atmosphere for continuous discharges and accidental

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teyeb, Malika

    2011-01-01

    The study of the dispersion of radionuclides in the atmosphere is the subject of a physical and numerical modeling of the phenomenon of dispersion. This work aims to study the atmospheric dispersion of accidental releases and continuous, from the possible establishment of a nuclear pressurized water reactor in the potential in Bizerte and Skhira.

  4. Seasonal changes in the atmospheric heat balance simulated by the GISS general circulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, P. H.; Chow, S.; Helfand, H. M.; Quirk, W. J.; Somerville, R. C. J.

    1975-01-01

    Tests of the ability of numerical general circulation models to simulate the atmosphere have focussed so far on simulations of the January climatology. These models generally present boundary conditions such as sea surface temperature, but this does not prevent testing their ability to simulate seasonal changes in atmospheric processes that accompany presented seasonal changes in boundary conditions. Experiments to simulate changes in the zonally averaged heat balance are discussed since many simplified models of climatic processes are based solely on this balance.

  5. Results of an interactively coupled atmospheric chemistry - general circulation model. Comparison with observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hein, R.; Dameris, M.; Schnadt, C. [and others

    2000-01-01

    An interactively coupled climate-chemistry model which enables a simultaneous treatment of meteorology and atmospheric chemistry and their feedbacks is presented. This is the first model, which interactively combines a general circulation model based on primitive equations with a rather complex model of stratospheric and tropospheric chemistry, and which is computational efficient enough to allow long-term integrations with currently available computer resources. The applied model version extends from the Earth's surface up to 10 hPa with a relatively high number (39) of vertical levels. We present the results of a present-day (1990) simulation and compare it to available observations. We focus on stratospheric dynamics and chemistry relevant to describe the stratospheric ozone layer. The current model version ECHAM4.L39(DLR)/CHEM can realistically reproduce stratospheric dynamics in the Arctic vortex region, including stratospheric warming events. This constitutes a major improvement compared to formerly applied model versions. However, apparent shortcomings in Antarctic circulation and temperatures persist. The seasonal and interannual variability of the ozone layer is simulated in accordance with observations. Activation and deactivation of chlorine in the polar stratospheric vortices and their interhemispheric differences are reproduced. The consideration of the chemistry feedback on dynamics results in an improved representation of the spatial distribution of stratospheric water vapor concentrations, i.e., the simulated meriodional water vapor gradient in the stratosphere is realistic. The present model version constitutes a powerful tool to investigate, for instance, the combined direct and indirect effects of anthropogenic trace gas emissions, and the future evolution of the ozone layer. (orig.)

  6. Comparison of a hybrid model to a global model of atmospheric pressure radio-frequency capacitive discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazzaroni, C; Lieberman, M A; Lichtenberg, A J; Chabert, P

    2012-01-01

    A one-dimensional hybrid analytical-numerical global model of atmospheric pressure radio-frequency (rf) driven capacitive discharges, previously developed, is compared with a basic global model. A helium feed gas with small admixtures of oxygen is studied. For the hybrid model, the electrical characteristics are calculated analytically as a current-driven homogeneous discharge. The electron power balance is solved analytically to determine a time-varying Maxwellian electron temperature, which oscillates on the rf timescale. Averaging over the rf period yields effective rate coefficients for gas phase activated processes. For the basic global model, the electron temperature is constant in time and the sheath physics is neglected. For both models, the particle balance relations for all species are integrated numerically to determine the equilibrium discharge parameters. Variations of discharge parameters with composition and rf power are determined and compared. The rate coefficients for electron-activated processes are strongly temperature dependent, leading to significantly larger neutral and charged particle densities for the hybrid model. For small devices, finite sheath widths limit the operating regimes to low O 2 fractions. This is captured by the hybrid model but cannot be predicted from the basic global model.

  7. Modelling of atmospheric effects on the angular distribution of a backscattering peak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, B.J.; Gerstl, S.A.W.

    1987-01-01

    If off-nadir satellite sensing of vegetative surfaces is considered, understanding the angular distribution of the radiance exiting the atmosphere in all upward directions is of interest. Of particular interest is the discovery of those reflectance features which are invariant to atmospheric perturbations. When mono-directional radiation is incident on a vegetative scene a characteristic angular signature called the hot-spot is produced in the solar retro-direction. The remotely sensed hot-spot is modified by atmospheric extinction of the direct and reflected solar radiation, atmospheric backscattering, and the diffuse sky irradiance incident on the surface. It is demonstrated, however, by radiative transfer calculations through model atmospheres that at least one parameter which characterizes the canopy hot-spot, namely its angular half width, is invariant to atmospheric perturbations. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  8. Characterization of model errors in the calculation of tangent heights for atmospheric infrared limb measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ridolfi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We review the main factors driving the calculation of the tangent height of spaceborne limb measurements: the ray-tracing method, the refractive index model and the assumed atmosphere. We find that commonly used ray tracing and refraction models are very accurate, at least in the mid-infrared. The factor with largest effect in the tangent height calculation is the assumed atmosphere. Using a climatological model in place of the real atmosphere may cause tangent height errors up to ± 200 m. Depending on the adopted retrieval scheme, these errors may have a significant impact on the derived profiles.

  9. Development of regional atmospheric dynamic and air pollution models for nuclear emergency response system WSPEEDI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuno, Akiko; Yamazawa, Hiromi; Lee, Soon-Hwan; Tsujita, Yuichi; Takemiya, Hiroshi; Chino, Masamichi

    2000-01-01

    WSPEEDI (Worldwide version of System for Prediction of Environmental Emergency Dose Information) is a computer-based emergency response system to predict long-range atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides discharged into the atmosphere due to a nuclear accident. WSPEEDI has been applied to several international exercises and real events. Through such experiences, the new version of WSPEEDI aims to employ a combination of an atmospheric dynamic model and a particle random walk model for more accurate predictions. This paper describes these models, improvement of prediction and computational techniques for quick responses. (author)

  10. West Coast fish, mammal, and bird species diets - Developing end-to-end models of the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of this project is to develop spatially discrete end-to-end models of the California Current LME, linking oceanography, biogeochemistry, food web...

  11. West Coast fish, mammal, bird life history and abunance parameters - Developing end-to-end models of the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of this project is to develop spatially discrete end-to-end models of the California Current LME, linking oceanography, biogeochemistry, food web...

  12. Atmospheric transport and dispersion modeling for the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsdell, J.V.

    1991-07-01

    Radiation doses that may have resulted from operations at the Hanford Site are being estimated in the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project. One of the project subtasks, atmospheric transport, is responsible for estimating the transport, diffusion and deposition of radionuclides released to the atmosphere. This report discusses modeling transport and diffusion in the atmospheric pathway. It is divided into three major sections. The first section of the report presents the atmospheric modeling approach selected following discussion with the Technical Steering Panel that directs the HEDR Project. In addition, the section discusses the selection of the MESOI/MESORAD suite of atmospheric dispersion models that form the basis for initial calculations and future model development. The second section of the report describes alternative modeling approaches that were considered. Emphasis is placed on the family of plume and puff models that are based on Gaussian solution to the diffusion equations. The final portion of the section describes the performance of various models. The third section of the report discusses factors that bear on the selection of an atmospheric transport modeling approach for HEDR. These factors, which include the physical setting of the Hanford Site and the available meteorological data, serve as constraints on model selection. Five appendices are included in the report. 39 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Evaluation of five dry particle deposition parameterizations for incorporation into atmospheric transport models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Tanvir R.; Perlinger, Judith A.

    2017-10-01

    Despite considerable effort to develop mechanistic dry particle deposition parameterizations for atmospheric transport models, current knowledge has been inadequate to propose quantitative measures of the relative performance of available parameterizations. In this study, we evaluated the performance of five dry particle deposition parameterizations developed by Zhang et al. (2001) (Z01), Petroff and Zhang (2010) (PZ10), Kouznetsov and Sofiev (2012) (KS12), Zhang and He (2014) (ZH14), and Zhang and Shao (2014) (ZS14), respectively. The evaluation was performed in three dimensions: model ability to reproduce observed deposition velocities, Vd (accuracy); the influence of imprecision in input parameter values on the modeled Vd (uncertainty); and identification of the most influential parameter(s) (sensitivity). The accuracy of the modeled Vd was evaluated using observations obtained from five land use categories (LUCs): grass, coniferous and deciduous forests, natural water, and ice/snow. To ascertain the uncertainty in modeled Vd, and quantify the influence of imprecision in key model input parameters, a Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis was performed. The Sobol' sensitivity analysis was conducted with the objective to determine the parameter ranking from the most to the least influential. Comparing the normalized mean bias factors (indicators of accuracy), we find that the ZH14 parameterization is the most accurate for all LUCs except for coniferous forest, for which it is second most accurate. From Monte Carlo simulations, the estimated mean normalized uncertainties in the modeled Vd obtained for seven particle sizes (ranging from 0.005 to 2.5 µm) for the five LUCs are 17, 12, 13, 16, and 27 % for the Z01, PZ10, KS12, ZH14, and ZS14 parameterizations, respectively. From the Sobol' sensitivity results, we suggest that the parameter rankings vary by particle size and LUC for a given parameterization. Overall, for dp = 0.001 to 1.0 µm, friction velocity was one of

  14. Evaluation of five dry particle deposition parameterizations for incorporation into atmospheric transport models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Khan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite considerable effort to develop mechanistic dry particle deposition parameterizations for atmospheric transport models, current knowledge has been inadequate to propose quantitative measures of the relative performance of available parameterizations. In this study, we evaluated the performance of five dry particle deposition parameterizations developed by Zhang et al. (2001 (Z01, Petroff and Zhang (2010 (PZ10, Kouznetsov and Sofiev (2012 (KS12, Zhang and He (2014 (ZH14, and Zhang and Shao (2014 (ZS14, respectively. The evaluation was performed in three dimensions: model ability to reproduce observed deposition velocities, Vd (accuracy; the influence of imprecision in input parameter values on the modeled Vd (uncertainty; and identification of the most influential parameter(s (sensitivity. The accuracy of the modeled Vd was evaluated using observations obtained from five land use categories (LUCs: grass, coniferous and deciduous forests, natural water, and ice/snow. To ascertain the uncertainty in modeled Vd, and quantify the influence of imprecision in key model input parameters, a Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis was performed. The Sobol' sensitivity analysis was conducted with the objective to determine the parameter ranking from the most to the least influential. Comparing the normalized mean bias factors (indicators of accuracy, we find that the ZH14 parameterization is the most accurate for all LUCs except for coniferous forest, for which it is second most accurate. From Monte Carlo simulations, the estimated mean normalized uncertainties in the modeled Vd obtained for seven particle sizes (ranging from 0.005 to 2.5 µm for the five LUCs are 17, 12, 13, 16, and 27 % for the Z01, PZ10, KS12, ZH14, and ZS14 parameterizations, respectively. From the Sobol' sensitivity results, we suggest that the parameter rankings vary by particle size and LUC for a given parameterization. Overall, for dp  =  0.001 to 1.0

  15. Preface: Current perspectives in modelling, monitoring, and predicting geophysical fluid dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancho, Ana M.; Hernández-García, Emilio; López, Cristóbal; Turiel, Antonio; Wiggins, Stephen; Pérez-Muñuzuri, Vicente

    2018-02-01

    The third edition of the international workshop Nonlinear Processes in Oceanic and Atmospheric Flows was held at the Institute of Mathematical Sciences (ICMAT) in Madrid from 6 to 8 July 2016. The event gathered oceanographers, atmospheric scientists, physicists, and applied mathematicians sharing a common interest in the nonlinear dynamics of geophysical fluid flows. The philosophy of this meeting was to bring together researchers from a variety of backgrounds into an environment that favoured a vigorous discussion of concepts across different disciplines. The present Special Issue on Current perspectives in modelling, monitoring, and predicting geophysical fluid dynamics contains selected contributions, mainly from attendants of the workshop, providing an updated perspective on modelling aspects of geophysical flows as well as issues on prediction and assimilation of observational data and novel tools for describing transport and mixing processes in these contexts. More details on these aspects are discussed in this preface.

  16. Electromagnetic modeling method for eddy current signal analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D. H.; Jung, H. K.; Cheong, Y. M.; Lee, Y. S.; Huh, H.; Yang, D. J.

    2004-10-01

    An electromagnetic modeling method for eddy current signal analysis is necessary before an experiment is performed. Electromagnetic modeling methods consists of the analytical method and the numerical method. Also, the numerical methods can be divided by Finite Element Method(FEM), Boundary Element Method(BEM) and Volume Integral Method(VIM). Each modeling method has some merits and demerits. Therefore, the suitable modeling method can be chosen by considering the characteristics of each modeling. This report explains the principle and application of each modeling method and shows the comparison modeling programs

  17. Identifying the European fossil fuel plumes in the atmosphere over the Northeast Atlantic Region through isotopic observations and numerical modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geels, C.; Christensen, J.H.; Hansen, A.W.

    2006-01-01

    Atmospheric transport, C-14. fossil fuel CO_2, numerical modeling, the north East Atlantic Region Udgivelsesdato: 18 August......Atmospheric transport, C-14. fossil fuel CO_2, numerical modeling, the north East Atlantic Region Udgivelsesdato: 18 August...

  18. Modeling Martian Atmospheric Losses over Time: Implications for Exoplanetary Climate Evolution and Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chuanfei; Lee, Yuni; Ma, Yingjuan; Lingam, Manasvi; Bougher, Stephen; Luhmann, Janet; Curry, Shannon; Toth, Gabor; Nagy, Andrew; Tenishev, Valeriy; Fang, Xiaohua; Mitchell, David; Brain, David; Jakosky, Bruce

    2018-05-01

    In this Letter, we make use of sophisticated 3D numerical simulations to assess the extent of atmospheric ion and photochemical losses from Mars over time. We demonstrate that the atmospheric ion escape rates were significantly higher (by more than two orders of magnitude) in the past at ∼4 Ga compared to the present-day value owing to the stronger solar wind and higher ultraviolet fluxes from the young Sun. We found that the photochemical loss of atomic hot oxygen dominates over the total ion loss at the current epoch, while the atmospheric ion loss is likely much more important at ancient times. We briefly discuss the ensuing implications of high atmospheric ion escape rates in the context of ancient Mars, and exoplanets with similar atmospheric compositions around young solar-type stars and M-dwarfs.

  19. Current algebra of classical non-linear sigma models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forger, M.; Laartz, J.; Schaeper, U.

    1992-01-01

    The current algebra of classical non-linear sigma models on arbitrary Riemannian manifolds is analyzed. It is found that introducing, in addition to the Noether current j μ associated with the global symmetry of the theory, a composite scalar field j, the algebra closes under Poisson brackets. (orig.)

  20. Cardiac magnetic source imaging based on current multipole model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Fa-Kuan; Wang Qian; Hua Ning; Lu Hong; Tang Xue-Zheng; Ma Ping

    2011-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the heart current source can be reduced into a current multipole. By adopting three linear inverse methods, the cardiac magnetic imaging is achieved in this article based on the current multipole model expanded to the first order terms. This magnetic imaging is realized in a reconstruction plane in the centre of human heart, where the current dipole array is employed to represent realistic cardiac current distribution. The current multipole as testing source generates magnetic fields in the measuring plane, serving as inputs of cardiac magnetic inverse problem. In the heart-torso model constructed by boundary element method, the current multipole magnetic field distribution is compared with that in the homogeneous infinite space, and also with the single current dipole magnetic field distribution. Then the minimum-norm least-squares (MNLS) method, the optimal weighted pseudoinverse method (OWPIM), and the optimal constrained linear inverse method (OCLIM) are selected as the algorithms for inverse computation based on current multipole model innovatively, and the imaging effects of these three inverse methods are compared. Besides, two reconstructing parameters, residual and mean residual, are also discussed, and their trends under MNLS, OWPIM and OCLIM each as a function of SNR are obtained and compared. (general)

  1. Asymmetry of the Martian Current Sheet in a Multi-fluid MHD Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panoncillo, S. G.; Egan, H. L.; Dong, C.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Brain, D. A.; Jakosky, B. M.

    2017-12-01

    The solar wind carries interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) lines toward Mars, where they drape around the planet's conducting ionosphere, creating a current sheet behind the planet where the magnetic field has opposite polarity on either side. In its simplest form, the current sheet is often thought of as symmetric, extending behind the planet along the Mars-Sun line. Observations and model simulations, however, demonstrate that this idealized representation is only an approximation, and the actual scenario is much more complex. The current sheet can have 3D structure, move back and forth, and be situated dawnward or duskward of the Mars-Sun line. In this project, we utilized a library of global plasma model results for Mars consisting of a collection of multi-fluid MHD simulations where solar max/min, sub-solar longitude, and the orbital position of Mars are varied individually. The model includes Martian crustal fields, and was run for identical steady solar wind conditions. This library was created for the purpose of comparing model results to MAVEN data; we looked at the results of this model library to investigate current sheet asymmetries. By altering one variable at a time we were able to measure how these variables influence the location of the current sheet. We found that the current sheet is typically shifted toward the dusk side of the planet, and that modeled asymmetries are especially prevalent during solar min. Previous model studies that lack crustal fields have found that, for a Parker spiral IMF, the current sheet will shift dawnward, while our results typically show the opposite. This could expose certain limitations in the models used, or it could reveal an interaction between the solar wind and the plasma environment of Mars that has not yet been explored. MAVEN data may be compared to the model results to confirm the sense of the modeled asymmetry. These results help us to probe the physics controlling the Martian magnetotail and atmospheric

  2. Current algebra of WZNW models at and away from criticality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalla, E.; Forger, M.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the authors derive the current algebra of principal chiral models with a Wess-Zumino term. At the critical coupling where the model becomes conformally invariant (Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten theory), this algebra reduces to two commuting Kac-Moody algebras, while in the limit where the coupling constant is taken to zero (ordinary chiral model), we recover the current algebra of that model. In this way, the latter is explicitly realized as a deformation of the former, with the coupling constant as the deformation parameter

  3. Numerical modelling of the atmospheric mixing-layer diurnal evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molnary, L. de.

    1990-03-01

    This paper introduce a numeric procedure to determine the temporal evolution of the height, potential temperature and mixing ratio in the atmospheric mixing layer. The time and spatial derivatives were evaluated via forward in time scheme to predict the local evolution of the mixing-layer parameters, and a forward in time, upstream in space scheme to predict the evolution of the mixing-layer over a flat region with a one-dimensional advection component. The surface turbulent fluxes of sensible and latent heat were expressed using a simple sine wave that is function of the hour day and kind of the surface (water or country). (author) [pt

  4. Modeling Turbulence Generation in the Atmospheric Surface and Boundary Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    hydrostatic equation: dP dz = −ρa g −→ ∫ ZI 0 ρa dz = − 1 g ∫ dP = + 1 g [P (0)− P (ZI)]. (6.14) The pressure at the surface is... surface pressure is estimated, we can compute a vertical pressure profile using the hydrostatic equation and a selected temperature profile based on dP... surface -layer atmosphere. By surface layer what is intended is a layer of foliage plus the surface itself. That is, a flat ground surface that

  5. Longitudinal Biases in the Seychelles Dome Simulated by 34 Ocean-Atmosphere Coupled General Circulation Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagura, M.; Sasaki, W.; Tozuka, T.; Luo, J.; Behera, S. K.; Yamagata, T.

    2012-12-01

    The upwelling dome of the southern tropical Indian Ocean is examined by using simulated results from 34 ocean-atmosphere coupled general circulation models (CGCMs) including those from the phase five of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Among the current set of the 34 CGCMs, 12 models erroneously produce the upwelling dome in the eastern half of the basin while the observed Seychelles Dome is located in the southwestern tropical Indian Ocean (Figure 1). The annual mean Ekman pumping velocity is almost zero in the southern off-equatorial region in these models. This is in contrast with the observations that show Ekman upwelling as the cause of the Seychelles Dome. In the models that produce the dome in the eastern basin, the easterly biases are prominent along the equator in boreal summer and fall that cause shallow thermocline biases along the Java and Sumatra coasts via Kelvin wave dynamics and result in a spurious upwelling dome there. In addition, these models tend to overestimate (underestimate) the magnitude of annual (semiannual) cycle of thermocline depth variability in the dome region, which is another consequence of the easterly wind biases in boreal summer-fall. Compared to the CMIP3 models (Yokoi et al. 2009), the CMIP5 models are even worse in simulating the dome longitudes and magnitudes of annual and semiannual cycles of thermocline depth variability in the dome region. Considering the increasing need to understand regional impacts of climate modes, these results may give serious caveats to interpretation of model results and help in further model developments.; Figure 1: The longitudes of the shallowest annual-mean D20 in 5°S-12°S. The open and filled circles are for the observations and the CGCMs, respectively.

  6. Chemical Atmosphere-Snow-Sea Ice Interactions: defining future research in the field, lab and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Markus

    2015-04-01

    The air-snow-sea ice system plays an important role in the global cycling of nitrogen, halogens, trace metals or carbon, including greenhouse gases (e.g. CO2 air-sea flux), and therefore influences also climate. Its impact on atmospheric composition is illustrated for example by dramatic ozone and mercury depletion events which occur within or close to the sea ice zone (SIZ) mostly during polar spring and are catalysed by halogens released from SIZ ice, snow or aerosol. Recent field campaigns in the high Arctic (e.g. BROMEX, OASIS) and Antarctic (Weddell sea cruises) highlight the importance of snow on sea ice as a chemical reservoir and reactor, even during polar night. However, many processes, participating chemical species and their interactions are still poorly understood and/or lack any representation in current models. Furthermore, recent lab studies provide a lot of detail on the chemical environment and processes but need to be integrated much better to improve our understanding of a rapidly changing natural environment. During a 3-day workshop held in Cambridge/UK in October 2013 more than 60 scientists from 15 countries who work on the physics, chemistry or biology of the atmosphere-snow-sea ice system discussed research status and challenges, which need to be addressed in the near future. In this presentation I will give a summary of the main research questions identified during this workshop as well as ways forward to answer them through a community-based interdisciplinary approach.

  7. Coupled Atmosphere-Wave-Ocean Modeling of Tropical Cyclones: Progress, Challenges, and Ways Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuyi

    2015-04-01

    /s. It is found that the air-sea fluxes are quite asymmetric around a storm with complex features representing various air-sea interaction processes in TCs. A unique observation in Typhoon Fanapi is the development of a stable boundary layer in the near-storm cold wake region, which has a direct impact on TC inner core structure and intensity. Despite of the progress, challenges remain. Air-sea momentum exchange in wind speed greater than 30-40 m/s is largely unresolved. Directional wind-wave stress and wave-current stress are difficult to determine from observations. Effects of sea spray on the air-sea fluxes are still not well understood. This talk will provide an overview on progress made in recent years, challenges we are facing, and ways forward. An integrated coupled observational and atmosphere-wave-ocean modeling system is urgently needed, in which coupled model development and targeted observations from field campaign and lab measurements together form the core of the research and prediction system. Another important aspect is that fully coupled models provide explicit, integrated impact forecasts of wind, rain, waves, ocean currents and surges in TCs and winter storms, which are missing in most current NWP models. It requires a new strategy for model development, evaluation, and verification. Ensemble forecasts using high-resolution coupled atmosphere-wave-ocean models can provide probabilistic forecasts and quantitative uncertainty estimates, which also allow us to explore new methodologies to verify probabilistic impact forecasts and evaluate model physics using a stochastic approach. Examples of such approach in TCs including Superstorm Sandy will be presented.

  8. Modeling the global atmospheric transport and deposition of mercury to the Great Lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D. Cohen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mercury contamination in the Great Lakes continues to have important public health and wildlife ecotoxicology impacts, and atmospheric deposition is a significant ongoing loading pathway. The objective of this study was to estimate the amount and source-attribution for atmospheric mercury deposition to each lake, information needed to prioritize amelioration efforts. A new global, Eulerian version of the HYSPLIT-Hg model was used to simulate the 2005 global atmospheric transport and deposition of mercury to the Great Lakes. In addition to the base case, 10 alternative model configurations were used to examine sensitivity to uncertainties in atmospheric mercury chemistry and surface exchange. A novel atmospheric lifetime analysis was used to characterize fate and transport processes within the model. Model-estimated wet deposition and atmospheric concentrations of gaseous elemental mercury (Hg(0 were generally within ∼10% of measurements in the Great Lakes region. The model overestimated non-Hg(0 concentrations by a factor of 2–3, similar to other modeling studies. Potential reasons for this disagreement include model inaccuracies, differences in atmospheric Hg fractions being compared, and the measurements being biased low. Lake Erie, downwind of significant local/regional emissions sources, was estimated by the model to be the most impacted by direct anthropogenic emissions (58% of the base case total deposition, while Lake Superior, with the fewest upwind local/regional sources, was the least impacted (27%. The U.S. was the largest national contributor, followed by China, contributing 25% and 6%, respectively, on average, for the Great Lakes. The contribution of U.S. direct anthropogenic emissions to total mercury deposition varied between 46% for the base case (with a range of 24–51% over all model configurations for Lake Erie and 11% (range 6–13% for Lake Superior. These results illustrate the importance of atmospheric

  9. Modelling the atmospheric dispersion of foot-and-mouth disease virus for emergency preparedness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, J.H.; Jensen, C.O.; Mikkelsen, T.

    2001-01-01

    A model system for simulating airborne spread of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is described. The system includes a virus production model and the local- and mesoscale atmospheric dispersion model RIMPUFF linked to the LINCOM local-scale Row model. LINCOM is used to calculate the sub-grid scale Row...

  10. Interannual Tropical Rainfall Variability in General Circulation Model Simulations Associated with the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperber, K. R.; Palmer, T. N.

    1996-11-01

    The interannual variability of rainfall over the Indian subcontinent, the African Sahel, and the Nordeste region of Brazil have been evaluated in 32 models for the period 1979-88 as part of the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP). The interannual variations of Nordeste rainfall are the most readily captured, owing to the intimate link with Pacific and Atlantic sea surface temperatures. The precipitation variations over India and the Sahel are less well simulated. Additionally, an Indian monsoon wind shear index was calculated for each model. Evaluation of the interannual variability of a wind shear index over the summer monsoon region indicates that the models exhibit greater fidelity in capturing the large-scale dynamic fluctuations than the regional-scale rainfall variations. A rainfall/SST teleconnection quality control was used to objectively stratify model performance. Skill scores improved for those models that qualitatively simulated the observed rainfall/El Niño- Southern Oscillation SST correlation pattern. This subset of models also had a rainfall climatology that was in better agreement with observations, indicating a link between systematic model error and the ability to simulate interannual variations.A suite of six European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) AMIP runs (differing only in their initial conditions) have also been examined. As observed, all-India rainfall was enhanced in 1988 relative to 1987 in each of these realizations. All-India rainfall variability during other years showed little or no predictability, possibly due to internal chaotic dynamics associated with intraseasonal monsoon fluctuations and/or unpredictable land surface process interactions. The interannual variations of Nordeste rainfall were best represented. The State University of New York at Albany/National Center for Atmospheric Research Genesis model was run in five initial condition realizations. In this model, the Nordeste rainfall

  11. Numerical Modelling of Fire-Atmosphere Interactions and the 2003 Canberra Bushfires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, C.; Sturman, A.; Zawar-Reza, P.

    2010-12-01

    It is well known that the behaviour of a wildland fire is strongly associated with the conditions of its surrounding atmosphere. However, the two-way interactions between fire behaviour and the atmospheric conditions are not well understood. A numerical model is used to simulate wildland fires so that the nature of these fire-atmosphere interactions, and how they might affect fire behaviour, can be further investigated. The 2003 Canberra bushfires are used as a case study due to their highly destructive and unusual behaviour. On the 18th January 2003, these fires spread to the urban suburbs of Canberra, resulting in the loss of four lives and the destruction of over 500 homes. Fire-atmosphere interactions are believed to have played an important role in making these fires so destructive. WRF-Fire is used to perform real data simulations of the 2003 Canberra bushfires. WRF-Fire is a coupled fire-atmosphere model, which combines a semi-empirical fire spread model with an atmospheric model, allowing it to directly simulate the two-way interactions between a fire and its surrounding atmosphere. These simulations show the impact of the presence of a fire on conditions within the atmospheric boundary layer. This modification of the atmosphere, resulting from the injection of heat and moisture released by the fire, appears to have a direct feedback onto the overall fire behaviour. The bushfire simulations presented in this paper provide important scientific insights into the nature of fire-atmosphere interactions for a real situation. It is expected that they will also help fire managers in Australia to better understand why the 2003 Canberra bushfires were so destructive, as well as to gain improved insight into bushfire behaviour in general.

  12. Impacts of the Mesoscale Ocean-Atmosphere Coupling on the Peru-Chile Ocean Dynamics: The Current-Induced Wind Stress Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oerder, V.; Colas, F.; Echevin, V.; Masson, S.; Lemarié, F.

    2018-02-01

    The ocean dynamical responses to the surface current-wind stress interaction at the oceanic mesoscale are investigated in the South-East Pacific using a high-resolution regional ocean-atmosphere coupled model. Two simulations are compared: one includes the surface current in the wind stress computation while the other does not. In the coastal region, absolute wind velocities are different between the two simulations but the wind stress remains very similar. As a consequence, the mean regional oceanic circulation is almost unchanged. On the contrary, the mesoscale activity is strongly reduced when taking into account the effect of the surface current on the wind stress. This is caused by a weakening of the eddy kinetic energy generation near the coast by the wind work and to intensified offshore eddy damping. We show that, above coherent eddies, the current-stress interaction generates eddy damping through Ekman pumping and eddy kinetic energy dissipation through wind work. This alters significantly the coherent eddy vertical structures compared with the control simulation, weakening the temperature and vorticity anomalies and increasing strongly the vertical velocity anomalies associated to eddies.

  13. Evaluating 20th Century precipitation characteristics between multi-scale atmospheric models with different land-atmosphere coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, M.; Denning, A. S.; Randall, D. A.; Branson, M.

    2016-12-01

    Multi-scale models of the atmosphere provide an opportunity to investigate processes that are unresolved by traditional Global Climate Models while at the same time remaining viable in terms of computational resources for climate-length time scales. The MMF represents a shift away from large horizontal grid spacing in traditional GCMs that leads to overabundant light precipitation and lack of heavy events, toward a model where precipitation intensity is allowed to vary over a much wider range of values. Resolving atmospheric motions on the scale of 4 km makes it possible to recover features of precipitation, such as intense downpours, that were previously only obtained by computationally expensive regional simulations. These heavy precipitation events may have little impact on large-scale moisture and energy budgets, but are outstanding in terms of interaction with the land surface and potential impact on human life. Three versions of the Community Earth System Model were used in this study; the standard CESM, the multi-scale `Super-Parameterized' CESM where large-scale parameterizations have been replaced with a 2D cloud-permitting model, and a multi-instance land version of the SP-CESM where each column of the 2D CRM is allowed to interact with an individual land unit. These simulations were carried out using prescribed Sea Surface Temperatures for the period from 1979-2006 with daily precipitation saved for all 28 years. Comparisons of the statistical properties of precipitation between model architectures and against observations from rain gauges were made, with specific focus on detection and evaluation of extreme precipitation events.

  14. GFDL CM2.1 Global Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Model Water ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. GFDL CM2.1 Global Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Model Water Hosing Experiment with 1 Sv equivalent of Freshening Control Expt: 100 yrs After Hosing: 300 yrs.

  15. Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Regional Atmospheric Model: Maui-Oahu

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale numerical weather prediction model 7-day hourly forecast for the region surrounding the Hawaiian islands of Oahu,...

  16. Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Regional Atmospheric Model: Main Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale numerical weather prediction model 7-day hourly forecast for the region surrounding the Main Hawaiian Islands (MHI)...

  17. Software Test Description (STD) for the Globally Relocatable Navy Tide/Atmospheric Modeling System (PCTides)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Posey, Pamela

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this Software Test Description (STD) is to establish formal test cases to be used by personnel tasked with the installation and verification of the Globally Relocatable Navy Tide/Atmospheric Modeling System (PCTides...

  18. Land Surface Model (LSM 1.0) for Ecological, Hydrological, Atmospheric Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NCAR LSM 1.0 is a land surface model developed to examine biogeophysical and biogeochemical land-atmosphere interactions, especially the effects of land surfaces...

  19. Puff-plume atmospheric deposition model for use at SRP in emergency-response situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, A.J.; Murphy, C.E. Jr.

    1981-05-01

    An atmospheric transport and diffusion model developed for real-time calculation of the location and concentration of toxic or radioactive materials during an accidental release was improved by including deposition calculations

  20. Modeling of radiation transport in coupled atmosphere-snow-ice-ocean systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamnes, K.; Hamre, B.; Stamnes, J. J.; Ryzhikov, G.; Biryulina, M.

    2009-01-01

    A radiative transfer model for coupled atmosphere-snow-ice-ocean systems is used to develop accurate and efficient tools for computing the BRDF of sea ice for a wide range of situations occurring in nature. (authors)

  1. MAPSS: Mapped Atmosphere-Plant-Soil System Model, Version 1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: MAPSS (Mapped Atmosphere-Plant-Soil System) is a landscape to global vegetation distribution model that was developed to simulate the potential biosphere...

  2. MAPSS: Mapped Atmosphere-Plant-Soil System Model, Version 1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MAPSS (Mapped Atmosphere-Plant-Soil System) is a landscape to global vegetation distribution model that was developed to simulate the potential biosphere impacts and...

  3. Development of an advanced atmospheric/transport model for emerge