WorldWideScience

Sample records for current astronomical research

  1. Astronomical Research Using Virtual Observatories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Tanaka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Virtual Observatory (VO for Astronomy is a framework that empowers astronomical research by providing standard methods to find, access, and utilize astronomical data archives distributed around the world. VO projects in the world have been strenuously developing VO software tools and/or portal systems. Interoperability among VO projects has been achieved with the VO standard protocols defined by the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA. As a result, VO technologies are now used in obtaining astronomical research results from a huge amount of data. We describe typical examples of astronomical research enabled by the astronomical VO, and describe how the VO technologies are used in the research.

  2. Astronomical Research Institute Photometric Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Tyler R.; Sampson, Ryan; Holmes, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The Astronomical Research Institute (ARI) conducts astrometric and photometric studies of asteroids with a concentration on near-Earth objects (NEOs). A 0.76-m autoscope was used for photometric studies of seven asteroids of which two were main-belt targets and five were NEOs, including one potentially hazardous asteroid (PHA). These objects are: 3122 Florence, 3960 Chaliubieju, 5143 Heracles, (6455) 1992 HE, (36284) 2000 DM8, (62128) 2000 SO1, and 2010 LF86.

  3. A SURVEY OF ASTRONOMICAL RESEARCH: A BASELINE FOR ASTRONOMICAL DEVELOPMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, V. A. R. M.; Russo, P.; Cárdenas-Avendaño, A.

    2013-01-01

    Measuring scientific development is a difficult task. Different metrics have been put forward to evaluate scientific development; in this paper we explore a metric that uses the number of peer-reviewed, and when available non-peer-reviewed, research articles as an indicator of development in the field of astronomy. We analyzed the available publication record, using the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory/NASA Astrophysics Database System, by country affiliation in the time span between 1950 and 2011 for countries with a gross national income of less than 14,365 USD in 2010. This represents 149 countries. We propose that this metric identifies countries in ''astronomical development'' with a culture of research publishing. We also propose that for a country to develop in astronomy, it should invest in outside expert visits, send its staff abroad to study, and establish a culture of scientific publishing. Furthermore, we propose that this paper may be used as a baseline to measure the success of major international projects, such as the International Year of Astronomy 2009

  4. Astronomy Legacy Project - Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Thurburn; Castelaz, Michael W.; Rottler, Lee; Cline, J. Donald

    2016-01-01

    Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI) is a not-for-profit public foundation in North Carolina dedicated to providing hands-on educational and research opportunities for a broad cross-section of users in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) disciplines. In November 2007 a Workshop on a National Plan for Preserving Astronomical Photographic Data (2009ASPC,410,33O, Osborn, W. & Robbins, L) was held at PARI. The result was the establishment of the Astronomical Photographic Data Archive (APDA) at PARI. In late 2013 PARI began ALP (Astronomy Legacy Project). ALP's purpose is to digitize an extensive set of twentieth century photographic astronomical data housed in APDA. Because of the wide range of types of plates, plate dimensions and emulsions found among the 40+ collections, plate digitization will require a versatile set of scanners and digitizing instruments. Internet crowdfunding was used to assist in the purchase of additional digitization equipment that were described at AstroPlate2014 Plate Preservation Workshop (www.astroplate.cz) held in Prague, CZ, March, 2014. Equipment purchased included an Epson Expression 11000XL scanner and two Nikon D800E cameras. These digital instruments will compliment a STScI GAMMA scanner now located in APDA. GAMMA will be adapted to use an electroluminescence light source and a digital camera with a telecentric lens to achieve high-speed high-resolution scanning. The 1μm precision XY stage of GAMMA will allow very precise positioning of the plate stage. Multiple overlapping CCD images of small sections of each plate, tiles, will be combined using a photo-mosaic process similar to one used in Harvard's DASCH project. Implementation of a software pipeline for the creation of a SQL database containing plate images and metadata will be based upon APPLAUSE as described by Tuvikene at AstroPlate2014 (www.astroplate.cz/programs/).

  5. Lessons from the masters current concepts in astronomical image processing

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    There are currently thousands of amateur astronomers around the world engaged in astrophotography at increasingly sophisticated levels. Their ranks far outnumber professional astronomers doing the same and their contributions both technically and artistically are the dominant drivers of progress in the field today. This book is a unique collaboration of individuals, all world-renowned in their particular area, and covers in detail each of the major sub-disciplines of astrophotography. This approach offers the reader the greatest opportunity to learn the most current information and the latest techniques directly from the foremost innovators in the field today.   The book as a whole covers all types of astronomical image processing, including processing of eclipses and solar phenomena, extracting detail from deep-sky, planetary, and widefield images, and offers solutions to some of the most challenging and vexing problems in astronomical image processing. Recognized chapter authors include deep sky experts su...

  6. Preserving Astronomy's Photographic Legacy: Current State and the Future of North American Astronomical Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, W.; Robbins, L.

    2009-08-01

    This book contains articles on preserving astronomy's valuable heritage of photographic observations, most of which are on glass plates. It is intended to serve as a reference for institutions charged with preserving and managing plate archives and astronomers interested in using archival photographic plates in their research. The first portion of the book focuses on previous activities and recommendations related to plate archiving. These include actions taken by the International Astronomical Union, activities in Europe and a detailed account of a workshop on preserving astronomical photographic data held in 2007 at the Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute, North Carolina. The workshop discussions covered a wide range of issues that must be considered in any effort to archive plates and culminated in a set of recommendations on preserving, cataloging and making publicly available these irreplaceable data. The second part of the book reports on some recent efforts to implement the recommendations. These include essays on the recently established Astronomical Photographic Data Archive, projects to make photographic collections available electronically, evaluations of commercial scanners for digitization of astronomical plates and the case for the continuing value of these data along with a report on the census of astronomical plate collections in North America carried out in 2008. The census cataloged the locations, numbers, and types of astronomical plates in the US and Canada. Comprehensive appendices identify all the significant collections in North America and detail the current contents, state and status of their holdings.

  7. Skype Me! Astronomers, Students, and Cutting-Edge Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickox, Ryan C.; Gauthier, Adrienne J.

    2014-06-01

    A primary goal of many university science courses is to promote understanding of the process of contemporary scientific inquiry. One powerful way to achieve this is for students to explore current research and then interact directly with the leading scientist, the feasibility of which has recently increased dramatically due to free online video communication tools. We report on a program implemented at Dartmouth College in which students connect with a guest astronomer through Skype (video chat). The Skype session is wrapped in a larger activity where students explore current research articles, interact with the astronomer, and then reflect on the experience. The in-class Skype discussions require a small time commitment from scientists (20-30 minutes, with little or no need for preparation) while providing students direct access to researchers at the cutting edge of modern astronomy. We outline the procedures used to implement these discussions, and present qualitative assessments of student's understanding of the process of research, as well as feedback from the guest astronomers.

  8. Dacic Ancient Astronomical Research in Sarmizegetuza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel George Oprea

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The actual Romanian territory belongs to Carpatho-Danubian Space and to Ancient Europe. The Ancient European Society was a vast cultural entity based on a theocratic, matriarchal society, peaceful and art creating.Temples of Sarmizegetusa have given rise to several theories over time, proven by historians with the most diverse arguments. The largest complex of temples and sanctuaries was founded in Sarmizegetusa Regia, the Dacian’s main fortress and ancient capital of Dacia in the time of King Decebalus. The mysterious form of settlements has led researchers to the conclusion that the locations were astronomical observation shrines. Among the places of Dacian worship in Orastie Mountains the most impressive is the Great Circular Sanctuary, used to perform some celestial observations, and also as original solar calendar. This paper had the purpose to re-discover the Dacian Civilization and Dacian cosmogony based on the accumulated knowledge upon our country’s past.

  9. Is astronomical research appropriate for developing countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Michael S.

    An unproductive 45-cm astronomical telescope, given by JICA (Japan) to Sri Lanka, raises general questions as to the reasons for unproductive pure science in developing countries. Before installation, site, maintenance, and scientific objectives were discussed. The facility was launched with a conference organised by the UN Office for Outer Space Affairs. Unfortunately, no research or significant education has resulted after four years. The annual operating cost is U.S. $5000 per year, including salary for a trainee, maintenance, and a modest promotional programme. Comparison with a similar installation in Auckland suggests lack of funding or technical competence do not explain the failure in Sri Lanka. The facility in New Zealand, on the roof of Auckland University's Physics Department, has a slightly smaller budget but has led to modest but useful research and teaching. Lack of financial backing and expertise are often blamed for weak science in developing countries, but examination shows most of these countries have adequately skilled people, and plenty of resources for religion and military. General lack of motivation for science appears to be the principal reason. This lack of interest and highly inefficient bureaucracies are common to scientifically unproductive countries. They mostly lack the cultural and philosophical base of the European Renaissance that motivate the pursuit of modern science, an activity that violates human preferences. There are excellent facilities (ESO, SAAO, Cerro Tololo, and GONG) in some of these same countries, when administered from the West.

  10. Astronomical Research with the MicroObservatory Net

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecher, K.; Sadler, P.; Gould, R.; Leiker, S.; Antonucci, P.; Deutsch, F.

    1997-05-01

    We have developed a fully integrated automated astronomical telescope system which combines the imaging power of a cooled CCD, with a self-contained and weatherized 15 cm reflecting optical telescope and mount. The MicroObservatory Net consists of five of these telescopes. They are currently being deployed around the world at widely distributed longitudes. Remote access to the MicroObservatories over the Internet has now been implemented. Software for computer control, pointing, focusing, filter selection as well as pattern recognition have all been developed as part of the project. The telescopes can be controlled in real time or in delay mode, from a Macintosh, PC or other computer using Web-based software. The Internet address of the telescopes is http://cfa- www.harvard.edu/cfa/sed/MicroObservatory/MicroObservatory.html. In the real-time mode, individuals have access to all of the telescope control functions without the need for an `on-site' operator. Users can sign up for a specific period of ti me. In the batch mode, users can submit requests for delayed telescope observations. After a MicroObservatory completes a job, the user is automatically notified by e-mail that the image is available for viewing and downloading from the Web site. The telescopes were designed for classroom instruction, as well as for use by students and amateur astronomers for original scientific research projects. We are currently examining a variety of technical and educational questions about the use of the telescopes including: (1) What are the best approaches to scheduling real-time versus batch mode observations? (2) What criteria should be used for allocating telescope time? (3) With deployment of more than one telescope, is it advantageous for each telescope to be used for just one type of observation, i.e., some for photometric use, others for imaging? And (4) What are the most valuable applications of the MicroObservatories in astronomical research? Support for the Micro

  11. The Undergraduate Research Resources at the Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, J. Donald; Castelaz, Michael W.

    2016-01-01

    Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI), a former NASA tracking station located in western North Carolina, has been offering programs, campus, and instrument use for undergraduate research and learning experiences since 2000. Over these years, PARI has collaborated with universities and colleges in the Southeastern U.S. Sharing its campus with institutions of higher learning is a priority for PARI as part of its mission to "to providing hands-on educational and research opportunities for a broad cross-section of users in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) disciplines."PARI is a 200 acre campus for environmental, earth, geological, physical, and astronomical sciences. For example, the PARI 26-m and 4.6-m radio telescopes are excellent for teaching electromagnetic theory, spectroscopy, atomic and molecular emission processes, and general physics and astronomy concepts. The PARI campus has lab and office space, data centers with high speed internet, distance learning capabilities, radio and optical telescopes, earth science sensors, housing and cafeteria.Also, the campus is in an excellent spot for environmental and biological sciences lab and classroom experiences for students. The campus has the capability to put power and Internet access almost anywhere on its 200 acre campus so experiments can be set up in a protected area of a national forest. For example, Earthscope operates a Plate Boundary Observatory sensor on campus to measure plate tectonic motion. And, Clemson University has an instrument measuring winds and temperatures in the Thermsophere. The use of thePARI campus is limited only by the creativity faculty to provide a rich educational environment for their students. An overview of PARI will be presented along with a summary of programs, and a summary of undergraduate research experiences over the past 15 years. Access to PARI and collaboration possibilities will be presented.

  12. The Victorian Amateur Astronomer: Independent Astronomical Research in Britain 1820-1920

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Allan

    1999-01-01

    This is the first book to look in detail at amateur astronomy in Victorian Britain. It deals with the technical issues that were active in Victorian astronomy, and reviews the problems of finance, patronage and the dissemination of scientific ideas. It also examines the relationship between the amateur and professional in Britain. It contains a wealth of previously unpublished biographical and anecdotal material, and an extended bibliography with notes incorporating much new scholarship. In The Victorian Amateur Astronomer, Allan Chapman shows that while on the continent astronomical research was lavishly supported by the state, in Britain such research was paid for out of the pockets of highly educated, wealthy gentlemen the so-called Grand Amateurs . It was these powerful individuals who commissioned the telescopes, built the observatories, ran the learned societies, and often stole discoveries from their state-employed colleagues abroad. In addition to the Grand Amateurs , Victorian Britain also contained many self-taught amateurs. Although they belonged to no learned societies, these people provide a barometer of the popularity of astronomy in that age. In the late 19th century, the comfortable middle classes clergymen, lawyers, physicians and retired military officers took to astronomy as a serious hobby. They formed societies which focused on observation, lectures and discussions, and it was through this medium that women first came to play a significant role in British astronomy. Readership: Undergraduate and postgraduate students studying the history of science or humanities, professional historians of science, engineering and technology, particularly those with an interest in astronomy, the development of astronomical ideas, scientific instrument makers, and amateur astronomers.

  13. Astroinformatics, data mining and the future of astronomical research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brescia, Massimo, E-mail: longo@na.infn.it [INAF, Astronomical Obs. of Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Napoli (Italy); Longo, Giuseppe [Department of Physics, University Federico II, Via Cintia 6, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Department of Astronomy, Caltech, Pasadena (United States)

    2013-08-21

    Astronomy, as many other scientific disciplines, is facing a true data deluge which is bound to change both the praxis and the methodology of every day research work. The emerging field of astroinformatics, while on the one end appears crucial to face the technological challenges, on the other is opening new exciting perspectives for new astronomical discoveries through the implementation of advanced data mining procedures. The complexity of astronomical data and the variety of scientific problems, however, call for innovative algorithms and methods as well as for an extreme usage of ICT technologies.

  14. Astroinformatics, data mining and the future of astronomical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brescia, Massimo; Longo, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Astronomy, as many other scientific disciplines, is facing a true data deluge which is bound to change both the praxis and the methodology of every day research work. The emerging field of astroinformatics, while on the one end appears crucial to face the technological challenges, on the other is opening new exciting perspectives for new astronomical discoveries through the implementation of advanced data mining procedures. The complexity of astronomical data and the variety of scientific problems, however, call for innovative algorithms and methods as well as for an extreme usage of ICT technologies

  15. NRAO Astronomer Wins Max-Planck Research Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-01

    Dr. Christopher Carilli, a National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) astronomer in Socorro, New Mexico, has been chosen to receive the prestigious Max Planck Research Award from the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation and the Max Planck Society in Germany. Christopher Carilli Dr. Christopher Carilli Click on image for more photos CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF Carilli, a radio astronomer, and German particle physicist Christof Wetterich are the 2005 recipients of the award, conferred on "one researcher working in Germany and one working abroad who have already gained an international reputation and who are expected to produce outstanding achievements in the framework of international collaboration," according to an announcement from the Humboldt Foundation. "This is a great honor for Chris, and we are proud to see him receive such important international recognition for the excellence of his research," said NRAO Director Fred K.Y. Lo. Carilli's research has focused on studying very distant galaxies in the early Universe, and a quest to find the first luminous objects, such as stars or galaxies, to emerge. His most recent interests focus on unveiling the mysteries of what cosmologists call the "Epoch of Reionization," when the first stars and galaxies ionized the neutral hydrogen that pervaded the young Universe. Carilli and his research colleagues have used NRAO's Very Large Array and other radio telescopes to discover that the molecular raw material for star formation already was present in a galaxy seen as it was about 800 million years after the Big Bang, less than 1/16 the current age of the Universe. The Max Planck Research Award provides 750,000 Euros (currently about $900,000), to be used over five years, for research. The funding is provided by the German Ministry of Education and Research. Carilli will use the funding to support young researchers and to build scientific instrumentation, with a focus on fostering radio studies of cosmic reionization and the first

  16. A Virtual Astronomical Research Machine in No Time (VARMiNT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, John

    2012-05-01

    We present early results of using virtual machine software to help make astronomical research computing accessible to a wider range of individuals. Our Virtual Astronomical Research Machine in No Time (VARMiNT) is an Ubuntu Linux virtual machine with free, open-source software already installed and configured (and in many cases documented). The purpose of VARMiNT is to provide a ready-to-go astronomical research computing environment that can be freely shared between researchers, or between amateur and professional, teacher and student, etc., and to circumvent the often-difficult task of configuring a suitable computing environment from scratch. Thus we hope that VARMiNT will make it easier for individuals to engage in research computing even if they have no ready access to the facilities of a research institution. We describe our current version of VARMiNT and some of the ways it is being used at the University of Wisconsin - Fox Valley, a two-year teaching campus of the University of Wisconsin System, as a means to enhance student independent study research projects and to facilitate collaborations with researchers at other locations. We also outline some future plans and prospects.

  17. Conducting Original, Hands-On Astronomical Research in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corneau, M. J.

    2009-12-01

    Since 2007 I have been a Team Leader for the Tzec Maun Foundation, a non-profit foundation dedicated to providing free, research grade, Internet telescopes to students, teachers and researchers around the world. The name Tzec Maun (pronounced “Teh-Zeck-Moan”) comes from Mayan culture. Tzec Maun was the jovial messenger, laughed at adversity. Based on the challenges students, researchers and professional astronomers face with finances, equipment, and telescope access, the jovial mascot seems to fit. Hundreds of hours performing astronomical outreach as a NASA/JPL Solar System Ambassador and Astronomical League Master of outreach taught me that the best way to inspirationally teach astronomy and space science (and most subjects) is actually being at the eyepiece. I’m NOT a fan of the traditional planetarium experience as a teaching tool because it inhibits inspiration and the learning experience to a 2-D mat on a faux horizon with artificial representations. Once, a student at my dark sky observatory excitedly commented that the night sky was like a 3-D planetarium. I have hosted several classes at my own personal dark sky observatory, but this resource is impractical for all but a few lucky students. Experience has taught me that the next best thing to being at the eyepiece is to control a remote telescope via the Internet. Tzec Maun’s arsenal of telescopes is all research capable, linked to the Internet and positioned for round-the-clock dark skies. The final conditions described above, mean that I can enter an 8:30am science class, log onto the Tzec Maun telescope Portal and turn over control of an Australian system (where it is night) to a student or teacher. Working as a group, the class can either begin their investigations. My Tzec Maun science team (TARP) is engaged in searching for potentially hazardous asteroids (PHAs). PHA work excites student and teacher alike. Teaching from telescopes can unleash powerful attention-getting tools that enable

  18. High School Astronomical Research at the Army and Navy Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Pat; Boyce, Grady

    2016-06-01

    Establishment of a high school astronomy and research program is a difficult task to accomplish in an environment of state mandated high school educational curricula and the task saturation for many teachers today created by their class room and administrative requirements. This environment is most challenging for public schools. The astronomy program we will describe seems to be better suited at least at the present time for private or specialized schools. We will outline how a broad astronomy program was developed over two years at the Army and Navy Academy (ANA), a private boarding school in Carlsbad, California. Starting with no astronomy program in 2013, the Academy now has an astronomy club, a University of California a-g certified two semester high school course, and a college accredited astronomy research seminar with over 20 published high school authors.At ANA the development followed this path: finding a strong proponent at the school who can make actionable decisions; building interest and perceived value to other staff and faculty members; establishing an astronomy club to generate student interest and future student leaders; and designing the a-g certified high school course including the course length, structure and balance of teaching elements. Building on these foundations, the college level astronomy research seminar was then added to provide an avenue for inspired students to undertake actual research and publication of their work in scientific journals in their free time for college credit.Creating a sustainable program with supporting infrastructure comes next. Success with the three foundation steps builds confidence in the program with faculty and staff. Published, tangible successes highlight the value and enable advanced placement and scholarship opportunities for graduates. These successes build enthusiasm. The further keys to sustainability include addressing course credit, instructor compensation and rewards, and integration into the

  19. Current Research Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Success Home > Explore Research > Current Research Studies Current Research Studies Email Print + Share The Crohn’s & Colitis Foundation ... conducted online. Learn more about IBD Partners. Clinical Research Alliance The Clinical Research Alliance is a network ...

  20. The PACA Project: Convergence of Scientific Research, Social Media and Citizen Science in the Era of Astronomical Big Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanamandra-Fisher, Padma A.

    2015-08-01

    The Pro-Am Collaborative Astronomy (PACA) project promotes and supports the professional-amateur astronomer collaboration in scientific research via social media and has been implemented in several comet observing campaigns. In 2014, two comet observing campaigns involving pro-am collaborations were initiated: (1) C/2013 A1 (C/SidingSpring) and (2) 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (CG), target for ESA/Rosetta mission. The evolving need for individual customized observing campaigns has been incorporated into the evolution of The PACA Project that currently is focused on comets: from supporting observing campaigns of current comets, legacy data, historical comets; interconnected with social media and a set of shareable documents addressing observational strategies; consistent standards for data; data access, use, and storage, to align with the needs of professional observers in the era of astronmical big data. The empowerment of amateur astronomers vis-à-vis their partnerships with the professional scientists creates a new demographic of data scientists, enabling citizen science of the integrated data from both the professional and amateur communities.While PACA identifies a consistent collaborative approach to pro-am collaborations, given the volume of data generated for each campaign, new ways of rapid data analysis, mining access and storage are needed. Several interesting results emerged from the synergistic inclusion of both social media and amateur astronomers. The PACA Project is expanding to include pro-am collaborations on other solar system objects; allow for immersive outreach and include various types of astronomical communities, ranging from individuals, to astronmical societies and telescopic networks. Enabling citizen science research in the era of astronomical big data is a challenge which requires innovative approaches and integration of professional and amateur astronomers with data scientists and some examples of recent projects will be highlighted.

  1. The 2013 Summer Undergraduate Research Internship Program at the Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelaz, Michael W.; Cline, J. D.; Whitworth, C.; Clavier, D.; Barker, T.

    2014-01-01

    Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI) offers summer undergraduate research internships. PARI has received support for the internships from the EMC Corporation, private donations, private foundations, and through a collaboration with the Pisgah Astronomical Research and Education Center of the University of North Carolina - Asheville. The internship program began in 2001 with 4 students. This year 10 funded students participated. Mentors for the interns include PARI’s Directors of Science, Education, and Information Technology and visiting faculty who are members of the PARI Research Faculty Affiliate program. Students work with mentors on radio and optical astronomy research, electrical engineering for robotic control of instruments, software development for instrument control and and science education by developing curricula and multimedia and teaching high school students in summer programs at PARI. At the end of the summer interns write a paper about their research which is published in the PARI Summer Student Proceedings. Students are encouraged to present their research at AAS Meetings. We will present a summary of specific research conducted by the students with their mentors.

  2. The Summer Undergraduate Research Internship Program at the Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, J. Donald; Castelaz, M.; Whitworth, C.; Clavier, D.; Owen, L.; Barker, T.

    2012-01-01

    Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI) offers summer undergraduate research internships. PARI has received support for the internships from the NC Space Grant Consortium, NSF awards for public science education, private donations, private foundations, and through a collaboration with the Pisgah Astronomical Research and Education Center of the University of North Carolina - Asheville. The internship program began in 2001 with 4 students. This year 7 funded students participated in 2011. Mentors for the interns include PARI's Science, Education, and Information Technology Directors and visiting faculty who are members of the PARI Research Affiliate Faculty program. Students work with mentors on radio and optical astronomy research, electrical engineering for robotic control of instruments, software development for instrument control and software for citizen science projects, and science education by developing curricula and multimedia and teaching high school students in summer programs at PARI. At the end of the summer interns write a paper about their research which is published in the PARI Summer Student Proceedings. Several of the students have presented their results at AAS Meetings. We will present a summary of specific research conducted by the students with their mentors, the logistics for hosting the PARI undergraduate internship program, and plans for growth based on the impact of an NSF supported renovation to the Research Building on the PARI campus.

  3. Professional- Amateur Astronomer Partnerships in Scientific Research: The Re-emergence of Jupiter's 5-Micron Hot Spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanamandra-Fisher, P. A.

    2012-12-01

    The night sky, with all its delights and mysteries, enthrall professional and amateur astronomers alike. The discrete data sets acquired by professional astronomers via their approved observing programs at various national facilities are supplemented by the nearly daily observations of the same celestial object by amateur astronomers around the world. The emerging partnerships between professional and dedicated amateur astronomers rely on creating a niche for long timeline of multispectral remote sensing. "Citizen Astronomy" can be thought of as the paradigm shift transforming the nature of observational astronomy. In the past decade, it is the collective observations and their analyses by the ever-increasing global network of amateur astronomers that has discovered interesting phenomena and provided the reference backdrop for observations by ground-based professional astronomers and spacecraft missions. We shall present results from our collaborations to observe the recent global upheaval on Jupiter for the past five years and illustrate the strong synergy between the two groups. Global upheavals on Jupiter involve changes in the albedo of entire axisymmetric regions, lasting several years, with the last two occurring in 1989 and 2006. Against this backdrop of planetary-scale changes, discrete features such as the Great Red Spot (GRS), and other vortices exhibit changes on shorter spatial- and time-scales. One set of features we are currently tracking is the variability of the discrete equatorial 5-μm hot spots, semi-evenly spaced in longitude and confined to a narrow latitude band centered at 6.5°N (southern edge of the North Equatorial Belt, NEB), abundant in Voyager images (1980-1981). Tantalizingly similar patterns were observed in the visible (bright plumes and blue-gray regions), where reflectivity in the red is anti-correlated with 5-μm thermal radiance. During the recent NEB fade (2011 - early 2012), however, these otherwise ubiquitous features were

  4. 2012 Summer Research Experiences for Undergraduates at Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelaz, Michael W.; Cline, J. D.; Whitworth, C.; Clavier, D.; Owen, L.

    2013-01-01

    Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI) offers research experiences for undergraduates (REU). PARI receives support for the internships from the NC Space Grant Consortium, NSF awards, private donations, and industry partner funding. The PARI REU program began in 2001 with 4 students and has averaged 6 students per year over the past 11 years. This year PARI hosted 8 funded REU students. Mentors for the interns include PARI’s Science, Education, and Information Technology staff and visiting faculty who are members of the PARI Research Faculty Affiliate program. Students work with mentors on radio and optical astronomy research, electrical engineering for robotic control of instruments, software development for instrument control and software for citizen science projects, and science education by developing curricula and multimedia and teaching high school students in summer programs at PARI. At the end of the summer interns write a paper about their research which is published in the annually published PARI Summer Student Proceedings. Several of the students have presented their results at AAS Meetings. We will present a summary of specific research conducted by the students with their mentors and the logistics for hosting the PARI undergraduate internship program.

  5. Fluctuations of quasars and other astronomical sources: final report on New Research Initiatives Program W-210

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrell, J.

    1978-01-01

    New Research Initiatives Program W-210 produced a number of scientific results, publications, colloquia, and talks. Investigations under this program dealt with power spectra of fluctuating light sources, the apparent expansion rates of astronomical sources exploding at relativistic speed, the limits on fluctuation rates of such expanding (and nonexpanding) light sources, and related matters. Probably the most important result was a study of the time history of such an exploding light source, which showed that a widely held belief that unusually rapid fluctuations of light output would be produced in this case is not correct. This result has an important bearing on the interpretation of the redshifts of quasars and BL Lac objects, indicating that cosmological distance is very difficult to reconcile with the observations of rapid variations of luminosity. These results, and the power-spectrum results, are also of considerable interest in the study of astronomical x-ray sources. A list of publications is included

  6. Partnerships between Professional and Amateur Astronomers: A Shift in Research Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanamandra-Fisher, Padma A.; Orton, G. S.; Casquinha, P.; Coffelt, A.; Delcroix, M.; Go, C.; Hueso, R.; Jaeschke, W.; Kardasis, M.; Kraaikamp, E.; Morales, E.; Peach, D.; Rogers, J.; Wesley, A.; Willems, F.; Wilson, T.

    2012-10-01

    "Citizen Astronomy" can be thought of as the paradigm shift transforming the nature of observational astronomy. The night sky, with all its delights and mysteries, enthralls professional and amateur astronomers, and students who will form the next generation of scientists and engineers. These students are matriculating in an era of reduced funding for core competencies such as science, technology, mathematics and engineering (STEM) sciences and an ongoing general decline in these sciences. How then do we re-generate their interest and engage students while we perform cutting-edge planetary science in a fiscally constrained environment? One promising solution is to promote the emerging partnerships between professional and dedicated proficient amateur astronomers, that rely on creating a niche for long timeline of multispectral remote sensing. In the past decade, it is the collective observations and their analyses by the ever-increasing global network of amateur astronomers that has discovered interesting phenomena and provided the reference backdrop for observations by professional ground-based professional astronomers and spacecraft missions. We shall focus on our collaboration or "Citizen Astronomy: Jupiter and Saturn" for the past five years and illustrate the strong synergy between the two groups that has produced new scientific results. With the active inclusion and use of emerging social media (Facebook, Twitter, etc.), the near daily communication and updates (via email, Skype, Facebook) between the two groups is becoming a powerful tool for ground-based remote sensing. However, what is sorely lacking in this paradigm is the inclusion of teachers and students and, therefore, its inclusion in the secondary and tertiary classrooms. We will provide various scenarios to address this issue, and emphasize the various aspects of STEM learning/teaching that is necessary for students and teachers - all that can be performed at low cost; and showcase some of our

  7. Short-course Astronomical Research Seminars for High School and College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jolyon

    2011-05-01

    Since 2008, I have helped lead several short-course astronomical research seminars with Russell M. Genet. These seminars have ranged from semester-long courses at Cuesta College in San Luis Obispo, California to long weekends at the University of Oregon's Pine Mountain Observatory. Each seminar is led by an experienced observer or group of observers who guide high school and college students through the scientific process from observations to publication. The students (anywhere from half a dozen to twenty in number) participate in and contribute to every step. Being a coauthor on one or more research papers offers students an advantage on college and scholarship applications. Similarly, graduate schools often prefer students with research experience. Many topics of research are appropriate for these short-courses including variable star, exoplanet, and asteroid photometry. However, the most successful topic has been visual double stars because the observations required are straitforward and the equipment is relatively inexpensive. The Journal of Double Star Observations is also welcoming of student research and provides swift publication. A detailed description of the short-course seminars can be found in the recent Collins Foundation Press volume titled Small Telescopes and Astronomical Research.

  8. Astronomical Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuenschwander, D. E.; Finkenbinder, L. R.

    2004-05-01

    Just as quetzals and jaguars require specific ecological habitats to survive, so too must planets occupy a tightly constrained astronomical habitat to support life as we know it. With this theme in mind we relate the transferable features of our elementary astronomy course, "The Astronomical Basis of Life on Earth." Over the last five years, in a team-taught course that features a spring break field trip to Costa Rica, we have introduced astronomy through "astronomical ecosystems," emphasizing astronomical constraints on the prospects for life on Earth. Life requires energy, chemical elements, and long timescales, and we emphasize how cosmological, astrophysical, and geological realities, through stabilities and catastrophes, create and eliminate niches for biological life. The linkage between astronomy and biology gets immediate and personal: for example, studies in solar energy production are followed by hikes in the forest to examine the light-gathering strategies of photosynthetic organisms; a lesson on tides is conducted while standing up to our necks in one on a Pacific beach. Further linkages between astronomy and the human timescale concerns of biological diversity, cultural diversity, and environmental sustainability are natural and direct. Our experience of teaching "astronomy as habitat" strongly influences our "Astronomy 101" course in Oklahoma as well. This "inverted astrobiology" seems to transform our student's outlook, from the universe being something "out there" into something "we're in!" We thank the SNU Science Alumni support group "The Catalysts," and the SNU Quetzal Education and Research Center, San Gerardo de Dota, Costa Rica, for their support.

  9. Biographical encyclopedia of astronomers

    CERN Document Server

    Trimble, Virginia; Williams, Thomas; Bracher, Katherine; Jarrell, Richard; Marché, Jordan; Palmeri, JoAnn; Green, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The Biographical Encyclopedia of Astronomers is a unique and valuable resource for historians and astronomers alike. It includes approx. 1850 biographical sketches on astronomers from antiquity to modern times. It is the collective work of 430 authors edited by an editorial board of 8 historians and astronomers. This reference provides biographical information on astronomers and cosmologists by utilizing contemporary historical scholarship. The fully corrected and updated second edition adds approximately 300 biographical sketches. Based on ongoing research and feedback from the community, the new entries will fill gaps and provide expansions. In addition, greater emphasis on Russo phone astronomers and radio astronomers is given. Individual entries vary from 100 to 1500 words, including the likes of the super luminaries such as Newton and Einstein, as well as lesser-known astronomers like Galileo's acolyte, Mario Guiducci.

  10. Current Solid Mechanics Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo

    2016-01-01

    About thirty years ago James Lighthill wrote an essay on “What is Mechanics?” With that he also included some examples of the applications of mechanics. While his emphasis was on fluid mechanics, his own research area, he also included examples from research activities in solid mechanics....

  11. Current cancer research 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamatiadis-Smidt, H. [ed.

    1998-12-31

    Topics from the Contents: The Fight against Cancer in Germany - A Critical Review. Conditions and Structures in Research. Familial Breast Cancer - A Critical Assessment. Research without Animal Experiments. Cancer Prevention. New Approaches for Tumor Therapy. Genes, Chromosomes and Cancer. Therapy of Brain Tumors with Laser Neurosurgery. The Genome Project. (orig.)

  12. Current cancer research 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamatiadis-Smidt, H.

    1998-01-01

    Topics from the Contents: The Fight against Cancer in Germany - A Critical Review. Conditions and Structures in Research. Familial Breast Cancer - A Critical Assessment. Research without Animal Experiments. Cancer Prevention. New Approaches for Tumor Therapy. Genes, Chromosomes and Cancer. Therapy of Brain Tumors with Laser Neurosurgery. The Genome Project. (orig.)

  13. Collaboration Between Astronomers at UT Austin and K-12 Teachers: Connecting the Experience of Observing and Research with the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Keely D.; Sneden, Christopher; Hemenway, Mary Kay; Preston, Sandra; EXES Teachers Associate Program

    2015-01-01

    McDonald Observatory has a long history of providing teacher professional development (PD), and recently we have developed a new workshop model for more advanced participants. By choosing a select group of middle and high school teachers from those previously involved in our past PD programs, we have created a joint workshop / observing run program for them. After traveling to the observatory, the teachers participate in an actual observing run with a research astronomer. The teachers are trained first-hand how to take observations, operate the telescope, set up the instrument, and monitor observing conditions. The teachers are fully put in the role of observer. They are also given background information before and during the workshop related to the science and data they are helping to collect. The teachers work in teams to both perform the nightly observations with an astronomer, but to also perform new interactive classroom activities with education staff, and use other telescopes on the mountain. This is a unique experience for teachers since it allows them to take the resources and experiences directly back to their classrooms and students. They can directly relate to their students what skills for specific careers in STEM fields are needed. Evaluation from these workshops shows that there is: increased content knowledge among participants, greater impact that will be passed on to their students, and an authentic research experience that can't be replicated in other PD settings. In addition, not only is this program beneficial to the teachers, but this group is benefit to the education program of McDonald Observatory. Building on an existing PD program (with a 16 year history) we have the opportunity to test out new products and new education endeavors with this devoted group of well-trained teachers before bringing them to wider teacher and student audiences. This program is currently supported by the NSF grant AST-1211585 (PI Sneden).

  14. NASA's Universe of Learning: The Integral Role of Research Astronomers and Other Subject Matter Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Janice; Universe of Learning Team

    2018-01-01

    Astronomy seeks to understand the workings of the Universe on its largest scales, and to answer fundamental questions about the story of our origins. The science of astronomy thus naturally lends itself to informal education and public outreach activities, as it broadly captures the human imagination. There are at least three overall goals for investment of resources in Astronomy E/PO: to interest students in pursuing STEM education and careers; to develop Astronomy as context for teaching more basic physical and computer science in service of US National Education Goals; to help motivate continued public support of federally funded Astronomy research and technology development. Providing a full spectrum of opportunities for the public to learn about recent Astronomy discoveries is key to achieving these societal goals. Thus, the E/PO professional community must have an understanding of recent scientific/technological results, and engage with the researchers who are creating new knowledge to explicate that knowledge to the public. It stands to reason that researchers (or “subject matter experts, SMEs”) must be involved in and remain connected to the E/PO endeavor. In this talk, I will describe how research astronomers and other SMEs play an integral role in a full range of informal education programming developed by the NASA Universe of Learning collaboration, and opportunities to get involved.

  15. A Model for Data Citation in Astronomical Research Using Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novacescu, Jenny; Peek, Joshua E. G.; Weissman, Sarah; Fleming, Scott W.; Levay, Karen; Fraser, Elizabeth

    2018-05-01

    Standardizing and incentivizing the use of digital object identifiers (DOIs) to aggregate and identify both data analyzed and data generated by a research project will advance the field of astronomy to match best practices in other research fields like geoscience and medicine. An increase in the use of DOIs will prepare the discipline for changing expectations among funding agencies and publishers, who increasingly expect accurate and thorough data citation to accompany scientific outputs. The use of DOIs ensures a robust, sustainable, and interoperable approach to data citation in which due credit is given to the researchers and institutions who produce and maintain the primary data. We describe in this work the advantages of DOIs for data citation and best practices for integrating a DOI service in an astronomical archive. We report on a pilot project carried out in collaboration with AAS journals. During the course of the 1.5-year long pilot, over 75% of submitting authors opted to use the integrated DOI service to clearly identify data analyzed during their research project when prompted at the time of paper submission.

  16. Astronomy Education Research Observations from the iSTAR international Study of Astronomical Reasoning Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatge, C. B.; Slater, S. J.; Slater, T. F.; Schleigh, S.; McKinnon, D.

    2016-12-01

    Historically, an important part of the scientific research cycle is to situate any research project within the landscape of the existing scientific literature. In the field of discipline-based astronomy education research, grappling with the existing literature base has proven difficult because of the difficulty in obtaining research reports from around the world, particularly early ones. In order to better survey and efficiently utilize the wide and fractured range and domain of astronomy education research methods and results, the iSTAR international Study of Astronomical Reasoning database project was initiated. The project aims to host a living, online repository of dissertations, theses, journal articles, and grey literature resources to serve the world's discipline-based astronomy education research community. The first domain of research artifacts ingested into the iSTAR database were doctoral dissertations. To the authors' great surprise, nearly 300 astronomy education research dissertations were found from the last 100-years. Few, if any, of the literature reviews from recent astronomy education dissertations surveyed even come close to summarizing this many dissertations, most of which have not been published in traditional journals, as re-publishing one's dissertation research as a journal article was not a widespread custom in the education research community until recently. A survey of the iSTAR database dissertations reveals that the vast majority of work has been largely quantitative in nature until the last decade. We also observe that modern-era astronomy education research writings reaches as far back as 1923 and that the majority of dissertations come from the same eight institutions. Moreover, most of the astronomy education research work has been done covering learners' grasp of broad knowledge of astronomy rather than delving into specific learning targets, which has been more in vogue during the last two decades. The surprisingly wide breadth

  17. From research institution to astronomical museum: a history of the Stockholm Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaskell, Steven Haywood

    2008-07-01

    The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences (RSAS) (or Kungliga Vetenskapsakademien [KvA] in Swedish) founded 1739, opened its first permanent building, an astronomical and meteorological observatory, on 20 September 1753. This was situated at Brunkebergsåsen (formerly Observatorie Lunden, or Observatory Hill), on a high terrace in a northern quarter of Stockholm. This historic building is still sometimes called Gamla Observatoriet (the Old Observatory) and now is formally the Observatory Museum. This paper reviews the history of the Observatory from its function as a scientific astronomical institution to its relatively-recent relegation to museum status.

  18. Activity status and future plans for the Optical Laboratory of the National Astronomical Research Institute of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buisset, Christophe; Poshyachinda, Saran; Soonthornthum, Boonrucksar; Prasit, Apirat; Alagao, Mary Angelie; Choochalerm, Piyamas; Wanajaroen, Weerapot; Lepine, Thierry; Rabbia, Yves; Aukkaravittayapun, Suparerk; Leckngam, Apichat; Thummasorn, Griangsak; Ngernsujja, Surin; Inpan, Anuphong; Kaewsamoet, Pimon; Lhospice, Esther; Meemon, Panomsak; Artsang, Pornapa; Suwansukho, Kajpanya; Sirichote, Wichit; Paenoi, Jitsupa

    2018-03-01

    The National Astronomical Research Institute of Thailand (NARIT) has developed since June 2014 an optical laboratory that comprises all the activities and facilities related to the research and development of new instruments in the following areas: telescope design, high dynamic and high resolution imaging systems and spectrographs. The facilities include ZEMAX and Solidwork software for design and simulation activities as well as an optical room with all the equipment required to develop optical setup with cutting-edge performance. The current projects include: i) the development of a focal reducer for the 2.3 m Thai National Telescope (TNT), ii) the development of the Evanescent Wave Coronagraph dedicated to the high contrast observations of star close environment and iii) the development of low resolution spectrographs for the Thai National Telescope and for the 0.7 m telescopes of NARIT regional observatories. In each project, our activities start from the instrument optical and mechanical design to the simulation of the performance, the development of the prototype and finally to the final system integration, alignment and tests. Most of the mechanical parts are manufactured by using the facilities of NARIT precision mechanical workshop that includes a 3-axis Computer Numerical Control (CNC) to machine the mechanical structures and a Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM) to verify the dimensions. In this paper, we give an overview of the optical laboratory activities and of the associated facilities. We also describe the objective of the current projects, present the specifications and the design of the instruments and establish the status of development and we present our future plans.

  19. Astronomical Cybersketching

    CERN Document Server

    Grego, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Outlines the techniques involved in making observational sketches and more detailed 'scientific' drawings of a wide variety of astronomical subjects using modern digital equipment; primarily PDAs and tablet PCs. This book also discusses about choosing hardware and software

  20. Social networks user: current research

    OpenAIRE

    Agadullina E.R.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review current research studies focusing on the users of Facebook and their behaviors in social networks. This review is organized into two sections: 1) social-demographic characteristics (Age, Gender, Nationality); 2) personality characteristics (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness-to-Experience, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Narcissism, Self-esteem). The results showed that the information in the personal profile and online behavior are strongly connect...

  1. Social networks user: current research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agadullina E.R.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to review current research studies focusing on the users of Facebook and their behaviors in social networks. This review is organized into two sections: 1 social-demographic characteristics (Age, Gender, Nationality; 2 personality characteristics (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness-to-Experience, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Narcissism, Self-esteem. The results showed that the information in the personal profile and online behavior are strongly connected with socio-demographic and personality characteristics

  2. Topics in current aerosol research

    CERN Document Server

    Hidy, G M

    1971-01-01

    Topics in Current Aerosol Research deals with the fundamental aspects of aerosol science, with emphasis on experiment and theory describing highly dispersed aerosols (HDAs) as well as the dynamics of charged suspensions. Topics covered range from the basic properties of HDAs to their formation and methods of generation; sources of electric charges; interactions between fluid and aerosol particles; and one-dimensional motion of charged cloud of particles. This volume is comprised of 13 chapters and begins with an introduction to the basic properties of HDAs, followed by a discussion on the form

  3. Current directions in radiopharmaceutical research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mather, S J [Department of Nuclear Medicine, St. Bartholomew` s Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    1998-08-01

    Much of current radiopharmaceutical research is directed towards the development of receptor-binding tracers which are targeted towards biochemical processes. These may be extra or intracellular in nature and hold promise for an imaging approach to tissue characterisation in-vivo. Many of these products are based on proteins which range in size from large monoclonal antibodies to small neuropeptides and share a radiolabelling chemistry based on the use of bifunctional chelating agents. Although developed initially for use with indium-111, considerations of cost and isotope availability have continued to direct the efforts of many researchers towards the use of technetium-99m. While polypeptide-based radiopharmaceuticals may be useful for imaging peripheral cell-surface receptors, access to sites of interest within the cell, or in the brain, requires the development of small lipophilic molecules with retained ability to interact with intracellular targets. The design and synthesis of these compounds presents a particular challenge to the radiopharmaceutical chemist which is being met through either a pendant or integrated approach to the use of technetium coordination with particular emphasis on technetium (v) cores. Progress continues to be made in the application of targeted radionuclide therapy particularly in the development of radiopharmaceuticals for the treatment of malignant bone disease. methods for labelling antibodies with a great variety of cytotoxic radionuclides have now been refined and their use for radioimmunotherapy in the treatment of haematological malignancies shows great promise. The major medical areas for application of these new radiopharmaceuticals will be in oncology, neurology and inflammation but the increasingly difficult regulatory climate in which drug development and health-care now operate will make it essential for researchers to direct their products toward specific clinical problems as well as biological targets. (author) 36 refs

  4. Current directions in radiopharmaceutical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mather, S.J.

    1998-01-01

    Much of current radiopharmaceutical research is directed towards the development of receptor-binding tracers which are targeted towards biochemical processes. These may be extra or intracellular in nature and hold promise for an imaging approach to tissue characterisation in-vivo. Many of these products are based on proteins which range in size from large monoclonal antibodies to small neuropeptides and share a radiolabelling chemistry based on the use of bifunctional chelating agents. Although developed initially for use with indium-111, considerations of cost and isotope availability have continued to direct the efforts of many researchers towards the use of technetium-99m. While polypeptide-based radiopharmaceuticals may be useful for imaging peripheral cell-surface receptors, access to sites of interest within the cell, or in the brain, requires the development of small lipophilic molecules with retained ability to interact with intracellular targets. The design and synthesis of these compounds presents a particular challenge to the radiopharmaceutical chemist which is being met through either a pendant or integrated approach to the use of technetium coordination with particular emphasis on technetium (v) cores. Progress continues to be made in the application of targeted radionuclide therapy particularly in the development of radiopharmaceuticals for the treatment of malignant bone disease. methods for labelling antibodies with a great variety of cytotoxic radionuclides have now been refined and their use for radioimmunotherapy in the treatment of haematological malignancies shows great promise. The major medical areas for application of these new radiopharmaceuticals will be in oncology, neurology and inflammation but the increasingly difficult regulatory climate in which drug development and health-care now operate will make it essential for researchers to direct their products toward specific clinical problems as well as biological targets. (author)

  5. Astronomical optics

    CERN Document Server

    Schroeder, Daniel J

    1988-01-01

    Written by a recognized expert in the field, this clearly presented, well-illustrated book provides both advanced level students and professionals with an authoritative, thorough presentation of the characteristics, including advantages and limitations, of telescopes and spectrographic instruments used by astronomers of today.Key Features* Written by a recognized expert in the field* Provides both advanced level students and professionals with an authoritative, thorough presentation of the characteristics, including advantages and limitations, of telescopes and spectrographic i

  6. The Pulsar Search Collaboratory: Involving High School Students in Astronomical Research -- A Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Rachel; Heatherly, S.; McLauglin, M.; Lorimer, D.

    2010-01-01

    The National Science Foundation funded "Pulsar Search Collaboratory” project is a collaboration between the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank, WV and West Virginia University aimed at provoking interest in Science-Technology-Engineering-Math (STEM) careers and increasing scientific and information technology literacy among high-school students within the state and region. Over the initial three-year phase of this program, 60 high-school teachers at schools throughout region and over 300 students will be involved in the search for new pulsars and transient objects by analyzing over 30 TB of data collected by the Green Bank Telescope in 2007. Although training is provided to teachers and student leaders via a summer workshop, additional students may join the program, learning from their peers how to conduct the data analysis. We are now in the second year of the PSC and we present a progress report from the first year of the PSC. We will summarize our approaches to implementing this challenging project, including the use of online tools to communicate with and sustain interest among the student teams, and the development of a unique graphical database through which students access and analyze pulsar plots. We will present the student results including one astronomical discovery as well as statistics on the plots that students have analyzed, including distribution among schools, number of known pulsars found, and RFI detection. Finally we will present evaluation results and lessons learned from the first year of the PSC. These include results from pre/post testing of teachers and students that show changes in student interest in STEM careers resulting from the PSC, and statistics on student participation.

  7. Cell Phones: Current Research Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NAS Report - Identification of Research Needs Relating to Potential Biological or Adverse Health Effects of Wireless Communication Devices World Health Organization: Electromagnetic Fields and Public Health: Mobile Phones International Agency for Research on Cancer Press ...

  8. Getting Astronomers Involved in the IYA: Astronomer in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Kris

    2008-05-01

    The Astronomer in the Classroom program provides professional astronomers the opportunity to engage with 3rd-12th grade students across the nation in grade appropriate discussions of their recent research, and provides students with rich STEM content in a personalized forum, bringing greater access to scientific knowledge for underserved populations. 21st Century Learning and Interstellar Studios, the producer of the 400 Years of the Telescope documentary along with their educational partners, will provide the resources necessary to facilitate the Astronomer in the Classroom program, allowing students to interact with astronomers throughout the IYA2009. PROGRAM DESCRIPTION One of hundreds of astronomers will be available to interact with students via live webcast daily during Spring/Fall 2009. The astronomer for the day will conduct three 20-minute discussions (Grades 3-5 /6-8/9-12), beginning with a five-minute PowerPoint on their research or area of interest. The discussion will be followed by a question and answer period. The students will participate in real-time from their school computer(s) with the technology provided by 21st Century Learning. They will see and hear the astronomer on their screen, and pose questions from their keyboard. Teachers will choose from three daily sessions; 11:30 a.m., 12:00 p.m., 12:30 p.m. Eastern Time. This schedule overlaps all US time zones, and marginalizes bandwidth usage, preventing technological barriers to web access. The educational partners and astronomers will post materials online, providing easy access to information that will prepare teachers and students for the chosen discussion. The astronomers, invited to participate from the AAS and IAU, will receive a web cam shipment with instructions, a brief training and conductivity test, and prepaid postage for shipment of the web cam to the next astronomer on the list. The anticipated astronomer time required is 3-hours, not including the time to develop the PowerPoint.

  9. Current Research in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beh, Yolanda

    1990-01-01

    Summaries of eight language-related research projects are presented from Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore. Topics include children's reading, nonstandard spoken Indonesian, English speech act performance, classroom verbal interaction, journal writing, and listening comprehension. (LB)

  10. Current concepts in cancer research

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Kok Seng Yap; Ammu Kutty Radhakrishnan; Chee Onn Leong

    2013-01-01

    Cancer research is an extremely broadtopic covering many scientific disciplines includingbiology (e.g. biochemistry and signal transduction),chemistry (e.g. drug discover and development),physics (e.g. diagnostic devices) and even computerscience (e.g. bioinformatics). Some would argue thatcancer research will continue in much the same wayas it is by adding further layers of complexity to thescientific knowledge that is already complex and almostbeyond measure. But we anticipate that cancer r...

  11. The Current Status of STEM Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Josh

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the current Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) education research base through an analysis of articles from eight journals focused on the STEM disciplines. Analyzed are both practitioner and research publications to determine the current scope of STEM education research, where current STEM education…

  12. Current Research in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beh, Yolanda

    1991-01-01

    Summaries of seven language-related research projects are presented from Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. Topics include a lexicon of Kelabit, cognitive theory for second-language acquisition, academic writing in Filipino, cultural politics of English instruction, use of conjunctions, and communicative grammar. (LB)

  13. Current Research in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beh, Yolanda

    1992-01-01

    Summaries of eight language-related research projects are presented from Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand. Topics include a sociolinguistic profile, teacher and learner views of language lessons, Malay-accented English and employability, reading difficulties, language culture disjunction, placement interviews, and…

  14. Current Research in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beh, Yolanda

    1991-01-01

    Summaries of five language-related research projects are presented from Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand. Topics include teaching/learning Bahasa Malaysia; English-language programs in Malaysian teacher education colleges; interlanguage variability in verbs; reading/writing theories; and cross-cultural strategies and English in written business…

  15. Astronomical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemperer, William

    2011-01-01

    The discovery of polar polyatomic molecules in higher-density regions of the interstellar medium by means of their rotational emission detected by radioastronomy has changed our conception of the universe from essentially atomic to highly molecular. We discuss models for molecule formation, emphasizing the general lack of thermodynamic equilibrium. Detailed chemical kinetics is needed to understand molecule formation as well as destruction. Ion molecule reactions appear to be an important class for the generally low temperatures of the interstellar medium. The need for the intrinsically high-quality factor of rotational transitions to definitively pin down molecular emitters has been well established by radioastronomy. The observation of abundant molecular ions both positive and, as recently observed, negative provides benchmarks for chemical kinetic schemes. Of considerable importance in guiding our understanding of astronomical chemistry is the fact that the larger molecules (with more than five atoms) are all organic.

  16. Look to the Stars - The APUS Observatory: An Innovative Robotic Telescope for Online Astronomical Education and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albin, Edward

    2018-01-01

    We report on the American Public University System’s new robotic telescope, located in Charles Town, WV -- an innovative observatory deployed in an online institution of higher education. The instrument is operated by the Department of Space Studies and is situated atop the university’s new Information Technology building. At the heart of the observatory is a Planewave CDK24 telescope, equipped with a SBIG STX-16803 CCD camera. The telescope is a key technological component in the Department's new undergraduate / graduate astronomy concentration. Since the university is a dedicated online educational institution, the acquisition of a fully remote controlled telescope ties closely into the program's philosophy of quality online instruction. Our robotic observatory is intimately integrated into our astronomy curriculum, with the telescope being utilized for original astronomical education and research purposes. For instance, not only is imagery used in the classroom and for laboratory instruction, graduate students in our MS degree program have an opportunity to collect original telescopic data for research / thesis projects. Examples of ongoing investigations with the telescope include observations of exoplanet transits and variable star photometry. When not in use for specific observing projects, the telescope is scripted to conduct autonomous supernova searches by patrolling dozens of galaxies throughout the night. Our goal is to have the instrument scheduled for continuous observing of the heavens throughout the year on all clear evenings.

  17. Korean Astronomical Calendar, Chiljeongsan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Hee

    In fifteenth century Korea, there was a grand project for the astronomical calendar and instrument making by the order of King Sejong 世宗 (1418-1450). During this period, many astronomical and calendrical books including Islamic sources in Chinese versions were imported from Ming 明 China, and corrected and researched by the court astronomers of Joseon 朝鮮 (1392-1910). Moreover, the astronomers and technicians of Korea frequently visited China to study astronomy and instrument making, and they brought back useful information in the form of new published books or specifications of instruments. As a result, a royal observatory equipped with 15 types of instrument was completed in 1438. Two types of calendar, Chiljeongsan Naepyeon 七政算內篇 and Chiljeongsan Oepyeon 七政算外篇, based on the Chinese and Islamic calendar systems, respectively, were published in 1444 with a number of calendrical editions such as corrections and example supplements (假令) including calculation methods and results for solar and lunar eclipses.

  18. Current Research Status of Allelopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHMAD JUNAEDI

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The term of allelopathy refers to chemical interactions (inhibitory or stimulatory between plants, between plants and microorganisms, and between microorganisms. The wealth of information on the processes, procedures, and practices of allelopathy has contributed to understanding this field of science. Recently, researches of allelopathy have been conducted in laboratory, greenhouse, and field with multifaceted standpoint in some concerning area: (i allelochemicals identifications and screening test; (ii ecological and physiological aspects of allelopathy; (iii genetic studies and the possibilities of using plant breeding or genetic manipulation to enhance allelopathic varieties; (iv the use of allelopathic potential in the biological control, including as natural pesticide, of weeds and plant diseases as eco-friendly approach for sustainable agriculture scheme.

  19. Scientific Research with the Space Telescope: International Astronomical Union Colloquium No. 54. [conferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longair, M. S.; Warner, J. W.

    1979-01-01

    The application of the space telescope for extragalactic astronomy, planetary research, and stellar, interstellar, and galactic structural problems is discussed. Topics include investigations of small solar system objects, the physical characteristics of ionized gaseous nebulae, the central regions of active galaxies and quasars, problems of cosmology, and the distribution and composition of interstellar matter.

  20. Solar-Terrestrial and Astronomical Research Network (STAR-Network) - A Meaningful Practice of New Cyberinfrastructure on Space Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, X.; Zou, Z.

    2017-12-01

    For the next decades, comprehensive big data application environment is the dominant direction of cyberinfrastructure development on space science. To make the concept of such BIG cyberinfrastructure (e.g. Digital Space) a reality, these aspects of capability should be focused on and integrated, which includes science data system, digital space engine, big data application (tools and models) and the IT infrastructure. In the past few years, CAS Chinese Space Science Data Center (CSSDC) has made a helpful attempt in this direction. A cloud-enabled virtual research platform on space science, called Solar-Terrestrial and Astronomical Research Network (STAR-Network), has been developed to serve the full lifecycle of space science missions and research activities. It integrated a wide range of disciplinary and interdisciplinary resources, to provide science-problem-oriented data retrieval and query service, collaborative mission demonstration service, mission operation supporting service, space weather computing and Analysis service and other self-help service. This platform is supported by persistent infrastructure, including cloud storage, cloud computing, supercomputing and so on. Different variety of resource are interconnected: the science data can be displayed on the browser by visualization tools, the data analysis tools and physical models can be drived by the applicable science data, the computing results can be saved on the cloud, for example. So far, STAR-Network has served a series of space science mission in China, involving Strategic Pioneer Program on Space Science (this program has invested some space science satellite as DAMPE, HXMT, QUESS, and more satellite will be launched around 2020) and Meridian Space Weather Monitor Project. Scientists have obtained some new findings by using the science data from these missions with STAR-Network's contribution. We are confident that STAR-Network is an exciting practice of new cyberinfrastructure architecture on

  1. A method for establishing a long duration, stratospheric platform for astronomical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesen, Robert; Brown, Yorke

    2015-10-01

    During certain times of the year at middle and low latitudes, winds in the upper stratosphere move in nearly the opposite direction than the wind in the lower stratosphere. Here we present a method for maintaining a high-altitude balloon platform in near station-keeping mode that utilizes this stratospheric wind shear. The proposed method places a balloon-borne science platform high in the stratosphere connected by a lightweight, high-strength tether to a tug vehicle located in the lower or middle stratosphere. Using aerodynamic control surfaces, wind-induced aerodynamic forces on the tug can be manipulated to counter the wind drag acting on the higher altitude science vehicle, thus controlling the upper vehicle's geographic location. We describe the general framework of this station-keeping method, some important properties required for the upper stratospheric science payload and lower tug platforms, and compare this station-keeping approach with the capabilities of a high altitude airship and conventional tethered aerostat approaches. We conclude by discussing the advantages of such a platform for a variety of missions with emphasis on astrophysical research.

  2. Navy Telemedicine: Current Research and Future Directions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reed, Cheryl

    2002-01-01

    .... This report reviews military and civilian models for evaluating telemedicine systems in order to determine future directions for Navy telemedicine research within the current funding environment...

  3. Sexting: Current Research Gaps and Legislative Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Ngo, Fawn; Jaishankar, K; Agustina, Jose R.

    2017-01-01

    'Sexting, the portmanteau of Sex and Texting, has become a hot topic of debate between the legislators, researchers, educators, parents and teens' (Jaishankar, 2009, para 1). In spite of the considerable and growing body of literature on sexting, there are significant gaps in the current research. A review of research to date also reveals a dearth of cross-national and cross-cultural research on the topic of sexting. Notably, legal and ethical issues abound with the current method for punishi...

  4. Current situation on the glueball research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Qixing

    1991-01-01

    The current situation on the glueball research is reviewed. The emphases are some qualitative guidances to identify the glueball and several possible candidate states for the glueball which have been discovered in the experiments

  5. Amateur Astronomers: Secret Agents of EPO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berendsen, M.; White, V.; Devore, E.; Reynolds, M.

    2008-06-01

    Amateur astronomers prime the public to be more interested, receptive, and excited about space science, missions, and programs. Through recent research and targeted programs, amateur astronomy outreach is being increasingly recognized by professional astronomers, educators, and other amateurs as a valued and important service. The Night Sky Network program, administered by the ASP, is the first nationwide research-based program specifically targeted to support outreach by amateur astronomers. This Network of trained and informed amateur astronomers can provide a stimulating introduction to your EPO programs as Network members share the night sky with families, students, and youth groups.

  6. Digital library research : current developments and trends

    OpenAIRE

    Shiri, Ali

    2003-01-01

    This column gives an overview of current trends in digital library research under the following headings: digital library architecture, systems, tools and technologies; digital content and collections; metadata; interoperability; standards; knowledge organisation systems; users and usability; legal, organisational, economic, and social issues in digital libraries.

  7. Research on high beam-current accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.

    1981-01-01

    In this review of research being undertaken at present in the US on accelerating devices and concepts of a novel nature, both non-collective systems, including high-current rf linacs and a variety of induction linacs, and also collective systems are considered. (U.K.)

  8. Pressure ulcer research : current and future perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bader, D.L.; Bouten, C.V.C.; Colin, D.; Oomens, C.W.J.

    2005-01-01

    This book provides an up-to-date scientific account of all aspects related to pressure ulcers and pressure ulcer research, as well as evidence-based knowledge of pressure ulcer aetiology. Further, it describes current and future tools for evaluating patients at risk. It comprises 20 chapters by

  9. Astronomical Symbolism in Australian Aboriginal Rock Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Ray P.; Hamacher, Duane W.

    2011-05-01

    Traditional Aboriginal Australian cultures include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition and ceremony. This knowledge has practical navigational and calendrical functions, and sometimes extends to a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky. Here we explore whether this astronomical tradition is reflected in the rock art of Aboriginal Australians. We find several plausible examples of depictions of astronomical figures and symbols, and also evidence that astronomical observations were used to set out stone arrangements. However, we recognise that the case is not yet strong enough to make an unequivocal statement, and describe our plans for further research.

  10. Choosing and using astronomical eyepieces

    CERN Document Server

    Paolini, William

    2013-01-01

    This valuable reference fills a number of needs in the field of astronomical eyepieces, including that of a buyer's guide, observer's field guide and technical desk reference. It documents the past market for eyepieces and its evolution right up to the present day. In addition to appealing to practical astronomers - and potentially saving them money - it is useful both as a historical reference and as a detailed review of the current market place for this bustling astronomical consumer product. What distinguishes this book from other publications on astronomy is the involvement of observers from all aspects of the astronomical community, and also the major manufacturers of equipment. It not only catalogs the technical aspects of the many modern eyepieces but also documents amateur observer reactions and impressions of their utility over the years, using many different eyepieces. Eyepieces are the most talked-about accessories and collectible items available to the amateur astronomer. No other item of equi...

  11. Animal Research on Nicotine Reduction: Current Evidence and Research Gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tracy T; Rupprecht, Laura E; Denlinger-Apte, Rachel L; Weeks, Jillian J; Panas, Rachel S; Donny, Eric C; Sved, Alan F

    2017-09-01

    A mandated reduction in the nicotine content of cigarettes may improve public health by reducing the prevalence of smoking. Animal self-administration research is an important complement to clinical research on nicotine reduction. It can fill research gaps that may be difficult to address with clinical research, guide clinical researchers about variables that are likely to be important in their own research, and provide policy makers with converging evidence between clinical and preclinical studies about the potential impact of a nicotine reduction policy. Convergence between clinical and preclinical research is important, given the ease with which clinical trial participants can access nonstudy tobacco products in the current marketplace. Herein, we review contributions of preclinical animal research, with a focus on rodent self-administration, to the science of nicotine reduction. Throughout this review, we highlight areas where clinical and preclinical research converge and areas where the two differ. Preclinical research has provided data on many important topics such as the threshold for nicotine reinforcement, the likelihood of compensation, moderators of the impact of nicotine reduction, the impact of environmental stimuli on nicotine reduction, the impact of nonnicotine cigarette smoke constituents on nicotine reduction, and the impact of nicotine reduction on vulnerable populations. Special attention is paid to current research gaps including the dramatic rise in alternative tobacco products, including electronic nicotine delivery systems (ie, e-cigarettes). The evidence reviewed here will be critical for policy makers as well as clinical researchers interested in nicotine reduction. This review will provide policy makers and clinical researchers interested in nicotine reduction with an overview of the preclinical animal research conducted on nicotine reduction and the regulatory implications of that research. The review also highlights the utility of

  12. Current activities at the MIT Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Linwen; Bernard, John A.; Harling, Otto K.; Kohse, Gordon E.; Ames, Michael; Olmez, Ilhan

    1998-01-01

    The MIT Research Reactor (MITR) is a MW nuclear research reactor that is owned and operated by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology to further its educational and research goals at both the undergraduate and graduate level. The reactor first achieved criticality in 1958. It was largely rebuilt in 1973/1974 by MIT staff and students, and its current license expires in August 1999. The current facility, which is designated as the MITR-H, uses a compact core with finned, aluminum-clad, plate-type fuel that is cooled and moderated by light water and reflected by heavy water. The reactor core can hold twenty-seven fuel elements. However, the normal configuration is twenty-four elements. A maximum of four fuel elements can be replaced with in-core experimental facilities. A unique feature of the MITR-II's design is that fixed absorber plates can be inserted in the upper half of the core. These cause the flux to peak in the lower half which benefits experimenters and also facilitates a fuel strategy that involves inversion of fuel elements midway through their life cycle. The MITR-II currently operates continuously for four weeks followed by shutdown of a few days for maintenance. This paper provides an overview of current activities at the MITR including preparations for re-licensing. The status of an on-going Phase-I clinical trial of boron neutron capture therapy for both glioblastoma multiforme and metastatic melanoma is described as well as the design of a fission converter facility for BNCT. Environmental research using neutron activation analysis is summarized as well as in-pile research focussed on LWR water chemistry and structural materials. (author)

  13. Astronomical Virtual Observatories Through International Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatoshi Ohishi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Astronomical Virtual Observatories (VOs are emerging research environment for astronomy, and 16 countries and a region have funded to develop their VOs based on international standard protocols for interoperability. The 16 funded VO projects have established the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (http://www.ivoa.net/ to develop the standard interoperable interfaces such as registry (meta data, data access, query languages, output format (VOTable, data model, application interface, and so on. The IVOA members have constructed each VO environment through the IVOA interfaces. National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ started its VO project (Japanese Virtual Observatory - JVO in 2002, and developed its VO system. We have succeeded to interoperate the latest JVO system with other VOs in the USA and Europe since December 2004. Observed data by the Subaru telescope, satellite data taken by the JAXA/ISAS, etc. are connected to the JVO system. Successful interoperation of the JVO system with other VOs means that astronomers in the world will be able to utilize top-level data obtained by these telescopes from anywhere in the world at anytime. System design of the JVO system, experiences during our development including problems of current standard protocols defined in the IVOA, and proposals to resolve these problems in the near future are described.

  14. The South African Astronomical Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The research work discussed in this report covers a wide range, from work on the nearest stars to studies of the distant quasars, and the astronomers who have carried out this work come from universities and observatories spread around the world as well as from South African universities and from the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) staff itself. A characteristic of much of this work has been its collaborative character. SAAO studies in 1989 included: supernovae 1987A; galaxies; ground-based observations of celestial x-ray sources; the Magellanic Clouds; pulsating variables; galactic structure; binary star phenomena; the provision of photometric standards; nebulous matter; stellar astrophysics, and astrometry

  15. FITSManager: Management of Personal Astronomical Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Chenzhou; Fan, Dongwei; Zhao, Yongheng; Kembhavi, Ajit; He, Boliang; Cao, Zihuang; Li, Jian; Nandrekar, Deoyani

    2011-07-01

    With the increase of personal storage capacity, it is easy to find hundreds to thousands of FITS files in the personal computer of an astrophysicist. Because Flexible Image Transport System (FITS) is a professional data format initiated by astronomers and used mainly in the small community, data management toolkits for FITS files are very few. Astronomers need a powerful tool to help them manage their local astronomical data. Although Virtual Observatory (VO) is a network oriented astronomical research environment, its applications and related technologies provide useful solutions to enhance the management and utilization of astronomical data hosted in an astronomer's personal computer. FITSManager is such a tool to provide astronomers an efficient management and utilization of their local data, bringing VO to astronomers in a seamless and transparent way. FITSManager provides fruitful functions for FITS file management, like thumbnail, preview, type dependent icons, header keyword indexing and search, collaborated working with other tools and online services, and so on. The development of the FITSManager is an effort to fill the gap between management and analysis of astronomical data.

  16. Integrated fundamental research on current collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann-Wilsdorf, Doris; Tran, Leo

    1993-06-01

    The aim of our research was to add to the basic understanding in the area of current collection with particular emphasis on topics likely to benefit practical objectives. Under sponsorship of this contract, 23 papers were published in the international literature. Additionally, 13 invited lectures and 11 contributed lectures on various aspects of this research were delivered at universities, research laboratories, and international conferences by the principal investigator and co-workers. The development of a novel metal fiber material for sliding electrical contacts was continued with much success. This is expected to become very useful for making metal fiber brushed for homopolar motors/generators, as well as for EML armatures. Included in this report are title pages (and abstracts) for the 23 published papers.

  17. Amateur astronomers in support of observing campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanamandra-Fisher, P.

    2014-07-01

    The Pro-Am Collaborative Astronomy (PACA) project evolved from the observational campaign of C/2012 S1 or C/ISON. The success of the paradigm shift in scientific research is now implemented in other comet observing campaigns. While PACA identifies a consistent collaborative approach to pro-am collaborations, given the volume of data generated for each campaign, new ways of rapid data analysis, mining access, and storage are needed. Several interesting results emerged from the synergistic inclusion of both social media and amateur astronomers: - the establishment of a network of astronomers and related professionals that can be galvanized into action on short notice to support observing campaigns; - assist in various science investigations pertinent to the campaign; - provide an alert-sounding mechanism should the need arise; - immediate outreach and dissemination of results via our media/blogger members; - provide a forum for discussions between the imagers and modelers to help strategize the observing campaign for maximum benefit. In 2014, two new comet observing campaigns involving pro-am collaborations have been identified: (1) C/2013 A1 (C/Siding Spring) and (2) 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (CG). The evolving need for individual customized observing campaigns has been incorporated into the evolution of PACA (Pro-Am Collaborative Astronomy) portal that currently is focused on comets: from supporting observing campaigns for current comets, legacy data, historical comets; interconnected with social media and a set of shareable documents addressing observational strategies; consistent standards for data; data access, use, and storage, to align with the needs of professional observers. The integration of science, observations by professional and amateur astronomers, and various social media provides a dynamic and evolving collaborative partnership between professional and amateur astronomers. The recent observation of comet 67P, at a magnitude of 21.2, from Siding

  18. Topics in current aerosol research (part2)

    CERN Document Server

    Hidy, G M

    1972-01-01

    Topics in Current Aerosol Research, Part 2 contains some selected articles in the field of aerosol study. The chosen topics deal extensively with the theory of diffusiophoresis and thermophoresis. Also covered in the book is the mathematical treatment of integrodifferential equations originating from the theory of aerosol coagulation. The book is the third volume of the series entitled International Reviews in Aerosol Physics and Chemistry. The text offers significant understanding of the methods employed to develop a theory for thermophoretic and diffusiophoretic forces acting on spheres in t

  19. Research in Humans: Current Perspectives in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Alcantara Cunha Lima

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This work addressed the norms of ethics for human experimentation in Brazil, operationalized by the National Research Ethics Commission (CONEP of the National Health Council (CNS. It analyzed international principles of bioethics as a theoretical framework for the Brazilian regulation. National and international publications were reviewed, by Capes periodicals, relating to historical ethical infractions, such as reflection to the current day. It analyzed the law (PL 200/2015 of the Senate, which proposes flexibilities in Brazilian legislation and concluded that the requested changes should be discussed in depth by bioethicists, scientists and Brazilian lawyers with extended discussion to society.

  20. Medical Robots: Current Systems and Research Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan A. Beasley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available First used medically in 1985, robots now make an impact in laparoscopy, neurosurgery, orthopedic surgery, emergency response, and various other medical disciplines. This paper provides a review of medical robot history and surveys the capabilities of current medical robot systems, primarily focusing on commercially available systems while covering a few prominent research projects. By examining robotic systems across time and disciplines, trends are discernible that imply future capabilities of medical robots, for example, increased usage of intraoperative images, improved robot arm design, and haptic feedback to guide the surgeon.

  1. Current status of nuclear safety research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Efforts at nuclear safety research have expanded year by year in Japan, in term of money and technical achievement. The Atomic Energy Commission set last year the five year nuclear safety research program, a guideline by which various research institutes will be able to develop their own efforts in a concerted manner. From the results of the nuclear safety research which cover very wide areas ranging from reactor engineering safety, safety of nuclear fuel cycle facilities, prevention of radiation hazards to the adequate treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes, AIJ hereafter focuses of LWR engineering safety and prevents two articles, one introducing the current results of the NSSR program developed by JAERI and the other reporting the LWR reliability demonstration testing projects being promoted by MITI. The outline of these demonstration tests was reported in this report. The tests consist of earthquake resistance reliability test of nuclear power plants, steam generator reliability tests, valve integrity tests, fuel assembly reliability tests, reliability tests of heat affected zones and reliability tests of pumps. (Kobatake, H.)

  2. The Practical Astronomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koester, Jack

    "The Practical Astronomer" by Thomas Dick, LLD, E.C. & J. Biddle, Philadelphia, 1849, is reviewed. Information on telescope makers and astronomers can be found. Mentioned are: Fraunhofer; John Herschel; Lawson; Dollond; Tulley; W. & S. Jones; and S.W. Burnham.

  3. Current status and prospects of research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabaraev, A.B.; Cherepnin, Yu.S.; Tretyakov, I.T.; Khmelshikov, V.V.; Dollezhal, N.A.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The first nuclear research reactors (RR) appeared in the 1940s. Their initial purpose was to provide knowledge of the main processes associated with neutron-induced nuclear reactions. Later, the rang of problems addressed expanded substantially. Besides fundamental research in the properties of matter, such reactors are successfully used for dealing with problems in the fields of materials science, nuclear engineering, medicine, isotope production, education, etc. Over the whole period of RR fleet growth, more than six hundred nuclear research facilities were built in 70 countries of the world. As of the end of 2008, the number of Russian research reactors in service was about 20% of the globally operating RR fleet. This paper discusses the current status of the world's RR fleet and describes the capabilities of the experimental reactor facilities existing in Russia. In the 21st century, research reactors will remain in demand to solve scientific and technological problems for innovative development of society. The emerging renaissance of nuclear power, the expanding RR uses for production of isotopes and other applications, the increase in the number of countries willing to use nuclear technologies in energy production, industry and science - all contribute to a rebirth of interest in research reactors. One of the ways to improve the experimental capabilities lies in radical upgrading of the reactor facilities with qualitative changes in the main neutronic characteristics of the core. The associated design approaches are illustrated with the example of the IBR-2M reactor at the JNRI in Dubna. The imperative need restricting the spread of nuclear threat leads us to give up using highly enriched uranium in most research reactors. Development of RR fuel with reduced enrichment in uranium has been one of the priority objectives of NIKIET for many years. This paper presents the latest results obtained along these lines, as applied to pool-type research

  4. Current status of research on school refusal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cándido J. Inglés

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available School refusal behavior refers to the avoidance of a child attending school and/or persistent difficulty staying in the classroom throughout the school day. Based on a review of the scientific literature, the aim of this study is to describe the current state of research on school refusal, differentiating between the findings and progress made in Spain from those achieved in the international field. For this purpose, the significance of this phenomenon, in addition to associated risk factors and variables, will be reviewed in the child and youth population. In turn, the commonly used assessment methods and most recommended treatment proposals, mainly based on cognitive behavioral therapy, are discussed. The results reveal several gaps and subjects for debate in some areas of knowledge about school refusal behavior, with differences being found between Spanish and international studies. In conclusion, future studies and challenges in this field are required.

  5. Leadership: current theories, research, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avolio, Bruce J; Walumbwa, Fred O; Weber, Todd J

    2009-01-01

    This review examines recent theoretical and empirical developments in the leadership literature, beginning with topics that are currently receiving attention in terms of research, theory, and practice. We begin by examining authentic leadership and its development, followed by work that takes a cognitive science approach. We then examine new-genre leadership theories, complexity leadership, and leadership that is shared, collective, or distributed. We examine the role of relationships through our review of leader member exchange and the emerging work on followership. Finally, we examine work that has been done on substitutes for leadership, servant leadership, spirituality and leadership, cross-cultural leadership, and e-leadership. This structure has the benefit of creating a future focus as well as providing an interesting way to examine the development of the field. Each section ends with an identification of issues to be addressed in the future, in addition to the overall integration of the literature we provide at the end of the article.

  6. Current and Future Research at DANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandel, M.; Baramsai, B.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Hayes, A.; Kawano, T.; Mosby, S.; Rusev, G.; Stetcu, I.; Taddeucci, T. N.; Talou, P.; Ullmann, J. L.; Walker, C. L.; Wilhelmy, J. B.

    2015-05-01

    An overview of the current experimental program on measurements of neutron capture and neutron induced fission at the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) is presented. Three major projects are currently under way: 1) high precision measurements of neutron capture cross sections on Uranium isotopes, 2) research aimed at studies of the short-lived actinide isomer production in neutron capture on 235U and 3) measurements of correlated data of fission observables. New projects include developments of auxiliary detectors to improve the capability of DANCE. We are building a compact, segmented NEUtron detector Array at DANCE (NEUANCE), which will be installed in the central cavity of the DANCE array. It will provide experimental information on prompt fission neutrons in coincidence with the prompt fission gamma-rays measured by 160 BaF2 crystals of DANCE. Unique correlated data will be obtained for neutron capture and neutron-induced fission using the DANCE-NEUANCE experimental set up in the future.

  7. Astronomers find distant planet like Jupiter

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Astronomers searching for planetary systems like our solar system have found a planet similar to Jupiter orbiting a nearby star similar to our Sun, about 90 light-years from Earth, according to researchers (1/2 page).

  8. Astronomical Data and Information Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Alyssa A.

    2010-01-01

    As the size and complexity of data sets increases, the need to "see" them more clearly increases as well. In the past, many scientists saw "fancy" data and information visualization as necessary for "outreach," but not for research. In this talk, I wlll demonstrate, using specific examples, why more and more scientists--not just astronomers--are coming to rely upon the development of new visualization strategies not just to present their data, but to understand it. Principal examples will be drawn from the "Astronomical Medicine" project at Harvard's Initiative in Innovative Computing, and from the "Seamless Astronomy" effort, which is co-sponsored by the VAO (NASA/NSF) and Microsoft Research.

  9. Information seeking behavior of Greek astronomers

    OpenAIRE

    Brindesi, Hara; Kapidakis, Sarantos

    2011-01-01

    This study examines three aspects of information seeking behaviour of astronomers in Greece including a) the importance they place in keeping up- to-date with current developments b) the methods they depend on for keeping up-to-date and c) the information sources they mostly use. We adopted an intradisciplinary approach in order to investigate similarities and differences in information seeking behaviour among astronomers when examining them as groups bearing different characteristics, includ...

  10. UKRVO Astronomical WEB Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazhaev, O.E.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ukraine Virtual Observatory (UkrVO has been a member of the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA since 2011. The virtual observatory (VO is not a magic solution to all problems of data storing and processing, but it provides certain standards for building infrastructure of astronomical data center. The astronomical databases help data mining and offer to users an easy access to observation metadata, images within celestial sphere and results of image processing. The astronomical web services (AWS of UkrVO give to users handy tools for data selection from large astronomical catalogues for a relatively small region of interest in the sky. Examples of the AWS usage are showed.

  11. An astronomical murder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belenkiy, Ari

    2010-04-01

    Ari Belenkiy examines the murder of Hypatia of Alexandria, wondering whether problems with astronomical observations and the date of Easter led to her becoming a casualty of fifth-century political intrigue.

  12. The amateur astronomer

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    Introduces astronomy and amateur observing together. This edition includes photographs and illustrations. The comprehensive appendices provide hints and tips, as well as data for every aspect of amateur astronomy. This work is useful for amateur astronomers

  13. NASA Iced Aerodynamics and Controls Current Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addy, Gene

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the state of current research in the area of aerodynamics and aircraft control with ice conditions by the Aviation Safety Program, part of the Integrated Resilient Aircraft Controls Project (IRAC). Included in the presentation is a overview of the modeling efforts. The objective of the modeling is to develop experimental and computational methods to model and predict aircraft response during adverse flight conditions, including icing. The Aircraft icing modeling efforts includes the Ice-Contaminated Aerodynamics Modeling, which examines the effects of ice contamination on aircraft aerodynamics, and CFD modeling of ice-contaminated aircraft aerodynamics, and Advanced Ice Accretion Process Modeling which examines the physics of ice accretion, and works on computational modeling of ice accretions. The IRAC testbed, a Generic Transport Model (GTM) and its use in the investigation of the effects of icing on its aerodynamics is also reviewed. This has led to a more thorough understanding and models, both theoretical and empirical of icing physics and ice accretion for airframes, advanced 3D ice accretion prediction codes, CFD methods for iced aerodynamics and better understanding of aircraft iced aerodynamics and its effects on control surface effectiveness.

  14. Astronomical optics and elasticity theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lemaitre, Gerard Rene

    2008-01-01

    Astronomical Optics and Elasticity Theory provides a very thorough and comprehensive account of what is known in this field. After an extensive introduction to optics and elasticity, the book discusses variable curvature and multimode deformable mirrors, as well as, in depth, active optics, its theory and applications. Further, optical design utilizing the Schmidt concept and various types of Schmidt correctors, as well as the elasticity theory of thin plates and shells are elaborated upon. Several active optics methods are developed for obtaining aberration corrected diffraction gratings. Further, a weakly conical shell theory of elasticity is elaborated for the aspherization of grazing incidence telescope mirrors. The very didactic and fairly easy-to-read presentation of the topic will enable PhD students and young researchers to actively participate in challenging astronomical optics and instrumentation projects.

  15. Basic Optics for the Astronomical Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Breckinridge, James

    2012-01-01

    This text was written to provide students of astronomy and engineers an understanding of optical science - the study of the generation, propagation, control, and measurement of optical radiation - as it applies to telescopes and instruments for astronomical research in the areas of astrophysics, astrometry, exoplanet characterization, and planetary science. The book provides an overview of the elements of optical design and physical optics within the framework of the needs of the astronomical community.

  16. Reporting Astronomical Discoveries: Past, Now, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaoka, Hitoshi; Green, Daniel W. E.; Samus, Nikolai N.; West, Richard

    2015-08-01

    Many new astronomical objects have been discovered over the years by amateur astronomers, and this continues to be the case. They have traditionally reported them (as have professional astronomers) to the Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams (CBAT), which was established in the 19th century. This procedure has worked very well throughout the 20th century, moving under the umbrella of the newly established IAU in 1920. The discoverers have been honored by the formal announcement of their discoveries in the publications of the CBAT.In recent years, some professional research groups have established other ways of announcing their discoveries of explosive objects such as novae and supernovae; some do not now report their discoveries or spectroscopic confirmations of the transients to the CBAT, including often spectroscopic reports of objects posted to the CBAT "Transient Objects Confirmation Page" -- the highly successful TOCP webpage, which assigns official positional designations to new transients posted there by approved, registered users. This leads to a delay in formal announcements of discoveries by amateur astronomers in many cases, as well as inconsistent designations being put into use by individual groups. Amateur astronomers are feeling frustrated about this situation, and they hope that the IAU will help to settle the situation.We have proposed the new IAU commission NC-52, which will treat these phenomena in a continuation of Commission 6, through the CBAT. We hope to continuously support the reporting of the discoveries by amateur astronomers, as well as professional astronomers, who all deserve and desire proper recognition. Our strategy will maintain the firm trust between the amateur and professional astronomers, which is necessary for true collaboration. The plan is for the CBAT to work with collaborators to assure that discoveries posted on the TOCP are promptly designated and announced by the CBAT, even when confirmations are made elsewhere

  17. The Soviet center of astronomical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dluzhnevskaya, O.B.

    1982-01-01

    On the basis of the current French-Soviet cooperation in science and technology, the Astronomical Council of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences and the Strasbourg Center signed in 1977 an agreement on setting up the Soviet Center of Astronomical Data as its filial branch. The Soviet Center was created on the basis of a computation center at the Zvenigorod station of the Astronomical Council of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, which had already had considerable experience of working with stellar catalogues. In 1979 the Center was equipped with a EC-1033 computer. In 1978-1979 the Soviet Center of Astronomical Data (C.A.D.) received from Strasbourg 96 of the most important catalogues. By September 1981 the list of catalogues available at the Soviet Center has reached 140 catalogues some of which are described. (Auth.)

  18. Current trends in free software research

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro Bosch, Ramon; Vila Marta, Sebastià

    2009-01-01

    This report analyzes how scientific research is studying free software. We find which research is being done on free software by looking into scientific journals and conferences publications. The data thus obtained is analized and the most salient trends related to free software discovered. We also reviewed the main works published in each free software research area.

  19. Current status of the world's research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodd, B.

    1999-01-01

    Data from the IAEA's Research Reactor Database (RRDB) provides information with respect to the status of the world's research reactors. Some summary data are given. Recent initiatives by the IAEA regarding communications and information flow with respect to research reactors are discussed. Future plans and perspectives are also introduced. (author)

  20. Current status of nuclear physics research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertulani, Carlos A.; Hussein, Mahir S.

    2015-01-01

    In this review, we discuss the current status of research in nuclear physics which is being carried out in different centers in the world. For this purpose, we supply a short account of the development in the area which evolved over the last nine decades, since the discovery of the neutron. The evolution of the physics of the atomic nucleus went through many stages as more data became available. We briefly discuss models introduced to discern the physics behind the experimental discoveries, such as the shell model, the collective model, the statistical model, the interacting boson model, etc., some of these models may be seemingly in conflict with each other, but this was shown to be only apparent. The richness of the ideas and abundance of theoretical models attests to the important fact that the nucleus is a really singular system in the sense that it evolves from two-body bound states such as the deuteron, to few-body bound states, such as 4 He, 7 Li, 9 Be, etc. and up the ladder to heavier bound nuclei containing up to more than 200 nucleons. Clearly, statistical mechanics, usually employed in systems with very large number of particles, would seemingly not work for such finite systems as the nuclei, neither do other theories which are applicable to condensed matter. The richness of nuclear physics stems from these restrictions. New theories and models are presently being developed. Theories of the structure and reactions of neutron-rich and proton-rich nuclei, called exotic nuclei, halo nuclei, or Borromean nuclei, deal with the wealth of experimental data that became available in the last 35 years. Furthermore, nuclear astrophysics and stellar and Big Bang nucleosynthesis have become a more mature subject. Due to limited space, this review only covers a few selected topics, mainly those with which the authors have worked on. Our aimed potential readers of this review are nuclear physicists and physicists in other areas, as well as graduate students interested

  1. Current status of nuclear physics research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertulani, Carlos A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University-Commerce (United States); Hussein, Mahir S., E-mail: hussein@if.usp.br [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica

    2015-12-15

    In this review, we discuss the current status of research in nuclear physics which is being carried out in different centers in the world. For this purpose, we supply a short account of the development in the area which evolved over the last nine decades, since the discovery of the neutron. The evolution of the physics of the atomic nucleus went through many stages as more data became available. We briefly discuss models introduced to discern the physics behind the experimental discoveries, such as the shell model, the collective model, the statistical model, the interacting boson model, etc., some of these models may be seemingly in conflict with each other, but this was shown to be only apparent. The richness of the ideas and abundance of theoretical models attests to the important fact that the nucleus is a really singular system in the sense that it evolves from two-body bound states such as the deuteron, to few-body bound states, such as {sup 4}He, {sup 7}Li, {sup 9}Be, etc. and up the ladder to heavier bound nuclei containing up to more than 200 nucleons. Clearly, statistical mechanics, usually employed in systems with very large number of particles, would seemingly not work for such finite systems as the nuclei, neither do other theories which are applicable to condensed matter. The richness of nuclear physics stems from these restrictions. New theories and models are presently being developed. Theories of the structure and reactions of neutron-rich and proton-rich nuclei, called exotic nuclei, halo nuclei, or Borromean nuclei, deal with the wealth of experimental data that became available in the last 35 years. Furthermore, nuclear astrophysics and stellar and Big Bang nucleosynthesis have become a more mature subject. Due to limited space, this review only covers a few selected topics, mainly those with which the authors have worked on. Our aimed potential readers of this review are nuclear physicists and physicists in other areas, as well as graduate

  2. Navy Telemedicine: Current Research and Future Directions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reed, Cheryl

    2002-01-01

    .... An assessment of Navy telemedicine as a complex healthcare support system is needed to demonstrate how current practices, training, equipment, and expenditures measure up to the emerging needs of the Fleet...

  3. Observatory Sponsoring Astronomical Image Contest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-01

    and to provide a showcase for a broad range of astronomical research and celestial objects," Adams added. In addition, NRAO is developing enhanced data visualization techniques and data-processing recipes to assist radio astronomers in making quality images and in combining radio data with data collected at other wavelengths, such as visible-light or infrared, to make composite images. "We encourage all our telescope users to take advantage of these techniques to showcase their research," said Juan Uson, a member of the NRAO scientific staff and the observatory's EPO scientist. "All these efforts should demonstrate the vital and exciting roles that radio telescopes, radio observers, and the NRAO play in modern astronomy," Lo said. "While we want to encourage images that capture the imagination, we also want to emphasize that extra effort invested in enhanced imagery also will certainly pay off scientifically, by revealing subtleties and details that may have great significance for our understanding of astronomical objects," he added. Details of the NRAO Image Contest, which will become an annual event, are on the observatory's Web site. The observatory will announce winners on October 15. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  4. Neuroscience research in Africa: Current status

    OpenAIRE

    Abd-Allah, Foad; Kissani, Najib; William, Anthony; Oraby, Mohammed Ibrahim; Moustafa, Ramez Reda; Shaker, Ehab; El-Tamawy, Mohamed Soliman; Shakir, Raad

    2015-01-01

    There are limited data on the contribution of the African continent to neuroscience research and publications. This review aims to provide a clear view on the state of neuroscience research among African countries, and to compare neuroscience research within the 52 African countries. A literature review search was conducted for all published articles by African authors in both local and international journals using Medline and other primary databases. Neuroscience represents 9.1% of the total...

  5. Astronomical publications of Melbourne Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andropoulos, Jenny Ioanna

    2014-05-01

    During the second half of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century, four well-equipped government observatories were maintained in Australia - in Melbourne, Sydney, Adelaide and Perth. These institutions conducted astronomical observations, often in the course of providing a local time service, and they also collected and collated meteorological data. As well, some of these observatories were involved at times in geodetic surveying, geomagnetic recording, gravity measurements, seismology, tide recording and physical standards, so the term "observatory" was being used in a rather broad sense! Despite the international renown that once applied to Williamstown and Melbourne Observatories, relatively little has been written by modern-day scholars about astronomical activities at these observatories. This research is intended to rectify this situation to some extent by gathering, cataloguing and analysing the published astronomical output of the two Observatories to see what contributions they made to science and society. It also compares their contributions with those of Sydney, Adelaide and Perth Observatories. Overall, Williamstown and Melbourne Observatories produced a prodigious amount of material on astronomy in scientific and technical journals, in reports and in newspapers. The other observatories more or less did likewise, so no observatory of those studied markedly outperformed the others in the long term, especially when account is taken of their relative resourcing in staff and equipment.

  6. Marine Radioecology. Current Research and Future Scope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-03-01

    This report consists of answers submitted by various laboratory directors or individual investigators who responded to an International Atomic Energy Agency questionnaire concerning their present research programme, future scope of that programme, the investigators' ideas and opinions on marine radioecology research. Information on the possibility of co-operation with other laboratories is also included

  7. Neuroimaging for psychotherapy research: current trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingarten, Carol P; Strauman, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews neuroimaging studies that inform psychotherapy research. An introduction to neuroimaging methods is provided as background for the increasingly sophisticated breadth of methods and findings appearing in psychotherapy research. We compiled and assessed a comprehensive list of neuroimaging studies of psychotherapy outcome, along with selected examples of other types of studies that also are relevant to psychotherapy research. We emphasized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) since it is the dominant neuroimaging modality in psychological research. We summarize findings from neuroimaging studies of psychotherapy outcome, including treatment for depression, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and schizophrenia. The increasing use of neuroimaging methods in the study of psychotherapy continues to refine our understanding of both outcome and process. We suggest possible directions for future neuroimaging studies in psychotherapy research.

  8. Atlas of Astronomical Discoveries

    CERN Document Server

    Schilling, Govert

    2011-01-01

    Four hundred years ago in Middelburg, in the Netherlands, the telescope was invented. The invention unleashed a revolution in the exploration of the universe. Galileo Galilei discovered mountains on the Moon, spots on the Sun, and moons around Jupiter. Christiaan Huygens saw details on Mars and rings around Saturn. William Herschel discovered a new planet and mapped binary stars and nebulae. Other astronomers determined the distances to stars, unraveled the structure of the Milky Way, and discovered the expansion of the universe. And, as telescopes became bigger and more powerful, astronomers delved deeper into the mysteries of the cosmos. In his Atlas of Astronomical Discoveries, astronomy journalist Govert Schilling tells the story of 400 years of telescopic astronomy. He looks at the 100 most important discoveries since the invention of the telescope. In his direct and accessible style, the author takes his readers on an exciting journey encompassing the highlights of four centuries of astronomy. Spectacul...

  9. Loyalty Programmes : Current Knowledge and Research Directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorotic, Matilda; Bijmolt, Tammo H. A.; Verhoef, Peter C.

    Loyalty programmes (LPs) have increased in number and popularity, but their effects on customer behaviour remain equivocal, due to a lack of understanding of the drivers of LP effectiveness and insufficient generalizable conclusions across prior studies. This paper synthesizes current knowledge

  10. Review of current researches on internet addiction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Yanni; Tian Mei; Zhang Hong

    2012-01-01

    Internet addiction (IA) is a mental illness emerged in recent years with increasing use of computer and internet. The serious consequences such as mental and physical illness and social function impairment caused by IA have attracted extensive attention of the whole society. IA affects human beings at a high prevalence all over the world which has highlighted the importance of prevention and treatment of IA. Although there is still debate about definition of IA, increasing evidences including the result from genetic research,neurobiology study and clinical manifestation show that IA may share the same mechanisms with substance addiction, and be probably classified as behavioral addiction which is represented by pathological gambling. However, since the study on IA is yet on the initial stage and neuro biological research on IA is still limited, more reliable investigations especially neuro biological research remains uppermost in this area. (authors)

  11. Methods in Astronomical Image Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jörsäter, S.

    A Brief Introductory Note History of Astronomical Imaging Astronomical Image Data Images in Various Formats Digitized Image Data Digital Image Data Philosophy of Astronomical Image Processing Properties of Digital Astronomical Images Human Image Processing Astronomical vs. Computer Science Image Processing Basic Tools of Astronomical Image Processing Display Applications Calibration of Intensity Scales Calibration of Length Scales Image Re-shaping Feature Enhancement Noise Suppression Noise and Error Analysis Image Processing Packages: Design of AIPS and MIDAS AIPS MIDAS Reduction of CCD Data Bias Subtraction Clipping Preflash Subtraction Dark Subtraction Flat Fielding Sky Subtraction Extinction Correction Deconvolution Methods Rebinning/Combining Summary and Prospects for the Future

  12. Soy Saponins: Current Research and Future Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saponins are a biologically active class of triterpenoid phytochemicals found in soybeans at concentrations similar to those of the isoflavones, and the role they may play in nutrition and health is not well understood. Research the functionality of these compounds in animals and humans has been ha...

  13. Overcoming the current deadlock in antibiotic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäberle, Till F; Hack, Ingrid M

    2014-04-01

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are on the rise, making it harder to treat bacterial infections. The situation is aggravated by the shrinking of the antibiotic development pipeline. To finance urgently needed incentives for antibiotic research, creative financing solutions are needed. Public-private partnerships (PPPs) are a successful model for moving forward. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Current State of Research on Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geering, Adrian D.

    The literature on motivation theory is growing rapidly due to increased interest by leaders in all types of organizations in social-psychology variables such as internal commitment and motivation to work. This paper presents an overview of motivational research, covering early behavior theories such as scientific management and human relations,…

  15. Researches on regenerative medicine-current state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Zheng-guo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】 Since 1980s, the rapid development of tissue engineering and stem cell research has pushed re-generative medicine to a new fastigium, and regenerative medicine has become a noticeable research field in the international biology and medicine. In China, about 100 million patients need repair and regeneration treatment every year, while the number is much larger in the world. Regenerative medicine could provide effective salvation for these patients. Both Chinese Academy of Sciences and Chinese Academy of Engineering have made roadmaps of 2010-2050 and 2011-2030 for regenerative medicine. The final goal of the two roadmaps is to make China go up to leading position in most research aspects of regenerative medicine. In accord with this strategy, the government and some enterprises have invested 3-5 billion RMB (0.5-0.8 billion USD for the research on regenerative medicine. In order to push the translation of regenerative medicine forward—from bench to bedside, a strategic alliance has been established, and it includes 27 top-level research institutes, medical institutes, colleges, universities and enterprises in the field of stem cell and regeneration medicine. Recently the journal, Science, has published a special issue—Regenerative Medi-cine in China, consisting of 35 papers dealing with stem cell and regeneration, tissue engineering and regeneration, trauma and regeneration and bases for tissue repair and regenerative medicine. It is predicated that a greater breakthrough in theory and practice of regenerative medicine will be achieved in the near future (20 to 30 years. Key words: Regenerative medicine; Tissue engineering; Stem cells; Wound healing

  16. US computer research networks: Current and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratochvil, D.; Sood, D.; Verostko, A.

    1989-01-01

    During the last decade, NASA LeRC's Communication Program has conducted a series of telecommunications forecasting studies to project trends and requirements and to identify critical telecommunications technologies that must be developed to meet future requirements. The Government Networks Division of Contel Federal Systems has assisted NASA in these studies, and the current study builds upon these earlier efforts. The current major thrust of the NASA Communications Program is aimed at developing the high risk, advanced, communications satellite and terminal technologies required to significantly increase the capacity of future communications systems. Also, major new technological, economic, and social-political events and trends are now shaping the communications industry of the future. Therefore, a re-examination of future telecommunications needs and requirements is necessary to enable NASA to make management decisions in its Communications Program and to ensure the proper technologies and systems are addressed. This study, through a series of Task Orders, is helping NASA define the likely communication service needs and requirements of the future and thereby ensuring that the most appropriate technology developments are pursued.

  17. Integrating Current Meteorological Research Through Club Fundraising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, S. S.; Kauffman, C. M.

    2003-12-01

    Earth science programs whose focus is primarily an undergraduate education do not often have the funding to take students to very many conferences which could expose the student to new research as well as possible graduate programs and employment opportunities. Conferences also give the more enthusiastic and hardworking students a venue in which to present their research to the meteorological community. In addition, the California University services largely lower income counties, which make student attendance at conferences even more difficult even though the student in SW PA may be individually motivated. This issue is compounded by the fact that the Meteorology Concentration within the Earth Science department at Cal U is composed of only two full-time Professors, which limits the amount of research students can be exposed to within a classroom setting. New research ideas presented at conferences are thus an important mechanism for broadening what could be an isolated program. One way in which the meteorology program has circumvented the funding problem to a certain extent is through an active student club. With nearly 60 majors (3/4 of which are active in club activities, the meteorology club is able to execute a variety of fundraising activities. Money that is raised can then request from student services matching funds. Further money is given to clubs, which are very active not only in fundraising, but using that money for academic related activities. For the last 3 years the club budget has been in the neighborhood of \\$4500. The money has then been used to partially finance student registration and accommodation costs making conference attendance much more affordable. Normally 8-16 students attend conferences that they would otherwise not be able to attend without great expense. There are times when more than 16 students wish to attend, but travel arrangements prohibit more than 16. Moreover club money is also use to supplement student costs on a summer

  18. Current clinical research in orthodontics: a perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, Sheldon

    2006-10-01

    This essay explores briefly the approach of the Craniofacial Research Instrumentation Laboratory to the systematic and rigorous investigation of the usual outcome of orthodontic treatment in the practices of experienced clinicians. CRIL's goal is to produce a shareable electronic database of reliable, valid, and representative data on clinical practice as an aid in the production of an improved environment for truly evidence-based orthodontic treatment.

  19. ASURV: Astronomical SURVival Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigelson, E. D.; Nelson, P. I.; Isobe, T.; LaValley, M.

    2014-06-01

    ASURV (Astronomical SURVival Statistics) provides astronomy survival analysis for right- and left-censored data including the maximum-likelihood Kaplan-Meier estimator and several univariate two-sample tests, bivariate correlation measures, and linear regressions. ASURV is written in FORTRAN 77, and is stand-alone and does not call any specialized libraries.

  20. Intelligent multimedia surveillance current trends and research

    CERN Document Server

    Atrey, Pradeep K; Cavallaro, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Intelligent multimedia surveillance concerns the analysis of multiple sensing inputs including video and audio streams, radio-frequency identification (RFID), and depth data. These data are processed for the automated detection and tracking of people, vehicles, and other objects. The goal is to locate moving targets, to understand their behavior, and to detect suspicious or abnormal activities for crime prevention. Despite its benefits, there is societal apprehension regarding the use of such technology, so an important challenge in this research area is to balance public safety and privacy.

  1. The current status of Kartini research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tjiptono, Tri Wulan; Syarip,

    1998-10-01

    The Kartini reactor reached the first criticality on January 25, 1979. In the first three years, the reactor power is limited up to 50 kW thermal power and on July 1, 1982 has been increased to 100 kW. It has been used as experiments facility by researcher of Atomic Energy National Agency and students of the Universities. Three beam tubes used as experiments facilities, the first, is used as a neutron source for H{sub 2}O-Natural Uranium Subcritical Assembly, the second, is developed for neutron radiography facility and the third, is used for gamma radiography facility. The other facilities are rotary rack and two pneumatic transfer systems, one for delayed neutron counting system and the other for the new Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) facility. The rotary rack used for isotope production for NAA purpose (for long time irradiation), the delayed neutron counting system used for analysis the Uranium contents of the ores and the new NAA is provided for short live elements analysis. In the last three years the Reactor Division has a joint use program with the Nuclear Component and Engineering Center in research reactor instrumentation and control development. (author)

  2. Current state of nuclear fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naraghi, M.

    1985-01-01

    During the past quarter century, plasma physics and nuclear fusion research have gone through impressive development. Tokamak, is realized to be the number one candidate for nuclear fusion reactor. Two large experiments, one called Joint European Torus (JET) at Culham, England, and the other JT-60 project in Japan have been completed and have reported preliminary results. In JET an average electron density of 4x10 13 pcls/ cm 3 , ion temperatures of 3Kev and energy confinement of 0.8 sec have been achieved. However, the Zeff has been even equal to 10 which unfortunately is a source of plasma energy loss. JT-60 has not offered any appreciable results yet, however, the objectives and initial tests promise long pulse duration, with very high ion and plasma densities. Both experiments have promised to achieve conditions approaching those needed in a fusion reactor. Other important experiments will be discussed and the role of third world countries will be emphasized. (Author)

  3. Nanofluid Technology: Current Status and Future Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Stephen U.-S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Technology Division

    1998-10-20

    Downscaling or miniaturization has been a recent major trend in modern science and technology. Engineers now fabricate microscale devices such as microchannel heat exchangers, and micropumps that are the size of dust specks. Further major advances would be obtained if the coolant flowing in the microchannels were to contain nanoscale particles to enhance heat transfer. Nanofluid technology will thus be an emerging and exciting technology of the 21st century. This paper gives a brief history of the Advanced Fluids Program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), discusses the concept of nanofluids, and provides an overview of the R&D program at ANL on the production, property characterization, and performance of nanofluids. It also describes examples of potential applications and benefits of nanofluids. Finally, future research on the fundamentals and applications of nanofluids is addressed.

  4. Intuitive Physics: Current Research and Controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubricht, James R; Holyoak, Keith J; Lu, Hongjing

    2017-10-01

    Early research in the field of intuitive physics provided extensive evidence that humans succumb to common misconceptions and biases when predicting, judging, and explaining activity in the physical world. Recent work has demonstrated that, across a diverse range of situations, some biases can be explained by the application of normative physical principles to noisy perceptual inputs. However, it remains unclear how knowledge of physical principles is learned, represented, and applied to novel situations. In this review we discuss theoretical advances from heuristic models to knowledge-based, probabilistic simulation models, as well as recent deep-learning models. We also consider how recent work may be reconciled with earlier findings that favored heuristic models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Advanced radiation chemistry research: Current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    Radiation chemistry is a branch of chemistry that studies chemical transformations in materials exposed to high-energy radiations. It is based on the use of ionizing radiation as the initiator or catalyst in chemical reactions. The most significant advantage of radiation chemistry lies in its ability to be used in the production and study of almost any reactive atomic and molecular species playing a part in chemical reaction, synthesis, industrial processes, or in biological systems. Over the the last few years a number of meetings have taken place, under the auspices of the IAEA, in order to evaluate recent developments in radiation chemistry as well as the trends indicated by the results obtained. Radiation chemists from different countries have participated at these meetings. The present publication, a companion to the previous publication - New Trends and Development in Radiation Chemistry, IAEA-TECDOC-527 (1989) - includes some of the important contributions presented at these meetings. It is hoped that it will provide a useful overview of current activities and of emerging trends in this field, thus promoting better understanding of potential contributions of radiation chemistry to other fields of knowledge as well as to practical applications in industry, medicine and agriculture. Refs, figs and tabs

  6. Advanced radiation chemistry research: Current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    Radiation chemistry is a branch of chemistry that studies chemical transformations in materials exposed to high-energy radiations. It is based on the use of ionizing radiation as the initiator or catalyst in chemical reactions. The most significant advantage of radiation chemistry lies in its ability to be used in the production and study of almost any reactive atomic and molecular species playing a part in chemical reaction, synthesis, industrial processes, or in biological systems. Over the the last few years a number of meetings have taken place, under the auspices of the IAEA, in order to evaluate recent developments in radiation chemistry as well as the trends indicated by the results obtained. Radiation chemists from different countries have participated at these meetings. The present publication, a companion to the previous publication - New Trends and Development in Radiation Chemistry, IAEA-TECDOC-527 (1989) - includes some of the important contributions presented at these meetings. It is hoped that it will provide a useful overview of current activities and of emerging trends in this field, thus promoting better understanding of potential contributions of radiation chemistry to other fields of knowledge as well as to practical applications in industry, medicine and agriculture. Refs, figs and tabs.

  7. Current state of molecular imaging research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimm, J.; Wunder, A.

    2005-01-01

    The recent years have seen significant advances in both molecular biology, allowing the identification of genes and pathways related to disease, and imaging technologies that allow for improved spatial and temporal resolution, enhanced sensitivity, better depth penetration, improved image processing, and beneficial combinations of different imaging modalities. These advances have led to a paradigm shift in the scope of diagnostic imaging. The traditional role of radiological diagnostic imaging is to define gross anatomy and structure in order to detect pathological abnormalities. Available contrast agents are mostly non-specific and can be used to image physiological processes such as changes in blood volume, flow, and perfusion but not to demonstrate pathological alterations at molecular levels. However, alterations at the anatomical-morphological level are relatively late manifestations of underlying molecular changes. Using molecular probes or markers that bind specifically to molecular targets allows for the non-invasive visualization and quantitation of biological processes such as gene expression, apoptosis, or angiogenesis at the molecular level within intact living organisms. This rapidly evolving, multidisciplinary approach, referred to as molecular imaging, promises to enable early diagnosis, can provide improved classification of stage and severity of disease, an objective assessment of treatment efficacy, and a reliable prognosis. Furthermore, molecular imaging is an important tool for the evaluation of physiological and pathophysiological processes, and for the development of new therapies. This article comprises a review of current technologies of molecular imaging, describes the development of contrast agents and various imaging modalities, new applications in specific disease models, and potential future developments. (orig.)

  8. Powerful Radio Burst Indicates New Astronomical Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    Astronomers studying archival data from an Australian radio telescope have discovered a powerful, short-lived burst of radio waves that they say indicates an entirely new type of astronomical phenomenon. Region of Strong Radio Burst Visible-light (negative greyscale) and radio (contours) image of Small Magellanic Cloud and area where burst originated. CREDIT: Lorimer et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF Click on image for high-resolution file ( 114 KB) "This burst appears to have originated from the distant Universe and may have been produced by an exotic event such as the collision of two neutron stars or the death throes of an evaporating black hole," said Duncan Lorimer, Assistant Professor of Physics at West Virginia University (WVU) and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). The research team led by Lorimer consists of Matthew Bailes of Swinburne University in Australia, Maura McLaughlin of WVU and NRAO, David Narkevic of WVU, and Fronefield Crawford of Franklin and Marshall College in Lancaster, Pennsylvania. The astronomers announced their findings in the September 27 issue of the online journal Science Express. The startling discovery came as WVU undergraduate student David Narkevic re-analyzed data from observations of the Small Magellanic Cloud made by the 210-foot Parkes radio telescope in Australia. The data came from a survey of the Magellanic Clouds that included 480 hours of observations. "This survey had sought to discover new pulsars, and the data already had been searched for the type of pulsating signals they produce," Lorimer said. "We re-examined the data, looking for bursts that, unlike the usual ones from pulsars, are not periodic," he added. The survey had covered the Magellanic Clouds, a pair of small galaxies in orbit around our own Milky Way Galaxy. Some 200,000 light-years from Earth, the Magellanic Clouds are prominent features in the Southern sky. Ironically, the new discovery is not part of these galaxies, but rather is much more distant

  9. The New Amateur Astronomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobberley, Martin

    Amateur astronomy has changed beyond recognition in less than two decades. The reason is, of course, technology. Affordable high-quality telescopes, computer-controlled 'go to' mountings, autoguiders, CCD cameras, video, and (as always) computers and the Internet, are just a few of the advances that have revolutionized astronomy for the twenty-first century. Martin Mobberley first looks at the basics before going into an in-depth study of what’s available commercially. He then moves on to the revolutionary possibilities that are open to amateurs, from imaging, through spectroscopy and photometry, to patrolling for near-earth objects - the search for comets and asteroids that may come close to, or even hit, the earth. The New Amateur Astronomer is a road map of the new astronomy, equally suitable for newcomers who want an introduction, or old hands who need to keep abreast of innovations. From the reviews: "This is one of several dozen books in Patrick Moore's "Practical Astronomy" series. Amid this large family, Mobberley finds his niche: the beginning high-tech amateur. The book's first half discusses equipment: computer-driven telescopes, CCD cameras, imaging processing software, etc. This market is changing every bit as rapidly as the computer world, so these details will be current for only a year or two. The rest of the book offers an overview of scientific projects that serious amateurs are carrying out these days. Throughout, basic formulas and technical terms are provided as needed, without formal derivations. An appendix with useful references and Web sites is also included. Readers will need more than this book if they are considering a plunge into high-tech amateur astronomy, but it certainly will whet their appetites. Mobberley's most valuable advice will save the book's owner many times its cover price: buy a quality telescope from a reputable dealer and install it in a simple shelter so it can be used with as little set-up time as possible. A poor

  10. Current research and development at the Nuclear Research Center Karlsruhe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuesters, H.

    1982-01-01

    The Nuclear Research Center Karlsruhe (KfK) is funded to 90% by the Federal Republic of Germany and to 10% by the State of Baden-Wuerttemberg. Since its foundation in 1956 the main objective of the Center is research and development (R and D) in the aera of the nuclear technology and about 2/3 of the research capacity is now devoted to this field. Since 1960 a major activity of KfK is R and D work for the design of fast breeder reactors, including material research, physics, and safety investigations; a prototype of 300 MWe is under construction now in the lower Rhine Valley. For enrichment of 235 U fissile material KfK developed the separation nozzle process; its technical application is realized within an international contract between the Federal Republic of Germany and Brazil. Within the frame of the European Programme on fusion technology KfK develops and tests superconducting magnets for toroidal fusion systems; a smaller activity deals with research on inertial confinement fusion. A broad research programme is carried through for safety investigations of nuclear installations, especially for PWRs; this activity is supplemented by research and development in the field of nuclear materials' safeguards. Development of fast reactors has to initiate research for the reprocessing of spent fuel and waste disposal. In the pilot plant WAK spent fuel from LKWs is reprocessed; research especially tries e.g. to improve the PUREX-process by electrochemical means, vitrification of high active waste is another main activity. First studies are being performed now to clarify the necessary development for reprocessing fast reactor fuel. About 1/3 of the research capacity of KfK deals with fundamental research in nuclear physics, solid state physics, biology and studies on the impact of technology on environment. Promising new technologies as e.g. the replacement of gasoline by hydrogen cells as vehicle propulsion are investigated. (orig.)

  11. The PACA Project: When Amateur Astronomers Become Citizen Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanamandra-Fisher, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Pro-Am Collaborative Astronomy (PACA) project evolved from the observational campaign of C/2012 S1 or C/ISON in 2013. Following the success of the professional-amateur astronomer collaboration in scientific research via social media, it is now implemented in other comet observing campaigns. While PACA identifies a consistent collaborative approach to pro-am collaborations, given the volume of data generated for each campaign, new ways of rapid data analysis, mining access and storage are needed. Several interesting results emerged from the synergistic inclusion of both social media and amateur astronomers: (1) the establishment of a network of astronomers and related professionals, that can be galvanized into action on short notice to support observing campaigns; (2) assist in various science investigations pertinent to the campaign; (3) provide an alert-sounding mechanism should the need arise; (4) immediate outreach and dissemination of results via our media/blogger members; (5) provide a forum for discussions between the imagers and modelers to help strategize the observing campaign for maximum benefit. In 2014, two new comet observing campaigns involving pro-am collaborations have been initiated: (1) C/2013 A1 (C/SidingSpring) and (2) 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (CG), target for ESA/Rosetta mission. The evolving need for individual customized observing campaigns has been incorporated into the evolution of PACA portal that currently is focused on comets: from supporting observing campaigns of current comets, legacy data, historical comets; interconnected with social media and a set of shareable documents addressing observational strategies; consistent standards for data; data access, use, and storage, to align with the needs of professional observers. The integration of science, observations by professional and amateur astronomers, and various social media provides a dynamic and evolving collaborative partnership between professional and amateur astronomers

  12. Astronomical Spectroscopy for Amateurs

    CERN Document Server

    Harrison, Ken M

    2011-01-01

    Astronomical Spectroscopy for Amateurs is a complete guide for amateur astronomers who are looking for a new challenge beyond astrophotography. The book provides a brief overview of the history and development of the spectroscope, then a short introduction to the theory of stellar spectra, including details on the necessary reference spectra required for instrument testing and spectral comparison. The various types of spectroscopes available to the amateur are then described. Later sections cover all aspects of setting up and using various types of commercially available and home-built spectroscopes, starting with basic transmission gratings and going through more complex models, all the way to the sophisticated Littrow design. The final part of the text is about practical spectroscope design and construction. This book uniquely brings together a collection of observing, analyzing, and processing hints and tips that will allow the amateur to build skills in preparing scientifically acceptable spectra data. It...

  13. South African Astronomical Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Work at the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) in recent years, by both staff and visitors, has made major contributions to the fields of astrophysics and astronomy. During 1986 the SAAO has been involved in studies of the following: galaxies; celestial x-ray sources; magellanic clouds; pulsating variables; galactic structure; binary star phenomena; nebulae and interstellar matter; stellar astrophysics; open clusters; globular clusters, and solar systems

  14. The First Astronomical Observatory in Cluj-Napoca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szenkovits, Ferenc

    2008-09-01

    One of the most important cities of Romania is Cluj-Napoca (Kolozsvár, Klausenburg). This is a traditional center of education, with many universities and high schools. From the second half of the 18th century the University of Cluj has its own Astronomical Observatory, serving for didactical activities and scientific researches. The famous astronomer Maximillian Hell was one of those Jesuits who put the base of this Astronomical Observatory. Our purpose is to offer a short history of the beginnings of this Astronomical Observatory.

  15. SAADA: Astronomical Databases Made Easier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, L.; Nguyen, H. N.; Motch, C.

    2005-12-01

    Many astronomers wish to share datasets with their community but have not enough manpower to develop databases having the functionalities required for high-level scientific applications. The SAADA project aims at automatizing the creation and deployment process of such databases. A generic but scientifically relevant data model has been designed which allows one to build databases by providing only a limited number of product mapping rules. Databases created by SAADA rely on a relational database supporting JDBC and covered by a Java layer including a lot of generated code. Such databases can simultaneously host spectra, images, source lists and plots. Data are grouped in user defined collections whose content can be seen as one unique set per data type even if their formats differ. Datasets can be correlated one with each other using qualified links. These links help, for example, to handle the nature of a cross-identification (e.g., a distance or a likelihood) or to describe their scientific content (e.g., by associating a spectrum to a catalog entry). The SAADA query engine is based on a language well suited to the data model which can handle constraints on linked data, in addition to classical astronomical queries. These constraints can be applied on the linked objects (number, class and attributes) and/or on the link qualifier values. Databases created by SAADA are accessed through a rich WEB interface or a Java API. We are currently developing an inter-operability module implanting VO protocols.

  16. Astronomical Signatures of Dark Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Gorenstein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several independent astronomical observations in different wavelength bands reveal the existence of much larger quantities of matter than what we would deduce from assuming a solar mass to light ratio. They are very high velocities of individual galaxies within clusters of galaxies, higher than expected rotation rates of stars in the outer regions of galaxies, 21 cm line studies indicative of increasing mass to light ratios with radius in the halos of spiral galaxies, hot gaseous X-ray emitting halos around many elliptical galaxies, and clusters of galaxies requiring a much larger component of unseen mass for the hot gas to be bound. The level of gravitational attraction needed for the spatial distribution of galaxies to evolve from the small perturbations implied by the very slightly anisotropic cosmic microwave background radiation to its current web-like configuration requires much more mass than is observed across the entire electromagnetic spectrum. Distorted shapes of galaxies and other features created by gravitational lensing in the images of many astronomical objects require an amount of dark matter consistent with other estimates. The unambiguous detection of dark matter and more recently evidence for dark energy has positioned astronomy at the frontier of fundamental physics as it was in the 17th century.

  17. Extracting meaning from astronomical telegrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Matthew; Conwill, L.; Djorgovski, S. G.; Mahabal, A.; Donalek, C.; Drake, A.

    2011-01-01

    The rapidly emerging field of time domain astronomy is one of the most exciting and vibrant new research frontiers, ranging in scientific scope from studies of the Solar System to extreme relativistic astrophysics and cosmology. It is being enabled by a new generation of large synoptic digital sky surveys - LSST, PanStarrs, CRTS - that cover large areas of sky repeatedly, looking for transient objects and phenomena. One of the biggest challenges facing these is the automated classification of transient events, a process that needs machine-processible astronomical knowledge. Semantic technologies enable the formal representation of concepts and relations within a particular domain. ATELs (http://www.astronomerstelegram.org) are a commonly-used means for reporting and commenting upon new astronomical observations of transient sources (supernovae, stellar outbursts, blazar flares, etc). However, they are loose and unstructured and employ scientific natural language for description: this makes automated processing of them - a necessity within the next decade with petascale data rates - a challenge. Nevertheless they represent a potentially rich corpus of information that could lead to new and valuable insights into transient phenomena. This project lies in the cutting-edge field of astrosemantics, a branch of astroinformatics, which applies semantic technologies to astronomy. The ATELs have been used to develop an appropriate concept scheme - a representation of the information they contain - for transient astronomy using aspects of natural language processing. We demonstrate that it is possible to infer the subject of an ATEL from the vocabulary used and to identify previously unassociated reports.

  18. Astronomers in the Chemist's War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Virginia L.

    2012-01-01

    World War II, with radar, rockets, and "atomic" bombs was the physicists' war. And many of us know, or think we know, what our more senior colleagues did during it, with Hubble and Hoffleit at Aberdeen; M. Schwarzschild on active duty in Italy; Bondi, Gold, and Hoyle hunkered down in Dunsfeld, Surrey, talking about radar, and perhaps steady state; Greenstein and Henyey designing all-sky cameras; and many astronomers teaching navigation. World War I was The Chemists' War, featuring poison gases, the need to produce liquid fuels from coal on one side of the English Channel and to replace previously-imported dyesstuffs on the other. The talke will focus on what astronomers did and had done to them between 1914 and 1919, from Freundlich (taken prisoner on an eclipse expedition days after the outbreak of hostilities) to Edwin Hubble, returning from France without ever having quite reached the front lines. Other events bore richer fruit (Hale and the National Research Council), but very few of the stories are happy ones. Most of us have neither first nor second hand memories of The Chemists' War, but I had the pleasure of dining with a former Freundlich student a couple of weeks ago.

  19. Novel Algorithms for Astronomical Plate Analyses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hudec, René; Hudec, L.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 32, 1-2 (2011), s. 121-123 ISSN 0250-6335. [Conference on Multiwavelength Variability of Blazars. Guangzhou, 22,09,2010-24,09,2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/1207 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA102/09/0997; MŠMT(CZ) ME09027 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : astronomical plates * plate archives archives * astronomical algorithms Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 0.400, year: 2011

  20. Thirteenth Joint European and National Astronomical Meeting

    CERN Document Server

    Iniesta, J C

    2006-01-01

    The book gathers the invited talks to the XIII JENAM conference, organized this time by the European Astronomical Society (EAS) and the Spanish Astronomical Society (SEA), and hosted by the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC). All branches of astrophysics are encompassed from the largest scales and cosmology to the solar system and the Sun, through the galaxies and the stars, including a section on astronomical instrumentation. Very relevant experts from all over the world speak in a single book about the most recent, exciting results from their fields in a way which is useful for both researchers in these fields and colleagues working in other disciplines. The book is accompanied by a CD-ROM including the remaining contributions of the meeting in PDF format, hence opening a wide panorama of what is going on in astrophysics nowadays.

  1. Decoding the mechanisms of Antikythera astronomical device

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Jian-Liang

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a systematic design methodology for decoding the interior structure of the Antikythera mechanism, an astronomical device from ancient Greece. The historical background, surviving evidence and reconstructions of the mechanism are introduced, and the historical development of astronomical achievements and various astronomical instruments are investigated. Pursuing an approach based on the conceptual design of modern mechanisms and bearing in mind the standards of science and technology at the time, all feasible designs of the six lost/incomplete/unclear subsystems are synthesized as illustrated examples, and 48 feasible designs of the complete interior structure are presented. This approach provides not only a logical tool for applying modern mechanical engineering knowledge to the reconstruction of the Antikythera mechanism, but also an innovative research direction for identifying the original structures of the mechanism in the future. In short, the book offers valuable new insights for all...

  2. Current Issues in LPP Research and Their Impact on Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darquennes, Jeroen

    2013-01-01

    After a very broad description of what language policy and planning is about this paper presents an overview of some of the current preoccupations of researchers focusing on language policy and planning as one of the blooming fields of applied linguistics. The current issues in language policy and planning research that are dealt with include…

  3. An astronomical observatory for Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Mar, Juan Quintanilla; Sicardy, Bruno; Giraldo, Víctor Ayma; Callo, Víctor Raúl Aguilar

    2011-06-01

    Peru and France are to conclude an agreement to provide Peru with an astronomical observatory equipped with a 60-cm diameter telescope. The principal aims of this project are to establish and develop research and teaching in astronomy. Since 2004, a team of researchers from Paris Observatory has been working with the University of Cusco (UNSAAC) on the educational, technical and financial aspects of implementing this venture. During an international astronomy conference in Cusco in July 2009, the foundation stone of the future Peruvian Observatory was laid at the top of Pachatusan Mountain. UNSAAC, represented by its Rector, together with the town of Oropesa and the Cusco regional authority, undertook to make the sum of 300,000€ available to the project. An agreement between Paris Observatory and UNSAAC now enables Peruvian students to study astronomy through online teaching.

  4. On astronomical drawing [1846

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Charles Piazzi

    Reprinted from the Memoirs of the Royal Astronomical Society 15, 1846, pp. 71-82. With annotations and illustrations added by Klaus Hentschel. The activities of the Astronomer Royal for Scotland, Charles Piazzi Smyth (1819-1900), include the triangulation of South African districts, landscape painting, day-to-day or tourist sketching, the engraving and lithographing of prominent architectural sites, the documentary photography of the Egyptian pyramids or the Tenerife Dragon tree, and `instant photographs' of the clouds above his retirement home in Clova, Ripon. His colorful records of the aurora polaris, and solar and terrestrial spectra all profited from his trained eye and his subtle mastery of the pen and the brush. As his paper on astronomical drawing, which we chose to reproduce in this volume, amply demonstrates, he was conversant in most of the print technology repertoire that the 19th century had to offer, and carefully selected the one most appropriate to each sujet. For instance, he chose mezzotint for the plates illustrating Maclear's observations of Halley's comet in 1835/36, so as to achieve a ``rich profundity of shadows, the deep obscurity of which is admirably adapted to reproduce those fine effects of chiaroscuro frequently found in works where the quantity of dark greatly predominates.'' The same expertise with which he tried to emulate Rembrandt's chiaroscuro effects he applied to assessing William and John Herschel's illustrations of nebulae, which appeared in print between 1811 and 1834. William Herschel's positive engraving, made partly by stippling and partly by a coarse mezzotint, receives sharp admonishment because of the visible ruled crossed lines in the background and the fact that ``the objects, which are also generally too light, [have] a much better definition than they really possess.'' On the other hand, John Herschel's illustration of nebulae and star clusters, given in negative, ``in which the lights are the darkest part of the

  5. Astronomical Instruments in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Sreeramula Rajeswara

    The earliest astronomical instruments used in India were the gnomon and the water clock. In the early seventh century, Brahmagupta described ten types of instruments, which were adopted by all subsequent writers with minor modifications. Contact with Islamic astronomy in the second millennium AD led to a radical change. Sanskrit texts began to lay emphasis on the importance of observational instruments. Exclusive texts on instruments were composed. Islamic instruments like the astrolabe were adopted and some new types of instruments were developed. Production and use of these traditional instruments continued, along with the cultivation of traditional astronomy, up to the end of the nineteenth century.

  6. Astronomers Gain Clues About Fundamental Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    superstring theory and extra dimensions in spacetime calling for the "constants" to change over time, he said. The astronomers used the GBT to detect and study radio emissions at four specific frequencies between 1612 MHz and 1720 MHz coming from hydroxyl (OH) molecules in a galaxy more than 6 billion light-years from Earth, seen as it was at roughly half the Universe's current age. Each of the four frequencies represents a specific change in the energy level of the molecule. The exact frequency emitted or absorbed when the molecule undergoes a transition from one energy level to another depends on the values of the fundamental physical constants. However, each of the four frequencies studied in the OH molecule will react differently to a change in the constants. That difference is what the astronomers sought to detect using the GBT, which, Kanekar explained, is the ideal telescope for this work because of its technical capabilities and its location in the National Radio Quiet Zone, where radio interference is at a minimum. "We can place very tight limits on changes in the physical constants by studying the behavior of these OH molecules at a time when the Universe was only about half its current age, and comparing this result to how the molecules behave today in the laboratory," said Karl Menten of the Max-Planck Institute for Radioastronomy in Germany. Wetterich, a theorist, welcomes the new capability, saying the observational method "seems very promising to obtain perhaps the most accurate values for such possible time changes of the constants." He pointed out that, while some theoretical models call for the constants to change only in the early moments after the Big Bang, models of the recently-discovered, mysterious "dark energy" that seems to be accelerating the Universe's expansion call for changes "even in the last couple of billion years." "Only observations can tell," he said. This research ties together the theoretical and observational work of Wetterich and

  7. Grigor Narekatsi's astronomical insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poghosyan, Samvel

    2015-07-01

    What stand out in the solid system of Gr. Narekatsi's naturalistic views are his astronomical insights on the material nature of light, its high speed and the Sun being composed of "material air". Especially surprising and fascinating are his views on stars and their clusters. What astronomers, including great Armenian academician V. Ambartsumian (scattering of stellar associations), would understand and prove with much difficulty thousand years later, Narekatsi predicted in the 10th century: "Stars appear and disappear untimely", "You who gather and scatter the speechless constellations, like a flock of sheep". Gr. Narekatsti's reformative views were manifested in all the spheres of the 10th century social life; he is a reformer of church life, great language constructor, innovator in literature and music, freethinker in philosophy and science. His ideology is the reflection of the 10th century Armenian Renaissance. During the 9th-10th centuries, great masses of Armenians, forced to migrate to the Balkans, took with them and spread reformative ideas. The forefather of the western science, which originated in the period of Reformation, is considered to be the great philosopher Nicholas of Cusa. The study of Gr. Narekatsti's logic and naturalistic views enables us to claim that Gr. Narekatsti is the great grandfather of European science.

  8. World's fastest and most sensitive astronomical camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    corrections to be done at an even higher rate, more than one thousand times a second, and this is where OCam is essential. "The quality of the adaptive optics correction strongly depends on the speed of the camera and on its sensitivity," says Philippe Feautrier from the LAOG, France, who coordinated the whole project. "But these are a priori contradictory requirements, as in general the faster a camera is, the less sensitive it is." This is why cameras normally used for very high frame-rate movies require extremely powerful illumination, which is of course not an option for astronomical cameras. OCam and its CCD220 detector, developed by the British manufacturer e2v technologies, solve this dilemma, by being not only the fastest available, but also very sensitive, making a significant jump in performance for such cameras. Because of imperfect operation of any physical electronic devices, a CCD camera suffers from so-called readout noise. OCam has a readout noise ten times smaller than the detectors currently used on the VLT, making it much more sensitive and able to take pictures of the faintest of sources. "Thanks to this technology, all the new generation instruments of ESO's Very Large Telescope will be able to produce the best possible images, with an unequalled sharpness," declares Jean-Luc Gach, from the Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, France, who led the team that built the camera. "Plans are now underway to develop the adaptive optics detectors required for ESO's planned 42-metre European Extremely Large Telescope, together with our research partners and the industry," says Hubin. Using sensitive detectors developed in the UK, with a control system developed in France, with German and Spanish participation, OCam is truly an outcome of a European collaboration that will be widely used and commercially produced. More information The three French laboratories involved are the Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille (LAM/INSU/CNRS, Université de Provence

  9. Asteroids astronomical and geological bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Burbine, Thomas H

    2016-01-01

    Asteroid science is a fundamental topic in planetary science and is key to furthering our understanding of planetary formation and the evolution of the Solar System. Ground-based observations and missions have provided a wealth of new data in recent years, and forthcoming missions promise further exciting results. This accessible book presents a comprehensive introduction to asteroid science, summarising the astronomical and geological characteristics of asteroids. The interdisciplinary nature of asteroid science is reflected in the broad range of topics covered, including asteroid and meteorite classification, chemical and physical properties of asteroids, observational techniques, cratering, and the discovery of asteroids and how they are named. Other chapters discuss past, present and future space missions and the threat that these bodies pose for Earth. Based on an upper-level course on asteroids and meteorites taught by the author, this book is ideal for students, researchers and professional scientists ...

  10. BOOK REVIEW: The Wandering Astronomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinbank, Elizabeth

    2000-09-01

    Fans of Patrick Moore will like this book. I enjoyed it more than I expected, having anticipated a collection of personal anecdotes of the type favoured by certain tedious after-dinner speakers. Some of the 41 short items it contains do tend towards that category, but there are also some nuggets which might enliven your physics teaching. For example, did you know that, in a murder trial in 1787, the defendant's belief that the Sun was inhabited was cited as evidence of his insanity? This was despite his views being shared by many astronomers of the day including William Herschel. Or that Clyde Tombaugh had a cat called Pluto after the planet he discovered, which was itself named by an eleven-year-old girl? Another gem concerns a brief flurry, in the early 1990s, over a suspected planet orbiting a pulsar; variations in the arrival time of its radio pulses indicated the presence of an orbiting body. These shifts were later found to arise from an error in a computer program that corrected for the Earth's motion. The programmer had assumed a circular orbit for the Earth whereas it is actually elliptical. The book is clearly intended for amateur astronomers and followers of Patrick Moore's TV programmes. There is plenty of astronomy, with an emphasis on the solar system, but very little astrophysics. The author's metricophobia means that quantities are given in imperial units throughout, with metric equivalents added in brackets (by an editor, I suspect) which can get irritating, particularly as powers-of-ten notation is avoided. It is quite a novelty to see the temperature for hydrogen fusion quoted as 18 000 000 °F (10 000 000 °C). By way of contrast, astronomical terms are used freely - ecliptic, first-magnitude star, and so on. Such terms are defined in a glossary at the end, but attention is not drawn to this and I only stumbled across it by chance. Patrick Moore obviously knows his public, and this book will serve them well. For physics teachers and students

  11. Current and Future Research Directions in Requirements Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Betty H. C.; Atlee, Joanne M.

    In this paper, we review current requirements engineering (RE) research and identify future research directions suggested by emerging software needs. First, we overview the state of the art in RE research. The research is considered with respect to technologies developed to address specific requirements tasks, such as elicitation, modeling, and analysis. Such a review enables us to identify mature areas of research, as well as areas that warrant further investigation. Next, we review several strategies for performing and extending RE research results, to help delineate the scope of future research directions. Finally, we highlight what we consider to be the “hot” current and future research topics, which aim to address RE needs for emerging systems of the future.

  12. Astronomical Data in Undergraduate courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, William I.; Swift, Carrie; Hughes, Kelli; Burke, Christopher J. F.; Burgess, Colin C.; Elrod, Aunna V.; Howard, Brittany; Stahl, Lucas; Matzke, David; Bord, Donald J.

    2016-06-01

    We present status and plans for our ongoing efforts to develop data analysis and problem-solving skills through Undergraduate Astronomy instruction. While our initiatives were developed with UM-Dearborn’s student body primarily in mind, they should be applicable for a wide range of institution and of student demographics. We focus here on two strands of our effort.Firstly, students in our Introductory Astronomy (ASTR 130) general-education course now perform several “Data Investigations”, in which they interrogate the Hubble Legacy Archive to illustrate important course concepts. This was motivated in part by the realization that typical public data archives now include tools to interrogate the observations that are sufficiently accessible that introductory astronomy students can use them to perform real science, albeit mostly at a descriptive level. We are continuing to refine these investigations, and, most importantly, to critically assess their effectiveness in terms of the student learning outcomes we wish to achieve. This work is supported by grant HST-EO-13758, provided by NASA through a grant from the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.Secondly, at the advanced-undergraduate level, students taking courses in our Astronomy minor are encouraged to gain early experience in techniques of astronomical observation and analysis that are used by professionals. We present two example projects from the Fall 2015 iteration of our upper-division course ASTR330 (The Cosmic Distance Ladder), one involving Solar System measurements, the second producing calibrated aperture photometry. For both projects students conducted, analysed, and interpreted observations using our 0.4m campus telescope, and used many of the same analysis tools as professional astronomers. This work is supported partly from a Research Initiation and Seed grant from the

  13. High energy astrophysics in radio-astronomical form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laan, H. van der

    1980-01-01

    The application of high energy astrophysics in observational astronomy, and in particular in radioastronomy, is considered. The current situation of extragalactic HEA, as brought to light by radio-astronomical techniques, is sketched. (C.F.)

  14. Educational Research in Mainland China: Current Situation and Developmental Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Miantao

    2011-01-01

    The influence of Confucian culture in Chinese Mainland China is reflected in the current situation and contextual trends of educational research content of educational thought of Confucianism, educational issues grounded on theoretical views of Confucianism, and the influence of the inclusiveness of Confucianism. In terms of research method, the…

  15. Current research projects on traffic conflicts technique studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hondel, M. van den & and Kraay, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    A review of current research concerning the development, evaluation and use of the traffic conflicts technique is presented. The 32 studies, selected from the IRRD data base, are listed alphabetically by names of countries and under countries by names of research organizations. The IRRD descriptions

  16. Image Information Retrieval: An Overview of Current Research

    OpenAIRE

    Abby A. Goodrum

    2000-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of current research in image information retrieval and provides an outline of areas for future research. The approach is broad and interdisciplinary and focuses on three aspects of image research (IR): text-based retrieval, content-based retrieval, and user interactions with image information retrieval systems. The review concludes with a call for image retrieval evaluation studies similar to TREC.

  17. Astronomers celebrate a year of new Hubble results

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-02-01

    "We are beginning to understand that because of these observations we are going to have to change the way we look at the Universe," said ESA's Dr Duccio Macchetto, Associate Director for Science Programs at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), Baltimore, Maryland, USA. The European Space Agency plays a major role in the Hubble Space Telescope programme. The Agency provided one of the telescope's four major instruments, called the Faint Object Camera, and two sets of electricity-generating solar arrays. In addition, 15 ESA scientific and technical staff work at the STScI. In return for this contribution, European astronomers are entitled to 15 percent of the telescope's observing time, although currently they account for 20 percent of all observations. "This is a testimony to the quality of the European science community", said Dr Roger Bonnet, Director of Science at ESA. "We are only guaranteed 15 percent of the telescope's use, but consistently receive much more than that." Astronomers from universities, observatories and research institutes across Europe lead more than 60 investigations planned for the telescope's fifth observing cycle, which begins this summer. Many more Europeans contribute to teams led by other astronomers. Looking back to the very start of time European astronomer Dr Peter Jakobsen used ESA's Faint Object Camera to confirm that helium was present in the early Universe. Astronomers had long predicted that 90 percent of the newly born Universe consisted of hydrogen, with helium making up the remainder. Before the refurbished Hubble came along, it was easy to detect the hydrogen, but the primordial helium remained elusive. The ultraviolet capabilities of the telescope, combined with the improvement in spatial resolution following the repair, made it possible for Dr Jakobsen to obtain an image of a quasar close to the edge of the known Universe. A spectral analysis of this picture revealed the quasar's light, which took 13 billion years

  18. AstroWeb -- Internet Resources for Astronomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, R. E.; Adorf, H.-M.; Egret, D.; Heck, A.; Koekemoer, A.; Murtagh, F.; Wells, D. C.

    AstroWeb is a World Wide Web (WWW) interface to a collection of Internet accessible resources aimed at the astronomical community. The collection currently contains more than 1000 WWW, Gopher, Wide Area Information System (WAIS), Telnet, and Anonymous FTP resources, and it is still growing. AstroWeb provides the additional value-added services: categorization of each resource; descriptive paragraphs for some resources; searchable index of all resource information; 3 times daily search for ``dead'' or ``unreliable'' resources.

  19. The Astronomical Pulse of Global Extinction Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David F.V. Lewis

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The linkage between astronomical cycles and the periodicity of mass extinctions is reviewed and discussed. In particular, the apparent 26 million year cycle of global extinctions may be related to the motion of the solar system around the galaxy, especially perpendicular to the galactic plane. The potential relevance of Milankovitch cycles is also explored in the light of current evidence for the possible causes of extinction events over a geological timescale.

  20. How Do Astronomers Share Data? Reliability and Persistence of Datasets Linked in AAS Publications and a Qualitative Study of Data Practices among US Astronomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, Alberto; Goodman, Alyssa; Muench, August; Crosas, Merce; Erdmann, Christopher

    2014-08-01

    We analyze data sharing practices of astronomers over the past fifteen years. An analysis of URL links embedded in papers published by the American Astronomical Society reveals that the total number of links included in the literature rose dramatically from 1997 until 2005, when it leveled off at around 1500 per year. The analysis also shows that the availability of linked material decays with time: in 2011, 44% of links published a decade earlier, in 2001, were broken. A rough analysis of link types reveals that links to data hosted on astronomers' personal websites become unreachable much faster than links to datasets on curated institutional sites. To gauge astronomers' current data sharing practices and preferences further, we performed in-depth interviews with 12 scientists and online surveys with 173 scientists, all at a large astrophysical research institute in the United States: the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, in Cambridge, MA. Both the in-depth interviews and the online survey indicate that, in principle, there is no philosophical objection to data-sharing among astronomers at this institution. Key reasons that more data are not presently shared more efficiently in astronomy include: the difficulty of sharing large data sets; over reliance on non-robust, non-reproducible mechanisms for sharing data (e.g. emailing it); unfamiliarity with options that make data-sharing easier (faster) and/or more robust; and, lastly, a sense that other researchers would not want the data to be shared. We conclude with a short discussion of a new effort to implement an easy-to-use, robust, system for data sharing in astronomy, at theastrodata.org, and we analyze the uptake of that system to-date.

  1. How do astronomers share data? Reliability and persistence of datasets linked in AAS publications and a qualitative study of data practices among US astronomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, Alberto; Goodman, Alyssa; Muench, August; Crosas, Merce; Erdmann, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    We analyze data sharing practices of astronomers over the past fifteen years. An analysis of URL links embedded in papers published by the American Astronomical Society reveals that the total number of links included in the literature rose dramatically from 1997 until 2005, when it leveled off at around 1500 per year. The analysis also shows that the availability of linked material decays with time: in 2011, 44% of links published a decade earlier, in 2001, were broken. A rough analysis of link types reveals that links to data hosted on astronomers' personal websites become unreachable much faster than links to datasets on curated institutional sites. To gauge astronomers' current data sharing practices and preferences further, we performed in-depth interviews with 12 scientists and online surveys with 173 scientists, all at a large astrophysical research institute in the United States: the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, in Cambridge, MA. Both the in-depth interviews and the online survey indicate that, in principle, there is no philosophical objection to data-sharing among astronomers at this institution. Key reasons that more data are not presently shared more efficiently in astronomy include: the difficulty of sharing large data sets; over reliance on non-robust, non-reproducible mechanisms for sharing data (e.g. emailing it); unfamiliarity with options that make data-sharing easier (faster) and/or more robust; and, lastly, a sense that other researchers would not want the data to be shared. We conclude with a short discussion of a new effort to implement an easy-to-use, robust, system for data sharing in astronomy, at theastrodata.org, and we analyze the uptake of that system to-date.

  2. How do astronomers share data? Reliability and persistence of datasets linked in AAS publications and a qualitative study of data practices among US astronomers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Pepe

    Full Text Available We analyze data sharing practices of astronomers over the past fifteen years. An analysis of URL links embedded in papers published by the American Astronomical Society reveals that the total number of links included in the literature rose dramatically from 1997 until 2005, when it leveled off at around 1500 per year. The analysis also shows that the availability of linked material decays with time: in 2011, 44% of links published a decade earlier, in 2001, were broken. A rough analysis of link types reveals that links to data hosted on astronomers' personal websites become unreachable much faster than links to datasets on curated institutional sites. To gauge astronomers' current data sharing practices and preferences further, we performed in-depth interviews with 12 scientists and online surveys with 173 scientists, all at a large astrophysical research institute in the United States: the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, in Cambridge, MA. Both the in-depth interviews and the online survey indicate that, in principle, there is no philosophical objection to data-sharing among astronomers at this institution. Key reasons that more data are not presently shared more efficiently in astronomy include: the difficulty of sharing large data sets; over reliance on non-robust, non-reproducible mechanisms for sharing data (e.g. emailing it; unfamiliarity with options that make data-sharing easier (faster and/or more robust; and, lastly, a sense that other researchers would not want the data to be shared. We conclude with a short discussion of a new effort to implement an easy-to-use, robust, system for data sharing in astronomy, at theastrodata.org, and we analyze the uptake of that system to-date.

  3. Agriculture for improved nutrition: the current research landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Rachel; Hawkes, Corinna; Jeff, Waage; Ferguson, Elaine; Haseen, Farhana; Homans, Hilary; Hussein, Julia; Johnston, Deborah; Marais, Debbi; McNeill, Geraldine; Shankar, Bhavani

    2013-12-01

    Concern about food security and its effect on persistent undernutrition has increased interest in how agriculture could be used to improve nutritional outcomes in developing countries. Yet the evidence base for the impact of agricultural interventions targeted at improved nutrition is currently poor. To map the extent and nature of current and planned research on agriculture for improved nutrition in order to identify gaps where more research might be useful. The research, which was conducted from April to August 2012, involved developing a conceptual framework linking agriculture and nutrition, identifying relevant research projects and programs, devising and populating a "template" with details of the research projects in relation to the conceptual framework, classifying the projects, and conducting a gap analysis. The study identified a large number of research projects covering a broad range of themes and topics. There was a strong geographic focus on sub-Saharan Africa, and many studies were explicitly concerned with nutritional impacts on women and children. Although the study revealed a diverse and growing body of research, it also identified research gaps. Few projects consider the entire evidence chain linking agricultural input or practice to nutritional outcomes. There is comparatively little current research on indirect effects of agriculture on nutrition, or the effect of policies or governance, rather than technical interventions. Most research is focused on undernutrition and small farmer households, and few studies target consumers generally, urban populations, or nutrition-related non-communicable diseases. There is very little work on the cost-effectiveness of agricultural interventions. On the basis of these findings, we make suggestions for research investment and for broader engagement of researchers and disciplines in developing approaches to design and evaluate agricultural programs for improved nutrition.

  4. Closing remarks: astronomical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecker, J.-C.

    1990-01-01

    During the discussions we have covered many facets of the basic interactions between solar activity and the Earth's climate. Solar activity is not the only astronomical or astrophysical phenomenon to influence physical conditions in the biosphere. Over timescales an order of magnitude less, the location of the Solar System in the Galaxy may have influenced life on Earth. The Sun is a complex generator of radiation, particles and magnetic fields sent far into space. Even if the total radiation emitted is constant, the amount of radiation received by the Earth changes with time: this change is complex and involved with a redistribution of energy emitted at different solar latitudes than to a real change in solar luminosity. These changes in the Earth's illumination may be a function of the wavelength, and have various effects in different layers of the Earth's atmosphere. The Sun also emits particles of all energies. Some of them find their way through the magnetopause, giving rise to auroras, to magnetic storms, to ionospheric disturbances and the like. The possible climatological effects are yet obscure. To understand the solar terrestrial relations better, regular, routine observations from ground-based stations and from space of solar phenomena must be continued. The sensitivity of human life to small changes in climatic conditions is very large. A good knowledge of solar-physics is therefore important and relevant. (author)

  5. Research Experience in Psychiatry Residency Programs Across Canada: Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugalingam, Arany; Ferreria, Sharon G; Norman, Ross M G; Vasudev, Kamini

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the current status of research experience in psychiatry residency programs across Canada. Method: Coordinators of Psychiatric Education (COPE) resident representatives from all 17 psychiatry residency programs in Canada were asked to complete a survey regarding research training requirements in their programs. Results: Among the 17 COPE representatives, 15 completed the survey, representing 88% of the Canadian medical schools that have a psychiatry residency program. Among the 15 programs, 11 (73%) require residents to conduct a scholarly activity to complete residency. Some of these programs incorporated such a requirement in the past 5 years. Ten respondents (67%) reported availability of official policy and (or) guidelines on resident research requirements. Among the 11 programs that have a research requirement, 10 (91%) require residents to complete 1 scholarly activity; 1 requires completion of 2 scholarly activities. Eight (53%) residency programs reported having a separate research track. All of the programs have a research coordinator and 14 (93%) programs provide protected time to residents for conducting research. The 3 most common types of scholarly activities that qualify for the mandatory research requirement are a full independent project (10 programs), a quality improvement project (8 programs), and assisting in a faculty project (8 programs). Six programs expect their residents to present their final work in a departmental forum. None of the residency programs require publication of residents’ final work. Conclusions: The current status of the research experience during psychiatry residency in Canada is encouraging but there is heterogeneity across the programs. PMID:25565474

  6. Preserving and Archiving Astronomical Photographic Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelaz, M. W.; Cline, J. D.

    2005-05-01

    Astronomical objects change with time. New observations complement past observations recorded on photographic plates. Analyses of changes provide essential routes to information about an object's formation, constitution and evolution. Preserving a century of photographic plate observations is thus of paramount importance. Plate collections are presently widely dispersed; plates may be stored in poor conditions, and are effectively inaccessible to both researchers and historians. We describe a planned project at Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute to preserve the collections of astronomical plates in the United States by gathering them into a single storage location. Collections will be sorted, cleaned, and cataloged on-line so as to provide access to researchers. Full scientific and historic use of the material then requires the observations themselves to be accessible digitally. The project's goal will be the availability of these data as a unique, fully-maintained scientific and educational resource. The new archive will support trans-disciplinary research such as the chemistry of the Earth's atmosphere, library information science, trends in local weather patterns, and impacts of urbanization on telescope use, while the hand-written observatory logs will be a valuable resource for science historians and biographers.

  7. Curating research data a handbook of current practice

    CERN Document Server

    Johnston, Lisa R

    2017-01-01

    Curating Research Data, Volume Two: A Handbook of Current Practice guides you across the data lifecycle through the practical strategies and techniques for curating research data in a digital repository setting. The data curation steps for receiving, appraising, selecting, ingesting, transforming, describing, contextualizing, disseminating, and preserving digital research data are each explored, and then supplemented with detailed case studies written by more than forty international practitioners from national, disciplinary, and institutional data repositories. The steps in this volume detail the sequential actions that you might take to curate a data set from receiving the data (Step 1) to eventual reuse (Step 8). Data curators, archivists, research data management specialists, subject librarians, institutional repository managers, and digital library staff will benefit from these current and practical approaches to data curation.

  8. Recruitment and Retention of LGBTIQ Astronomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, William Van Dyke

    2012-01-01

    While lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex, or questioning (LGBTIQ) astronomers face many of the same workplace challenges as women and racial/ethnic minorities, from implicit bias to overt discrimination, other challenges are unique to this group. An obvious example is the absence at many institutions of health insurance and other benefits for the same-sex domestic partners of their employees. More subtle is the psychological toll paid by LGBTIQ astronomers who remain "in the closet," self-censoring every statement about their personal lives. Paradoxically, the culture of the physical sciences, in which sexuality, gender identity, and gender expression are considered irrelevant, can discourage their discussion, further isolating LGBTIQ researchers. Addressing these challenges is not just a matter of fairness; it is an essential tool in the recruitment and retention of the brightest researchers and in assuring their productivity. We will discuss these issues and what individuals and departments can to make their institutions more welcoming to their LGBTIQ colleagues.

  9. [Physiotherapeutic care marketing research: current state-of-the art].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaskin, D V

    2011-01-01

    Successful introduction of modern technologies into the national health care systems strongly depends on the current pharmaceutical market situation. The present article is focused on the peculiarities of marketing research with special reference to physiotherapeutic services and commodities. Analysis of the structure and sequence of marketing research processes is described along with the methods applied for the purpose including their support by the use of Internet resources and technologies.

  10. Astronomers Detect Powerful Bursting Radio Source Discovery Points to New Class of Astronomical Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    transients has been very exciting for our students,” Hyman added. Participating in this research program has inspired at least two of Hyman?s students — Jennifer Neureuther and Mariana Lazarova — to pursue graduate studies in astronomy. This project was supported at Sweet Briar College by funding from Research Corporation and the Jeffress Foundation. Basic research in radio astronomy at NRL is supported by the Office of Naval Research. Further Research Hyman and his NRL colleagues plan to continue monitoring the Galactic center and search for the source again with the VLA and other X-ray and radio telescopes. They are also developing (with Dr. Kent Wood of NRL) a model that attempts to account for the radio bursts as a new type of outburst from a class of sources known as “magnetars.” NRL is also contributing to an effort to build the world’s largest and most sensitive low-frequency telescope, called the Long Wavelength Array (LWA), which may revolutionize future searches for other radio transient sources. Current plans call for the LWA, which is being developed by the University of New Mexico-led Southwest Consortium, to be sited in New Mexico, not far from the VLA. “One of the key advantages of observing at long radio wavelengths,” explained NRL astronomer, Dr. Namir Kassim, “is that the field-of-view is so large that a single observation can efficiently detect transient phenomena over a large region.” “When completed, the LWA may uncover hundreds of previously unknown radio transients, some of which may be examples of Jupiter-like planets orbiting other stars,” Kassim added. Jupiter is the most famous example of a nearby radio transient. About Sweet Briar College Sweet Briar College is consistently ranked among the nation’s top liberal arts colleges.ÿ Founded in 1901 as an independent undergraduate college for women, Sweet Briar continues its commitment to the education of women, offering a full range of liberal arts majors, including subjects

  11. Using commercial amateur astronomical spectrographs

    CERN Document Server

    Hopkins, Jeffrey L

    2014-01-01

    Amateur astronomers interested in learning more about astronomical spectroscopy now have the guide they need. It provides detailed information about how to get started inexpensively with low-resolution spectroscopy, and then how to move on to more advanced  high-resolution spectroscopy. Uniquely, the instructions concentrate very much on the practical aspects of using commercially-available spectroscopes, rather than simply explaining how spectroscopes work. The book includes a clear explanation of the laboratory theory behind astronomical spectrographs, and goes on to extensively cover the practical application of astronomical spectroscopy in detail. Four popular and reasonably-priced commercially available diffraction grating spectrographs are used as examples. The first is a low-resolution transmission diffraction grating, the Star Analyser spectrograph. The second is an inexpensive fiber optic coupled bench spectrograph that can be used to learn more about spectroscopy. The third is a newcomer, the ALPY ...

  12. Astronomical databases of Nikolaev Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protsyuk, Y.; Mazhaev, A.

    2008-07-01

    Several astronomical databases were created at Nikolaev Observatory during the last years. The databases are built by using MySQL search engine and PHP scripts. They are available on NAO web-site http://www.mao.nikolaev.ua.

  13. Astronomical Instrumentation System Markup Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldbaum, Jesse M.

    2016-05-01

    The Astronomical Instrumentation System Markup Language (AISML) is an Extensible Markup Language (XML) based file format for maintaining and exchanging information about astronomical instrumentation. The factors behind the need for an AISML are first discussed followed by the reasons why XML was chosen as the format. Next it's shown how XML also provides the framework for a more precise definition of an astronomical instrument and how these instruments can be combined to form an Astronomical Instrumentation System (AIS). AISML files for several instruments as well as one for a sample AIS are provided. The files demonstrate how AISML can be utilized for various tasks from web page generation and programming interface to instrument maintenance and quality management. The advantages of widespread adoption of AISML are discussed.

  14. The South African astronomical observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feast, M.

    1985-01-01

    A few examples of the activities of the South African Astronomical Observatory are discussed. This includes the studying of stellar evolution, dust around stars, the determination of distances to galaxies and collaboration with space experiments

  15. Sixteenth Century Astronomical Telescopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, P. D.

    2001-12-01

    Ophelia in Shakespeare's Hamlet is named for the ``moist star" which in mythology is the partner of Hamlet's royal Sun. Together the couple seem destined to rule on earth just as their celestial counterparts rule the heavens, but the tragedy is that they are afflicted, just as the Sun and Moon are blemished. In 1.3 Laertes lectures Ophelia on love and chastity, describing first Cytherean phases (crescent to gibbous) and then Lunar craters. Spots mar the Sun (1.1, 3.1). Also reported are Jupiter's Red Spot (3.4) and the resolution of the Milky Way into stars (2.2). These interpretations are well-founded and support the cosmic allegory. Observations must have been made with optical aid, probably the perspective glass of Leonard Digges, father of Thomas Digges. Notably absent from Hamlet is mention of the Galilean moons, owing perhaps to the narrow field-of-view of the telescope. That discovery is later celebrated in Cymbeline, published soon after Galileo's Siderius Nuncius in 1610. In 5.4 of Cymbeline the four ghosts dance ``in imitation of planetary motions" and at Jupiter's behest place a book on the chest of Posthumus Leonatus. His name identifies the Digges father and son as the source of data in Hamlet since Jupiter's moons were discovered after the deaths of Leonard (``leon+hart") and Thomas (the ``lion's whelp"). Lines in 5.4 urge us not to read more into the book than is contained between its covers; this is understandable because Hamlet had already reported the other data in support of heliocentricism and the cosmic model discussed and depicted by Thomas Digges in 1576. I conclude therefore that astronomical telescopy began in England before the last quarter of the sixteenth century.

  16. Current trends in chloroplast genome research | Khan | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    comprise of DOGMA for annotation, SCAN-SE, ARAGON and PREP suit for RNA analyses and CG viewer for circular map construction/comparative analysis. Faster algorithms for gene-order based phylogenetic reconstruction and bootstrap analysis have attracted the attention of research community. Current trends in ...

  17. Current Research on Adolescence and its Program Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetkovich, George; Grote, Barbara

    This paper discusses program implications of research on adolescents. A brief historical review of teenage sexuality is presented in order to put current information in perspective. The present increase in teenage fertility is seen as part of a larger epidemic failure of socialization. A number of recent studies are reviewed and synthesized,…

  18. Plant cell engineering: current research, application and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xunqing; Liu Luxiang

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviewed the current status of basic research in plant cell engineering, highlighted the application of embryo culture, double haploid (DH) technology, protoplast culture and somatic hybridization, somaclonal variation, rapid propagation, and bio-products production of plant-origin, and t he prospects. (authors)

  19. Research on Hearing and Balance--Current and Future Developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, James B., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    This article reviews current research that has located disease genes causing hearing impairments, discovered the ability of sensory cells of the inner ear to regenerate, developed vaccines to prevent otitis media, developed programmable hearing aids, improved cochlear implants, and demonstrated the positive effects of physical therapy with balance…

  20. Research on Current Trends and Developments in Library Automation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clyde, Laurel A.

    A research project was undertaken in 1992 in order to identify, describe, and analyze current trends and developments in library automation systems and library software. The starting point is work conducted in 1988/1989 that formed the foundation of the book "Computer Software for School Libraries: A Directory." A 1992 survey of software…

  1. TPCs in high-energy astronomical polarimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, J K

    2007-01-01

    High-energy astrophysics has yet to exploit the unique and important information that polarimetry could provide, largely due to the limited sensitivity of previously available polarimeters. In recent years, numerous efforts have been initiated to develop instruments with the sensitivity required for astronomical polarimetry over the 100 eV to 10 GeV band. Time projection chambers (TPCs), with their high-resolution event imaging capability, are an integral part of some of these efforts. After a brief overview of current astronomical polarimeter development efforts, the role of TPCs will be described in more detail. These include TPCs as photoelectric X-ray polarimeters and TPCs as components of polarizationsensitive Compton and pair-production telescopes

  2. Astronomical Photometry Past, Present, and Future

    CERN Document Server

    Milone, Eugene F

    2011-01-01

    This book brings together experts in the field of astronomical photometry to discuss how their subfields provide the precision and accuracy in astronomical energy flux measurements that are needed to permit tests of astrophysical theories. Differential photometers and photometry, improvements in infrared precision, the improvements in precision and accuracy of CCD photometry, the absolute calibration of flux, the development of the Johnson UBVRI photometric system and other passband systems to measure and precisely classify specific types of stars and astrophysical quantities, and the current capabilities of spectrophotometry and polarimetry to provide precise and accurate data, are all discussed in this volume. The discussion of `differential’ or `two-star’ photometers ranges from early experiments in visual photometry through the Harvard and Princeton polarizing photometers to the pioneering work of Walraven and differential photometers designed to minimize effects of atmospheric extinction and to count...

  3. Mingantu, 18th-Century Mongol Astronomer and Radioheliograph Namesake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.

    2013-01-01

    The 18th-century Mongol astronomer Mingantu (1692-1765) has been honored with a city named after him and a nearby solar telescope array. During the IAU/Beijing, my wife and I went to the new Chinese solar radioheliograph, the Mingantu Observing Station, in Inner Mongolia, ~400 km northwest of Beijing, a project of the National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences. It currently contains 40 dishes each 4.5 m across, with a correlator from Beijing. Within a year, 60 2-m dishes will be added. We passed by the 12-century ruins of Xanadu (about 20 km north of Zhangbei) about halfway. The radioheliograph is in a plane about 1 km across, forming a three-armed spiral for interferometric solar mapping, something colleagues and I had carried out with the Jansky Very Large Array, taking advantage of the lunar occultation before annularity at the 20 May 2012 solar eclipse. In the central square of Mingantu city, a statue ~10-m high of the Mongol astronomer Mingantu appears. Its base bears a plaque ~1-m high of IAU Minor Planet Circular MPC 45750 announcing the naming in 2002 of asteroid 28242 Mingantu, discovered at a Chinese observatory in 1999. Mingantu carried out orbital calculations, mapping, mathematical work on infinite series, and other scientific research. He is honored by a modern museum behind the statue. The museum's first 40% describes Mingantu and his work, and is followed by some artifacts of the region from thousands of years ago. The final, large room contains a two-meter-square scale model of the radioheliograph, flat-screen televisions running Solar Dynamics Observatory and other contemporary visualizations, orreries and other objects, and large transparencies of NASA and other astronomical imagery. See my post at http://www.skyandtelescope.com/community/skyblog/newsblog/ specfically Astro-Sightseeing_in_Inner_Mongolia-167712965.html. We thank Yihua Yan for arranging the visit and Wang Wei (both NAOC) for accompanying us. My solar research

  4. Consciousness and working memory: Current trends and research perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velichkovsky, Boris B

    2017-10-01

    Working memory has long been thought to be closely related to consciousness. However, recent empirical studies show that unconscious content may be maintained within working memory and that complex cognitive computations may be performed on-line. This promotes research on the exact relationships between consciousness and working memory. Current evidence for working memory being a conscious as well as an unconscious process is reviewed. Consciousness is shown to be considered a subset of working memory by major current theories of working memory. Evidence for unconscious elements in working memory is shown to come from visual masking and attentional blink paradigms, and from the studies of implicit working memory. It is concluded that more research is needed to explicate the relationship between consciousness and working memory. Future research directions regarding the relationship between consciousness and working memory are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Adolescent suicide prevention. Current research and social policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, A F; Zigler, E

    1993-02-01

    The rate of adolescent suicide has increased dramatically in the past few decades, prompting several interventions to curb the increase. Unfortunately, many of the intervention efforts have not benefited from current research findings because the communication between researchers and those who develop the interventions is inadequate. Of specific concern are the increasingly popular curriculum-based suicide prevention programs, which have not demonstrated effectiveness and may contain potentially deleterious components. This article reviews the current epidemiological research in adolescent suicide and suggests how this knowledge could be used more effectively to reduce the rate of adolescent suicide. Recommendations include support for integrated primary prevention efforts; suicide prevention education for professionals; education and policies on firearm management; education for the media about adolescent suicide; more efficient identification and treatment of at-risk youth, including those exposed to suicidal behavior; crisis intervention; and treatment for suicide attempters.

  6. Current research in Canada on biological effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marko, A.M.

    1980-05-01

    A survey of current research in Canada on the biological effects of ionizing radiation has been compiled. The list of projects has been classified according to structure (organizational state of the test system) as well as according to the type of effects. Using several assumptions, ballpark estimates of expenditures on these activities have been made. Agencies funding these research activities have been tabulated and the break-down of research in government laboratories and in academic institutions has been designated. Wherever possible, comparisons have been made outlining differences or similarities that exist between the United States and Canada concerning biological radiation research. It has been concluded that relevant research in this area in Canada is inadequate. Wherever possible, strengths and weaknesses in radiation biology programs have been indicated. The most promising course for Canada to follow is to support adequately fundamental studies of the biological effects of radiation. (auth)

  7. EDUCATIONAL ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATIONS ON REMOTE ACCESS TELESCOPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan P. Kriachko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to show the way of overcoming one of the major problems of astronomy teaching methods in upper secondary school – organization of educational astronomical observations. Nowadays it became possible to perform such observations on remote access telescopes. By using up-to-date informational and communicational technologies, having an opportunity to work with robotic telescopes allows us to organize a unique cognitive and research oriented activities for students while conducting their specialized astronomical studies. Below here is given a brief description of the most significant robotic telescopes and the way of the usage of open remote access telescopic network which was created by professors and scientists of Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, USA.

  8. Enthusiastic Little Astronomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Ines

    2016-04-01

    Younger primary school students often show great interest in the vast Universe hiding behind the starry night's sky, but don't have a way of learning about it and exploring it in regular classes. Some of them would search children's books, Internet or encyclopedias for information or facts they are interested in, but there are those whose hunger for knowledge would go unfulfilled. Such students were the real initiators of our extracurricular activity called Little Astronomers. With great enthusiasm they would name everything that interests them about the Universe that we live in and I would provide the information in a fun and interactive yet acceptable way for their level of understanding. In our class we learn about Earth and its place in the Solar System, we learn about the planets and other objects of our Solar System and about the Sun itself. We also explore the night sky using programs such as Stellarium, learning to recognize constellations and name them. Most of our activities are done using a PowerPoint presentation, YouTube videos, and Internet simulations followed by some practical work the students do themselves. Because of the lack of available materials and funds, most of materials are hand made by the teacher leading the class. We also use the school's galileoscope as often as possible. Every year the students are given the opportunity to go to an observatory in a town 90 km away so that they could gaze at the sky through the real telescope for the first time. Our goal is to start stepping into the world of astronomy by exploring the secrets of the Universe and understanding the process of rotation and revolution of our planet and its effects on our everyday lives and also to become more aware of our own role in our part of the Universe. The hunger for knowledge and enthusiasm these students have is contagious. They are becoming more aware of their surroundings and also understanding their place in the Universe that helps them remain humble and helps

  9. VEGAS: VErsatile GBT Astronomical Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussa, Srikanth; VEGAS Development Team

    2012-01-01

    The National Science Foundation Advanced Technologies and Instrumentation (NSF-ATI) program is funding a new spectrometer backend for the Green Bank Telescope (GBT). This spectrometer is being built by the CICADA collaboration - collaboration between the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) and the Center for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronics Research (CASPER) at the University of California Berkeley.The backend is named as VErsatile GBT Astronomical Spectrometer (VEGAS) and will replace the capabilities of the existing spectrometers. This backend supports data processing from focal plane array systems. The spectrometer will be capable of processing up to 1.25 GHz bandwidth from 8 dual polarized beams or a bandwidth up to 10 GHz from a dual polarized beam.The spectrometer will be using 8-bit analog to digital converters (ADC), which gives a better dynamic range than existing GBT spectrometers. There will be 8 tunable digital sub-bands within the 1.25 GHz bandwidth, which will enhance the capability of simultaneous observation of multiple spectral transitions. The maximum spectral dump rate to disk will be about 0.5 msec. The vastly enhanced backend capabilities will support several science projects with the GBT. The projects include mapping temperature and density structure of molecular clouds; searches for organic molecules in the interstellar medium; determination of the fundamental constants of our evolving Universe; red-shifted spectral features from galaxies across cosmic time and survey for pulsars in the extreme gravitational environment of the Galactic Center.

  10. AAS Publishing News: Astronomical Software Citation Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-07-01

    Do you write code for your research? Use astronomical software? Do you wish there were a better way of citing, sharing, archiving, or discovering software for astronomy research? You're not alone! In April 2015, AAS's publishing team joined other leaders in the astronomical software community in a meeting funded by the Sloan Foundation, with the purpose of discussing these issues and potential solutions. In attendance were representatives from academic astronomy, publishing, libraries, for-profit software sharing platforms, telescope facilities, and grantmaking institutions. The goal of the group was to establish “protocols, policies, and platforms for astronomical software citation, sharing, and archiving,” in the hopes of encouraging a set of normalized standards across the field. The AAS is now collaborating with leaders at GitHub to write grant proposals for a project to develop strategies for software discoverability and citation, in astronomy and beyond. If this topic interests you, you can find more details in this document released by the group after the meeting: http://astronomy-software-index.github.io/2015-workshop/ The group hopes to move this project forward with input and support from the broader community. Please share the above document, discuss it on social media using the hashtag #astroware (so that your conversations can be found!), or send private comments to julie.steffen@aas.org.

  11. Astronomers Win Protection for Key Part of Radio Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-06-01

    Astronomers using the millimeter-wave region of the radio spectrum have won crucial protection for their science. Dedicated allocations for radio astronomy have been given final approval by the 2,500 delegates to the World Radiocommunication Conference (WRC-00), which recently concluded a month of deliberations in Istanbul, Turkey. Radio services can transmit in these parts of the spectrum as long as they don't hinder astronomers' attempts to catch faint signals from the cosmos. The new allocations represent the culmination of more than three years of cooperative planning by radio astronomers in many countries. Millimeter waves -- high-frequency radio waves -- have come of age as an astronomical tool in the last ten years. They are one of the last technological frontiers for astronomers. WRC-00 has protected for science all the frequencies between 71 and 275 Gigahertz (GHz) that radio astronomers currently use, adding more than 90 GHz of spectrum to the 44 GHz already set aside in this frequency range. As a result, radio astronomy is now allocated most of the frequencies between 71 and 275 GHz that can get through the Earth's atmosphere. "We have formal access to all three atmospheric 'windows', apart from their very edges," said Dr. Tom Gergely of the National Science Foundation, one of the U.S. delegates to WRC-00. The WRC also changed most of the frequencies allocated to satellite downlinks within the 71-275 GHz range to frequencies not used for science. Since no satellites yet operate at these high frequencies, no equipment needs to be altered. "Commercial technologies are just starting to develop above 50 GHz," said Dr. Klaus Ruf, Chairman of the Inter-Union Commission for the Allocation of Frequencies. "The WRC's actions mean that, when they are, radio astronomers should be able to share this part of the spectrum with most terrestrial services." The World Radiocommunication Conference is held every two or three years. Here member countries of the

  12. Applying artificial intelligence to astronomical databases - a surveyof applicable technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, D. A.

    This paper surveys several emerging technologies which are relevant to astronomical database issues such as interface technology, internal database representation, and intelligent data reduction aids. Among the technologies discussed are natural language understanding, frame and object representations, planning, pattern analysis, machine learning and the nascent study of simulated neural nets. These techniques will become increasingly important for astronomical research, and in particular, for applications with large databases.

  13. Serbian Astronomers in Science Citation Index in the XX Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrijevic, Milan S.

    The book is written paralelly in Serbian and English. The presence of works of Serbian astronomers and works in astronomical journals published by other Serbian scientists, in Science Citation Index within the period from 1945 up to the end of 2000, has been analyzed. Also is presented the list of 38 papers which had some influence on the development of astronomy in the twentieth century. A review of the development of astronomy in Serbia in the last century is given as well. Particular attention is payed to the Astronomical Observatory, the principal astronomical institution in Serbia, where it is one of the oldest scientific organizations and the only autonomous astronomical institute. Its past development forms an important part of the history of science and culture in these regions. In the book is also considered and the history of the university teaching of astronomy in Serbia after the second world war. First of all the development of the Chair of Astronomy at the Faculty of Mathematics in Belgrade, but also the teaching of astronomy at University in Novi Sad, Ni and Kragujevac is discussed. In addition to professional Astronomy, well developed in Serbia is also the amateur Astronomy. In the review is first of all included the largest and the oldest organization of amateur-astronomers in Serbia, founded in 1934. Besides, here are the Astronomical Society "Novi Sad", ADNOS and Research Station "Petnica". In Valjevo, within the framework of the Society of researchers "Vladimir Mandic - Manda", there is active also the Astronomical Group. In Kragujevac, on the roof of the Institute of Physics of the Faculty of Sciences, there is the "Belerofont" Observatory. In Ni, at the close of the sixties and the start of the seventies, there was operating a branch of the Astronomical Society "Rudjer Bokovic", while at the Faculty of Philosophy there existed in the period 1976-1980 the "Astro-Geophysical Society". In the year 1996 there was founded Astronomical Society

  14. [New Paradigms? Current Trends within National and International Psychotherapy Research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauß, Bernhard

    2015-09-01

    This article is devoted to the question which paradigms currently determine psychotherapy and psychotherapy research, and if there are indicators of paradigm changes in this field. The question of the efficacy and effectiveness (including the effectiveness of a transfer of psychotherapeutic knowledge to service) is specifically focussed as well as the question of the central therapeutic factors and the significance of the person of the therapist. It is argued that there are really some signals of a paradigm switch, with a turn away from controlled outcome research, representing only a minor part of patients in need of psychotherapy, towards a more specific process oriented research, also considering differential effects of the therapist. The most prominent indicator of a paradigm change is reflected by an increasing influence of patient oriented psychotherapy research which - consequently - should also be supported by the insurances as well as the funding organisations. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Research in nuclear chemistry: current status and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, A.V.R.

    2007-01-01

    Research in nuclear chemistry has seen a huge growth over the last few decades. The large umbrella of nuclear chemistry includes several research areas such as nuclear fission, reactions, spectroscopy, nuclear probes and nuclear analytical techniques. Currently, nuclear chemistry research has extended its horizon into various applications like nuclear medicine, isotopes for understanding physico chemical processes, and addressing environmental and biomedical problems. Tremendous efforts are going on for synthesizing new elements (isotopes), isolating physically or chemically wherever possible and investigating their properties. Theses studies are useful to understand nuclear and chemical properties at extreme ends of instability. In addition, nuclear chemists are making substantial contribution to astrophysics and other related areas. During this talk, a few of the contributions made by nuclear chemistry group of BARC will be discussed and possible future areas of research will be enumerated. (author)

  16. The Development and Current State of Translation Process Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke Jakobsen, Arnt

    2014-01-01

    The development and current state of translation process research ch Arnt Lykke Jakobsen Copenhagen Business School lInterest in process-oriented translation studies has been intense for the past almost half a century. Translation process research (TPR) is the label we have used to refer to a spe...... itself, into regions like cognitive psychology, psycho- and neurolinguistics, and neuroscience, where the interest in what goes on in our heads is also very strong.......The development and current state of translation process research ch Arnt Lykke Jakobsen Copenhagen Business School lInterest in process-oriented translation studies has been intense for the past almost half a century. Translation process research (TPR) is the label we have used to refer...... which simultaneously tracks the translator’s eye movements across a screen displaying both a source text and the translator’s emerging translation. This research method was developed as a means of qualifying and strengthening translation process hypotheses based on verbal reports by providing additional...

  17. Water management: Current and future challenges and research directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, William J.; Loucks, Daniel P.

    2015-06-01

    Water distinguishes our planet compared to all the others we know about. While the global supply of available freshwater is more than adequate to meet all current and foreseeable water demands, its spatial and temporal distributions are not. There are many regions where our freshwater resources are inadequate to meet domestic, economic development and environmental needs. In such regions, the lack of adequate clean water to meet human drinking water and sanitation needs is indeed a constraint on human health and productivity and hence on economic development as well as on the maintenance of a clean environment and healthy ecosystems. All of us involved in research must find ways to remove these constraints. We face multiple challenges in doing that, especially given a changing and uncertain future climate, and a rapidly growing population that is driving increased social and economic development, globalization, and urbanization. How best to meet these challenges requires research in all aspects of water management. Since 1965, the journal Water Resources Research has played an important role in reporting and disseminating current research related to managing the quantity and quality and cost of this resource. This paper identifies the issues facing water managers today and future research needed to better inform those who strive to create a more sustainable and desirable future.

  18. Trends in Mediation Analysis in Nursing Research: Improving Current Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertzog, Melody

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe common approaches used by nursing researchers to test mediation models and evaluate them within the context of current methodological advances. MEDLINE was used to locate studies testing a mediation model and published from 2004 to 2015 in nursing journals. Design (experimental/correlation, cross-sectional/longitudinal, model complexity) and analysis (method, inclusion of test of mediated effect, violations/discussion of assumptions, sample size/power) characteristics were coded for 456 studies. General trends were identified using descriptive statistics. Consistent with findings of reviews in other disciplines, evidence was found that nursing researchers may not be aware of the strong assumptions and serious limitations of their analyses. Suggestions for strengthening the rigor of such studies and an overview of current methods for testing more complex models, including longitudinal mediation processes, are presented.

  19. Astrobiology: An astronomer's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergin, Edwin A.

    2014-01-01

    In this review we explore aspects of the field of astrobiology from an astronomical viewpoint. We therefore focus on the origin of life in the context of planetary formation, with additional emphasis on tracing the most abundant volatile elements, C, H, O, and N that are used by life on Earth. We first explore the history of life on our planet and outline the current state of our knowledge regarding the delivery of the C, H, O, N elements to the Earth. We then discuss how astronomers track the gaseous and solid molecular carriers of these volatiles throughout the process of star and planet formation. It is now clear that the early stages of star formation fosters the creation of water and simple organic molecules with enrichments of heavy isotopes. These molecules are found as ice coatings on the solid materials that represent microscopic beginnings of terrestrial worlds. Based on the meteoritic and cometary record, the process of planet formation, and the local environment, lead to additional increases in organic complexity. The astronomical connections towards this stage are only now being directly made. Although the exact details are uncertain, it is likely that the birth process of star and planets likely leads to terrestrial worlds being born with abundant water and organics on the surface

  20. Astrobiology: An astronomer's perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergin, Edwin A. [University of Michigan, Department of Astronomy, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2014-12-08

    In this review we explore aspects of the field of astrobiology from an astronomical viewpoint. We therefore focus on the origin of life in the context of planetary formation, with additional emphasis on tracing the most abundant volatile elements, C, H, O, and N that are used by life on Earth. We first explore the history of life on our planet and outline the current state of our knowledge regarding the delivery of the C, H, O, N elements to the Earth. We then discuss how astronomers track the gaseous and solid molecular carriers of these volatiles throughout the process of star and planet formation. It is now clear that the early stages of star formation fosters the creation of water and simple organic molecules with enrichments of heavy isotopes. These molecules are found as ice coatings on the solid materials that represent microscopic beginnings of terrestrial worlds. Based on the meteoritic and cometary record, the process of planet formation, and the local environment, lead to additional increases in organic complexity. The astronomical connections towards this stage are only now being directly made. Although the exact details are uncertain, it is likely that the birth process of star and planets likely leads to terrestrial worlds being born with abundant water and organics on the surface.

  1. Monaco - IAEA [Marine Radioecology. Current Research and Future Scope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, J.; Chipman, W.A.; Fukai, R.; Duursma, E.K.

    1967-01-01

    Present and future research: Transport of radionuclides by turbulent diffusion processes. The radionuclides which are introduced into the sea will be dispersed by turbulent processes caused by currents, tides, waves and so forth. One of the most urgent needs for estimation of radionuclide behaviour in the sea is to study such diffusion processes and to interpret and describe the results so that they can be used for prediction of similar processes affecting the dispersion of radioactive materials in marine environments

  2. The accidental astronomer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lawrence

    Research Centre (BARC), Tata Institute of Fundamental Research ... to make my Ph.D. a stressful, lengthy process, but I persisted and ... An American graduate student, as- ... prospects of getting a job in Bhubaneswar or its vicinity, as as-.

  3. High current betatron research at the University of New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphries, S. Jr.; Len, L.K.

    1987-01-01

    Betatrons are among the simplest of high energy accelerators. Their circuit is equivalent to a step-up transformer; the electron beam forms a multi-turn secondary winding. Circulation of the beam around the flux core allows generation of high energy electrons with relatively small core mass. As with any transformer, a betatron is energy inefficient at low beam current; the energy balance is dominated by core losses. This fact has prompted a continuing investigation of high current betatrons as efficient, compact sources of beta and gamma radiation. A program has been supported at the University of New Mexico by the Office of Naval Research to study the physics of high current electron beams in circular accelerators and to develop practical technology for high power betatrons. Fabrication and assembly of the main ring was completed in January of this year. In contrast to other recent high current betatron experiments the UNM device utilizes a periodic focusing system to contain high current beams during the low energy phase of the acceleration cycle. The reversing cusp fields generated by alternating polarity solenoidal lenses cancel beam drift motions induced by machine errors. In consequence, they have found that the cusp geometry has had significantly better stability properties than a monodirectional toroidal field. In comparison to other minimum-Β geometries such as the Stelllatron cusps have open field lines which facilitate beam injection and neutralization

  4. Authentic Astronomical Discovery in Planetariums: Bringing Data to Domes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Ryan Jason; Subbarao, Mark; Christensen, Lars; Emmons, Ben; Hurt, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Planetariums offer a unique opportunity to disseminate astronomical discoveries using data visualization at all levels of complexity: the technical infrastructure to display data and a sizeable cohort of enthusiastic educators to interpret results. “Data to Dome” is an initiative the International Planetarium Society to develop our community’s capacity to integrate data in fulldome planetarium systems—including via open source software platforms such as WorldWide Telescope and OpenSpace. We are cultivating a network of planetarium professionals who integrate data into their presentations and share their content with others. Furthermore, we propose to shorten the delay between discovery and dissemination in planetariums. Currently, the “latest science” is often presented days or weeks after discoveries are announced, and we can shorten this to hours or even minutes. The Data2Dome (D2D) initiative, led by the European Southern Observatory, proposes technical infrastructure and data standards that will streamline content flow from research institutions to planetariums, offering audiences a unique opportunity to access to the latest astronomical data in near real time.

  5. Elizabeth Brown (1830-1899), solar astronomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creese, M.

    1998-08-01

    Were it not for the fact that she was a woman, Elizabeth Brown might well be thought of as a fairly typical nineteenth-century British amateur astronomer. She has a place, although a relatively modest one, in the distinguished group of people who, with their own fortunes, carried out much of the astronomical research being done in the country at a time before extensive government support was forthcoming for the work.1 Her career in fact follows a pattern common to several of the nineteenth-century men astronomers in that her full productive period came only after she was freed from her primary responsibilities; she did not have to amass the necessary financial resources as did many of the men,2 but she had the time-consuming responsibility, not unusual for a Victorian woman, of caring for a parent through a lengthy old age. Only after her father died at the age of ninety-one, did Elizabeth, then in her early fifties, begin her sixteen years of remarkable public activity in astronomy.

  6. GalileoMobile: Astronomical activities in schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasi Espuig, Maria; Vasquez, Mayte; Kobel, Philippe

    GalileoMobile is an itinerant science education initiative run on a voluntary basis by an international team of astronomers, educators, and science communicators. Our team's main goal is to make astronomy accessible to schools and communities around the globe that have little or no access to outreach actions. We do this by performing teacher workshops, activities with students, and donating educational material. Since the creation of GalileoMobile in 2008, we have travelled to Chile, Bolivia, Peru, India, and Uganda, and worked with 56 schools in total. Our activities are centred on the GalileoMobile Handbook of Activities that comprises around 20 astronomical activities which we adapted from many different sources, and translated into 4 languages. The experience we gained in Chile, Bolivia, Peru, India, and Uganda taught us that (1) bringing experts from other countries was very stimulating for children as they are naturally curious about other cultures and encourages a collaboration beyond borders; (2) high-school students who were already interested in science were always very eager to interact with real astronomers doing research to ask for career advice; (3) inquiry-based methods are important to make the learning process more effective and we have therefore, re-adapted the activities in our Handbook according to these; (4) local teachers and university students involved in our activities have the potential to carry out follow-up activities, and examples are those from Uganda and India.

  7. Current status of oral health research in Africa: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoute, Aïda; Faye, Daouda; Bourgeois, Denis

    2012-12-01

    Research in oral health contributes effectively to decisions and strategies aimed at improving the oral health of populations. Further contributions to enhance current knowledge of oral health in Africa are required. The principal objective of this study was to produce an analysis of oral health research published from different subregions of Africa and to estimate bilateral and multilateral international cooperation in oral health research during the period 2005-2010. The PubMed database was searched for published articles on topics related to oral health in Africa. A total of 935 oral health-related articles were retrieved during April and May 2011. Publications emanating from Nigeria and South Africa accounted for a striking 68% of all oral health-related material published from Africa during the study period. Researchers from 30 different countries had participated in collaboration on at least one published article. A total of 262 journals had published at least one item examining oral health in Africa, but only 29 journals had published more than seven articles. These 29 journals accounted for 66% of all published material and induced non-African reviews (26%) and African reviews (40%). This study shows strong variation among countries in the production of articles on oral health whereby rich countries produce greater quantities of published research and poorer nations more frequently develop research partnerships with other countries. © 2012 FDI World Dental Federation.

  8. Astronomical Image and Data Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Starck, J.-L

    2006-01-01

    With information and scale as central themes, this comprehensive survey explains how to handle real problems in astronomical data analysis using a modern arsenal of powerful techniques. It treats those innovative methods of image, signal, and data processing that are proving to be both effective and widely relevant. The authors are leaders in this rapidly developing field and draw upon decades of experience. They have been playing leading roles in international projects such as the Virtual Observatory and the Grid. The book addresses not only students and professional astronomers and astrophysicists, but also serious amateur astronomers and specialists in earth observation, medical imaging, and data mining. The coverage includes chapters or appendices on: detection and filtering; image compression; multichannel, multiscale, and catalog data analytical methods; wavelets transforms, Picard iteration, and software tools. This second edition of Starck and Murtagh's highly appreciated reference again deals with to...

  9. Preservation and maintenance of the astronomical sites in Armenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickaelian, A. M.

    2008-01-01

    Astronomy in Armenia was popular since ancient times. There are signs of astronomical observations coming from a few thousands years ago. Two ancient observatories, Karahunge and Metzamor are especially well known. Karahunge is the Armenian twin of the Stonehenge and is even older. However, there is no proper attention from the state authorities and efforts are needed for preservation of such historical-astronomical monuments. The Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (BAO) is the modern famous Armenian observatory founded in 1946 by the outstanding scientist Victor Ambartsumian. It was one of the world astronomical centres in 1950-s to 1970-s, and at present is the largest observatory in the Middle East area. As the ancient astronomical sites, Byurakan also needs a proper attitude from the state authorities and corresponding international organizations to preserve its values and importance for the present and future astronomical activities in the region, including its rich observational archive, telescopes, and human resources. Despite all the difficulties, the Armenian astronomers keep high international level of research and display various activities organizing international meetings and schools, preparing new young generation for the future research. The Armenian Astronomical Society (ArAS) is an affiliated member of EAS. Armenia has its Virtual Observatory project (ArVO) as well. The next Joint European and National Astronomy Meeting (JENAM-2007) will be held in Yerevan, Armenia, in August 2007. There are plans to organize astronomical tours to Armenia for making observations from various sites, including the ancient observatories. The future of astronomy in Armenia strongly depends on all of this activities and the proper attention both from state authorities and society.

  10. Choosing and using astronomical filters

    CERN Document Server

    Griffiths, Martin

    2014-01-01

    As a casual read through any of the major amateur astronomical magazines will demonstrate, there are filters available for all aspects of optical astronomy. This book provides a ready resource on the use of the following filters, among others, for observational astronomy or for imaging: Light pollution filters Planetary filters Solar filters Neutral density filters for Moon observation Deep-sky filters, for such objects as galaxies, nebulae and more Deep-sky objects can be imaged in much greater detail than was possible many years ago. Amateur astronomers can take

  11. Current safety practices in nano-research laboratories in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Can; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Guoyu

    2014-06-01

    China has become a key player in the global nanotechnology field, however, no surveys have specifically examined safety practices in the Chinese nano-laboratories in depth. This study reports results of a survey of 300 professionals who work in research laboratories that handle nanomaterials in China. We recruited participants at three major nano-research laboratories (which carry out research in diverse fields such as chemistry, material science, and biology) and the nano-chemistry session of the national meeting of the Chinese Chemical Society. Results show that almost all nano-research laboratories surveyed had general safety regulations, whereas less than one third of respondents reported having nanospecific safety rules. General safety measures were in place in most surveyed nano-research laboratories, while nanospecific protective measures existed or were implemented less frequently. Several factors reported from the scientific literature including nanotoxicology knowledge gaps, technical limitations on estimating nano-exposure, and the lack of nano-occupational safety legislation may contribute to the current state of affairs. With these factors in mind and embracing the precautionary principle, we suggest strengthening or providing nanosafety training (including raising risk awareness) and establishing nanosafety guidelines in China, to better protect personnel in the nano-workplace.

  12. Helical system. History and current state of helical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Masayuki

    2017-01-01

    This paper described the following: (1) history of nuclear fusion research of Japan's original heliotron method, (2) worldwide development of nuclear fusion research based on helical system such as stellarator, and (3) worldwide meaning of large helical device (LHD) aiming to demonstrate the steady-state performance of heliotron type in the parameter area extrapolable to the core plasma, and research results of LHD. LHD demonstrated that the helical system is excellent in steady operation performance at the world's most advanced level. In an experiment using deuterium gas in 2017, LHD achieved to reach 120 million degrees of ion temperature, which is one index of nuclear fusion condition, demonstrated the realization of high-performance plasma capable of extrapolating to future nuclear fusion reactors, and established the foundation for full-scale research toward the realization of nuclear fusion reactor. Besides experimental research, this paper also described the helical-type stationary nuclear fusion prototype reactor, FFHR-d1, which was based on progress of large-scale simulation at the world's most advanced level. A large-scale superconducting stellarator experimental device, W7-X, with the same scale as LHD, started experiment in December 2015, whose current state is also touched on here. (A.O.)

  13. Current frontiers and future directions of telecoupling research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.

    2016-12-01

    The world has been increasingly interconnected over long distances though processes such as international trade, migration, telecommunication, and disease spread. However, previous studies often focused on socioeconomic or environmental issues of distant processes. While these studies have generated useful information for individual disciplines, integrating socioeconomic and environmental information is essential for holistic understanding of complex global challenges and unbiased decision making to address the challenges. To advance integrated research, the framework of telecoupling (socioeconomic and environmental interactions over distances) has been developed to explicitly address both socioeconomic and environmental issues simultaneously. Although the framework is relatively new, it has already been applied to tackle a variety of globally important issues, such as food security, water resources, energy sustainability, land use, international trade (e.g., food, forest products, energy, wildlife, industrial products), species invasion, investment, ecosystem services, conservation, information dissemination, and tourism. These applications have identified many important research gaps (e.g. spillover systems) and hidden linkages (e.g. feedbacks) among distant areas of the world with profound implications for sustainable development, ecosystem health, and human well-being. While working with telecoupling presents more challenges than focusing only on disciplinary issues, support from funding agencies has helped accelerate research on telecoupling and more efforts are being aimed at framework quantification and operationalization. The presenter will provide an overview of the current frontiers, discuss future research directions, and highlight emerging opportunities and challenges in telecoupling research and governance.

  14. Gender relations and health research: a review of current practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bottorff Joan L

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The importance of gender in understanding health practices and illness experiences is increasingly recognized, and key to this work is a better understanding of the application of gender relations. The influence of masculinities and femininities, and the interplay within and between them manifests within relations and interactions among couples, family members and peers to influence health behaviours and outcomes. Methods To explore how conceptualizations of gender relations have been integrated in health research a scoping review of the existing literature was conducted. The key terms gender relations, gender interactions, relations gender, partner communication, femininities and masculinities were used to search online databases. Results Through analysis of this literature we identified two main ways gender relations were integrated in health research: a as emergent findings; and b as a basis for research design. In the latter, gender relations are included in conceptual frameworks, guide data collection and are used to direct data analysis. Conclusions Current uses of gender relations are typically positioned within intimate heterosexual couples whereby single narratives (i.e., either men or women are used to explore the influence and/or impact of intimate partner gender relations on health and illness issues. Recommendations for advancing gender relations and health research are discussed. This research has the potential to reduce gender inequities in health.

  15. Current Sandia programs and laboratory facilities for tritium research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swansiger, W.A.; West, L.A.

    1975-01-01

    Currently envisioned fusion reactor systems will contain substantial quantities of tritium. Strict control of the overall tritium inventory and environmental safety considerations require an accurate knowledge of the behavior of this isotope in the presence of Controlled Thermonuclear Reactor (CTR) materials. A 14,000 ft 2 laboratory for tritium research is currently under construction at Sandia Laboratories in Livermore. Details about the laboratory in general are provided. Results from studies of hydrogen isotope diffusion in surface-characterized metals will be presented. Details of two permeation systems (one for hydrogen and deuterium, the other for tritium) will be discussed. Data will also be presented concerning the gettering of hydrogen isotopes and application to CTR collector designs. (auth)

  16. Current ecological research towards completion criteria in Queensland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigg, A.; Mulligan, D.; Bellairs, S.; Harwood, M. [University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld. (Australia). Centre for Mined Land Rehabilitation

    1998-12-31

    There is a growing recognition of the need for criteria to determine when rehabilitation is successful or complete. Moreover, with the current emphasis on sustainability, criteria need to embrace a range of ecological attributes which in turn require an understanding of the ecosystems being created. This paper describes current research by the Centre for Mined Land Rehabilitation on ecosystem development at a number of operations throughout Queensland in the a bauxite, heavy mineral sands, gold and coal mining sectors. Case studies are presented which cover a number of ecological processes including nutrient cycling, vegetation succession and seedling recruitment. They are based in a range of different environments and encompass several different proposed end land uses. The paper demonstrates the utility of an hierarchical approach in assessing rehabilitation success, and that different elements within the hierarchy have differing levels of importance depending on specific minesite conditions. 22 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Research of long pulse high current diode radial insulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Jie; Chang Anbi; Hu Kesong; Liu Qingxiang; Ma Qiaosheng; Liu Zhong

    2002-01-01

    A radial insulation structure which is used in long pulse high current diode is introduced. The theory of vacuum flashover and the idea of design are briefly introduced. In the research, cone-shaped insulator was used. The geometry structure parameters were optimized by simulating the static electrical field distribution. Experiment was done on a pulse power source with 200 ns pulse width. The maximum voltage 750 kV was obtained, and the average stand-off electrical field of insulator is about 50 kV/cm

  18. Research on High Current Pulse Discharges at IPP ASci CR

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koláček, Karel; Schmidt, Jiří; Prukner, Václav; Štraus, Jaroslav; Frolov, Oleksandr; Martínková, M.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 56, suppl. B (2006), s. 259-266 ISSN 0011-4626. [Symposium on Plasma Physics and Technology/22nd./. Praha, 26.6.2006-29.6.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/06/1324; GA MŠk 1P04LA235 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Pulsed high current capillary discharge * amplified spontaneous emission * soft X-ray laser Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.568, year: 2006

  19. Current status of research and related activities in NAA application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ab Khalik bin Haji Wood

    1999-01-01

    Current activities of Analytical Chemistry Group of MINT (Malaysia Institute for Nuclear Technology Research) laboratory for elemental analysis of trace amounts in environmental samples such as air particulate matter (on air filter), soils/sediments, water, flora/fauna, oil sludge/waste sludge, and tailing/blasting slag and others, utilizing particularly NAA (Neutron Activation Analysis) method are reviewed. The laboratory participates in the IAEA-organized Interlaboratory Comparison Studies to ensure the analytical system. Other activities include analytical chemistry services with ICP-mass spectrometry and GC/GCMS to compliment the NAA and, moreover, air and marine pollution studies with participation in the UNDP/RCA/IAEA project. (S. Ohno)

  20. Research of Ve current charge interactions in the NOMAD experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manola-Poggioli, E.

    1996-01-01

    Written during the two first years of the NOMAD experiment working, this thesis is divided into two parts. In the first part, a partly equipped detector gives the 1994's results. It allows to identify and to select the NOMAD main interactions (muon neutrino charging current (CC) interactions) in the target. Thank to a events selection, the origin of the produced electrons is studied to better understand simulation's programs. In the second part, neutrino-electron CC interactions represent the main background noise to the oscillations research in the electronic mode. Electrons identification's algorithms are developed and inelastic interactions kinematic properties of electron neutrinos are discussed. (TEC). 57 refs., 72 figs., 18 tabs

  1. Current utilization of research reactor on radioisotopes production in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Yishu [Nuclear Power Institute of China, Chengdu (China)

    2000-10-01

    The main technical parameters of the four research reactors and their current utilization status in radioisotope manufacture and labeling compounds preparation are described. The radioisotopes, such as Co-60 sealed source, Ir-192 sealed source, {gamma}-knife source, I-131, I-125, Sm-153, P-32 series products, In-113m generator, Tc-99m gel generator, Re-188 gel generator, C-14, Ba-131, Sr-89, {sup 90}Y, etc., and their labeling compounds prepared from the reactor produced radionuclides, such as I-131-MIBG, I-131-Hippure, I-131-capsul, Sm-153-EDTMP, Re-186-HEDP, Re-186-HA, C-14-urea, and radioimmunoassay kits etc. are presented as well. Future development plan of radioisotopes and labeling compounds in China is also given. Simultaneously, the possibility and methods of bilateral or multilateral co-operation in utilization of research reactor, personnel and technology exchange of radioisotope production and labeling compounds is also discussed. (author)

  2. Current utilization of research reactor on radioisotopes production in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yishu

    2000-01-01

    The main technical parameters of the four research reactors and their current utilization status in radioisotope manufacture and labeling compounds preparation are described. The radioisotopes, such as Co-60 sealed source, Ir-192 sealed source, γ-knife source, I-131, I-125, Sm-153, P-32 series products, In-113m generator, Tc-99m gel generator, Re-188 gel generator, C-14, Ba-131, Sr-89, 90 Y, etc., and their labeling compounds prepared from the reactor produced radionuclides, such as I-131-MIBG, I-131-Hippure, I-131-capsul, Sm-153-EDTMP, Re-186-HEDP, Re-186-HA, C-14-urea, and radioimmunoassay kits etc. are presented as well. Future development plan of radioisotopes and labeling compounds in China is also given. Simultaneously, the possibility and methods of bilateral or multilateral co-operation in utilization of research reactor, personnel and technology exchange of radioisotope production and labeling compounds is also discussed. (author)

  3. Food reward system: current perspectives and future research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Alonso, Miguel; Woods, Stephen C; Pelchat, Marcia; Grigson, Patricia Sue; Stice, Eric; Farooqi, Sadaf; Khoo, Chor San; Mattes, Richard D; Beauchamp, Gary K

    2015-05-01

    This article reviews current research and cross-disciplinary perspectives on the neuroscience of food reward in animals and humans, examines the scientific hypothesis of food addiction, discusses methodological and terminology challenges, and identifies knowledge gaps and future research needs. Topics addressed herein include the role of reward and hedonic aspects in the regulation of food intake, neuroanatomy and neurobiology of the reward system in animals and humans, responsivity of the brain reward system to palatable foods and drugs, translation of craving versus addiction, and cognitive control of food reward. The content is based on a workshop held in 2013 by the North American Branch of the International Life Sciences Institute. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute.

  4. Current Challenges and Achievements in Maternal Immunization Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flor M. Munoz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Maternal immunization has the potential to significantly improve maternal and child health worldwide by reducing maternal and infant morbidity and mortality associated with disease caused by pathogens that are particularly relevant in the perinatal period and in early life, and for which no alternative effective preventive strategies exist. Research on all aspects related to vaccines for administration during pregnancy is ongoing with support of multiple stakeholders and global participation. Substantial progress has been made, and the availability of new vaccines licensed exclusively for use in pregnant women to protect their infants has become an achievable goal. This review provides an update of the current challenges and achievements in maternal immunization research, focusing on recent milestones that advance the field and the prospects to make maternal immunization a feasible and accessible strategy to improve global health.

  5. The International Permafrost Association: current initiatives for cryospheric research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schollaen, Karina; Lewkowicz, Antoni G.; Christiansen, Hanne H.; Romanovsky, Vladimir E.; Lantuit, Hugues; Schrott, Lothar; Sergeev, Dimitry; Wei, Ma

    2015-04-01

    The International Permafrost Association (IPA), founded in 1983, has as its objectives to foster the dissemination of knowledge concerning permafrost and to promote cooperation among persons and national or international organizations engaged in scientific investigation and engineering work on permafrost. The IPA's primary responsibilities are convening International Permafrost Conferences, undertaking special projects such as preparing databases, maps, bibliographies, and glossaries, and coordinating international field programs and networks. Membership is through adhering national or multinational organizations or as individuals in countries where no Adhering Body exists. The IPA is governed by its Executive Committee and a Council consisting of representatives from 26 Adhering Bodies having interests in some aspect of theoretical, basic and applied frozen ground research, including permafrost, seasonal frost, artificial freezing and periglacial phenomena. This presentation details the IPA core products, achievements and activities as well as current projects in cryospheric research. One of the most important core products is the circumpolar permafrost map. The IPA also fosters and supports the activities of the Global Terrestrial Network on Permafrost (GTN-P) sponsored by the Global Terrestrial Observing System, GTOS, and the Global Climate Observing System, GCOS, whose long-term goal is to obtain a comprehensive view of the spatial structure, trends, and variability of changes in the active layer thickness and permafrost temperature. A further important initiative of the IPA are the biannually competitively-funded Action Groups which work towards the production of well-defined products over a period of two years. Current IPA Action Groups are working on highly topical and interdisciplinary issues, such as the development of a regional Palaeo-map of Permafrost in Eurasia, the integration of multidisciplinary knowledge about the use of thermokarst and permafrost

  6. Aespoe hard rock laboratory. Current research projects 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    In 1986 SKB decided to construct the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) in order to provide an opportunity for research, development and demonstration in a realistic and undisturbed underground rock environment down to the depth planned for the future deep repository. The focus of current and future work is on development and testing of site characterization methods, verification of models describing the function of the natural and engineered barriers and development, testing, and demonstration of repository technology. The program has been organised so that all important steps in the development of a repository are covered, in other words the Aespoe HRL constitutes a `dress rehearsal` for the Swedish deep geological repository for spent fuel and other long-lived waste. Geoscientific investigations on Aespoe and nearby islands began in 1986. Aespoe was selected as the site for the laboratory in 1988. Construction of the facility, which reaches a depth of 460 m below the surface, began in 1990 and was completed in 1995. A major milestone had been reached in 1996 with the completion of the pre-investigation and construction phases of the Aespoe HRL. The comprehensive research conducted has permitted valuable development and verification of site characterization methods applied from the ground surface, boreholes, and underground excavations. The results of this research are summarised in the book `Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory - 10 years of Research` published by SKB in 1996. The Operating Phase of the Aespoe HRL began in 1995 and is expected to continue for 15-20 years, that is until the first stage of the development of the Swedish deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel is expected to be completed. A number of research projects were initiated at the start of the Operating Phase. Most of these projects have made substantial progress since then and important results have been obtained. The purpose of this brochure is to provide a brief presentation of the

  7. Aespoe hard rock laboratory. Current research projects 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    In 1986 SKB decided to construct the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) in order to provide an opportunity for research, development and demonstration in a realistic and undisturbed underground rock environment down to the depth planned for the future deep repository. The focus of current and future work is on development and testing of site characterization methods, verification of models describing the function of the natural and engineered barriers and development, testing, and demonstration of repository technology. The program has been organised so that all important steps in the development of a repository are covered, in other words the Aespoe HRL constitutes a 'dress rehearsal' for the Swedish deep geological repository for spent fuel and other long-lived waste. Geoscientific investigations on Aespoe and nearby islands began in 1986. Aespoe was selected as the site for the laboratory in 1988. Construction of the facility, which reaches a depth of 460 m below the surface, began in 1990 and was completed in 1995. A major milestone had been reached in 1996 with the completion of the pre-investigation and construction phases of the Aespoe HRL. The comprehensive research conducted has permitted valuable development and verification of site characterization methods applied from the ground surface, boreholes, and underground excavations. The results of this research are summarised in the book 'Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory - 10 years of Research' published by SKB in 1996. The Operating Phase of the Aespoe HRL began in 1995 and is expected to continue for 15-20 years, that is until the first stage of the development of the Swedish deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel is expected to be completed. A number of research projects were initiated at the start of the Operating Phase. Most of these projects have made substantial progress since then and important results have been obtained. The purpose of this brochure is to provide a brief presentation of the

  8. Juvenile fibromyalgia: current status of research and future developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita; Ting, Tracy V.

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile-onset fibromyalgia (JFM) is a poorly understood chronic pain condition most commonly affecting adolescent girls. The condition is characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain and other associated symptoms, including fatigue, nonrestorative sleep, headaches, irritable bowel symptoms, dysautonomia and mood disorders such as anxiety and/or depression. In the past few years, there has been a greater focus on understanding JFM in adolescents. Research studies have provided insight into the clinical characteristics of this condition and its effect on both short-term and long-term psychosocial and physical functioning. The importance of early and effective intervention is being recognized, as research has shown that symptoms of JFM tend to persist and do not resolve over time as was previously believed. Efforts to improve treatments for JFM are underway, and new evidence strongly points to the potential benefits of cognitive–behavioural therapy on improving mood and daily functioning. Research into pharmacotherapy and other nonpharmacological options is in progress. Advancements in the understanding of adult fibromyalgia have paved the way for future studies on diagnosis, assessment and management of JFM. This Review focuses on our current knowledge of the condition, provides an update of the latest research advances, and highlights areas for further study. PMID:24275966

  9. Current safety issues related to research reactor operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcala-Ruiz, F.

    2000-01-01

    The Agency has included activities on research reactor safety in its Programme and Budget (P and B) since its inception in 1957. Since then, these activities have traditionally been oriented to fulfil the Agency's functions and obligations. At the end of the decade of the eighties, the Agency's Research Reactor Safety Programme (RRSP) consisted of a limited number of tasks related to the preparation of safety related publications and the conduct of safety missions to research reactor facilities. It was at the beginning of the nineties when the RRSP was upgraded and expanded as a subprogramme of the Agency's P and B. This subprogramme continued including activities related to the above subjects and started addressing an increasing number of issues related to the current situation of research reactors (in operation and shut down) around the world such as reactor ageing, modifications and decommissioning. The present paper discusses some of the above issues as recognised by various external review or advisory groups (e.g., Peer Review Groups under the Agency's Performance Programme Appraisal System (PPAS) or the standing International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG)) and the impact of their recommendations on the preparation and implementation of the part of the Agency's P and B relating to the above subject. (author)

  10. Viewpoint on the current status of researches on sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng-guo WANG

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis is a common complication after severe trauma and burn, and also one of the main causes of death. Recently, although some new progresses were seen in antibiotic therapy, the mortality of sepsis is still on the rise, and the death rate as a result of sepsis is higher than a total of that of prostate cancer, breast cancer and AIDS. Therefore, sepsis has obviously become one of the serious ailments threatening human health. The present paper introduced the international definition of sepsis, severe sepsis and septic shock, the current researches on diagnosis and therapy, and proposed that we should not only pay attention to pathogenesis and treatment, but also to sepsis prevention in sepsis researches, and we should try to find out the breakthrough in the interaction and dynamic balance between human being and pathogenic factors. Researches on the strategies to revert strong toxicity of infectious agents to non-toxic or weak pathogenic factors, and to conduct further research concerning biological characteristics of microorganisms and mechanism of drug resistance in order to render them to lose the drug resistance ability, or to increase its sensitivity to the drugs. The above suggested approaches might form the future strategies for preventing and controlling sepsis.

  11. ["Good dying"--definition and current state of research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutter, Nico; Stößel, Ulrich; Meffert, Cornelia; Körner, Mirjam; Bozzaro, Claudia; Becker, Gerhild; Baumeister, Harald

    2015-08-01

    The advances of modern medicine did not only result in prolongation of life expectancy, but also led to a shift from dying at home to dying in public institutions. In western countries most people die at advanced age in medical facilities. Hence, the question regarding the conditions, which should be provided by society and especially medicine, to allow terminally ill people to experience "good dying" is substantial. For this purpose, an examination of patients', family members' and health care providers' understanding of the term " good dying" is required. The present paper aims at shedding light on the term "good dying" and to summarize the current state of research. Therefore, the attributes of "good dying" will be described from the perspectives of patients, family members and health care providers, which are discussed and examined in current medical-sociological research. These attributes can be illustrated on three dimensions: Quality of life at the end of life (e. g. pain relief, mental well-being), quality of dying (e. g. avoiding prolonged dying, autonomy, presence of relatives) and quality of health care at the end of life (e. g. patient-oriented health care, positive communication between health care providers and patients, availability of guidelines). Although the attributes of "good dying" are described in detail in the existing literature, further studies have to clarify the relevance and impact of these attributes as predictors of "good dying". © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Astronomical Spectroscopy A Short History

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 5. Astronomical Spectroscopy A Short History. J C Bhattacharyya. General Article Volume 3 Issue 5 May 1998 pp 24-29. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/003/05/0024-0029 ...

  13. Astronomers Unveiling Life's Cosmic Origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    Processes that laid the foundation for life on Earth -- star and planet formation and the production of complex organic molecules in interstellar space -- are yielding their secrets to astronomers armed with powerful new research tools, and even better tools soon will be available. Astronomers described three important developments at a symposium on the "Cosmic Cradle of Life" at the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Chicago, IL. Chemistry Cycle The Cosmic Chemistry Cycle CREDIT: Bill Saxton, NRAO/AUI/NSF Full Size Image Files Chemical Cycle Graphic (above image, JPEG, 129K) Graphic With Text Blocks (JPEG, 165K) High-Res TIFF (44.2M) High-Res TIFF With Text Blocks (44.2M) In one development, a team of astrochemists released a major new resource for seeking complex interstellar molecules that are the precursors to life. The chemical data released by Anthony Remijan of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) and his university colleagues is part of the Prebiotic Interstellar Molecule Survey, or PRIMOS, a project studying a star-forming region near the center of our Milky Way Galaxy. PRIMOS is an effort of the National Science Foundation's Center for Chemistry of the Universe, started at the University of Virginia (UVa) in October 2008, and led by UVa Professor Brooks H. Pate. The data, produced by the NSF's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) in West Virginia, came from more than 45 individual observations totalling more than nine GigaBytes of data and over 1.4 million individual frequency channels. Scientists can search the GBT data for specific radio frequencies, called spectral lines -- telltale "fingerprints" -- naturally emitted by molecules in interstellar space. "We've identified more than 720 spectral lines in this collection, and about 240 of those are from unknown molecules," Remijan said. He added, "We're making available to all scientists the best collection of data below 50 GHz ever produced for

  14. Livestock in biomedical research: history, current status and future prospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polejaeva, Irina A; Rutigliano, Heloisa M; Wells, Kevin D

    2016-01-01

    Livestock models have contributed significantly to biomedical and surgical advances. Their contribution is particularly prominent in the areas of physiology and assisted reproductive technologies, including understanding developmental processes and disorders, from ancient to modern times. Over the past 25 years, biomedical research that traditionally embraced a diverse species approach shifted to a small number of model species (e.g. mice and rats). The initial reasons for focusing the main efforts on the mouse were the availability of murine embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and genome sequence data. This powerful combination allowed for precise manipulation of the mouse genome (knockouts, knockins, transcriptional switches etc.) leading to ground-breaking discoveries on gene functions and regulation, and their role in health and disease. Despite the enormous contribution to biomedical research, mouse models have some major limitations. Their substantial differences compared with humans in body and organ size, lifespan and inbreeding result in pronounced metabolic, physiological and behavioural differences. Comparative studies of strategically chosen domestic species can complement mouse research and yield more rigorous findings. Because genome sequence and gene manipulation tools are now available for farm animals (cattle, pigs, sheep and goats), a larger number of livestock genetically engineered (GE) models will be accessible for biomedical research. This paper discusses the use of cattle, goats, sheep and pigs in biomedical research, provides an overview of transgenic technology in farm animals and highlights some of the beneficial characteristics of large animal models of human disease compared with the mouse. In addition, status and origin of current regulation of GE biomedical models is also reviewed.

  15. Latin American astronomers and the International Astronomical Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Peimbert, S.

    2017-07-01

    Selected aspects of the participation of the Latin American astronomers in the International Astronomical Union are presented: Membership, Governing bodies, IAU meetings, and other activities. The Union was founded in 1919 with 7 initial member states, soon to be followed by Brazil. In 1921 Mexico joined, and in 1928 Argentina also formed part of the Union, while Chile joined in 1947. In 1961 Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico and Venezuela were already member countries. At present (October 2016) 72 countries contribute financially to the Union. The Union lists 12,391 professional astronomers as individual members; of those, 692 astronomers work in Latin America and the Caribbean, from 13 member states (Argentina, Bolivia , Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Honduras, Mexico, Panamá, Perú, Uruguay and Venezuela) as well as from Ecuador and Puerto Rico. This group comprises 5.58% of the total membership, a figure somewhat lower than the fraction of the population in the region, which is 8.6% of the world population. Of the Latin American members, 23.4% are women and 76.6% are men; slightly higher than the whole membership of Union, which is of 16.9%. In the governing bodies it can be mentioned that there have been 2 Presidents of the Union (Jorge Sahade and Silvia Torres-Peimbert), 7 VicePresidents (Guillermo Haro, Jorge Sahade, Manuel Peimbert Claudio Anguita, Silvia Torres-Peimbert, Beatriz Barbuy, and Marta G. Rovira). The IAU meetings held in the region, include 2 General Assemblies (the 1991 XXI GA took place in Buenos Aires, Argentina and the 2009 XXVIII GA, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), 15 Regional Meetings (in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Venezuela and Uruguay), 29 Symposia (in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Peru and Mexico), 5 Colloquia (in Argentina and Mexico), 8 International Schools for Young Astronomers (in Argentina, Brazil, Cuba, Honduras and Mexico), and 11 projects sponsored by the Office of Astronomy

  16. Precision viticulture in Brazil: Current research status on wine grape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miele Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Technologies associated to precision viticulture (PV are not currently used by Brazilian growers. To overcome this situation, a research is being carried out since 2011 in a vineyard of Merlot using a wide range of PV technologies. During this period, several PV research activities were performed which will be concluded in a couple of years. Therefore, final results depend on further variable evaluation which should be done by means of geostatistic, Geographic Information Systems and Principal Component Analysis. This paper briefly presents a series of methodological procedures used in different ways to attain the objective of this research project. In the sequence, it describes one final result and nine partial ones. Morphological and physicochemical analyses of soil showed that the vineyards are established on three taxonomic classes of soil – Argissolo, Cambissolo and Neossolo −, which are formed by ten mapping units. The partial results are mainly related to the utilization of GIS, modeling and must and wine composition of five mapping units; however they show results of only one year. With the complete set of analyses, data should be spatialized and maps prepared. Then, it will be possible to recommend different practices to each soil type and to aid oenologists to direct wines to a specific quality pattern.

  17. Current research progresses on calf rearing and nutrition in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DIAO Qi-yu; ZhAng Rong; Tu Yan

    2017-01-01

    Calves are the reserve forces for dairy cattle. Scientific rearing strategy of calves is the basis of efficient cattle breeding. However, many problems exist in current rearing systems of calves and restrict the sustainable development of dairy cattle in China. The absence of basic research is the most highlighted problem among them. Recent researches on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood biochemical indices and rumen development in calves were summarized in this paper. Additionally, the optimal levels of energy and protein in milk replacer and starter diets for calves were indicated, and limiting amino acids for calves fed different diets were discussed. A variety of additives, such as acidifiers, probiotics and polysaccharides, are regarded as promising alternatives to antibiotics to reduce disease in calves. Dietary supplementations of these additives have positive effects on growth and health of calves. However, studies on the nutrition of vitamins and minerals in calves have been seldom done, and deserve our further researches. To sum up, the postnatal period is one of the most critical "windows" for rumen manipulation and epigenetic regulation. Any changes from environments, especially early nutrition, may produce long-term effects on growth, health and milk yields in adult cattle.

  18. Astronomical Plate Archives and Binary Blazars Studies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hudec, René

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 32, 1-2 (2011), s. 91-95 ISSN 0250-6335. [Conference on Multiwavelength Variability of Blazars. Guangzhou, 22,09,2010-24,09,2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/1207 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA102/09/0997; MŠMT(CZ) ME09027 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : astronomical plates * plate archives archives * binary blazars Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 0.400, year: 2011

  19. The astronomical tables of Giovanni Bianchini

    CERN Document Server

    Chabas, Jose

    2009-01-01

    This book describes and analyses, for the first time, the astronomical tables of Giovanni Bianchini of Ferrara (d. after 1469), explains their context, inserts them into an astronomical tradition that began in Toledo, and addresses their diffusion.

  20. Collaborative Research: Dynamics of Electrostatic Solitary Waves on Current Layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickett, Jolene S.

    2012-10-31

    The research carried out under the subject grant has provided insight into the generation of Electrostatic Solitary Waves (ESWs), which are nonlinear structures observed in space plasma data. These ESWs, appearing as pulses in the electric field time series data, represent the presence of several hundred meters to kilometer size positive potential structures, similar to champagne bubbles, where the electrons have been depleted, and which travel along Earth's magnetic field lines. The laboratory experiments carried out at the UCLA LAPD under the grant allowed us the opportunity to change various plasma and field conditions within the plasma device, and experiment with injection of suprathermal electron beams, in order to create ESWs. This then allowed us to determine the most likely method of generation of the ESWs. By comparing the properties of the ESWs observed in the LAPD to those observed in space and the plasma and field conditions under which those ESWs were observed in both locations, we were able to evaluate various ESW generation mechanisms. The findings of the laboratory experiments are that ESWs are generated through a lower hybrid instability. The ESWs observed in Earth's auroral current regions have similar characteristics to those generated by the laboratory when referenced to basic plasma and field characteristics, leading us to the conclusion that the lower hybrid drift instability is certainly a possibility for generation of the ESWs, at least in the auroral (northern/southern lights) regions. Due to space instrumentation insufficiencies and the limitations on telemetry, and thus poor time resolution, it is not possible to determine absolutely what generates these bubbles in space, but the laboratory experiments and supporting simulations have helped us to further our understanding of the processes under which they are generated. The public benefits from the findings of this research because the research is focused on current layers

  1. Current and future geothermal research in New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, I.J.; Browne, P.; Christenson, B.W.; Hunt, T.M.; Weir, G.

    2000-01-01

    Research programs by Crown Research Institutes (Geological and Nuclear Sciences Ltd. and Industrial Research Ltd.), university departments (Auckland, Massey and Victoria), power companies and private consultancies aim to obtain a better understanding of currently producing geothermal fields in New Zealand, and of deep geothermal systems which might have potential for future resource development. Research is also being directed at industrial and environmental issues related to exploitation, water-rock alteration processes, changes in shallow geothermal systems with time, and mineralisation as it relates to epithermal ore formation. The chemical and physical environment of geothermal reservoirs in the Taupo Volcanic Zone (e.g. Thames, Kawerau, Ohaaki, Ngatamariki, Wairakei, Tongariro, Tauhara and Tokaanu-Waihi) is being quantified with the aim of developing a suite of magma to ambient production scenarios using numerical, reactive transport models. A variety of geological, geochemical and geophysical techniques including fluid inclusion geothermometry, stable isotope analysis, electromagnetic, micro-seismic and magnetotelluric analysis is providing high quality input data. Through experimentation and computer modelling, criteria for assessing the optimal depths for re-injection of production effluents are being developed, and related problems such as silica and calcite scaling, pipeline insulation and chemical corrosion investigated. Paths, flow mechanisms and flow rates of re-injection plumes are being modelled using electrical resistivity, micro-gravity and radioisotope tracer methods. Environmental effects related to testing and development, presently causing concern amongst local authorities and the public, are being quantitatively assessed, and recommendations made to mitigate them. The mechanical and petrological properties of rocks in shallow aquifers undergoing ground subsidence are being determined, and the extent and style of ground deformation investigated

  2. Astronomical Heritage in the National Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harutyunian, H. A.; Mickaelian, A. M.; Parsamian, E. S.

    2014-10-01

    The book contains Proceedings of the Archaeoastronomical Meeting "Astronomical Heritage in the National Culture" Dedicated to Anania Shirakatsi's 1400th Anniversary and XI Annual Meeting of the Armenian Astronomical Society. It consists of 3 main sections: "Astronomical Heritage", "Anania Shirakatsi" and "Modern Astronomy", as well as Literature about Anania Shirakatsi is included. The book may be interesting for astronomers, historians, archaeologists, linguists, students and other readers.

  3. Consortium for Offshore Aviation Research : description of current projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    The five projects which are currently underway or being evaluated through the Consortium for Offshore Aviation Research (COAR) were described. The projects are: (1) the use of narrow-beam, high intensity searchlights as approach aids for helicopter landings on helidecks in low visibility conditions, (2) establishment of a precipitation and fog characterization facility forecasting, (3) use of ice-phobic materials for airframe anti-icing, (4) use of differential global positioning satellite systems for offshore operations, and (5) the development of a virtual reality head-up-display for the approach to the Hibernia helideck (or any other helideck) to facilitate low visibility landings. Seed funding for these projects has been provided by the European Space Agency. Additional support is being provided by Hibernia, Petro-Canada, Husky Oil and Chevron Oil Canada. Initiatives to increase the number of partners are underway. 1 fig

  4. Current NDT activities at Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekinci, S.

    2004-01-01

    Nondestructive testing (NDT) activities at Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center (CNAEM) has been initiated in the Industrial Application Department of the Center which was established in 1976 as the Radioisotope Applications Group for Industry. The Department started its first NDT activity with industrial radiography. The NDT activities have been developed by the support of various national (State Planning Organization (DPT)) and international (IAEA and UNDP) projects. Today, there are five basic NDT techniques (radiography, ultrasonic, magnetic particle, liquid penetrant and eddy current) used in the Industrial Application Department. The Department arranges routinely NDT qualification courses according to ISO 9712 and TS EN 473 standards for level 1 and 2 for Turkish Industry. It also carries out national DPT and IAEA Technical Co-operation projects and gives NDT services in the laboratory and in the field. Digital radiography and digital ultrasonic techniques are being used in advanced NDT applications. This paper describes the NDT activities of CNAEM. (author)

  5. Current Debates in Corporate Social Responsibility: An Agenda for Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Crowther

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR has a particular prominence at this point in time, featuring heavily in the discourses of both academe and business. The understanding of what is meant by CSR continues to evolve as a consensus is reached. Nevertheless some important debates continue – or are commencing – which need to be resolved. It is the purpose of this paper to highlight these as some of the current debates within the CSR community – and hence form a significant part of an agenda for research in the area. Specifically we focus upon three key areas for the management of business, namely setting standards for reporting, identifying and implementing sustainable practice, and the management of risk.

  6. Current status of ethnobotany research on palms from Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquina Albán

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The current situation concerning research in ethnobotany and economic botany of Peruvian palms is analyzed through a review of the literature with emphasis on knowledge related to uses and vernacular names. Of the 136 Peruvian palm species, 104 have at least one use. A total of 268 different uses distributed in 16 categories were registered. The most frequent categories are "construction", "edible", "craft industry" and "medicinal". There are 109 palm species with at least one vernacular name in Peru. The consulted literature is analyzed in four categories: (i general studies in economic botany, (ii ethnographic and ethnobiological studies, (iii studies of South-American palms of economic interest, (iv studies that exclusively deal with the useful Peruvian palms. Ethnobotanical knowledge of Peruvian palms proves to be essentially descriptive, with much repetitive information. Studies that significantly contribute to the genetic or agronomical improvement of the economically promising palms are rare.

  7. Current Research Status of KHNP for Site Risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Kyemin; Jeon, Ho-Jun; Bahng, Ki-In; Na, Jang-Hwan [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In Korea, by the geographical characteristics, many Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) have been constructed and operated at a single site. This is above average level or number of plants per site in the world. For this reason, the public concerns for the safety of nuclear facilities increased after Fukushima Daiichi accident. As a result, comprehensive risk assessment and management for the site which have multi-unit NPPs were strongly asked. Currently, to solve it, many researches and projects has carried out by various Korean companies, research centers, and regulatory authorities. In this paper, R and D plans of KHNP for multi-unit risk were summarized. Firstly, the needs of multi-unit PSA were reviewed. R and D activities and plans of KHNP were summarized in the last part. In this paper, we summarized the R and D plans of KHNP for assessing the multi-unit risk. Currently, multi-unit risk or multi-unit PSA are important and practical issues in both nuclear industry and national energy policy. After Fukushima accident, several countries stopped the construction and the operation of NPPs, other countries which is maintaining the NPPs are being strongly asked to assess the risk for multi-unit NPPs at the same site. Because of Korean geographical characteristics, the number of NPPs which are above average level or number of plants per site in the world is being constructed and operated at a single site. The population density nearby each site is considered to be higher than that of other countries.

  8. Current Research Status of KHNP for Site Risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Kyemin; Jeon, Ho-Jun; Bahng, Ki-In; Na, Jang-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    In Korea, by the geographical characteristics, many Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) have been constructed and operated at a single site. This is above average level or number of plants per site in the world. For this reason, the public concerns for the safety of nuclear facilities increased after Fukushima Daiichi accident. As a result, comprehensive risk assessment and management for the site which have multi-unit NPPs were strongly asked. Currently, to solve it, many researches and projects has carried out by various Korean companies, research centers, and regulatory authorities. In this paper, R and D plans of KHNP for multi-unit risk were summarized. Firstly, the needs of multi-unit PSA were reviewed. R and D activities and plans of KHNP were summarized in the last part. In this paper, we summarized the R and D plans of KHNP for assessing the multi-unit risk. Currently, multi-unit risk or multi-unit PSA are important and practical issues in both nuclear industry and national energy policy. After Fukushima accident, several countries stopped the construction and the operation of NPPs, other countries which is maintaining the NPPs are being strongly asked to assess the risk for multi-unit NPPs at the same site. Because of Korean geographical characteristics, the number of NPPs which are above average level or number of plants per site in the world is being constructed and operated at a single site. The population density nearby each site is considered to be higher than that of other countries

  9. Current status of surrogacy in Japan and uterine transplantation research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisu, Iori; Banno, Kouji; Mihara, Makoto; Iida, Takuya; Yoshimura, Yasunori

    2011-10-01

    Recent advances in assisted reproductive technology (ART) have made it possible to circumvent many causes of male and female infertility. The right to have a child by ART has been respected for infertile couples. However, there are currently no legal regulations concerning ART in Japan, and this has resulted in social and ethical problems. Surrogacy involves particularly complex medical, ethical, social, and legal issues, and is frequently focused on as a major social concern. Uterine transplantation (UTx) is a potential alternative for young women with uterine factor infertility due to hysterectomy for treatment of a malignant uterine tumor or massive blood loss after delivery, or because of a congenital disease such as Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster syndrome. UTx has been examined in experimental animals as a basis for establishment of fecundity for young women with uterine factor infertility. In this review, we focus on surrogacy in Japan and UTx research, and discuss the current status and concerns in this field. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Global fate of POPs: Current and future research directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohmann, Rainer; Breivik, Knut; Dachs, Jordi; Muir, Derek

    2007-01-01

    For legacy and emerging persistent organic pollutants (POPs), surprisingly little is still known in quantitative terms about their global sources and emissions. Atmospheric transport has been identified as the key global dispersal mechanism for most legacy POPs. In contrast, transport by ocean currents may prove to be the main transport route for many polar, emerging POPs. This is linked to the POPs' intrinsic physico-chemical properties, as exemplified by the different fate of hexachlorocyclohexanes in the Arctic. Similarly, our current understanding of POPs' global transport and fate remains sketchy. The importance of organic carbon and global temperature differences have been accepted as key drivers of POPs' global distribution. However, future research will need to understand the various biogeochemical and geophysical cycles under anthropogenic pressures to be able to understand and predict the global fate of POPs accurately. - Future studies into the global fate of POPs will need to pay more attention to the various biogeochemical and anthropogenic cycles to better understand emissions, transport and sinks

  11. Global fate of POPs: Current and future research directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohmann, Rainer [Graduate School of Oceanography, University of Rhode Island, Narragansett, RI 02882-1197 (United States)], E-mail: lohmann@gso.uri.edu; Breivik, Knut [Norwegian Institute for Air Research, PO Box 100, NO-2027 Kjeller (Norway); University of Oslo, Department of Chemistry, PO Box 1033, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway); Dachs, Jordi [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Chemical and Environmental Research (IIQAB-CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, Barcelona 08034 (Spain); Muir, Derek [Aquatic Ecosystem Protection Research Division, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, ON L7R4A6 (Canada)

    2007-11-15

    For legacy and emerging persistent organic pollutants (POPs), surprisingly little is still known in quantitative terms about their global sources and emissions. Atmospheric transport has been identified as the key global dispersal mechanism for most legacy POPs. In contrast, transport by ocean currents may prove to be the main transport route for many polar, emerging POPs. This is linked to the POPs' intrinsic physico-chemical properties, as exemplified by the different fate of hexachlorocyclohexanes in the Arctic. Similarly, our current understanding of POPs' global transport and fate remains sketchy. The importance of organic carbon and global temperature differences have been accepted as key drivers of POPs' global distribution. However, future research will need to understand the various biogeochemical and geophysical cycles under anthropogenic pressures to be able to understand and predict the global fate of POPs accurately. - Future studies into the global fate of POPs will need to pay more attention to the various biogeochemical and anthropogenic cycles to better understand emissions, transport and sinks.

  12. [Video game and internet addiction. The current state of research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehbein, F; Mößle, T; Arnaud, N; Rumpf, H-J

    2013-05-01

    The use of interactive screen media is widespread and for some users leads to pathological symptoms that are phenomenologically similar to signs of addictive disorders. Addictive use of computer games and other Internet applications, such as social media can be distinguished. In the past standard criteria to classify this new disorder were lacking. In DSM-5, nine criteria are proposed for diagnosing Internet gaming disorder. The focus is currently on video games as most studies have been done in this field. Prevalence estimations are difficult to interpret due to the lack of standard diagnostic measures and result in a range of the frequency of Internet addiction between 1 % and 4.2 % in the general German population. Rates are higher in younger individuals. For computer game addiction prevalence rates between 0.9 % and 1.7  % can be found in adolescents. Despite substantial comorbidity among those affected current research points to addictive media use as a stand-alone disorder.

  13. What Lies Behind NSF Astronomer Demographics? Subjectivities of Women, Minorities and Foreign-born Astronomers within Meshworks of Big Science Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillen, Reynal; Gu, D.; Holbrook, J.; Murillo, L. F.; Traweek, S.

    2011-01-01

    Our current research focuses on the trajectory of scientists working with large-scale databases in astronomy, following them as they strategically build their careers, digital infrastructures, and make their epistemological commitments. We look specifically at how gender, ethnicity, nationality intersect in the process of subject formation in astronomy, as well as in the process of enrolling partners for the construction of instruments, design and implementation of large-scale databases. Work once figured as merely technical support, such assembling data catalogs, or as graphic design, generating pleasing images for public support, has been repositioned at the core of the field. Some have argued that such databases enable a new kind of scientific inquiry based on data exploration, such as the "fourth paradigm" or "data-driven" science. Our preliminary findings based on oral history interviews and ethnography provide insights into meshworks of women, African-American, "Hispanic," Asian-American and foreign-born astronomers. Our preliminary data suggest African-American men are more successful in sustaining astronomy careers than Chicano and Asian-American men. A distinctive theme in our data is the glocal character of meshworks available to and created by foreign-born women astronomers working at US facilities. Other data show that the proportion of Asian to Asian American and foreign-born Latina/o to Chicana/o astronomers is approximately equal. Futhermore, Asians and Latinas/os are represented in significantly greater numbers than Asian Americans and Chicanas/os. Among professional astronomers in the US, each ethnic minority group is numbered on the order of tens, not hundreds. Project support is provided by the NSF EAGER program to University of California, Los Angeles under award 0956589.

  14. Harvey Butcher: a passion for astronomical instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhathal, Ragbir

    2014-11-01

    This paper covers some aspects of the scientific life of Harvey Butcher who was the Director of the Research School for Astronomy and Astrophysics at the Australian National University in Canberra from September 2007 to January 2013. He has made significant contributions to research on the evolution of galaxies, nucleosynthesis, and on the design and implementation of advanced astronomical instrumentation including LOFAR (Low Frequency Array Radio telescope). He is well known for his discovery of the Butcher-Oemler effect. Before coming to Australia he was the Director of the Netherlands Foundation for Research in Astronomy from September 1991 to January 2007. In 2005 he was awarded a Knighthood in the Order of the Netherlands Lion for contributions to interdisciplinary science, innovation and public outreach.This paper is based on an interview conducted by the author with Harvey Butcher for the National Project on Significant Australian Astronomers sponsored by the National Library of Australia. Except otherwise stated, all quotations used in this paper are from the Butcher interview which has been deposited in the Oral History Archives of the National Library.

  15. FES in Europe and beyond: Current Translational Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Azevedo Coste

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Capacity of adult neural and muscle tissues to respond to external Electrical Stimulation (ES is the biological basis for the development and implementation of mobility impairment physiotherapy protocols and of related assistive technologies, e.g, Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES. All body tissues, however, respond to electrical stimulation and, indeed, the most successful application of FES is electrical stimulation of the heart to revert or limit effects of arrhythmias (Pace-makers and Defibrillators. Here, we list and discuss results of FES current research activities, in particular those presented at 2016 Meetings: the PaduaMuscleDays, the Italian Institute of Myology Meeting, the 20th International Functional Electrical Stimulation Society (IFESS conference held in Montpellier and the Vienna Workshop on FES. Several papers were recently e-published in the European Journal of Translational Myology as reports of meeting presentations. All the events and publications clearly show that FES research in Europe and beyond is alive and promisses translation of results into clinical management of a very large population of persons with deficiencies.

  16. Current Status of Periodic Safety Review of HANARO Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Minjin; Ahn, Guk-Hoon; Lee, Choong Sung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    A PSR for a research reactor became a legal requirement as the Nuclear Safety Act was amended and came into effect in 2014. This paper describes the current status and methodology of the first Periodic Safety Review (PSR) of HANARO that is being performed. The legal requirements, work plan, and process of implementing a PSR are described. Because this is the first PSR for a research reactor, it is our understating that the operating organization and regulatory body should communicate well with each other to complete the PSR in a timely manner. The first PSR of HANARO is under way. In order to achieve a successful result, activities of the operation organization such as scheduling, maintaining consistency in input data for review, and reviewing the PSR reports that will require intensive resources should be well planned. This means the operating organization needs to incorporate appropriate measures to ensure the transfer of knowledge and expertise arising from the PSR via a contractor to the operation organization. It is desirable for the Regulatory Body to be involved in all stage of the PSR to prevent any waste of resources and minimize the potential for a reworking of the PSR and the need for an additional assessment and review as recommended by foreign experts.

  17. Super resolution for astronomical observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhan; Peng, Qingyu; Bhanu, Bir; Zhang, Qingfeng; He, Haifeng

    2018-05-01

    In order to obtain detailed information from multiple telescope observations a general blind super-resolution (SR) reconstruction approach for astronomical images is proposed in this paper. A pixel-reliability-based SR reconstruction algorithm is described and implemented, where the developed process incorporates flat field correction, automatic star searching and centering, iterative star matching, and sub-pixel image registration. Images captured by the 1-m telescope at Yunnan Observatory are used to test the proposed technique. The results of these experiments indicate that, following SR reconstruction, faint stars are more distinct, bright stars have sharper profiles, and the backgrounds have higher details; thus these results benefit from the high-precision star centering and image registration provided by the developed method. Application of the proposed approach not only provides more opportunities for new discoveries from astronomical image sequences, but will also contribute to enhancing the capabilities of most spatial or ground-based telescopes.

  18. National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

    CERN Document Server

    Haubold, Hans J; UN/ESA/NASA Workshop on the International Heliophysical Year 2007 and Basic Space Science, hosted by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

    2010-01-01

    This book represents Volume II of the Proceedings of the UN/ESA/NASA Workshop on the International Heliophysical Year 2007 and Basic Space Science, hosted by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Tokyo, 18 - 22 June, 2007. It covers two programme topics explored in this and past workshops of this nature: (i) non-extensive statistical mechanics as applicable to astrophysics, addressing q-distribution, fractional reaction and diffusion, and the reaction coefficient, as well as the Mittag-Leffler function and (ii) the TRIPOD concept, developed for astronomical telescope facilities. The companion publication, Volume I of the proceedings of this workshop, is a special issue in the journal Earth, Moon, and Planets, Volume 104, Numbers 1-4, April 2009.

  19. The South African Astronomical Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The geographical position, climate and equipment at the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO), together with the enthusiasm and efforts of SAAO scientific and technical staff and of visiting scientists, have enabled the Observatory to make a major contribution to the fields of astrophysics and cosmology. During 1987 the SAAO has been involved in studies of the following: supernovae; galaxies, including Seyfert galaxies; celestial x-ray sources; magellanic clouds; pulsating variables; galatic structure; binary star phenomena; nebulae; interstellar matter and stellar astrophysics

  20. Public health services and systems research: current state of finance research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Richard C; Bernet, Patrick M; Costich, Julia F

    2012-11-01

    There is a growing recognition that the US public health system should strive for efficiency-that it should determine the optimal ways to utilize limited resources to improve and protect public health. The field of public health finance research is a critical part of efforts to understand the most efficient ways to use resources. This article discusses the current state of public health finance research through a review of public health finance literature, chronicles important lessons learned from public health finance research to date, discusses the challenges faced by those seeking to conduct financial research on the public health system, and discusses the role of public health finance research in relation to the broader endeavor of Public Health Services and Systems Research.

  1. Recent advances in addictive disorders. Prevention. Current research and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpfer, K L; Hopkins, R

    1993-03-01

    The AOD prevention programs of the 1990s should be resiliency-focused and include interventions of sufficient dosage and strength. Although some child behavioral technology exists to tackle successfully changes in resiliency, additional prevention strategies need to be developed and studied. In some way, the prevention field is hampered by the lack of sufficient research in the child and adolescent psychiatry and psychology fields, that includes transactional research in parenting and child rearing for high-risk youth. We simply do not know enough to determine how parents and other adults can best foster resilience in children. Questions that arise include how much to protect children from environmental stressors and how much to push them to confront new life stressors in the form of challenges to develop new skills or talents. There are no simple answers to these questions, but a number of useful guidelines could help parents and teachers to increase resilience in youth. Some of the guidelines currently being stressed include developing in youth an increased sense of responsibility for their own success, helping them to identify their talents, motivating them to dedicate their lives to helping society rather than feeling their only purpose in life is to be consumers, providing realistic appraisals and feedback for youth rather than graciously building up their self-esteem, stressing multicultural competence in an ever-shrinking world, encouraging and valuing education and skills training, increasing cooperative solutions to problems rather than competitive or aggressive solutions, and increasing a sense of responsibility for others and caring for others. Clearly, these are important objectives for creating the type of citizens that can make American strong in the twentieth century.

  2. Respiratory sensitization and allergy: Current research approaches and needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boverhof, Darrell R.; Billington, Richard; Gollapudi, B. Bhaskar; Hotchkiss, John A.; Krieger, Shannon M.; Poole, Alan; Wiescinski, Connie M.; Woolhiser, Michael R.

    2008-01-01

    There are currently no accepted regulatory models for assessing the potential of a substance to cause respiratory sensitization and allergy. In contrast, a number of models exist for the assessment of contact sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Research indicates that respiratory sensitizers may be identified through contact sensitization assays such as the local lymph node assay, although only a small subset of the compounds that yield positive results in these assays are actually respiratory sensitizers. Due to the increasing health concerns associated with occupational asthma and the impending directives on the regulation of respiratory sensitizers and allergens, an approach which can identify these compounds and distinguish them from contact sensitizers is required. This report discusses some of the important contrasts between respiratory allergy and ACD, and highlights several prominent in vivo, in vitro and in silico approaches that are being applied or could be further developed to identify compounds capable of causing respiratory allergy. Although a number of animal models have been used for researching respiratory sensitization and allergy, protocols and endpoints for these approaches are often inconsistent, costly and difficult to reproduce, thereby limiting meaningful comparisons of data between laboratories and development of a consensus approach. A number of emerging in vitro and in silico models show promise for use in the characterization of contact sensitization potential and should be further explored for their ability to identify and differentiate contact and respiratory sensitizers. Ultimately, the development of a consistent, accurate and cost-effective model will likely incorporate a number of these approaches and will require effective communication, collaboration and consensus among all stakeholders

  3. Current Insights into Research on Rice stripe virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Kyong Cho

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Rice stripe virus (RSV is one of the most destructive viruses of rice, and greatly reduces rice production in China, Japan, and Korea, where mostly japonica cultivars of rice are grown. RSV is transmitted by the small brown plant-hopper (SBPH in a persistent and circulative-propagative manner. Several methods have been developed for detection of RSV, which is composed of four single-stranded RNAs that encode seven proteins. Genome sequence data and comparative phylogenetic analysis have been used to identify the origin and diversity of RSV isolates. Several rice varieties resistant to RSV have been selected and QTL analysis and fine mapping have been intensively performed to map RSV resistance loci or genes. RSV genes have been used to generate several genetically modified transgenic rice plants with RSV resistance. Recently, genome-wide transcriptome analyses and deep sequencing have been used to identify mRNAs and small RNAs involved in RSV infection; several rice host factors that interact with RSV proteins have also been identified. In this article, we review the current statues of RSV research and propose integrated approaches for the study of interactions among RSV, rice, and the SBPH.

  4. Current Research Therapeutic Strategies for Alzheimer’s Disease Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaume Folch

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD currently presents one of the biggest healthcare issues in the developed countries. There is no effective treatment capable of slowing down disease progression. In recent years the main focus of research on novel pharmacotherapies was based on the amyloidogenic hypothesis of AD, which posits that the beta amyloid (Aβ peptide is chiefly responsible for cognitive impairment and neuronal death. The goal of such treatments is (a to reduce Aβ production through the inhibition of β and γ secretase enzymes and (b to promote dissolution of existing cerebral Aβ plaques. However, this approach has proven to be only modestly effective. Recent studies suggest an alternative strategy centred on the inhibition of the downstream Aβ signalling, particularly at the synapse. Aβ oligomers may cause aberrant N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR activation postsynaptically by forming complexes with the cell-surface prion protein (PrPC. PrPC is enriched at the neuronal postsynaptic density, where it interacts with Fyn tyrosine kinase. Fyn activation occurs when Aβ is bound to PrPC-Fyn complex. Fyn causes tyrosine phosphorylation of the NR2B subunit of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5. Fyn kinase blockers masitinib and saracatinib have proven to be efficacious in treating AD symptoms in experimental mouse models of the disease.

  5. Sleep disturbance due to noise: Current issues and future research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Hume

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There is growing interest in carrying out further research to understand and reduce the impact of aircraft noise on airport neighborhood in anticipation of the projected substantial increase in global aviation. Soundscapes provide new analytical methods and a broader, more comprehensive appreciation of the aural environment, which may have a useful role in understanding noise-induced sleep disturbance and annoyance. Current noise metrics like Leq do not provide a common language to report noise environment to residents, which is a key obstacle to effective noise management and acceptance. Non-auditory effects complicate the production of consistent dose-response functions for aircraft noise affecting sleep and annoyance. There are various end-points that can be chosen to assess the degree of sleep disturbance, which has detracted from the clarity of results that has been communicated to wider audiences. The World Health Organization (WHO-Europe has produced Night Noise Guidelines for Europe, which act as a clear guide for airports and planners to work towards. Methodological inadequacies and the need for simpler techniques to record sleep will be considered with the exciting potential to greatly increase cost-effective field data acquisition, which is needed for large scale epidemiological studies

  6. Paired and Interacting Galaxies: International Astronomical Union Colloquium No. 124

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulentic, Jack W. (Editor); Keel, William C. (Editor); Telesco, C. M. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The proceedings of the International Astronomical Union Colloquium No. 124, held at the University of Alabama at Tuscaloosa, on December 4 to 7, are given. The purpose of the conference was to describe the current state of theoretical and observational knowledge of interacting galaxies, with particular emphasis on galaxies in pairs.

  7. Large Astronomical Surveys, Catalogs and Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mickaelian A. M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We review the status of all-sky and large astronomical surveys and their catalogued data over the whole range of electromagnetic spectrum, from gamma-ray to radio, such as ROSAT in X-ray, GALEX in UV, SDSS and several POSS1/2 based catalogs (APM, MAPS, USNO, GSC in optical, 2MASS and WISE in NIR, IRAS and AKARI in MIR/FIR, NVSS and FIRST in radio range and others. Present astronomical archives contain billions of objects, Galactic as well as extragalactic, and the vast amount of data in them permit new studies and discoveries. Cross-correlations result in revealing new objects and new samples. Very often, dozens of thousands of sources hide a few very interesting ones that are needed to be discovered by comparison of various physical characteristics. Most of the modern databases currently provide VO access to the stored information. This permits not only open access but also fast analysis and managing of these data.

  8. Radio Astronomers Develop New Technique for Studying Dark Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    capabilities of current instruments -- the team used their intensity-mapping technique to accumulate the radio waves emitted by the hydrogen gas in large volumes of space including many galaxies. "Since the early part of the 20th Century, astronomers have traced the expansion of the Universe by observing galaxies. Our new technique allows us to skip the galaxy-detection step and gather radio emissions from a thousand galaxies at a time, as well as all the dimly-glowing material between them," said Jeffrey Peterson, of Carnegie Mellon University. The astronomers also developed new techniques that removed both man-made radio interference and radio emission caused by more-nearby astronomical sources, leaving only the extremely faint radio waves coming from the very distant hydrogen gas. The result was a map of part of the "cosmic web" that correlated neatly with the structure shown by the earlier optical study. The team first proposed their intensity-mapping technique in 2008, and their GBT observations were the first test of the idea. "These observations detected more hydrogen gas than all the previously-detected hydrogen in the Universe, and at distances ten times farther than any radio wave-emitting hydrogen seen before," said Ue-Li Pen of the University of Toronto. "This is a demonstration of an important technique that has great promise for future studies of the evolution of large-scale structure in the Universe," said National Radio Astronomy Observatory Chief Scientist Chris Carilli, who was not part of the research team. In addition to Chang, Peterson, and Pen, the research team included Kevin Bandura of Carnegie Mellon University. The scientists reported their work in the July 22 issue of the scientific journal Nature.

  9. Astronomers debate diamonds in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-04-01

    This is not the first time the intriguing carbonaceous compound has been detected in space. A peculiar elite of twelve stars are known to produce it. The star now added by ISO to this elite is one of the best representatives of this exclusive family, since it emits a very strong signal of the compound. Additionally ISO found a second new member of the group with weaker emission, and also observed with a spectral resolution never achieved before other already known stars in this class. Astronomers think these ISO results will help solve the mystery of the true nature of the compound. Their publication by two different groups, from Spain and Canada, has triggered a debate on the topic, both in astronomy institutes and in chemistry laboratories. At present, mixed teams of astrophysicists and chemists are investigating in the lab compounds whose chemical signature or "fingerprint" matches that detected by ISO. Neither diamonds nor fullerenes have ever been detected in space, but their presence has been predicted. Tiny diamonds of pre-solar origin --older than the Solar System-- have been found in meteorites, which supports the as yet unconfirmed theory of their presence in interstellar space. The fullerene molecule, made of 60 carbon atoms linked to form a sphere (hence the name "buckyball"), has also been extensively searched for in space but never found. If the carbonaceous compound detected by ISO is a fullerene or a diamond, there will be new data on the production of these industrially interesting materials. Fullerenes are being investigated as "capsules" to deliver new pharmaceuticals to the body. Diamonds are commonly used in the electronics industry and for the development of new materials; if they are formed in the dust surrounding some stars, at relatively low temperatures and conditions of low pressure, companies could learn more about the ideal physical conditions to produce them. A textbook case The latest star in which the compound has been found is

  10. CURRENT APPROACHES FOR RESEARCH OF MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS BIOMARKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolyada T.I

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Current data concerning features of multiple sclerosis (MS etiology, pathogenesis, clinical course and treatment of disease indicate the necessity of personalized approach to the management of MS patients. These features are the variety of possible etiological factors and mechanisms that trigger the development of MS, different courses of disease, and significant differences in treatment efficiency. Phenotypic and pathogenetic heterogeneity of MS requires, on the one hand, the stratification of patients into groups with different treatment depending on a number of criteria including genetic characteristics, disease course, stage of the pathological process, and forms of the disease. On the other hand, it requires the use of modern methods for assessment of individual risk of developing MS, its early diagnosis, evaluation and prognosis of the disease course and the treatment efficiency. This approach is based on the identification and determination of biomarkers of MS including the use of systems biology technology platforms such as genomics, proteomics, metabolomics and bioinformatics. Research and practical use of biomarkers of MS in clinical and laboratory practice requires the use of a wide range of modern medical and biological, mathematical and physicochemical methods. The group of "classical" methods used to study MS biomarkers includes physicochemical and immunological methods aimed at the selection and identification of single molecular biomarkers, as well as methods of molecular genetic analysis. This group of methods includes ELISA, western blotting, isoelectric focusing, immunohistochemical methods, flow cytometry, spectrophotometric and nephelometric methods. These techniques make it possible to carry out both qualitative and quantitative assay of molecular biomarkers. The group of "classical methods" can also include methods based on polymerase chain reaction (including multiplex and allele-specific PCR and genome sequencing

  11. Summary of current research on Central Asian vortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian-Mei YANG

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Central Asian vortex (CAV is an important synoptic-scale system that causes rainstorms, short-term heavy precipitation, hail, and sustained low temperatures in Xinjiang. This paper summarizes the current research conducted on the CAV since the 1960s. The objective definition of the CAV has been revised and a deep and shallow CAV classification proposed. Two high-frequency areas of deep CAV activity are the Kazakhstan hills (Sayan mountains and the eastern area of the Aral Sea (Tashkent; events mostly occur in summer and 40% cause strong rainfall. In addition, two high-frequency activity areas of the shallow CAV are located in the west and south of the Pamirs Plateau and mostly occur in spring; 23.2% of occurrences cause strong rainfall. The western and eastern water vapor transport relates to westerlies and a strong low-level easterly jet stream (LLEJ extending from Gansu to Xinjiang, respectively, and water vapor over the Tibetan Plateau transports even more northwards and enters Xinjiang. The deep CAV has an obvious cold core structure down to 300 hPa. The conversion terms from eddy available potential energy (AE to eddy kinetic energy (KE and eddy kinetic energy inflow (BKE from the open atmospheric region boundaries are the main sources of KE which cause rapid development of the CAV. The anomalous anti-cyclone center over the northeast Atlantic is the fountain of Rossby wave energy dispersion; Rossby waves propagate from the northeast Atlantic to eastern Europe (Urals (EEU, and then continuously propagate to Central Asia causing development of the CAV. The CAV requires further study to characterize the meso-scale system structure and evolution characteristics. In addition, physical modeling of the severe convective weather occurring under the CAV is required to determine the critical impacts of this severe convective weather and enable forecasting and early-warning indexes.

  12. The Selection and Protection of Optical Astronomical Observing Sites in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenjing, Jin; Bai, Jinming; Yao, Yongqiang

    2015-03-01

    Before 1950 there are two observatories, Shanghai and Purple Mountain Astronomical Observatories (SHAO and PMO), and two observing stations, Qingdao and Kunming stations in China. With the requirements of astronomical research, two observatories, Beijing and Shaanxi Astronomical Observatories (BAO and SXAO) and two artificial satellite stations, Urumqi and Changchun, were established about 1960. Based on the current management, now there are 4 observatories, SHAO, PMO, NAOC(National Astronomical Observatories), which was grouped from BAO, YNAO and 2 others, as well as XAO (Xinjiang Astronomical Observatory). The optical 1-2 m class telescopes are being operated at former four observatories. SXAO is changed as National Time Service Center. Because of city expansion as well as the traveling and economic developments, these observatories are suffered severe light pollution. For example, Zo Ce is located at the suburb of Shanghai city. A 40 cm double astrograph was installed in 1900 and a 1.56 m optical reflector have been operated since November 1987. In 1994 the seeing is better than 1 and the night sky brightness in V is about 19 mag/arcsec 2, stars fainter than 20 mag with CCD are visibles. In 2007 a large playground was built in Zô Cè area. The light pollution is severe gradually. The night sky brightness has been increased to 15.8 mag/arcsec 2. The other observatories have similar situation. New site surveys and found new stations to solve the problem. Except the solar and radio stations of each Astronomical Observatory, now there are 3 optical observing sites at PMO (Hong-He, Xu-Yi and Yaoan), 2 at SHAO (Zô Cè and Tian Huang Ping) and 2 at YNAO (Kunming and Gao-Mei-Gu) as well as 1 optical observing site at BAO (Xing-Long). The best observing site is Gao-Mei-Gu, which is selected as the optical observing site of YNAO and where atmospheric turbulence distribution is 0.11 near ground with heights from 6.5m to 2.7m during night. Sky brightness in B and V band

  13. Simulative research on reverse current in magnetically insulated coaxial diode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danni Zhu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The reverse current tends to occur in the transition region of the guiding magnetic field in a magnetically insulated coaxial diode (MICD. Influence of the guiding magnetic field on characteristics of the MICD especially on the reverse current is studied by the particle-in-cell (PIC simulation in this paper. The reverse current is confirmed to be irrelevant with the guiding magnetic field strength. However, the reverse current is clarified quantitatively to depend on the electric and magnetic field distribution in the upstream of the cathode tip. As the MICD has been widely employed in microwave tubes, a simple approach to suppress the reverse current on the premise of little change of the original diode is valuable and thus proposed. The optimum matching point between the cathode and the magnetic field is selected in consideration of the entrance depth tolerance, the diode impedance discrepancy and the reverse current coefficient.

  14. Highlights of Spanish Astrophysics IV Proceedings of the Seventh Scientific Meeting of the Spanish Astronomical Society (SEA), held in Barcelona, Spain, September 12-15, 2006

    CERN Document Server

    Figueras, Francesca; Hernanz, Margarita; Jordi, Carme

    2007-01-01

    This volume documents the contributions presented at the Seventh Scientific Meeting of the Spanish Astronomical Society (Sociedad Española de Astronomía, SEA). The event bought together 301 participants who presented 161 contributed talks and 120 posters, the greatest numbers up to now. The fact that most exciting items of the current astronomical research were addressed in the meeting proofs the good health of the SEA, a consolidated organization founded fifteen years ago in Barcelona. Two plenary sessions of the meeting were devoted to the approved entrance of Spain as a full member of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) and to the imminent first light of the greatest telescope in the world, the GTC (Gran Telescopio de Canarias), milestones that will certainly lead the Spanish Astronomy in the next future.

  15. Current status of research on power-frequency electric and magnetic fields of research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Recent scientific literature has suggested a number of possible human health effects which might be associated with exposure to power frequency electric and magnetic fields. Several authoritative reviews of this subject have been published. currently, the major uncertainty and the major research effort is directed to the issue of these fields and cancer. Therefore, this review will be limited to examining the evidence relating prolonged power-frequency electric and magnetic field exposure to cancer in human populations. This paper reports that the CIGRE expert Group has assessed the research literature in the following areas: epidemiological evidence, animal studies, cellular effects, knowledge of mechanisms

  16. The current status of utilization of research reactors in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luzheng, Yuan

    2004-01-01

    Seminars on utilization of research reactors were held to enhance experience exchanging among institutes and universities in China. The status of CARR (China Advanced Research Reactor) project is briefly described. The progress in BNCT program in China is introduced. (author)

  17. Visualizing Astronomical Data with Blender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Brian R.

    2014-01-01

    We present methods for using the 3D graphics program Blender in the visualization of astronomical data. The software's forte for animating 3D data lends itself well to use in astronomy. The Blender graphical user interface and Python scripting capabilities can be utilized in the generation of models for data cubes, catalogs, simulations, and surface maps. We review methods for data import, 2D and 3D voxel texture applications, animations, camera movement, and composite renders. Rendering times can be improved by using graphic processing units (GPUs). A number of examples are shown using the software features most applicable to various kinds of data paradigms in astronomy.

  18. Focus on astronomical predictable events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Aase Roland

    2006-01-01

    At the Steno Museum Planetarium we have for many occasions used a countdown clock to get focus om astronomical events. A countdown clock can provide actuality to predictable events, for example The Venus Transit, Opportunity landing on Mars and The Solar Eclipse. The movement of the clock attracs...... the public and makes a point of interest in a small exhibit area. A countdown clock can be simple, but it is possible to expand the concept to an eye-catching part of a museum....

  19. Strasbourg Astronomical Data Center (CDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Genova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Centre de Donnees astronomiques de Strasbourg (CDS, created in 1972, has been a pioneer in the dissemination of digital scientific data. Ensuring sustainability for several decades has been a major issue because science and technology evolve continuously and the data flow increases endlessly. The paper briefly describes CDS activities, major services, and its R&D strategy to take advantage of new technologies. The next frontiers for CDS are the new Web 2.0/3.0 paradigm and, at a more general level, global interoperability of astronomical on-line resources in the Virtual Observatory framework.

  20. astroplan: Observation Planning for Astronomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Brett

    2016-03-01

    Astroplan is an observation planning package for astronomers. It is an astropy-affiliated package which began as a Google Summer of Code project. Astroplan facilitates convenient calculation of common observational quantities, like target altitudes and azimuths, airmasses, and rise/set times. Astroplan also computes when targets are observable given various extensible observing constraints, for example: within a range of airmasses or altitudes, or at a given separation from the Moon. Astroplan is taught in the undergraduate programming for astronomy class, and enables observational Pre- MAP projects at the University of Washington. In the near future, we plan to implement scheduling capabilities in astroplan on top of the constraints framework.

  1. Overview of current radon and radon daughter research at LBL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This report provides a brief summary of radon and radon daughter research at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The radon and radon daughter research program has two broad goals: (1) the study of sources of radon and its subsequent transport into houses, and (2) research on the behavior of radon daughters in indoor environments. Additional research effort is directed to several auxiliary areas, including development of instrumentation and monitoring techniques, studies of indoor air movement, and measurement and control of indoor particulate concentrations

  2. Current research work at the TRIGA reactor in Ljubljana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najzer, M.; Dimic, V.

    1978-01-01

    The research programmes at this TRIGA reactor cover quite broad and different research fields. They can be grouped in the following topics: reactor dynamics and operation, neutron activation analysis, solid state physics research, reactor dosimetry, radiography and fuel burn-up determination. In this presentation a short overview is given of those investigations which are not described in detail in separate papers

  3. The parameters of the current legal framework for health research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-11-02

    Nov 2, 2013 ... Health research. Health research is defined very broadly in section 1 of the NHA, as ... national ethical guidelines issued by the Department of Health define research as a ... This definition suggests that section 71 only applies to studies ... nursing, rehabilitative, palliative, convalescent, preventative or other.

  4. Survey of current electric utility research in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-11-01

    Information on the research programs of eight Canadian electrical utilities and the Canadian Electrical Association has been compiled. Work done by the National Research Council of Canada is included, but the research done by Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. is excluded. Projects in the area of nuclear power include work on heat transfer and fluid flow, waste management, materials, and corrosion. (L.L.)

  5. Current developments in environmental psychology : topics and researchers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werff, Ellen; Perlaviciute, Goda; Muinos, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this special issue is to bring the work of early-career researchers in environmental psychology to the spotlight. These young researchers come from different countries and cultures, have their own theoretical approaches and employ different research methods to increase knowledge on the

  6. Factors Contributing to Lifelong Science Learning: Amateur Astronomers and Birders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M. Gail; Corin, Elysa Nicole; Andre, Thomas; Childers, Gina M.; Stevens, Vanessa

    2017-01-01

    This research examined lifelong science learning reported by amateur astronomers and birders. One hundred seven adults who reported engaging in an informal (out-of-school) science interest were interviewed as part of an ongoing series of studies of lifelong science learners. The goal of the study was to gain insight into how and why amateur…

  7. Explanatory supplement to the astronomical almanac

    CERN Document Server

    Urban, Sean E

    2013-01-01

    The Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Almanac offers explanatory material, supplemental information and detailed descriptions of the computational models and algorithms used to produce The Astronomical Almanac, which is an annual publication prepared jointly by the US Naval Observatory and Her Majesty's Nautical Almanac Office in the UK. Like The Astronomical Almanac, The Explanatory Supplement provides detailed coverage of modern positional astronomy. Chapters are devoted to the celestial and terrestrial reference frames, orbital ephemerides, precession, nutation, Earth rotation, and coordinate transformations. These topics have undergone substantial revisions since the last edition was published. Astronomical positions are intertwined with timescales and relativity in The Astronomical Almanac, so related chapters are provided in The Explanatory Supplement. The Astronomical Almanac also includes information on lunar and solar eclipses, physical ephemerides of solar system bodies, and calendars, so T...

  8. The parameters of the current legal framework for health research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Bioethics and Law. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 6, No 2 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  9. The League of Astronomers: Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paat, Anthony; Brandel, A.; Schmitz, D.; Sharma, R.; Thomas, N. H.; Trujillo, J.; Laws, C. S.; Astronomers, League of

    2014-01-01

    The University of Washington League of Astronomers (LOA) is an organization comprised of University of Washington (UW) undergraduate students. Our main goal is to share our interest in astronomy with the UW community and with the general public. The LOA hosts star parties on the UW campus and collaborates with the Seattle Astronomical Society (SAS) on larger Seattle-area star parties. At the star parties, we strive to teach our local community about what they can view in our night sky. LOA members share knowledge of how to locate constellations and use a star wheel. The relationship the LOA has with members of SAS increases both the number of events and people we are able to reach. Since the cloudy skies of the Northwest prevent winter star parties, we therefore focus our outreach on the UW Mobile Planetarium, an inflatable dome system utilizing Microsoft’s WorldWide Telescope (WWT) software. The mobile planetarium brings astronomy into the classrooms of schools unable to travel to the UW on-campus planetarium. Members of the LOA volunteer their time towards this project and we make up the majority of the Mobile Planetarium volunteers. Our outreach efforts allow us to connect with the community and enhance our own knowledge of astronomy.

  10. LGBT Workplace Issues for Astronomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Laura E.; Danner, R.; Sellgren, K.; Dixon, V.; GLBTQastro

    2011-01-01

    Federal Equal Employment Opportunity laws and regulations do not provide protection from discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation or gender identity or gender expression. Sexual minority astronomers (including lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people; LGBT) can face additional challenges at school and work. Studies show that LGBT students on many campuses report experiences of harassment. Cities, counties, and states may or may not have statutes to protect against such discrimination. There is wide variation in how states and insurance plans handle legal and medical issues for transgender people. Federal law does not acknowledge same-sex partners, including those legally married in the U.S. or in other countries. Immigration rules in the U.S. (and many other, but not all) countries do not recognize same-sex partners for visas, employment, etc. State `defense of marriage act' laws have been used to remove existing domestic partner benefits at some institutions, or benefits can disappear with a change in governor. LGBT astronomers who change schools, institutions, or countries during their career may experience significant differences in their legal, medical, and marital status.

  11. Current research in Radiation Biology and Biochemistry Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarachand, U.; Singh, B.B.

    1995-01-01

    The Radiation Biology and Biochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay has been engaged in research in the frontier areas of (i) radiation biology related to tumour therapy and injury caused by free radicals; (ii) molecular basis of diseases of physiological origin; (iii) molecular aspects of chemical carcinogenesis and (iv) structure of genome and genome related functions. The gist of research and development activities carried out in the Division during the last two years are documented

  12. Current research in Radiation Biology and Biochemistry Division

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarachand, U; Singh, B B [eds.; Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Radiation Biology and Biochemistry Div.

    1996-12-31

    The Radiation Biology and Biochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay has been engaged in research in the frontier areas of (i) radiation biology related to tumour therapy and injury caused by free radicals; (ii) molecular basis of diseases of physiological origin; (iii) molecular aspects of chemical carcinogenesis and (iv) structure of genome and genome related functions. The gist of research and development activities carried out in the Division during the last two years are documented.

  13. Water reactor safety research program. A description of current and planned research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-07-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) sponsors confirmatory safety research on lightwater reactors in support of the NRC regulatory program. The principal responsibility of the NRC, as implemented through its regulatory program is to ensure that public health, public safety, and the environment are adequately protected. The NRC performs this function by defining conditions for the use of nuclear power and by ensuring through technical review, audit, and follow-up that these conditions are met. The NRC research program provides technical information, independent of the nuclear industry, to aid in discharging these regulatory responsibilities. The objectives of NRC's research program are the following: (1) to maintain a confirmatory research program that supports assurance of public health and safety, and public confidence in the regulatory program, (2) to provide objectively evaluated safety data and analytical methods that meet the needs of regulatory activities, (3) to provide better quantified estimates of the margins of safety for reactor systems, fuel cycle facilities, and transportation systems, (4) to establish a broad and coherent exchange of safety research information with other Federal agencies, industry, and foreign organization. Current and planned research toward these goals is described

  14. The current status of nuclear research reactor in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sittichai, C; Kanyukt, R; Pongpat, P [Office of Atomic Energy for Peace, Bangkok (Thailand)

    1998-10-01

    Since 1962, the Thai Research Reactor has been serving for various kinds of activities i.e. the production of radioisotopes for medical uses and research and development on nuclear science and technology, for more than three decades. The existing reactor site should be abandoned and relocated to the new suitable site, according to Thai cabinet`s resolution on the 27 December 1989. The decommissioning project for the present reactor as well as the establishment of new nuclear research center were planned. This paper discussed the OAEP concept for the decommissioning programme and the general description of the new research reactor and some related information were also reported. (author)

  15. Storing Astronomical Information on the Romanian Territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavinschi, M.; Mioc, V.

    2004-12-01

    Romanian astronomy has a more than 2000-year old tradition, which is, however, little known abroad. The first known archive of astronomical information is the Dacian sanctuary at Sarmizegetusa Regia, erected in the first century AD, having similarities with that of Stonehenge. After a gap of more than 1000 years, more sources of astronomical information become available, mainly records of astronomical events. Monasteries were the safest storage places of these genuine archives. We present a classification of the ways of storing astronomical information, along with characteristic examples.

  16. Human memory research: Current hypotheses and new perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Jaeger

    Full Text Available Abstract Research on human memory has increased significantly in the last few decades. Inconsistencies and controversies inherent to such research, however, are rarely articulated on published reports. The goal of the present article is to present and discuss a series of open questions related to major topics on human memory research that can be addressed by future research. The topics covered here are visual working memory, recognition memory, emotion and memory interaction, and methodological issues of false memories studies. Overall, the present work reveals a series of open questions and alternative analysis which could be useful for the process of hypothesis generation, and consequently for the design and implementation of future research on human memory.

  17. On the Astronomical Knowledge and Traditions of Aboriginal Australians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2011-12-01

    Historian of science David Pingree defines science in a broad context as the process of systematically explaining perceived or imaginary phenomena. Although Westerners tend to think of science being restricted to Western culture, I argue in this thesis that astronomical scientific knowledge is found in Aboriginal traditions. Although research into the astronomical traditions of Aboriginal Australians stretches back for more than 150 years, it is relatively scant in the literature. We do know that the sun, moon, and night sky have been an important and inseparable component of the landscape to hundreds of Australian Aboriginal groups for thousands (perhaps tens-of-thousands) of years. The literature reveals that astronomical knowledge was used for time keeping, denoting seasonal change and the availability of food sources, navigation, and tidal prediction. It was also important for rituals and ceremonies, birth totems, marriage systems, cultural mnemonics, and folklore. Despite this, the field remains relatively unresearched considering the diversity of Aboriginal cultures and the length of time people have inhabited Australia (well over 40,000 years). Additionally, very little research investigating the nature and role of transient celestial phenomena has been conducted, leaving our understanding of Indigenous astronomical knowledge grossly incomplete. This thesis is an attempt to overcome this deficiency, with a specific focus on transient celestial phenomena. My research, situated in the field of cultural astronomy, draws from the sub-disciplines of archaeoastronomy, ethnoastronomy, historical astronomy, and geomythology. This approach incorporates the methodologies and theories of disciplines in the natural sciences, social sciences, and humanities. This thesis, by publication, makes use of archaeological, ethnographic, and historical records, astronomical software packages, and geographic programs to better understand the ages of astronomical traditions and the

  18. Incorporating current research into formal higher education settings using Astrobites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Nathan E.; Kohler, Susanna; Faesi, Chris; Villar, Ashley; Zevin, Michael

    2017-10-01

    A primary goal of many undergraduate- and graduate-level courses in the physical sciences is to prepare students to engage in scientific research or to prepare students for careers that leverage skillsets similar to those used by research scientists. Even for students who may not intend to pursue a career with these characteristics, exposure to the context of applications in modern research can be a valuable tool for teaching and learning. However, a persistent barrier to student participation in research is familiarity with the technical language, format, and context that academic researchers use to communicate research methods and findings with each other: the literature of the field. Astrobites, an online web resource authored by graduate students, has published brief and accessible summaries of more than 1300 articles from the astrophysical literature since its founding in 2010. This article presents three methods for introducing students at all levels within the formal higher education setting to approaches and results from modern research. For each method, we provide a sample lesson plan that integrates content and principles from Astrobites, including step-by-step instructions for instructors, suggestions for adapting the lesson to different class levels across the undergraduate and graduate spectrum, sample student handouts, and a grading rubric.

  19. Current state of research base improvement relating to decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    'Nuclear Damage Compensation and Decommissioning Facilitation Corporation (NDF)' is responsible for the strategic planning and research and development planning for the important issues such as fuel debris removal and waste management, and for support for the progress management of important issues. The research and development are conducted by 'International Research Institute for Decommissioning (IRID)' and 'Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA).' In the medium- and long-term roadmap, it is described that 'as for the facilities JAEA is improving, application to the decommissioning of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station is the first choice, but depending on necessity, the linkage with Fukushima Innovation Coast plan is put into consideration.' In consideration of other backgrounds and with a focus on the contribution to regional industry creation, the research centers that can play the following functions are being developed. (1) Performance of bridging function as a 'place' to promote mutually beneficial university-industry collaborative creation, while sharing a wide variety of users and goals, (2) bridge between basic infrastructure research and social implementation as the demonstration test base, (3) bridge between the research and development of Japan and foreign countries using the world network of the research base, and (4) intensive promotion of demonstration experiments that are difficult for private agencies, and the formulation of robot testing standards. (A.O.)

  20. Current research trends in mountain biodiversity in NW Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Väisänen, Risto A.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on four themes in relation to biodiversity (vegetation science, keystone grazers, long-term studies and protected areas, a synthesis of current research in the mountain areas of Fennoscandia, Iceland and Scotland is presented. Recent relevant advances in vegetation science include classifications of mountain habitats which together with species distribution maps offer new possibilities for analysis. Generalisations emerging from comparisons of the ecology and ecophysiology of plants between different mountain areas are greatly needed. Further studies on the ecological impacts of keystone grazers are urgently required because of the alarming rate of degradation of mountain habitats. The topics highlighted from northern Fennoscandia include (i the effect of overgrazing by reindeer on the cover of foliose lichens and on the regeneration of mountain birch, (ii the ecological interactions between the autumnal moth and mountain birch, and (Hi the effect of rodents on vegetation. Long-term studies of slow processes to capture rare but important events are needed to better understand the functioning of mountain ecosystems. Examples of such studies are presented for (i the moss Racomitrium lanuginosum as an indicator of airborne nitrogen pollution, (ii research based on cyclic oscillations of vole numbers, and (Hi the application of breeding birds in environmental assessment. The conservation of appropriate areas is important for mountain biodiversity. Mountain habitats have been protected extensively in northern Europe. The evaluation of how representative the existing areas are and how to use them for research need international co-ordination.

    [fr] On présente une synthèse de la recherche actuelle dans les régions de montagne de la Scandinavie, l'Islande et l'Ecosse, centrée sur quatre sujets autour de la biodiversité (science de la végétation, herbivores principaux, études à long terme et zones protégées. Les r

  1. Italy. Report 1 [Marine Radioecology. Current Research and Future Scope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argiero, L.

    1967-01-01

    Present research programme: Studies on radioactive, biological and hydrographic characteristics of Tyrrhenian Sea; Organization of suitable control network of marine water and fauna: systematic measurement of present components of natural and artificial radioactivity of water, sediments and of the marine food chain techniques of sampling; analysis and measurement of particular radioisotopes in marine water. α, β, γ analysis of samples; γ spectrometry, research on 90 Sr and 137 Cs. Determination of concentration factors of radioisotopes which are responsible for contamination of principal components of the flora and fauna in the Tyrrhenian Sea; research of hydrographie factors influencing the distribution of marine radioactivity. Nuclide content of other organisms of the Tyrrhenian flora and fauna

  2. Astronomical knowledge transmission through illustrated Aratea manuscripts

    CERN Document Server

    Dolan, Marion

    2017-01-01

    This carefully researched monograph is a historical investigation of the illustrated Aratea astronomical manuscript and its many interpretations over the centuries. Aratus' 270 B.C.E. Greek poem describing the constellations and astrological phenomena was translated and copied over 800 years into illuminated manuscripts that preserved and illustrated these ancient stories about the constellations. The Aratea survives in its entirety due to multiple translations from Greek to Latin and even to Arabic, with many illuminated versions being commissioned over the ages. The survey encompasses four interrelated disciplines: history of literature, history of myth, history of science, and history of art. Aratea manuscripts by their nature are a meeting place of these distinct branches, and the culling of information from historical literature and from the manuscripts themselves focuses on a wider, holistic view; a narrow approach could not provide a proper prospective. What is most essential to know about this work is...

  3. Current thinking in medical education research: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elledge, R

    2018-04-28

    Medical education is fast becoming a separate focus, and together with their clinical commitments, many clinicians now seek higher qualifications and professional accreditation in the field. Research is also developing, and there is a need for evidence-based practice in education, just as in clinical work. This review gives an overview of research into medical education, and explains the fundamentals of educational theory and the specific considerations for the quantitative and qualitative research methods that pertain to it. It also explains the application of these methods to two growing areas of research: technology-enhanced learning (TEL) and normative ethics in training. Copyright © 2018 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Neuroeconomics: cross-currents in research on decision-making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanfey, A.G.; Loewenstein, G.; McClure, S.M.; Cohen, J.D.

    2006-01-01

    Despite substantial advances, the question of how we make decisions and judgments continues to pose important challenges for scientific research. Historically, different disciplines have approached this problem using different techniques and assumptions, with few unifying efforts made. However, the

  5. Current state of seagrass ecosystem services: Research and policy integration

    KAUST Repository

    Ruiz-Frau, A.; Gelcich, S.; Hendriks, I.E.; Duarte, Carlos M.; Marbà , N.

    2017-01-01

    areas; a type of service research bias, provisioning and regulating services have received extensive attention while cultural services remain understudied; a type of discipline bias, the ecological aspects of SGES have been well documented while economic

  6. Italy. Report 2 [Marine Radioecology. Current Research and Future Scope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, B. [Istituto di Zoologia, Universita-Parma (Italy)

    1967-03-15

    Present research programme (long-term): Radionuclides in plankton an marine sediments. Ecology of Anvantheria as Sr ''scanengers''. General distribution of radionuclides in marine environment Systematics and ecology of Avantharia, studied in different seas as a biological problem. Content of {sup 90}Sr in plankton in relation to the presence or absence of Avantharia Radiochemistry of sea sediments (littoral); sedimentological and petrographical researches for stratigraphic purposes. Fall-out and wastes radionuclides absorbed by sediments. Correlation between Acantharia and concentration factor for {sup 90}Sr. Stratigraphy of fall-out radionuclides in sea sediments. Biological researches on Acantharia rearing for turnover studies in vitro. Stratigraphical researches on recent coastal sediments for geochronological problems by means of fall-out radionuclides.

  7. Finland [Marine Radioecology. Current Research and Future Scope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miettinen, J. K.

    1967-01-01

    The research ideas given below are mainly based on experiences obtained in studies of radioecology in fresh waters but may be useful at least for comparison when considering radioecological studies in brackish and true ocean waters

  8. Italy. Report 2 [Marine Radioecology. Current Research and Future Scope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, B.

    1967-01-01

    Present research programme (long-term): Radionuclides in plankton an marine sediments. Ecology of Anvantheria as Sr ''scanengers''. General distribution of radionuclides in marine environment Systematics and ecology of Avantharia, studied in different seas as a biological problem. Content of 90 Sr in plankton in relation to the presence or absence of Avantharia Radiochemistry of sea sediments (littoral); sedimentological and petrographical researches for stratigraphic purposes. Fall-out and wastes radionuclides absorbed by sediments. Correlation between Acantharia and concentration factor for 90 Sr. Stratigraphy of fall-out radionuclides in sea sediments. Biological researches on Acantharia rearing for turnover studies in vitro. Stratigraphical researches on recent coastal sediments for geochronological problems by means of fall-out radionuclides

  9. Research on cancer diagnosis in Malaysia: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looi, L M; Zubaidah, Z; Cheah, P L; Cheong, S K; Gudum, H R; Iekhsan, O; Ikram, S I; Jamal, R; Mak, J W; Othman, N H; Puteri, J N; Rosline, H; Sabariah, A R; Seow, H F; Sharifah, N A

    2004-06-01

    Cancer is a major morbidity and mortality concern in Malaysia. Based on National Cancer Registry data, the Malaysian population is estimated to bear a cancer burden of about 40,000 new cases per year, and a cumulative lifetime risk of about 1:4. Cancer research in Malaysia has to consider needs relevant to our population, and resources constraints. Hence, funding bodies prioritise cancers of high prevalence, unique to our community and posing specific clinical problems. Cancer diagnosis is crucial to cancer management. While cancer diagnosis research largely aims at improvements in diagnostic information towards more appropriate therapy, it also impacts upon policy development and other areas of cancer management. The scope of cancer diagnosis upon which this paper is based, and their possible impact on other R&D areas, has been broadly categorized into: (1) identification of aetiological agents and their linkages to the development of precancer and cancer (impact on policy development, cancer prevention and treatment), (2) cancer biology and pathogenesis (impact on cancer prevention, treatment strategies and product development), (3) improvements in accuracy, sensitivity and specificity in cancer detection, monitoring and classification (impact on technology development) and (4) prognostic and predictive parameters (impact on treatment strategies). This paper is based on data collected by the Working Group on Cancer Diagnosis Research for the First National Conference on Cancer Research Coordination in April 2004. Data was collated from the databases of Institutions/Universities where the authors are employed, the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation (MOSTI) and targeted survey feedback from key cancer researchers. Under the 7th Malaysia Plan, 76 cancer projects were funded through the Intensified Research in Priority Areas (IRPA) scheme of MOSTI, amounting to almost RM15 million of grant money. 47(61.8%) of these projects were substantially in cancer

  10. Current status of quantitative rotational spectroscopy for atmospheric research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouin, Brian J.; Wlodarczak, Georges; Colmont, Jean-Marcel; Rohart, Francois

    2004-01-01

    Remote sensing of rotational transitions in the Earth's atmosphere has become an important method for the retrieval of geophysical temperatures, pressures and chemical composition profiles that requires accurate spectral information. This paper highlights the current status of rotational data that are useful for atmospheric measurements, with a discussion of the types the rotational lineshape measurements that are not generally available in either online repository.

  11. Current Research Activities of the Department of Oceanography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    support for teaching via blished comprehensive teaching and a large assortment of facilities and research programs, which are con- projects that are... teaching and re- Reichard, and Stephen Riser, joint search laboratories are augmented by appointments with JISAO, and Eric a research fleet consisting of...West. Botanica Marina 23: 333-341. No. 1124 Lewin, J., J.E. Eckman, and G.N. Ware (1979) Blooms of surf-zone diatoms along the coast of the Olympic

  12. Rice Genome Research: Current Status and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Han

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Rice ( L. is the leading genomics system among the crop plants. The sequence of the rice genome, the first cereal plant genome, was published in 2005. This review summarizes progress made in rice genome annotations, comparative genomics, and functional genomics researches. It also maps out the status of rice genomics globally and provides a vision of future research directions and resource building.

  13. Current research and development trends in floristic geography

    OpenAIRE

    Hang Sun; Tao Deng; Yongsheng Chen; Zhuo Zhou

    2017-01-01

    This paper summarizes the research status, existing issues, and trends in floristic geography. There is now a wealth of research accumulation on floristic investigations, distribution types of genera, floristic regions, and regional floristic analysis. It is also noted that most of these studies utilize simple statistical analyses, comparative studies, traditional methods, and single subjects, to provide a basic understanding and description of the floristic phenomenon, which is lacking spati...

  14. Worksite health promotion research: challenges, current state and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg F. Bauer

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Worksite health promotion (WHP addresses diverse individual and work-related health determinants. Thus, multiple, non-standardized interventions as well as company outcomes other than health have to be considered in WHP research.

    Methods: The article builds primarily on published research reviews in WHP and related fields. It discusses key practical and research challenges of the workplace setting. The evidence available on the effectiveness of WHP is summarised and conclusions are drawn for future WHP practice and research.

    Results: WHP research on health-oriented, behavioural interventions shows that the level of evidence ranges from suggestive to acceptable for key prevention areas such as physical activity, nutrition, fitness, smoking, alcohol and stress. Such interventions are effective if key conditions are met. Future research is needed on long-term effects, on multi-component programs and on programs, which address environmental determinants of health behaviour as well. Research on work-related determinants of health shows the economic and public health relevance of WHP interventions. Reviews of work-oriented, organisational interventions show that they produce a range of individual and organisational outcomes. However, due to the complexity of the organisational context, the generalisability and predictability of such outcomes remain limited.

    Conclusions: WHP research shows success factors of WHP and provides evidence of its effectiveness. In future, the evidence base should be expanded by developing adaptive, company-driven intervention approaches which allow for continuous optimisation of companies from a health perspective. Also, approaches for active dissemination of such a systemic-salutogenic occupational health management approach should be developed to increase the public health impact of WHP.

  15. Current research in transcultural psychiatry in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekblad, Solvig; Kastrup, Marianne Carisius

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses major themes in recent transcultural psychiatric research in the Nordic countries from 2008 to 2011: (a) epidemiological studies of migration, (b) indigenous populations, and (c) quality of psychiatric care for migrants. Over the past several decades, the populations......, and after migration, with potential effects on their physical, mental, social, and spiritual health. Growing interest in transcultural issues is reflected in the level of scientific research and clinical activity in the field by Nordic physicians, psychologists, social scientists, demographers, medical...

  16. This Month in Astronomical History: Providing Context for the Advancement of Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Teresa

    2018-01-01

    This Month in Astronomical History is a short (~500 word) illustrated column hosted on the AAS website (https://had.aas.org/resources/astro-history). Its mission is to highlight people and events that have shaped the development of astronomy to convey a historical context to current researchers, to provide a resource for education and public outreach programs seeking to incorporate a historical perspective, and to share the excitement of astronomy with the public. Knowing how the astronomical journey has proceeded thus far allows current professionals to map where to go next and how to get there. The column charts the first part of this journey by celebrating anniversaries of births, discoveries, and deaths, and the technological advances that made discoveries possible. A new “Further Reading” section encourages readers to pursue subjects in greater depth and strengthens the articles as classroom resources.In the months preceding the 21 August 2017 solar eclipse, the column featured astronomical bodies that come between Earth and the Sun: 2004 Venus transit, the 1878 solar eclipse, and the search for the hypothetical planet Vulcan. Venusian transits were an early but technically challenging way to measure the astronomical unit, now easily done with radar-ranging. Like this year’s event, eclipse chasing and citizen science were part of the 1878 experience. Newton’s Laws seemed to require a planet inside Mercury’s orbit, but General Relativity explained the behavior of Mercury without it. Studying each of these transiting bodies has expanded our knowledge and understanding of the universe differently. Transiting extrasolar planets remain to be explored in a future column. In September, an article on the discovery of Neptune followed the discussion of the non-existent Vulcan quite naturally and expanded on the brief mention of this event in relation to the discovery of Pluto. Suggestions for additional topics are always welcome.The Dudley Observatory

  17. Researches on regenerative medicine-current state and prospect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng-Guo; Xiao, Kai

    2012-01-01

    Since 1980s, the rapid development of tissue engineering and stem cell research has pushed regenerative medicine to a new fastigium, and regenerative medicine has become a noticeable research field in the international biology and medicine. In China, about 100 million patients need repair and regeneration treatment every year, while the number is much larger in the world. Regenerative medicine could provide effective salvation for these patients. Both Chinese Academy of Sciences and Chinese Academy of Engineering have made roadmaps of 2010-2050 and 2011-2030 for regenerative medicine. The final goal of the two roadmaps is to make China go up to leading position in most research aspects of regenerative medicine. In accord with this strategy, the government and some enterprises have invested 3-5 billion RMB (0.5-0.8 billion USD) for the research on regenerative medicine. In order to push the translation of regenerative medicine forward-from bench to bedside, a strategic alliance has been established, and it includes 27 top-level research institutes, medical institutes, colleges, universities and enterprises in the field of stem cell and regeneration medicine. Recently the journal, Science, has published a special issue-Regenerative Medicine in China, consisting of 35 papers dealing with stem cell and regeneration, tissue engineering and regeneration, trauma and regeneration and bases for tissue repair and regenerative medicine. It is predicated that a greater breakthrough in theory and practice of regenerative medicine will be achieved in the near future (20 to 30 years).

  18. Review of current status of LWR safety research in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Tasaburo; Mishima, Yoshitsugu; Ando, Yoshio; Miyazono, Shohachiro; Takashima, Yoichi.

    1977-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Commission has exerted efforts on the research of the safety of nuclear plants in Japan, and ''Nuclear plant safety research committees'' was established in August 1974, which is composed of the government and the people. The philosophy of safety research, research and development plan, the forwarding procedure of the plan, international cooperation, for example LOFT program, and the effective feed back of the experimental results concerning nuclear safety are reviewed in this paper at first. As for the safety of nuclear reactors the basic philosophy that radio active fission products are contained in fuel or reactors with multiple barriers, (defence in depth) and almost no fission product is released outside reactor plants even at the time of hypothetical accident, is kept, and the research and development history and the future plan are described in this paper with the related technical problems. The structural safety is also explained, for example, on the philosophy ''leak before break'', pipe rupture, pipe restraint and stress analysis. The release of radioactive gas and liquid is decreased as the philosophy ''ALAP''. And probability safety evaluation method, LOCA, reactivity, accident and aseismatic design in nuclear plants in Japan are described. (Nakai, Y.)

  19. Astronomy research via the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnatunga, Kavan U.

    Small developing countries may not have a dark site with good seeing for an astronomical observatory or be able to afford the financial commitment to set up and support such a facility. Much of astronomical research today is however done with remote observations, such as from telescopes in space, or obtained by service observing at large facilities on the ground. Cutting-edge astronomical research can now be done with low-cost computers, with a good Internet connection to get on-line access to astronomical observations, journals and most recent preprints. E-mail allows fast easy collaboration between research scientitists around the world. An international program with some short-term collaborative visits, could mine data and publish results from available astronomical observations for a fraction of the investment and cost of running even a small local observatory. Students who have been trained in the use of computers and software by such a program would also be more employable in the current job market. The Internet can reach you wherever you like to be and give you direct access to whatever you need for astronomical research.

  20. What Astronomers and the AAS Need to be Doing to Curb Light Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, D. W. E.

    2001-12-01

    Astronomers and especially the AAS are doing apalling little in the war on light pollution. This is quite surprising, considering that optical groundbased astronomy may become nearly extinct in the 21st century if we don't get more serious about the loss of our night skies to artificial lighting. Part of the blame must be placed on astronomers throughout the 20th century (particularly before 1980), as very few of them seem to have set an example by starting an early crusade against bad outdoor night lighting (save for a handful of important individuals near large U.S. observatories, and a few connected with smaller observatories); this apathy of earlier generations of astronomers fueled the current general apathy within the AAS and aided the opening of the floodgates in terms of the disastrous lighting situation now upon us in terms of drowning out the night sky. There are possible solutions, and they need to be discussed and acted upon quickly. For example, the AAS should require that all members include a useful amount (say, \\$30) in annual membership fees to be directly transmitted to the International Dark Sky Association, and the AAS should make constant visible strides to educate the public and government officials of the absolute need to reduce outdoor lighting levels and to fully shield all outdoor lighting. There are many other areas of research into outdoor lighting that the AAS should fund or officially/strongly support, so that the astronomical community can better be educated (and can better educate the public) on the evils of bad and thoughtless outdoor-lighting practices; such research includes developing a comprehensive database of national statistics on numbers and types of different outdoor lamps, as a function of time (thus, historical), and also a comprehensive database including all local, state, and federal lighting laws and ordinances together with legal court cases (and their outcomes) involving outdoor night lighting. And professional

  1. Impression management and food intake. Current directions in research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartanian, Lenny R

    2015-03-01

    This paper reviews recent research on consumption stereotypes (judgments of others based on what they eat) and impression management (modifying one's eating behavior in order to create a particular impression). A major recent focus in the literature has been on masculinity and meat eating, with research showing that meat is strongly associated with masculinity, and that individuals who follow a meat-based diet are perceived as more masculine than are individuals who follow a vegetarian diet. Although direct evidence for impression management through food intake remains sparse, a number of methodological approaches (including priming techniques and ecological valid assessments) are described that could be used in future research to identify the motives underlying people's eating behavior. Consumption stereotypes and impression management may be important influences on people's eating behavior, but the complexities of how, when, and for whom these factors influence food intake are still not well understood. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Opening the "black box" of current creativity research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann Birk, Rasmus; Ernø, Steffen

    -2012. The sub-fields were chosen because of their prominence in psychological research and research on creativity. The articles were procured from the PsycINFO database, with selection criteria being that they must be peer-reviewed and empirical studies. Typical definitions of creativity were "novelty plus...... value" or none at all. Creativity was mostly measured with different types of divergent thinking tests. There appears to be a lack of deeper theoretical and methodological discussions of creativity in the literature, which creates a disconnection between definitions, methodologies and the interpretation...... of empirical findings in regards to creativity as a phenomenon. Creativity itself thus becomes a "black box", rarely opened to investigation. Creativity research could therefore benefit from a more sustained relfection over its theoretical and methodological underpinnings as well as shifting its focus towards...

  3. Significance of Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics Research in Current Medical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Swayam; Agrawal, Suraksha

    2016-01-01

    Human genome sequencing highlights the involvement of genetic variation towards differential risk of human diseases, presence of different phenotypes, and response to pharmacological elements. This brings the field of personalized medicine to forefront in the era of modern health care. Numerous recent approaches have shown that how variation in the genome at single nucleotide level can be used in pharmacological research. The two broad aspects that deal with pharmacological research are pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics. This review encompasses how these variations have created the basis of pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics research and important milestones accomplished in these two fields in different diseases. It further discusses at length their importance in disease diagnosis, response of drugs, and various treatment modalities on the basis of genetic determinants.

  4. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation: Considerations for Research in Adolescent Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan C. Lee

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent depression is a prevalent disorder with substantial morbidity and mortality. Current treatment interventions do not target relevant pathophysiology and are frequently ineffective, thereby leading to a substantial burden for individuals, families, and society. During adolescence, the prefrontal cortex undergoes extensive structural and functional changes. Recent work suggests that frontolimbic development in depressed adolescents is delayed or aberrant. The judicious application of non-invasive brain stimulation techniques to the prefrontal cortex may present a promising opportunity for durable interventions in adolescent depression. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS applies a low-intensity, continuous current that alters cortical excitability. While this modality does not elicit action potentials, it is thought to manipulate neuronal activity and neuroplasticity. Specifically, tDCS may modulate N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors and L-type voltage-gated calcium channels and effect changes through long-term potentiation or long-term depression-like mechanisms. This mini-review considers the neurobiological rationale for developing tDCS protocols in adolescent depression, reviews existing work in adult mood disorders, surveys the existing tDCS literature in adolescent populations, reviews safety studies, and discusses distinct ethical considerations in work with adolescents.

  5. Astronomical theory of climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, A.; Loutre, M.F. [Universite Catholique de Louvain (UCL), Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium). Inst. d' Astronomie et de Geophysique G. Lemaitre

    2004-12-01

    The astronomical theory of paleo-climates aims to explain the climatic variations occurring with quasi-periodicities lying between tens and hundreds of thousands of years. The origin of these quasi-cycles lies in the astronomically driven changes in the latitudinal and seasonal distributions of the energy that the Earth receives from the Sun. These changes are then amplified by the feedback mechanisms which characterize the natural behaviour of the climate system like those involving the albedo-, the water vapor-, and the vegetation- temperature relationships. Climate models of different complexities are used to explain the chain of processes which finally link the long-term variations of three astronomical parameters to the long-term climatic variations at time scale of tens to hundreds of thousands of years. In particular, sensitivity analysis to the astronomically driven insolation changes and to the CO{sub 2} atmospheric concentrations have been performed with the 2-dimension climate model of Louvain-la-Neuve. It could be shown that this model simulates more or less correctly the entrance into glaciation around 2.75 million year (Myr) BP (before present), the late Pliocene-early Pleistocene 41-kyr (thousand years) cycle, the emergence of the 100-kyr cycle around 850 kyr BP and the glacial-interglacial cycles of the last 600 kyr. During the Late Pliocene (in an ice-free - warm world) ice sheets can only develop during times of sufficiently low summer insolation. This occurs during large eccentricity times when climatic precession and obliquity combine to obtain such low values, leading to the 41-kyr period between 3 and 1 million years BP. On the contrary in a glacial world, ice sheets persist most of the time except when insolation is very high in polar latitudes, requiring large eccentricity again, but leading this time to interglacial and finally to the 100-kyr period of the last 1 Myr. Using CO{sub 2} scenarios, it has been shown that stage 11 and stage 1

  6. Preparing Colorful Astronomical Images II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levay, Z. G.; Frattare, L. M.

    2002-12-01

    We present additional techniques for using mainstream graphics software (Adobe Photoshop and Illustrator) to produce composite color images and illustrations from astronomical data. These techniques have been used on numerous images from the Hubble Space Telescope to produce photographic, print and web-based products for news, education and public presentation as well as illustrations for technical publication. We expand on a previous paper to present more detail and additional techniques, taking advantage of new or improved features available in the latest software versions. While Photoshop is not intended for quantitative analysis of full dynamic range data (as are IRAF or IDL, for example), we have had much success applying Photoshop's numerous, versatile tools to work with scaled images, masks, text and graphics in multiple semi-transparent layers and channels.

  7. IAU Public Astronomical Organisations Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canas, Lina; Cheung, Sze Leung

    2015-08-01

    The Office for Astronomy Outreach has devoted intensive means to create and support a global network of public astronomical organisations around the world. Focused on bringing established and newly formed amateur astronomy organizations together, providing communications channels and platforms for disseminating news to the global community and the sharing of best practices and resources among these associations around the world. In establishing the importance that these organizations have for the dissemination of activities globally and acting as key participants in IAU various campaigns social media has played a key role in keeping this network engaged and connected. Here we discuss the implementation process of maintaining this extensive network, the processing and gathering of information and the interactions between local active members at a national and international level.

  8. [Current situation of clinical research on impacted premolars].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ran-Ran; Tian, Jun

    2018-04-01

    Teeth impaction is a common developmental malformation in oral diseases. Impacted teeth are usually the canines, third molar, central incisors, premolars, and second molars. The prevalence of impaction of maxillary canines and mandibular wisdom teeth is higher than that of other teeth. Most recent studies have focused on the canines and third molars, but research on impacted premolars is limited. In clinical practice, the majority of orthodontic patients require premolar extraction. Thus, impacted premolars play important roles in orthodontic design and prognosis. This article provides an overview of recent research on impacted premolars and summarizes epidemiological features, localizations, and treatments, with the aim of guiding practitioners on orthodontic design and therapy.

  9. India [Marine Radioecology. Current Research and Future Scope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganguly, A.K.; Viswanathan, R.; Patel, B.; Bhatt, Y.M.; Pillai, K.C.

    1967-01-01

    Present research programme (long-term) - Radioactivity studies in the marine environment of the West Coast of India: (a) To understand the radioactivity and trace-element distribution in the continental shelf in Arabian Sea. This has the twin objectives of gaining basic information on marine geochemistry and marine biochemistry and assessing the capacity of the region to receive radioactive wastes from atomic energy installations. (b) To derive maximum permissible radioactive contamination limits in sea-water, marine organisms and marine products. (c) To collaborate with IAEA in research contract (Project Marina) with objectives stated in (a) and (b) above

  10. Current research on parenting styles, dimensions, and beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G

    2017-06-01

    For decades, parenting has been characterized in terms of broad global styles, with authoritative parenting seen as most beneficial for children's development. Concerns with greater sensitivity to cultural and contextual variations have led to greater specificity in defining parenting in terms of different parenting dimensions and greater consideration of the role of parenting beliefs in moderating links between parenting and adjustment. New research includes 'domain-specific' models that describe parents as flexibly deploying different practices depending on their goals, children's needs, and the types of behaviors towards which parenting is directed. These trends are described, and directions for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Current tendencies and perspectives of development research reactors of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabaraev, B.A.; Kchmelschikov, V.V.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: During more than fifty years many Research Reactors were constructed under Russian projects, and that is a considerable contribution to the world reactor building. The designs of Research Reactors, constructed under Russian projects, appeared to be so successful, that permitted to raise capacity and widen the range of their application. The majority of Russian Research Reactors being middle-aged are far from having their designed resources exhausted and are kept on the intensive run still. In 2000 'Strategy of nuclear power development in Russia in the first half of XXI century' was elaborated and approved. The national nuclear power requirements and possible ways of its development determined in this document demanded to analyze the state of the research reactors base. The analysis results are presented in this report. The main conclusion consists in the following statement: on the one hand quantity and experimental potentialities of domestic Research Reactors are sufficient for the solution of reactor materials science tasks, and on the other hand the reconstruction and modernization appears to be the most preferable way of research reactors development for the near-term outlook. At present time the modernization and reconstruction works and works on extension of operational life of high-powered multipurpose MIR-M1, SM-3, IRV-1M, BOR-60, IVV-2M and others are conducted. There is support for the development of Research Reactors, intended for carrying out the fundamental investigations on the neutron beams. Toward this end the Government of Russia gives financial and professional support with a view to complete the reactor PIK construction in PINPh and the reactor IBR-2 modernization in JINR. In future prospect Research Reactors branch in Russia is to acquire the following trends: - limited number of existent scientific centers, based on the construction sites, with high flux materials testing research reactors, equipped with experimental facilities

  12. Current research in Spain on walnut for wood production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neus Alet& #224; Neus NO-VALUE

    2004-01-01

    The Department of Mediterranean Trees at the Institut de Recerca i Tecnologia Agroalimentaries (IRTA) in Spain initiated a research program in 1993 to examine the variability among walnut species for wood production and to establish orchards with improved selections. The main objective of the programme is to obtain superior Persian walnut (Juglans regia...

  13. Yugoslavia. Report 2 [Marine Radioecology. Current Research and Future Scope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branica, M.

    1967-01-01

    Present research programme (long-term): Physico-chemical investigations of micro-constituents in sea water. Determination of redox ionic state, complexibility, quantities and precipitation of micro-constituents in sea water. The physico-chemical state and quantity of micro-constituents is very important for the elucidation of the mechanism of transport and fixation of radionuclides into sediments and the biota

  14. EPA Current Research on Cyanotoxins in Fish Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a presentation regarding research into the recovery of microcystins from fish tissue. The potential bioaccumulation of toxins is of potential health both because of the direct risk of consumption and the potential for bioaccumulation of toxins. This is a short presentatio...

  15. Current state of seagrass ecosystem services: Research and policy integration

    KAUST Repository

    Ruiz-Frau, A.

    2017-10-12

    Seagrasses contribute to the maintenance of human wellbeing. However certain aspects of their role as ecosystem service (ES) providers remain understudied. Here, we synthesise the state of seagrass ES (SGES) research and policy implications. Additionally, we recommend ways in which SGES research can be integrated in to policy design, by drawing lessons from the case of Blue Carbon (BC). SGES research suffers from three main biases: a geographical bias, SGES has been restricted to chartered seagrass areas; a type of service research bias, provisioning and regulating services have received extensive attention while cultural services remain understudied; a type of discipline bias, the ecological aspects of SGES have been well documented while economic and social aspects remain in comparison understudied. These are particularly important, as an understanding of the social and economic considerations of the provision of ES is fundamental to facilitate its integration into policy frameworks. Lessons drawn from the operationalization process of BC show the reoccurrence of certain aspects that have enabled the integration of BC into policy. These aspects are grouped under 4 different categories. From the analysis of these elements we draw lessons that could facilitate the operationalization of other ecosystem services and their incorporation into management policy frameworks.

  16. Yugoslavia. Report 2 [Marine Radioecology. Current Research and Future Scope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branica, M. [Laboratory for Physico-Chemical Separations, Institute ' ' Ruder Boskovic' ' , Zagreb, Yugoslavia (Croatia)

    1967-03-15

    Present research programme (long-term): Physico-chemical investigations of micro-constituents in sea water. Determination of redox ionic state, complexibility, quantities and precipitation of micro-constituents in sea water. The physico-chemical state and quantity of micro-constituents is very important for the elucidation of the mechanism of transport and fixation of radionuclides into sediments and the biota.

  17. Yugoslavia. Report 1 [Marine Radioecology. Current Research and Future Scope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kečkeš, S.; Pučar, Z. [Laboratory of Marine Radiobiology and Laboratory for Electromigration, Institute ' ' Ruder Boskovic' ' , Rovinj and Zagreb, Yugoslavia (Croatia)

    1967-03-15

    Present research programme (long-term): Transport of various radiqnuclides in marine environment. Uptake, loss and accumulation of radionuclides in selected marine biota. Study of the physico-chemical forms of various radionuclides in sea water. Tracer experiments on the uptake and loss rate in biota. Electromigration techniques for the characterization of the physico-chemical forms of radionuclides.

  18. Gifted Male Readers: Current Understandings and Suggestions for Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnani, Alexander R.

    2013-01-01

    Research literature concerning gifted male readers relies primarily on more extensive bodies of work regarding gifted males and male readers. Studied as a whole, the two halves portray a worrisome state of affairs for gifted male readers, who lag behind their female counterparts in the same patterns found across the ability spectrum. This literacy…

  19. Mathematicians' Views on Current Publishing Issues: A Survey of Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Kristine K.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports research mathematicians' attitudes about and activity in specific scholarly communication areas, as captured in a 2010 survey of more than 600 randomly-selected mathematicians worldwide. Key findings include: (1) Most mathematicians have papers in the arXiv, but posting to their own web pages remains more common; (2) A third…

  20. Current research in transcultural psychiatry in the Nordic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekblad, Solvig; Kastrup, Marianne Carisius

    2013-12-01

    This article discusses major themes in recent transcultural psychiatric research in the Nordic countries from 2008 to 2011: (a) epidemiological studies of migration, (b) indigenous populations, and (c) quality of psychiatric care for migrants. Over the past several decades, the populations of the Nordic countries, Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden, which were relatively homogeneous, have become increasingly culturally diverse. Many migrants to Nordic countries have been exposed to extreme stress, such as threats of death and/or torture and other severe social adversities before, during, and after migration, with potential effects on their physical, mental, social, and spiritual health. Growing interest in transcultural issues is reflected in the level of scientific research and clinical activity in the field by Nordic physicians, psychologists, social scientists, demographers, medical anthropologists, as well as other clinicians and policy planners. Research includes work with migrants and indigenous minorities in the Nordic countries, as well as comparisons with mental health in postconflict countries. We conclude by suggesting future directions for transcultural psychiatry research and providing guidelines for the education and training of future clinicians in the Nordic countries.

  1. The Contribution of Current Research and Development Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, H. E. R.

    1973-01-01

    Reviews recent projects on the education of immigrants within the framework of the six suggestions for research made by the Select Committee on Race Relations and Immigrations; e.g. the effects on children of various educational arrangements for immigrants; methods of teaching race relations in schools; and others. (Author/JM)

  2. Talent management : Current theories and future research directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al Ariss, A.; Cascio, W.F.; Paauwe, J.

    2014-01-01

    Research on Talent Management (TM) has been lagging behind businesses in offering vision and leadership in this field. After sketching a comprehensive outline of knowledge about TM, theoretical as well as practical, we introduce the papers in this special issue and their important contributions.

  3. Recent Advances for LGBT Astronomers in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, William V.; Rigby, Jane; Oppenheimer, Rebecca

    2015-08-01

    The legal environment for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) astronomers in the United States has changed dramatically in recent years. In 2013, the Supreme Court ruled that Section 3 of the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA), which had barred the federal government from recognizing same-sex marriages, was unconstitutional. This decision particularly affects astronomers, since astronomers in the U.S. are more likely than the general population to be foreign nationals, to have a foreign-born spouse, or to work for the federal government. In 2014, the Attorney General directed the Department of Justice to take the position in litigation that the protection of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 extends to claims of discrimination based on an individual’s gender identity, including transgender status. Title VII makes it unlawful for employers to discriminate in the employment of an individual “because of such individual’s... sex,” among other protected characteristics. As of March 2015, more than 70% of the population lives in states that recognize same-sex marriage, and the Supreme Court is expected to rule on the constitutionality of the remaining same-sex marriage bans during the current term. In this poster, we discuss these advances and their implications for the personal and professional lives of LGBT astronomers across the United States.

  4. Symposium: Organizational Health Intervention Research: Current Empirical Developments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipsen, Christine; Jenny, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    or networks of employees. The intervention process is designed to involve the most effective set of stakeholders (leaders, management, experts, co-workers) and connect them to an efficient network of change agents. For this, the current interventions offer models, handbooks and indicators that inform...... Health Index”. The study, conducted in Switzerland, shows that the index predicts sick leave, stress symptoms, work engagement and self-rated productivity. • The fourth contribution Torsten Holstad and his colleagues present their summative evaluation of a tailor-made training program focusing on health...

  5. Nanomaterials in Lubricants: An Industrial Perspective on Current Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Zhmud

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview on the use of various classes of nanomaterials in lubricant formulations. The following classes of nanomaterials are considered: fullerenes, nanodiamonds, ultradispersed boric acid and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE. Current advances in using nanomaterials in engine oils, industrial lubricants and greases are discussed. Results of numerous studies combined with formulation experience of the authors strongly suggest that nanomaterials do indeed have potential for enhancing certain lubricant properties, yet there is a long way to go before balanced formulations are developed.

  6. Icing Branch Current Research Activities in Icing Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Mario

    2009-01-01

    Current development: A grid block transformation scheme which allows the input of grids in arbitrary reference frames, the use of mirror planes, and grids with relative velocities has been developed. A simple ice crystal and sand particle bouncing scheme has been included. Added an SLD splashing model based on that developed by William Wright for the LEWICE 3.2.2 software. A new area based collection efficiency algorithm will be incorporated which calculates trajectories from inflow block boundaries to outflow block boundaries. This method will be used for calculating and passing collection efficiency data between blade rows for turbo-machinery calculations.

  7. Current Research and Development of Chemotherapeutic Agents for Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyaw Minn Hsan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous malignant melanoma is the most lethal form of skin cancer and an increasingly common disease worldwide. It remains one of the most treatment-refractory malignancies. The current treatment options for patients with metastatic melanoma are limited and in most cases non-curative. This review focuses on conventional chemotherapeutic drugs for melanoma treatment, by a single or combinational agent approach, but also summarizes some potential novel phytoagents discovered from dietary vegetables or traditional herbal medicines as alternative options or future medicine for melanoma prevention. We explore the mode of actions of these natural phytoagents against metastatic melanoma.

  8. Government policy, research and stakeholder confidence - Current Trends in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letourneau, Carmel

    2006-01-01

    The author addressed the topic of government Policy, research and stakeholder Confidence from the perspective of government policy makers in Canada. The presentation reviewed the question: why carry out more research into methods of long-term management of nuclear fuel waste? In addressing this question, the author provided some perspectives that were expressed by the Canadian public, since reflected in the Final Study of management approaches led by the Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO), an organization set up by the nuclear industry to study options for the long-term management of nuclear fuel waste. The Final Study was submitted to the federal Minister of Natural Resources in November 2005 as required under the Nuclear Fuel Waste Act. The NWMO's Final Study emphasized the important role of continuous learning, a key element in the NWMO's recommendation of Adaptive Phased Management. It was reported that the NWMO work had identified many reasons to carry out further research. Regardless of the management approach adopted, activities to manage radioactive waste will continue for a very long time. Any management program could be expected to apply the best practice available at the time. A program that will evolve over a long period of time will have many opportunities for improvements to increase performance, enhance effectiveness, and address rising societal concerns. It was suggested that, to realize these benefits, there needs to be a vibrant and robust research and development effort during management program development and execution, a period that will last many generations, and enable implementers to adapt to a changing environment. Among the reasons put forward for continuing research were, to: - Embody the principles of continuous learning which encourages standards of excellence and integrity; - Prepare for facility siting, design, licensing, development and operations to improve designs, minimize costs, enhance schedules, and reduce

  9. CYBERQUEER – MAJOR TOPICS AND ISSUES IN CURRENT RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIMONA RODAT

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of the opportunities opened by the internet raises also questions of interest for research regarding the extent to which these have an impact on the formations of non heterosexual life and on the experience of marginalised sexual identities. There have been different approaches in this regard and answers vary from optimistic and utopian appraisals concerning cyberspace in the early 90s to the more moderate and sceptic visions in the 2000s. Starting from this framework of debates, the present paper aims to explore the meaning of the term “cyberqueer”, including the theoretical context of its occurrence, to briefly highlight some critical considerations relating to cyberqueer research and to look over the main recurrent themes linked up with this concept, such as queer and cyberqueer identity, body and (disembodied practices and the forthcoming process of blurring the dividing boundaries between real/virtual, online/offline and public/private

  10. Neuroeconomics: cross-currents in research on decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanfey, Alan G; Loewenstein, George; McClure, Samuel M; Cohen, Jonathan D

    2006-03-01

    Despite substantial advances, the question of how we make decisions and judgments continues to pose important challenges for scientific research. Historically, different disciplines have approached this problem using different techniques and assumptions, with few unifying efforts made. However, the field of neuroeconomics has recently emerged as an inter-disciplinary effort to bridge this gap. Research in neuroscience and psychology has begun to investigate neural bases of decision predictability and value, central parameters in the economic theory of expected utility. Economics, in turn, is being increasingly influenced by a multiple-systems approach to decision-making, a perspective strongly rooted in psychology and neuroscience. The integration of these disparate theoretical approaches and methodologies offers exciting potential for the construction of more accurate models of decision-making.

  11. Current electroconvulsive therapy practice and research in the geriatric population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerner, Nancy; Prudic, Joan

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is utilized worldwide for various severe and treatment-resistant psychiatric disorders. Research studies have shown that ECT is the most effective and rapid treatment available for elderly patients with depression, bipolar disorder and psychosis. For patients who suffer from intractable catatonia and neuroleptic malignant syndrome, ECT can be life saving. For elderly patients who cannot tolerate or respond poorly to medications and who are at a high risk for drug-induced toxicity or toxic drug interactions, ECT is the safest treatment option. Organic causes are frequently associated with late-life onset of neuropsychiatric conditions, such as parkinsonism, dementia and stroke. ECT has proven to be efficacious even when these conditions are present. During the next decade, research studies should focus on the use of ECT as a synergistic therapy, to enhance other biological and psychological treatments, and prevent symptom relapse and recurrence. PMID:24778709

  12. Incredible Years parenting interventions: current effectiveness research and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Frances; Leijten, Patty

    2017-06-01

    The Incredible Years parenting intervention is a social learning theory-based programme for reducing children's conduct problems. Dozens of randomized trials, many by independent investigators, find consistent effects of Incredible Years on children's conduct problems across multiple countries and settings. However, in common with other interventions, these average effects hide much variability in the responses of individual children and families. Innovative moderator research is needed to enhance scientific understanding of why individual children and parents respond differently to intervention. Additionally, research is needed to test whether there are ways to make Incredible Years more effective and accessible for families and service providers, especially in low resource settings, by developing innovative delivery systems using new media, and by systematically testing for essential components of parenting interventions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Current Knowledge and Recent Advances in Marine Dinoflagellate Transcriptomic Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Afiq Akbar

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Dinoflagellates are essential components in marine ecosystems, and they possess two dissimilar flagella to facilitate movement. Dinoflagellates are major components of marine food webs and of extreme importance in balancing the ecosystem energy flux in oceans. They have been reported to be the primary cause of harmful algae bloom (HABs events around the world, causing seafood poisoning and therefore having a direct impact on human health. Interestingly, dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium are major components of coral reef foundations. Knowledge regarding their genes and genome organization is currently limited due to their large genome size and other genetic and cytological characteristics that hinder whole genome sequencing of dinoflagellates. Transcriptomic approaches and genetic analyses have been employed to unravel the physiological and metabolic characteristics of dinoflagellates and their complexity. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge and findings from transcriptomic studies to understand the cell growth, effects on environmental stress, toxin biosynthesis, dynamic of HABs, phylogeny and endosymbiosis of dinoflagellates. With the advancement of high throughput sequencing technologies and lower cost of sequencing, transcriptomic approaches will likely deepen our understanding in other aspects of dinoflagellates’ molecular biology such as gene functional analysis, systems biology and development of model organisms.

  14. Current Status and Research into Overcoming Limitations of Capsule Endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Gun Kwack

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Endoscopic investigation has a critical role in the diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal (GI diseases. Since 2001, capsule endoscopy (CE has been available for small-bowel exploration and is under continuous development. During the past decade, CE has achieved impressive improvements in areas such as miniaturization, resolution, and battery life. As a result, CE is currently a first-line tool for the investigation of the small bowel in obscure gastrointestinal bleeding and is a useful alternative to wired enteroscopy. Nevertheless, CE still has several limitations, such as incomplete examination and limited diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities. To resolve these problems, many groups have suggested several models (e.g., controlled CO2 insufflation system, magnetic navigation system, mobile robotic platform, tagging and biopsy equipment, and targeted drug-delivery system, which are in development. In the near future, new technological advances will improve the capabilities of CE and broaden its spectrum of applications not only for the small bowel but also for the colon, stomach, and esophagus. The purpose of this review is to introduce the current status of CE and to review the ongoing development of solutions to address its limitations.

  15. Current status of sodium fire and aerosol research in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himeno, Yoshiaki

    1989-01-01

    State-of-the-art of the research and development related to sodium fire and aerosol behaviour is presented. This paper covers the Japanese work on sodium leak, leak detector, sodium oxidation and combustion, sodium aerosol release, fire mitigation, reliabilities of the electrical instruments and the reactor components under the sodium aerosols suspended atmosphere, aerosol plugging in a leak path, and the computer codes are presented. (author)

  16. Current results of coal gasification materials research at GRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, V.L.; Barone, S.P.; Meyer, H.S.

    1984-01-01

    Corrosion, erosion/corrosion and mechanical property testing of commercial available materials in coal gasification atmospheres has been supported by the Gas Research Institute (GRI) since 1978. Recent corrosion data developed in the program for gasification and methanation technologies under development by GRI are presented. A brief discussion of typical results of long-term stress-rupture tests in coal gasification atmospheres is included

  17. Where Is Current Research on Blockchain Technology? - A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Yli-Huumo, Jesse; Ko, Deokoon; Choi, Sujin; Park, Sooyong; Smolander, Kari

    2016-01-01

    Blockchain is a decentralized transaction and data management technology developed first for Bitcoin cryptocurrency. The interest in Blockchain technology has been increasing since the idea was coined in 2008. The reason for the interest in Blockchain is its central attributes that provide security, anonymity and data integrity without any third party organization in control of the transactions, and therefore it creates interesting research areas, especially from the perspective of technical ...

  18. Current status of international cooperation on nuclear safety research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsuragi, Satoru

    1984-01-01

    JAERI (Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute), as a representative organization in Japan, has been participating in many international cooperations on nuclear safety research. This report reviews the recent achievement and evolution of the international cooperative safety studies. Twelve projects that are based on the agreements between JAERI and foreign organizations are reviewed. As the fuel irradiation studies, the recent achievement of the OECD Halden Reactor Project and the agreement between Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Battelle Memorial Institute, and JAERI are explained. As for the study of reactivity accident, the cooperation of the NSRR (Nuclear Safety Research Reactor) project in Japan with PBF, PNS and PHEBUS projects in the U.S., West Germany and France, respectively, are now in progress. The fuel performance in abnormal transient and the experiment and analysis of severe fuel damage are the new areas of international interest. The OECD/LOFT project and ROSA-4 projects are also explained in connection with the FP source term problem and the analysis codes such as RELAP-5 and TRAC. As the safety studies associated with the downstream of the nuclear fuel cycle, the BEFAST project of IAEA and the ISIRS project of OECD/NEA are shortly reviewed. (Aoki, K.)

  19. Music therapy in cardiac health care: current issues in research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanser, Suzanne B

    2014-01-01

    Music therapy is a service that has become more prevalent as an adjunct to medical practice-as its evidence base expands and music therapists begin to join the cardiology team in every phase of care, from the most serious cases to those maintaining good heart health. Although applications of music medicine, primarily listening to short segments of music, are capable of stabilizing vital signs and managing symptoms in the short-term, music therapy interventions by a qualified practitioner are showing promise in establishing deeper and more lasting impact. On the basis of mind-body approaches, stress/coping models, the neuromatrix theory of pain, and entrainment, music therapy capitalizes on the ability of music to affect the autonomic nervous system. Although only a limited number of randomized controlled trials pinpoint the efficacy of specific music therapy interventions, qualitative research reveals some profound outcomes in certain individuals. A depth of understanding related to the experience of living with a cardiovascular disease can be gained through music therapy approaches such as nonverbal music psychotherapy and guided imagery and music. The multifaceted nature of musical responsiveness contributes to strong individual variability and must be taken into account in the development of research protocols for future music therapy and music medicine interventions. The extant research provides a foundation for exploring the many potential psychosocial, physiological, and spiritual outcomes of a music therapy service for cardiology patients.

  20. Application of Computational Methods in Planaria Research: A Current Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh Shyamasree

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Planaria is a member of the Phylum Platyhelminthes including flatworms. Planarians possess the unique ability of regeneration from adult stem cells or neoblasts and finds importance as a model organism for regeneration and developmental studies. Although research is being actively carried out globally through conventional methods to understand the process of regeneration from neoblasts, biology of development, neurobiology and immunology of Planaria, there are many thought provoking questions related to stem cell plasticity, and uniqueness of regenerative potential in Planarians amongst other members of Phylum Platyhelminthes. The complexity of receptors and signalling mechanisms, immune system network, biology of repair, responses to injury are yet to be understood in Planaria. Genomic and transcriptomic studies have generated a vast repository of data, but their availability and analysis is a challenging task. Data mining, computational approaches of gene curation, bioinformatics tools for analysis of transcriptomic data, designing of databases, application of algorithms in deciphering changes of morphology by RNA interference (RNAi approaches, understanding regeneration experiments is a new venture in Planaria research that is helping researchers across the globe in understanding the biology. We highlight the applications of Hidden Markov models (HMMs in designing of computational tools and their applications in Planaria decoding their complex biology.

  1. Current state of research on pressurized water reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couturier, Jean; Schwarz, Michel; Roubaud, Sebastien; Lavarenne, Caroline; Mattei, Jean-Marie; Rigollet, Laurence; Scotti, Oona; Clement, Christophe; Lancieri, Maria; Gelis, Celine; Jacquemain, Didier; Bentaib, Ahmed; Nahas, Georges; Tarallo, Francois; Guilhem, Gilbert; Cattiaux, Gerard; Durville, Benoit; Mun, Christian; Delaval, Christine; Sollier, Thierry; Stelmaszyk, Jean-Marc; Jeffroy, Francois; Dechy, Nicolas; Chanton, Olivier; Tasset, Daniel; Pichancourt, Isabelle; Barre, Francois; Bruna, Gianni; Evrard, Jean-Michel; Gonzalez, Richard; Loiseau, Olivier; Queniart, Daniel; Vola, Didier; Goue, Georges; Lefevre, Odile

    2018-03-01

    For more than 40 years, IPSN then IRSN has conducted research and development on nuclear safety, specifically concerning pressurized water reactors, which are the reactor type used in France. This publication reports on the progress of this research and development in each area of study - loss-of-coolant accidents, core melt accidents, fires and external hazards, component aging, etc. -, the remaining uncertainties and, in some cases, new measures that should be developed to consolidate the safety of today's reactors and also those of tomorrow. A chapter of this report is also devoted to research into human and organizational factors, and the human and social sciences more generally. All of the work is reviewed in the light of the safety issues raised by feedback from major accidents such as Chernobyl and Fukushima Daiichi, as well as the issues raised by assessments conducted, for example, as part of the ten-year reviews of safety at French nuclear reactors. Finally, through the subjects it discusses, this report illustrates the many partnerships and exchanges forged by IRSN with public, industrial and academic bodies both within Europe and internationally

  2. Current status of acid fog research. Sanseimu kenkyu no genjo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murano, K. (National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1993-07-10

    Acid fog research was behind in comparison with acid rain research. In case of acid fog, it is because the place generating sufficiently thick fog to collect is limited, the generating place is mountainous, its survey needs a lot of works, its collector is not convenient like in acid rain, or its sampling is difficult on its automation. Since the 1980s, an extensive survey on acid fog had been carried out centering the west coast of California, USA, and low pH fog (minimum pH 2.2) was observed. In the course of these researches, string type active fogwater collectors became a major sampling method, and the simulation of acidification of fog droplet in the atmosphere was extensively conducted. In Japan, already in the 1960s, field surveys on acid fog were conducted, in 1984 acid fog survey started on Mt. Akagi under a viewpoint of ecological impact, and there was a report that low pH fog (pH 3 to 4) continued more than 10 hours. It was pointed out that there were plant damage by acid fog in several locations, especially the tree mortality mechanism in Tomakomai was clarified. 50 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Current status of neutron activation analysis in HANARO Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Moon, Jong Hwa; Sohn, Jae Min

    2003-01-01

    The facilities for neutron activation analysis in the HANARO (Hi-flux Advanced Neutron Application Research Reactor) are described and the main applications of NAA (Neutron Activation Analysis) are reviewed. The sample irradiation tube, automatic and manual pneumatic transfer system were installed at three irradiation holes of HANARO at the end of 1995. The performance of the NAA facility was examined to identify the characteristics of the tube transfer system, irradiation sites and custom-made polyethylene irradiation capsule. The available thermal neutron fluxes at irradiation sites are in the range of 3 x 10 13 - 1 x 10 14 n/cm 2 ·s and cadmium ratios are in 15 - 250. For an automatic sample changer for gamma-ray counting, a domestic product was designed and manufactured. An integrated computer program (Labview) to analyse the content was developed. In 2001, PGNAA (Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis) facility has been installed using a diffracted neutron beam of ST1. NAA has been applied in the trace component analysis of nuclear, geological, biological, environmental and high purity materials, and various polymers for research and development. The improvement of analytical procedures and establishment of an analytical quality control and assurance system were studied. Applied research and development for the environment, industry and human health by NAA and its standardization were carried out. For the application of the KOLAS (Korea Laboratory Accreditation Scheme), evaluation of measurement uncertainty and proficiency testing of reference materials were performed. Also to verify the reliability and to validate analytical results, intercomparison studies between laboratories were carried out. (author)

  4. Munchausen by internet: current research and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulman, Andy; Taylor, Jacqui

    2012-08-22

    The Internet has revolutionized the health world, enabling self-diagnosis and online support to take place irrespective of time or location. Alongside the positive aspects for an individual's health from making use of the Internet, debate has intensified on how the increasing use of Web technology might have a negative impact on patients, caregivers, and practitioners. One such negative health-related behavior is Munchausen by Internet. Munchausen by Internet occurs when medically well individuals fake recognized illnesses in virtual environments, such as online support groups. This paper focuses on the aspect of Munchausen by Internet in which individuals actively seek to disrupt groups for their own satisfaction, which has not yet been associated with the wider phenomena of Internet trolls (users who post with the intention of annoying someone or disrupting an online environment). A wide-ranging review was conducted to investigate the causes and impacts of online identity deception and Munchausen by Internet drawing on academic research and case studies reported online and in the media. The limited research relating to motivation, opportunity, detection, effects, and consequences of Munchausen by Internet is highlighted and it is formally linked to aspects of trolling. Case studies are used to illustrate the phenomenon. What is particularly worrying is the ease with which the deception can be carried out online, the difficulty in detection, and the damaging impact and potential danger to isolated victims. We suggest ways to deal with Munchausen by Internet and provide advice for health group facilitators. We also propose that Munchausen by Internet and Munchausen by Internet trolling should be formally acknowledged in a revised version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual DSM-5. This will assist in effectively identifying and minimizing the growth of this behavior as more people seek reassurance and support about their health in the online environment. We

  5. [Current research situation of nephrotoxicity of Chinese herbal medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xue; Fang, Sai-Nan; Gao, Yu-Xin; Liu, Jian-Ping; Chen, Wei

    2018-02-01

    To provide the basis for the future research on the nephrotoxicity of Chinese herbal medicine through systematic and comprehensive summary of all the Chinese herbal medicines which may lead to nephrotoxicity. Foreign resources included PubMed and Cochrane library, and domestic research resources was China Food and Drug Administration(CDFA) Adverse Drug Reaction Monitoring Center database. The databases were searched from establishment to January 1, 2017. There was no limitation on research type. 28 English studies were found, including 97 Chinese herbs or prescriptions with the risk of nephrotoxicity. The following six Chinese herbal medicines with the risk of nephrotoxicity had a large number of studies: aristolochic acid(5 studies), Tripterygium wilfordii(4 studies), Erycibe obtusifolia(2 studies), Rheum palmatum(2 studies), Ephedra sinica(2 studies), and Atractylodes lances(2 studies). The remaining 91 Chinese medicines were reported with risk of nephrotoxicity in only 1 study respectively. CDFA reported 16 Chinese herbal medicines with the risk of nephrotoxicity, including Ganmaoqing Pian(capsule), Zhenju Jiangya Pian, T. wilfordii preparation, Vc-Yinqiao Pian, Chuanhuning injection, Shuanghuanglian injection, Qingkailing injection, Lianbizhi injection, herbal decoction containing Aristolochiae Radix, Guanxin Suhe Wan, Shugan Liqi Wan, Ershiwuwei Songshi Wan, herbal decoction containing Aristolochia Fangchi, herbal granules containing root of Kaempfer Dutchmanspipe, Ganmaotong(tablets), and Longdan Xiegan Wan. Currently, in addition to aristolochic acids, the most reported Chinese herbal medicine with the risk of nephrotoxicity is T. wilfordii preparation. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  6. Current status of neutron activation analysis in HANARO Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Moon, Jong Hwa; Sohn, Jae Min [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea)

    2003-03-01

    The facilities for neutron activation analysis in the HANARO (Hi-flux Advanced Neutron Application Research Reactor) are described and the main applications of NAA (Neutron Activation Analysis) are reviewed. The sample irradiation tube, automatic and manual pneumatic transfer system were installed at three irradiation holes of HANARO at the end of 1995. The performance of the NAA facility was examined to identify the characteristics of the tube transfer system, irradiation sites and custom-made polyethylene irradiation capsule. The available thermal neutron fluxes at irradiation sites are in the range of 3 x 10{sup 13} - 1 x 10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}{center_dot}s and cadmium ratios are in 15 - 250. For an automatic sample changer for gamma-ray counting, a domestic product was designed and manufactured. An integrated computer program (Labview) to analyse the content was developed. In 2001, PGNAA (Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis) facility has been installed using a diffracted neutron beam of ST1. NAA has been applied in the trace component analysis of nuclear, geological, biological, environmental and high purity materials, and various polymers for research and development. The improvement of analytical procedures and establishment of an analytical quality control and assurance system were studied. Applied research and development for the environment, industry and human health by NAA and its standardization were carried out. For the application of the KOLAS (Korea Laboratory Accreditation Scheme), evaluation of measurement uncertainty and proficiency testing of reference materials were performed. Also to verify the reliability and to validate analytical results, intercomparison studies between laboratories were carried out. (author)

  7. Japan [Marine Radioecology. Current Research and Future Scope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiki, M.

    1967-01-01

    Among the present research programmes: Studies on rcidiochemical analysis of sea-water and fishes; Studies on uptake of radionuclides by marine organisms; Studies on internal exposure arising from marine products; The convenient and appropriate method of analysis and determination of radioactivity in sea— water and fishes is investigated; Biological concentration of fission products and induced products in fishes and plankton arc studied from the radioecological point of view; Contribution of radionuclides in fishes and algae to those in the total Japanese diet is studied, in connection with fall-out studies

  8. Australia [Marine Radioecology. Current Research and Future Scope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.M.

    1967-01-01

    Present research programme: 1.1. Investigation of the fate of radioactive nuclides introduced into a tidal estuary. 1.2. To obtain information on the eventual accumulation of radioactive nuclides in marine organisms which form part of the human food chain. 1.3. Studies are being made of the ecology of the estuarine system and the passage of selected nuclides through various trophic levels. Particular attention is being paid to oysters (Saxostrea commercialis) and stable Zn, Ca, Sr and In levels in the oysters and in estuarine water being measured to determine concentration factors for these elements in this organism

  9. Sweden [Marine Radioecology. Current Research and Future Scope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnedal, P.-O.

    1967-01-01

    The research which is going on now is concentrated on a study of uptake of cobalt, zinc and iron in the food chains in brackish water. We are following different lines in this work and they can be listed as follows: A. A study of accumulation and biological half-life of cobalt (later zinc and iron) in organisms in brackish water by means of radioactive isotopes. B. Analyses of stable elements (Co, Zn and Fe) in water, algae, evertebrates and fish from different localities in the Baltic and on the Swedish West Coast

  10. Australia [Marine Radioecology. Current Research and Future Scope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, R. M. [Australian Atomic Energy Commission Research Establishment, AAEC, Research Establishment, Private Mail Bag, Sutherland, N.S.W. (Australia)

    1967-03-15

    Present research programme: 1.1. Investigation of the fate of radioactive nuclides introduced into a tidal estuary. 1.2. To obtain information on the eventual accumulation of radioactive nuclides in marine organisms which form part of the human food chain. 1.3. Studies are being made of the ecology of the estuarine system and the passage of selected nuclides through various trophic levels. Particular attention is being paid to oysters (Saxostrea commercialis) and stable Zn, Ca, Sr and In levels in the oysters and in estuarine water being measured to determine concentration factors for these elements in this organism.

  11. Current situation and future of research reactor in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metoki, Naoto

    2011-01-01

    A new style of neutron facilities coexisting high intensity pulse neutron source (J-PARC/MLF) and steady state neutron from research reactor (JRR-3) is proposed. The coexistence of the pulse and reactor source is the world trend which is inevitable for the next generation neutron science. A sophisticated management and comprehensive user program are important for Japanese neutron community, involving high performance instruments with pulse neutron and steady neutron source with widely spread users. JAEA is the most responsible for the future of neutron science, because of the commitment for both type of neutron source, J-PARC/MLF and JRR-3. (author)

  12. Current Research in Aircraft Tire Design and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, J. A.; Mccarthy, J. L.; Clark, S. K.

    1981-01-01

    A review of the tire research programs which address the various needs identified by landing gear designers and airplane users is presented. The experimental programs are designed to increase tire tread lifetimes, relate static and dynamic tire properties, establish the tire hydroplaning spin up speed, study gear response to tire failures, and define tire temperature profiles during taxi, braking, and cornering operations. The analytical programs are aimed at providing insights into the mechanisms of heat generation in rolling tires and developing the tools necessary to streamline the tire design process and to aid in the analysis of landing gear problems.

  13. Current Status of Dengue Therapeutics Research and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Jenny G H; Ooi, Eng Eong; Vasudevan, Subhash G

    2017-03-01

    Dengue is a significant global health problem. Even though a vaccine against dengue is now available, which is a notable achievement, its long-term protective efficacy against each of the 4 dengue virus serotypes remains to be definitively determined. Consequently, drugs directed at the viral targets or critical host mechanisms that can be used safely as prophylaxis or treatment to effectively ameliorate disease or reduce disease severity and fatalities are still needed to reduce the burden of dengue. This review will provide a brief account of the status of therapeutics research and development for dengue. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  14. [Toxoplasmosis and cancer: Current knowledge and research perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittecoq, M; Thomas, F

    2017-02-01

    Toxoplasmosis, caused by Toxoplasma gondii, is one of the most prevalent parasitic diseases; it is estimated to affect a third of the world's human population. Many studies showed that latent toxoplasmosis may cause in some patients significant adverse effects including schizophrenia and bipolar disorders. In addition, two recent studies highlighted a positive correlation between the prevalence of brain tumors and that of T. gondii at national and international scale. These studies are correlative, thus they do not demonstrate a causal link between T. gondii and brain tumors. Yet, they call for further research that could shed light on the possible mechanisms underlying this association.

  15. Sociocultural Behavior Influence Modelling & Assessment: Current Work and Research Frontiers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, Michael Lewis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2018-01-01

    A common problem associated with the effort to better assess potential behaviors of various individuals within different countries is the shear difficulty in comprehending the dynamic nature of populations, particularly over time and considering feedback effects. This paper discusses a theory-based analytical capability designed to enable analysts to better assess the influence of events on individuals interacting within a country or region. These events can include changes in policy, man-made or natural disasters, migration, war, or other changes in environmental/economic conditions. In addition, this paper describes potential extensions of this type of research to enable more timely and accurate assessments.

  16. Puerto Rico [Marine Radioecology. Current Research and Future Scope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowman, Frank G.

    1967-01-01

    Present research programme: Marine biology programme (marine biogeochemistry). The programme is designed to provide measurements of the distribution and movements of selected trace elements in a restricted but complete ecological and biogeochemical system. To obtain information on interactions between the marine biosphere and hydrosphere, measurements are being made of biological productivity, amounts of trace elements in the organisms and the environment, biological half-lives of trace elements, characteristics of food webs, and the influence of physical and chemical oceanographic factors upon the distribution patterns of trace elements in the marine waters, organisms and sediments offshore from the west coast of Puerto Rico

  17. RNA sequencing: current and prospective uses in metabolic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikman, Petter; Fadista, Joao; Oskolkov, Nikolay

    2014-10-01

    Previous global RNA analysis was restricted to known transcripts in species with a defined transcriptome. Next generation sequencing has transformed transcriptomics by making it possible to analyse expressed genes with an exon level resolution from any tissue in any species without any a priori knowledge of which genes that are being expressed, splice patterns or their nucleotide sequence. In addition, RNA sequencing is a more sensitive technique compared with microarrays with a larger dynamic range, and it also allows for investigation of imprinting and allele-specific expression. This can be done for a cost that is able to compete with that of a microarray, making RNA sequencing a technique available to most researchers. Therefore RNA sequencing has recently become the state of the art with regards to large-scale RNA investigations and has to a large extent replaced microarrays. The only drawback is the large data amounts produced, which together with the complexity of the data can make a researcher spend far more time on analysis than performing the actual experiment. © 2014 Society for Endocrinology.

  18. Gravitational-wave research: Current status and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorne, K.S.

    1980-01-01

    There is a reasonably good change that in the 1980s cosmic gravitational waves will be discovered and will become a powerful tool for astronomy. This prospect has stimulated a three-pronged research effort. First, relativity theorists are developing new mathematical tools for the analysis of gravitational radiation: including (i) methods of analyzing the generation of gravity waves by sources with strong self-gravity and large internal velocities (e.g., collisions of black holes), (ii) methods of computing radiation reaction in sources, and (iii) methods of analyzing how gravitational waves propagate through our lumpy curved-space Universe. Second, astrophysicists are attempting to identify the most promissing sources of gravitational waves, and are using the relativity theorists' mathematical tools to estimate the characteristics of the waves they emit. Third, with the estimated wave characteristics in mind, experimenters are designing and constructing a second generation of gravitational-wave detectors: detectors of three types: Doppler tracking of interplanetary spacecraft, Earth-based laser interferometers, and Earth-based Weber-type resonant bars. This article reviews, in brief, all three prongs of the research effort and gives references to more detailed articles about specialized aspects of gravitational-wave physics

  19. Candidate genes for COPD: current evidence and research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim WJ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Woo Jin Kim,1 Sang Do Lee2 1Department of Internal Medicine and Environmental Health Center, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, 2Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Clinical Research Center for Chronic Obstructive Airway Diseases, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea Abstract: COPD is a common complex disease characterized by progressive airflow limitation. Several genome-wide association studies (GWASs have discovered genes that are associated with COPD. Recently, candidate genes for COPD identified by GWASs include CHRNA3/5 (cholinergic nicotine receptor alpha 3/5, IREB2 (iron regulatory binding protein 2, HHIP (hedgehog-interacting protein, FAM13A (family with sequence similarity 13, member A, and AGER (advanced glycosylation end product–specific receptor. Their association with COPD susceptibility has been replicated in multiple populations. Since these candidate genes have not been considered in COPD, their pathological roles are still largely unknown. Herein, we review some evidences that they can be effective drug targets or serve as biomarkers for diagnosis or subtyping. However, more study is required to understand the functional roles of these candidate genes. Future research is needed to characterize the effect of genetic variants, validate gene function in humans and model systems, and elucidate the genes’ transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulatory mechanisms. Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, genetics, genome-wide association study

  20. 2002–2012: 10 Years of Research Progress in Horizontal-Axis Marine Current Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Wern Ng

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Research in marine current energy, including tidal and ocean currents, has undergone significant growth in the past decade. The horizontal-axis marine current turbine is one of the machines used to harness marine current energy, which appears to be the most technologically and economically viable one at this stage. A number of large-scale marine current turbines rated at more than 1 MW have been deployed around the World. Parallel to the development of industry, academic research on horizontal-axis marine current turbines has also shown positive growth. This paper reviews previous research on horizontal-axis marine current turbines and provides a concise overview for future researchers who might be interested in horizontal-axis marine current turbines. The review covers several main aspects, such as: energy assessment, turbine design, wakes, generators, novel modifications and environmental impact. Future trends for research on horizontal-axis marine current turbines are also discussed.

  1. Young Star May Be Belching Spheres of Gas, Astronomers Say

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-01

    A young star more than 2,000 light-years away in the constellation Cepheus may be belching out spheres of gas, say astronomers who observed it with the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) radio telescope. Not only is the star ejecting spheres of gas, the researchers say, but it also may be ejecting them repeatedly, phenomena not predicted by current theories of how young stars shed matter. Cepheus A star-forming region with blowups of detail In order to remain stable while accumulating matter, young stars have to throw off some of the infalling material to avoid "spinning up" so fast they would break apart, according to current theories. Infalling matter forms a thin spinning disk around the core of the new star, and material is ejected in twin "jets" perpendicular to the plane of the disk. "Twin jets have been seen emerging from many young stars, so we are quite surprised to see evidence that this object may be ejecting not jets, but spheres of gas," said Paul T.P. Ho, an astronomer at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. The research is reported in the May 17 edition of the scientific journal Nature. The astronomers observed a complex star-forming region in Cepheus and found an arc of water molecules that act like giant celestial amplifiers to boost the strength of radio signals at a frequency of 22 GHz. Such radio-wave amplifiers, called masers, show up as bright spots readily observed with radio telescopes. "With the great ability of the VLBA to show fine detail, we could track the motions of these maser spots over a period of weeks, and saw that this arc of water molecules is expanding at nearly 20,000 miles per hour," said Ho. "This was possible because we could detect detail equivalent to seeing Lincoln's nose on a penny in Los Angeles from the distance of New York," Ho added. "These observations pushed the tremendous capabilities of the VLBA and of modern computing power to their limits. This is an extremely complex

  2. Sediment pollution of the Elbe River side structures - current research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalupova, Dagmar; Janský, Bohumír

    2016-04-01

    The contribution brings the summarized results of a long-term research on sediment pollution of side structures of the Elbe River over the last 14 years. The investigation has been focused on old anthropogenic pollution of sediment cores taken from fluvial lakes and floodplain, as the sampling of deeper sediments outside the riverbed is not a part of systematic monitoring of sediment pollution of the Elbe. The Elbe River floodplain has been influenced by human activities since the Middle Ages, but the main anthropogenic pollution have been produced in the 20th century. The studied localities were chosen with the respect to the distance from the source of industrial pollution, the intensity of hydrological communication with the river and the surrounding landuse to determine the extend and the level of anthropogenic contamination in the Elbe River floodplain ecosystem. Apart from bathymetric measurements, observation of the hydrological regime in several fluvial lakes or water quality sampling at some localities, the research was focused above all on determination of metal concentrations (Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Pb, Zn) in all taken sediment cores, specific organic compounds (PCBs, DDT, HCH, HCB, PAHs etc.), total organic carbon at some localities and grain structure analyses. The data were also compared with the results of systematic sediment monitoring from the nearest riverbed sampling stations on the Elbe River. The highest concentrations of metals and specific organic compounds were determined in the sediments taken from fluvial lakes and floodplain (Zimní přístav PARAMO, Rosice fuvial Lake, Libiš pool etc.) situated in the vicinity of the main Elbe River polluters - Synthesia chemical plant and PARAMO refinery in Pardubice or Spolana chemical plant near Neratovice. However, there was also determined a significant role of the hydrological communication with the river proved with lower sediment pollution in separated localities. The realization of the

  3. [Research progress on current pharmacokinetic evaluation of Chinese herbal medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guofu; Zhao, Haoru; Yang, Jin

    2011-03-01

    In order to prove safety and efficacy, herbal medicines must undergo the rigorous scientific researches such as pharmacokinetic and bioavailability, before they are put on the market in the foreign countries. Botanical Drug Products promulgated by the US FDA could guide industry sponsors to develop herbal drugs, which was also an important reference for investigating Chinese herbal medicines. This paper reviews and discusses novel approaches for how to assess systemic exposure and pharmacokinetic of Chinese herbal medicines, which were in line with FDA guidance. This mainly focus on identifying pharmacokinetic markers of botanical products, integral pharmacokinetic study of multiple components, Biopharmaceutics drug disposition classification system, and population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic study in herb-drug interaction.

  4. Current status and outlook of pancreatic islets transplantation research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wei; Ye Bin

    2006-01-01

    Diabetes is a common disease, severely harmful to the human's health and life quality. The pancreatic islets transplantation can correct the patient's hyperglycemia, stop or even reverse the progress of the complication and thus decrease the mortality of diabetic patients. It is the most safe and efficient therapy for diabetes. Since the Edmonton Protocol got success in pancreatic islet transplantation in 2000, it has been more and more interested because of its great clinical curative effect. Research strategy of islet transplantation is now focussed on increasing the acquired islets with normal viability, selecting the best transplantation pathway, and improving the immunosuppression protocol. The shortage of human pancreatic donor is an ever unsolved problem in clinical application. The potential resolutions may include acquisition from xenogenic-islets; islets originated from stem cells, and islets from the living-donor human pancreas. The islets transplantation will open a new application field for interventional radiology. (authors)

  5. Nikolay N. Donitch - the astronomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaina, Alex B.; Volyanskaya, M. Yu.

    1999-08-01

    The article is devoted to milestones of life and scientific activity of the eminent astronomer Nikolay Nikolaevich Donitch (Nicolae N. Donici) (1874-1956), a graduate from the Odessa (Novorossiski) university. He was a wellknown expert in the field of reseacrh of objects of Solar system. A person highly cultured, which built the first in Bessarabia (actually a part of the Republic of Moldova) observatory. He was borne in Kishinev (Chisinau) in a nobles family of notable Moldavian landersmen. N.D. graduated from the Richelieu lyceym in Odessa and afterwards, in 1897, graduated from the Odessa (Novorossiysky) University. A.K. Kononovich (1850-1910)headed the chair of astronomy and the Observatory at that time - a foremost authority in the field of astrophysics and stellar astronomy. Many of his disciples became eminent scientists of their time. N. Donitch was among them. N.D. worked till 1918 at Pulkovo Observatory and became a master in the field of studying of such phenomena as solar and lunar eclipses. To observe the Sun N.D., could afford to design and manufacture a spectroheliograph, the first in Russia, with the assistance of a famous Odessa mechanic J.A. Timchenko. This instrument enabled him to obtain topquality photos of the Sun's surface and prominences. It was mounted together with coelostat in the private observatory of N.D. , built in the village Staryie Doubossary in 1908. Besides the heliograoph, the observatory was equiped with a five inch refractor-equatorial with numerous instruments for various observations. Of the other instruments should be mentioned : "a comet triplet" - an instrument consisting of guiding refractor, a photographic camera and a spectrograph with an objective prism. N.D. was lucky enough to observe rare astronomical phenomena. He observed the transit of Mercury through the disk of the Sun on November 14, 1907 and showed the athmosphere absence around this planet, observed the Halley's comet in 1910, the bright Pons-Winneke comet

  6. Current Translational Research and Murine Models For Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Merryl; Echigoya, Yusuke; Fukada, So-ichiro; Yokota, Toshifumi

    2016-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked genetic disorder characterized by progressive muscle degeneration. Mutations in the DMD gene result in the absence of dystrophin, a protein required for muscle strength and stability. Currently, there is no cure for DMD. Since murine models are relatively easy to genetically manipulate, cost effective, and easily reproducible due to their short generation time, they have helped to elucidate the pathobiology of dystrophin deficiency and to assess therapies for treating DMD. Recently, several murine models have been developed by our group and others to be more representative of the human DMD mutation types and phenotypes. For instance, mdx mice on a DBA/2 genetic background, developed by Fukada et al., have lower regenerative capacity and exhibit very severe phenotype. Cmah-deficient mdx mice display an accelerated disease onset and severe cardiac phenotype due to differences in glycosylation between humans and mice. Other novel murine models include mdx52, which harbors a deletion mutation in exon 52, a hot spot region in humans, and dystrophin/utrophin double-deficient (dko), which displays a severe dystrophic phenotype due the absence of utrophin, a dystrophin homolog. This paper reviews the pathological manifestations and recent therapeutic developments in murine models of DMD such as standard mdx (C57BL/10), mdx on C57BL/6 background (C57BL/6-mdx), mdx52, dystrophin/utrophin double-deficient (dko), mdxβgeo, Dmd-null, humanized DMD (hDMD), mdx on DBA/2 background (DBA/2-mdx), Cmah-mdx, and mdx/mTRKO murine models. PMID:27854202

  7. The National Astronomical Observatory of Japan and Post-war Japanese Optical Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, Toshiyuki

    This paper depicts some aspects of the formative process of the Japanese optical and infrared astronomical community in the post-war period, featuring the transition of the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan(NAOJ). We take up three cases of telescope construction, examining their background and their contribution to the Japanese astronomical community. Through these cases, the characteristics of traditions and cultures of optical and infrared astronomy in Japan are considered. Although the Tokyo Astronomical Observatory (TAO) of the University of Tokyo, the predecessor of NAOJ, was originally founded as an agency for practical astronomical observation such as time and almanac service, it has become an international centre for all types of astrophysical research. Research and development of telescopes and observational instruments have become an important part of the astronomers' practice. Now, however, a number of Japanese universities are planning to have their own large to middle-sized telescopes, and a new style of astronomical research is emerging involving astrophysical studies utilising data acquired from the Virtual Observatory, so there is a distinct possibility that the status of the NAOJ will change even further in the future.

  8. Astronomers Discover Fastest-Spinning Pulsar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope have discovered the fastest-spinning neutron star ever found, a 20-mile-diameter superdense pulsar whirling faster than the blades of a kitchen blender. Their work yields important new information about the nature of one of the most exotic forms of matter known in the Universe. Pulsar Graphic Pulsars Are Spinning Neutron Stars CREDIT: Bill Saxton, NRAO/AUI/NSF (Click on image for larger version) "We believe that the matter in neutron stars is denser than an atomic nucleus, but it is unclear by how much. Our observations of such a rapidly rotating star set a hard upper limit on its size, and hence on how dense the star can be.," said Jason Hessels, a graduate student at McGill University in Montreal. Hessels and his colleagues presented their findings to the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Washington, DC. Pulsars are spinning neutron stars that sling "lighthouse beams" of radio waves or light around as they spin. A neutron star is what is left after a massive star explodes at the end of its "normal" life. With no nuclear fuel left to produce energy to offset the stellar remnant's weight, its material is compressed to extreme densities. The pressure squeezes together most of its protons and electrons to form neutrons; hence, the name "neutron star." "Neutron stars are incredible laboratories for learning about the physics of the fundamental particles of nature, and this pulsar has given us an important new limit," explained Scott Ransom, an astronomer at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory and one of Hessels' collaborators on this work. The scientists discovered the pulsar, named PSR J1748-2446ad, in a globular cluster of stars called Terzan 5, located some 28,000 light-years from Earth in the constellation Sagittarius. The newly-discovered pulsar is spinning 716 times per second, or at 716 Hertz (Hz), readily beating the previous record of 642 Hz from a pulsar

  9. Current Research at the Endeavour Ridge 2000 Integrated Studies Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfield, D. A.; Kelley, D. S.; Ridge 2000 Community, R.

    2004-12-01

    Integrated geophysical, geological, chemical, and biological studies are being conducted on the Endeavour segment with primary support from NSF, the W.M. Keck Foundation, and NSERC (Canada). The research includes a seismic network, physical and chemical sensors, high-precision mapping and time-series sampling. Several research expeditions have taken place at the Endeavour ISS in the past year. In June 2003, an NSF-sponsored cruise with R.V. al T.G.Thompson/ROV al Jason2 installed microbial incubators in drill-holes in the sides of active sulfide chimneys and sampled rocks, fluids, and microbes in the Mothra and Main Endeavour Field (MEF). In July 2003, with al Thompson/Jason2, an NSF-LEXEN project at Baby Bare on Endeavour east flank conducted sampling through seafloor-penetrating probes, plus time-series sampling of fluids, microbes, and rocks at the MEF. In September 2003, with al Thompson/ROV al ROPOS, the Keck Proto-Neptune project installed a seismic network consisting of 1 broadband and 7 short-period seismometers, installation of chemical/physical sensors and time-series samplers for chemistry and microbiology in the MEF and Clam Bed sites, collection of rocks, fluids, animals, and microbes. In May/June 2004, an NSF-sponsored al Atlantis/Alvin cruise recovered sulfide incubators installed in 2003, redeployed a sulfide incubator, mapped MEF and Mothra vent fields with high-resolution Imagenix sonar, sampled fluids from MEF, Mothra, and Clam Bed, recovered year-long time-series fluid and microbial samplers from MEF and Clam Bed, recovered and installed hot vent temperature-resistivity monitors, cleaned up the MEF and deployed new markers at major sulfide structures. In August 2004, there were two MBARI/Keck-sponsored cruises with R.V. al Western Flyer/ROV al Tiburon. The first cruise completed the seismic network with addition of two more broadband seismometers and serviced all 7 short-period seismometers. al Tiburon then performed microbial and chemical

  10. Old Star's "Rebirth" Gives Astronomers Surprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-01

    Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope are taking advantage of a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to watch an old star suddenly stir back into new activity after coming to the end of its normal life. Their surprising results have forced them to change their ideas of how such an old, white dwarf star can re-ignite its nuclear furnace for one final blast of energy. Sakurai's Object Radio/Optical Images of Sakurai's Object: Color image shows nebula ejected thousands of years ago. Contours indicate radio emission. Inset is Hubble Space Telescope image, with contours indicating radio emission; this inset shows just the central part of the region. CREDIT: Hajduk et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF, ESO, StSci, NASA Computer simulations had predicted a series of events that would follow such a re-ignition of fusion reactions, but the star didn't follow the script -- events moved 100 times more quickly than the simulations predicted. "We've now produced a new theoretical model of how this process works, and the VLA observations have provided the first evidence supporting our new model," said Albert Zijlstra, of the University of Manchester in the United Kingdom. Zijlstra and his colleagues presented their findings in the April 8 issue of the journal Science. The astronomers studied a star known as V4334 Sgr, in the constellation Sagittarius. It is better known as "Sakurai's Object," after Japanese amateur astronomer Yukio Sakurai, who discovered it on February 20, 1996, when it suddenly burst into new brightness. At first, astronomers thought the outburst was a common nova explosion, but further study showed that Sakurai's Object was anything but common. The star is an old white dwarf that had run out of hydrogen fuel for nuclear fusion reactions in its core. Astronomers believe that some such stars can undergo a final burst of fusion in a shell of helium that surrounds a core of heavier nuclei such as carbon and oxygen. However, the

  11. Israel [Marine Radioecology. Current Research and Future Scope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilat, E.; Steiger-Shafrir, N.H.

    1967-01-01

    Present research programme - Radioactive contamination in marine environment and biota in the eastern Mediterranean. Detail of programme: (1) Objectives and most important points: The study of radioactive contamination of marine environment and biota involved qualitative and quantitative determinations for radionuclides of biological interest. The purpose of such an investigation is to determine; (a) Rate of passage of radionuclides through the food chain to the human organism in subtropical conditions prevailing in the eastern Mediterranean. The Levantine Basin of the Mediterranean is characterized by high temperatures and salinities which are typical for a tropical area. These are the cause of survival and development of numerous Indo-Pacific organisms which penetrate from the Red Sea through the Suez Canal into the eastern Mediterranean. It is therefore of interest to determine concentrations of radionuclides taken up by the endemic as well as the Indo-Pacific species at various levels of the food chain, (b) Indicator organisms which can be used in measuring the concentration of radionuclides in marine environment. (c) Effect of organisms on the distribution of elements in the sea. The elements, of which a large proportion passes through the organisms, will thus undergo a modification in their spatial and seasonal distribution in the water and sediments

  12. Current practices and research updates on diabetes mellitus in canine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Kumar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes has evidence in ancient literatures, though recently is being considered as one amongst the most emerging disease condition in both human and companion animals. Diabetes mellitus is one of the common endocrinopathy of dog characterized by hyperglycemia, glycosuria and weight loss. Reports suggests high fraction of canine population suffer with diabetes world over. Studies in different veterinary hospitals of United States suggest increase in cases of canine diabetes and decrease in case fatality rate over time. Increase in cases of canine diabetes worldwide is attributed to awareness amongst pet owners, better veterinary health facilities, breed preferences by dog owners, increase dependence on commercial feeds, obesity, etc. Diabetes in most dogs is immune mediated and insulin dependent. Breed predisposition in canine is attributed to dog leukocyte antigen gene pool encoding form major histocompatibility complex-II molecules, however research is still underway. Diagnosis of diabetes still relies on blood sugar evaluation for screening of canine population, though many other diagnostic methods have shown promising benefits including measurement of fructosamine and glycated haemoglobin. Management of diabetes in dog is based on insulin therapy, diet modification and exercise. Use of oral anti-diabetics drugs in canine is limited though experimental studies have shown promising results. Alternative therapies have been explored, but only a few approaches have shown promise for clinical application.

  13. Current and future directions in culture and happiness research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Shigehiro; Gilbert, Elizabeth A

    2016-04-01

    Once believed to be universal, a growing body of research shows that both the conception and predictors of happiness vary cross-culturally. First, the meaning and importance of happiness varies both across time and between nations. Americans, for instance, tend to define happiness in terms of pleasure or enjoyment and view happiness as universally positive, whereas East Asian and Middle Eastern cultures may highlight the transient and socially disruptive nature of happiness and be ambivalent about whether it is good. Second, predictors of happiness vary between cultures. Recent work highlights new mediators (e.g., relational mobility), individual predictors (e.g., person-culture fit), societal factors (e.g., good governance and wealth), within-culture variations (e.g., at the state or city level), and interventions (e.g., practicing gratitude) that differ cross-culturally or help explain cultural differences in happiness. Though many questions remain, this review highlights how these recent advances broaden and revise our understanding of culture and happiness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Current research trend on urban sewerage system in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Yun-Fang; Dong, Wen-Yi; Lin, Lu-Sheng; Zhang, Qian

    2017-03-01

    The research emphasis has always been on sewerage treatment technology in China, though urban drainage system has gained little attention. In the context of urban drainage system and the problem associated with rain, the focus is still mainly toward the simple “emissions”. While the relationship between conservation and utilization of rainwater resources and urban ecology are popular, the relationship between rainwater discharge and non-point source pollution are often neglected. The reasonable choice of sewerage system is dependent on the collection and discharge of urban sewerage, the applicability and economic benefits, along with the ability to meet the water quality requirements and environmental protection. This paper analyzes and summarizes the development of urban drainage system in china, and introduces different drainage forms. The choice of drainage system should be based on the overall planning of the city, environmental protection requirements, the local natural conditions and water conditions, urban sewerage and water quality, the original drainage facilities, and local climatic conditions. It must be comprehensive to meet the environmental protection requirements, through technical and economic comparison.

  15. Strongyloidiasis Current Status with Emphasis in Diagnosis and Drug Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Mendes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Strongyloidiasis is a parasitic neglected disease caused by the nematode Strongyloides stercoralis affecting 30 to 100 million people worldwide. Complications, strongly associated with alcoholism, organ transplants, and HTLV-1 virus, often arise due to late diagnosis, frequently leading to patient death. Lack of preemptive diagnosis is not the only difficulty when dealing with this parasite, since there are no gold standard diagnostic techniques, and the ones used have problems associated with sensitivity, resulting in false negatives. Treatment is also an issue as ivermectin and benzimidazoles administration leads to inconsistent cure rates and several side effects. Researching new anti-Strongyloides drugs is a difficult task since S. stercoralis does not develop until the adult stages in Mus musculus (with the exception of SCID mice, the main experimental host model. Fortunately, alternative parasite models can be used, namely, Strongyloides ratti and S. venezuelensis. However, even with these models, there are other complications in finding new drugs, which are associated with specific in vitro assay protocol steps, such as larvae decontamination. In this review, we highlight the challenges associated with new drug search, the compounds tested, and a list of published in vitro assay methodologies. We also point out advances being made in strongyloidiasis diagnosis so far.

  16. Radio Astronomy in Malaysia: Current Status and Outreach Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, N.; Abidin, Z. Z.; Ibrahim, U. F. S. U.; Umar, R.; Hassan, M. S. R.; Rosli, Z.; Hamidi, Z. S.; Ibrahim, Z. A.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, we will present the current status of radio astronomical research and outreach in Malaysia. We will also present a short history of our research group, which is currently the only radio astronomical facility in Malaysia. Our group is called the Radio Cosmology Research Lab and was established in 2005 by Dr Zamri Zainal Abidin and Prof Dr Zainol Abidin Ibrahim. We will discuss the future plans for this group including our keen interest in being part of a more global network of radio astronomers. We are already an active member of the South-East Asia Astronomy Network (SEAAN) and aims to have a radio astronomical facility in order to join the Global Very Long Baseline Interferometer (VLBI) as well becoming a research hub for the future Square Kilometer Array (SKA) project. We will also present some of the scientific goals of our group including providing a platform for radio astronomers to be able to do observations of weak and high red-shifted radio objects such as galaxy clusters and supernovae.

  17. Soil Contamination and Remediation Strategies. Current research and future challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruzzelli, G.

    2012-04-01

    eliminating the source of pollution, but also on blocking the pathways from contaminants to receptors or reducing the exposure to contaminants,. Future challenge integration of sustainability into remediation decision-making. Soil is not a waste! There is a growing interest in the clean up approaches that maintain soil quality after remediation treatments. This issue is of great importance in the U.S.A. where the EPA from 2009 is promoting innovative clean-up strategies (Green Remediation). Green remediation is defined as the practice of considering all environmental effects of remedy and incorporating options to maximize environmental benefit of cleanup actions . These remediation strategies restore contaminated sites to productive use with a great attention to the global environmental quality, including the preservation of soil functionality according to the following principles: use minimally invasive technologies; use passive energy technologies such as bioremediation and phytoremediation as primary remedies or finishing steps where possible and effective; minimize soil and habitat disturbance; minimize bioavailability of contaminants trough adequate contaminant source and plume control If we move from the current definition of remedial targets based on total concentrations, technologies with low impact on the environment can be utilized reducing the wrong choice to disposal soil in landfill destroying quickly a not renewable essential resource.

  18. Brightness Variations of Sun-like Stars: The Mystery Deepens - Astronomers facing Socratic "ignorance"

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Astrophysics, Australia National University), Maria-Rosa L. Cioni (Centre for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, UK) and Igor Soszyński (Warsaw University Observatory). ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 14 countries: Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates three unique world-class observing sites in Chile: La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor. At Paranal, ESO operates the Very Large Telescope, the world's most advanced visible-light astronomical observatory. ESO is the European partner of a revolutionary astronomical telescope ALMA, the largest astronomical project in existence. ESO is currently planning a 42-metre European Extremely Large optical/near-infrared Telescope, the E-ELT, which will become "the world's biggest eye on the sky".

  19. Astronomical Surveys and Big Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mickaelian Areg M.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent all-sky and large-area astronomical surveys and their catalogued data over the whole range of electromagnetic spectrum, from γ-rays to radio waves, are reviewed, including such as Fermi-GLAST and INTEGRAL in γ-ray, ROSAT, XMM and Chandra in X-ray, GALEX in UV, SDSS and several POSS I and POSS II-based catalogues (APM, MAPS, USNO, GSC in the optical range, 2MASS in NIR, WISE and AKARI IRC in MIR, IRAS and AKARI FIS in FIR, NVSS and FIRST in radio range, and many others, as well as the most important surveys giving optical images (DSS I and II, SDSS, etc., proper motions (Tycho, USNO, Gaia, variability (GCVS, NSVS, ASAS, Catalina, Pan-STARRS, and spectroscopic data (FBS, SBS, Case, HQS, HES, SDSS, CALIFA, GAMA. An overall understanding of the coverage along the whole wavelength range and comparisons between various surveys are given: galaxy redshift surveys, QSO/AGN, radio, Galactic structure, and Dark Energy surveys. Astronomy has entered the Big Data era, with Astrophysical Virtual Observatories and Computational Astrophysics playing an important role in using and analyzing big data for new discoveries.

  20. Astronomical Knowledge in Holy Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmanyan, Sona V.; Mickaelian, Areg M.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate religious myths related to astronomy from different cultures in an attempt to identify common subjects and characteristics. The paper focuses on astronomy in religion. The initial review covers records from Holy books about sky related superstitious beliefs and cosmological understanding. The purpose of this study is to introduce sky related religious and national traditions (particularly based on different calendars; Solar or Lunar). We carried out a comparative study of astronomical issues contained in a number of Holy books: Ancient Egyptian Religion (Pyramid Texts), Zoroastrianism (Avesta), Hinduism (Vedas), Buddhism (Tipitaka), Confucianism (Five Classics), Sikhism (Guru Granth Sahib), Christianity (Bible), Islam (Quran), Druidism (Mabinogion) and Maya Religion (Popol Vuh). These books include various information on the creation of the Universe, Sun and Moon, the age of the Universe, Cosmic sizes, understanding about the planets, stars, Milky Way and description of the Heavens in different religions. We come to the conclusion that the perception of celestial objects varies from culture to culture, and from religion to religion and preastronomical views had a significant impact on humankind, particularly on religious diversities. We prove that Astronomy is the basis of cultures, and that national identity and mythology and religion were formed due to the special understanding of celestial objects.

  1. Astronomers Discover Six-Image Gravitational Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-08-01

    galaxies and the relationships of the individual cluster galaxies to the 'halo' of dark matter in which they are embedded," he added. Clusters of galaxies are known to produce gravitational lenses with up to eight images of a single background object. However, the number of galaxies in such a cluster makes it difficult for astronomers to decipher just how their gravitational effects have combined to produce the multiple images. Researchers hope to be able to understand the lensing effect well enough to use the lenses to show them how galaxies, gas and unseen dark matter in clusters are distributed. A system such as B1359+154, with only three galaxies involved in the lensing, can help astronomers learn how complex gravitational lenses work. "The next big step is to use HST to see the pattern of rings produced by the galaxy surrounding the black hole. We already see hints of them, but with the upgrades to HST in the next servicing mission we should be able to trace it completely both to pin down the structure of the lens and to have an enormously magnified image for studying the distant host galaxy," Kochanek said. In addition to Rusin, Kochanek and Norbury, the researchers are: Emilio Falco of the CfA; Chris Impey of Steward Observatory at the University of Arizona; Joseph Lehar of the CfA; Brian McLeod of the CfA; Hans-Walter Rix of the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy in Germany; Chuck Keeton of Steward Observatory; Jose Munoz of the Astrophysical Institute of the Canaries in Tenerife, Spain; and Chien Peng of Steward Observatory. The team published its results in the Astrophysical Journal. The VLBA is a system of 10 radio-telescope antennas that work together as a single astronomical instrument. The antennas are spread across the United States, from Hawaii in the west to the U.S. Virgin Islands in the east. A radio telescope system more than 5,000 miles across, the VLBA produces extremely detailed images. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the

  2. Maraghe Observatory and an Effort towards Retrieval of Architectural Design of Astronomical Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Shekari Niri

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Maraghe observatory was built by such engineers as Moayiededdin Orozi etc. under supervision of Khaje Nasireddin Tousi in 7th century AH. The most significant feature associated with Maraghe observatory is the fact that architecture is employed to achieve astronomical purposes in this site. The reason for preferring observatory by astronomers was the fact that these units are superior to wooden and metal instruments with respect to accuracy, no size limitations, etc. Architectural design and function of astronomical units of Maraghe observatory site after discovery of its foundation in the course of explorations before Islamic Revolution remained unclear until recent years. After conducting required studies and investigations, the author managed to find significant cues and after some precise comparisons, he succeeded to recover the main design and function of some astronomical units of this international center. Based on these findings these astronomical structures can reliably be rebuilt. This research showed that every circular or polygonal building cannot be considered as an observatory. For example form and function of cemetery structures are completely different with astronomical ones. Following this research also valuable results were obtained in relation to stone architectural structures present on Maraghe observatory hill. In addition, claims about invention of astronomical units of Maraghe observatory by non-Iranian scientists are rejected and rights of Iranian scientists are rationally defended in this regard.

  3. A review study of the current research on energy hub for energy positive neighborhoods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walker, S.W.W.; Labeodan, T.; Maassen, W.H.; Zeiler, W.

    2017-01-01

    Energy positive neighborhoods and cities are emerging concepts aimed at addressing the current energy and environmental sustainability challenges. In this paper, the concept and current research on energy hubs relating to energy positive neighborhoods are presented. In addition to discussing

  4. Astronomical Content in Rongorongo Tablet Keiti

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieczorek, Rafal

    2011-01-01

    Th e fi eld of rongorongo research: the study of Easter Island’s native script is in a peculiar state at the moment. While relative progress has been made in structural and statistical analysis in the last decades, at the level of both single glyphs as well as entire texts, little to no advanceme...... has been achieved in the actual decipherment. To shed new light on rongorongo research, a hypothesis regarding the contents of tablet Keiti, one of the 25 obtained artifacts, is proposed. Th e content, as well as the meaning, of all but one of these 25 rongorongo texts is still unknown....... In this publication, an interpretation for the recto side of tablet Keiti is presented. It is argued that the tablet contains astronomical observations or instructions regarding the Rapa Nui lunar calendar, and is similar in content to the only other rongorongo text whose function has been partially ascertained......: tablet Mamari. If the calendrical contents of this artifact were confi rmed, this would be a major boost to our understanding of Oceania’s only native script....

  5. Electronic Publishing and The American Astronomical Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milkey, R. W.

    1999-12-01

    Electronic Publishing has created, and will continue to create, new opportunities and challenges for representing scientific work in new media and formats. The AAS will position itself to take advantage of these, both for newly created works and for improved representation of works already published. It is the view of the AAS that we hold the works that we publish in trust for our community and are obligated to protect the integrity of these works and to assure that they continue to be available to the research community. Assignment of copyright to the AAS by the author plays a central role in the preservation of the integrity and accessability of the literature published by the American Astronomical Society. In return for such assignment the AAS allows the author to freely use the work for his/her own purpose and to control the grant of permission to third parties to use such materials. The AAS retains the right to republish the work in whatever format or medium, and to retain the rights after the author's death. Specific advantages to this approach include: Assurance of the continued availability of the materials to the research and educational communities; A guarantee of the intellectual integrity of the materials in the archive; Stimulation of the development of new means of presentation or of access to the archival literature; and Provision of a uniformity of treatment for copyright issues and to relieve the individual authors of much of the administrative work.

  6. Longwave Imaging for Astronomical Applications, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a compact portable longwave camera for astronomical applications. In Phase 1, we successfully developed the eye of the camera, i.e. the focal...

  7. Astronomers no longer in the dark

    CERN Multimedia

    MacMillan, L

    2002-01-01

    In a significant breakthrough, British and US astronomers have begun to pin down the most elusive material in the universe. They have made a map of dark matter - the heavy, invisible stuff that gives the galaxies their shape (1 page).

  8. Payment of research participants: current practice and policies of Irish research ethics committees.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Roche, Eric

    2013-09-01

    Payment of research participants helps to increase recruitment for research studies, but can pose ethical dilemmas. Research ethics committees (RECs) have a centrally important role in guiding this practice, but standardisation of the ethical approval process in Ireland is lacking.

  9. The War's Positive Impact on the Canadian Astronomical Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, Peter

    2015-01-01

    At the beginning of WWI, the Canadian astronomical community was tiny and astrophysical research was just beginning. By the end of the war, the country had established the forerunner of its National Research Council and had the world's largest fully operational telescope, thanks to the late entry of the USA into the conflict. By 1918, Canada was on the verge of making significant contributions to science.In spite of the immense loss of life in this pointless war, I am aware of only one casualty affecting Canadian professional astronomers, and that was the indirect death of James Chant, son of University of Toronto's only professor of astronomy. Other Canadian astronomers, including Tom Parker, Bert Topham, and Harry Plaskett were on active service; each of their stories is unique.Among those engaged in scientific work during the war were two Canadians temporarily in England: John McLennan whose helium research for dirigibles led him to establish a cryogenic lab in Toronto where the green line in the spectrum of the aurora was identified in 1925, and Allie Douglas who worked as a statistician in the War Office. Later work with Eddington led her to become his biographer and to her distinction as the first person in Canada to earn a PhD in astronomy (in 1926).

  10. The Future is Hera! Analyzing Astronomical Over the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencic, L. A.; Chai, P.; Pence, W.; Shafer, R.; Snowden, S.

    2008-01-01

    Hera is the data processing facility provided by the High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center (HEASARC) at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center for analyzing astronomical data. Hera provides all the pre-installed software packages, local disk space, and computing resources need to do general processing of FITS format data files residing on the users local computer, and to do research using the publicly available data from the High ENergy Astrophysics Division. Qualified students, educators and researchers may freely use the Hera services over the internet of research and educational purposes.

  11. "Movie Star" Acting Strangely, Radio Astronomers Find

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Astronomers have used the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) radio telescope to make the first-ever time-lapse "movie" showing details of gas motions around a star other than our Sun. The study, the largest observational project yet undertaken using Very Long Baseline Interferometry, has produced surprising results that indicate scientists do not fully understand stellar atmospheres. The "movie" shows that the atmosphere of a pulsating star more than 1,000 light-years away continues to expand during a part of the star's pulsation period in which astronomers expected it to start contracting. Philip Diamond and Athol Kemball, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, New Mexico, announced their findings at the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Austin, TX, today. "The continued expansion we're seeing contradicts current theoretical models for how these stars work," Diamond said. "The models have assumed spherical symmetry in the star's atmosphere, and our movie shows that this is not the case. Such models suggest that a shock wave passes outward from the star. Once it's passed, then the atmosphere should begin to contract because of the star's gravity. We've long passed that point and the contraction has not begun." The time-lapse images show that the gas motions are not uniform around the star. Most of the motion is that of gas moving directly outward from the star's surface. However, in about one-fourth of the ring, there are peculiar motions that do not fit this pattern. The scientists speculate that the rate of mass loss may not be the same from all parts of the star's surface. "A similar star behaved as predicted when studied a few years ago, so we're left to wonder what's different about this one," Diamond said. "Right now, we think that different rates of mass loss in the two stars may be the cause of the difference. This star is losing mass at 100 times the rate of the star in the earlier study." "This

  12. Different Categories of Astronomical Heritage: Issues and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Clive

    2012-09-01

    Since 2008 the AWHWG has, on behalf of the IAU, been working with UNESCO and its advisory bodies to help identify, safeguard and promote cultural properties relating to astronomy and, where possible, to try to facilitate the eventual nomination of key astronomical heritage sites onto the World Heritage List. Unfortunately, the World Heritage Convention only covers fixed sites (i.e., the tangible immovable heritage of astronomy), and a key question for the UNESCO-IAU Astronomy and World Heritage Initiative (AWHI) is the extent to which the tangible moveable and intangible heritage of astronomy (e.g. moveable instruments; ideas and theories) influence the assessment of the tangible immovable heritage. Clearly, in an ideal world we should be concerned not only with tangible immovable heritage but, to quote the AWHWG's own Terms of Reference, ``to help ensure that cultural properties and artefacts significant in the development of astronomy, together with the intangible heritage of astronomy, are duly studied, protected and maintained, both for the greater benefit of humankind and to the potential benefit of future historical research''. With this in mind, the IAU/INAF symposium on ``Astronomy and its Instruments before and after Galileo'' held in Venice in Sep-Oct 2009 recommended that urgent steps should be taken 1. to sensitise astronomers and the general public, and particularly observatory directors and others with direct influence and control over astronomical resources, to the importance of identifying, protecting and preserving the various material products of astronomical research and discovery that already have, or have significant potential to acquire, universal value; (N.B. National or regional interests and concerns have no relevance in the assessment of ``universal value'', which, by definition, extends beyond cultural boundaries and, by reasonable expectation, down the generations into the future. 2. to identify modes of interconnectivity between

  13. Psychological Therapies for Auditory Hallucinations (Voices): Current Status and Key Directions for Future Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, N.; Hayward, M.; Peters, E; van der Gaag, M.; Bentall, R.P.; Jenner, J.; Strauss, C.; Sommer, I.E.; Johns, L.C.; Varese, F.; Gracia-Montes, J.M.; Waters, F.; Dodgson, G.; McCarthy-Jones, S.

    2014-01-01

    This report from the International Consortium on Hallucinations Research considers the current status and future directions in research on psychological therapies targeting auditory hallucinations (hearing voices). Therapy approaches have evolved from behavioral and coping-focused interventions,

  14. Filling the Astronomical Void - A Visual Medium for a Visual Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, J.

    1996-12-01

    Astronomy is fundamentally a visual subject. The modern science of astronomy has at its foundation the ancient art of observing the sky visually. The visual elements of astronomy are arguably the most important. Every person in the entire world is affected by visually-observed astronomical phenomena such as the seasonal variations in daylight. However, misconceptions abound and the average person cannot recognize the simple signs in the sky that point to the direction, the hour and the season. Educators and astronomy popularizers widely lament that astronomy is not appreciated in our society. Yet, there is a remarkable dearth of popular literature for teaching the visual elements of astronomy. This is what I refer to as *the astronomical void.* Typical works use illustrations sparsely, relying most heavily on text-based descriptions of the visual astronomical phenomena. Such works leave significant inferential gaps to the inexperienced reader, who is unequipped for making astronomical observations. Thus, the astronomical void remains unfilled by much of the currently available literature. I therefore propose the introduction of a visually-oriented medium for teaching the visual elements of Astronomy. To this end, I have prepared a series of astronomy "comic strips" that are intended to fill the astronomical void. By giving the illustrations the central place, the comic strip medium permits the depiction of motion and other sequential activity, thus effectively representing astronomical phenomena. In addition to the practical advantages, the comic strip is a "user friendly" medium that is inviting and entertaining to a reader. At the present time, I am distributing a monthly comic strip entitled *Starman*, which appears in the newsletters of over 120 local astronomy organizations and on the web at http://www.cyberdrive.net/ starman. I hope to eventually publish a series of full-length books and believe that astronomical comic strips will help expand the perimeter of

  15. NRAO Astronomer Wins Prestigious Guggenheim Fellowship

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Dr. Dale Frail, an astronomer at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, New Mexico, has been awarded a prestigious Guggenheim Fellowship, according to the John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation. The Guggenheim Foundation describes its fellowships as "mid-career" awards "intended for men and women who have already demonstrated exceptional capacity for productive scholarship or exceptional creative ability in the arts." Frail, 48, has worked at the NRAO for more than 20 years, first as a postdoctoral fellow, and then as a staff scientist. He received his bachelor's degree in physics from Acadia University in Nova Scotia, and his Ph.D in astronomy from the University of Toronto. Frail is best known for his landmark contributions to the understanding of gamma ray bursts, making critical measurements that provided key insights into the mechanisms of these superenergetic and once-mysterious explosions. He also has made important contributions to the understanding of other astronomical phenomena, including pulsars and their neighborhoods, supernova remnants, and magnetars. In 1992, he was the co-discoverer, with Alex Wolszczan, of the first planets outside our own solar system. "We congratulate Dale on this well-deserved honor that recognizes not only his past achievements but also his potential for exciting scientific work in the future," said Dr. Fred K.Y. Lo, NRAO Director. "We're very proud to see one of our scientists receive such a great honor," Lo added. Frail is one of 180 recipients of this year's Guggenheim Fellowships, chosen from some 3,000 applicants. The fellowships were established in 1925 and past recipients include photographer Ansel Adams, author Saul Bellow, former Secretary of State Henry Kissinger, and chemist Linus Pauling. 102 Guggenheim Fellows have subsequently won Nobel Prizes, and others have received Pulitzer Prizes and other honors. As a Guggenheim Fellow, Frail intends to intensify his research in the areas of pulsars

  16. Payment of research participants: current practice and policies of Irish research ethics committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Eric; King, Romaine; Mohan, Helen M; Gavin, Blanaid; McNicholas, Fiona

    2013-09-01

    Payment of research participants helps to increase recruitment for research studies, but can pose ethical dilemmas. Research ethics committees (RECs) have a centrally important role in guiding this practice, but standardisation of the ethical approval process in Ireland is lacking. Our aim was to examine REC policies, experiences and concerns with respect to the payment of participants in research projects in Ireland. Postal survey of all RECs in Ireland. Response rate was 62.5% (n=50). 80% of RECs reported not to have any established policy on the payment of research subjects while 20% had refused ethics approval to studies because the investigators proposed to pay research participants. The most commonly cited concerns were the potential for inducement and undermining of voluntary consent. There is considerable variability among RECs on the payment of research participants and a lack of clear consensus guidelines on the subject. The development of standardised guidelines on the payment of research subjects may enhance recruitment of research participants.

  17. The Production Rate and Employment of Ph.D. Astronomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Travis S.

    2008-02-01

    In an effort to encourage self-regulation of the astronomy job market, I examine the supply of, and demand for, astronomers over time. On the supply side, I document the production rate of Ph.D. astronomers from 1970 to 2006 using the UMI Dissertation Abstracts database, along with data from other independent sources. I compare the long-term trends in Ph.D. production with federal astronomy research funding over the same time period, and I demonstrate that additional funding is correlated with higher subsequent Ph.D. production. On the demand side, I monitor the changing patterns of employment using statistics about the number and types of jobs advertised in the AAS Job Register from 1984 to 2006. Finally, I assess the sustainability of the job market by normalizing this demand by the annual Ph.D. production. The most recent data suggest that there are now annual advertisements for about one postdoctoral job, half a faculty job, and half a research/support position for every new domestic Ph.D. recipient in astronomy and astrophysics. The average new astronomer might expect to hold up to 3 jobs before finding a steady position.

  18. 76 FR 38399 - Assessing the Current Research, Policy, and Practice Environment in Public Health Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [Docket Number CDC-2011-0008] Assessing the Current Research, Policy, and Practice Environment in Public Health... information helpful to assess the current research, policy, and practice environment in public health genomics...

  19. Book Review: Current Issues in International Human Resource Management and Strategy Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gretzinger, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    The article reviews the book "Current Issues in International Human Resource Management and Strategy Research," edited by Marion Festing and Susanne Royer.......The article reviews the book "Current Issues in International Human Resource Management and Strategy Research," edited by Marion Festing and Susanne Royer....

  20. Hera: High Energy Astronomical Data Analysis via the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencic, Lynne A.; Chai, P.; Pence, W.; Snowden, S.

    2011-09-01

    The HEASARC at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has developed Hera, a data processing facility for analyzing high energy astronomical data over the internet. Hera provides all the software packages, disk space, and computing resources needed to do general processing of and advanced research on publicly available data from High Energy Astrophysics missions. The data and data products are kept on a server at GSFC and can be downloaded to a user's local machine. This service is provided for free to students, educators, and researchers for educational and research purposes.

  1. Reactor safety research program. A description of current and planned reactor safety research sponsored by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Division of Reactor Safety Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-06-01

    The reactor safety research program, sponsored by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Division of Reactor Safety Research, is described in terms of its program objectives, current status, and future plans. Elements of safety research work applicable to water reactors, fast reactors, and gas cooled reactors are presented together with brief descriptions of current and planned test facilities. (U.S.)

  2. The Amateur Astronomer's Introduction to the Celestial Sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, William

    2005-12-01

    This introduction to the night sky is for amateur astronomers who desire a deeper understanding of the principles and observations of naked-eye astronomy. It covers topics such as terrestrial and astronomical coordinate systems, stars and constellations, the relative motions of the sky, sun, moon and earth leading to an understanding of the seasons, phases of the moon, and eclipses. Topics are discussed and compared for observers located in both the northern and southern hemispheres. Written in a conversational style, only addition and subtraction are needed to understand the basic principles and a more advanced mathematical treatment is available in the appendices. Each chapter contains a set of review questions and simple exercises to reinforce the reader's understanding of the material. The last chapter is a set of self-contained observation projects to get readers started with making observations about the concepts they have learned. William Charles Millar, currently Professor of Astronomy at Grand Rapids Community College in Michigan, has been teaching the subject for almost twenty years and is very involved with local amateur astronomy groups. Millar also belongs to The Planetary Society and the Astronomical Society of the Pacific and has traveled to Europe and South America to observe solar eclipses. Millar holds a Masters degree in Physics from Western Michigan University.

  3. Science Initiatives of the US Virtual Astronomical Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanisch, R. J.

    2012-09-01

    The United States Virtual Astronomical Observatory program is the operational facility successor to the National Virtual Observatory development project. The primary goal of the US VAO is to build on the standards, protocols, and associated infrastructure developed by NVO and the International Virtual Observatory Alliance partners and to bring to fruition a suite of applications and web-based tools that greatly enhance the research productivity of professional astronomers. To this end, and guided by the advice of our Science Council (Fabbiano et al. 2011), we have focused on five science initiatives in the first two years of VAO operations: 1) scalable cross-comparisons between astronomical source catalogs, 2) dynamic spectral energy distribution construction, visualization, and model fitting, 3) integration and periodogram analysis of time series data from the Harvard Time Series Center and NASA Star and Exoplanet Database, 4) integration of VO data discovery and access tools into the IRAF data analysis environment, and 5) a web-based portal to VO data discovery, access, and display tools. We are also developing tools for data linking and semantic discovery, and have a plan for providing data mining and advanced statistical analysis resources for VAO users. Initial versions of these applications and web-based services are being released over the course of the summer and fall of 2011, with further updates and enhancements planned for throughout 2012 and beyond.

  4. Science Initiatives of the US Virtual Astronomical Observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanisch Robert J.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The United States Virtual Astronomical Observatory program is the operational facility successor to the National Virtual Observatory development project. The primary goal of the US VAO is to build on the standards, protocols, and associated infrastructure developed by NVO and the International Virtual Observatory Alliance partners and to bring to fruition a suite of applications and web-based tools that greatly enhance the research productivity of professional astronomers. To this end, and guided by the advice of our Science Council (advisory committee, we are focusing on five science initiatives in the first two years of VAO operations: (1 scalable cross-comparisons between astronomical source catalogs, (2 dynamic spectral energy distribution construction, visualization, and model fitting, (3 integration and periodogram analysis of time series data from the Harvard Time Series Center and NASA Star and Exoplanet Database, (4 integration of VO data discovery and access tools into the IR AF data analysis environment, and (5 a web-based portal to VO data discovery, access, and display tools. We are also developing tools for data linking and semantic discovery, and have a plan for providing data mining and advanced statistical analysis resources for VAO users. Initial versions of these applications and web-based services are being released over the course of the summer and fall of 2011, with further updates and enhancements planned for throughout 2012 and beyond.

  5. Astronomical relativistic reference systems with multipolar expansion: the global one

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Yi

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of techniques for astronomical observations, the precision of measurements has been significantly increasing. Theories describing astronomical relativistic reference systems, which are the foundation for processing and interpreting these data now and in the future, may require extensions to satisfy the needs of these trends. Besides building a framework compatible with alternative theories of gravity and the pursuit of higher order post-Newtonian approximation, it will also be necessary to make the first order post-Newtonian multipole moments of celestial bodies be explicitly expressed in the astronomical relativistic reference systems. This will bring some convenience into modeling the observations and experiments and make it easier to distinguish different contributions in measurements. As a first step, the global solar system reference system is expressed as a multipolar expansion and the post-Newtonian mass and spin moments are shown explicitly in the metric which describes the coordinates of the system. The full expression of the global metric is given. (research papers)

  6. Current cancer research. Reports from the German Cancer Research Center 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Topics from the Contents: The Fight against Cancer in Germany - A Critical Review. Conditions and Structures in Research. Familial Breast Cancer - A Critical Assessment. Research without Animal Experiments. Cancer Prevention. New Approaches for Tumor Therapy. Genes, Chromosomes and Cancer. Therapy of Brain Tumors with Laser Neurosurgery. The Genome Project. (orig.) [de

  7. Research Activity and Infrastructure of Korea Polar Research Institute: Current and Future Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, D.; Kim, S.; Lee, H.

    2011-12-01

    The Korea Polar Research Institute (KOPRI) opened the Antarctic King Sejong research station in 1988 at the King George Island off the Antarctic Peninsula and started the polar research mainly in the fields of biology and geology with some atmosphere observations. To extend the view of polar research, the KOPRI opened the Arctic Dasan research station at Ny-Alesund, Spitsbergen Island in 2002 and has studied the rapid climate change diagnostics and some microbiological observation. The KOPRI is now expanding the Arctic research into Alaska and Canada under the international collaboration, and planning to outreach to Russia to monitor the change in permafrost and to understand its impact on global warming. To deepen the views of polar research including the ice covered oceans in both poles, the ice-breaking vessel, the ARAON of about 7000 ton, was launched recently and successfully finished the Arctic and Antarctic cruises for research activity on all perspectives of ocean sciences and support for the King Sejong station. The KOPRI is now building another Antarctic research station, called Jangbogo, at the Terra Nova Bay off the Ross Sea and plan to open the station at the March of 2014. By building the second Antarctic station together with the ARAON, the KOPRI will focus its research on understanding the rapid climate change in west Antarctica such as to monitor the calving of the Larsen Ice shelf, rapid melting of Pine Island Glacier, and upper atmosphere, to study the sea ice and ecosystem change in the Amundsen Sea and the role of the southern annular mode in the west Antarctic warming, upper atmosphere and climate change, to reconstruct paleoclimate records from ice and sediment cores.

  8. Book Review: Scientific Writing for Young Astronomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyttenhove, Jos

    2011-12-01

    EDP Sciences, Les Ulis, France. Part 1 : 162 pp. € 35 ISBN 978-2-7598-0506-8 Part 2 : 298 pp. € 60 ISBN 978-2-7598-0639-3 The journal Astronomy & Astrophysics (A&A) and EDP Sciences decided in 2007 to organize a School on the various aspects of scientific writing and publishing. In 2008 and 2009 Scientific Writing for Young Astronomers (SWYA) Schools were held in Blankenberge (B) under the direction of Christiaan Sterken (FWO-VUB). These two books (EAS publication series, Vol. 49 and 50) reflect the outcome of these Schools. Part 1 contains a set of contributions that discuss various aspects of scientific publication; it includes A&A Editors' view of the peer review and publishing process. A very interesting short paper by S.R. Pottasch (Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, Groningen, and one of the two first Editors-in Chief of A&A) deals with the history of the creation of the journal Astronomy & Astrophysics. Two papers by J. Adams et al. (Observatoire de Paris) discuss language editing, including a detailed guide for any non-native user of the English language. In 2002 the Board of Directors decided that all articles in A&A must be written in clear and correct English. Part 2 consists of three very extensive and elaborated papers by Christiaan Sterken, supplying guidelines to PhD students and postdoctoral fellows to help them compose scientific papers for different forums (journals, proceedings, thesis, etc.). This part is of interest not only for young astronomers but it is very useful for scholars of all ages and disciplines. Paper I "The writing process" (60 pp.) copes with the preparation of manuscripts, with communicating with editors and referees and with avoiding common errors. Delicate problems on authorship, refereeing, revising multi-authored papers etc. are treated in 26 FAQ's. Paper II "Communication by graphics" (120 pp.) is entirely dedicated to the important topic of communication with images, graphs, diagrams, tables etc. Design types of graphs

  9. Astronomers Without Borders: A Global Astronomy Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, M.

    2011-10-01

    Astronomers Without Borders (AWB) brings together astronomy enthusiasts of all types - amateur astronomers, educators, professionals and "armchair" astronomers for a variety of online and physicalworld programs. The AWB web site provides social networking and a base for online programs that engage people worldwide in astronomy activities that transcend geopolitical and cultural borders. There is universal interest in astronomy, which has been present in all cultures throughout recorded history. Astronomy is also among the most accessible of sciences with the natural laboratory of the sky being available to people worldwide. There are few other interests for which people widely separated geographically can engage in activities involving the same objects. AWB builds on those advantages to bring people together. AWB also provides a platform where projects can reach a global audience. AWB also provides unique opportunities for multidisciplinary collaboration in EPO programs. Several programs including The World at Night, Global Astronomy Month and others will be described along with lessons learned.

  10. Early results from the Infrared Astronomical Satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neugebauer, G.; Beichman, C.A.; Soifer, B.T.

    1984-01-01

    For 10 months the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) provided astronomers with what might be termed their first view of the infrared sky on a clear, dark night. Without IRAS, atmospheric absorption and the thermal emission from both the atmosphere and Earthbound telescopes make the task of the infrared astronomer comparable to what an optical astronomer would face if required to work only on cloudy afternoons. IRAS observations are serving astronomers in the same manner as the photographic plates of the Palomar Observatory Sky Survey; just as the optical survey has been used by all astronomers for over three decades, as a source of quantitative information about the sky and as a roadmap for future observations, the results of IRAS will be studied for years to come. IRAS has demonstrated the power of infrared astronomy from space. Already, from a brief look at a miniscule fraction of the data available, we have learned much about the solar system, about nearby stars, about the Galaxy as a whole and about distant extragalactic systems. Comets are much dustier than previously thought. Solid particles, presumably the remnants of the star-formation process, orbit around Vega and other stars and may provide the raw material for planetary systems. Emission from cool interstellar material has been traced throughout the Galaxy all the way to the galactic poles. Both the clumpiness and breadth of the distribution of this material were previously unsuspected. The far-infrared sky away from the galactic plane has been found to be dominate by spiral galaxies, some of which emit more than 50% and as much as 98% of their energy in the infrared - an exciting and surprising revelation. The IRAS mission is clearly the pathfinder for future mission that, to a large extent, will be devoted to the discoveries revealed by IRAS. 8 figures

  11. Coronagraph for astronomical imaging and spectrophotometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilas, Faith; Smith, Bradford A.

    1987-01-01

    A coronagraph designed to minimize scattered light in astronomical observations caused by the structure of the primary mirror, secondary mirror, and secondary support structure of a Cassegrainian telescope is described. Direct (1:1) and reducing (2.7:1) imaging of astronomical fields are possible. High-quality images are produced. The coronagraph can be used with either a two-dimensional charge-coupled device or photographic film camera. The addition of transmission dispersing optics converts the coronagraph into a low-resolution spectrograph. The instrument is modular and portable for transport to different observatories.

  12. A Brief History of Manchester Astronomical Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilburn, K. J.

    Manchester Astronomical Society celebrated its centenary in September 2003. But that centenary was of a hundred years as the MAS: the history of the society goes back much further, and can be traced directly to that great era of.public awareness of astronomy and amateur interest in Victorian England in the last half of the nineteenth century. Allan Chapman has discussed this period in detail, so the present paper concentrates on the MAS's particular influence on Manchester astronomers and recent work on the history of the society.

  13. Astronomers gossip about the (cosmic) neighborhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayawardhana, R

    1994-09-09

    The Hague, Netherlands, last month welcomed 2000 astronomers from around the world for the 22nd General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union (IAU). From 15 to 27 August, they participated in symposia and discussions on topics ranging from the down-to-Earth issue of light and radio-frequency pollution to the creation of elements at the farthest reaches of time and space, in the big bang. Some of the most striking news, however, came in new findings from our galaxy and its immediate surroundings.

  14. Forty-two years of Revista Mexicana de Astronomía y Astrofísica: Some history and musings on the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, C.; Torres-Peimbert, S.

    2017-07-01

    After 42 years of continuously publishing the Revista Mexicana de Astronomía y Astrofísica, we cast a short retrospective view on its history and we share our plans for the future. RMxAA was founded in 1974. Founding editors were P. Pishmish, E. Mendoza and S. Torres-Peimbert. RMxAA has published original research papers in all areas of astronomy, astrophysics and related fields. Until 1994 RMxAA also published the proceedings of astronomical conferences held in México and Latin America. Since 1995 a Series devoted exclusively to such proceedings was founded, RMxAC, Revista Mexicana de Astronomía y Astrofísica (Serie de Conferencias). All papers submitted to RMxAA are sent to internationally recognized experts to be strictly refereed. RMxAA is included in Current Contents, Science Citation Index and other relevant international indexes. Both publications are fully integrated into the ADS. Their contents have always been freely available to the general public. All this ensures a wide international visibility, comparable to that of the best astronomical journals. The impact factor of RMxAA has varied over the years, mostly as a consequence of small number statistics. The average impact factor is about 2.4, far larger than that of all but a few Latin American scientific journals. The editorial independence of RMxAA, the fact that there are no page charges for authors, and that the printed version is distributed free of charge to astronomical libraries all over the world motivate us to look forward with optimism to many more years of publication. In view of recent developments in the scientific publishing field, we have applied to obtain the DOI for the published papers, and are in the process of becoming an all-electronic publication.

  15. Reprioritizing current research trends in medical education: a reflection on research activities in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeidat, Akef S; Alhaqwi, Ali Ibrahim; Abdulghani, Hamza Mohammad

    2015-04-01

    There are numerous national efforts to determine and develop research priorities of medical education in Saudi Arabia. These priorities were first proposed in 2010 by "Dr Al-Khuli's Chair for Developing Medical Education in Saudi Arabia". The proposed priority domains were: curriculum, students, faculty, and quality assurance and accreditation. To investigate publications in medical education at the national and international levels in areas relating to these proposed priorities. Electronic search within PubMed database for papers relating to each domain of priority was conducted at national and international levels in the last three years, using the same keywords as the priority domains, but only confined to undergraduate medical education. Out of 3145 articles retrieved when searching with keyword as broad as "undergraduate medical curriculum" only 81 articles worldwide and 3 articles from Saudi Arabia were dealing with curriculum related issues as a whole. Further search on the sub-domains "effective strategies to manage undergraduate curriculum" and "undergraduate medical education models", resulted in the retrieval of few articles worldwide and none from Saudi Arabia. At the national level, there were 63 publications from Saudi Arabia that were either course (topic)-specific or could not be classified under the four domains specified by Dr Al-Khuli's Chair. Research activities in medical education in Saudi Arabia in the last 3 years showed diversity and lack of focus in the research priorities. Efforts of academic and research centers should continue to monitor and encourage these activities toward achieving the recommended priorities.

  16. Memories of Astronomy Education in Brazil: Clippings from the Discourses of Interviewed Researchers on the Subject. (Spanish Title: Memorias de la Educación en Astronomía en Brasil: Recortes de los Discursos de Investigadores Entrevistados Acerca del Tema ) Memórias da Educação em Astronomia no Brasil: Recortes a Partir das Falas de Pesquisadores Entrevistados sobre o Tema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iachel, Gustavo; Nardi, Roberto

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a historical retrospective concerning data from a research in Astronomy Education in Brazil, after 1973. It was organized on the basis of the speech analysis of national researchers considered references in this field by their peers. Furthermore, it was elaborated on the basis of other studies from the areas of Science Education, Physics and Astronomy. This historical overview was developed in order to facilitate understanding of the contexts in which the interviewed researchers have developed professionally. Moreover, we attempted to recover the memory of the growing field of research in Astronomy Education in the country. We believe that the history presented can help those trying to understand the past in an attempt to resolve current and future demands. Se presenta en este artículo una retrospectiva histórica referente a datos provenientes de la investigación en enseñanza de la astronomía en el Brasil, después de 1973, organizada sobre la base del análisis de los discursos de los investigadores nacionales considerados referencias en este campo, y también en la lectura de las publicaciones en las áreas de Enseñanza de las Ciencias, Física y Astronomía. Este repaso histórico se desarrolló con el fin de facilitar la comprensión de los contextos en los que los investigadores entrevistados se han desarrollado profesionalmente. Por otra parte, se intentó recuperar la memoria del creciente campo de la investigación en Educación en Astronomía en el país. Creemos que el relato presentado puede contribuir a quien trata de comprender el pasado, en un intento de resolver las demandas actuales y futuras. Relata-se neste artigo uma retrospectiva histórica referente a dados provenientes de pesquisa em Educação em Astronomia no país, pós 1973, organizada com base na análise das falas de pesquisadores considerados referências nacionais nesse campo, como também na leitura de publicações das áreas de ensino de Ciências, F

  17. Selected finelings on current research into applications of ionizing radiation in food industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salkova, Z.

    1979-01-01

    A review is presented of research of the application of ionizing radiation in the food industry, mainly for the inhibition of potato and onion germination and for radappertization of soft fruits. Current laws governing the irradiation of food are described and the current knowledge of the practical application of the new technology is indicated. (author)

  18. Current Status and Future Agenda for the Theory, Research, and Practice of Childhood Career Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultheiss, Donna E. Palladino

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews the current status and a future agenda for childhood career development theory, research, and practice. The fragmented nature of the current state of the literature is noted, and a call is made for a reexamination and reconsideration of the childhood developmental pathways of life's work. It is suggested that the study of…

  19. Emerging technology for astronomical optics metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumper, Isaac; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Kim, Dae Wook

    2018-05-01

    Next generation astronomical optics will enable science discoveries across all fields and impact the way we perceive the Universe in which we live. To build these systems, optical metrology tools have been developed that push the boundary of what is possible. We present a summary of a few key metrology technologies that we believe are critical for the coming generation of optical surfaces.

  20. Cosmological field theory for observational astronomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zel'Dovich, Y.B.

    1987-01-01

    Theories of the very early Universe that use scalar fields (i.e., the so-called inflationary models of the Universe) have now come into wide use. The inflationary universe approach may perhaps solve some of the most difficult enigmas about the Universe as a whole. The inflationary universe forms a good bridge between the quantum theory of the birth of the Universe (which is still in the initial stages of development) and the standard hot Big Bang theory (which is well established, at least qualitatively). Therefore, an understanding of the basic ideas of inflation is a must for astronomers interested in the broad picture of the science. Astronomers are mathematically oriented enough (via celestial mechanics, electromagnetic theory, magnetohydrodynamics, nuclear reactions,etc.) that there is no negative attitude towards formulae in general. What the astronomer lacks is a knowledge of recent developments in particle physics and field theory. The astronomer should not be blamed for this, because these branches of physics are developing in a very peculiar fashion: some subfields of it are progressing comparatively slowly, with experimental verifications at each and every step, while other subfields progress rapidly

  1. Astronomía en la cultura

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, A.; Giménez Benitez, S.; Fernández, L.

    La Astronomía en la Cultura es el estudio interdisciplinario a nivel global de la astronomía prehistórica, antigua y tradicional, en el marco de su contexto cultural. Esta disciplina abarca cualquier tipo de estudios o líneas de investigación en que se relacione a la astronomía con las ciencias humanas o sociales. En ella se incluyen tanto fuentes escritas, relatos orales como fuentes arqueológicas, abarcando entre otros, los siguientes temas: calendarios, observación práctica, cultos y mitos, representación simbólica de eventos, conceptos y objetos astronómicos, orientación astronómica de tumbas, templos, santuarios y centros urbanos, cosmología tradicional y la aplicación ceremonial de tradiciones astronómicas, la propia historia de la astronomía y la etnoastronomía (Krupp, 1989) (Iwaniszewski, 1994). En nuestro trabajo abordamos la historia y situación actual de esta disciplina, sus métodos y sus relaciones con otras áreas de investigación.

  2. Astronomers Trace Microquasar's Path Back in Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    million years. They also speculated on the birthplace of Scorpius X-1. "The neutron star, which is the remnant left over from the supernova explosion of an even more massive star, either came from the Milky Way's disk, or from a globular cluster at a considerable distance from the disk," said Rodrigues. Globular clusters are clumps of millions of stars in the outskirts of the Galaxy. If it came from the Galaxy's disk, the scientists say, it would have had to receive a powerful one-sided "kick" from the supernova explosion to get into its present eccentric orbit. While this is possible, they conclude that a more likely scenario is that the neutron star came from a globular cluster. "Probably, this neutron star picked up its companion and was thrown out of its globular cluster by a close encounter with other stars at the cluster's core," Mirabel said. The scientists published their results in the January 30 issue of the journal Astronomy and Astrophysics. The same pair of researchers traced a similar path of a black hole and its companion star in 2001. Also that year, other astronomers produced a "movie" showing motions in the jet of material ejected from the disk around Scorpius X-1's neutron star. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  3. Fastest Pulsar Speeding Out of Galaxy, Astronomers Discover

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    A speeding, superdense neutron star somehow got a powerful "kick" that is propelling it completely out of our Milky Way Galaxy into the cold vastness of intergalactic space. Its discovery is puzzling astronomers who used the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) radio telescope to directly measure the fastest speed yet found in a neutron star. Pulsar's Path Across Sky Over about 2.5 million years, Pulsar B1508+55 has moved across about a third of the night sky as seen from Earth. CREDIT: Bill Saxton, NRAO/AUI/NSF (Click on image for larger version 67 KB) The neutron star is the remnant of a massive star born in the constellation Cygnus that exploded about two and a half million years ago in a titanic explosion known as a supernova. Ultra-precise VLBA measurements of its distance and motion show that it is on course to inevitably leave our Galaxy. "We know that supernova explosions can give a kick to the resulting neutron star, but the tremendous speed of this object pushes the limits of our current understanding," said Shami Chatterjee, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) and the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. "This discovery is very difficult for the latest models of supernova core collapse to explain," he added. Chatterjee and his colleagues used the VLBA to study the pulsar B1508+55, about 7700 light-years from Earth. With the ultrasharp radio "vision" of the continent-wide VLBA, they were able to precisely measure both the distance and the speed of the pulsar, a spinning neutron star emitting powerful beams of radio waves. Plotting its motion backward pointed to a birthplace among groups of giant stars in the constellation Cygnus -- stars so massive that they inevitably explode as supernovae. "This is the first direct measurement of a neutron star's speed that exceeds 1,000 kilometers per second," said Walter Brisken, an NRAO astronomer. "Most earlier estimates of neutron-star speeds depended on educated

  4. Current Research in Resistivity Inversion Techniques by the Lab. Of Exploration Geophysics in Thessaloniki, Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsokas, G.N.; Tsourlos, P.

    2007-01-01

    The current research in various topics of ERT methods is described. The main directions of this research have been imposed by exploration problems met in practice. Therefore, it is aimed towards the construction of reliable, accurate and easy to apply procedures and algorithms

  5. Current status and technology development tendency of research reactors in china

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke Guotu; Shen Feng; Zhao Shouzhi; Zhang Weiguo; Yuan Luzheng

    2009-01-01

    The current status and development history of domestic and abroad research reactors (RRs) are mentioned. The representative RRs and their respective technology characteristics are introduced. The utilizations of China's RRs, mainly included as nuclear engineering technology, basic research applications of nuclear technology, teaching and personnel training, are explained. (authors)

  6. Mindfulness for Children in Public Schools: Current Research and Developmental Issues to Consider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Jeanne; Gelbar, Nicholas W.

    2016-01-01

    Mindfulness-based interventions have increased in popularity over the past decade and interest continues to increase in the potential to use mindfulness-based interventions in schools. The current research concerning school-based mindfulness-based interventions is reviewed in this article. This research base is fragmented, as most of the studies…

  7. The Focus of Current HCI Research in Usability Evaluation and Feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høegh, Rune Thaarup

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the findings from a systematic literature study of the research on usability evaluation and feedback. The literature study covers the papers published from five key human-computer interaction journals for a period of four years, and depicts the most current research within...... the field with regard to usability evaluation and feedback....

  8. Current status of research and development at Japan Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the current state and future prospects of Japan Atomic Energy Agency, with a focus on the main achievements of the research and development as of November FY2014. The items of research and development are as follows; (1) research and development related to measures for the accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, (2) technological assistance for ensuring safety in the research and development and utilization of nuclear power, (3) research science related to the research and development and utilization of nuclear power, (4) practical application of FBR cycle, (5) technological development related to back-end measures, (6) research and development of technological system to retrieve nuclear fusion energy, and (7) common projects (computational science / engineering / research, technological development and policy assistance on nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear security, and various activities such as dissemination of the fruits of research and development, human resource development, and technological cooperation). (A.O.)

  9. Astronomers Find World with Thick, Inhospitable Atmosphere and an Icy Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    , USA). ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 14 countries: Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates three unique world-class observing sites in Chile: La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor. At Paranal, ESO operates the Very Large Telescope, the world's most advanced visible-light astronomical observatory, and VISTA, the world's largest survey telescope. ESO is the European partner of a revolutionary astronomical telescope ALMA, the largest astronomical project in existence. ESO is currently planning a 42-metre European Extremely Large optical/near-infrared Telescope, the E-ELT, which will become "the world's biggest eye on the sky".

  10. The caracol tower at chichen itza: an ancient astronomical observatory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aveni, A F; Gibbs, S L; Hartung, H

    1975-06-06

    Although our investigations reveal a number of significant astronomical events coinciding with many of the measured alignments presented in Table 1, not every alignment appears to have an astronomical match which we can recognize. It may be that only some of the sighting possibilities we have discussed were actually functional. Moreover, our search of significant astronomical events to match the alignments has included only those which seem of obvious functional importance to us: sun, moon, and planetary extremes and the setting positions of the brightest stars. We have emphasized those celestial bodies which are documented in the literature as having been of importance. Perhaps hitherto unrecognized constellations were sighted in the windows, perhaps fainter stars, the heliacal rising and setting times of which could have served to mark important dates in the calendar. While we propose no grand cosmic scheme for the astronomical design of the Caracol it can be inferred that the building, apart from being a monument related to Quetzalcoatl, was erected primarily for the purpose of embodying in its architecture certain significant astronomical event alignments, in the same sense that a modern astronomical ephemeris exhibits information of importance to us in the keeping of the current calendar. There are examples in the Mesoamerican historical literature of deliberate attempts to align buildings with astronomical directions of importance. For example, Maudslay (33) quotes Father Motolinia, who tells us that in Tenochtitlan the festival called Tlacaxipeualistli "took place when the sun stood in the middle of Huicholobos, which was at the equinox, and because it was a little out of the straight, Montezuma wished to pull it down and set it right." According to Maudslay, worshipers were probably facing east to watch the sun rise between the two oratories on the Great Temple of Tenochtitlan at the time of the equinox. The directions of the faces of the Lower and Upper

  11. New Life for Astronomical Instruments of the Past at the Astronomical Observatory of Taras Shevchenko

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazantseva, Liliya

    2012-09-01

    Astronomical instruments of the past are certainly valuable artifacts of the history of science and education. Like other collections of scientific equipment, they also demonstrate i) development of scientific and technical ideas, ii) technological features of the historical period, iii) professional features of artists or companies -- manufacturers, and iv) national and local specificity of production. However, astronomical instruments are also devices made for observations of rare phenomena -- solar eclipses, transits of planets of the solar disk, etc. Instruments used to study these rare events were very different for each event, since the science changed quickly between events. The Astronomical Observatory of Kyiv National Taras Shevchenko University has a collection of tools made by leading European and local shops from the early nineteenth century. These include tools for optically observing the first artificial Earth satellites, photography, chronometry, and meteorology. In addition, it has assembled a library of descriptions of astronomical instruments and makers'price-lists. Of particular interest are the large stationary tools that are still active in their pavilions. Almost every instrument has a long interesting history. Museification of astronomical instruments gives them a second life, expanding educational programs and tracing the development of astronomy in general and scientific institution and region in particular. It would be advisable to first create a regional database of these rare astronomical instruments (which is already being done in Ukraine), then a common global database. By combining all the historical information about astronomical instruments with the advantages of the Internet, you can show the full evolution of an astronomical instrument with all its features. Time is relentless, and much is destroyed, badly kept and thrown in the garbage. We need time to protect, capture, and tell about it.

  12. An Official American Thoracic Society Research Statement : Current Challenges Facing Research and Therapeutic Advances in Airway Remodeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prakash, Y S; Halayko, Andrew J; Gosens, Reinoud; Panettieri Jr., Reynold A; Camoretti-Mercado, Blanca; Penn, Raymond B; Burgess, Janette K

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Airway remodeling (AR) is a prominent feature of asthma and other obstructive lung diseases that is minimally affected by current treatments. The goals of this Official American Thoracic Society (ATS) Research Statement are to discuss the scientific, technological, economic, and

  13. The role of care in nutrition programmes: current research and a research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, P L; Bentley, M; Pelto, G

    2000-02-01

    The importance of cultural and behavioural factors in children's nutrition, particularly with regard to feeding, has been recognized only recently. The combination of evidence regarding the importance of caregiving behaviour for good nutrition, and improved strategies for measuring behaviour have led to a renewed interest in care. The UNICEF conceptual framework suggests that care, in addition to food security and health care services, are critical for children's survival, growth and development. The present paper focuses on the care practice of complementary feeding, specifically behavioural factors such as parental interaction patterns, feeding style and adaptation of feeding to the child's motor abilities (self-feeding or feeding by others). Three kinds of feeding styles (Birch & Fisher, 1995) are identified: controlling; laissez-faire; responsive. Probable effects of each feeding style on nutrient intake are described. A number of studies of feeding behaviour have suggested that the laissez-faire style is most frequently observed among families and communities with a higher prevalence of malnourished children. Nutrition interventions that have been able to show significant effects on outcomes, such as the Hearth Model in Vietnam (Sternin et al. 1997), have usually incorporated behavioural components in their intervention. At this time, there have been no tests of the efficacy of behavioural interventions to improve feeding practices. Research is needed to understand behavioural factors in complementary feeding, and to identify and test intervention strategies designed to improve nutrient intake of young children. Finally, the paper concludes with a discussion of how nutrition programmes might change if care were incorporated.

  14. Research on Digital Output Verification Technology of Electronic DC Current Transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuanjie; Wang, Bin; Hu, Haoliang; Xiong, Qianzhu; Yang, Chunyan

    2017-05-01

    Aiming at the error of calibration system when conducting field calibration by electronic DC current transformer’s digital calibration system, an electronic DC current transformer’s digital calibration system based on protocol conversion is proposed and researched. Data frames outputted from merging unit are collected and converted by the system, the digital synchronization is realized by using the synchronous clock device to trigger the second pulse, and it is verified by the virtual instrument design software. The field calibration is conducted to some converter station digital dc current transformer under the rated current of 500A by using the calibration system. By calibrating and analyzing errors, the error is less than 0.075% when tested current is more than 40% of the rated current. According the standard in literature[1], performance of the calibration system is perfect, measured results perfectly meet the requirements of design, and the calibration system has great practical application value.

  15. AstroCom NYC: A Partnership Between Astronomers at CUNY, AMNH, and Columbia University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglione, Timothy; Ford, K. S.; Robbins, D.; Mac Low, M.; Agueros, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    AstroCom NYC is a new program designed to improve urban minority student access to opportunities in astrophysical research by greatly enhancing partnerships between research astronomers in New York City. The partners are minority serving institutions of the City University of New York, and the astrophysics research departments of the American Museum of Natural History and Columbia. AstroCom NYC provides centralized, personalized mentoring as well as financial and academic support, to CUNY undergraduates throughout their studies, plus the resources and opportunities to further CUNY faculty research with students. The goal is that students’ residency at AMNH helps them build a sense of belonging in the field, and inspires and prepares them for graduate study. AstroCom NYC prepares students for research with a rigorous Methods of Scientific Research course developed specifically to this purpose, a laptop, a research mentor, career mentor, involvement in Columbia outreach activities, scholarships and stipends, Metrocards, and regular assessment for maximum effectiveness. Stipends in part alleviate the burdens at home typical for CUNY students so they may concentrate on their academic success. AMNH serves as the central hub for our faculty and students, who are otherwise dispersed among all five boroughs of the City. With our first cohort we experienced the expected challenges from their diverse preparedness, but also far greater than anticipated challenges in scheduling, academic advisement, and molding their expectations. We review Year 1 operations and outcomes, as well as plans for Year 2, when our current students progress to be peer mentors.

  16. Finding Hidden Treasures: Investigations in US Astronomical Plate Archives

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hudec, René; Hudec, L.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 1 (2013), s. 23-26 ISSN 1210-2709 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/1207 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : astronomical data archives * astronomical photography * astronomical photographic archives Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  17. Authentic Astronomical Discovery in Planetariums: Data-Driven Immersive Lectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Ryan Jason

    2018-01-01

    Planetariums are akin to “branch offices” for astronomy in major cities and other locations around the globe. With immersive, fulldome video technology, modern digital planetariums offer the opportunity to integrate authentic astronomical data into both pre-recorded shows and live lectures. At the California Academy of Sciences Morrison Planetarium, we host the monthly Benjamin Dean Astronomy Lecture Series, which features researchers describing their cutting-edge work to well-informed lay audiences. The Academy’s visualization studio and engineering teams work with researchers to visualize their data in both pre-rendered and real-time formats, and these visualizations are integrated into a variety of programs—including lectures! The assets are then made available to any other planetariums with similar software to support their programming. A lecturer can thus give the same immersive presentation to audiences in a variety of planetariums. The Academy has also collaborated with Chicago’s Adler Planetarium to bring Kavli Fulldome Lecture Series to San Francisco, and the two theaters have also linked together in live “domecasts” to share real-time content with audiences in both cities. These lecture series and other, similar projects suggest a bright future for astronomers to bring their research to the public in an immersive and visually compelling format.

  18. Student-to-Scientist (S2S) via the PACA Project: Connecting Astronomers, Educators and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanamandra-Fisher, P. A.

    2015-12-01

    Student to Scientist (S2S), provides pathways for observational and research tools for K-12 and undergraduate students to improve science proficiency through conducting real scientific observations. Our approach lies in the integration of professional and amateur astronomers, educators, students, and communicators to identify multiple paths for the student to become a scientist. I report on the ensuing project, also known as the PACA Project, which is an ecosystem of various activities that take advantage of the social media and immediate connectivity amongst amateur astronomers worldwide and that can be galvanized to participate in a given observing campaign. The PACA Project has participated in organized campaigns such as NASA Comet ISON Observing Campaign in 2013; NASA Comet Integrated Observations Campaign to observe Comet Siding Spring as it flew by very close to Mars on 19 October 2014. Currently the PACA Project is involved in the Ground-based Amateur campaign to observer ESA/Rosetta mission's target, 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (CG) that is en route to its perihelion on 13 August 2015 (at the time of abstract submission). The PACA Project provides access to the professional community and the student/educator and informal/public communities via various social media like Facebook, Twitter, Flickr, Pinterest, Vimeo, Google+. With the popularity of mobile platforms and instant connections with other peers globally, the multi-faceted social universe has become a vital part of engagement of multiple communities. The PACA project currently has initiated a Comet Tails and Disconnection Events campaign to relate to the changing solar wind conditions. Other PACA projects include Saturn Solstice 2017 and outreach projects with Astroproject (India). These and other citizen-science enabled activities and their integration with S2S project will be discussed.

  19. Knowing the people who come to public astronomical observatories: The case of Akita prefecture, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, N.

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this research is to know and gain a better understanding of people who come to astronomical observatories and to find out more about their experiences and thoughts on astronomy. To find some of the issues about science communication in astronomy, the author carried out questionnaire research studies involving high school students and junior high school and elementary school teachers.

  20. Division B Commission 6: Astronomical Telegrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaoka, H.; Green, D. W. E.; Samus, N. N.; Aksnes, K.; Gilmore, A. C.; Nakano, S.; Sphar, T.; Tichá, J.; Williams, G. V.

    2016-04-01

    IAU Commission 6 ``Astronomical Telegrams'' had a single business meeting during Honolulu General Assembly of the IAU. It took place on Tuesday, 11 August 2015. The meeting was attended by Hitoshi Yamaoka (President), Daniel Green (Director of the Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams, CBAT, via Skype), Steven Chesley (JPL), Paul Chodas (JPL), Alan Gilmore (Canterbury University), Shinjiro Kouzuma (Chukyo University), Paolo Mazzali (Co-Chair of the Supernova Working Group), Elena Pian (Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa), Marion Schmitz (chair IAU Working Group Designations + NED), David Tholen (University of Hawaii), Jana Ticha (Klet Observatory), Milos Tichy (Klet Observatory), Giovanni Valsecchi (INAF\\slash Italy), Gareth Williams (Minor Planet Center). Apologies: Nikolai Samus (General Catalogue of Variable Stars, GCVS).

  1. Statistical methods for astronomical data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Chattopadhyay, Asis Kumar

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces “Astrostatistics” as a subject in its own right with rewarding examples, including work by the authors with galaxy and Gamma Ray Burst data to engage the reader. This includes a comprehensive blending of Astrophysics and Statistics. The first chapter’s coverage of preliminary concepts and terminologies for astronomical phenomenon will appeal to both Statistics and Astrophysics readers as helpful context. Statistics concepts covered in the book provide a methodological framework. A unique feature is the inclusion of different possible sources of astronomical data, as well as software packages for converting the raw data into appropriate forms for data analysis. Readers can then use the appropriate statistical packages for their particular data analysis needs. The ideas of statistical inference discussed in the book help readers determine how to apply statistical tests. The authors cover different applications of statistical techniques already developed or specifically introduced for ...

  2. International Astronomical Union Sympoisum No.50

    CERN Document Server

    Westerlund, B

    1973-01-01

    Dr J. Landi Dessy, Director of the Astronomical Observatory, Cordoba, Argentina, invited the International Astronomical Union to hold a Symposium in Cordoba in connection with the celebration of the Centennial of the Cordoba Observatory; the date of foundation is October 24, 1871. He proposed that the Symposium should deal with Spectral Classification and Multicolour Photometry as seven years had elapsed since the Symposium No. 24 in Saltsj6baden, and much development had occurred in the field. The invitation and the proposal were accepted by the IAU, and the Symposium was held in Villa Carlos Paz, near Cordoba, between October 18 and October 24, 1971. It was attended by about 50 scientists representing Argentina, Canada, Chile, Den­ mark, France, Germany, Italy, Mexico, Sweden, Switzerland, U.K., U.S.A., Vatican City State and Venezuela. The Symposium was divided into four sessions: 1. Classification of slit spectra, 2. Classification of objective-prism spectra, 3. Photometric classification, 4. Catalogues ...

  3. Isaac Newton and the astronomical refraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehn, Waldemar H

    2008-12-01

    In a short interval toward the end of 1694, Isaac Newton developed two mathematical models for the theory of the astronomical refraction and calculated two refraction tables, but did not publish his theory. Much effort has been expended, starting with Biot in 1836, in the attempt to identify the methods and equations that Newton used. In contrast to previous work, a closed form solution is identified for the refraction integral that reproduces the table for his first model (in which density decays linearly with elevation). The parameters of his second model, which includes the exponential variation of pressure in an isothermal atmosphere, have also been identified by reproducing his results. The implication is clear that in each case Newton had derived exactly the correct equations for the astronomical refraction; furthermore, he was the first to do so.

  4. Astronomía Mocoví

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, A.; Giménez Benitez, S.; Fernández, L.

    El presente trabajo, es una revisión crítica de la astronomía en la cultura Mocoví, aportando a lo realizado previamente por Lehmann Nistche (Lehmann Nistche, 1924 y 1927) el resultado de nuestro trabajo de campo. Un mayor conocimiento de las cosmovisiones de las etnias de esta área es fundamental para una mejor comprensión de la dispersión de las ideas cosmológicas entre los pueblos aborígenes americanos, dada la importancia del corredor chaqueño como conexión entre las altas culturas andinas, la mesopotamia y la región pampeana (Susnik, 1972). Para ello se realiza una comparación con otras cosmovisiones del área americana. Nuestro aporte se enmarca dentro de las actuales líneas de trabajo mundialmente en desarrollo en Astronomía en la Cultura.

  5. Astronomical dating in the 19th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgen, Frederik J.

    2010-01-01

    Today astronomical tuning is widely accepted as numerical dating method after having revolutionised the age calibration of the geological archive and time scale over the last decades. However, its origin is not well known and tracing its roots is important especially from a science historic perspective. Astronomical tuning developed in consequence of the astronomical theory of the ice ages and was repeatedly used in the second half of the 19th century before the invention of radio-isotopic dating. Building upon earlier ideas of Joseph Adhémar, James Croll started to formulate his astronomical theory of the ice ages in 1864 according to which precession controlled ice ages occur alternatingly on both hemispheres at times of maximum eccentricity of the Earth's orbit. The publication of these ideas compelled Charles Lyell to revise his Principles of Geology and add Croll's theory, thus providing an alternative to his own geographical cause of the ice ages. Both Croll and Lyell initially tuned the last glacial epoch to the prominent eccentricity maximum 850,000 yr ago. This age was used as starting point by Lyell to calculate an age of 240 million years for the beginning of the Cambrium. But Croll soon revised the tuning to a much younger less prominent eccentricity maximum between 240,000 and 80,000 yr ago. In addition he tuned older glacial deposits of late Miocene and Eocene ages to eccentricity maxima around 800,000 and 2,800,000 yr ago. Archibald and James Geikie were the first to recognize interglacials during the last glacial epoch, as predicted by Croll's theory, and attempted to tune them to precession. Soon after Frank Taylor linked a series of 15 end-moraines left behind by the retreating ice sheet to precession to arrive at a possible age of 300,000 yr for the maximum glaciation. In a classic paper, Axel Blytt (1876) explained the scattered distribution of plant groups in Norway to precession induced alternating rainy and dry periods as recorded by the

  6. The data analysis facilities that astronomers want

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disney, M.

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses the need and importance of data analysis facilities and what astronomers ideally want. A brief survey is presented of what is available now and some of the main deficiencies and problems with today's systems are discussed. The main sources of astronomical data are presented incuding: optical photographic, optical TV/CCD, VLA, optical spectros, imaging x-ray satellite, and satellite planetary camera. Landmark discoveries are listed in a table, some of which include: our galaxy as an island, distance to stars, H-R diagram (stellar structure), size of our galaxy, and missing mass in clusters. The main problems at present are discussed including lack of coordinated effort and central planning, differences in hardware, and measuring performance

  7. Basic research into eddy current testing of austenetic weld joints and surface claddings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, W.

    1976-01-01

    The result of research work has shown that the eddy-current testing method can be used for austenetic steel up to 10 mm thick to detect cracks in the material. An exception to this are laminations if they are parallel to the surface. Cracks in the various geometrical positions in the test specimen produce different results in the x-y plot. They are influenced by the direction of the material cracks. Research into the influence the geometric parameters have on the indications shows that the eddy-current method provides clearer interpretations of material cracks than any other non-destructive test method known. (orig.) [de

  8. Research on the induction motor current signature for centrifugal pump at cavitation condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Luo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cavitation is a major undesirable phenomenon for centrifugal pump because it can cause hydraulic performance deterioration, pump damage by pitting and material erosion, and structural vibration and noise. Cavitation can appear within the entire range of the operating conditions; therefore, it must be prevented by all means. Sensorless monitoring technology based on motor current signature analysis is non-intrusive and economic for monitoring motor-driven equipment. Thus, this technology is suitable for centrifugal pump systems. The motor current signature for centrifugal pump load at the cavitation condition is the basis of this technology. However, systematic research is lacking on sensorless monitoring technology based on motor current signature. As a result, the tentative exploration for motor current signature at cavitation load was conducted in this study. The results show that the stator current is still a sinusoidal alternating current strictly to the law of sine. Moreover, the root mean square of the current fluctuates because of different flow regimes in the cavitation progress and decreases because vapor density is smaller than water density when cavitation is fully formed. For the stator current spectrum, the noise level, noise distribution, rotation speed, and vane pass frequency components show features in the cavitation process. These indicator indexes change according to the stage of cavitation development. Thus, the motor current signature analysis is found to be a feasible and cost-effective method for the stages of cavitation condition.

  9. A website for astronomical news in Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Gil, A.

    2008-06-01

    Noticias del Cosmos is a collection of web pages within the Astronomical Observatory of the University of Valencia's website where we publish short daily summaries of astronomical press releases. Most, if not all of, the releases are originally written in English, and often Spanish readers may find them difficult to understand because not many people are familiar with the scientific language employed in these releases. Noticias del Cosmos has two principal aims. First, we want to communicate the latest astronomical news on a daily basis to a wide Spanish-speaking public who would otherwise not be able to read them because of the language barrier. Second, daily news can be used as a tool to introduce the astronomical topics of the school curriculum in a more immediate and relevant way. Most of the students at school have not yet reached a good enough level in their knowledge of English to fully understand a press release, and Noticias del Cosmos offers them and their teachers this news in their mother tongue. During the regular programme of school visits at the Observatory we use the news as a means of showing that there is still a lot to be discovered. So far the visits to the website have been growing steadily. Between June 2003 and June 2007 we had more than 30,000 visits (excluding 2006). More than 50% of the visits come from Spain, followed by visitors from South and Central America. The feedback we have received from teachers so far has been very positive, showing the usefulness of news items in the classroom when teaching astronomy.

  10. Astronomical random numbers for quantum foundations experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Calvin; Brown, Amy; Nguyen, Hien; Friedman, Andrew S.; Kaiser, David I.; Gallicchio, Jason

    2018-04-01

    Photons from distant astronomical sources can be used as a classical source of randomness to improve fundamental tests of quantum nonlocality, wave-particle duality, and local realism through Bell's inequality and delayed-choice quantum eraser tests inspired by Wheeler's cosmic-scale Mach-Zehnder interferometer gedanken experiment. Such sources of random numbers may also be useful for information-theoretic applications such as key distribution for quantum cryptography. Building on the design of an astronomical random number generator developed for the recent cosmic Bell experiment [Handsteiner et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 060401 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.118.060401], in this paper we report on the design and characterization of a device that, with 20-nanosecond latency, outputs a bit based on whether the wavelength of an incoming photon is greater than or less than ≈700 nm. Using the one-meter telescope at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Table Mountain Observatory, we generated random bits from astronomical photons in both color channels from 50 stars of varying color and magnitude, and from 12 quasars with redshifts up to z =3.9 . With stars, we achieved bit rates of ˜1 ×106Hz/m 2 , limited by saturation of our single-photon detectors, and with quasars of magnitudes between 12.9 and 16, we achieved rates between ˜102 and 2 ×103Hz /m2 . For bright quasars, the resulting bitstreams exhibit sufficiently low amounts of statistical predictability as quantified by the mutual information. In addition, a sufficiently high fraction of bits generated are of true astronomical origin in order to address both the locality and freedom-of-choice loopholes when used to set the measurement settings in a test of the Bell-CHSH inequality.

  11. International astronomical remote present observation on IRC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Kaifan; Cao, Wenda; Song, Qian

    On March 6 - 7, 1997, an international astronomical remote present observation (RPO) was made on Internet Relay Chat (IRC) for the first time. Seven groups in four countries, China, United States, Canada and Great Britain, used the 1 meter telescope of Yunnan observatory together by the way of remote present observation. Within minutes, images were "On-line" by FTP, and every one was able to get them by anonymous ftp and discuss them on IRC from different widely separated sites.

  12. Education and Outreach Opportunities in New Astronomical Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mould, J. R.; Pompea, S.

    2002-12-01

    Astronomy presents extraordinary opportunities for engaging young people in science from an early age. The National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), supported by the National Science Foundation, leverages the attraction of astronomy with a suite of formal and informal education programs that engage our scientists and education and public outreach professionals in effective, strategic programs that capitalize on NOAO's role as a leader in science and in the design of new astronomical facilities. The core of the science education group at NOAO in Tucson consists of a group of Ph.D.-level scientists with experience in educational program management, curriculum and instructional materials development, teacher/scientist partnerships, and teacher professional development. This core group of scientist/educators hybrids has a strong background in earth and space science education as well as experience in working with and teaching about the technology that has enabled new astronomical discoveries. NOAO has a vigorous public affairs/media program and a history of effectively working locally, regionally, and nationally with the media, schools, science centers, and, planetaria. In particular, NOAO has created successful programs exploring how research data and tools can be used most effectively in the classroom. For example, the Teacher Leaders in Research Based Science Education explores how teachers can most effectively integrate astronomical research on novae, active galactic nuclei, and the Sun into classroom-based investigations. With immersive summer workshops at Kitt Peak National Observatory and the National Solar Observatory at Sacramento Peak, teachers learn research and instrumentation skills and how to encourage and maintain research activities in their classrooms. Some of the new facilities proposed in the recent decadal plan, Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium (National Academy Press), can provide extended opportunities for incorporating

  13. Current status and future prospects for thermal-hydraulics and safety research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, G.C.

    2000-01-01

    The present paper is to outline the current activities in Korea for the thermal-hydraulics and safety researches, and furthermore illuminate the future aspect of those field under the umbrella of worldwide nuclear prospect. In Korea, a long-term nuclear research plan has been established since 1992, which was recently funded with a fixed monetary rate of Korean won 1.20 per kWh of electricity produced with nuclear power. 11.5% of the fund is assigned for nuclear safety research in 6 areas. Under this program, 3 axes of research body (KAERI, KINS, University) has been operated with close cooperation. Their role, current activities and long-term plan of each body are introduced in the point of thermal-hydraulics' view. (author)

  14. An overview of current research on EU ETS: Evidence from its operating mechanism and economic effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yue-Jun; Wei, Yi-Ming

    2010-01-01

    The European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) is supposed to be an important mechanism for addressing climate change. Up to now, the theoretical foundation of EU ETS has been widely acknowledged, but empirical research on its current situation has only been published recently or is forthcoming. Therefore, this paper is aimed to summarize the main arguments of empirical studies on the EU ETS, in terms of two aspects, i.e., the operating mechanism and economic effect of the EU ETS, which are two crucial topics and have been attached much attention. Based on the shortcomings of current research and future requirements of the EU ETS evolution, finally, we also present some further directions of the EU ETS research. Overall, the research overview here may be helpful to recognize the features of the EU ETS and its effect on others. (author)

  15. AESoP: Astronomical Extinction Spectrophotometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linford, Justin; McGraw, J.; Zimmer, P.; Ackermann, M.; Fitch, J.

    2009-01-01

    The Earth's atmosphere is a major obstruction to the precision and accuracy of ground-based photometry. The atmosphere removes light from astronomical objects both by absorption and scattering by constituent molecules, aerosols and clouds. These effects can change significantly over short time periods and over modest angles on the sky. To further understand these effects, the UNM Measurement Astrophysics Group has designed, built and recently deployed the Astronomical Extinction Spectrophotometer (AESoP), a 100mm objective grating spectrometer. By monitoring bright stars in sensibly the same direction as a larger photometric telescope is observing, AESoP will measure the wavelength-dependent extinction due to the Earth's atmosphere from 450nm to 900nm on time scales of approximately one minute. The collocated Astronomical LIDAR for Extinction (ALE) provides a high-precision monochromatic extinction measurement at 527nm. Knowing the extinction at a single wavelength allows us to pin the relative spectra generated by AESoP. These extinction spectra can then be integrated over the bandpass of the photometric telescope system to create real time corrections of observations. We present the design and construction of AESoP along with the preliminary results of our first combined observing campaign. This effort is our first step toward breaking the 1% photometry barrier. This project is funded by AFRL Grant FA9451-04-2-0355

  16. AWOB: A Collaborative Workbench for Astronomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J. W.; Lemson, G.; Bulatovic, N.; Makarenko, V.; Vogler, A.; Voges, W.; Yao, Y.; Kiefl, R.; Koychev, S.

    2015-09-01

    We present the Astronomers Workbench (AWOB1), a web-based collaboration and publication platform for a scientific project of any size, developed in collaboration between the Max-Planck institutes of Astrophysics (MPA) and Extra-terrestrial Physics (MPE) and the Max-Planck Digital Library (MPDL). AWOB facilitates the collaboration between geographically distributed astronomers working on a common project throughout its whole scientific life cycle. AWOB does so by making it very easy for scientists to set up and manage a collaborative workspace for individual projects, where data can be uploaded and shared. It supports inviting project collaborators, provides wikis, automated mailing lists, calendars and event notification and has a built in chat facility. It allows the definition and tracking of tasks within projects and supports easy creation of e-publications for the dissemination of data and images and other resources that cannot be added to submitted papers. AWOB extends the project concept to larger scale consortia, within which it is possible to manage working groups and sub-projects. The existing AWOB instance has so far been limited to Max-Planck members and their collaborators, but will be opened to the whole astronomical community. AWOB is an open-source project and its source code is available upon request. We intend to extend AWOB's functionality also to other disciplines, and would greatly appreciate contributions from the community.

  17. Constructing Concept Schemes From Astronomical Telegrams Via Natural Language Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Matthew; Zhang, M.; Djorgovski, S. G.; Donalek, C.; Drake, A. J.; Mahabal, A.

    2012-01-01

    The rapidly emerging field of time domain astronomy is one of the most exciting and vibrant new research frontiers, ranging in scientific scope from studies of the Solar System to extreme relativistic astrophysics and cosmology. It is being enabled by a new generation of large synoptic digital sky surveys - LSST, PanStarrs, CRTS - that cover large areas of sky repeatedly, looking for transient objects and phenomena. One of the biggest challenges facing these is the automated classification of transient events, a process that needs machine-processible astronomical knowledge. Semantic technologies enable the formal representation of concepts and relations within a particular domain. ATELs (http://www.astronomerstelegram.org) are a commonly-used means for reporting and commenting upon new astronomical observations of transient sources (supernovae, stellar outbursts, blazar flares, etc). However, they are loose and unstructured and employ scientific natural language for description: this makes automated processing of them - a necessity within the next decade with petascale data rates - a challenge. Nevertheless they represent a potentially rich corpus of information that could lead to new and valuable insights into transient phenomena. This project lies in the cutting-edge field of astrosemantics, a branch of astroinformatics, which applies semantic technologies to astronomy. The ATELs have been used to develop an appropriate concept scheme - a representation of the information they contain - for transient astronomy using hierarchical clustering of processed natural language. This allows us to automatically organize ATELs based on the vocabulary used. We conclude that we can use simple algorithms to process and extract meaning from astronomical textual data.

  18. SIP: A Web-Based Astronomical Image Processing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonetti, J. H.

    1999-12-01

    I have written an astronomical image processing and analysis program designed to run over the internet in a Java-compatible web browser. The program, Sky Image Processor (SIP), is accessible at the SIP webpage (http://www.phys.vt.edu/SIP). Since nothing is installed on the user's machine, there is no need to download upgrades; the latest version of the program is always instantly available. Furthermore, the Java programming language is designed to work on any computer platform (any machine and operating system). The program could be used with students in web-based instruction or in a computer laboratory setting; it may also be of use in some research or outreach applications. While SIP is similar to other image processing programs, it is unique in some important respects. For example, SIP can load images from the user's machine or from the Web. An instructor can put images on a web server for students to load and analyze on their own personal computer. Or, the instructor can inform the students of images to load from any other web server. Furthermore, since SIP was written with students in mind, the philosophy is to present the user with the most basic tools necessary to process and analyze astronomical images. Images can be combined (by addition, subtraction, multiplication, or division), multiplied by a constant, smoothed, cropped, flipped, rotated, and so on. Statistics can be gathered for pixels within a box drawn by the user. Basic tools are available for gathering data from an image which can be used for performing simple differential photometry, or astrometry. Therefore, students can learn how astronomical image processing works. Since SIP is not part of a commercial CCD camera package, the program is written to handle the most common denominator image file, the FITS format.

  19. Managing distributed software development in the Virtual Astronomical Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Janet D.; Plante, Raymond L.; Boneventura, Nina; Busko, Ivo; Cresitello-Dittmar, Mark; D'Abrusco, Raffaele; Doe, Stephen; Ebert, Rick; Laurino, Omar; Pevunova, Olga; Refsdal, Brian; Thomas, Brian

    2012-09-01

    The U.S. Virtual Astronomical Observatory (VAO) is a product-driven organization that provides new scientific research capabilities to the astronomical community. Software development for the VAO follows a lightweight framework that guides development of science applications and infrastructure. Challenges to be overcome include distributed development teams, part-time efforts, and highly constrained schedules. We describe the process we followed to conquer these challenges while developing Iris, the VAO application for analysis of 1-D astronomical spectral energy distributions (SEDs). Iris was successfully built and released in less than a year with a team distributed across four institutions. The project followed existing International Virtual Observatory Alliance inter-operability standards for spectral data and contributed a SED library as a by-product of the project. We emphasize lessons learned that will be folded into future development efforts. In our experience, a well-defined process that provides guidelines to ensure the project is cohesive and stays on track is key to success. Internal product deliveries with a planned test and feedback loop are critical. Release candidates are measured against use cases established early in the process, and provide the opportunity to assess priorities and make course corrections during development. Also key is the participation of a stakeholder such as a lead scientist who manages the technical questions, advises on priorities, and is actively involved as a lead tester. Finally, frequent scheduled communications (for example a bi-weekly tele-conference) assure issues are resolved quickly and the team is working toward a common vision.

  20. Retrospectives, current valences and prospective dimensions of research at the Academy of Public Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel SÎMBOTEANU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study is an attempt to identify the social determinants, which initiated and facilitated the content and evolution of the scientific research of the administrative phenomenon in the Republic of Moldova after the declaration of independence. It also elucidates the current valences and perspectives of this activity in the context of the provisions of the recently adopted Research Strategy of the Academy of Public Administration for the period 2016-2020.

  1. On the Development of Intelligent Railway Information and Safety Systems: An Overview of Current Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dániel Tokody

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The present article focuses on the research and development planning for innovative railway systems. Within such a general framework, the specific objectives of the research have been defined within the framework of a large Intelligent Railway System project in Hungary. Our theoretical research work at the university is combined with practical experience gained at the Hungarian State Railways. In the course of this research work, the development of an intelligent railway system has been investigated by leveraging on the fruitful cooperation between academic and industrial partners, in order to promote the application and integration possibilities of the development results, as well as the introduction of innovative components in the railway system. In such a context, this article discusses the research plan, preliminary and long-term expected results, sharing objectives and experiences with the aim of providing novel views in an extremely current and challenging field of research.

  2. First use of a HyViSI H4RG for Astronomical Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simms, Lance M.; /SLAC; Figer, Donald F.; Hanold, Brandon J.; Kerr, Daniel J.; /Rochester Imaging Lab.; Gilmore, D.Kirk; Kahn, Steven M.; /SLAC; Tyson, J.Anthony; /UC,

    2007-09-25

    We present the first astronomical results from a 4K2 Hybrid Visible Silicon PIN array detector (HyViSI) read out with the Teledyne Scientific and Imaging SIDECAR ASIC. These results include observations of astronomical standards and photometric measurements using the 2.1m KPNO telescope. We also report results from a test program in the Rochester Imaging Detector Laboratory (RIDL), including: read noise, dark current, linearity, gain, well depth, quantum efficiency, and substrate voltage effects. Lastly, we highlight results from operation of the detector in window read out mode and discuss its potential role for focusing, image correction, and use as a telescope guide camera.

  3. Available Tools and Challenges Classifying Cutting-Edge and Historical Astronomical Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagerstrom, Jill

    2015-08-01

    The STScI Library assists the Science Policies Division in evaluating and choosing scientific keywords and categories for proposals for the Hubble Space Telescope mission and the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope mission. In addition we are often faced with the question “what is the shape of the astronomical literature?” However, subject classification in astronomy in recent times has not been cultivated. This talk will address the available tools and challenges of classifying cutting-edge as well as historical astronomical documents. In at the process, we will give an overview of current and upcoming practices of subject classification in astronomy.

  4. The trend of the research and development for the upgrade of the high current energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The high current energy technology ranges from a basic technology of the electric power field to a state-of-the-art technology and has been used extremely variously. In addition, as the energy technology advances, the expansion of applied field, such as the nuclear fusion and the exhaust thing processing, etc., requires a further upgrade of the large current technology. In this report, the trend of the research and development for the upgrade of the high current energy technology are summarized. In the following, the elemental technology including arc/plasma phenomena and the pulse power system is described in Chapter 2. In Chapter 3, the trend of the research and development for the upgrade of various equipments and devices such as the nuclear fusion development, the superconducting applications of SMES and the maglev transportation system, and the arc application of the exhaust processing for a medical waste, the radio active waste and a detrimental gas and the next generation lithography system. In Chapter 4, the analysis and the measurement technology of the arc phenomenon and the standardization of current shunt, etc are described. We hope this research report can contribute to the promotion of technical exchanges in different fields, and offer guidelines for future development in this high current energy technology. (author)

  5. Astronomers Get New Tools for Gravitational-Wave Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Teamwork between gamma-ray and radio astronomers has produced a breakthrough in finding natural cosmic tools needed to make the first direct detections of the long-elusive gravitational waves predicted by Albert Einstein nearly a century ago. An orbiting gamma-ray telescope has pointed radio astronomers to specific locations in the sky where they can discover new millisecond pulsars. Millisecond pulsars, rapidly-spinning superdense neutron stars, can serve as extremely precise and stable natural clocks. Astronomers hope to detect gravitational waves by measuring tiny changes in the pulsars' rotation caused by the passage of the gravitational waves. To do this, they need a multitude of millisecond pulsars dispersed widely throughout the sky. However, nearly three decades after the discovery of the first millisecond pulsar, only about 150 of them had been found, some 90 of those clumped tightly in globular star clusters and thus unusable for detecting gravitational waves. The problem was that millisecond pulsars could only be discovered through arduous, computing-intensive searches of small portions of sky. "We've probably found far less than one percent of the millisecond pulsars in the Milky Way Galaxy," said Scott Ransom of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). The breakthrough came when an instrument aboard NASA's Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope began surveying the sky in 2008. This instrument located hundreds of gamma-ray-emitting objects throughout our Galaxy, and astronomers suspected many of these could be millisecond pulsars. Paul Ray of the Naval Research Laboratory initiated an international collaboration to use radio telescopes to confirm the identity of these objects as millisecond pulsars. "The data from Fermi were like a buried-treasure map," Ransom said. "Using our radio telescopes to study the objects located by Fermi, we found 17 millisecond pulsars in three months. Large-scale searches had taken 10-15 years to find that many," Ransom

  6. Semantic Web research anno 2006 : Main streams, popular fallacies, current status and future challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Harmelen, Frank

    2006-01-01

    In this topical paper we try to give an analysis and overview of the current state of Semantic Web research. We point to different interpretations of the Semantic Web as the reason underlying many controversies, we list (and debunk) four false objections which are often raised against the Semantic

  7. Current research topics and trends in the software architecture community : ICSA 2017 Workshops summary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malavolta, Ivano; Capilla, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    This summary reports the workshops accepted in the 1st International Conference on Software Architecture (ICSA 2017), held by Chalmers University at Gothenburg (Sweden). We gather the description of current and new research trends in different software architecture topics to provide a wide view to

  8. The State of Knowledge of Outdoor Orientation Programs: Current Practices, Research, and Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Brent J.; Gass, Michael A.; Nafziger, Christopher S.; Starbuck, J. David

    2014-01-01

    Outdoor orientation programs represent a prominent area of experiential education with over 25,000 participants annually. More than 191 outdoor orientation programs currently operate in the United States and Canada. The research examining outdoor orientation programs consists of 25 peer-reviewed published studies and 11 dissertations. A new theory…

  9. To What Extent Does Current Scientific Research and Textbook Content Align? A Methodology and Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierema, Andrea M.-K.; Schwartz, Renee S.; Gill, Sharon A.

    2017-01-01

    Recent calls for reform in education recommend science curricula to be based on central ideas instead of a larger number of topics and for alignment between current scientific research and curricula. Because alignment is rarely studied, especially for central ideas, we developed a methodology to discover the extent of alignment between primary…

  10. Current research trends and perspectives on materials-based hydrogen storage solutions: A critical review

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ren, Jianwei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available BrunauereEmmetteTeller (BET) surface areas and larger pore volumes . . . . 00 Tailoring reaction enthalpies... consumption. Re-produced ] with permission. this article in press as: Ren J, et al., Current research trends view, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy (2016), htcountries to think about energy security. Fossil fuels will one day be inevitably used up...

  11. Too Anxious to Speak? The Implications of Current Research into Selective Mutism for Educational Psychology Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleave, Hayley

    2009-01-01

    Selective Mutism is a low incidence disorder but has considerable impact on the school system when it occurs. Over the last decade several research articles have been published which have challenged the understanding of the aetiology of Selective Mutism. Current perceptions about the aetiology of Selective Mutism are considered in order to inform…

  12. Current research relevant to the improvement of γ-ray spectroscopy as an analytical tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, R.A.; Tirsell, K.G.; Armantrout, G.A.

    1976-01-01

    Four areas of research that will have significant impact on the further development of γ-ray spectroscopy as an accurate analytical tool are considered. The areas considered are: (1) automation; (2) accurate multigamma ray sources; (3) accuracy of the current and future γ-ray energy scale, and (4) new solid state X and γ-ray detectors

  13. United Kingdom. Report 3 [Marine Radioecology. Current Research and Future Scope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preston, A.

    1967-01-01

    Present research programmes: There are two current programmes, one in the Irish Sea (fission product distribution in coastal water environments) and one in the Blackwater Estuary - North Sea (effects of discharge of neutron activation radionuclides, e.g, 65 Zn, 51 Cr, 60 Co, 54 Mn, on an estuarine environment)

  14. High Energy Astronomical Data Processing and Analysis via the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencic, Lynne A.; Snowden, S.; Pence, W.

    2012-01-01

    The HEASARC at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and the US XMM-Newton GOF has developed Hera, a data processing facility for analyzing high energy astronomical data over the internet. Hera provides all the disk space and computing resources needed to do general processing of and advanced research on publicly available data from High Energy Astrophysics missions. The data and data products are kept on a server at GSFC and can be downloaded to a user's local machine. Further, the XMM-GOF has developed scripts to streamline XMM data reduction. These are available through Hera, and can also be downloaded to a user's local machine. These are free services provided to students, educators, and researchers for educational and research purposes.

  15. Astronomical Polarimetry with the RIT Polarization Imaging Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobiev, Dmitry V.; Ninkov, Zoran; Brock, Neal

    2018-06-01

    In the last decade, imaging polarimeters based on micropolarizer arrays have been developed for use in terrestrial remote sensing and metrology applications. Micropolarizer-based sensors are dramatically smaller and more mechanically robust than other polarimeters with similar spectral response and snapshot capability. To determine the suitability of these new polarimeters for astronomical applications, we developed the RIT Polarization Imaging Camera to investigate the performance of these devices, with a special attention to the low signal-to-noise regime. We characterized the device performance in the lab, by determining the relative throughput, efficiency, and orientation of every pixel, as a function of wavelength. Using the resulting pixel response model, we developed demodulation procedures for aperture photometry and imaging polarimetry observing modes. We found that, using the current calibration, RITPIC is capable of detecting polarization signals as small as ∼0.3%. The relative ease of data collection, calibration, and analysis provided by these sensors suggest than they may become an important tool for a number of astronomical targets.

  16. Celestial delights the best astronomical events through 2020

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, Francis

    2012-01-01

    Celestial Delights is the essential 'TV Guide' for the sky. Through extensive graphics integrated with an eight-year-long calendar of sky events, it provides a look at "don't miss" sky events, mostly for naked-eye and binocular observing. It is organized by ease of observation – lunar phases and the brighter planets come first, with solar eclipses, the aurora, and comets coming later. This third edition also includes a hefty dose of sky lore, astronomical history, and clear overviews of current science. It provides a handy reference to upcoming naked-eye events, with information broken out in clear and simple diagrams and tables that are cross-referenced against a detailed almanac for each year covered. This book puts a variety of information all in one place, presents it in a friendly way that does not require prior in-depth astronomical knowledge, and provides the context and historical background for understanding events that astronomy software or web sites lack.

  17. Current status of neutron scattering research and accelerator technology in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridwan; Ikram, Abarul; Wuryanto

    2001-01-01

    The neutron beam generated from steady state reactor 30 MW RSG-GAS are used mainly for neutron scattering studies and isotope production. There are seven neutron scattering facilities under responsible and operated by Research and Development Center for Materials Science and Technology of National Nuclear Energy Agency (Batan) of Indonesia. In this report, current conditions of the facilities namely, DN1-M, HRPD, FCD/TD, SANS, HRSANS, TAS and NRF and research activities will be described. Also, a part of research activities by using accelerator technology at Batan-Yogyakarta will be reviewed. (author)

  18. Advanced alarm system design and human performance: Guidance development and current research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O` Hara, J M [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1997-09-01

    This paper describes a research program sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission to address the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of nuclear power plant alarm systems. The overall objective of the program is to develop HFE review guidance for advanced alarm systems. Guidance has been developed based on a broad base of technical and research literature. As part of the development effort, aspects of alarm system design for which the technical basis was insufficient to support guidance development were identified and prioritized. Research is currently underway to address the highest priority topics: alarm processing and display characteristics. (author). 29 refs, 2 figs.

  19. Advanced alarm system design and human performance: Guidance development and current research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes a research program sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission to address the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of nuclear power plant alarm systems. The overall objective of the program is to develop HFE review guidance for advanced alarm systems. Guidance has been developed based on a broad base of technical and research literature. As part of the development effort, aspects of alarm system design for which the technical basis was insufficient to support guidance development were identified and prioritized. Research is currently underway to address the highest priority topics: alarm processing and display characteristics. (author). 29 refs, 2 figs

  20. Engaging Girls in STEM: A Discussion of Foundational and Current Research on What Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, M.; Peterson, K. A.; Bleacher, L. V.; Smith, D. A.

    2012-08-01

    This article summarizes a panel discussion with Jolene Jesse (Program Director, NSF Research on Gender in Science and Engineering program) and Laura Migus (Director of Equity & Diversity at the Association of Science Technology Centers) on research related to gender in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM). Moderated by Ms. Karen Peterson from the NSF-funded National Girls Collaborative Project, Dr. Jesse and Ms. Migus discussed foundational and current research on pressing questions about the lack of gender diversity in STEM advanced education and careers, and on strategies the EPO community could employ in designing and implementing programs to encourage more girls and women to engage in STEM for the long term.