WorldWideScience

Sample records for current article reviews

  1. Current Status of Acanthamoeba in Iran: A Narrative Review Article.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Niyyati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Free-living amoebae belonging to the genus Acanthamoeba have an environmental distribution. Amoebic keratitis due to these protozoan parasites continue to rise in Iran and worldwide. In Iran, there are various researches regarding both morphological and molecular identification of Acanthamoeba spp. in environmental and clinical samples. However, there is no thorough review about Acanthamoeba genotypes and their distribution in environmental sources such as water, dust and biofilm in Iran. Besides, according to increasing cases of Amoebic keratitis in the region awareness regarding the pathogenic potential of these sight-threatening amoebae is of utmost importance.We conducted a thorough review based on the database sources such as MEDLINE, PubMed and Google scholar. No restrictions were placed on study date, study design or language of publication. We searched all valuable and relevant information considering the occurrence of the Acanthamoeba in both environmental and clinical samples.According to our thorough review Acanthamoeba belonging to T4 genotype is the most prevalent type strain in environmental and clinical samples in several regions in Iran and worldwide, however, there are reports regarding Acanthamoeba belonging to other genotypes such as T2, T3, T5, T6 and T11 and the mentioned point could leads us to more researches with the goal of presenting the real genotype dominance of Acanthamoeba and related disease in the country.Overall, the present review will focus on present status of genotypes of Acanthamoeba in Iran during recent years.

  2. REVIEW ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1997-01-26

    Jan 26, 1997 ... review article, the authors will also refer to other relevant works in .... could tear down the entire politics not just regimes, ushering in civil ... powers are interested in the maintenance of status quo, which is the precondition for.

  3. Review article

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsdal, M A; Krarup, H; Sand, J M B

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nearly 45% of all deaths are associated with chronic fibroproliferative diseases, of which the primary characteristic is altered remodelling of the extracellular matrix. A major difficulty in developing anti-fibrotic therapies is the lack of accurate and established techniques...... to estimate dynamics of fibrosis, regression or progression, in response to therapy. AIM: One of the most pressing needs in modern clinical chemistry for fibroproliferative disorders is the development of biomarkers for early diagnosis, prognosis, and early efficacy for the benefit of patients...... and to facilitate improved drug development. The aim of this article was to review the serological biomarkers that may assist in early diagnosis of patients, separate fast from slow- or nonprogressors, and possibly assist in drug development for fibroproliferative diseases, exemplified by liver fibrosis. The lack...

  4. REVIEW ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reviews the present state of exploitation of the mineral deposits and ... Mineral fiiels and other energy resources: petroleum, coal, oil shale and radioactive ...... oil shale and radioactive minerals; hydropower; geothermal; biomass fuels; ..... e) International and regional cooperation in mineral resources research, ...

  5. Review Article '

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Role of Pulses in Human Nutrition: A Review. OFUYA , Z M ... great deal to the energy intake of people all over the world. ... and children, About 20% of the protein presently available ... as constipation and diverticular disease. It is also ... Red kidney bean Phaseolus v__ulga_r_i§ 56.3 — 60.5 31.9 —~ 47.0 17.5 — 37.2.

  6. Review Article: "The Lagrangian description of aperiodic flows: a case study of the Kuroshio Current"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mendoza

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews several recently developed Lagrangian tools and shows how their combined use succeeds in obtaining a detailed description of purely advective transport events in general aperiodic flows. In particular, because of the climate impact of ocean transport processes, we illustrate a 2-D application on altimeter data sets over the area of the Kuroshio Current, although the proposed techniques are general and applicable to arbitrary time dependent aperiodic flows. The first challenge for describing transport in aperiodical time dependent flows is obtaining a representation of the phase portrait where the most relevant dynamical features may be identified. areas that are related to confinement regions. This representation is accomplished by using global Lagrangian descriptors that when applied for instance to the altimeter data sets retrieve over the ocean surface a phase portrait where the geometry of interconnected dynamical systems is visible. The phase portrait picture is essential because it evinces which transport routes are acting on the whole flow. Once these routes are roughly recognised, it is possible to complete a detailed description by the direct computation of the finite time stable and unstable manifolds of special hyperbolic trajectories that act as organising centres of the flow.

  7. Review article: remission rates achievable by current therapies for inflammatory bowel disease

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background and Aim: To review remission rates with current medical treatments for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Methods We searched MEDLINE (source PUBMED, 1966 to January, 2011). Results Induction and maintenance of remission was observed in 20% (range, 9-29.5%) and 53% (range, 36.8-59.6%) of ulcerative colitis (UC) patients treated with oral 5-ASA derivatives. Induction of remission was noted in 52% (range, 48-58%) of Crohn?s disease (CD) patients and 54% of UC...

  8. Current research progress in grain refinement of cast magnesium alloys: A review article

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Yahia; Qiu, Dong [School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072 (Australia); Jiang, Bin; Pan, Fusheng [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Zhang, Ming-Xing, E-mail: Mingxing.Zhang@uq.edu.au [School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072 (Australia)

    2015-01-15

    Grain refinement of cast magnesium alloys, particularly in magnesium–aluminium (Mg–Al) based alloys, has been an active research topic in the past two decades, because it has been considered as one of the most effective approaches to simultaneously increase the strength, ductility and formability. The development of new grain refiners was normally based on the theories/models that were established through comprehensive and considerable studies of grain refinement in cast Al alloys. Generally, grain refinement in cast Al can be achieved through either inoculation treatment, which is a process of adding, or in situ forming, foreign particles to promote heterogeneous nucleation rate, or restricting grain growth by controlling the constitutional supercooling or both. But, the concrete and tangible grain refinement mechanism in cast metals is still not fully understood and there are a number of controversies. Therefore, most of the new developed grain refiners for Mg–Al based alloys are not as efficient as the commercially available ones, such as zirconium in non-Al containing Mg alloys. To facilitate the research in grain refinement of cast magnesium alloys, this review starts with highlighting the theoretical aspects of grain refinement in cast metals, followed by reviewing the latest research progress in grain refinement of magnesium alloys in terms of the solute effect and potent nucleants.

  9. 282 REVIEW ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    A REVIEW OF LASSA FEVER, AN EMERGING OLD WORLD HAEMORRHAGIC VIRAL .... countries where the disease is endemic (including ... low incidence of Lassa fever in advanced countries of ..... in mobilizing logistics and necessary.

  10. Lipoplatin Formulation Review Article

    OpenAIRE

    Stathopoulos, G. P.; Boulikas, T.

    2012-01-01

    Patented platform technologies have been used for the liposomal encapsulation of cisplatin (Lipoplatin) into tumor-targeted 110 nm (in diameter) nanoparticles. The molecular mechanisms, preclinical and clinical data concerning lipoplatin, are reviewed here. Lipoplatin has been successfully administered in three randomized Phase II and III clinical trials. The clinical data mainly include non-small-cell lung cancer but also pancreatic, breast, and head and neck cancers. It is anticipated that ...

  11. Lipoplatin Formulation Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Stathopoulos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Patented platform technologies have been used for the liposomal encapsulation of cisplatin (Lipoplatin into tumor-targeted 110 nm (in diameter nanoparticles. The molecular mechanisms, preclinical and clinical data concerning lipoplatin, are reviewed here. Lipoplatin has been successfully administered in three randomized Phase II and III clinical trials. The clinical data mainly include non-small-cell lung cancer but also pancreatic, breast, and head and neck cancers. It is anticipated that lipoplatin will replace cisplatin as well as increase its potential applications. For the first time, a platinum drug has shown superiority to cisplatin, at least in non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer as reported in a Phase III study which documented a simultaneous lowering of all of the side effects of cisplatin.

  12. Lipoplatin formulation review article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathopoulos, G P; Boulikas, T

    2012-01-01

    Patented platform technologies have been used for the liposomal encapsulation of cisplatin (Lipoplatin) into tumor-targeted 110 nm (in diameter) nanoparticles. The molecular mechanisms, preclinical and clinical data concerning lipoplatin, are reviewed here. Lipoplatin has been successfully administered in three randomized Phase II and III clinical trials. The clinical data mainly include non-small-cell lung cancer but also pancreatic, breast, and head and neck cancers. It is anticipated that lipoplatin will replace cisplatin as well as increase its potential applications. For the first time, a platinum drug has shown superiority to cisplatin, at least in non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer as reported in a Phase III study which documented a simultaneous lowering of all of the side effects of cisplatin.

  13. Student Reviews of Selected Current Articles in Adolescent Psychology: Academics, Developmental Issues, Psychopathology, Sexual Behavior, Substance Abuse, and Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, H. Lee, Ed.; Sirmans, Amanda, Ed.

    Critical annotations of articles written in 1988 or 1989 and selected from "PSYCHSCAN: Clinical Psychology" are presented in this document. The annotations were written by college students in an undergraduate adolescent psychology class. The annotations are clustered under the following topics: (1) academics, including learning disabilities, sleep…

  14. Myotonic disorders: A review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Hahn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The myotonic disorders are a heterogeneous group of genetically determined diseases that are unified by the presence of myotonia, which is defined as failure of muscle relaxation after activation. The presentation of these disorders can range from asymptomatic electrical myotonia, as seen in some forms of myotonia congenita (MC, to severe disability with muscle weakness, cardiac conduction defects, and other systemic features as in myotonic dystrophy type I (DM1. In this review, we describe the clinical features and pathophysiology of the different myotonic disorders, their laboratory and electrophysiologic findings and briefly review the currently available treatments.

  15. Infantile Spasm: A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mahdi TAGHDIRI

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Taghdiri MM, Nemati H. Infantile Spasm: A Review Article. Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Summer;8(3: 1-5.AbstractObjectiveInfantile spasm (IS is a convulsive disease characterized by brief, symmetric axial muscle contraction (neck, trunk, and/or extremities. IS is a type of seizure that was first described by West in 1841, who witnessed the seizure in his own son. West’s syndrome refers to the classic triad of spasms, characteristic EEG, and neurodevelopmental regression. Most cases involve flexors and extensors,but either of the types may be involved independently.IS, as its name implies, most often occurs during the first year of life with an incidence of approximately 1 per 2000-4000 live births. Most, but not all, patients with this disorder have severe EEG abnormalities; this pattern was originallyreferred to as hypsarrhythmia by Gibbs and Gibbs. Cases with known etiology or signs of brain damage are considered as symptomatic. The Overall prognosis of the disease is poor. Peak onset age of the epileptic syndrome is 3 to 7 months, which mainly occurs before 2 years of age in 93% of patients. Hypsarrhythmia is the EEG hallmark of IS, which comprised a chaotic, bilaterally asynchronous high-voltage polyspike, and slow wave discharges interspersed with multifocal spikes and slow waves.Etiological classification is as follows: 1 Symptomatic: with identifiable prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal causes with developmental delay at the presentation time; 2 Cryptogenic: unknown underlying cause, normal development at the onset of spasms, normal neurological exam and neuroimaging, and no abnormality in the metabolic evaluation; 3 Idiopathic: pure functional cerebral dysfunction with complete recovery, no residual dysfunction, normal neuroimaging and normal etiologic evaluation, and normal neurodevelopment.ReferencesInfantile Spasms. In: Jean Aicardi: Disease of Nervous system in childhood. 3th ed. Mac Keith

  16. Tips and tricks in writing review article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syam, Ari Fahrial

    2007-01-01

    Review article or literature review actually is the simplest form of writing compared to a case report or study report. The writing process begins at pointing out topics to be written and informed to readers. The next step after the topic has been selected is to find literatures related to the article review writing. Principally, article writing plays an essential part in a doctor's life, whether as a specialist or consultant. And the most important is the desire to publish the article review.

  17. On Reviewing and Writing a Scholarly Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettis, Jerry L., Sr.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides guidelines for reviewing and writing scholarly articles for the professional who reads and writes them for his/her own work and/or for publication in scientific journals. It outlines the purpose and contents of each section of a research article and provides a checklist for reviewing and writing a research article. This…

  18. How to write a review article?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülpınar, Ömer; Güçlü, Adil Güçal

    2013-09-01

    In the medical sciences, the importance of review articles is rising. When clinicians want to update their knowledge and generate guidelines about a topic, they frequently use reviews as a starting point. The value of a review is associated with what has been done, what has been found and how these findings are presented. Before asking 'how,' the question of 'why' is more important when starting to write a review. The main and fundamental purpose of writing a review is to create a readable synthesis of the best resources available in the literature for an important research question or a current area of research. Although the idea of writing a review is attractive, it is important to spend time identifying the important questions. Good review methods are critical because they provide an unbiased point of view for the reader regarding the current literature. There is a consensus that a review should be written in a systematic fashion, a notion that is usually followed. In a systematic review with a focused question, the research methods must be clearly described. A 'methodological filter' is the best method for identifying the best working style for a research question, and this method reduces the workload when surveying the literature. An essential part of the review process is differentiating good research from bad and leaning on the results of the better studies. The ideal way to synthesize studies is to perform a meta-analysis. In conclusion, when writing a review, it is best to clearly focus on fixed ideas, to use a procedural and critical approach to the literature and to express your findings in an attractive way.

  19. Mass Observation Online (review article)

    OpenAIRE

    Hubble, N

    2010-01-01

    Copyright 2010 @ The Author. This article is shared under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike Licence Agreement. Under the terms of this Creative Commons licence (which applies only to the use of this work for non-commercial purposes), other parties are free to copy and distribute this work, and to make derivative works, under condition that the original author is given full credit, and that if this work is altered, transformed, or built upon, the resulting work may only ...

  20. Ophthalmic Parasitosis: A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal R. Nimir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocular parasitosis in human is more prevalent in geographical areas where environmental factors and poor sanitary conditions favor the parasitism between man and animals. Lesions in the eye can be due to damage directly caused by the infectious pathogen, indirect pathology caused by toxic products, or the immune response incited by infections or ectopic parasitism. The epidemiology of parasitic ocular diseases reflects the habitat of the causative parasites as well as the habits and health status of the patient. An ocular examination may provide clues to the underlying disease/infection, and an awareness of the possibilities of travel-related pathology may shed light on an ocular presentation. This paper is a comprehensive review of the parasitic diseases of the eye. The majority of the clinically important species of parasites involved in eye infection are reviewed in this paper. Parasites are discussed by the disease or infection they cause.

  1. Periodontal Dressing: A Review Article

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Baghani; Mahdi Kadkhodazadeh

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to review the commercially available periodontal dressings, their physical and chemical properties, biocompatibility and therapeutic effects. Electronic search of scientific papers from 1956 to 2012 was carried out using PubMed, Scopus and Wiley InterScience search engines using the searched terms periodontal dressing, periodontal pack. Numerous in vitro and in vivo studies have evaluated various properties of periodontal dressings. Physical and chemical properti...

  2. Periodontal Dressing: A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Baghani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to review the commercially available periodontal dressings, their physical and chemical properties, biocompatibility and therapeutic effects. Electronic search of scientific papers from 1956 to 2012 was carried out using PubMed, Scopus and Wiley InterScience search engines using the searched terms periodontal dressing, periodontal pack. Numerous in vitro and in vivo studies have evaluated various properties of periodontal dressings. Physical and chemical properties of dressings are directly related to their dimensional changes and adhesion properties. Their biocompatibility and therapeutic effect are among the other factors evaluated in the literature. Chlorhexidine is the most commonly used antibacterial agent in studies. In general, when comparing the advantages with the disadvantages, application of periodontal dressing seems to be beneficial. Numerous factors are involved in selection of an optimal dressing such as surgeon’s intention, required time for the dressing to remain on the surgery site and its dimensional changes.

  3. Mycetoma laboratory diagnosis: Review article.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amel Altayeb Ahmed

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Mycetoma is a unique neglected tropical disease caused by a substantial number of microorganisms of fungal or bacterial origins. Identification of the causative organism and the disease extension are the first steps in the management of the affected patients and predicting disease treatment outcome and prognosis. Different laboratory-based diagnostic tools and techniques were developed over the years to determine and identify the causative agents. These include direct microscopy and cytological, histopathological, and immunohistochemical techniques in addition to the classical grain culture. More recently, various molecular-based techniques have joined the mycetoma diagnostic armamentarium. The available mycetoma diagnostic techniques are of various specificity and sensitivity rates. Most are invasive, time consuming, and operator dependent, and a combination of them is required to reach a diagnosis. In addition, they need a well-equipped laboratory and are therefore not field friendly. This review aims to provide an update on the laboratory investigations used in the diagnosis of mycetoma. It further aims to assist practising health professionals dealing with mycetoma by outlining the guidelines developed by the Mycetoma Research Centre, University of Khartoum, WHO collaborating centre on mycetoma following a cumulative experience of managing more than 7,700 mycetoma patients.

  4. Mycetoma laboratory diagnosis: Review article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Amel Altayeb; van de Sande, Wendy; Fahal, Ahmed Hassan

    2017-08-01

    Mycetoma is a unique neglected tropical disease caused by a substantial number of microorganisms of fungal or bacterial origins. Identification of the causative organism and the disease extension are the first steps in the management of the affected patients and predicting disease treatment outcome and prognosis. Different laboratory-based diagnostic tools and techniques were developed over the years to determine and identify the causative agents. These include direct microscopy and cytological, histopathological, and immunohistochemical techniques in addition to the classical grain culture. More recently, various molecular-based techniques have joined the mycetoma diagnostic armamentarium. The available mycetoma diagnostic techniques are of various specificity and sensitivity rates. Most are invasive, time consuming, and operator dependent, and a combination of them is required to reach a diagnosis. In addition, they need a well-equipped laboratory and are therefore not field friendly. This review aims to provide an update on the laboratory investigations used in the diagnosis of mycetoma. It further aims to assist practising health professionals dealing with mycetoma by outlining the guidelines developed by the Mycetoma Research Centre, University of Khartoum, WHO collaborating centre on mycetoma following a cumulative experience of managing more than 7,700 mycetoma patients.

  5. Avian influenza : a review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yalda

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provides general information about avian influenza (bird flu and specific information about one type of bird flu, called avian influenza A (H5N1, that has caused infections in birds in Asia and Europe and in human in Asia. The main materials in this report are based on the World Health Organization (WHO , world organization for animal health (OIE , food and agriculture organization of the united nations (FAO information and recommendations and review of the published literature about avian influenza. Since December 2003, highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses have swept through poultry populations across Asia and parts of Europe. The outbreaks are historically unprecedented in scale and geographical spread. Their economic impact on the agricultural sector of the affected countries has been large. Human cases, with an overall fatality rate around 50%, have also been reported and almost all human infections can be linked to contact with infected poultry. Influenza viruses are genetically unstable and their behaviour cannot be predicted so the risk of further human cases persists. The human health implications have now gained importance, both for illness and fatalities that have occurred following natural infection with avian viruses, and for the potential of generating a re-assortant virus that could give rise to the next human influenza pandemic.

  6. Breast Cancer Epigenetics: Review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Abbasi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Stable molecular changes during cell division without change the sequence of DNA molecules is known as epigenetic. Molecular mechanisms involved in this process, including histone modifications, methylation of DNA, protein complex and RNA antisense. Cancer genome changes happen through a combination of DNA hypermethylation, long-term epigenetic silencing with heterozygosis loss and genomic regions loss. Different combinations of N-terminal changes cooperation with histone variants with have a specific role in gene regulation have led to load a setting histone that determine transcription potential of a particular gene or genomic regions. DNA methylation analysis in genome region using methylation-specific digital karyotyping of normal breast tissue detect gene expression patterns and DNA specific methylation can be found in breast carcinoma too. More than 100 genes in breast tumors or cell lines of breast cancer are reported hypermethylated. Important of DNA methylation on cancer has been concentrated CpG islands Hypermethylation. The most of the techniques are able to identify hypermethylated areas. Recent studies have showed the role of epigenetic silencing in the pathogenesis of breast cancer in which tumor suppressor genes have been changed by acetylation and DNA deacetylation. Histone deacetylase inhibitors have different roles in cancer cells and could show the ways of new treatment for breast cancer. In this review, various aspects of breast cancer epigenetics and its applications in diagnosis, prediction and treatment are described.

  7. Breast cancer epigenetics: review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Abbasi

    2016-11-01

    . Histone deacetylase inhibitors have different roles in cancer cells and could show the ways of new treatment for breast cancer. In this review, various aspects of breast cancer epigenetics and its applications in diagnosis, prediction and treatment are described.

  8. How to write a review article?

    OpenAIRE

    Gülpınar, Ömer; Güçlü, Adil Güçal

    2013-01-01

    In the medical sciences, the importance of review articles is rising. When clinicians want to update their knowledge and generate guidelines about a topic, they frequently use reviews as a starting point. The value of a review is associated with what has been done, what has been found and how these findings are presented. Before asking ‘how,’ the question of ‘why’ is more important when starting to write a review. The main and fundamental purpose of writing a review is to create a readable sy...

  9. Lymphangiosarcoma of dogs : a review : review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.H. Williams

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Lymphangiosarcoma in dogs, an extremely rare tumour with only 16 cases reported in the literature, is reviewed. Lymphangiosarcoma in humans, also very rare, and known in post-mastectomy, chronically-lymphoedematous patients as 'Stewart-Treves' syndrome, is briefly outlined, as well as the various other causes of lymphoedema, both primary and secondary, which usually precede malignancy. Comparisons between human and canine lymphoedema are made when such references were found. The genetic links to primary lymphoedema and the manifestation thereof in humans are mentioned. Lymphangiosarcoma in the majority of human and canine patients is an aggressively malignant tumour with few patients surviving despite various attempted treatments. The tumour most commonly arises in the subcutaneous tissues and rapidly invades underlying tissues and may spread widely internally via haematogenous and lymphatic routes, with frequent pleural and chest involvement. The tumour has been reported mostly in medium- to large-breed dogs, in slightly more males than females, and in an age-range of 8 weeks to 13 years, with more cases aged 5 years and older. Methods of diagnosis, with the variations encountered, including routine histopathology, immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, tissue culture characteristics and endothelial expression of glycocongugates, are discussed.

  10. Review Article: Multi-criteria decision making for flood risk management: a survey of the current state-of-the-art

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brito, M. M.; Evers, M.

    2015-11-01

    This paper provides a review of Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) applications to flood risk management, seeking to highlight trends and identify research gaps. Totally, 128 peer-reviewed papers published from 1995 to June 2015 were systematically analysed and classified into the following application areas: (1) ranking of alternatives for flood mitigation, (2) reservoir flood control, (3) susceptibility, (4) hazard, (5) vulnerability, (6) risk, (7) coping capacity, and (8) emergency management. Additionally, the articles were categorized based on the publication year, MCDM method, whether they were or were not carried out in a participatory process, and if uncertainty and sensitivity analysis were performed. Results showed that the number of flood MCDM publications has exponentially grown during this period, with over 82 % of all papers published since 2009. The Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was the most popular technique, followed by Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to an Ideal Solution (TOPSIS), and Simple Additive Weighting (SAW). Although there is greater interest on MCDM, uncertainty analysis remains an issue and is seldom applied in flood-related studies. In addition, participation of multiple stakeholders has been generally fragmented, focusing on particular stages of the decision-making process, especially on the definition of criteria weights. Based on the survey, some suggestions for further investigation are provided.

  11. Spatial distribution of superconducting and charge-density-wave order parameters in cuprates and its influence on the quasiparticle tunnel current (Review Article)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabovich, Alexander M.; Voitenko, Alexander I.

    2016-10-01

    The state of the art concerning tunnel measurements of energy gaps in cuprate oxides has been analyzed. A detailed review of the relevant literature is made, and original results calculated for the quasiparticle tunnel current J(V) between a metallic tip and a disordered d-wave superconductor partially gapped by charge density waves (CDWs) are reported, because it is this model of high-temperature superconductors that becomes popular owing to recent experiments in which CDWs were observed directly. The current was calculated suggesting the scatter of both the superconducting and CDW order parameters due to the samples' intrinsic inhomogeneity. It was shown that peculiarities in the current-voltage characteristics inherent to the case of homogeneous superconducting material are severely smeared, and the CDW-related features transform into experimentally observed peak-dip-hump structures. Theoretical results were used to fit data measured for YBa2Cu3O7-δ and Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ. The fitting demonstrated a good qualitative agreement between the experiment and model calculations. The analysis of the energy gaps in high-Tc superconductors is important both per se and as a tool to uncover the nature of superconductivity in cuprates not elucidated so far despite of much theoretical effort and experimental progress.

  12. Review article: eplerenone: an underused medication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuannadi, Mohammad; O'Keefe, James H

    2010-12-01

    In this article, we review the evidence supporting the use of eplerenone for improving cardiovascular prognosis. Activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system plays a major role in the pathogenesis of heart disease, and blockage of this system has been shown to improve prognosis in several cardiovascular conditions. The 2 marketed aldosterone antagonists, spironolactone and eplerenone, improve prognosis in patients with left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and are effective antihypertensive medications. In addition, a potential role for aldosterone antagonists in the treatment of patients with heart failure and preserved LV function has been suggested and is currently being evaluated in clinical trials. In patients with myocardial infarction having LV dysfunction and evidence of heart failure, eplerenone improves cardiovascular outcomes and attenuates myocardial remodeling. In addition, eplerenone is effective for the treatment of hypertension, where it regresses both LV hypertrophy and proteinuria (2 powerful markers of increased cardiovascular risk). In contrast to spironolactone, eplerenone essentially lacks the sexual side effects that sometimes limit the use of spironolactone. Hyperkalemia is the main potential side effect of eplerenone, especially when used in combination with other medications that can cause hyperkalemia. Adequate patient selection and monitoring are therefore of utmost importance when using this medication. In conclusion, eplerenone is a medication that offers the cardiovascular therapeutic and prognostic benefits of aldosterone antagonism but with fewer side effects compared to spironolactone.

  13. Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement: A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A Siordia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR is a novel therapeutic intervention for the replacement of severely stenotic aortic valves in high-risk patients for standard surgical procedures. Since the initial PARTNER trial results, use of TAVR has been on the rise each year. New delivery methods and different valves have been developed and modified in order to promote the minimally invasive procedure and reduce common complications, such as stroke. This review article focuses on the current data on the indications, risks, benefits, and future directions of TAVR. Recently, TAVR has been considered as a standard-of-care procedure. While this technique is used frequently in high-risk surgical candidates, studies have been focusing on the application of this method for younger patients with lower surgical risk. Moreover, several studies have proposed promising results regarding the use of valve-in-valve technique or the procedure in which the valve is placed within a previously implemented bioprosthetic valve. However, ischemic strokes and paravalvular leak remain a matter of debate in these surgeries. New methods and devices have been developed to reduce the incidence of post-procedural stroke. While the third generation of TAVR valves (i.e., Edwards Sapien 3 and Medtronic Evolut R addresses the issue of paravalvular leak structurally, results on their efficacy in reducing the risk of paravalvular leak are yet to be obtained. Furthermore, TAVR enters the field of hybrid methods in the treatment of cardiac issues via both surgical and catheter-based approaches. Finally, while TAVR is primarily performed on cases with aortic stenosis, new valves and methods have been proposed regarding the application of this technique in aortic regurgitation, as well as other aortic pathologies. TAVR is a suitable therapeutic approach for the treatment of aortic stenosis in high-risk patients. Considering the promising results in the current patient population

  14. Review Article: Instructed Second Language Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Norbert

    2008-01-01

    This article overviews current research on second language vocabulary learning. It concludes that a large vocabulary is necessary to function in English: 8000-9000 word families for reading, and perhaps as many as 5000-7000 families for oral discourse. In addition, a number of word knowledge aspects need to be learned about each lexical item.…

  15. Neoadjuvant therapy in pancreatic cancer: review article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pross, Moritz; Wellner, Ulrich F; Honselmann, Kim C; Jung, Carlo; Deichmann, Steffen; Keck, Tobias; Bausch, Dirk

    2015-03-20

    Pancreatic cancer is still associated with a high mortality and morbidity for affected patients. To this date the role of neoadjuvant therapy in the standard treatment of pancreatic cancer remains elusive. The aim of our study was to review the latest results and current approaches in neoadjuvant therapy of pancreatic cancer. We performed a literature review for neoadjuvant therapy in pancreatic cancer. We divided the results into resectable disease and local advanced pancreatic cancer. Neoadjuvant therapy in pancreatic cancer is safe. But currently no standard guidelines exist in neoadjuvant approaches on pancreatic cancer. For local advanced pancreatic cancer the available data tends to show a positive effect on survival rates for neoadjuvant approaches. For resectable disease we found no benefit of neoadjuvant therapy. The negative or positive effects of neoadjuvant treatment in pancreatic cancer remain unclear for the lack of sufficient and prospective data.

  16. Trends in Current Tobacco Use, Smoking Rates and Quit Attempts among Saudi Population during Periods of 17 Years (1996-2012: Narrative Review Article.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid M Almutairi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the causes behind increase trends in smoking and extent of tobacco use in Saudi Arabia. We also explored the issues related to and its impact tobacco control research and policy in the Kingdom.Data were collected from various published articles, public data based such as WHO, Geneva and CDC Atlanta. Data were also obtained from surveys conducted by various institutions under The Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS for high school students and Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS for medical student. Tobacco importation data and death rates were estimated by various International Organizations.Tobacco importation in Saudi Arabia increased from 1996 to 2012. The proportion of smokers in the KSA almost doubled especially in males from 21% in 1996 to 37% in 2012. Mortality attributable to tobacco in the KSA was estimated to account for 280, 000 premature deaths over the same period (without accounting for smuggled tobacco. The economic burden of tobacco consumption over the last 10 years (2001-2010 in the KSA was 20.5 billion US dollars (based on 2011 prices. Anti-tobacco measures in KSA have been reinforced by the enactment of anti-tobacco laws and collaboration among different government agencies and ministries.If effective tobacco control strategies are not enacted, serious consequences, increasing premature mortality rates among them, will continue to threaten the KSA.

  17. Rupture of pectoralis major muscle: review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guity MR

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Rupture of pectoralis major muscle is a very rare and often athletic injury. These days in our country this injury occurs more frequently. This could be due to increase in professional participation of amateur people in different types of sport, like body building and weight-lifting (especially bench-pressing without adequate preparation, training and taking necessary precautions. In this article, we have tried to review several aspects of complex anatomy of pectoralis major muscle, epidemiology, mechanism, clinical presentations, imaging modalities, surgical indications and techniques of its rupture. Complex and especial anatomy of pectoralis major muscle, in its humeral insertion particularly, have a major role of its vulnerability to sudden and eccentric contraction as the main mechanism of rupture. Also, restoration of this complex anatomy seems to be important during surgical repair to have normal function of the muscle again.

  18. Cardiovascular effects of fingolimod: A review article.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohaddeseh Behjati

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic auto-immune disease. Most therapeutic strategies for treatment of this disease direct immune modulation and control of inflammatory processes. First-line therapeutic agents showed moderate efficacy and frequent side-effects with moderate efficacy in trials. Their parental administration and limited long-term adherence restrict their efficacy compared with second-line therapies. Fingolimod as a second-line therapeutic agent has been shown to reduce annualized relapse rate, risk of disability progression and inflammatory activity of relapsing MS. Safety and efficacy FTY720: Safety and efficacy issues are the main metrics for judgment of drug efficacy. In this article, we focus on cardiovascular effects of FTY720 treatment. Effect of FTY720 on rate and rhythm, impact of FTY720 on endothelial cells, its atheroprotective effects, its effects on cardiac transplantation outcomes, vascular complications of FTY720, effects of FTY720 on endocrine functions and interaction of FTY720 with cardioactive agents are explained in this review article.

  19. Patient rights in Iran: a review article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joolaee, Soodabeh; Hajibabaee, Fatemeh

    2012-01-01

    A significant development for conducting research on patient rights has been made in Iran over the past decade. This study is conducted in order to review and analyze the previous studies that have been made, so far, concerning patient rights in Iran. This is a comprehensive review study conducted by searching the Iranian databases, Scientific Information Database, Iranian Research Institute for Information Science and Technology, Iran Medex and Google using the Persian equivalent of keywords for 'awareness', 'attitude', and 'patient rights'. For pertinent Iranian papers published in English, scientific databases PubMed, and Google Scholar were searched using the keyword 'patient rights' and 'Iran'. A total of 41 Persian and five English articles were found for these keywords, only 26 of which fulfilled the objective of our study. The increasing number of papers published indicates that from 1999 onwards, this subject has begun to draw the attention of Iranian researchers in a progressive fashion and Iranian papers in English have also been compiled and published in international sources.

  20. Review article: burnout in emergency medicine physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Manit; Asha, Stephen; Chinnappa, Jason; Diwan, Ashish D

    2013-12-01

    Training and the practice of emergency medicine are stressful endeavours, placing emergency medicine physicians at risk of burnout. Burnout syndrome is associated with negative outcomes for patients, institutions and the physician. The aim of this review is to summarise the available literature on burnout among emergency medicine physicians and provide recommendations for future work in this field. A search of MEDLINE (1946-present) (search terms: 'Burnout, Professional' AND 'Emergency Medicine' AND 'Physicians'; 'Stress, Psychological' AND 'Emergency Medicine' AND 'Physicians') and EMBASE (1988-present) (search terms: 'Burnout' AND 'Emergency Medicine' AND 'Physicians'; 'Mental Stress' AND 'Emergency Medicine' AND 'Physicians') was performed. The authors focused on articles that assessed burnout among emergency medicine physicians. Most studies used the Maslach Burnout Inventory to quantify burnout, allowing for cross-study (and cross-country) comparisons. Emergency medicine has burnout levels in excess of 60% compared with physicians in general (38%). Despite this, most emergency medicine physicians (>60%) are satisfied with their jobs. Both work-related (hours of work, years of practice, professional development activities, non-clinical duties etc.) and non-work-related factors (age, sex, lifestyle factors etc.) are associated with burnout. Despite the heavy burnout rates among emergency medicine physicians, little work has been performed in this field. Factors responsible for burnout among various emergency medicine populations should be determined, and appropriate interventions designed to reduce burnout.

  1. Inuit Elderly: A Systematic Review of Peer Reviewed Journal Articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, Balvinder K; Barker, Melanie; MacLean, Calvin; Grischkan, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Over the last century, Inuit have experienced rapid social changes that have greatly impacted their way of life, health, and intergenerational traditions. Although there is a growing body of research concerning Inuit youth, relatively little is known about elderly Inuit. In an effort to bridge this knowledge gap, a systematic review of peer-reviewed journal articles was conducted. This review identified a dearth of research on older Inuit, and highlighted limitations in service provision to this primarily rural and isolated population. Implications for policy and practice and recommendations for future research are also discussed.

  2. Review article: Cosmology with cosmic shear observations

    CERN Document Server

    Kilbinger, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Cosmic shear is the distortion of images of distant galaxies due to weak gravitational lensing by the large-scale structure in the Universe. Such images are coherently deformed by the tidal field of matter inhomogeneities along the line of sight. By measuring galaxy shape correlations, we can study the properties and evolution of structure on large scales as well as the geometry of the Universe. Thus, cosmic shear has become a powerful probe into the nature of dark matter and the origin of the current accelerated expansion of the Universe. Over the last years, cosmic shear has evolved into a reliable and robust cosmological probe, providing measurements of the expansion history of the Universe and the growth of its structure. We review here the principles of weak gravitational lensing and show how cosmic shear is interpreted in a cosmological context. Then we give an overview of weak-lensing measurements, and present the main observational cosmic-shear results since it was discovered 15 years ago, as well as ...

  3. Invited Review Article: Pump-probe microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Martin C., E-mail: Martin.Fischer@duke.edu; Wilson, Jesse W.; Robles, Francisco E. [Department of Chemistry, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Warren, Warren S. [Departments of Chemistry, Biomedical Engineering, Physics, and Radiology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Multiphoton microscopy has rapidly gained popularity in biomedical imaging and materials science because of its ability to provide three-dimensional images at high spatial and temporal resolution even in optically scattering environments. Currently the majority of commercial and home-built devices are based on two-photon fluorescence and harmonic generation contrast. These two contrast mechanisms are relatively easy to measure but can access only a limited range of endogenous targets. Recent developments in fast laser pulse generation, pulse shaping, and detection technology have made accessible a wide range of optical contrasts that utilize multiple pulses of different colors. Molecular excitation with multiple pulses offers a large number of adjustable parameters. For example, in two-pulse pump-probe microscopy, one can vary the wavelength of each excitation pulse, the detection wavelength, the timing between the excitation pulses, and the detection gating window after excitation. Such a large parameter space can provide much greater molecular specificity than existing single-color techniques and allow for structural and functional imaging without the need for exogenous dyes and labels, which might interfere with the system under study. In this review, we provide a tutorial overview, covering principles of pump-probe microscopy and experimental setup, challenges associated with signal detection and data processing, and an overview of applications.

  4. The classic. Review article: Traffic accidents. 1966.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tscherne, H

    2013-09-01

    This Classic Article is a translation of the original work by Prof. Harald Tscherne, Der Straßenunfall [Traffic Accidents]. An accompanying biographical sketch of Prof. Tscherne is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-013-3011-x . An online version of the original German article is available as supplemental material. The Classic Article is reproduced with permission from Brüder Hollinek & Co. GesmbH, Purkersdorf, Austria. The original article was published in Wien Med Wochenschr. 1966;116:105-108. (Translated by Dr. Roman Pfeifer.).

  5. Review Articles for Continuing Education in Pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionne, Raymond A.

    1983-01-01

    A study of 196 dentists' comprehension of an article in a leading dental continuing education journal revealed about four-fifths gaining knowledge, and the remainder decreasing or showing no change in knowledge. Use of scholarly articles as an efficient continuing education method is recommended. (MSE)

  6. Review article: Emergency Department implications of the TASER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, Megan; Close, Benjamin; Furyk, Jeremy; Aitken, Peter

    2009-08-01

    The TASER is a conducted electricity device currently being introduced to the Australian and New Zealand police forces as an alternative to firearms in dealing with violent and dangerous individuals. It incapacitates the subject by delivering rapid pulses of electricity causing involuntary muscle contraction and pain. The use of this device might lead to cardiovascular, respiratory, biochemical, obstetric, ocular and traumatic sequelae. This article will summarize the current literature and propose assessment and management recommendations to guide emergency physicians who will be required to review these patients.

  7. Review Article The epidemiology of noncommunicable respiratory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    including tobacco smoke, household air pollution, outdoor air pollution and occupational exposures. Review ... diseases also have a significant economic impact, causing ...... Pollution and Climate Change as Environmental Risk Factors of.

  8. Enlivening basic-science learning with current journal articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresford, W A

    1996-01-01

    Pre-clinical medical students are often unconvinced that the basic sciences are clinically valuable. Also, they are hesitant about formulating ideas on their own from non-textbook sources. First-year medical students taking histology or neurobiology were persuaded to consult articles from the current biomedical literature. I set brief short-answer and labeled-sketch questions well before the course theoretical examinations, where the answers counted toward the score. The answers could only be found by reading in articles made available in the laboratory. The articles were chosen to display basic-science knowledge in action in clinical contexts. The questions offer an additional curriculum that can be steered toward, for example, concerns of family practice, mechanisms of common diseases, and topics of fast-increasing clinical importance.

  9. Review Article: Fiction for Young Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Philip

    1989-01-01

    Surveys some recent fiction which reflects both the diverse interests and varying reading abilities of 11-18 year olds. Presents brief reviews of 26 novels touching on themes such as family, first love, social issues, adventure, fantasy, and thrillers. (RS)

  10. Ironising the Myth of Linguicism: Review Article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Alan

    1996-01-01

    Reviews Robert Phillipson's "Linguistic Imperialism," a book about the imposition of English on former colonies of Great Britain. Notes that the book taps into the guilt felt by the rich North about the poor South and that the role of language in an imperial enterprise is important. (22 references) (Author/CK)

  11. Review Article The role of vitamin A

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tic effect. This biological activity of vitamin A is reviewed with regard to anticarcinogenesis,'the reversal of ... connected with its inhibition of the development of epithelial cancer. Vitamin A is .... some embryonic tissues, or growth inhibition, e.g. in some tran - ... genesi with rabbit papilloma and murine sarcoma virus. Other.

  12. [Pharmacodynamics of synthetic estrogens. Review article].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojo-Aranda, I; Cortés-Gallegos, V

    1990-10-01

    Some details about the function of natural and synthetical hormonas are reviewed, particularly estrogens as ethynyl estradiol and its 3, Methyl ether (mestranol); its peripheral concentration vs tissular hormonal contents, a relationship of biological importance as the first step in its hormonal action and the cummulative local effects that could explain some intra and extracellular phenomena.

  13. Dental ceramics: a current review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Nathaniel C; Burgess, John O

    2014-03-01

    Ceramics are used for many dental applications and are characterized in various ways, including by their hardness, brittleness, thermal and electrical insulation, and biocompatibility. The ceramics most commonly used in dentistry are oxides, particularly silicon dioxide (SiO2), or silica; aluminum oxide (Al2O3), or alumina; and zirconium dioxide (ZrO2), or zirconia. This article reviews the microstructure of current dental ceramic materials and how it relates to their mechanical properties, clinical techniques, and optical properties. Typical ceramics currently in use are described, and their clinically relevant properties such as strength, fracture, polishability, and wear are compared. Cementation methods are also discussed.

  14. Transferrin in ifshes:A review article

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Berhan Asmamaw

    2016-01-01

    Transferrin is a single monomeric glycoprotein of molecular weight of 80 kDa that transports iron involved in many metabolic processes amongst the sites of absorption, storage and utilization, hence considered as the major iron binding protein in the plasma of vertebrate species. In this study, transferrin structure, synthesis, receptor and the mechanism of cellular uptake of iron from transferrin have been reviewed. Besides, the major biological functions of transferrin and the different forms of it (polymorphisms) have been indicated.

  15. Transferrin in fihes: A review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berhan Asmamaw

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Transferrin is a single monomeric glycoprotein of molecular weight of 80 kDa that transports iron involved in many metabolic processes amongst the sites of absorption, storage and utilization, hence considered as the major iron binding protein in the plasma of vertebrate species. In this study, transferrin structure, synthesis, receptor and the mechanism of cellular uptake of iron from transferrin have been reviewed. Besides, the major biological functions of transferrin and the different forms of it (polymorphisms have been indicated.

  16. Review Article: Quantum Nanophotonics in Diamond

    CERN Document Server

    Schröder, Tim; Zheng, Jiabao; Trusheim, Matthew E; Walsh, Michael; Chen, Edward H; Li, Luozhou; Bayn, Igal; Englund, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    The past decade has seen great advances in developing color centers in diamond for sensing, quantum information processing, and tests of quantum foundations. Increasingly, the success of these applications as well as fundamental investigations of light-matter interaction depend on improved control of optical interactions with color centers -- from better fluorescence collection to efficient and precise coupling with confined single optical modes. Wide ranging research efforts have been undertaken to address these demands through advanced nanofabrication of diamond. This review will cover recent advances in diamond nano- and microphotonic structures for efficient light collection, color center to nanocavity coupling, hybrid integration of diamond devices with other material systems, and the wide range of fabrication methods that have enabled these complex photonic diamond systems.

  17. Perioperative fasting and children: A review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Imani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This review provides an overview of the present knowledge on the aspects of preoperative fasting with the assessment of the evidence quality. A systematic research was conducted in electronic databases in order to identify trials published between 1990 and 2014 concerning preoperative fasting, early resumption of oral intake and the effects of oral carbohydrate mixtures on gastric emptying and postoperative recovery. The publications were classified in terms of their evidence level, scientific validity and clinical relevance. The key recommendations are that children be encouraged to drink clear fluids within up to 2 hours before elective surgery (including Caesarean section and all but one member of the guideline groups consider that tea or coffee, with milk added (up to about one fifth of the total volume, are still clear fluids .Furthermore, solid food consumption should be prohibited for up to 6 hours before elective surgery for children. However, patients should not have their operation cancelled or delayed only because they are chewing gums or sucking a boiled sweet immediately prior to the induction of anaesthesia. These recommendations also apply to those patients with obesity, gastro-oesophageal reflux and diabetes. There is insufficient evidence to support the routine use of antacids, metoclopramide or H2-receptor antagonists before elective surgery in non-obstetric patients. Infants should be fed before elective surgery. Breast milk is considered a safe option for up to 4 hours and other kinds of milk for up to 6 hours. The present review takes into account the safety and possible benefits of preoperative carbohydrates while offering advice on the postoperative resumption of oral intake.

  18. Nutritional Factors and Osteoarthritis: A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. R N Srivastava

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA is the most common disease according to TNS Arogya survey 2007. Although OA was previously thought to be a progressive degenerative disorder, it is now known that spontaneous arrest or reversal of disease can occur. Conventional medications are often effective for symptomatic relief but they can also cause significant side effects and do not slow the progression of disease. Though the role of nutritional factors in OA has been suggested as early as 700 BC, it was first established in the 1960s. Several nutritional factors are helpful in relieving the symptoms of OA and they might positively affect the progression of the disease without any side effects. Preliminary evidences suggest several of these may have a role in influencing the course of OA. Studies have proven the role of these factors and experiment based results have established their therapeutic role. Research is ongoing on the beneficial properties of plant derived extracts for OA and nutraceuticals industries are accordingly making firm contribution to this sector. This article focuses the role of nutrients to slow down the progression of OA and their future aspects.

  19. Dynamical quantum phase transitions (Review Article)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvyagin, A. A.

    2016-11-01

    During recent years the interest to dynamics of quantum systems has grown considerably. Quantum many body systems out of equilibrium often manifest behavior, different from the one predicted by standard statistical mechanics and thermodynamics in equilibrium. Since the dynamics of a many-body quantum system typically involve many excited eigenstates, with a non-thermal distribution, the time evolution of such a system provides an unique way for investigation of non-equilibrium quantum statistical mechanics. Last decade such new subjects like quantum quenches, thermalization, pre-thermalization, equilibration, generalized Gibbs ensemble, etc. are among the most attractive topics of investigation in modern quantum physics. One of the most interesting themes in the study of dynamics of quantum many-body systems out of equilibrium is connected with the recently proposed important concept of dynamical quantum phase transitions. During the last few years a great progress has been achieved in studying of those singularities in the time dependence of characteristics of quantum mechanical systems, in particular, in understanding how the quantum critical points of equilibrium thermodynamics affect their dynamical properties. Dynamical quantum phase transitions reveal universality, scaling, connection to the topology, and many other interesting features. Here we review the recent achievements of this quickly developing part of low-temperature quantum physics. The study of dynamical quantum phase transitions is especially important in context of their connection to the problem of the modern theory of quantum information, where namely non-equilibrium dynamics of many-body quantum system plays the major role.

  20. Review article: colitis-associated cancer -- time for new strategies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shanahan, F

    2012-02-03

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains a feared and potentially life-threatening complication of both ulcerative colitis and Crohn\\'s colitis. Currently, the main preventive strategy is a secondary one, i.e. surveillance colonoscopy usually after 8 years of disease duration, when the risk for neoplasia begins to increase. Despite its widespread acceptance, dysplasia and cancer surveillance is unproven in terms of reducing mortality or morbidity and there is a remarkable lack of uniformity in the manner in which it is practised. In this review article, the pitfalls of dysplasia surveillance are summarized and the need for novel chemopreventive and perhaps pharmabiotic approaches for prevention are highlighted.

  1. Review article "Assessment of economic flood damage"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Merz

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Damage assessments of natural hazards supply crucial information to decision support and policy development in the fields of natural hazard management and adaptation planning to climate change. Specifically, the estimation of economic flood damage is gaining greater importance as flood risk management is becoming the dominant approach of flood control policies throughout Europe. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art and identifies research directions of economic flood damage assessment. Despite the fact that considerable research effort has been spent and progress has been made on damage data collection, data analysis and model development in recent years, there still seems to be a mismatch between the relevance of damage assessments and the quality of the available models and datasets. Often, simple approaches are used, mainly due to limitations in available data and knowledge on damage mechanisms. The results of damage assessments depend on many assumptions, e.g. the selection of spatial and temporal boundaries, and there are many pitfalls in economic evaluation, e.g. the choice between replacement costs or depreciated values. Much larger efforts are required for empirical and synthetic data collection and for providing consistent, reliable data to scientists and practitioners. A major shortcoming of damage modelling is that model validation is scarcely performed. Uncertainty analyses and thorough scrutiny of model inputs and assumptions should be mandatory for each damage model development and application, respectively. In our view, flood risk assessments are often not well balanced. Much more attention is given to the hazard assessment part, whereas damage assessment is treated as some kind of appendix within the risk analysis. Advances in flood damage assessment could trigger subsequent methodological improvements in other natural hazard areas with comparable time-space properties.

  2. Review article "Assessment of economic flood damage"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, B.; Kreibich, H.; Schwarze, R.; Thieken, A.

    2010-08-01

    Damage assessments of natural hazards supply crucial information to decision support and policy development in the fields of natural hazard management and adaptation planning to climate change. Specifically, the estimation of economic flood damage is gaining greater importance as flood risk management is becoming the dominant approach of flood control policies throughout Europe. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art and identifies research directions of economic flood damage assessment. Despite the fact that considerable research effort has been spent and progress has been made on damage data collection, data analysis and model development in recent years, there still seems to be a mismatch between the relevance of damage assessments and the quality of the available models and datasets. Often, simple approaches are used, mainly due to limitations in available data and knowledge on damage mechanisms. The results of damage assessments depend on many assumptions, e.g. the selection of spatial and temporal boundaries, and there are many pitfalls in economic evaluation, e.g. the choice between replacement costs or depreciated values. Much larger efforts are required for empirical and synthetic data collection and for providing consistent, reliable data to scientists and practitioners. A major shortcoming of damage modelling is that model validation is scarcely performed. Uncertainty analyses and thorough scrutiny of model inputs and assumptions should be mandatory for each damage model development and application, respectively. In our view, flood risk assessments are often not well balanced. Much more attention is given to the hazard assessment part, whereas damage assessment is treated as some kind of appendix within the risk analysis. Advances in flood damage assessment could trigger subsequent methodological improvements in other natural hazard areas with comparable time-space properties.

  3. Review article: dietary fibre-microbiota interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, H L; Campbell, B J

    2015-07-01

    Application of modern rapid DNA sequencing technology has transformed our understanding of the gut microbiota. Diet, in particular plant-based fibre, appears critical in influencing the composition and metabolic activity of the microbiome, determining levels of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) important for intestinal health. To assess current epidemiological, experimental and clinical evidence of how long-term and short-term alterations in dietary fibre intake impact on the microbiome and metabolome. A Medline search including items 'intestinal microbiota', 'nutrition', 'diet', 'dietary fibre', 'SCFAs' and 'prebiotic effect' was performed. Studies found evidence of fibre-influenced differences in the microbiome and metabolome as a consequence of habitual diet, and of long-term or short-term intervention (in both animals and humans). Agrarian diets high in fruit/legume fibre are associated with greater microbial diversity and a predominance of Prevotella over Bacteroides. 'Western'-style diets, high in fat/sugar, low in fibre, decrease beneficial Firmicutes that metabolise dietary plant-derived polysaccharides to SCFAs and increase mucosa-associated Proteobacteria (including enteric pathogens). Short-term diets can also have major effects, particularly those exclusively animal-based, and those high-protein, low-fermentable carbohydrate/fibre 'weight-loss' diets, increasing the abundance of Bacteroides and lowering Firmicutes, with long-term adherence to such diets likely increasing risk of colonic disease. Interventions to prevent intestinal inflammation may be achieved with fermentable prebiotic fibres that enhance beneficial Bifidobacteria or with soluble fibres that block bacterial-epithelial adherence (contrabiotics). These mechanisms may explain many of the differences in microbiota associated with long-term ingestion of a diet rich in fruit and vegetable fibre. © 2015 The Authors. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. The Peer Education Approach in Adolescents- Narrative Review Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, Fatemeh; Simbar, Masoumeh

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Adolescence is an important stage of human life span, which crucial developmental processes occur. Since peers play a critical role in the psychosocial development of most adolescents, peer education is currently considered as a health promotion strategy in adolescents. Peer education is defined as a system of delivering knowledge that improves social learning and provides psychosocial support. As identifying the outcomes of different educational approaches will be beneficial in choosing the most effective programs for training adolescents, the present article reviewed the impact of the peer education approach on adolescents. In this review, databases such as PubMed, EMBASE, ISI, and Iranian databases, from 1999 to 2013, were searched using a number of keywords. Peer education is an effective tool for promoting healthy behaviors among adolescents. The development of this social process depends on the settings, context, and the values and expectations of the participants. Therefore, designing such programs requires proper preparation, training, supervision, and evaluation. PMID:26171331

  5. Physiotherapy for Women with Stress Urinary Incontinence: A Review Article

    OpenAIRE

    Ghaderi, Fariba; Oskouei, Ali E.

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] This review article is designed to expose physiotherapists to a physiotherapy assessment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and the treatment and possibly preventive roles that they might play for women with SUI. Specifically, the goal of this article is to provide an understanding of pelvic floor muscle function and the implications that this function has for physiotherapy treatment by reviewing articles published in this area. [Methods] A range of databases was searched to ident...

  6. Review Article: Celiac Disease, New Approaches to Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashtak, Shahrooz; Murray, Joseph A

    2014-01-01

    STRUCTURED SUMMARY Background Celiac disease is managed by life-long gluten withdrawal from the diet. However strict adherence to a gluten-free diet is difficult and is not always effective. Novel therapeutic approaches are needed to supplement or even replace the dietary treatment. Aims To review recent advances in new therapeutic options for celiac disease. Methods A literature search was performed on MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, Scopus, DDW.org and ClinicalTrial.gov for English articles and abstracts. The search terms used include but not limited to “Celiac disease”, “new”, “novel”, Advances”, “alternatives” and “Drug therapy”. The cited articles were selected based on the relevancy to the review objective. Results Several new therapeutic approaches for celiac disease are currently under development by targeting its underlying pathogenesis. Alternative therapies range from reproduction of harmless wheat strains to immunomodulatory approaches. Some of these therapies such as enzymatic cleavage of gluten and permeability inhibitors have shown promise in clinical studies. Conclusion Gluten-free diet is still the only practical treatment for patients with celiac disease. Novel strategies provide promise of alternative adjunctive approaches to diet restriction alone for patients with this disorder. PMID:22324389

  7. Review article: medical education research: an overview of methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boet, Sylvain; Sharma, Saroo; Goldman, Joanne; Reeves, Scott

    2012-02-01

    This article provides clinician-teachers with an overview of the process necessary to move from an initial idea to the conceptualization and implementation of an empirical study in the field of medical education. This article will allow clinician-teachers to become familiar with educational research methodology in order to a) critically appraise education research studies and apply evidence-based education more effectively to their practice and b) initiate or collaborate in medical education research. This review uses relevant articles published in the fields of medicine, education, psychology, and sociology before October 2011. The focus of the majority of research in medical education has been on reporting outcomes related to participants. There has been less assessment of patient care outcomes, resulting in informing evidence-based education to only a limited extent. This article explains the process necessary to develop a focused and relevant education research question and emphasizes the importance of theory in medical education research. It describes a range of methodologies, including quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods, and concludes with a discussion of dissemination of research findings. A majority of studies currently use quantitative methods. This article highlights how further use of qualitative methods can provide insight into the nuances and complexities of learning and teaching processes. Research in medical education requires several successive steps, from formulating the correct research question to deciding the method for dissemination. Each approach has advantages and disadvantages and should be chosen according to the question being asked and the specific goal of the study. Well-conducted education research should allow progression towards the important goal of using evidence-based education in our teaching and institutions.

  8. Standards for the preparation and writing of Psychology review articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernández-Ríos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of bibliographical resources addressing a topic is an interesting subject for research. It is included as part of literature reviews. The aim of this theoretical study is to establish a series of standards for planning, preparing and writing Psychology review articles. With this aim, the study suggests a set of guidelines for the structuring and justification of content for these types of articles: organisation of the article, background understanding of the topic, literature review, style and understanding of argumentative structure, theoretical and practical relevance of conclusions, the critical and interdisciplinary perspectives of the article, recommendations for future research and what the article can bring to the future advancement of the discipline. The work concludes on the relevance of the study undertaken and accepts the importance of undertaking the necessary reviews from the interdisciplinary perspective of building psychological understanding.

  9. Improving your journal article using feedback from peer review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Bob

    2014-09-30

    While preparation of a journal article for submission may often include informal review by colleagues, an article is not accepted for publication until it has been formally peer reviewed. Peer review is the process whereby journal editors ask expert reviewers to examine the work submitted and prepare a report on its suitability for publication. Two or more revisions of the article may be required following peer review, with the author reworking the article in the light of feedback received on each occasion. This can be challenging for some authors, but used well, it offers a chance to improve the work to the required standard of the journal, and help the author present a more precise and coherent account of the arguments. The extent to which the author responds to the critical commentary of peer reviewers is important, because this may determine whether or not the article is published. This article explores the aims of peer reviewers and recommends ways in which authors can respond to the feedback provided.

  10. Teaching the Scientific Method Using Current News Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Laura K.; Mahan, Carolyn G.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a short (less than 50 minutes) activity using news articles from sources such as "Science Daily" to teach students the steps of the scientific method and the difference between primary and secondary literature sources. The flexibility in choosing news articles to examine allowed us to tailor the activity to the specific interests of…

  11. Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    communities and with approval by an independent ethics review committee ... Guidelines for biomedical research involving human subjects require that research should be conducted in accordance with accepted ... Material and methods.

  12. Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-06-12

    Jun 12, 2009 ... under his microscope at home is outlined and used throughout the article. The analyses conclude ... (vi) preimplantation DNA tests to be carried out on a polar body of an ovum, ..... In general, what you study under your own ...

  13. Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-12-01

    Dec 1, 2012 ... to publish results; and the disclosure of conflicts of interest.3 There ... citizens may not have access to basic medical services. Article 32 of the DoH ... these guidelines is compulsory under the direction of the Director-. General ...

  14. Review article: the diagnosis and investigation of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, K; Kaffes, A J

    2011-08-01

    Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) is a commonly encountered clinical problem in gastroenterology and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The investigation and management of OGIB has changed dramatically over the past decade with the advent of newer gastroenterological and radiological technologies. To review the current evidence on the diagnosis and investigation of OGIB. We searched the PubMed database (1985-2010) for full original articles in English-language journals relevant to the investigation of OGIB. The search terms we used were 'gastrointestinal bleeding' or 'gastrointestinal hemorrhage' or 'small bowel bleeding' each in combination with 'obscure', or 'capsule endoscopy', or 'enteroscopy' or 'enterography' or 'enteroclysis'. Capsule endoscopy (CE) or double balloon enteroscopy (DBE) should be first line investigations. They are complimentary procedures with comparable high diagnostic yields. DBE is also able to provide therapeutic intervention. Newer technologies such as single balloon and spiral enteroscopy are currently being evaluated. Radiological and nuclear medicine investigations, such as CT enterography and CT enteroclysis, are alternative diagnostic tools when CE or DBE are contraindicated. Repeating the gastroscopy and/or colonoscopy may be considered in selective situations. An algorithm for investigation of obscure bleeding is proposed. The development of capsule endoscopy and double balloon enteroscopy has transformed the approach to the evaluation and management of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding over the past decade. Older diagnostic modalities still play a complementary, but increasingly selective role. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Article

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    The Economic and Political Studies(EPS)is a peer-reviewed academic journal.The EPS seeks to promote the studies of economics and politics by addressing issues concerning China and its interaction with the world,encouraging an interdisciplinary approach,while exploring critiques from various perspectives.The journal also provides an international forum for innovative theoretical and empirical work where the fields of economics and politics intersect.Both

  16. ARTICLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    A Study on the European Nation State in the Context of State Transforma- tion;An Analysis of the French Nation State and Its Idea of Nation;The Evolution of the German Nation State. from a Cultural Community to a Post-classical Nation State;From a Catholic Community to a Frustrated Nation-state--A historical Review on Spain's State Building.

  17. Review Article: Kneeling at the Altar of (Il-)liberalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanhuysse, Pieter

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the politics of ideas, jobs, and anger in post-communist Europe and it critically reviews Phineas Baxandall's (2004) Constructing Unemployment, and David Ost's (2005) The Defeat of Solidarity. It argues that as the new democracies in Central Europe approach the end of their......This article discusses the politics of ideas, jobs, and anger in post-communist Europe and it critically reviews Phineas Baxandall's (2004) Constructing Unemployment, and David Ost's (2005) The Defeat of Solidarity. It argues that as the new democracies in Central Europe approach the end...

  18. Tailoring of Interventional Procedures for HCC Patients-Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Ghanaati

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the most frequent primary malignant tumors in the world is hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC."nCurrently, the optimal treatment methods for HCC are hepatic resection and liver transplantation."nUnfortunately, surgical therapies are suitable for 20% of patients and those who are not eligible"nfor surgery should undergo interventional therapies. In the past decade, a variety of interventional"nprocedures have been employed for local control of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC including"ntranscatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE and many tumor ablation techniques, such as"npercutaneous ethanol injection (PEI, radio-frequency ablation (RFA, percutaneous microwave"ncoagulation therapy (PMC, laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy (LITT, cryoablation, and"nacetic acid injection. By development of new technologies in imaging and drug delivery, it is likely"nthat in the future patients with HCC will be treated by combination therapies to improve patient"nsurvival. Computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI have a crucial role in"ndiagnosis and also follow-up of HCC patients treated by interventional procedures, by which the"ntreatment efficacy, recurrence of disease and certain complications are evaluated."nIn this review article, we discuss the imaging modalities and also tailoring of interventional"nprocedures for HCC patients.

  19. Peer Review of Chemistry Journal Articles: Collaboration across Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widanski, Bozena Barbara; Courtright-Nash, Debra

    2006-01-01

    A survey was conducted among second-year students in organic chemistry (OC) lab and first-year students in English composition (EC) to determine whether an interdisciplinary exchange and review of articles would improve students' understanding of the process of scientific research and of writing within the field of chemistry. The primary…

  20. Review Article: The Imaging of What in the Multilingual Mind?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bot, Kees

    2008-01-01

    In this review article it is argued that while the number of neuro-imaging (NI) studies on multilingual processing has exploded over the last few years, the contribution of such studies to enhance our understanding of the process of multilingual processing has not been very substantial. There are problems on various levels, which include the…

  1. Ten Years of Peer-Reviewed Articles in Counselor Education: Where, What, Who?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minton, Casey A. Barrio; Fernando, Delini M.; Ray, Dee C.

    2008-01-01

    Although counselor educators may be called on to justify publication venues, authorship order, and types of articles for purposes of promotion and tenure, there are few sources of data regarding norms for publication in counselor education. The current study examined peer-reviewed publication venues, article types, and authorship order of 317…

  2. Physiotherapy for women with stress urinary incontinence: a review article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaderi, Fariba; Oskouei, Ali E

    2014-09-01

    [Purpose] This review article is designed to expose physiotherapists to a physiotherapy assessment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and the treatment and possibly preventive roles that they might play for women with SUI. Specifically, the goal of this article is to provide an understanding of pelvic floor muscle function and the implications that this function has for physiotherapy treatment by reviewing articles published in this area. [Methods] A range of databases was searched to identify articles that address physiotherapy for SUI, including the Cochrane Library, Medline, and CINAHL. [Results] According to the articles identified in our databases research, greater improvements in SUI occur when women receive a supervised exercise program of at least three months. The effectiveness of physiotherapy treatment is increased if the exercise program is based on some principles, such as intensity, duration, resembling functional task, and the position in which the exercise for pelvic floor muscles is performed. Biofeedback and electrical stimulation may also be clinically useful and acceptable modalities for some women with SUI. [Conclusion] We concluded that the plan for physiotherapy care should be individualized for each patient and include standard physiotherapy interventions.

  3. Physiotherapy for Women with Stress Urinary Incontinence: A Review Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaderi, Fariba; Oskouei, Ali E.

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] This review article is designed to expose physiotherapists to a physiotherapy assessment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and the treatment and possibly preventive roles that they might play for women with SUI. Specifically, the goal of this article is to provide an understanding of pelvic floor muscle function and the implications that this function has for physiotherapy treatment by reviewing articles published in this area. [Methods] A range of databases was searched to identify articles that address physiotherapy for SUI, including the Cochrane Library, Medline, and CINAHL. [Results] According to the articles identified in our databases research, greater improvements in SUI occur when women receive a supervised exercise program of at least three months. The effectiveness of physiotherapy treatment is increased if the exercise program is based on some principles, such as intensity, duration, resembling functional task, and the position in which the exercise for pelvic floor muscles is performed. Biofeedback and electrical stimulation may also be clinically useful and acceptable modalities for some women with SUI. [Conclusion] We concluded that the plan for physiotherapy care should be individualized for each patient and include standard physiotherapy interventions. PMID:25276044

  4. Review Article: The New Political Economy of Skill Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanhuysse, Pieter

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews the emerging literatures on public policies to invest in, and protect, human capital and valuable asset-specific skills. Special attention is given to two recent books on the topic: James Heckman and Alan Krueger's (2003) Inequality in America, and Torben Iversen's (2005......) Capitalism, Democracy, and Welfare. The article argues that, cumulatively, the literatures in economics, politics, sociology and political economy show that human capital policies can be institutional sources of competitive economic advantage. Efficiency can be boosted by strategies aiming both to provide...

  5. Quantitative Assessment of Statistical Reviews of Patient Safety Research Articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Jeffrey R; Dexter, Franklin; Espy, Jennifer L; Brull, Sorin J

    2017-06-06

    For 8.5 consecutive years, all patient safety articles of a journal underwent statistical review before publication. We sought to establish the prevalence of statistical themes in the statistical reviews, consideration of contemporary statistical methods, and their associations with time to journal receipt of authors' revision. An initial set of statistical themes was created using the statistical editor's notes. For example, for the statistical theme of "CONSORT checklist," the search term needed was "CONSORT." A complete (exhaustive) list of additional themes was obtained inductively. Among the 273 subsequent reviews for manuscripts that were ultimately accepted, the number of paragraphs that included a theme of a statistical method was only weakly associated with longer revision times (Kendall τ = 0.139 ± 0.039, P = 0.0004). Among the total 3274 paragraphs of statistical reviews, 72.2% did not include a theme of a statistical method (e.g., the editor instead asked the authors to clarify what statistical method had been used) (95% confidence interval [CI] = 70.6%-73.7%, P paragraphs of statistical review comments, only 16.0% included a contemporary theme (95% CI = 13.7%-18.6%). The revised versions of patient safety articles, which are eventually to be accepted for publication, have many statistical limitations especially in the reporting (writing) of basic statistical methods and results. The results suggest a need for education of patient safety investigators to include statistical writing.

  6. Infertility, Ovulation Induction, and Cancers Risk in Women: Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasibeh Sharifi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Using fertility treatment has increased markedly in recent decades. However, various concerns associated with the use of fertility drugs, such as increased risk of cancer, has developed. The objective of the present study is to overview studies in the field of infertility, ovulation induction, and its impact on cancer risks in women. Material & Methods: This study is a review of all articles published during the years 1995 and 2014 through databases SID, magiran, Medlib, pubmed, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Science Direct. Comprehensive search was done with the keywords of infertility, ovulation induction, the risk of cancer, gynecological cancer, clomiphene citrate, human chorionic gonadotropin, uterine cancer, ovarian cancer, and breast cancer for Persian articles and their English equivalents for English articles. After reviewing, a total of 79 articles were included in the study. Results: Various studies revealed the possibility of an increased risk of uterine, ovarian, and breast cancer and hormonal changes associated with ovulation stimulation. But these results are not conclusive because of small sample size, short follow-up periods, and vague information about the type and the way drug is consumed. Conclusion: Mainly women's cancer are associated with hormonal issues. Controversy over research results requisite further evaluation in order to investigate the impact of ovulation-inducing drugs on cancer risk which needs a well designed study.

  7. Statistical reviewers improve reporting in biomedical articles: a randomized trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Cobo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although peer review is widely considered to be the most credible way of selecting manuscripts and improving the quality of accepted papers in scientific journals, there is little evidence to support its use. Our aim was to estimate the effects on manuscript quality of either adding a statistical peer reviewer or suggesting the use of checklists such as CONSORT or STARD to clinical reviewers or both. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Interventions were defined as 1 the addition of a statistical reviewer to the clinical peer review process, and 2 suggesting reporting guidelines to reviewers; with "no statistical expert" and "no checklist" as controls. The two interventions were crossed in a 2x2 balanced factorial design including original research articles consecutively selected, between May 2004 and March 2005, by the Medicina Clinica (Barc editorial committee. We randomized manuscripts to minimize differences in terms of baseline quality and type of study (intervention, longitudinal, cross-sectional, others. Sample-size calculations indicated that 100 papers provide an 80% power to test a 55% standardized difference. We specified the main outcome as the increment in quality of papers as measured on the Goodman Scale. Two blinded evaluators rated the quality of manuscripts at initial submission and final post peer review version. Of the 327 manuscripts submitted to the journal, 131 were accepted for further review, and 129 were randomized. Of those, 14 that were lost to follow-up showed no differences in initial quality to the followed-up papers. Hence, 115 were included in the main analysis, with 16 rejected for publication after peer review. 21 (18.3% of the 115 included papers were interventions, 46 (40.0% were longitudinal designs, 28 (24.3% cross-sectional and 20 (17.4% others. The 16 (13.9% rejected papers had a significantly lower initial score on the overall Goodman scale than accepted papers (difference 15.0, 95% CI: 4

  8. Diabetic Personal Health Record: A Systematic Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirabbas AZIZI

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes disease is one of the 4 main types of non-communicable diseases. No research has been conducted in order to identify data items for Diabetic Personal Health Record (DPHR, in Iran. This study, with the aim of systematically developing the DPHR was done to supply ultimately the country with a national model through Delphi method.Methods: We conducted a systematic review of the literature using the following electronic databases: PubMed, Web of sciences, Scopus, Science Direct, and ACM digital library. The year of the study included the obtained articles was 2013. We used a 3-step method to identify studies related to DPHR. Study selection processes were performed by two reviewers independently. The eligible studies were included in this review. Quality of studies was assessed using a mixed approach scoring system. Reviewers used 2-step method for the validation of the final DPHR model.Results: Initially, 2011 papers were returned from online databases and 186 studies from gray literature search. After removing duplicates, study screening, and applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, 129 studies were eligible for further full-text review. Considering the full-text review, 34 studies were identified for final review. Given the content of selected studies, we determined seven main classes of DPHR. The highest score belongs to home monitoring data class by mean of 19.83, and the lowest was general data class by mean of 3.89.Conclusion: Together with representative sample of endocrinologist in Iran achieved consensus on a DPHR model to improve self-care for diabetic patients and to facilitate physician decision making. Keywords: Type 2 diabetes, Personal health record, Systematic review, Self-care, Iran

  9. [Clinical research VIII. Structured review of an article].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talavera, Juan O; Rivas-Ruiz, Rodolfo

    2012-01-01

    There has been proposed several strategies to select an article under the assumption of quality and relevance. Mostly depend on the presence or absence of a number of features and others, depends of the judgment of other people. However, these strategies do not allow us to know the magnitude of the error contained within each article. And considering that there is not a perfect one, it is important to identify the magnitude of the error and the impact of this in the final result; consequently, it is necessary to develop skills that allow us to review a paper, identify potential errors, and generate a sense of the impact of it over the result. Using the information contained in Clinical Research Series I-VII, we have tried to show its application in a structured review of an article of causality beginning with the revision of the baseline, the maneuver and the outcome, with systematic errors (bias) generated in each section, followed by the appropriate of the statistical test and the sample size used, and finally, the clinical relevance.

  10. Review Article: The New Political Economy of Skill Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanhuysse, Pieter

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews the emerging literatures on public policies to invest in, and protect, human capital and valuable asset-specific skills. Special attention is given to two recent books on the topic: James Heckman and Alan Krueger's (2003) Inequality in America, and Torben Iversen's (2005...... affordable, high-quality childcare and cognitive as well as behavioral skills in schooling, and to protect valuable asset-specific skill investments. These are important messages for policymakers, and they open up promising avenues for future research on the cognitive, behavioral, and micro-political sources...

  11. Review article: Jesus’ resurrection in Joseph’s garden

    OpenAIRE

    Estelle Dannhauser

    2010-01-01

    The article is a lengthy review of the book Jesus’ resurrection in Joseph’s garden by P.J.W. (Flip) Schutte. The book represents a quest to trace the relationship between Jesus’ resurrection, myth and canon. Schutte finds the origin of events underlying the biblical canon in proclamation. His focus in the book is the proclamation of the death and resurrection of Christ, which, in its developmental stages, hinged on the life and death of the historical Jesus. Proclamation developed into a myth...

  12. CSF Ascites: Review of articles and a case presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Pourkhalili

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF ascites is a rare complication after ventriculopritoneal (VP shunts. Most patients have gradual abdominal protrusion without any neurological sign or symptom of shunt malfunction. We presented a girl with posterior third ventricle glioblastoma and acute hydrocephalus who developed increasingly abdominal protrusion one month after VP shunt operation. Ascites fluid examination showed characteristic findings similar to CSF with no evidence of infection or malignant cells. Ventriculo-atrial shunt revision cured patient's ascites. Review articles of patients with CSF ascites after VP shunt were presented in details. Key words: Cerebrospinal fluid, Ascites, Ventriculopritoneal Shunt

  13. New Chronic Pain Treatments in the Outpatient Setting: Review Article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandhe, R; Souzdalnitski, D; Gritsenko, K

    2016-05-01

    Chronic pain is an issue encountered by many health care providers in their routine clinical practice. In addition to generalized patient suffering, this condition has significant clinical, psychological, and socioeconomic impact due to its widespread occurrence. The landscape of chronic pain management has been changing rapidly with an array of treatment innovations, better understanding of established therapies, and care coordination across specialties. In this article, we have reviewed emerging new modalities as well as transformation of established therapies by interventional, pharmacologic, rehabilitative, psychological, complimentary, and interdisciplinary approaches.

  14. Oral Health and Coronary Artery Disease, A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Rostami

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is the most common cause of myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke. Various risk factors have been identified for atherosclerosis. Recently, bacterial and viral organisms, which are involved in chronic inflammatory processes, have been also implicated in atherosclerosis development. Individuals with a prior history of periodontal diseases and/or tooth loss are considered to be at a higher risk for peripheral arterial disease, compared to those without periodontal diseases or tooth loss. Evidence suggests that periodontitis contributes to the overall burden of infection and inflammation and may lead to cardiovascular events and stroke in susceptible patients. In this article, we aimed to review the available data on the relationship between periodontal diseases and cardiovascular diseases, especially coronary artery disease. At least sixty papers were reviewed during 2014-15. Of these, 44 were included in our study.

  15. Noise pollution in intensive care units: a systematic review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Khademi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Noise pollution in hospital wards can arise from a wide range of sources including medical devices, air-conditioning systems and conversations among the staffs. Noise in intensive care units (ICUs can disrupt patients’ sleep pattern and may have a negative impact on cognitive performance. Material and methods: In this review article, we searched through PubMed and Google Scholar, using [noise and (ICU or “intensive care unit”] as keyword to find studies related to noise pollution in ICUs. In total, 250 studies were found among which 35 articles were included. Results: The majority of the reviewed studies showed that noise pollution levels were higher in ICUs than the level recommend by The United States Environmental Protection Agency and World Health Organization. Noise pollution was mostly caused by human activity and operating equipments in ICUs and other hospital wards.  Conclusion: As the results indicated, identifying, monitoring and controlling noise sources, as well as educating the hospital staffs about the negative effects of noise on patients’ health, can be highly effective in reducing noise pollution.

  16. Augmented Articles: The Future of Peer-Reviewed Publications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madura, Thomas Ignatius; Clementel, Nicola; Gull, Theodore R.

    2015-08-01

    The predominance of 2D figures and animations in the literature is clearly driven by the need to display data in a classic paper-journal format. However, there is no real reason that researchers should be limited to 2D graphics when presenting their results in peer-reviewed publications. This is especially true since all major astrophysical journals are now published online. So-called ‘augmented articles’ are possible, in which 3D interactive models, images, sound, and video can be included directly within an Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF) article. The inclusion of 3D interactive models in the astrophysics literature is slowly becoming popular, and several journals now fully support the inclusion of 3D interactive figures and movies. I present examples of recently published augmented articles in astronomy (e.g. Madura et al. 2015, arXiv:1503.00716) and discuss their perceived benefits and limitations. Such articles may become the norm in astronomy as data and numerical simulations increasingly become multidimensional (see http://www.technologyreview.com/view/535796/astronomers-create-3-d-printed-model-of-colliding-stellar-winds/).

  17. Statistical Techniques Used in Published Articles: A Historical Review of Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skidmore, Susan Troncoso; Thompson, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to provide a historical account and metasynthesis of which statistical techniques are most frequently used in the fields of education and psychology. Six articles reviewing the "American Educational Research Journal" from 1969 to 1997 and five articles reviewing the psychological literature from 1948 to 2001…

  18. Open access to journal articles in oncology: current situation and citation impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, F; Sun, H; Walsh, T; Glenny, A-M; Worthington, H

    2017-10-01

    Recent years have seen numerous efforts and resources devoted to the development of open access (OA), but the current OA situation of the oncology literature remains unknown. We conducted this cross-sectional study to determine the current share and provision methods of OA in the field of oncology, identify predictors of OA status (OA versus non-OA), and study the association between OA and citation counts. PubMed was searched for oncology-related, peer-reviewed journal articles published in December 2014. Google, Google Scholar, PubMed, ResearchGate, OpenDOAR and OAIster were manually checked to assess the OA status of each included article. Citation data were extracted from Web of Science, Scopus and Google Scholar. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the OA proportion (primary outcome) and OA provision methods. Multivariable logistic regression and multilevel generalized linear model analyses were performed to study predictors of OA status and the association between OA and citation counts, respectively. In a random sample of 1000 articles, 912 were deemed eligible and therefore included. Of these, the full-texts of 530 articles (58.1%; 95% CI: 54.9-61.3) were freely available online: 314 (34.4%) were available from publishers ('Gold road' to OA), 424 (46.5%) were available via self-archiving ('Green road' to OA). According to multivariable regression analyses, impact factor, publisher type, language, research type, number of authors, continent of origin, and country income were significant predictors of articles' OA status; OA articles received a citation rate 1.24 times the incidence rate for non-OA articles (95% CI: 1.05-1.47; P = 0.012). Based on our sample, in the field of oncology, 42% of recent journal articles are behind the pay-wall (non-OA) 1 year after publication; the 'Green road' of providing OA is more common than the 'Gold road'; OA is associated with higher citation counts.

  19. The Peer-Review Process for Articles in Iran’s Scientific Journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abooyee Ardakan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This research with purpose of study the peer-review process in articles and its necessity for controlling of published scientific works quality, considered the types of refereeing currently practiced, the decision-making methods and criteria for acceptance of articles, the major decision makers, editor in chief problems, and the current norms in the peer-review process. The method used was a survey, and the data-collecting tool was a questionnaire. The statistical population of this research included 245 scientific journals. The results of the study show that, currently, the predominant type of refereeing for articles submitted to these journals is ‘double blind’ and the prevailing method of informing authors about the results of manuscript evaluation is ‘commenting on the manuscript after refereeing it and after consideration in an editorial board meeting.’ The findings also indicate that two criteria— ‘Originality and creativity of the research’ and ‘Being within the journal’s scope’—play the most important role in article acceptance. Of the five main parties cooperating in the peer-review process for these journals, the editorial board plays the most fundamental role. About the editor in chief problems, they have exposed with three problems "prolonged peer review time", "articles weak quality" and "financial problems".

  20. Promoting Engagement with Peer-Reviewed Journal Articles in Adult ESL Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Marilyn L.; Rossiter, Marian J.; Hatami, Sarvenaz

    2015-01-01

    Engagement with current research is essential for the implementation of evidence-informed instructional practices in adult English as a second language classrooms. We explored Canadian administrators' and instructors' engagement with peer-reviewed research articles, perceptions of their impact, and ways in which stakeholders could enhance…

  1. Review Article: Second Language Acquisition of Bantu Languages--A (Mostly) Untapped Research Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinner, Patti

    2011-01-01

    This review article presents a summary of research on the second language acquisition of Bantu languages, including Swahili, Zulu, Xhosa and Lingala. Although second language (L2) research on these languages is currently very limited, work in morphosyntax and phonology suggests promising directions for future study, particularly on noun class,…

  2. Review Article: Second Language Acquisition of Bantu Languages--A (Mostly) Untapped Research Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinner, Patti

    2011-01-01

    This review article presents a summary of research on the second language acquisition of Bantu languages, including Swahili, Zulu, Xhosa and Lingala. Although second language (L2) research on these languages is currently very limited, work in morphosyntax and phonology suggests promising directions for future study, particularly on noun class,…

  3. Invited Review Article: Practical guide for pyroelectric measurementsa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubomirsky, Igor; Stafsudd, Oscar

    2012-05-01

    The characterization of pyroelectric materials is a necessary stage in the design of a large variety of pyroelectric-based devices ranging from intrusion alarms to IR cameras. The sample configurations and measurement techniques currently in use vary widely and require careful attention in order to avoid artifacts. In this review, we provide a practical guide to the measurement of the pyroelectric coefficient, paying particular attention to the new instrumental possibilities (fast sinusoidally modulated light sources, low impedance broad band current meters, and fast averaging oscilloscopes) that have become available during the last decade. Techniques applicable to bulk specimens, substrate-supported films, and self-supported films are described in detail. The most commonly used procedures are classified according to the type of thermal excitation: continuous ramping, heat pulse, and continuous oscillation. In the appendices, we describe the practical realization of these measurement schemes and provide mathematical descriptions for the extraction of the pyroelectric coefficient from the measured data.

  4. Hyperimmunoglobulin-D Syndrome in Children: A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Golpour

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperimmunoglobulin-D syndrome (HIDS is a rare, autosomal recessively inherited autoinflammatory disease caused by mutations in the mevalonate kinase gene. HIDS usually starts in infancy with recurrent fever episodes lasting three to seven days and recurring every three to six weeks, with only partial symptom decrease in adulthood. Fever is typically accompanied by abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea and cervical lymphadenopathy, and sometimes by skin and joint symptoms. Blood leukocytes and serum C-reactive protein (CRP are elevated during the episode, and in addition, high levels of interleukine-1 (IL-1, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF and respective soluble receptors are measured. Currently, there is no established treatment for HIDS. So far, four children have been successfully treated by TNF-alpha inhibitor (etanercept and three children with IL-1 receptor antagonist (anakinra. The current study is a narrative review about the updates of HIDS.

  5. Invited Hand Article: Current Concepts in Treatment of Fracture-Dislocations of the Proximal Interphalangeal Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Steven C.; Chung, Kevin C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Proximal interphalangeal joint fracture-dislocations are common injuries that require expedient and attentive treatment for the best outcomes. Management can range from protective splinting and early mobilization to complex operations. In this review, the current concepts surrounding the managment of these injuries are reviewed. Methods A literature review was performed of all recent articles pertaining to proximal interphalangeal joint fracture-dislocation, with specific focus on middle phalangeal base fractures. Where appropriate, older articles, or articles on closely related injury types were included for completeness. The methodology and outcomes of each study were analyzed. Results When small avulsion fractures are present, good results are routinely obtained with reduction and early mobilization of stable injuries. Strategies for management of the unstable dorsal fracture-dislocation have evolved over time. To provide early stability, a variety of techniques have evolved, including closed, percutaneous, external, and internal fixation methods. Although each of these techniques can be successful in skilled hands, none have been subjected to rigorous, prospective, comparative trials. Volar dislocations fare less well, with significant loss of motion in many studies. Pilon fractures represent the most complicated injuries, and return of normal motion is not expected. Conclusion The best outcomes can be achieved by (1) establishing enough stability to allow early motion, (2) restoring gliding joint motion rather than non-congruent motion, and (3) restoring the articular surface congruity when possible. Although the majority of literature on this topic consists of expert opinion and retrospective case series, the consensus appears to favor less invasive techniques whenever possible. PMID:25415092

  6. Nonthermal Effects of Radar Exposure on Human: A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    vida zaroushani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Microwave is part of the electromagnetic spectrum that has different application such as communications, military, air-traffic Control and etc... Previous studies showed that radar frequency could be a health hazard agent. This review article mentioned some of the studies that investigated non-thermal effects of radar frequencies. Reproductive effects, cancers, blood effects, genetic, adverse immune effects and mental effects are non-thermal effects that presented in this report. There are many unknown aspects of the biological effects and many of them did not determined very well such as oxidative stress and mental effects. Compliance with permissible exposure limits, reduction in exposure, and shielding are some of the controlling methods to protect workers from the exposure of microwave and among them, The use of shielding is a superior method for prevention of microwave exposure and among them, electromagnetic Nano composites shields is appropriate for protection of workers from radar exposure.

  7. Burden and nutritional deficiencies in opiate addiction- systematic review article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabipour, Sepideh; Ayu Said, Mas; Hussain Habil, Mohd

    2014-08-01

    Addiction to the illicit and prescribed use of opiate is an alarming public health issue. Studies on addictive disorders have demonstrated severe nutritional deficiencies in opiate abusers with behavioral, physiological and cognitive symptoms. Opiate addiction is also link with a significant number of diseases including Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) and other blood borne diseases generally stem from the use of needles to inject heroin. The use of medication assisted treatment for opioid addicts in combination with behavioural therapies has been considered as a highly effective treatment. Methadone is a long-lasting μ-opioid agonist and a pharmacological tool which attenuates withdrawal symptoms effectively replacement therapies. This review article aims to explain opiate addiction mechanisms, epidemiology and disease burden with emphasis on dietary and nutritional status of opiate dependent patients in methadone maintenance therapy.

  8. A REVIEW ARTICLE ON IMPORTANCE OF HETEROCYCLIC COMPOUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOURAV DE

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Heterocyclic compounds are of very much interest in our daily life. Heterocyclic compounds have one or more heteroatoms in their structure. They may be cyclic or non-cyclic in nature. Heterocyclic compounds have a wide range of application. They are predominantly used as pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and veterinary products. They also find applications as sanitizers, developers, antioxidants, corrosion inhibitors, copolymers, dyestuff. They are used as vehicles in the synthesis of other organic compounds. Some of the natural products e.g. antibiotics such as penicillin’s, cephalosporin; alkaloids such as vinblastine, morphine, reserpine etc. have heterocyclic moiety. More than 90% of new drugs contain heterocycles and the interface between chemistry and biology, at which so much new scientific insight, discovery, and application is taking place is crossed by heterocyclic compounds. This review article covers the most active heterocycles that have shown considerable biological actions such as antibiotic, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, anticancer, anticonvulsant, anthelmintic, antihistamine, antidepressant activities.

  9. A REVIEW ARTICLE ON MUCOADHESIVE BUCCAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasvir Singh* and Pawan Deep

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: As an alternative to injection pharmaceutical researcher and scientist are trying to explore transdermal and transmucosal route over the last few years. To overcome the deficiency associated with the other route of administration buccal region of oral cavity is an alternative target for the administration of choice of drug. The disadvantages relative with the oral drug delivery is the extensive presystemic metabolism, instability in acidic medium as a result inadequate absorption of the drugs. However parental route may overcome the drawback related with the oral route but these formulations have high cost, supervision is required and least patient compliance. By the buccal route the drug are directly pass through into systemic circulation, less hepatic metabolism and high bioavailability. The aim of the review article is an overview of buccal drug delivery, anatomy of oral mucosa, mechanism of drug penetration and their in-vitro and in-vivo mucoadhesion testing method.

  10. Mitomycin-C and 5- FU in ophthalmology: review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Jabbarvand Behrouz

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available "nThe response of living tissues to the surgical trauma is associated with varying degrees of tissue repair and involves two distinct processes including replacement and regeneration. Replacement results in scar tissue formation instead of restoration of the normal architecture. However, regeneration leads to restoration of the original architecture leaving no sign of injury. Anti-proliferative agents are used to inhibit tissue responses to surgical trauma. Among them mitomycin- C and 5- FU had gained increasing applications in ophthalmic surgeries, including filtering glaucoma surgeries, laser vision correction with excimer laser by ablative surface refractive surgery, reconstructive surgeries for ocular surface disorders and removal of neoplastic tissues and secondary operations on nasolacrimal ducts. In this review article, the various aspects of applications of these agents including their mechanism of action, function, mode of application and complications in different ophthalmology fields are discussed.

  11. Burden and nutritional deficiencies in opiate addiction- systematic review article.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Nabipour

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Addiction to the illicit and prescribed use of opiate is an alarming public health issue. Studies on addictive disorders have demonstrated severe nutritional deficiencies in opiate abusers with behavioral, physiological and cognitive symptoms. Opiate addiction is also link with a significant number of diseases including Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV, Hepatitis C Virus (HCV and other blood borne diseases generally stem from the use of needles to inject heroin. The use of medication assisted treatment for opioid addicts in combination with behavioural therapies has been considered as a highly effective treatment. Methadone is a long-lasting μ-opioid agonist and a pharmacological tool which attenuates withdrawal symptoms effectively replacement therapies. This review article aims to explain opiate addiction mechanisms, epidemiology and disease burden with emphasis on dietary and nutritional status of opiate dependent patients in methadone maintenance therapy.

  12. Review article: The mountain motif in the plot of Matthew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert J. Volschenk

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This article reviewed T.L. Donaldson’s book, Jesus on the mountain: A study in Matthean theology, published in 1985 by JSOT Press, Sheffield, and focused on the mountain motif in the structure and plot of the Gospel of Matthew, in addition to the work of Donaldson on the mountain motif as a literary motif and as theological symbol. The mountain is a primary theological setting for Jesus’ ministry and thus is an important setting, serving as one of the literary devices by which Matthew structured and progressed his narrative. The Zion theological and eschatological significance and Second Temple Judaism serve as the historical and theological background for the mountain motif. The last mountain setting (Mt 28:16–20 is the culmination of the three theological themes in the plot of Matthew, namely Christology, ecclesiology and salvation history.

  13. Stem Cell Transplantation in Iran: A Systematic Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowshanak ABBASI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stem cell therapy is a new treatment option for different diseases. The aim of this systematic review is assessing the articles that focus on SCT in Iran and evaluate the amount of their success, failure and complication.Methods: Systematic search was conducted for finding English and Persian papers (controlled trials and cohort studies with follow up published before March 2015. We searched PubMed, ISI, and SCOPUS as the main international electronic data sources, as well as Iranmedex, Irandoc, andSID as the main domestic databases. Quality assessment of clinical trial and cohort study was performed based on the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT and the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE check lists respectively.Results: The 19 published articles in this systematic review included 2 cohort, 13 clinical trial, 3 open label clinical trial and 1 clinical trial pilot study. The stem cell types for transplantation were Mesenchymal (63.15%, mononuclear (31.6%, and fetal liver cell suspension (5.6%. The most SCT was performed at Tehran (68.42%, Shiraz (15.8%, Kerman & Isfahan hospitals (5.26%. The main diseases were decompensated cirrhosis and myocardial infarction (26.31%, MS (15.78%, DM (10.52%, Burger disease, neuroblastoma, sub-acute spinal cord injury and osteoarthritis (5.26%.Conclusion: The most of cells transplantation are performed successfully in Iran. Cell transplantation may be safely administered to treat patients with disabling disease. Keywords: Clinical Trial, Cohort, Stem Cell Transplantation, Iran

  14. Role of Interventional Radiology in Endocrine Diseases- Review Article

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    Hossein GHANAATI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a number of procedures for interventional radiology diagnosis and treatment have been developed by the radiologists. The ‘Interventional Radiology’ refers to the therapeutic procedures performed under imaging guidance. The emergence of this specialty has been made possible by a lot of advances in the technology, imaging systems, and radiologists experience. Interventional radiologists are physicians who are experienced in minimally invasive procedures and targeted treatments which have less risk, less pain and less recovery time in comparison with the surgery. Minimizing the patient discomfort, avoid of general anesthesia, lower incidence of morbidity and mortality, and decreases the length and cost of hospitalization are some advantages of interventional radiology procedures. Similar to all medical fields, interventional procedures have been introduced and developed for the diagnosis and treatment of endocrinology procedures. In this article we aim to review and report our experience about the role of interventional radiology in venous sampling for endocrine diseases (such as parathyroid venous sampling, inferior petrosal sinus sampling, adrenal venous sampling, and venous sampling for islet cell tumors. In addition, interventional treatments of neuroendocrine cancer metastases to the liver, percutaneous ethanol injection therapy for secondary hyperparathyroidism, treatment of hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules by percutaneous ethanol injection, radiofrequency ablation of the adrenal gland neoplasms, and also establishing a cGMP pancreatic islet processing facility have been discussed in this article. Keywords: Interventional radiology, Endocrine diseases, Endovascular, Treatment

  15. Factors affecting sexual function in menopause: A review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Nazarpour

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to systematically review the articles on factors affecting sexual function during menopause. Searching articles indexed in Pubmed, Science Direct, Iranmedex, EMBASE, Scopus, and Scientific Information Database databases, a total number of 42 studies published between 2003 and 2013 were selected. Age, estrogen deficiency, type of menopause, chronic medical problems, partner's sex problems, severity of menopause symptoms, dystocia history, and health status were the physical factors influencing sexual function of menopausal women. There were conflicting results regarding the amount of androgens, hormonal therapy, exercise/physical activity, and obstetric history. In the mental–emotional area, all studies confirmed the impact of depression and anxiety. Social factors, including smoking, alcohol consumption, the quality of relationship with husband, partner's loyalty, sexual knowledge, access to health care, a history of divorce or the death of a husband, living apart from a spouse, and a negative understanding of women's health were found to affect sexual function; however, there were conflicting results regarding the effects of education, occupation, socioeconomic status, marital duration, and frequency of sexual intercourse.

  16. Effects of anxiety and depression on periodontal diseases: review article

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    Mahvash Mousavi jazi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available   Background and Aims: Periodontitis does not affect on all patients by the same way. There are some risk factors in some people that make them more sensitive to progress of periodontitis. Smoking, uncontrolled diabetes, and special pathogens increase the risk of periodontitis. Other factors such as stress, depression and anxiety, are not crucial risk factors for periodontitis yet. Biologic explanation of this relation is that mental conditions and exposure to stressful situations can alter immune response. The aim of this study was to review the psychological factors of anxiety and depression associated with periodontitis.   Materials and Methods: For this review article, we have searched through internet by the following keywords; periodontal disease, anxiety, depression. We have tried to cover almost all dental– related sites and journals as well as Pubmed from 1990-2010.   Conclusion: Most published studies support a positive relationship between periodontitis and several psycho-social factors. Life style, stressful conditions, hormonal changes, nonchalance in oral hygiene, habits such as smoking are predisposing factors in periodontal diseases.

  17. MAGNETIC BACTERIA AND THEIR POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS: A REVIEW ARTICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Rajab Eljmeli

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This outline explores the scientific discovery concerning the magnetotactic bacteria (MTB. The results of the discovery are used in microbiology, mineralogy, limnology, physics, biophysics, chemistry, biochemistry, geology, crystallography, and astrobiology. Magnetosomes of the MTB are organized in linear chains and orient the cell body along geomagnetic field lines while flagella actively propel the cells, resulting in so-called magnetotaxis. Materials and Methods: The review article about the magnetotactic bacteria is a collection of many research papers from different institutes. The emerging important points about this review lie in: (1 any biological system is capable of producing magnetic biomaterials such as magnetite (Fe3O4 and gregite (Fe3S4; (2 the navigation of these nano-crystals in the biological system is interconnected with the Earth’s magnetic field. Results: The researchers involved in the study have shown that the magnetotactic bacteria do respond to a magnetic field. This makes them attractive for biomedical and industrial applications because of the availability of superior electromagnets, superconducting magnets and permanent magnet. Magnetic bacteria can also be used as a diagnostic tool in the detection of imperfections even at the nanoscale. Discussion and Conclusions: Although the importance of this issue is still limitedly used in medical area, more performance is necessary to explore the world of these bacteria that are candidate for new industry and new therapy strategies in biotechnology and medical fields.

  18. Internet Addiction: A Current Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Bozkurt

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Internet addiction, which has become a global social issue, can be broadly conceptualized as an inability to control ones use of the Internet which leads to negative consequences in daily life. Only Internet Gaming Disorder has been included in the appendix of the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders fifth edition (DSM-5, but it has already been argued that Internet addiction could also comprise problematic use of other Internet applications developing an addictive behavior. This paper aims to give a current review of the gradually evolving body of literature on Internet addiction. [J Contemp Med 2016; 6(3.000: 235-247

  19. Peripartum Cardiomyopathy: A Current Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie M. Twomley

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM is a rare but potentially lethal complication of pregnancy occurring in approximately 1 : 3,000 live births in the United States although some series report a much higher incidence. African-American women are particularly at risk. Diagnosis requires symptoms of heart failure in the last month of pregnancy or within five months of delivery in the absence of recognized cardiac disease prior to pregnancy as well as objective evidence of left ventricular systolic dysfunction. This paper provides an updated, comprehensive review of PPCM, including emerging insights into the etiology of this disorder as well as current treatment options.

  20. Status and trends in the development of Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) - a review of international articles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Mads; Gertsen, Frank; Christiansen, Thomas Bøhm

    2004-01-01

    on extensive reviews of international research articles this article focuses on TPM as a conceptin order to detect the development process and current status of the concept. The first part is an introduction where TPM is compared with "TQM", "BPR" and Lean Manufacturing. The second part describes......Corporate continuous innovation efforts are often guided by (more or less) customized standard management concepts such as "TQM", "BPR" or "Lean". The focus of this article, Total Productive Maintenance (TPM), is a contemporary example of such a concept. Although the concept first appeared more...

  1. Review article: Role of magnesium sulphate in the management of Irukandji syndrome: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathbone, John; Franklin, Richard; Gibbs, Clinton; Williams, David

    2017-02-01

    Signs of Irukandji syndrome (IS) suggest an underlying catecholamine storm with research demonstrating that Carukia barnesi venom causes a significant rise in adrenaline/noradrenaline serum levels. A systematic review was undertaken to ascertain the current evidence in treating IS with magnesium salts. A literature search was conducted using Scopus, Medline and ScienceDirect. Further articles were discarded via title description and/or abstract details. The remaining were read in full, and those identified as not having sufficient information regarding magnesium and patient outcomes were removed. Nine articles were identified. One article was a randomised controlled trial, which concluded that there appears to be no beneficial difference between those patients who received the magnesium sulphate (MgSO4 ) and those who received the placebo and recommended against the use of MgSO4 in IS. Of the remaining eight, one reported the failure of MgSO4 and the remaining seven were case series reporting varying success in its use. This systematic review found insufficient evidence to support any clear recommendation regarding the use of magnesium, but nor was there clear evidence to recommend against its use in IS. Two case series describe significant reduction in key symptoms and hypertension but are a non-randomised albeit prospective series with the limitations accompanying this. The reporting of recrudescence of symptoms with reduction of dose does suggest a dose-response relationship. The evidence for the use of MgSO4 is at best anecdotal, and further research is required to either confirm its benefit or confirm the randomised controlled trial.

  2. Unveiling Environmental Sociology Approaches: a Review of Selected Articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Bacchiegga

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The environmental issue has become the object of wide discussion in recent decades, delimiting and building a solid presence, especially in the academic field. This issue has emerged during the 1960s, within a very specific historical context – counterculture and criticisms of the current The environmental issue has become the object of wide discussion in recent decades, delimiting and building a solid presence, especially in the academic field. This issue has emerged during the 1960s, within a very specific historical context – counterculture and criticisms of the current predatory model of development. It has arrived in Brazil in the 1970s, assuming a singular face. Nowadays, it expresses the criticism of the end of the “Economic Miracle” and the environmental impacts resulting from this development option. Knowing the process of institutionalization is important to understand how Environmental Sociology leaves the status of subfield areas of Sociology, such as Rural Sociology, and achieves a specific field. In this paper, we present a discussion about the “making” of the Brazilian Environmental Sociology, arguing it as an established field of study and it needs to reflect about its theoretical construction. Therefore, we aim to analyze the articles on the theme “Environment and Society” published in major journals related to the Humanities area of Brazil, 1980 to 2007, from the method “Content Analysis”, and thus contribute to the understanding of Environmental Sociology process of (remaking as a specific area of sociological thought.

  3. Superconductor digital electronics: Scalability and energy efficiency issues (Review Article)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolpygo, Sergey K.

    2016-05-01

    Superconductor digital electronics using Josephson junctions as ultrafast switches and magnetic-flux encoding of information was proposed over 30 years ago as a sub-terahertz clock frequency alternative to semiconductor electronics based on complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) transistors. Recently, interest in developing superconductor electronics has been renewed due to a search for energy saving solutions in applications related to high-performance computing. The current state of superconductor electronics and fabrication processes are reviewed in order to evaluate whether this electronics is scalable to a very large scale integration (VLSI) required to achieve computation complexities comparable to CMOS processors. A fully planarized process at MIT Lincoln Laboratory, perhaps the most advanced process developed so far for superconductor electronics, is used as an example. The process has nine superconducting layers: eight Nb wiring layers with the minimum feature size of 350 nm, and a thin superconducting layer for making compact high-kinetic-inductance bias inductors. All circuit layers are fully planarized using chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) of SiO2 interlayer dielectric. The physical limitations imposed on the circuit density by Josephson junctions, circuit inductors, shunt and bias resistors, etc., are discussed. Energy dissipation in superconducting circuits is also reviewed in order to estimate whether this technology, which requires cryogenic refrigeration, can be energy efficient. Fabrication process development required for increasing the density of superconductor digital circuits by a factor of ten and achieving densities above 107 Josephson junctions per cm2 is described.

  4. The visibility of scientific misconduct: A review of the literature on retracted journal articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselmann, Felicitas; Graf, Verena; Schmidt, Marion; Reinhart, Martin

    2017-10-01

    Retractions of scientific articles are becoming the most relevant institution for making sense of scientific misconduct. An increasing number of retracted articles, mainly attributed to misconduct, is currently providing a new empirical basis for research about scientific misconduct. This article reviews the relevant research literature from an interdisciplinary context. Furthermore, the results from these studies are contextualized sociologically by asking how scientific misconduct is made visible through retractions. This study treats retractions as an emerging institution that renders scientific misconduct visible, thus, following up on the sociology of deviance and its focus on visibility. The article shows that retractions, by highlighting individual cases of misconduct and general policies for preventing misconduct while obscuring the actors and processes through which retractions are effected, produce highly fragmented patterns of visibility. These patterns resemble the bifurcation in current justice systems.

  5. Review article: Jesus’ resurrection in Joseph’s garden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estelle Dannhauser

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is a lengthy review of the book Jesus’ resurrection in Joseph’s garden by P.J.W. (Flip Schutte. The book represents a quest to trace the relationship between Jesus’ resurrection, myth and canon. Schutte finds the origin of events underlying the biblical canon in proclamation. His focus in the book is the proclamation of the death and resurrection of Christ, which, in its developmental stages, hinged on the life and death of the historical Jesus. Proclamation developed into a mythical narrative that became the foundational myth for the Christ cult, validating its existence and rituals. With the growth and institutionalisation of the faith community (church, came an increased production of literature, causing the power-wielding orthodoxy to identify a body of literature containing the ‘truth’ and ‘correct teaching’, thus establishing the authoritative canon. In, through, behind and beyond Jesus of Nazareth, Schutte has perceived a canon behind the canon: a God of love. In Jesus, the man of myth with historical roots who has become to us the observable face of God, Schutte confesses the kerygma to open up before him. The proclamation therefore extends an invitation to join in a mythological experience and an encounter with God whose love is preached in the metaphor called Easter.

  6. Cochlear implantation in inner ear malformations--a review article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sennaroglu, Levent

    2010-03-01

    Inner ear malformations constitute about 20% of congenital sensorineural hearing loss. In this review article an updated classification of cochlear malformations is provided. Incomplete partition and cochlear hypoplasia cases are each divided further into three groups. There are two main difficulties in the surgery of inner ear malformations; gusher and facial nerve abnormalities. Radiological features of malformations necessary to identify these problems preoperatively are discussed. Facial nerve abnormalities that may occur are described. Two different types of cerebrospinal fluid leakage are defined and necessary measures to prevent leakage are described. Standard and modified surgical approaches to overcome the described problems are described with literature findings. Finally meningitis which may occur with and without cochlear implantation in this special group of patients is emphasized. This is common in incomplete partition type I patients and is usually due to a fistula in one of the windows (usually oval window) which occurs as a result of cerebrospinal fluid pressure. This is a medical emergency leading to potential meningitis and measures that should be taken to stop the leak as soon as possible are described.

  7. Thoracic sympathectomy: a review of current indications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashmonai, Moshe; Cameron, Alan E P; Licht, Peter B; Hensman, Chris; Schick, Christoph H

    2016-04-01

    Thoracic sympathetic ablation was introduced over a century ago. While some of the early indications have become obsolete, new ones have emerged. Sympathetic ablation is being still performed for some odd indications thus prompting the present study, which reviews the evidence base for current practice. The literature was reviewed using the PubMed/Medline Database, and pertinent articles regarding the indications for thoracic sympathectomy were retrieved and evaluated. Old, historical articles were also reviewed as required. Currently, thoracic sympathetic ablation is indicated mainly for primary hyperhidrosis, especially affecting the palm, and to a lesser degree, axilla and face, and for facial blushing. Despite modern pharmaceutical, endovascular and surgical treatments, sympathetic ablation has still a place in the treatment of very selected cases of angina, arrhythmias and cardiomyopathy. Thoracic sympathetic ablation is indicated in several painful conditions: the early stages of complex regional pain syndrome, erythromelalgia, and some pancreatic and other painful abdominal pathologies. Although ischaemia was historically the major indication for sympathetic ablation, its use has declined to a few selected cases of thromboangiitis obliterans (Buerger's disease), microemboli, primary Raynaud's phenomenon and Raynaud's phenomenon secondary to collagen diseases, paraneoplastic syndrome, frostbite and vibration syndrome. Thoracic sympathetic ablation for hypertension is obsolete, and direct endovascular renal sympathectomy still requires adequate clinical trials. There are rare publications of sympathetic ablation for primary phobias, but there is no scientific basis to support sympathetic surgery for any psychiatric indication.

  8. Cervical cancer: The preventive role of HPV vaccine (review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Behtash

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the second most common gynecologic cancer. A steady 70% annual decline in mortality from cervical cancers has been observed since the mid 20th century after the introduction of widespread papanicolaou cytological screening. But also cervical cancer continues to be an important world health problem for women. Cervical cancer is one of the best- understood neoplasm given its well known viral cause of persistent infection with high risk human papillomavirus (HPV. To date, two manufacturers have developed HPV vaccines composed of noninfectious, recombinant HPV viral-like particles (VLPs. This article presents current advances and perspectives on HPV vaccines.The vaccine is administered by intramuscular injection, and the recommended schedule is a 3-dose series with the second and third doses administered 2 and 6 months after the first dose. The recommended age for vaccination of females is 11-12 years. Vaccine can be administered as young as age 9 years. Catch-up vaccination is recommended for females aged 13--26 years who have not been previously vaccinated. Vaccination is not a substitute for routine cervical cancer screening, and vaccinated females should have cervical cancer screening as recommended.

  9. Electroconvulsive Therapy: A Current Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokben Hizli Sayar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Most of the electroconvulsive therapy guidelines state that severe major depression with psychotic features, manic delirium, or catatonia are conditions where there is a clear consensus favoring early electroconvulsive therapy. The decision to administer electroconvulsive therapy is based on an evaluation of the risks and benefits for the individual patient and involves a combination of factors, including psychiatric diagnosis, type and severity of symptoms, prior treatment history and response, identification of possible alternative treatment options, and consumer preference. In this review history, mechanisms of action, side effects that have been referenced in the literature and clinical experience are discussed. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(2.000: 107-125

  10. Induced pluripotent stem cells, from generation to application: review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharif Moradi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic stem cells are pluripotent stem cells which have the ability to indefinitely self-renew and differentiate into all differentiated cells of the body. Regarding their two main properties (unlimited self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation, these cells have various biomedical applications in basic research and cell based therapy. Because the transplantation of differentiated cells that are derived from embryonic stem cells is allogenic, they face the problem of immune rejection following the transplantation of embryonic stem cell-derived cells into patients. In 2006, researchers from Japan reported the derivation of a new type of pluripotent stem cells which could overcome the problem of immune rejection that is associated with the application of embryonic stem cells. They designated these cells as induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells, because their production was ‘induced’ from differentiated somatic cells using a combination of four embryonic stem cell-associated transcription factors. Importantly, these pluripotent stem cells exhibit all the key features of embryonic stem cells including unlimited self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation potential, and can pass the most stringent test of pluripotency which is known as the tetraploid (4n complementation. Hence, in addition to bypassing the problem of immune rejection, iPS cells have all of the potential applications of embryonic stem cells, including in developmental studies, toxicology research, drug discovery and disease modeling. Also, considering that they could be generated from patient’s own cells, iPS cells hold great promise in the future of patient-specific cell replacement therapies using pluripotent stem cells. In this review article, we will present a comprehensive review on the how and why of the generation of iPS cell from somatic cells of the body and discuss how they should be characterized in terms of morphologically, pluripotent stem cell behavior, and

  11. SERUM LEPTIN LEVENS AND HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA: REVIEW ARTICLE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrighetto, Luiza Vitelo; Poziomyck, Aline Kirjner

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most frequent types of malignant tumors in the world. There is growing evidence of the relationship between it development and obesity. The mechanism that links obesity to cancer is still not fully understood; however, it is essential to the understanding the adipose tissue in metabolic changes related to obesity and hepatocellular carcinoma. To review the influence of serum leptin levels in patients with hepatocelular carcinoma. Systematic review of the literature based on the methodology of the Cochrane Institute. The search for articles was in the database: Science Direct, Scielo, Medline, Lilacs e Pubmed. The key words used were hepatocellular carcinoma, leptin, adipokine. After evaluation of individual studies, were selected seven studies. The results previously studied are still inconsistent and contradictory, and leptin can be effectively involved in the occurrence and development of hepatocellular carcinoma. Therefore, it is necessary to develop prospective, well-designed and conducted focusing on the role and specific mechanisms of this hormone in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, so that new correlations can be properly supported. O carcinoma hepatocelular é um dos tipos mais frequentes de tumores malignos no mundo. Há crescentes evidências da relação entre o seu desenvolvimento e a obesidade. O mecanismo que os relaciona ainda não é completamente entendido. Entretanto é essencial a compreensão do tecido adiposo nas alterações metabólicas relacionadas à obesidade e ao câncer. Revisar a influência dos níveis séricos de leptina em pacientes com carcinoma hepatocelular. Trata-se de revisão bibliográfica baseada na metodologia do Instituto Cochrane; a busca de dados foi realizada na base de dados Science Direct, Scielo, Medline, Lilacs e Pubmed, empregando as seguintes descritores: hepatocellular carcinoma, leptin, adipokine. Após avaliação individual dos artigos selecionaram-se sete estudos

  12. Happiness & Health: The Biological Factors- Systematic Review Article.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariush Dfarhud

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Happiness underlying factors are considerable from two dimensions: endogenic factors (biological, cognitive, personality and ethical sub-factors and exogenic factors (behavioral, socialcultural, economical, geographical, life events and aesthetics sub-factors. Among all endogenic factors, biological sub-factors are the significant predictors of happiness. Existence of significant differences in temperament and happiness of infants is an indicator of biological influences. Therefore, this study aimed to consider biological factors that underlie happiness. At the first, all of the biological factors in relation with happiness were searched from following websites: PubMed, Wiley& Sons, Science direct (1990-2014. Then, the articles divided into five sub-groups (genetic, brain and neurotransmitters, endocrinology and hormones, physical health, morphology and physical attractiveness. Finally, a systematic review performed based on existing information. Results of studies on genetic factors indicated an average effectiveness of genetic about 35 -50 percent on happiness. In spite of difficulties in finding special genes, several genes distributed to emotion and mood. Neuroscience studies showed that some part of brain (e.g. amygdala, hipocamp and limbic system and neurotransmitters (e.g. dopamine, serotonin, norepinefrine and endorphin play a role in control of happiness. A few studies pointed to the role of cortisol and adrenaline (adrenal gland and oxitocin (pituitary gland in controlling happiness. Physical health and typology also concluded in most related studies to have a significant role in happiness. Therefore, according to previous research, it can be said that biological and health factors are critical in underlying happiness and its role in happiness is undeniable.

  13. REVIEW ARTICLE Adrenal lesions encountered in current medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    poses a diagnostic and clinical dilemma to the radiologist, clinician and patient alike. ... catapulted to the forefront in the management of adrenal disease. With the .... Adrenocortical adenoma in a 45-year-old woman with Cushing syndrome.

  14. Review article: anorexia and cachexia in gastrointestinal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockenga, J; Valentini, L

    2005-10-01

    In patients with gastrointestinal malignancies, i.e. cancers of the stomach, colon, liver, biliary tract or pancreas, progressive undernutrition can be regularly observed during the course of illness. Undernutrition significantly affects the patients' quality of life, morbidity and survival. Pathogenetically, two different causes are relevant in the development of undernutrition in patients with gastrointestinal cancer. One cause is reduced nutritional intake. This condition is referred to as anorexia and can be worsened by the side effects of cancer therapy. The other cause is the release of endogenous transmitters and/or other products of the tumour leading to the cachexia syndrome, which is characterized by loss of body weight, negative nitrogen balance and fatigue. Cancer anorexia and cancer cachexia may have synergistic negative effects in affecting the patients' status. In this review, current nutritional support strategies with respect to different clinically relevant situations are described. An algorithm of the treatment strategies, including dietetic counselling, oral supplements, enteral and parenteral nutritional support is given. One focus is the approach of nutrition-focused patient care, which shows promising results. In addition, the possibilities of pharmacological intervention are discussed.

  15. Compliance of systematic reviews articles in brain arteriovenous malformation with PRISMA statement guidelines: Review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhigbe, T; Zolnourian, A; Bulters, D

    2017-05-01

    The knowledge of reporting compliance of systematic reviews with PRISMA guidelines may assist in improving the quality of secondary research in brain AVM management and subsequently application to patient population and clinical practice. This may allow researchers and clinicians to be equipped to appraise existing literatures based on known deficit to look for or expect. The objective of this study was to assess the compliance of systematic reviews and meta-analysis in the management of brain AVM. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses articles published in medical journals between 1st of May 2011 and 30th April 2016 (five-year period) were examined. Exclusion criteria were articles that were not systematic reviews and not meta-analyses, narrative literature reviews, historical literature reviews, animal studies, unpublished articles, commentaries and letter to the editor. Electronic database search performed through Medline PubMed on 20th September 2016. This systematic review examined seven systematic review articles on intracranial arteriovenous malformation compliance with PRISMA statement guidelines. The mean percentage of applicable PRISMA items across all studies was 74% (range 67-93%). Protocol registration and declaration, risk of bias and funding sources were the most poorly reported of the PRISMA items (14% each). A significant variance in the total percentages was evident between studies (67-93%). Systematic review reporting in medical literature is excessively variable and overall poor. As these papers are being published with increasing frequency, need to fully adhere to PRISMA statement guide for systematic review to ensure high-quality publications. Complete reporting of PRISMA items within systematic reviews in cerebral arteriovenous malformation enhance quality assessment, robust critical appraisal, better judgement and ultimately sound application to practice thereby improving research standards and patients care. Crown Copyright © 2017

  16. The Relationship Between Periodontal Disease and Neoplasms of the Oral Cavity: A Review Article

    OpenAIRE

    Nourelahi; Roshannia; Kameli; Hormozi

    2016-01-01

    Context Oral cavity is one of the most common sites for neoplasms with a multifactorial etiology. Tobacco and alcohol are the main risk factors. Periodontal disease is an inflammatory disease affecting periodontal tissues such as gingiva, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone. Periodontal disease is linked to many systemic diseases. Recently a link between periodontal disease and cancer is suggested. The current review article aimed to evaluate the association between periodonta...

  17. Review article: the global emergence of Helicobacter pylori antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thung, I; Aramin, H; Vavinskaya, V; Gupta, S; Park, J Y; Crowe, S E; Valasek, M A

    2016-02-01

    Helicobacter pylori is one of the most prevalent global pathogens and can lead to gastrointestinal disease including peptic ulcers, gastric marginal zone lymphoma and gastric carcinoma. To review recent trends in H. pylori antibiotic resistance rates, and to discuss diagnostics and treatment paradigms. A PubMed literature search using the following keywords: Helicobacter pylori, antibiotic resistance, clarithromycin, levofloxacin, metronidazole, prevalence, susceptibility testing. The prevalence of bacterial antibiotic resistance is regionally variable and appears to be markedly increasing with time in many countries. Concordantly, the antimicrobial eradication rate of H. pylori has been declining globally. In particular, clarithromycin resistance has been rapidly increasing in many countries over the past decade, with rates as high as approximately 30% in Japan and Italy, 50% in China and 40% in Turkey; whereas resistance rates are much lower in Sweden and Taiwan, at approximately 15%; there are limited data in the USA. Other antibiotics show similar trends, although less pronounced. Since the choice of empiric therapies should be predicated on accurate information regarding antibiotic resistance rates, there is a critical need for determination of current rates at a local scale, and perhaps in individual patients. Such information would not only guide selection of appropriate empiric antibiotic therapy but also inform the development of better methods to identify H. pylori antibiotic resistance at diagnosis. Patient-specific tailoring of effective antibiotic treatment strategies may lead to reduced treatment failures and less antibiotic resistance. © 2015 The Authors. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Paraneoplastic Neurologic Syndromes in Children: A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samin ALAVI

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Alavi S. Paraneoplastic Neurologic Syndromes in Children: A Review Article. Iran J Child Neurol. 2013Summer; 7(3: 6- 14.ObjectiveParaneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNS were initially defined as neurological syndromes with unknown etiology that often associate with cancer. This broad definition may lead to misconception that any neurological syndrome, which coincides with a cancer might be considered as PNS. In the last two decades it has been suggested that PNSs are mainly immune-mediated. The detection of onconeural antibodies has been very helpful in indicating the existence of a tumor and defining a given neurological syndrome as paraneoplastic. However, PNS may occur without onconeural antibodies, and the antibodies can occur with no neurological syndrome; thus, their presence should not be the only condition to define a neurological syndrome as paraneoplastic. Diagnosis of paraneoplastic syndromes in children may result in early detection and treatment of the pediatric cancer and can reduce the neurological damage that is the major source of morbidity in children with successfully treated tumors. This study reviews the presenting symptoms, immunology, and management options for paraneoplastic syndromes, focusing on those most commonly reported in children.References1. Darnell RB, Posner JB. Paraneoplastic syndromes involving the nervous system. N Engl J Med 200316; 349(16:1543-54.2. Siu LL, Chapman W, Moore MJ. Use of the somatostatinanalogue octreotide acetate in the treatment of encephalopathy associated with carcinoid tumor. Case report. Am J Clin Oncol 1997; 20(6: 558-61.3. Bataller L, Dalmau JO. Paraneoplastic disorders of the central nervous system: update on diagnostic criteria and treatment.Semin Neurol 2004 Dec; 24(4: 461-71.4. Graus F, Keime-Guibert F, Reñe R, Benyahia B, RibaltaT, Ascaso C, et al. Anti-Hu-associated paraneoplastic encephalomyelitis: analysis of 200 patients. Brain 2001;124(Pt 6

  19. "Psychosomatic": a systematic review of its meaning in newspaper articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Jon; Colyer, Matthew; Feltbower, Steve; Carson, Alan; Sharpe, Michael

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the authors describe the meaning of the word "psychosomatic" in U.S. and U.K. newspaper articles using a systematic text word search and a consensus rating of the contextual meaning of all articles published in 14 U.S. and U.K. newspapers between 1996 and 2002. The survey was limited to broadsheet newspapers. "Psychosomatic" had a pejorative meaning, such as "imaginary" or "made up," in 74 of 215 (34%) of the articles in which the meaning could be judged. Most commonly, "psychosomatic" was used to describe a problem that was psychological or in which the mind affects the body (56%) rather than as a reciprocal interaction (5%). "Psychosomatic medicine" is the new name for the seventh subspecialty of psychiatry. More needs to be done to educate the media about its actual meaning to make it attractive to patients.

  20. Crisis management aspects of bam catastrophic earthquake: review article

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Azami-Aghdash, Saber; Kazemi, Abdolhassan; Ziapour, Behrad

    2015-01-01

    Bam earthquake was the most catastrophic natural disasters in recent years. The aim of this study was to review different aspects of crisis management during and after the catastrophic earthquake in Bam City, Iran...

  1. 15 CFR 2007.8 - Other reviews of article eligibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... countries through expansion of their exports; (ii) The extent to which other major developed countries are undertaking a comparable effort to assist developing countries by granting generalized preferences with... developing country's competitiveness with respect to eligible articles; (v) The level of economic...

  2. Review Article eview Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2013-06-28

    Jun 28, 2013 ... through ecologically sound and sustainable methods, an and agriculture systems .... food, water and energy security than a notion of comparative advantage ... supplement to the market purchase, not to substitute at least for ...

  3. Review article: Maxillofacial emergencies: dentoalveolar and temporomandibular joint trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeAngelis, Adrian F; Barrowman, Roland A; Harrod, Richard; Nastri, Alf L

    2014-10-01

    Dentoalveolar trauma and dislocations of the temporomandibular joint are common reasons for patients to present to EDs in Australia. The majority of medical practitioners receive very little formal training in the management of these injuries and might not have ready access to dental services out of hours for advice. This article focuses on the emergency assessment, triage and non-specialist management of dentoalveolar trauma and injuries to the temporomandibular joint.

  4. Article Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    undergraduate students at an identified institution. Unstructured interviews ... consultancy, community service and administration. Priorities have to ... for clinicians as they become lecturers in higher education is challenging. The current forms ...

  5. Retrospective Review Article: Speaking--The Second Skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    System, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Reviews four books on speech research: (1) "The Speech Chain: The Physics and Biology of Spoken Language" (Peter B. Denes and Elliot N. Pinson); (2) "Speaking: From Intention to Articulation" (Willem J. M. Levelt); (3) "Talking to Learn: Conversation in Second Language Acquisition" (Richard R. Day); and (4) "Speaking" (Martin Bygate). (eight…

  6. Review article: The meristem in indeterminate root nodules of Faboideae

    OpenAIRE

    Łotocka, Barbara; Kopcińska, Joanna; Skalniak, Monika

    2013-01-01

    In this review, the anatomy of indeterminate legume root nodule is briefly summarized. Next, the indeterminate nodule meristem activity, organization and cell ultrastructure are described in species with a distinct nodule meristem zonation. Finally, the putative primary endogenous factors controlling nodule meristem maintenance are discussed in the context of the well-studied root apical meristem (RAM) of Arabidopsis thaliana.

  7. REVIEW ARTICLE GLOBAL TREND OF METHICILLIN-RESISTANT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Oboro VO

    -http://www.ajol.info/journals/ajcem ... therapeutic options available for the management of. MRSA associated infections has become a worrisome issue worldwide (2). This paper aims to review the emergence and global ... study conducted earlier elsewhere in the country ..... isolates typed by coagulase and phage typing in.

  8. AIAA Aerospace America Magazine - Year in Review Article, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    NASA Stennis Space Center has implemented a pilot operational Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) capability. The implementation was done for the E-2 Rocket Engine Test Stand and a Chemical Steam Generator (CSG) test article; and validated during operational testing. The CSG test program is a risk mitigation activity to support building of the new A-3 Test Stand, which will be a highly complex facility for testing of engines in high altitude conditions. The foundation of the ISHM capability are knowledge-based integrated domain models for the test stand and CSG, with physical and model-based elements represented by objects the domain models enable modular and evolutionary ISHM functionality.

  9. Are we satisfied with the way we review an article?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Muhammad; Burris, Heather H; Zupancic, John A F

    2009-02-01

    Nurses and other healthcare professionals must read professional journals on a regular basis to provide evidence-based care. Because authors often provide little detail on their methodology, it may be difficult to determine whether we should incorporate the conclusions of a study into our clinical practice. In addition, authors and readers may have a limited understanding of statistical analysis. This article gives a brief overview of how to evaluate a manuscript and some basic statistical measures that can be used to evaluate a research study.

  10. Review Article: An Overview of Image Compression Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Marimuthu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available To store an image, large quantities of digital data are required. Due to limited bandwidth, image must be compressed before transmission. However, image compression reduces the image fidelity, when an image is compressed at low bitrates. Hence, the compressed images suffer from block artifacts. To meet this, several compression schemes have been developed in image processing. This study presents an overview of compression techniques for image applications. It covers the lossy and lossless compression algorithm used for still image and other applications. The focus of this article is based on the overview of VLSI DCT architecture for image compression. Further, this new approach may provide better results.

  11. Review Article: Biotechnology in aquaculture | OGARA | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aquaculture industry is currently faced with solving the simultaneous problems ... collaboration to develop expertise in implementing these new technologies. ... sustainable systems will enable significant commercialization of aquaculture. ... making in rationalizing support for policies on research funding programmes by ...

  12. Review Article: Recent advancements in optofluidic flow cytometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sung Hwan; Godin, Jessica M; Chen, Chun-Hao; Qiao, Wen; Lee, Hosuk; Lo, Yu-Hwa

    2010-12-30

    There is an increasing need to develop optofluidic flow cytometers. Optofluidics, where optics and microfluidics work together to create novel functionalities on a small chip, holds great promise for lab-on-a-chip flow cytometry. The development of a low-cost, compact, handheld flow cytometer and microfluorescence-activated cell sorter system could have a significant impact on the field of point-of-care diagnostics, improving health care in, for example, underserved areas of Africa and Asia, that struggle with epidemics such as HIV∕AIDS. In this paper, we review recent advancements in microfluidics, on-chip optics, novel detection architectures, and integrated sorting mechanisms.

  13. REVIEW ARTICLE: DNA protein interactions and bacterial chromosome architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavans, Joel; Oppenheim, Amos

    2006-12-01

    Bacteria, like eukaryotic organisms, must compact the DNA molecule comprising their genome and form a functional chromosome. Yet, bacteria do it differently. A number of factors contribute to genome compaction and organization in bacteria, including entropic effects, supercoiling and DNA-protein interactions. A gamut of new experimental techniques have allowed new advances in the investigation of these factors, and spurred much interest in the dynamic response of the chromosome to environmental cues, segregation, and architecture, during both exponential and stationary phases. We review these recent developments with emphasis on the multifaceted roles that DNA-protein interactions play.

  14. Helicopter EMS transport outcomes literature: annotated review of articles published 2004-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Stephen H

    2007-01-01

    Helicopter EMS (HEMS) and its possible association with outcomes improvement continues to be a subject of debate. As is the case with other scientific endeavors, debate over HEMS usefulness should be framed around an evidence-based assessment of the relevant literature. In an effort to facilitate the academic pursuit of assessment of HEMS utility, in late 2000 the National Association of EMS Physicians' (NAEMSP) Air Medical Task Force prepared annotated bibliographies of the HEMS-related outcomes literature. As a result of that work, two review articles, one covering HEMS use in nontrauma and the other in trauma, published in 2002 in Prehospital Emergency Care surveyed HEMS outcomes-related literature published between 1980 and mid-2000. The project was extended with a 2004 review that covered the literature published between 2000 and 2003. The current review continues the series, outlining outcomes-associated HEMS literature from 2004 through 2006.

  15. Biosensors for environmental monitoring of endocrine disruptors: a review article

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Mozaz, Sara; Lopez de Alda, Maria J.; Barcelo, Damia [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IIQAB-CSIC, C/ Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034, Barcelona (Spain); Marco, Maria-Pilar [Department of Biological Organic Chemistry, IIQAB-CSIC, C/ Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034, Barcelona (Spain)

    2004-02-01

    This article provides an overview of the applications of biosensors in analysis and monitoring of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) in the environment. Special attention is devoted to the various types of physical-chemical signal transduction elements, biological mechanisms employed as sensing elements and techniques used for immobilisation of the bioreceptor molecules on the transducer surface. Two different classes of biosensors for EDCs are considered: biosensors that measure endocrine-disrupting effects, and biosensors that respond to the presence of a specific substance (or group of substances) based on the specific recognition of a biomolecule. Several examples of them are presented to illustrate the power of the biosensor technology for environmental applications. Future trends in the development of new, more advanced devices are also outlined. (orig.)

  16. Review article: elevated troponin: diagnostic gold or fool's gold?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Atifur; Broadley, Simon A

    2014-04-01

    Troponin is a highly sensitive biomarker of myocardial injury and has been used extensively in everyday clinical practice in the community as well as in hospitals for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and for risk stratification of patients with acute coronary symptoms. Dynamic elevations in biomarkers (troponin) are considered fundamental to the diagnosis of AMI. Unfortunately, many clinical conditions can cause troponin elevation in the absence of myocardial ischaemia, and elevated levels sometimes pose a diagnostic dilemma. In some cases, inappropriate diagnosis of 'AMI' based primarily on a raised troponin can have a deleterious impact on an individual, including on driving, insurance and other medicolegal matters. An incorrect diagnosis of myocardial infarction can also lead to the oversight of serious life-threatening alternative causes of troponin elevation (e.g. pulmonary embolism). This article discusses the role of troponin in our everyday clinical practice in the ED.

  17. Association studies in common endocrine diseases (review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akrami SM

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of the pathogenesis of endocrine disorders increase rapidly by genetic studies at the molecular level. Common endocrine disorders such as diabetes mellitus, obesity, osteoporosis, dyslipidemia and cancer follow the multifactorial model in the genetic aspect. This review tries to clarify the approach in molecular studies of such diseases for clinicians in different specialties. How to evaluate a possible association between a single nucleotide polymorphism and an endocrinopathy or its complication is the main concern of this review. Two approaches for gene mapping will be discussed as well as main challenges regarding each approach. All such genetic studies ideally include some test of the association between genome sequence variation and the phenotype of interest such as the trait itself, the presence of a given complication, or measures of some endocrinopathy-related intermediate trait. Despite different advances in this analysis, there are major concerns regarding the overall performance and robustness of genetic association studies. By using powerful new high-throughput methods, further insights to molecular basis of such endocrine disorders can be expected. Close correlation between geneticists and clinicians can effectively bridge between basic sciences and clinical investigations.

  18. Surgical Management of Hip Problems in Myelomeningocele: A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taghi Baghdadi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children with myelomeningocele (MMC develop a wide variety of hip deformities such as muscle imbalance, contracture, subluxation, and dislocation. Various methods and indications have been introduced for treatment of muscle imbalances and other hip problems in patients with MMC but there is no study or meta-analysis to compare the results and complications. This review aims to find the most acceptable approach to hip problems in patients with MMC. Methods: MEDLINE was searched up to April 2015. All study designs that reported on the outcomes of hip problems in MMC were included. From 270 screened citations, 55 were strictly focused on hip problem in MMC were selected and reviewed. Results: Complex osseous and soft tissue reconstructive procedures to correct hip dysplasia and muscle balancing around the hip are rarely indicated for MMC patients without good quadriceps power. Conclusion: Over the years a consensus on the best algorithm for treatment of hip dislocation in myelomeningocele has been missing, however, muscular balancing with/out osseous procedure seems a reasonable approach especially in unilateral mid-lumbar MMC.

  19. Consequences of Lost Gallstones During Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: A Review Article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbari Nooghabi, Azadeh; Hassanpour, Masoumeh; Jangjoo, Ali

    2016-06-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) has become a popular and widespread procedure for the treatment of gallstone disease. There is still an increasing concern about specific complications of LC due to gallbladder perforation and spillage of bile and stones. Although unretrieved intraperitoneal gallstones rarely become symptomatic, their infective complications may cause serious morbidities even after a long interval from LC. We performed a review of the literature on the diagnosis, prevention, consequences, and management of lost gallstones. All studies with a focus on lost gallstones or perforated gallbladder were analyzed to evaluate the postoperative complications. Between 1991 and 2015, >250 cases of postoperative complications of spilled gallstones were reviewed in the surgical literature. The most common complications are intraperitoneal abscesses and fistulas. Confusing clinical pictures due to gallstones spreading in different locations makes diagnosis challenging. Even asymptomatic dropped gallstones may masquerade intraperitoneal neoplastic lesions. Every effort should be made to prevent gallbladder perforation; otherwise, they should be retrieved immediately during laparoscopy. In cases with multiple large spilled stones or infected bile, conversion to open surgery can be considered. Documentation in operative notes and awareness of patients about lost gallstones are mandatory to early recognition and treatment of any complications.

  20. Surgical Management of Hip Problems in Myelomeningocele: A Review Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghdadi, Taghi; abdi, Reza; Bashi, Ramin Zargar; Aslani, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Background: Children with myelomeningocele (MMC) develop a wide variety of hip deformities such as muscle imbalance, contracture, subluxation, and dislocation. Various methods and indications have been introduced for treatment of muscle imbalances and other hip problems in patients with MMC but there is no study or meta-analysis to compare the results and complications. This review aims to find the most acceptable approach to hip problems in patients with MMC. Methods: MEDLINE was searched up to April 2015. All study designs that reported on the outcomes of hip problems in MMC were included. From 270 screened citations, 55 were strictly focused on hip problem in MMC were selected and reviewed. Results: Complex osseous and soft tissue reconstructive procedures to correct hip dysplasia and muscle balancing around the hip are rarely indicated for MMC patients without good quadriceps power. Conclusion: Over the years a consensus on the best algorithm for treatment of hip dislocation in myelomeningocele has been missing, however, muscular balancing with/out osseous procedure seems a reasonable approach especially in unilateral mid-lumbar MMC. PMID:27517062

  1. BOOK REVIEW: The Current Comparator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersons, Oskars

    1989-01-01

    This 120-page book is a concise, yet comprehensive, clearly-written and well-illustrated monograph that covers the subject matter from basic principles through design, construction and calibration details to the principal applications. The book will be useful, as a primer, to the uninitiated and, as a reference book to the practitioner involved with transformer-type ratio devices. The length of the book and the style of presentation will not overburden any informed reader. The described techniques and the cited references are primarily from the work at the National Research Council, Canada (NRC). Any omissions, however, are not serious with respect to coverage of the subject matter, since most of the development work has been done at NRC. The role of transformers and transformer-like devices for establishing accurate voltage and current ratios has been recognized for over half a century. Transformer techniques were much explored and developed in the fifties and sixties for accuracy levels suitable for standards laboratories. Three-winding voltage transformers were developed for scaling of impedances in connection with the calculable Thompson Lampard capacitor; three-winding current transformers or current comparators were initially explored for the calibration of current transformers and later for specialized impedance measurements. Extensive development of the current comparator and its applications has been and is still being conducted at the NRC by a team that was started and, until his retirement, led by N L Kusters. The team is now led by W J M Moore. He and P N Miljanic, the authors of this book, have had the principal roles in the development of the current comparator. It is fortunate for the field of metrology that considerabe resources and a talented group of researchers were available to do this development along with mechanisms that were available to transfer this technology to a private sector instrument manufacturer and, thus, disseminate it world wide

  2. Sexual activity and the risk of prostate cancer: Review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Fouad Kotb

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sexual activity can affect prostate cancer pathogenesis in a variety of ways; including the proposed high androgen status, risk of sexually transmitted infections and the potential effect of retained carcinogens within the prostatic cells. Methods: PubMed review of all publications concerning sexual activity and the risk of prostate cancer was done by two researchers. Results: Few publications could be detected and data were classified as a prostate cancer risk in association with either heterosexual or homosexual activities. Conclusion: Frequent ejaculation seems to be protective from the development of prostate cancer. Multiple sexual partners may be protective from prostate cancer, excluding the risk of sexually transmitted infections. Homosexual men are at a greater risk for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.

  3. REVIEW-ARTICLE Bioinformatics: an overview and its applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, W J S; Canduri, F

    2017-03-15

    Technological advancements in recent years have promoted a marked progress in understanding the genetic basis of phenotypes. In line with these advances, genomics has changed the paradigm of biological questions in full genome-wide scale (genome-wide), revealing an explosion of data and opening up many possibilities. On the other hand, the vast amount of information that has been generated points the challenges that must be overcome for storage (Moore's law) and processing of biological information. In this context, bioinformatics and computational biology have sought to overcome such challenges. This review presents an overview of bioinformatics and its use in the analysis of biological data, exploring approaches, emerging methodologies, and tools that can give biological meaning to the data generated.

  4. Implication of thymoglobulin in kidney transplant patients: review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudabeh Alatab

    2015-11-01

    association is present when lower dosing regimens are used. In this review, we aimed to present first a brief history of thymoglobulin development and its mechanism of action and then assess the most recent published data regarding the role of thymoglobulin in following issues: immunological tolerance, ischemia-reperfusion injury, delayed graft function, prevention and treatment of acute allograft rejection, live donor transplantation, graft and patient survival and posttrans-plant lymphoproliferative disorder. This review can help specialist in transplant domain to appropriately used thymoglobulin in transplant patients.

  5. Chronic Pain in Chronic Heart Failure: A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Alemzadeh-Ansari

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Heart failure (HF is one of the main causes of death and disability in the world. The prevalence of HF in developed countries is between 1% and 2% of the adult population and approximately between 6% and 10% in the elderly, giving rise to high costs of care and treatment. Indeed, in the United States, the direct and indirect costs exceeded 23 billion dollars in 2002.  HF is typically characterized by periods of acute symptoms followed by returns to nearly asymptomatic periods. As dyspnea and fatigue are considered the signature symptoms of HF, other symptoms such as pain go unnoticed. Awareness of the burden of pain, however, is growing in patients with chronic HF. The past 2 decades have witnessed remarkable technical headway in cardiology and many patients have survived despite the progressive impairment of their cardiovascular function. It is, therefore, of great value to investigate the prevalence and management of pain in patients with HF. To that end, we undertook a comprehensive search using the MEDLINE database for studies and guidelines on the subject of pain and HF and the complications and considerations and finally selected 65 studies for review.

  6. Control of Phlebotomine Sand Flies in Iran: A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Yaghoobi-Ershadi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis has long been known as a significant public health challenge in many parts of Iran. Phlebotomus pa­patasi and P. sergenti are the vectors of Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis and Anthroponotic Cutaneous Leish­maniasis respectively, and 5 species of sand flies including P. kandelakii, P. neglectus, P. perfiliewi, P. keshishiani and P. alexandri are considered as probable vectors of Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis. A literature search was per­formed of the relevant multiple databases from 1966 to 2013 to include studies on sand flies, vector control, leish­maniasis, Phlebotomus. Sand fly control in Iran began in 1966 by Iranian researchers, and long-term evaluation of its effects was completed in the study areas of the country. Herein, a review of vector control strategies in Iran to com­bat leishmaniasis including indoor residual spraying, application of chemicals in rodent burrows, impregnation of bed nets and curtains with insecticides, the use of insect repellents, impregnation of dog collars and the susceptibility of sand fly vectors to various insecticides has been summarized thus far. The investigation of the behavioral patterns of the adults of different sand fly species, introduction of biological insecticide agents, the use of insecticidal plants and other novel strategies for the control of sand fly populations have received much attention in the areas of studies, hence should be recommended and improved since they provide optimistic results.

  7. Review article: hepatitis vaccination in patients with chronic liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, G; Keeffe, E B

    2004-04-01

    Evidence regarding the outcomes of viral super-infection in patients with chronic liver disease and practical strategies for hepatitis A and B vaccination of these individuals are reviewed. Patients with acute hepatitis A and chronic hepatitis B have a more severe clinical course and a higher death rate compared with otherwise healthy individuals with hepatitis A, and these differences are most pronounced in older patients and those with histological evidence of chronic hepatitis or cirrhosis, rather than in asymptomatic hepatitis B carriers. Patients with acute hepatitis A super-infection and chronic hepatitis C have an increased risk of fulminant hepatitis and death. In addition, patients with other chronic liver diseases also appear to be at increased risk for more severe disease with superimposed hepatitis A. Patients with chronic hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus co-infection have more severe laboratory abnormalities, more severe histological disease, a greater frequency of cirrhosis and complications of cirrhosis, and a higher incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma. Vaccines for both hepatitis A and B are safe and effective if used early in the course of chronic liver disease. Hepatitis A and B vaccination should be part of the routine management of patients with chronic liver disease, preferably as early as possible in the natural course of their disease.

  8. Invited Review Article: Advanced light microscopy for biological space research

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, Winnok H.; Beghuin, Didier; Schwarz, Christian J.; Jones, David B.; van Loon, Jack J. W. A.; Bereiter-Hahn, Juergen; Stelzer, Ernst H. K.

    2014-10-01

    As commercial space flights have become feasible and long-term extraterrestrial missions are planned, it is imperative that the impact of space travel and the space environment on human physiology be thoroughly characterized. Scrutinizing the effects of potentially detrimental factors such as ionizing radiation and microgravity at the cellular and tissue level demands adequate visualization technology. Advanced light microscopy (ALM) is the leading tool for non-destructive structural and functional investigation of static as well as dynamic biological systems. In recent years, technological developments and advances in photochemistry and genetic engineering have boosted all aspects of resolution, readout and throughput, rendering ALM ideally suited for biological space research. While various microscopy-based studies have addressed cellular response to space-related environmental stressors, biological endpoints have typically been determined only after the mission, leaving an experimental gap that is prone to bias results. An on-board, real-time microscopical monitoring device can bridge this gap. Breadboards and even fully operational microscope setups have been conceived, but they need to be rendered more compact and versatile. Most importantly, they must allow addressing the impact of gravity, or the lack thereof, on physiologically relevant biological systems in space and in ground-based simulations. In order to delineate the essential functionalities for such a system, we have reviewed the pending questions in space science, the relevant biological model systems, and the state-of-the art in ALM. Based on a rigorous trade-off, in which we recognize the relevance of multi-cellular systems and the cellular microenvironment, we propose a compact, but flexible concept for space-related cell biological research that is based on light sheet microscopy.

  9. REVIEW ARTICLE: Fast Foods and their Impact on Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashakiran

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Eat healthy and live healthy’ is one of the essential requirements for long life. Unfortunately, today’s world has been adapted to a system of consumption of foods which has several adverse effects on health. Lifestyle changes has compelled us so much that one has so little time to really think what we are eating is right Globalisation and urbanisation have greatly affected one’s eating habits and forced many people to consume fancy and high calorie fast foods, popularly known as ‘Junk foods. Research into the possible health hazards on consumption of such high calorie foods has given an insight to avoid them, but unfortunately measures taken are not aseffective as they need to be. Diseases like coronary artery disease and diabetes mellitus have seen a profound rise in developing countries and such unhealthy junk food consumption is one of the notable factors to its contribution. This global problem of consuming junk food on a large scale and its impact on health needs emphasis and health education which can greatly contribute to itslimited consumption and switching over to healthy eating habits for the better living. knowledge highlighting about the eating habits,nutritional aspects, quality of unhealthy foods, their health impact and preventive measures should be given to create awareness and render health education for a change towards good eating practices. Junk food and its impact on health have been reviewed from variousresources and have been systematically presented, so as to emphasize its ill effects and measures to be adapted towards healthy living.

  10. Invited Review Article: Advanced light microscopy for biological space research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vos, Winnok H., E-mail: winnok.devos@uantwerpen.be [Laboratory of Cell Biology and Histology, Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Antwerp, Antwerp (Belgium); Cell Systems and Imaging Research Group, Department of Molecular Biotechnology, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Beghuin, Didier [Lambda-X, Nivelles (Belgium); Schwarz, Christian J. [European Space Agency (ESA), ESTEC, TEC-MMG, Noordwijk (Netherlands); Jones, David B. [Institute for Experimental Orthopaedics and Biomechanics, Philipps University, Marburg (Germany); Loon, Jack J. W. A. van [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery/Oral Pathology, VU University Medical Center and Department of Oral Cell Biology, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bereiter-Hahn, Juergen; Stelzer, Ernst H. K. [Physical Biology, BMLS (FB15, IZN), Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    As commercial space flights have become feasible and long-term extraterrestrial missions are planned, it is imperative that the impact of space travel and the space environment on human physiology be thoroughly characterized. Scrutinizing the effects of potentially detrimental factors such as ionizing radiation and microgravity at the cellular and tissue level demands adequate visualization technology. Advanced light microscopy (ALM) is the leading tool for non-destructive structural and functional investigation of static as well as dynamic biological systems. In recent years, technological developments and advances in photochemistry and genetic engineering have boosted all aspects of resolution, readout and throughput, rendering ALM ideally suited for biological space research. While various microscopy-based studies have addressed cellular response to space-related environmental stressors, biological endpoints have typically been determined only after the mission, leaving an experimental gap that is prone to bias results. An on-board, real-time microscopical monitoring device can bridge this gap. Breadboards and even fully operational microscope setups have been conceived, but they need to be rendered more compact and versatile. Most importantly, they must allow addressing the impact of gravity, or the lack thereof, on physiologically relevant biological systems in space and in ground-based simulations. In order to delineate the essential functionalities for such a system, we have reviewed the pending questions in space science, the relevant biological model systems, and the state-of-the art in ALM. Based on a rigorous trade-off, in which we recognize the relevance of multi-cellular systems and the cellular microenvironment, we propose a compact, but flexible concept for space-related cell biological research that is based on light sheet microscopy.

  11. Invited review article: Advanced light microscopy for biological space research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, Winnok H; Beghuin, Didier; Schwarz, Christian J; Jones, David B; van Loon, Jack J W A; Bereiter-Hahn, Juergen; Stelzer, Ernst H K

    2014-10-01

    As commercial space flights have become feasible and long-term extraterrestrial missions are planned, it is imperative that the impact of space travel and the space environment on human physiology be thoroughly characterized. Scrutinizing the effects of potentially detrimental factors such as ionizing radiation and microgravity at the cellular and tissue level demands adequate visualization technology. Advanced light microscopy (ALM) is the leading tool for non-destructive structural and functional investigation of static as well as dynamic biological systems. In recent years, technological developments and advances in photochemistry and genetic engineering have boosted all aspects of resolution, readout and throughput, rendering ALM ideally suited for biological space research. While various microscopy-based studies have addressed cellular response to space-related environmental stressors, biological endpoints have typically been determined only after the mission, leaving an experimental gap that is prone to bias results. An on-board, real-time microscopical monitoring device can bridge this gap. Breadboards and even fully operational microscope setups have been conceived, but they need to be rendered more compact and versatile. Most importantly, they must allow addressing the impact of gravity, or the lack thereof, on physiologically relevant biological systems in space and in ground-based simulations. In order to delineate the essential functionalities for such a system, we have reviewed the pending questions in space science, the relevant biological model systems, and the state-of-the art in ALM. Based on a rigorous trade-off, in which we recognize the relevance of multi-cellular systems and the cellular microenvironment, we propose a compact, but flexible concept for space-related cell biological research that is based on light sheet microscopy.

  12. Review article: antibiotics and probiotics in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruis, W

    2004-10-01

    Treatment with antibiotics in inflammatory bowel disease has a long tradition and is widely used. The indications for antibiotic therapy are wide ranging, from specific situations such as abscesses or fistulae, to patients with severe disease (as an unspecific 'protective' measure), and to address the hypothesis that the enteric flora as a whole, or specific microorganisms such as mycobacteria, are involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. The best-studied single antibiotic compound is metronidazole. However, overall, the scientific basis for the use of antibiotics is limited, which may reflect a lack of interest from sponsors within the pharmaceutical industry. Despite this weak evidence base, antibiotics are a globally established therapeutic tool in inflammatory bowel disease. Growing evidence from human and animal studies points towards a pivotal pathogenetic role of intestinal bacteria in inflammatory bowel disease. In view of these experimental findings, clinical trials have been undertaken to elucidate the therapeutic effects of probiotics in inflammatory bowel disease. Probiotics are viable nonpathogenic microorganisms which confer health benefits to the host by improving the microbial balance of the indigenous microflora. So far, of the many candidates, one specific strain (Escherichia coli Nissle 1917) and a mixture of eight different bacteria have demonstrated convincing therapeutic efficacy in controlled studies. Maintenance therapy in ulcerative colitis and prevention therapy, as well as the treatment of pouchitis, have emerged as areas in which probiotic therapy offers a valid therapeutic alternative to current treatments. Further investigations may detect additional clinically effective probiotics and other clinical indications.

  13. TSGA10, as a Cancer/Testis gene: review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Rahmani Rad

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cancer/Testis antigens (CTAs as a group of tumor antigens are the novel subjects for developing cancer vaccine and immunotherapy approaches. They aberrantly express in tumors with highest normal expression in testis, and limited or no expression in normal tissues. There are important similarities between the processes of germ-cell and cancer cell development Spermatogenesis begins at puberty when expression of novel cell-surface antigens occurs when the immune system has been refined the ability to distinguish self from non-self. Whereas macrophage and lymphocytes are commonly found within interstitial spaces of the testis, these antigen-presenting cells are rarely seen within the seminiferous tubules. These observations have led to the concept of the immune privileged site for testis. Localized normal expression of the CT genes in testis that makes them immunogenic for immune system, in one side, and their abnormal expression in different kinds of cancer cells, in the other side, has make them as promising target for developing cancer vaccines and new cancer therapeutics approaches. In malignancies, gene regulation is disrupted which results aberrant expression of CT antigen in a proportion of tumors of various types. For some CTAs, data support their fundamental role in tumorigenesis. Several authors believe it is not clear whether they have an essential role in tumorigenesis or they are by-products of chromatin variations in cancer. There is a growing list of CTAs within them advanced clinical trials are running by using some of them in cancers like lung cancer, malignant melanoma and neuroblastoma. In this review we discuss the gene TSGA10 as an example of CT genes. TSGA10 expresses in its highest levels in elongating spermatids and localized in the fibrous sheath of mature sperm. This gene is proposed as a serological biomarker in cutaneous lymphoma. Its abnormal expression has been reported in different cancers such as acute lymphoblastic

  14. Contribution to "AIAA Aerospace Year in Review" article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grugel, Richard N.; Downey, J. Patton

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Microgravity Science Program is dedicated to promoting our understanding of materials processing by conducting relevant experiments in the microgravity environment and supporting related modeling efforts with the intent of improving ground-based practices. Currently funded investigations include research on dopant distribution and defect formation in semiconductors, microstructural development and transitions in dendritic casting alloys, coarsening phenomena, competition between thermal and kinetic phase formation, and the formation of glassy vs. crystalline material. NASA Microgravity Materials Science Principle Investigators are selected for funding either through a proposal in response to a NASA Research Announcement or by collaborating on a team that has successfully proposed to a foreign space agency research announcement. In the latter case, a US investigator can then apply to NASA for funding through an unsolicited proposal. The International Space Station (ISS) facilities used for the experimental investigations are provided primarily by partnering with foreign agencies and often US investigators are working as a part of a larger team studying a specific area of materials science. Facilities for conducting experiments aboard the ISS include the European Space Agency (ESA) Low Gradient Facility (LGF) and the Solidification and Quench (SQF) modular inserts to the Materials Research Rack/Materials Science Laboratory and are primarily used for controlled solidification studies. The French Space Agency (CNES) provided DECLIC facility allows direct observation of morphological development in transparent materials that solidify analogously to metals. The ESA provided Electro ]Magnetic Levitator (EML) is designed to levitate, melt and then cool samples in order to determine material properties, study nucleation behavior, and document phase transitions. Finally, the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) serves as a onboard

  15. 76 FR 4633 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department... Free-Trade Agreement (``Agreement'') establishes a mechanism to replace domestic judicial review of...

  16. 77 FR 74174 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department... American Free-Trade Agreement (``Agreement'') establishes a mechanism to replace domestic judicial review...

  17. 77 FR 65864 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department... Free-Trade Agreement (``Agreement'') establishes a mechanism to replace domestic judicial review of...

  18. What Are the Links of Prostate Cancer with Physical Activity and Nutrition? : A Systematic Review Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    KRUK, Joanna; ABOUL-ENEIN, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most common malignancy in men worldwide. The purpose of this study was to provide a brief synthesis the current knowledge for the effects of physical activity (PA) and nutrition on PCa risk. Methods: A systematic review of English languages reviews, meta-analysis, and original articles published from 2009 to 2015 extracted from the following websites: MEDLINE, Web of Science, Health Source, Science Direct, and their references. Results: The review of the literature led to the selection of 12 review or meta-analysis studies and 15 lately published observational studies. Most of studies reported relationship of recreational and occupational PA and vegetables, fruits, vitamins, red/processed meats, and fats consumption with risk of PCa. Decreased risk for PCa associated with exercise was reported in seven of the ten articles on this topic. The inverse association of vegetables and/or fruit intake with PCa risk was reported in eight of 13 papers. The effect of meat/fat intake on PCa was estimated in four articles finding increased risk. There was heterogeneity between studies, and findings are inconsistent. Conclusion: Physical activity does not significantly reduce the risk of PCa; however, vigorous exercise may reduce the risk of aggressive tumor. Besides, there is a lack of definitive evidence supporting the preventive role of diet against PCa. Due to many other benefits of regular moderate-vigorous PA and a diet high in vegetables and fruits and low in red/processed meats and fats, these lifestyle patterns may be recommended. PMID:28053921

  19. What Are the Links of Prostate Cancer with Physical Activity and Nutrition? : A Systematic Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna KRUK

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prostate cancer (PCa is the second most common malignancy in men worldwide. The purpose of this study was to provide a brief synthesis the current knowledge for the effects of physical activity (PA and nutrition on PCa risk.Methods: A systematic review of English languages reviews, meta-analysis, and original articles published from 2009 to 2015 extracted from the following websites: MEDLINE, Web of Science, Health Source, Science Direct, and their references.Results: The review of the literature led to the selection of 12 review or meta-analysis studies and 15 lately published observational studies. Most of studies reported relationship of recreational and occupational PA and vegetables, fruits, vitamins, red/processed meats, and fats consumption with risk of PCa. Decreased risk for PCa associated with exercise was reported in seven of the ten articles on this topic. The inverse association of vegetables and/or fruit intake with PCa risk was reported in eight of 13 papers. The effect of meat/fat intake on PCa was estimated in four articles finding increased risk. There was heterogeneity between studies, and findings are inconsistent.Conclusion: Physical activity does not significantly reduce the risk of PCa; however, vigorous exercise may reduce the risk of aggressive tumor. Besides, there is a lack of definitive evidence supporting the preventive role of diet against PCa. Due to many other benefits of regular moderate-vigorous PA and a diet high in vegetables and fruits and low in red/processed meats and fats, these lifestyle patterns may be recommended.  

  20. Negotiation on the Assessment of Research Articles with Academic Reviewers: Application of Peer-Review Approach of Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prashant; Rafiq, Imran; Imam, Boulent

    2011-01-01

    This study provides an insight into the dominant negotiation processes that occur between the authors of research articles and academic reviewers at the peer reviewing stage. Data of reviewers comments and authors responses on 32 science and engineering based journal articles covering four decision categories (accept as is, accept with minor…

  1. Review article

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, N

    2000-01-01

    There is a close relationship in humans between gall-bladder motility and gastrointestinal motility during the fasting state, as well as in the post-prandial period. Only a minority of publications take this relationship into account in the description of biliary dysmotility after various surgica......-prandial period. The measurements should be related to the migrating motor complexes, and this necessitates a simultaneous recording of gastrointestinal motility....

  2. Review article

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, A; Rask-Madsen, J

    1999-01-01

    The aetiology of the chronic inflammatory bowel diseases-ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease-as well as 'microscopic colitis'-both collagenous (COC) and lymphocytic colitis (LC)-remains unknown. Autoimmune mechanisms, cytokine polymorphism, commensal bacteria, infectious agents and vascular im...

  3. Review Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evert

    Deneys Reitz and the First World War: An Introduction to the Department ... and Eastern Fronts, with a number of secondary theatres in Africa, Asia Minor, the ..... “Research report: Republic of South African Archives”. Cold. War History 5/3.

  4. Review Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sword: networking could promote economic development, yet electronic commerce also has the potential .... computer, which is usually located in a fixed location in an individual's ... connect televisions or game consoles directly to the Internet.

  5. REVIEW ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The peak age incidence is bimodal ... the age of 13, with a smaller peak in thefirst year“. ... Onset of torsion during sleep is reported in. 11-40% of ... time of anaesthesia or before in 10-25% of cases ... duces irreversible damage after two hours.

  6. REVIEW ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    foundations of the genetic basis of cancer and have provided a conceptual .... transcription of LMP-1 and is a key regulator of viral gene é$fression.(3). (I) ... reported that viral non-structural protein NS3 can transform. NIH 3T3 andean bind p53.

  7. REVIEW ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    number of environmental factors affect the distribution, seasonality and ... approximately 40% of the world population, mostly those living in the world's ... In areas of stable malaria transmission, very young children and pregnant women are the population at ... the North, and latitude of about 28° in the .... coast of lagos.

  8. Review Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administratör

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... Key words: Malaria, Global warming, Greenhouse effect, Drug resistance, Control ... reality, like the melting of polar ice caps and glaciers, rising sea levels, changing weather ... of the world including Asia, Africa, Central and.

  9. REVIEW ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RPO

    integration, and that “Enlishization” of the world leads to linguistic homogeny and hegemony which, in turn, leads to ... In spite of all these deleterious effects of linguistic globalization on ... modern political, linguistic and religious philosophers ...

  10. Review Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioline

    most often devastating. Factors leading to compromise of the host defense play a major role in .... in Scalp Lacerations. Most scalp wounds heal satisfactorily, even those that ..... of inflammation by fibroblasts that serves as the precursor to the ...

  11. Review Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mortality in the renal patient is a cardiovascular event. ... transforming growth factor-beta; RAS: renin-angiotensin system; CRP: C-reactive protein; FFA: free fatty acids; IL-6: interleukin-6; ... HOMA-IR correlates with interstitial fibrosis diagnosed.

  12. Review Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Ahmed

    zeolite based catalysts have been tested in this respect. This ... methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE), which has also found application as gasoline additive for raising ... mol mol-1 Hydrogen/hydrocarbon ratio, 20 bar total pressure and ... the catalysts. Eswaramoorthi et al., (2004) hydrothermally synthesized ..... of 2,2-dimethyl butane.

  13. Review article

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, A; Rask-Madsen, J

    1999-01-01

    The aetiology of the chronic inflammatory bowel diseases-ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease-as well as 'microscopic colitis'-both collagenous (COC) and lymphocytic colitis (LC)-remains unknown. Autoimmune mechanisms, cytokine polymorphism, commensal bacteria, infectious agents and vascular im...

  14. Review Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-09-15

    Sep 15, 2012 ... To produce sufficient number of ethical citizens, advancement of the quality of ... process. Thus, the primary purpose of this study is to scrutinize the impacts of ... observations that the value given, particularly to, ... through reading, inquiring, or their personal .... is used for social decision-making, the more.

  15. Review Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sesame genetic resources, proximity of Ethiopia to the international market, an increased demand for .... Gomenzer. (Brassica carinata), noug (Guizotia abyssinica), .... Table 2: Main export types of Ethiopian sesame varieties and their characteristics. No. Varieties .... Exporters Association, Public Private partnership and.

  16. Review Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    through a conceptual analysis of Habermas's defense of modernity against the ... *Corresponding Author: Fasil Merawi. E-mail: mynameisfas@yahoo.com .... Hegel's philosophical insights o the modern age as a way of ... that's already available as a raw data. Also in ...... commerce starting from ancient Greece. Instead, he ...

  17. Review Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Ahmed

    gases covered by the Kyoto Protocol with carbon dioxide (CO2) considered to ... reacted first with oxygen and steam to produce heat to volatilize the remainder .... reservoir is produced with oil, then separated and re-injected into the reservoir.

  18. REVIEW ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs also known as prion diseases) are a group of progressive ..... at that position to lysine (K) (thus designated .... characterized by deficiency in mitochondrial ... episodes, but are not proven to improve the.

  19. Review Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioline

    The treatment of neurosurgical infections has ... transformed diseases that were previously associated .... infection.6 Therefore, preoperative evaluation of a .... Diagnosis of osteomyelitis is mainly clinical, ..... While modern treatment has improved the prognosis .... The pathology is characterized by brain atrophy with.

  20. Review Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and newly qualified teachers may not have mastered or developed sufficient skills for effective teaching; hence, there is a need for instruction in the live classroom to be supervised. This paper included ...... and Internships. In R. Houston (Ed.), ...

  1. Review Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-12-29

    Dec 29, 2012 ... ISSN: 2226-7522(Print) and 2305-3327(Online). Science ... Flexible electronics is a fast emerging market and includes electronics fabricated .... display. Figure 5: 3D Design partitioning Possibilities for Smart-Display.

  2. A Content and Methodological Review of Articles Concerning Multiracial Issues in Six Major Counseling Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lisa M.; Pedrotti, Jennifer Teramoto

    2008-01-01

    This study describes a comprehensive content and methodological review of articles about multiracial issues in 6 journals related to counseling up to the year 2006. The authors summarize findings about the 18 articles that emerged from this review of the "Journal of Counseling Psychology," "Journal of Counseling & Development," "The Counseling…

  3. Towards an Analysis of Review Article in Applied Linguistics: Its Classes, Purposes and Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azar, Ali Sorayyaei; Hashim, Azirah

    2014-01-01

    The classes, purposes and characteristics associated with the review article in the field of applied linguistics were analyzed. The data were collected from a randomly selected corpus of thirty two review articles from a discipline-related key journal in applied linguistics. The findings revealed that different sub-genres can be identified within…

  4. Examining the Distribution, Modularity, and Community Structure in Article Networks for Systematic Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiaonan; Machiraju, Raghu; Ritter, Alan; Yen, Po-Yin

    2015-01-01

    Systematic reviews (SRs) provide high quality evidence for clinical practice, but the article screening process is time and labor intensive. As SRs aim to identify relevant articles with a specific scope, we propose that a pre-defined article relationship, using similarity metrics, could accelerate this process. In this study, we established the article relationship using MEDLINE element similarities and visualized the article network with the Force Atlas layout. We also analyzed the article networks with graph diameter, closeness centrality, and module classes. The results revealed the distribution of articles and found that included articles tended to aggregate together in some module classes, providing further evidence of the existence of strong relationships among included articles. This approach can be utilized to facilitate the articles selection process through early identification of these dominant module classes. We are optimistic that the use of article network visualization can help better SR work prioritization.

  5. [Reviewing an article for Radiología: who and how].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Santos, J M

    2011-01-01

    The reviewer's job is fundamental to the editorial process in a scientific journal. The quality of the review will determine the quality of the journal. Therefore, it is very important for the reviewers to make this mission their own and to contribute to the development of science and of the journal. On the other hand, the focus of a review will depend largely on the type of journal for which one is reviewing. In this article, we explain what the journal Radiología, the scientific journal of the Spanish Society of Medical Radiology, expects of its reviewers and their reviews of original articles. We aim to establish some basic rules to lay the groundwork for the development of more detailed guidelines for reviewing articles for the journal Radiología.

  6. From the Dynamic to the Synoptic Articles in the Physical Review: Beginnings and 1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vande Kopple, William J.

    2002-01-01

    This article presents evidence that, from selected spectroscopic articles in the earliest volumes of the Physical Review to other selected spectroscopic articles from the same journal in 1980, a shift in sentence style takes place. This shift is from what M.A.K. Halliday calls the dynamic style (which reflects happenings, processes, and actions)…

  7. Current uses of nanomaterials in biocidal products and treated articles in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackevica, Aiga; Revilla Besora, Pau; Brinch, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Product Regulation (BPR) lays out a list of requirements that manufacturers of biocidal products have to comply with before they can place their products on the market. It is not entirely clear which commercially available articles in the EU have been treated with or incorporate NMs to provide biocidal...... and discuss how they are currently regulated under the BPR. Even though the BPR already entails nanospecific provisions, correct labelling of biocidal products containing NMs is virtually non-existent. By using The Nanodatabase, it was possible to identify 88 biocidal products containing NMs available...

  8. Principles of treatment planning for compromised first permanent molars in mixed dentition period: A review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrad Tanbakuchi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: The first permanent molar is susceptible to caries, endodontic complications and developmental anomalies. Compromised teeth with poor prognosis could cause the clinician to face dilemmas. The aim of this review article was to assess recent guidelines on the treatment planning of compromised first permanent molars in mixed dentition period. Materials and Methods: The design of the study was based on review of literature by searching the MEDLINE, Web of science and Google scholar. Key words (permanent first molar, extraction, treatment plan were used. This search was limited to the English articles published after the year 2000. Conclusion: A number of factors influenced decision-making process regarding compromised first permanent molars including the restorative status of the tooth, dental age of the patient, degree of crowding and occlusal relationships were assessed. The ideal time for removal of these teeth was 8-9 years of age. However, the current evidence for managing compromised first permanent molars demands clinical trials.

  9. An efficient strategy allowed English-speaking reviewers to identify foreign-language articles eligible for a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse, Jason W; Bruno, Paul; Malik, Keshena; Connell, Gaelan; Torrance, David; Ngo, Trung; Kirmayr, Karin; Avrahami, Daniel; Riva, John J; Ebrahim, Shanil; Struijs, Peter A A; Brunarski, David; Burnie, Stephen J; LeBlanc, Frances; Coomes, Eric A; Steenstra, Ivan A; Slack, Tesha; Rodine, Robert; Jim, Janey; Montori, Victor M; Guyatt, Gordon H

    2014-05-01

    To assess English-speaking reviewers' accuracy in determining the eligibility of foreign-language articles for a systematic review. Systematic review of randomized controlled trials of therapy for fibromyalgia. Guided by 10 questions, English-speaking reviewers screened non-English-language articles for eligibility. Teams of two native-language speakers provided reference standard judgments of eligibility. Of 15,466 potentially eligible articles, we retrieved 763 in full text, of which 133 were published in 19 non-English languages; 53 trials published in 11 languages other than English proved eligible. Of the 53 eligible articles, English-language reviewers guided by the 10 questions mistakenly judged 6 as ineligible; of the 80 ineligible articles, 8 were incorrectly judged eligible by English-language reviewers (sensitivity=0.89; specificity=0.90). Use of a simple three-step rule (excluding languages with less than three articles, reviewing titles and abstracts for clear indications of eligibility, and noting the lack of a clearly reported statistical analysis unless the word "random" appears) led to accurate classification of 51 of 53 articles (sensitivity=0.96; specificity=0.70). Our findings show promise for limiting the need for non-English-language review teams in systematic reviews with large numbers of potentially eligible non-English-language articles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effectiveness of a reference accuracy strategy for peer-reviewed journal articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speck, Kirsten E; St Pierre Schneider, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Dissemination of information through peer-reviewed journal articles is an important requirement of success in academia. Despite the importance of publishing articles, about 25% to 45% of articles published in nursing journals have at least 1 reference error in the reference list. The authors discuss the implementation and outcomes of an internal copyeditor strategy aimed at reducing reference inaccuracy in faculty-authored journal articles.

  11. 76 FR 48145 - North American Free-Trade Agreement, Article 1904; Binational Panel Reviews: Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement, Article 1904; Binational Panel Reviews... American Free-Trade Agreement (``Agreement'') established a mechanism to replace domestic judicial review... Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of Termination of Panel Review of the Final...

  12. Concussions in the National Football League: A Current Concepts Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yengo-Kahn, Aaron M; Johnson, Daniel J; Zuckerman, Scott L; Solomon, Gary S

    2016-03-01

    Significant attention has been directed toward the immediate and long-term effects of sport-related concussions on athletes participating in contact sports, particularly football. The highest level of football, the National Football League (NFL), has received significant attention and criticism regarding player management and safety after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Several review articles have reported data related to concussion in the NFL, but a succinct review and synthesis of data regarding NFL concussions is currently lacking. To (1) review systematically the published data regarding concussion in the NFL and assess limitations of the studies, (2) elucidate areas where further research is needed, and (3) identify methods to improve future investigations of concussion in the NFL. Systematic review of literature. English-language titles and abstracts published between 1900 and September 2014 were searched systematically across electronic databases, and a review was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. Peer-reviewed journal articles were included if they contained NFL concussion data with or without additional associated long-term effects. Reviews, editorials, letters to the editor, and comments were not included. Of the 344 records screened for review, 88 articles were assessed for eligibility. There were 31 studies that met the inclusion criteria and formed the basis of the evidence synthesis. Included in the current review were 8 case-control studies (Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine evidence level 3b), 6 descriptive epidemiological studies (level 4), 6 cross-sectional studies (level 4), 6 cohort studies (level 2b), and 5 case series (level 4). The study of concussions in the NFL has been limited by lack of recent empirical data, reliance on self-reported concussion history, and ascertainment bias of brains donated for autopsy studies. The scientific community

  13. A review of the factors affecting the costs of bovine mastitis : review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.R. Petrovski

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis is one of the most prevalent production diseases affecting the dairy cattle industry worldwide. Its occurrence is associated with direct and indirect losses and expenditures. When estimating the cost of mastitis to the dairy industry the cost of the control programmes must be added. The direct losses of mastitis are the only costs obvious to the farmer. The difference between the costs of mastitis on one side and the benefits of mastitis control on the other side will give us a picture of the economic efficacy of the mastitis control programme. Continuing education of the farmer is needed for better mastitis control programmes. This article is an attempt to review briefly all relevant factors included in the economics of bovine mastitis and to illustrate the authors' view of some of the costs.

  14. Dental prostheses mimic the natural enamel behavior under functional loading: A review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. Madfa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Alumina- and zirconia-based ceramic dental restorations are designed to repair functionality as well as esthetics of the failed teeth. However, these materials exhibited several performance deficiencies such as fracture, poor esthetic properties of ceramic cores (particularly zirconia cores, and difficulty in accomplishing a strong ceramic–resin-based cement bond. Therefore, improving the mechanical properties of these ceramic materials is of great interest in a wide range of disciplines. Consequently, spatial gradients in surface composition and structure can improve the mechanical integrity of ceramic dental restorations. Thus, this article reviews the current status of the functionally graded dental prostheses inspired by the dentino-enamel junction (DEJ structures and the linear gradation in Young's modulus of the DEJ, as a new material design approach, to improve the performance compared to traditional dental prostheses. This is a remarkable example of nature's ability to engineer functionally graded dental prostheses. The current article opens a new avenue for recent researches aimed at the further development of new ceramic dental restorations for improving their clinical durability.

  15. 77 FR 66798 - North American Free-Trade Agreement, Article 1904; NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement, Article 1904; NAFTA Panel Reviews... NAFTA Secretariat pursuant to Article 1904 of the North American Free Trade Agreement. Panel Review was...., Washington, DC 20230, (202) 482-5438. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Chapter 19 of the North American Free-Trade...

  16. 77 FR 72325 - North American Free-Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews... NAFTA Secretariat pursuant to Article 1904 of the North American Free Trade Agreement. Panel Review was... 20230, (202) 482-5438. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Chapter 19 of the North American Free-Trade Agreement...

  17. 76 FR 72677 - North American Free-Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews... NAFTA Secretariat pursuant to Article 1904 of the North American Free Trade Agreement. Panel review was... INFORMATION: Chapter 19 of the North American Free-Trade Agreement (``Agreement'') establishes a mechanism to...

  18. Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern; a Review Article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Saeed; Baratloo, Alireza; Rouhipour, Alaleh; Ghelichkhani, Parisa; Yousefifard, Mahmood

    2015-01-01

    Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) was first reported in 1976 with two concurrent outbreaks of acute viral hemorrhagic fever centered in Yambuku (near the Ebola river), Democratic Republic of Congo, and in Nzara, Sudan. The current outbreak of the Ebola virus was started by reporting the first case in March 2014 in the forest regions of southeastern Guinea. Due to infection rates raising over 13,000% within a 6-month period, Ebola is now considered as a global public health emergency and on August 8(th), 2014 the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the epidemic to be a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. With more than 5000 involved cases and nearly 3000 deaths, this event has turned into the largest and most dangerous Ebola virus outbreak in the world. Based on the above-mentioned, the present article aimed to review the virologic characteristics, transmission, clinical manifestation, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of Ebola virus disease.

  19. 77 FR 72325 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department...

  20. 78 FR 5778 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department...

  1. 75 FR 74686 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department...) 482-5438. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Chapter 19 of the North American Free-Trade Agreement...

  2. 77 FR 29965 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department...) 482-5438. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Chapter 19 of the North American Free-Trade Agreement...

  3. 76 FR 56156 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Chapter 19 of the North American Free-Trade Agreement (``Agreement'') establishes a...

  4. 78 FR 10600 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department...

  5. 78 FR 17639 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department...

  6. 78 FR 11627 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department...

  7. 77 FR 74174 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department...

  8. Book Review: Current Issues in International Human Resource Management and Strategy Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gretzinger, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    The article reviews the book "Current Issues in International Human Resource Management and Strategy Research," edited by Marion Festing and Susanne Royer.......The article reviews the book "Current Issues in International Human Resource Management and Strategy Research," edited by Marion Festing and Susanne Royer....

  9. Book Review: Current Issues in International Human Resource Management and Strategy Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gretzinger, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    The article reviews the book "Current Issues in International Human Resource Management and Strategy Research," edited by Marion Festing and Susanne Royer.......The article reviews the book "Current Issues in International Human Resource Management and Strategy Research," edited by Marion Festing and Susanne Royer....

  10. Underutilisation of routinely collected data in the HIV programme in Zambia: a review of quantitatively analysed peer-reviewed articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munthali, Tendai; Musonda, Patrick; Mee, Paul; Gumede, Sehlulekile; Schaap, Ab; Mwinga, Alwyn; Phiri, Caroline; Kapata, Nathan; Michelo, Charles; Todd, Jim

    2017-06-13

    The extent to which routinely collected HIV data from Zambia has been used in peer-reviewed published articles remains unexplored. This paper is an analysis of peer-reviewed articles that utilised routinely collected HIV data from Zambia within six programme areas from 2004 to 2014. Articles on HIV, published in English, listed in the Directory of open access journals, African Journals Online, Google scholar, and PubMed were reviewed. Only articles from peer-reviewed journals, that utilised routinely collected data and included quantitative data analysis methods were included. Multi-country studies involving Zambia and another country, where the specific results for Zambia were not reported, as well as clinical trials and intervention studies that did not take place under routine care conditions were excluded, although community trials which referred patients to the routine clinics were included. Independent extraction was conducted using a predesigned data collection form. Pooled analysis was not possible due to diversity in topics reviewed. A total of 69 articles were extracted for review. Of these, 7 were excluded. From the 62 articles reviewed, 39 focused on HIV treatment and retention in care, 15 addressed prevention of mother-to-child transmission, 4 assessed social behavioural change, and 4 reported on voluntary counselling and testing. In our search, no articles were found on condom programming or voluntary male medical circumcision. The most common outcome measures reported were CD4+ count, clinical failure or mortality. The population analysed was children in 13 articles, women in 16 articles, and both adult men and women in 33 articles. During the 10 year period of review, only 62 articles were published analysing routinely collected HIV data in Zambia. Serious consideration needs to be made to maximise the utility of routinely collected data, and to benefit from the funds and efforts to collect these data. This could be achieved with government support

  11. Meaningful Peer Review in Radiology: A Review of Current Practices and Potential Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarity, Andrew K; Hawkins, C Matthew; Geis, J Raymond; Dreyer, Keith J; Kamer, Aaron P; Khandheria, Paras; Morey, Jose; Whitfill, James; Wiggins, Richard H; Itri, Jason N

    2016-12-01

    The current practice of peer review within radiology is well developed and widely implemented compared with other medical specialties. However, there are many factors that limit current peer review practices from reducing diagnostic errors and improving patient care. The development of "meaningful peer review" requires a transition away from compliance toward quality improvement, whereby the information and insights gained facilitate education and drive systematic improvements that reduce the frequency and impact of diagnostic error. The next generation of peer review requires significant improvements in IT functionality and integration, enabling features such as anonymization, adjudication by multiple specialists, categorization and analysis of errors, tracking, feedback, and easy export into teaching files and other media that require strong partnerships with vendors. In this article, the authors assess various peer review practices, with focused discussion on current limitations and future needs for meaningful peer review in radiology.

  12. Epistemology in Qualitative Social Work Research: A Review of Published Articles, 2008-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gringeri, Christina; Barusch, Amanda; Cambron, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the epistemological foundations of qualitative social work research. A template-based review was completed on 100 articles from social work journals. Reviewers examined five things: (1) the purpose or aims of the research, (2) the rationale or justification for the work, (3) the populations studied, (4) the presence of four…

  13. 75 FR 22819 - Considerations Regarding Food and Drug Administration Review and Regulation of Articles for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Considerations Regarding Food and Drug Administration Review and Regulation of Articles for the Treatment of Rare Diseases; Public Hearing AGENCY: Food and Drug... of the hearing will be available for review at the Division of Dockets Management at...

  14. Epistemology in Qualitative Social Work Research: A Review of Published Articles, 2008-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gringeri, Christina; Barusch, Amanda; Cambron, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the epistemological foundations of qualitative social work research. A template-based review was completed on 100 articles from social work journals. Reviewers examined five things: (1) the purpose or aims of the research, (2) the rationale or justification for the work, (3) the populations studied, (4) the presence of four…

  15. About the Article Entitled "Transplantation of Cryopreserved Teeth:a Systematic Review"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Proamate Pitak-Arnnop; Niels Christian Pausch; Alexander Hemprich

    2010-01-01

    @@ To Editor, We read with interest the article entitled "Transplantation of cryopreserved teeth:a systematic review"(Osathanon,2010).Although the author is to be congratulated for his systematic approach to cryopreserved tooth transplantation(CTT),we would like to draw your attention to some technical limitations of this review.

  16. Review article: teaching, learning, and the pursuit of excellence in anesthesia education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Anne

    2012-02-01

    Excellence in anesthesia education has been advocated to meet the future needs and direction of the specialty. The purpose of this article is twofold: first, to review the current medical education literature and theory in order to inform teaching and learning in anesthesia; and second, to advocate for excellence in anesthesia education. This review considers the general education, educational psychology, and medical education literature based on a search of the MEDLINE and ERIC databases, educational Web sites, and library catalogues. Excellent teaching is considered that which facilitates and maximizes learning. A conceptual framework of learning as a convergence of teacher, learner, assessment, and context is proposed. The contribution of each component to learning is examined in order to enable anesthesia teachers to choose and adapt the most appropriate educational approaches for their particular contexts. The relationship of excellent teaching, scholarly teaching, and the scholarship of teaching is explored. Strategies for promoting excellence in anesthesia education are suggested. The call for excellence in anesthesia has become an important theme, particularly with respect to education. While excellent teaching is a goal to which all anesthesia faculty should aspire, scholarly teaching and scholarship in teaching should also be promoted in order to advance anesthesia education for the benefit of the profession and ultimately for patient care.

  17. Open access to scientific articles: a review of benefits and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björk, Bo-Christer

    2017-03-01

    The Internet has fundamentally changed the publishing of scholarly peer reviewed journals, and the way readers find and access articles. Digital access is nowadays the norm, in particular for researchers. The Internet has enabled a totally new business model, Open Access (OA), in which an article is openly available in full text for anyone with Internet access. This article reviews the different options to achieve this, whether by journals changing their revenue structures from subscription to publishing charges, or authors utilizing a number of options for posting OA versions of article manuscripts in repositories. It also discusses the regrettable emergence of "predatory" publishers, who spam academics, and make money by promising them rapid publication with only the semblance of peer review. The situation is further discussed from the viewpoints of different stakeholders, including academics as authors and readers, practicing physicians and the general public.

  18. Fracture Toughness of Resin Composites under Different Modes and Media: Review of Articles

    OpenAIRE

    Fani M; Farmani S; Bagheri R

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to review various modes of fracture toughness of resin composites. Also, this study intends to review the papers on the fracture mode, namely “fractography”, under scanning electron microscopy finding fracture initiation site, and the effect of filler content on the fracture toughness of resin composites. It will also review the effect of aging on the fracture toughness of resin composites in different media, mainly distilled water, and acidic environment. ...

  19. The Evaluation of Hospital Performance in Iran: A Systematic Review Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    BAHADORI, Mohammadkarim; IZADI, Ahmad Reza; GHARDASHI, Fatemeh; RAVANGARD, Ramin; HOSSEINI, Seyed Mojtaba

    2016-01-01

    Background: This research aimed to systematically study and outline the methods of hospital performance evaluation used in Iran. Methods: In this systematic review, all Persian and English-language articles published in the Iranian and non-Iranian scientific journals indexed from Sep 2004 to Sep 2014 were studied. For finding the related articles, the researchers searched the Iranian electronic databases, including SID, IranMedex, IranDoc, Magiran, as well as the non-Iranian electronic databases, including Medline, Embase, Scopus, and Google Scholar. For reviewing the selected articles, a data extraction form, developed by the researchers was used. Results: The entire review process led to the selection of 51 articles. The publication of articles on the hospital performance evaluation in Iran has increased considerably in the recent years. Besides, among these 51 articles, 38 articles (74.51%) had been published in Persian language and 13 articles (25.49%) in English language. Eight models were recognized as evaluation model for Iranian hospitals. Totally, in 15 studies, the data envelopment analysis model had been used to evaluate the hospital performance. Conclusion: Using a combination of model to integrate indicators in the hospital evaluation process is inevitable. Therefore, the Ministry of Health and Medical Education should use a set of indicators such as the balanced scorecard in the process of hospital evaluation and accreditation and encourage the hospital managers to use them. PMID:27516991

  20. Review article: Staff perception of the emergency department working environment: Integrative review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Louisa; Greenslade, Jaimi; Thom, Ogilvie; Carlstrom, Eric; Wallis, Marianne; Crilly, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Employees in EDs report increasing role overload because of critical staff shortages, budgetary cuts and increased patient numbers and acuity. Such overload could compromise staff satisfaction with their working environment. This integrative review identifies, synthesises and evaluates current research around staff perceptions of the working conditions in EDs. A systematic search of relevant databases, using MeSH descriptors ED/EDs, Emergency room/s, ER/s, or A&E coupled with (and) working environment, working condition/s, staff perception/s, as well as reference chaining was conducted. We identified 31 key studies that were evaluated using the mixed methods assessment tool (MMAT). These comprised 24 quantitative‐descriptive studies, four mixed descriptive/comparative (non‐randomised controlled trial) studies and three qualitative studies. Studies included varied widely in quality with MMAT scores ranging from 0% to 100%. A key finding was that perceptions of working environment varied across clinical staff and study location, but that high levels of autonomy and teamwork offset stress around high pressure and high volume workloads. The large range of tools used to assess staff perception of working environment limits the comparability of the studies. A dearth of intervention studies around enhancing working environments in EDs limits the capacity to recommend evidence‐based interventions to improve staff morale. © 2016 The Authors. Emergency Medicine Australasia published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine PMID:26784282

  1. Systematic review of articles describing experience and supports of individuals with autism enrolled in college and university programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelbar, Nicholas W; Smith, Isaac; Reichow, Brian

    2014-10-01

    The increase in the number of higher-functioning individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is likely to lead to an increased interest in postsecondary opportunities including degree-granting college and university programs. To provide an understanding of the current evidence-base for supporting individuals with ASD in higher education, this article reports the results of a systematic review of the literature concerning college students with ASD. Overall, 20 articles describing 69 individuals met the inclusion criteria. This small number of articles and participants indicates the scarcity of research on this topic and only two of these studies were experimental in nature. These studies described a video-self modeling intervention and a counseling intervention respectively. Eighteen "case studies" were also present in the literature that described difficulties ranging from anxiety to housing concerns. This review deliniates the limitation of our understanding of effective college programming for individuals with ASD.

  2. 76 FR 16728 - North American Free Trade Agreement, Article 1904; NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement, Article 1904; NAFTA Panel Reviews... the NAFTA Secretariat pursuant to Article 1904 of the North American Free Trade Agreement. Panel...., Washington, DC 20230, (202) 482-5438. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Chapter 19 of the North American Free Trade...

  3. 76 FR 42115 - North American Free-Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews... of the NAFTA Secretariat pursuant to Article 1904 of the North American Free Trade Agreement. Panel... North American Free Trade Agreement (``Agreement'') established a mechanism to replace domestic judicial...

  4. 75 FR 82376 - North American Free Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-30

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews... the NAFTA Secretariat pursuant to Article 1904 of the North American Free Trade Agreement. Panel... North American Free Trade Agreement (``Agreement'') established a mechanism to replace domestic judicial...

  5. Challenges Associated with Scaling up Artemisinin Combination Therapy in Sub-Saharan Africa ; A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qader SS

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa. One key strategic intervention is provision of early diagnosis and prompt effective treatment. A major setback has been the development of drug resistance to commonly used antimalarials. To overcome this, most countries in Sub-Saharan Africa have adopted Artemisinin Combination Therapy (ACT as a first line treatment for uncomplicated malaria. Artemether Lumefantrine (AL and Artesunate Amodiaquine (ASAQ are the main drugs of choice. There are key implementation issues, which may have a bearing on the scaling up of this new treatment. This article reviewed the published papers on ACT with focus on sustainability, compliance, and diagnosis. ACTs are costly, but highly effective. Their scaling up is the most cost effective malaria intervention currently available. Most countries rely heavily on the Global Fund for their scaling up. AL has a short shelf life, a complicated six-dose regimen that requires intake with fat to ensure sufficient bioavailability. High rates of adherence have been reported. Use of parasitic diagnosis is advocated to ensure rational use. Parasitic diagnostics like rapid test and microscopy are currently inadequate. The majority of malaria cases may continue to be diagnosed clinically leading to over prescription of drugs. ACTs are currently not available at the community level for home based management of malaria. Issues related to safety and rational use need to be addressed before their use in the informal health sector like community drug sellers and community health workers. The majority of malaria cases at the community level could go untreated or continue to be treated using less effective drugs.We conclude that ACTs are highly effective. A major challenge is ensuring rational use and access at the household level. It is hoped that addressing these issues will increase the likelihood that ACT achieves its intended goals of reducing morbidity

  6. Alzheimer’s Dementia: Current Data Review

    OpenAIRE

    Uzun, Suzana; Kozumplik, Oliver; Folnegović-Šmalc, Vera

    2011-01-01

    The review focuses on current data on Alzhemier’s dementia, a clinical syndrom characterised with acquired deterioration of cognitive functioning and emotional capacities, which impaires everyday activity and quality of life. Alzheimer’s dementia is the most common type of dementia in clinical surveys. The diagnosis of Alzheimer’s dementia is primarily based on symptoms and signs and memory impairment is clinically most signifficant. Cholinesterase inhibitors – donepezil, rivastig...

  7. After Action Reviews: Current Observations and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    without a verbatim quotation from the first paragraph of the 1993 Training Circular (TC 25-20), A Leader’s Guide to After-Action Reviews. It states...Viet Nam Wars. Marshall spoke with Soldiers in theatre , immediately after combat actions, and although sometimes disparaged because of limited numbers...1). The current EXROE has expanded from 15 to 22 chapters to reflect changes in training offered, but the AAR bottom line is repeated 8 verbatim in

  8. 76 FR 10005 - North American Free Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews... of the North American Free Trade Agreement. Panel Review was requested of the final determination of... INFORMATION: Chapter 19 of the North American Free Trade Agreement (``Agreement'') established a mechanism to...

  9. 75 FR 82375 - North American Free Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-30

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews... American Free Trade Agreement. Second and Third Requests for Panel Review were filed by GD Affiliates S. de.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Chapter 19 of the North American Free Trade Agreement (``Agreement'') established a...

  10. 75 FR 13494 - North American Free-Trade Agreement, Article 1904; NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement, Article 1904; NAFTA Panel Reviews... of the North American Free Trade Agreement. Panel Review was requested of the Final Results of the..., (202) 482-5438. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Chapter 19 of the North American Free-Trade Agreement...

  11. Evidence-based orthodontics. Current statistical trends in published articles in one journal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Scott V; Chudasama, Dipak N; Rinchuse, Donald J

    2010-09-01

    To ascertain the number, type, and overall usage of statistics in American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial (AJODO) articles for 2008. These data were then compared to data from three previous years: 1975, 1985, and 2003. The frequency and distribution of statistics used in the AJODO original articles for 2008 were dichotomized into those using statistics and those not using statistics. Statistical procedures were then broadly divided into descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation, range, percentage) and inferential statistics (t-test, analysis of variance). Descriptive statistics were used to make comparisons. In 1975, 1985, 2003, and 2008, AJODO published 72, 87, 134, and 141 original articles, respectively. The percentage of original articles using statistics was 43.1% in 1975, 75.9% in 1985, 94.0% in 2003, and 92.9% in 2008; original articles using statistics stayed relatively the same from 2003 to 2008, with only a small 1.1% decrease. The percentage of articles using inferential statistical analyses was 23.7% in 1975, 74.2% in 1985, 92.9% in 2003, and 84.4% in 2008. Comparing AJODO publications in 2003 and 2008, there was an 8.5% increase in the use of descriptive articles (from 7.1% to 15.6%), and there was an 8.5% decrease in articles using inferential statistics (from 92.9% to 84.4%).

  12. 'Limits and current knowledge of Pick's disease: its differential diagnosis'. A translation of the 1957 Delay, Brion, Escourolle article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibodeau, Marie-Pierre; Miller, Bruce L

    2013-01-01

    This article is a translation of a French article by Delay, Brion, and Escourolle. In a seminal article published in French in 1957 these authors summarized the work of previous researchers and reviewed a wide sample of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) cases formerly referred to as Pick's disease. The authors were among the first to define the critical clinical and anatomical differences between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and FTD and they even delineated distinctive FTD subtypes making possible the advances that now constitute the base of our studies. Reviewing their work allows us to appreciate the progress research has made.

  13. Review article: management of chronic hepatitis C in patients with contraindications to anti-viral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreño, V

    2014-01-01

    There are patients with chronic hepatitis C who are not eligible for the current interferon-based therapies or refuse to be treated due to secondary effects. To provide information on alternative treatments for the management of these patients. A PubMed search was performed to identify relevant literature. Search terms included hepatitis C virus, anti-inflammatory treatment, antioxidant, natural products and alternative treatment, alone or in combination. Additional publications were identified using the references cited by primary and review articles. Several approaches, such as iron depletion (phlebotomy), treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid or glycyrrhizin, have anti-inflammatory and/or anti-fibrotic effects. Life interventions like weight loss, exercise and coffee consumption are associated with a biochemical improvement. Other alternatives (ribavirin monotherapy, amantadine, silibinin, vitamin supplementation, etc.) do not have any beneficial effect or need to be tested in larger clinical studies. There are therapeutic strategies and lifestyle interventions that can be used to improve liver damage in patients with chronic hepatitis C who cannot receive or refuse interferon-based treatments. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Validity of claims made in weight management research: a narrative review of dietetic articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aphramor Lucy

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The best available evidence demonstrates that conventional weight management has a high long-term failure rate. The ethical implications of continued reliance on an energy deficit approach to weight management are under-explored. Methods A narrative literature review of journal articles in The Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics from 2004 to 2008. Results Although the energy deficit approach to weight management has a high long-term failure rate it continues to dominate research in the field. In the current research agenda, controversies and complexities in the evidence base are inadequately discussed, and claims about the likely success of weight management misrepresent available evidence. Conclusions Dietetic literature on weight management fails to meet the standards of evidence based medicine. Research in the field is characterised by speculative claims that fail to accurately represent the available data. There is a corresponding lack of debate on the ethical implications of continuing to promote ineffective treatment regimes and little research into alternative non-weight centred approaches. An alternative health at every size approach is recommended.

  15. Review article: similarities and differences among delayed-release proton-pump inhibitor formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, J R; Howden, C W

    2005-12-01

    Proton-pump inhibitors are acid-labile, and require an enteric coating to protect them from degradation in the stomach when given orally. However, this leads to delayed absorption and onset of action of the proton-pump inhibitor. This article aims to review the similarities and differences between the various formulations of delayed release proton-pump inhibitors. Delayed-release omeprazole and delayed-release lansoprazole have been suspended in sodium bicarbonate for tube administration; however, for omeprazole, absorption is further impaired and antisecretory effects are disappointing. Although such formulations may be more convenient for clinical use in certain patient groups, absorption of the proton-pump inhibitor is still influenced by residual enteric coating. There are few differences among the currently available delayed-release proton-pump inhibitors with respect to their pharmacodynamic effects during chronic administration. There are minor formulation-based pharmacokinetic differences among these agents, primarily reflected in their bioavailability following the first few doses. Differences in bioavailability may explain slight differences in the rate of onset of maximal antisecretory effect. However, minor pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic differences are not associated with meaningful differences in clinical outcomes.

  16. Quantitative instruments used to assess children's sense of smell: a review article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Raissa Gomes Fonseca; Cunha, Daniele Andrade; Gomes, Ana Carolina de Lima Gusmão; Silva, Hilton Justino da

    2014-01-01

    To systematically gather from the literature available the quantitative instruments used to assess the sense of smell in studies carried out with children. The present study included a survey in the Pubmed and Bireme platforms and in the databases of MedLine, Lilacs, regional SciELO and Web of Science, followed by selection and critical analysis of the articles found and chosen. We selected original articles related to the topic in question, conducted only with children in Portuguese, English, and Spanish. We excluded studies addressing other phases of human development, exclusively or concurrently with the pediatric population; studies on animals; literature review articles; dissertations; book chapters; case study articles; and editorials. A book report protocol was created for this study, including the following information: author, department, year, location, population/sample, age, purpose of the study, methods, and main results. We found 8,451 articles by typing keywords and identifiers. Out of this total, 5,928 were excluded by the title, 2,366 by the abstract, and 123 after we read the full text. Thus, 34 articles were selected, of which 28 were repeated in the databases, totalizing 6 articles analyzed in this review. We observed a lack of standardization of the quantitative instruments used to assess children's sense of smell, with great variability in the methodology of the tests, which reduces the effectiveness and reliability of the results.

  17. Radiodermatitis: A Review of Our Current Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manni; Alavi, Afsaneh; Wong, Rebecca; Akita, Sadanori

    2016-06-01

    Radiodermatitis (radiation dermatitis, radiation-induced skin reactions, or radiation injury) is a significant side effect of ionizing radiation delivered to the skin during cancer treatment as well as a result of nuclear attacks and disasters, such as that which occurred in Fukushima in 2011. More specifically, 95 % of cancer patients receiving radiation therapy will develop some form of radiodermatitis, including erythema, dry desquamation, and moist desquamation. These radiation skin reactions result in a myriad of complications, including delays in treatment, diminished aesthetic appeal, and reduced quality of life. Recent technological advancements and novel treatment regimens have only been successful in partly ameliorating these adverse side effects. This article examines the current knowledge surrounding the pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, differential diagnoses, prevention, and management of radiodermatitis. Future research should examine therapies that incorporate the current understanding of the pathophysiology of radiodermatitis while measuring effectiveness using objective and universal outcome measures.

  18. Review of Current Nuclear Vacuum System Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, M.; McCracken, J.; Shope, T.

    2003-02-25

    Nearly all industrial operations generate unwanted dust, particulate matter, and/or liquid wastes. Waste dust and particulates can be readily tracked to other work locations, and airborne particulates can be spread through ventilation systems to all locations within a building, and even vented outside the building - a serious concern for processes involving hazardous, radioactive, or nuclear materials. Several varieties of vacuum systems have been proposed and/or are commercially available for clean up of both solid and liquid hazardous and nuclear materials. A review of current technologies highlights both the advantages and disadvantages of the various systems, and demonstrates the need for a system designed to address issues specific to hazardous and nuclear material cleanup. A review of previous and current hazardous/nuclear material cleanup technologies is presented. From simple conventional vacuums modified for use in industrial operations, to systems specifically engineered for such purposes, the advantages and disadvantages are examined in light of the following criteria: minimal worker exposure; minimal secondary waste generation;reduced equipment maintenance and consumable parts; simplicity of design, yet fully compatible with all waste types; and ease of use. The work effort reviews past, existing and proposed technologies in light of such considerations. Accomplishments of selected systems are presented, including identified areas where technological improvements could be suggested.

  19. Pioderma Gangrenoso: um Artigo de Revisão Pyoderma Gangrenosum: a Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clóvis Luíz Konopka

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O pioderma gangrenoso (PG é uma dermatose crônica com características peculiares e de etiologia desconhecida, muitas vezes de difícil diagnóstico. Manifesta-se através de lesões cutâneas ulceradas e dolorosas com evolução rápida e progressiva, mais comumente em membros inferiores. As ulcerações podem surgir espontaneamente ou depois de variados tipos de trauma. O período entre o início das lesões e o diagnóstico correto costuma ser prolongado. Não existe nenhum tratamento padronizado ou algoritmo simples para a escolha da terapia. Neste artigo, os autores fazem uma ampla revisão da literatura atual acerca da fisiopatologia, do diagnóstico e do tratamento desta patologia através de análise sistemática das referências bibliográficas atuais nas bases de dados PubMed, Scielo, Medline e Lilacs.Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG is a chronic dermatosis with peculiar characteristics and unknown etiology, often of difficult diagnosis. It manifests as painful skin ulcers with rapid and progressive evolution, most commonly in the lower limbs. Ulcerations can occur spontaneously or after various types of trauma. The period between the onset of the lesions and the correct diagnosis is often prolonged. There is no standard treatment or simple algorithm for the choice of therapy. In this article, we present a comprehensive review of the current literature on the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of this pathology through systematic analysis of the current references in the databases PubMed, Scielo, Medline and Lilacs.

  20. 76 FR 14917 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department..., (202) 482-5438. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Chapter 19 of the North American Free-Trade Agreement...

  1. 76 FR 56404 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... International Trade Administration, North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department..., Washington, DC 20230, (202) 482-5438. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Chapter 19 of the North American Free-Trade...

  2. 75 FR 54594 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904; Binational Panel Reviews: Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904; Binational Panel..., International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of Completion of Panel Review of the International Trade Administration's final determination of Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube from Mexico...

  3. 75 FR 20567 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department... INFORMATION: Chapter 19 of the North American Free-Trade Agreement (``Agreement'') establishes a mechanism to...

  4. 76 FR 23286 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews: Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-26

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel..., International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of Completion of Panel Review of the final remand determination made by the United States International Trade Commission, in the matter of...

  5. 78 FR 51708 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-21

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department... 20230, (202) 482-5438. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Chapter 19 of the North American Free-Trade Agreement...

  6. 76 FR 62364 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel..., International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of Completion of Panel Review of the International Trade Commission's final determination of Certain Welded Large Diameter Line Pipe from Mexico...

  7. College Board Response to "Harvard Educational Review" Article by Santelices and Wilson

    Science.gov (United States)

    College Board, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This is the College Board's response to a research article by Drs. Maria Veronica Santelices and Mark Wilson in the Harvard Educational Review, entitled "Unfair Treatment? The Case of Freedle, the SAT, and the Standardization Approach to Differential Item Functioning" (see EJ930622).

  8. Rigor in Qualitative Social Work Research: A Review of Strategies Used in Published Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barusch, Amanda; Gringeri, Christina; George, Molly

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to describe strategies used by social work researchers to enhance the rigor of their qualitative work. A template was developed and used to review a random sample of 100 articles drawn from social work journals listed in the "2005 Journal Citation Reports: Science and Social Sciences Edition." Results suggest that the most…

  9. A Theoretical Basis for Adult Learning Facilitation: Review of Selected Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muneja, Mussa S.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to synthesize a theoretical basis for adult learning facilitation in order to provide a valuable systematic resource in the field of adult education. The paper has reviewed 6 journal articles with topics ranging from theory of andragogy; the effect of globalization on adult learning; the contribution of Malcolm Knowles;…

  10. Review Article: Ethical Issues in the Study of Second Language Acquisition--Resources for Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Two recent books provide varied resources for exploring ethical issues in the social sciences. Reflection on ethical issues aims to sensitize scholars to a range of consequences of their research, and to scholars' responsibilities to their discipline, their colleagues, and the public. This review article assesses the utility of these texts (and of…

  11. Research on Mathematics Education in China in the Last Decade: A Review of Journal Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Binyan

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews literature on mathematics education in China in the last decade. It focuses on papers that were published after 2000, and Chinese Social Science Citation Index (CSSCI). Some influential journals in the field of mathematics education, such as the "Journal of Mathematics Education" and "Mathematics…

  12. Review Article: Facing Two Ways? Reflections on Recent Research on Religious Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooling, Trevor

    2014-01-01

    In this article, author Trevor Cooling presents a review of three books that disseminate recent research on religious schools. The first, "Leadership and Religious Schools: International Perspectives and Challenges," edited by Michael T. Buchanan, is an edited volume of essays about leadership in religious schools. Editor Michael…

  13. Review Article: Spanish-English and Portuguese-English Interlanguage Phonology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckman, Fred R.

    2011-01-01

    This review article evaluates the intersection of the content of two recent anthologies in second language (L2) phonology. One of the books lays out both the methodological context and theoretical underpinnings of the field, whereas the other volume reports 11 empirical studies on the L2 acquisition of several aspects of pronunciation by adult…

  14. Rigor in Qualitative Social Work Research: A Review of Strategies Used in Published Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barusch, Amanda; Gringeri, Christina; George, Molly

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to describe strategies used by social work researchers to enhance the rigor of their qualitative work. A template was developed and used to review a random sample of 100 articles drawn from social work journals listed in the "2005 Journal Citation Reports: Science and Social Sciences Edition." Results suggest that the most…

  15. 53 review article a review of the virulence factors of pathogenic fungi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    various virulence factors which help with fungal survival and persistence in the host resulting in tissue damage and disease. This review ... Mannitol which protect against reactive oxygen species (ROS). Some fungi ..... Sun SH, and Hearn VM.

  16. Calcium polysulphide, its applications and emerging risk of environmental pollution-a review article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlawi, Saad Mohammed; Siddiqui, Samreen

    2017-01-01

    Easy availability, preparation technique, and economic value make calcium polysulphide (CaS x ) a very useful inorganic chemical for various field and industrial applications. In this article, disparate applications of CaS x solution have been reviewed to suggest potential and future consolidation. This article also encompasses the physiochemical properties and production of CaS x solution, with critical appraisal on research focusing on CaS x application in agriculture industries and removal of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) from the environment. The kinetics of CaS x , technical issues associated with optimization of its dosage and environmental fate is also discussed in detail. This study covers almost all of the peer-reviewed research that has been performed since 1914. Some of the critiques in this article include the lack of integration between the exposure effect and the efficiency of treatment method, effects of oxidizing environments on the long-term performance of CaS x solution, and kinetics of CaS x solution with the PTEs. The working model of CaS x with PTEs is still system dependent, and therefore cannot be used with other applications. The kinetics of CaS x is described in detail with various phase stoichiometric reactions. Environmental fate is discussed based on applications, government reports, peer-reviewed articles and kinetics of CaS x , which provides a clear picture of emerging contaminants in the environment in relation to the insect resistance and ecotoxicology. Real time, lab based research articles are needed to identify toxicity limits of CaS x in environment in order to describe its effective permissible limit in environmental system. This review article provides a risk assessment of environmental pollution by CaS x based on its physicochemical characteristic, stoichiometry, kinetics, field, and industrial applications.

  17. Droplet lasers: a review of current progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGloin, D.

    2017-05-01

    It is perhaps surprising that something as fragile as a microscopic droplet could possibly form a laser. In this article we will review some of the underpinning physics as to how this might be possible, and then examine the state of the art in the field. The technology to create and manipulate droplets will be examined, as will the different classes of droplet lasers. We discuss the rapidly developing fields of droplet biolasers, liquid crystal laser droplets and explore how droplet lasers could give rise to new bio and chemical sensing and analysis. The challenges that droplet lasers face in becoming robust devices, either as sensors or as photonic components in the lab on chip devices, is assessed.

  18. Current uses of nanomaterials in biocidal products and treated articles in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackevica, Aiga; Revilla Besora, Pau; Brinch, Anna;

    2016-01-01

    Product Regulation (BPR) lays out a list of requirements that manufacturers of biocidal products have to comply with before they can place their products on the market. It is not entirely clear which commercially available articles in the EU have been treated with or incorporate NMs to provide biocidal...

  19. Current Reading: A Scholarly and Pedagogical Bibliography of Articles and Books, Recent and Old, On Censorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donelson, Kenneth L., Ed.

    1969-01-01

    The 75 books and articles listed in this bibliography are divided into six categories: "Freedom and Censorship,""Histories of Censorship,""General Comments on Censorship,""Teaching and Censorship,""Sex and Censorship," and "A Brief and Basic Booklist for Readers Who Hate Long Bibliographies." The publication dates of the entries range from 1913…

  20. Creating Value through Virtual Teams: A Current Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akemi Takeoka Chatfield

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Globally, virtual teams (VT as ICT-enabled emergent network organisation forms have gained international validity by innovative organisations, with a corresponding surge of interest in understanding how organisations can leverage VT to create business value. Despite growing deliberations in VT literature on managing VT, tasks and outcomes, however, creating business value through VT remains an unresolved theoretical and pragmatic conundrum. A review of prior relevant literature is essential to advancing knowledge. The paucity of published review articles seems to have impeded the field’s accumulation of VT knowledge. This research, therefore, reviews the current literature on case studies of VT to address the question: What are organisational challenges in creating business value through VT in the organisation? The key challenges found in the literature are effective communication, knowledge sharing, trust, and interpersonal skills in the new virtual boundary-less environment. Drawing on the IT business value model, we also discuss their resource-based implications.

  1. Current-free double layers: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nagendra

    2011-12-01

    During the last decade, there has been an upsurge in the research on current-free DLs (CFDLs). Research includes theory, laboratory measurements, and various applications of CFDLs ranging from plasma thrusters to acceleration of charged particles in space and astrophysical plasmas. The purpose of this review is to present a unified understanding of the basic plasma processes, which lead to the formation of CFDLs. The review starts with the discussion on early research on electric fields and double layers (DLs) and ion acceleration in planar plasma expansion. The review continues with the formation of DLs and rarefaction shocks (RFS) in expanding plasma with two electron populations with different temperatures. The basic theory mitigating the formation of a CFDL by two-electron temperature population is reviewed; we refer to such CFDLs as double layers structures formation by two-temperature electron populations (TET-CFDLs). Application of TET-CFDLS to ion acceleration in laboratory and space plasmas was discussed including the formation of stationary steady-state DLs. A quite different type of CFDLs forms in a helicon plasma device (HPD), in which plasma abruptly expands from a narrow plasma source tube into a wide diffusion tube with abruptly diverging magnetic fields. The formation mechanism of the CFDL in HPD, referred here as current free double layer structure in helicon plasma device (HPD-CFDL), and its applications are reviewed. The formation of a TET-CFDL is due to the self-consistent separation of the two electron populations parallel to the ambient magnetic field. In contrast, a HPD-CFDL forms due to self-consistent separation of electrons and ion perpendicular to the abruptly diverging magnetic field in conjunction with the conducting wall of the expansion chamber in the HPD. One-dimensional theoretical models of CFDLs based on steady-state solution of Vlasov-Poisson system of equations are briefly discussed. Applications of CFDLs ranging from helicon

  2. Review article: the natural history of paediatric-onset ulcerative colitis in population-based studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumery, M; Duricova, D; Gower-Rousseau, C; Annese, V; Peyrin-Biroulet, L; Lakatos, P L

    2016-02-01

    A better knowledge of the natural history of disabling chronic diseases is essential to improve patient management, evaluate the impact of treatment strategies and provide predictors for disabling disease and comprehensive information for patients. To summarise our current knowledge issued from population-based studies of the natural history of ulcerative colitis (UC) in children. We searched MEDLINE (source PubMed) and international conference abstracts, and included all population-based studies that evaluated long-term outcome of paediatric-onset (<17 years at diagnosis) UC. A total of 26 population-based studies were considered in this review from the total of 61 articles or abstracts screened. Most patients presented disease extension and about two-thirds of patients had pancolitis at the end of follow-up. One-half of patients experienced extra-intestinal manifestations and primary sclerosing cholangitis was observed in 5-10% of patients. Overall, patients did not appear to have any significant growth retardation or delayed puberty. About two-thirds of patients required corticosteroid therapy and up to 25% were steroid dependent. An increased use of thiopurines was observed and the most recent data indicate that up to one-half of patients were exposed to thiopurines and 10-30% were exposed to anti-tumour necrosis factor. One-half of patients required hospitalisations and 20% of patients required colectomy after a follow-up of 10 years. Paediatric-onset UC is characterised by a high rate of disease extension. About 20% of patients had been operated at 10-year follow-up. New population-based studies are needed to evaluate the impact of new treatment strategies comprising immunosuppressants and biologics. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The Relationship Between Periodontal Disease and Neoplasms of the Oral Cavity: A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nourelahi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Context Oral cavity is one of the most common sites for neoplasms with a multifactorial etiology. Tobacco and alcohol are the main risk factors. Periodontal disease is an inflammatory disease affecting periodontal tissues such as gingiva, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone. Periodontal disease is linked to many systemic diseases. Recently a link between periodontal disease and cancer is suggested. The current review article aimed to evaluate the association between periodontal disease and risk of cancer in the oral cavity and some related factors. Evidence Acquisition Evidence suggests that oral cavity cancer is significantly more prevalent in patients with periodontal disease, poor oral hygiene or more missing teeth. Clinically, gingival squamous cell carcinoma (GSCC usually appears as an exophytic mass with a granular, papillary or verrucous surface or presents as an ulcerative lesion. Some reported cases of GSCC mimicking periodontal disease include gingival enlargement with no bone invasion, dentoalveolar abscess, erosive erythematosus lesion with keratotic papules, root exposure and tooth mobility, verrucous leukoplakia, verruciform xanthoma and development of hyperplastic granulation tissue after tooth extraction. Greater burden of oral flora that produce carcinogenic metabolites, human papilloma virus (HPV and other viruses that are residents of periodontal pocket, increased amount of inflammatory mediators and markers and some periodontal pathogens affecting cell cycle leading to mutation and dysplasia are considered as the rational for the relationship between malignant lesions of oral cavity and periodontal disease. Results Cancer of the oral cavity and periodontal disease are related from different aspects. Periodontal disease and tooth loss are considered as independent risk factors for cancer. Gingival squamous cell carcinoma can also mimic periodontal disease leading to misdiagnosis and delayed commencement of appropriate

  4. Current nutritional approaches in managing autism spectrum disorder: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cekici, Hande; Sanlier, Nevin

    2017-08-01

    The link between nutrition and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), which is a complex developmental disorder manifesting itself in significant delays or deviation in interaction and communication, has provided a fresh point of view and signals that nutrition may have a role in the aetiology of ASD, as well as play an active role in treatment by alleviating symptoms. In this review study aimed at evaluating, with scientific and concrete proof, the current medical nutrition implementations on ASD, existing medical nutrition therapies have been addressed and their effects on ASD symptoms have been discussed in light of current research. We reviewed articles regarding the medical nutritional therapy of autism on current nutritional approaches selected from PubMed, Science Direct, EBSCO, and databases about autism and nutrition. The research put forward that in individuals with ASD, while gluten-free/casein-free and ketogenic diets, camel milk, curcumin, probiotics, and fermentable foods can play a role in alleviating ASD symptoms, consumption of sugar, additives, pesticides, genetically modified organisms, inorganic processed foods, and hard-to-digest starches may aggravate symptoms. Further prospective controlled trials with large sample sizes are needed before recommendations can be made regarding the ideal ASD diet. This review emphasizes the value of identifying current nutritional approaches specific to individuals with ASD and integrating their effects on symptoms to the conversation and presents suggestions for future research designed to identify medical nutrition therapies targeting this population to better understand the link between ASD and nutrition.

  5. Review Article: A Tree in the Wood--A Review of Research on L2 Chinese Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang

    2011-01-01

    There has been considerable research in Chinese as a second language (L2) in recent years, particularly in its morphological and syntactic aspects. This article reviews research in these aspects with reference to the broader discipline of second language acquisition (SLA) and suggests that L2 Chinese research has contributed to SLA through…

  6. Review: New Vaccine Against Tuberculosis: Current Developments and Future Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun

    2009-04-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) continues to be a global health threat. BCG was developed as an attenuated live vaccine for tuberculosis control nearly a century ago. Despite being the most widely used vaccine in human history, BCG is not an ideal vaccine and has two major limitations: its poor efficacy against adult pulmonary TB and its disconcerting safety in immunocompromised individuals. A safer and more effective TB vaccine is urgently needed. This review article discusses current strategies to develop the next generation of TB vaccines to replace BCG. While some progresses have been made in the past decade, significant challenges lie ahead.

  7. A Comparison of Article Search APIs via Blinded Experiment and Developer Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Rochkind

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study looks at perceived user preference between products that can provide a scholarly article search service via an application programming interface (API. The study set up a blinded review and asked users at Johns Hopkins to select the service that provided the most useful results. Few statistically significant preferences were detected, and some interpretation is provided of what the results might tell us. The specific products evaluated for this study are: Serials Solutions Summon, Ex Libris Primo, EBSCO EDS, EBSCOHost ‘traditional’ API, and Elsevier Scopus. Re-usable open source tools for implementing article search were created to support the study and future development, and a developer review of the APIs is included based on the developer's experience in this implementation.

  8. Twin screw granulation - review of current progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, M R

    2015-01-01

    Twin screw granulation (TSG) is a new process of interest to the pharmaceutical community that can continuously wet granulate powders, doing so at lower liquid concentrations and with better product consistency than found by a high shear batch mixer. A considerable body of research has evolved over the short time since this process was introduced but generally with little comparison of results. A certain degree of confidence has been developed through these studies related to how process variables and many attributes of machinery configuration will affect granulation but some major challenges still lay ahead related to scalability, variations in the processing regimes related to degree of channel fill and the impact of wetting and granulation of complex powder formulations. This review examines the current literature for wet granulation processes studied in twin screw extrusion machinery, summarizing the influences of operational and system parameters affecting granule properties as well as strives to provide some practical observations to newly interested users of the technique.

  9. Quantum phenomena in transport measurements of topological insulator nanostructures (Review Article)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Lei; Kwok, Wai-Kwong

    2014-04-01

    We review the recent experimental advances on quantum phenomena in transport measurements of topological insulators with emphasis on quantum oscillation, weak antilocalization and Aharonov-Bohm effect and Altshuler-Aronov-Spivak effect. Following a brief introduction on the topic, we discuss the identification of the topological surface state based on quantum phenomena. Research prospect of topological insulators is described at the end of this article.

  10. Relationship between vascular endothelium and periodontal disease in atherosclerotic lesions: Review article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffi, Marco Aurélio Lumertz; Furtado, Mariana Vargas; Polanczyk, Carisi Anne; Montenegro, Márlon Munhoz; Ribeiro, Ingrid Webb Josephson; Kampits, Cassio; Haas, Alex Nogueira; Rösing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker; Rabelo-Silva, Eneida Rejane

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation and endothelial dysfunction are linked to the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic disease. Recent studies suggest that periodontal infection and the ensuing increase in the levels of inflammatory markers may be associated with myocardial infarction, peripheral vascular disease and cerebrovascular disease. The present article aimed at reviewing contemporary data on the pathophysiology of vascular endothelium and its association with periodontitis in the scenario of cardiovascular disease. PMID:25632316

  11. Plant poisonings and mycotoxicoses of importance in horses in southern Africa : review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.J. Botha

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Well-known plant poisonings such as 'dunsiekte' (seneciosis and 'jaagsiekte' (crotalariosis of horses in southern Africa are briefly reviewed. Relatively unfamiliar mycotoxicoses such as stachybotryotoxicosis and perennial rye grass staggers and potentially occurring exotic intoxications such as equine nigropallidal encephalomalacia and ergot alkaloid poisoning are also discussed. This article is aimed at informing the southern African equine practitioner about probable poisonings that might occur locally in horses.

  12. The Potential Role of Music in Second Language Learning: A Review Article

    OpenAIRE

    Ieva Zeromskaite

    2014-01-01

    The effects of musical activities on non-musical domains have recently sparked much research. Whereas the benefits of music for native language abilities are well established, the effect on second language (L2) is not yet fully explored. This review discusses articles suggesting the transfer effect of music on L2 phonological and reading skills. Through the analysis of research literature, it examines; (1) the extent of transfer to specific L2 skills, the nature of necessary music training, t...

  13. Quantum phenomena in transport measurements of topological insulator nanostructures (Review Article)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Lei; Kwok, Wai-Kwong

    2014-04-01

    We review the recent experimental advances on quantum phenomena in transport measurements of topological insulators with emphasis on quantum oscillation, weak antilocalization and Aharonov-Bohm effect and Altshuler-Aronov-Spivak effect. Following a brief introduction on the topic, we discuss the identification of the topological surface state based on quantum phenomena. Research prospect of topological insulators is described at the end of this article.

  14. Relationship between vascular endothelium and periodontal disease in atherosclerotic lesions: Review article

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marco; Aurélio; Lumertz; Saffi; Mariana; Vargas; Furtado; Carisi; Anne; Polanczyk; Márlon; Munhoz; Montenegro; Ingrid; Webb; Josephson; Ribeiro; Cassio; Kampits; Alex; Nogueira; Haas; Cassiano; Kuchenbecker; R?sing; Eneida; Rejane; Rabelo-Silva

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation and endothelial dysfunction are linked to the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic disease. Recent studies suggest that periodontal infection and the ensuing increase in the levels of inflammatory markers may be associated with myocardial infarction, peripheral vascular disease and cerebrovascular disease. The present article aimed at reviewing contemporary data on the pathophysiology of vascular endothelium and its association with periodontitis in the scenario of cardiovascular disease.

  15. REVIEW ARTICLE: Techniques for high resolution imaging of wood structure: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucur, V.

    2003-12-01

    High resolution imaging of wood requires the development of measurement techniques for nondestructive characterization of this material. The techniques, ranging from ionizing radiation to thermal techniques, microwaves, ultrasonics and nuclear magnetic resonance, provide excellent means of obtaining information about the internal structure of wood. High resolution images of wood structure can be obtained from a complete set of projections of relevant physical parameters such as x-ray attenuation, ultrasonic velocities, dielectric properties, etc. In this article the criterion selected for the description of the measurement techniques is the wavelength of the radiation which interacts with wood. The most relevant technique for the imaging of the cross section of the specimen under test will depend upon the particular application and material being studied: trees, logs, timber and wood-based composites.

  16. Idiopathic juxtafoveolar retinal telangiectasis: A current review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowilaty Sawsan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic juxtafoveolar retinal telangiectasis (IJFT, also known as parafoveal telangiectasis or idiopathic macular telangiectasia, refers to a heterogeneous group of well-recognized clinical entities characterized by telangiectatic alterations of the juxtafoveolar capillary network of one or both eyes, but which differ in appearance, presumed pathogenesis, and management strategies. Classically, three groups of IJFT are identified. Group I is unilateral easily visible telangiectasis occurring predominantly in males, and causing visual loss as a result of macular edema. Group II, the most common, is bilateral occurring in both middle-aged men and women, and presenting with telangiectasis that is more difficult to detect on biomicroscopy, but with characteristic and diagnostic angiographic and optical coherence tomography features. Vision loss is due to retinal atrophy, not exudation, and subretinal neovascularization is common. Group III is very rare characterized predominantly by progressive obliteration of the perifoveal capillary network, occurring usually in association with a medical or neurologic disease. This paper presents a current review of juxtafoveolar retinal telangiectasis, reviewing the classification of these entities and focusing primarily on the two most common types encountered in clinical practice, i.e., groups I and II, describing their clinical features, histopathology, natural history, complications, latest results from imaging modalities and functional studies, differential diagnosis, and treatment modalities.

  17. Comments on the article by Chen-Scarabelli and Scarabelli: history of medicine in the 'hidden world' and relevant articles in systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchimol-Barbosa, Paulo Roberto

    2009-08-14

    When writing a review manuscript, choosing among potentially citable references is an arduous task. Decisions are commonly based on several aspects, ranging from obvious content relevance, passing through impact factor of the journal in which a prospective citable article was written, and reaching to sovereign personal preferences. Articles written in non-English languages or ranked in low impact factor journals are generally overlooked. On the other hand, articles published by outstanding physicians in the 'hidden world' may bear historical relevance and foster scientific progress.

  18. Helicopter EMS Transport Outcomes Literature: Annotated Review of Articles Published 2007-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Brandon S; Pogue, Korby A; Williams, Emily; Hatfield, Jesse; Thomas, Matthew; Arthur, Annette; Thomas, Stephen H

    2012-01-01

    Helicopter EMS (HEMS) and its possible association with outcomes improvement continues to be a subject of discussion. As is the case with other scientific discourse, debate over HEMS usefulness should be framed around an evidence-based assessment of the relevant literature. In an effort to facilitate the academic pursuit of assessment of HEMS utility, in late 2000 the National Association of EMS Physicians' (NAEMSP) Air Medical Task Force prepared annotated bibliographies of the HEMS-related outcomes literature. As a result of that work, two review articles, one covering HEMS use in nontrauma and the other in trauma, published in 2002 in Prehospital Emergency Care surveyed HEMS outcomes-related literature published between 1980 and mid-2000. The project was extended with two subsequent reviews covering the literature through 2006. This review continues the series, outlining outcomes-associated HEMS literature for the three-year period 2007 through the first half of 2011.

  19. Review Article. Technical aspects of oxygen level regulation in primary cell cultures: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazdani Mazyar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen (O2 is an essential element for aerobic respiration. Atmospheric concentration of O2 is approximately 21%. Mammalian cells, however, are generally adapted to O2 levels much lower than atmospheric conditions. The pericellular levels of O2 must also be maintained within a fairly narrow range to meet the demands of cells. This applies equally to cells in vivo and cells in primary cultures. There has been growing interest in the performance of cell culture experiments under various O2 levels to study molecular and cellular responses. To this end, a range of technologies (e.g. gas-permeable technology and instruments (e.g. gas-tight boxes and gas-controlled incubators have been developed. It should be noted, however, that some of these have limitations and they are still undergoing refinement. Nevertheless, better results should be possible when technical concerns are taken into account. This paper aims to review various aspects of O2 level adjustment in primary cell cultures, regulation of pericellular O2 gradients and possible effects of the cell culture medium.

  20. Review article: review of behavioral operations experimental studies of newsvendor problems for operating room management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachtel, Ruth E; Dexter, Franklin

    2010-06-01

    Operating room (OR) managers must plan staffing in the face of uncertain demand for OR time. Planning too much staffing results in underutilized OR time. Planning too little staffing causes overutilized time, which is approximately twice as expensive as underutilized time. Deciding how much staffing to plan for an OR is analogous to the classic newsvendor problem in operations research. A newsvendor must decide how much product to order based on its cost c and sales price p, plus estimates of the uncertain future demand for the product. The newsvendor problem has a simple mathematical solution. The correct amount of product to order is the (p - c)/p quantile of the demand for the product. This optimal order quantity is analogous mathematically to the number of hours of OR time for which staffing should be planned. We performed a systematic review of the behavioral operations experimental literature on newsvendor problems relevant to OR management. Student volunteers participating in experimental studies have great difficulty knowing how much product to order, given c, p, and the demand distribution. Decision making is only modestly improved by more frequent feedback. Even scores of rounds of ordering are insufficient for much learning to occur. Suboptimal decisions result from innate psychological biases. Students anchor on mean demand, make insufficient adjustments, and rely disproportionately on the most recent demand values. The behavior of OR managers who plan staffing for the OR is analogous to that of students participating in a newsvendor experiment. Month after month, an OR manager will plan too little staffing for the surgeon who consistently ends the day late and too much staffing for the surgeon who consistently does not fill an OR. Experimental studies of the newsvendor problem provide mechanistic insights into the reasons that OR managers make poor decisions when planning OR staffing. The students face no organizational factors or personality issues

  1. Fracture Toughness of Resin Composites under Different Modes and Media: Review of Articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fani M

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to review various modes of fracture toughness of resin composites. Also, this study intends to review the papers on the fracture mode, namely “fractography”, under scanning electron microscopy finding fracture initiation site, and the effect of filler content on the fracture toughness of resin composites. It will also review the effect of aging on the fracture toughness of resin composites in different media, mainly distilled water, and acidic environment. In the review performed on fracture toughness of resin composites we used “fracture toughness (KIc”, aging AND fracture toughness, AND fractography” of resin composites as the search strategy. The outcome of the review revealed that most of the studies investigated fracture toughness of resin composites under Mode I and less under mode II. However, some others looked at the fracture toughness of dental resin composites under mixed-mode loading conditions. It was also found that fracture toughness studies performed on the same types of resin composites resulted in different values of KIc. The differences were related to the method of performance that requires different specimen geometries.

  2. Cost-of-illness studies : a review of current methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akobundu, Ebere; Ju, Jing; Blatt, Lisa; Mullins, C Daniel

    2006-01-01

    The number of cost-of-illness (COI) studies has expanded considerably over time. One outcome of this growth is that the reported COI estimates are inconsistent across studies, thereby raising concerns over the validity of the estimates and methods. Several factors have been identified in the literature as reasons for the observed variation in COI estimates. To date, the variation in the methods used to calculate costs has not been examined in great detail even though the variations in methods are a major driver of variation in COI estimates. The objective of this review was to document the variation in the methodologies employed in COI studies and to highlight the benefits and limitations of these methods. The review of COI studies was implemented following a four-step procedure: (i) a structured literature search of MEDLINE, JSTOR and EconLit; (ii) a review of abstracts using pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria; (iii) a full-text review using pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria; and (iv) classification of articles according to the methods used to calculate costs. This review identified four COI estimation methods (Sum_All Medical, Sum_Diagnosis Specific, Matched Control and Regression) that were used in categorising articles. Also, six components of direct medical costs and five components of indirect/non-medical costs were identified and used in categorising articles.365 full-length articles were reflected in the current review following the structured literature search. The top five cost components were emergency room/inpatient hospital costs, outpatient physician costs, drug costs, productivity losses and laboratory costs. The dominant method, Sum_Diagnosis Specific, was a total costing approach that restricted the summation of medical expenditures to those related to a diagnosis of the disease of interest. There was considerable variation in the methods used within disease subcategories. In several disease subcategories (e.g. asthma, dementia

  3. Helicobacter pylori virulence genes and microevolution in host and the clinical outcome: review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Zahra Bakhti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori is the causative agent in development of gastroduode-nal diseases, such as chronic atrophic gastritis, peptic ulcers, mucosa associated lym-phoid tissue (MALT lymphoma, and gastric cancer. H. pylori has been associated with inflammation in cardia, showing the fact that infection with this bacterium could also be a risk factor for gastric cardia cancer. Gastric cancer is the fourth most common cancer worldwide. This is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths, and ap-proximately 700,000 people succumb each year to gastric adenocarcinoma. It has been estimated that 69% of the Iranian population currently harbor H. pylori infection. The prevalence of duodenal ulcer and gastric cancer is high in Iranian populations. However, this has been largely influenced by geographic and/or ethnic origin. Epidemi-ology studies have shown that host, environmental, and bacterial factors determine the outcome of H. pylori infection. The bacterium contains allelic diversity and high genet-ic variability into core- and virulence-genes and that this diversity is geographically and ethnically structured. The genetic diversity within H. pylori is greater than within most other bacteria, and its diversity is more than 50-fold higher than that of human DNA. The maintenance of high diversification makes this bacterium to cope with particular challenges in individual hosts. It has been reported that the recombination contributed to the creation of new genes and gene family. Furthermore, the microevolution in cagA and vacA genes is a common event, leading to a change in the virulence phenotype. These factors contribute to the bacterial survival in acidic conditions in stomach and protect it from host immune system, causing tissue damage and clinical disease. In this review article, we discussed the correlation between H. pylori virulence factors and clin-ical outcomes, microevolution of H. pylori virulence genes in a single host

  4. Glioblastoma research 2006-2010: pattern of citation and systematic review of highly cited articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieder, Carsten; Astner, Sabrina T; Grosu, Anca L

    2012-11-01

    High and continuously increasing research activity related to different aspects of pathogenesis, epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of glioblastoma has been performed between 2006 and 2010. Different measures of impact, visibility and quality of published research are available, each with its own pros and cons. For this review, article citation rate was chosen. Articles were identified through systematic search of the abstract database PubMed followed by analyses of total number of citations and proportion of highly cited articles, arbitrarily defined as those with ≥100, 50-99, and 25-49 citations, respectively (citation database Scopus). Overall 5831 scientific articles on the subject were published during this time period. 1.5% of all articles accumulated at least 100 citations, 3.2% were cited between 50 and 99 times, and 7.5% were cited between 25 and 49 times. Among the 10 most cited articles, 7 reported on genomic analyses, molecular subclasses of glioblastoma and/or stem cells. Overall, 18 randomized clinical trials were published between 2006 and 2010, including those with phase II design. Thirty-nine percent of them accumulated at least 50 citations and 72% were cited at least 25 times. In general, annual citation rate appeared to gradually increase during the first 2-3 years after publication before reaching high levels. A large variety of preclinical and clinical topics achieved at least 25 citations. However, areas such as quality of life, side effects, and end-of-life care were underrepresented. Efforts to increase their visibility might be warranted.

  5. Robotic bariatric surgery: A general review of the current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minoa K; Hagen, Monika E; Buchs, Nicolas C; Buehler, Leo H; Morel, Philippe

    2017-05-23

    While conventional laparoscopy is the gold standard for almost all bariatric procedures, robotic assistance holds promise for facilitating complex surgeries and improving clinical outcomes. Since the report of the first robotic-assisted bariatric procedure in 1999, numerous publications, including those reporting comparative trials and meta-analyses across bariatric procedures with a focus on robotic assistance, can be found. This article reviews the current literature and portrays the perspectives of robotic bariatric surgery. While there are substantial reports on robotic bariatric surgery currently in publication, most studies suffer from low levels of evidence. As such, although robotics technology is without a doubt superior to conventional laparoscopy, the precise role of robotics in bariatric surgery is not yet clear. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Review: Colchicine, current advances and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAHENDRA KUMAR RAI

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Ade R, Rai MK. 2010. Colchicine, current advances and future prospects. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 90-96. Colchicine is a toxic natural compound and secondary metabolite commonly produced by plants like Colchicum autumnale and Gloriosa superba. It is originally used to treat rheumatic complaints, especially gout, and still finds its uses for these purposes today despite dosing issues concerning its toxicity. It is also prescribed for its cathartic and emetic effects. Initially oral colchicine has not been approved as a drug by U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA. But now FDA approved colchicine as a drug for some disorders. Colchicine's present medicinal use is in the treatment of gout and familial mediterranean fever. It is also being investigated for its use as an anticancer drug. In neurons, axoplasmic transport is disrupted by colchicine. Due to all the pharmacological application of colchicine, there is urgent need to enhance the properties and increase the production of colchicine with the help of in vitro technologies. The present review is mainly focused on the chemistry of colchicine, its medicinal uses and toxicity.

  7. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in articles: a review of its applications and legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinhui, Li; Yuan, Chen; Wenjing, Xiao

    2017-02-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), especially commercial decabrominated diphenyl ethers (c-decaBDE), have been widely produced and applied to numerous materials because of their highly effective flame-retardant capabilities. The production of commercial pentaBDE (c-pentaBDE) and commercial octaBDE (c-octaBDE) ended in 2004 because they are persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic to both humans and the environment, but decaBDE production and use continue. Furthermore, many congeners of PBDEs are still prevalent in consumer products and articles that they pose enormous threat to both the environment and human health. PBDEs have been detected in the casing of electrical and electronic equipment, textile materials, automotive interiors, polyurethane foam (PUF) in seat cushions, children's toys, kitchenware, and other products. With increasing evidence about PBDE pollution and the adoption of international conventions, many developed countries have drawn more public attention to PBDEs and developed sound strategies for their management. This review summaries the utilization and management of PBDEs in a number of countries and reaches the conclusion that PBDEs are still prevalent in consumer articles, while specific regulations or policies for articles containing PBDEs are rare. Public awareness should be raised on the importance of sound management of articles containing PBDEs.

  8. Simultaneous distal radial fractures and carpal bones injuries in children: a review article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretell-Mazzini, Juan; Carrigan, Robert B

    2011-09-01

    Accurate diagnosis is crucial in effectively managing and treating both the radial and carpal fractures. Injuries to the carpal bones are not usually associated with fractures of the distal radius; however, the presence of a distal radius fracture does not preclude an associated carpal injury. The purpose of this review article is to compile cases of past reported distal radius fractures and simultaneous carpal injuries to restate its low prevalence within the pediatric population while still serving as a collective reference for management and treatment. After an electronic literature search was performed, we identified 18 published articles and 28 cases dealing with combined distal radial and carpal bones injuries in the pediatric population. As the mechanism of injury is similar for both fractures, despite the low incidence, orthopedic surgeons need to rule out carpal injury with a distal forearm fracture. Failure to treat both injuries appropriately may result in an unsatisfactory clinical result.

  9. Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing modulates immune responses: An updated review article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariminik, Ashraf; Baseri-Salehi, Majid; Kheirkhah, Babak

    2017-07-08

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic bacterium which induces some complications in immunocompromised patients. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a quorum-sensing using bacterium which regulates its genes expression. The bacterium uses two famous pathways for quorum sensing entitled LasI/LasR and RhlI/RhlR systems. It has been documented that the bacteria which use quorum sensing are able to overcome immune responses. This review article aims to present recent information regarding the effects of Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing systems on the host immune responses. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Solid Dispersion as a Strategy to Enhance Solubility: A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhut Vibha Z

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Improving oral bioavailability of drugs remains most challenging aspects in formulation development due to solubility problems of poorly water soluble drugs. Most of the new chemical entities (NCEs are poorly water soluble as well as not well-absorbed after oral administration. Solid dispersion technologies are promising task for improving solubility and hence oral bioavailability of Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS class II drugs. Solid dispersion techniques have attracted due to improvingthe dissolution rate of highly lipophilic drugs and hence their bioavailability. This article reviews on classification, various preparation methods, advantages and disadvantages of solid dispersion.

  11. Fluoride in the media: a review of newspaper articles from 1999 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Alan

    2011-03-01

    The effects of fluoride are regularly discussed in newspapers. This paper reviews this coverage over a ten-year period and compares the content with contemporary scientific evidence. The reporting used in a sample of daily newspapers when the subject of fluoride and its effects were mentioned was analysed and factual statements within the articles were compared with contemporary scientific studies, to assess the accuracy of reporting. Practitioners may face questions from patients regarding the evidence base for the safety and efficacy of the use of fluoride in dentistry.

  12. Association between Genetic Variants and Obesity in Iranian Popu¬lation: Review Article

    OpenAIRE

    Tabatabaei-Malazy, Ozra; Khodaeian, Mehrnoosh; Amoli, Mahsa M.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is currently considered as a serious global health problem which is influenced by environmental and genetic factors. Association of genetic variants with obesity is widely scrutinized in recent years. The aim of this study was to evaluate present data on genetics of obesity in Iranian population in a systematic review study. To obtain all related studies, Google Scholar, PubMed, and Persian web databases; IranMedex and Magiran were searched up to January 2013. The search terms were; “...

  13. Association between Genetic Variants and Obesity in Iranian Popu¬lation: Review Article

    OpenAIRE

    Tabatabaei-Malazy, Ozra; Mehrnoosh KHODAEIAN; Amoli, Mahsa M.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is currently considered as a serious global health problem which is influenced by environmental and genetic factors. Association of genetic variants with obesity is widely scrutinized in recent years. The aim of this study was to evaluate present data on genetics of obesity in Iranian population in a systematic review study. To obtain all related studies, Google Scholar, PubMed, and Persian web databases; IranMedex and Magiran were searched up to January 2013. The search terms were; “...

  14. Sentinel Lymph Node in Breast Cancer: Review Article from a Pathologist's Point of View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple, Sophia K

    2016-03-01

    Breast cancer staging, in particular N-stage changed most significantly due to the advanced technique of sentinel lymph node biopsy two decades ago. Pathologists have more thoroughly examined and scrutinized sentinel lymph node and found increased number of small volume metastases. While pathologists use the strict criteria from the Tumor Lymph Node Metastasis (TNM) Classification, studies have shown poor reproducibility in the application of American Joint Committee on Cancer and International Union Against Cancer/TNM guidelines for sentinel lymph node classification in breast cancer. In this review article, a brief history of TNM with a focus on N-stage is described, followed by innate problems with the guidelines, and why pathologists may have difficulties in assessing lymph node metastases uniformly. Finally, clinical significance of isolated tumor cells, micrometastasis, and macrometastasis is described by reviewing historical retrospective data and significant prospective clinical trials.

  15. Digging in to Link Analysis Researches in Iran and all around the World: a Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Nooshinfard

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Increasing websites quantity, specially scientific websites, there were many researches with concern of link analysis using webometrics by librarian and other scholars in different academic majors around the world. The purpose of this article was link analysis of all link analysis related papers from the beginning to February 19th 2009. The research based on Weiner, Amick, and Lee searching model in 2008, this study included 96 refereed papers extracted from international databases like Springer, Proquest, Sage, Emerald, IEEE, Science Direct and national databases such as Magiran and SID. These papers were studied focusing on their different parts like authors, affiliated organizations, purpose, methods, tools, keywords, date of publishing, publication, indexing databases and their suggestions. Moreover, analyzing those papers and studying any related models were the other purposes of the current article. The findings have been categorized and analyses in ten different sections.

  16. Specification of laboratory animal use in scientific articles: current low detail in the journals' instructions for authors and some proposals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro, V

    2005-09-01

    The scientific article communicates results of research to other investigators; therefore, it must contain a complete description of the experiment to help other researchers when designing their future investigations. However, poorly detailed data on laboratory animal use is given in published articles. Despite the well-known and important contribution of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) to standardize scientific writing and submission of manuscripts to biomedical journals, no specific instructions on the reporting of animal use are given in the ICMJE Uniform Requirements and, therefore, most journals do not detail this to the authors. Individual efforts from groups like the Working Committee for the Biological Characterizations of Laboratory Animals, the Boyd Group, or the Committee on Publication Ethics are commendable. These contributions should be incorporated into the ICMJE Uniform Requirements and, later, into the Instructions for Authors of peer-reviewed journals. This would be the only efficient way to instruct authors on how to report laboratory animal use in their submitted manuscripts. The present article relates some proposals for helping authors when reporting animal use in scientific articles. These proposals are not only based on previous guidelines for animal specifications, but also on Instructions for Authors from journals specialized in Laboratory Animal Science. These proposals are classified into major and minor issues, and they are located in the corresponding parts of the article, as defined by the Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion (IMRAD) method. (c) 2005 Prous Science. All rights reserved.

  17. A propaganda index for reviewing problem framing in articles and manuscripts: an exploratory study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen Gambrill

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of an index in increasing recognition of misleading problem framing in articles and manuscripts. DESIGN: A propaganda index consisting of 32 items was developed drawing on related literature. Seventeen subjects who review manuscripts for possible publication were requested to read five recent published reports of randomized controlled trials concerning social anxiety and to identify indicators of propaganda (defined as encouraging beliefs and actions with the least thought possible. They then re-read the same five articles using a propaganda index to note instances of propaganda. DATA SOURCE: Convenience sample of individuals who review manuscripts for possible publication and sample of recent published reports of randomized controlled trials regarding social anxiety in five different journals by different authors, blinded by author and journal. RESULTS: Data showed that there was a high rate of propagandistic problem framing in reports of RCTs regarding social anxiety such as hiding well argued alternative views and vagueness. This occurred in 117 out of 160 opportunities over five research reports. A convenience sample of 17 academics spotted only 4.5 percent of propaganda indicators. This increased to 64 percent with use of the 32 item propaganda index. Use of a propaganda index increased recognition of related indicators. However many instances remained undetected. CONCLUSION: This propaganda index warrants further exploration as a complement to reporting guidelines such as CONSORT and PRISMA.

  18. Unintended Pregnancy and Its Adverse Social and Economic Consequences on Health System: A Narrative Review Article.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansureh Yazdkhasti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Unintended pregnancy is among the most troubling public health problems and a major reproductive health issue worldwide imposing appreciable socioeconomic burden on individuals and society. Governments generally plan to control growth of births (especially wanted births as well as orphans and illegitimate births imposing extra burden on public funding of the governments which inevitably affects economic efficiency and leads to economic slowdown, too. The present narrative review focuses on socioeconomic impacts of unintended pregnancy from the health system perspective. Follow of Computerized searches of Academic, 53 scientific journals were found in various databases including PubMed, EMBASE, ISI, Iranian databases, IPPE, UNFPA (1985-2013. Original articles, review articles, published books about the purpose of the paper were used. During this search, 20 studies were found which met the inclusion criteria. Unintended pregnancy is one of the most critical challenges facing the public health system that imposes substantial financial and social costs on society. On the other hand, affecting fertility indicators, it causes reduced quality of life and workforce efficiency. Therefore lowering the incidence of intended pregnancies correlates with elevating economic growth, socio-economic development and promoting public health. Regarding recent policy changes in Iran on family planning programs and adopting a new approach in increasing population may place the country at a higher risk of increasing the rate of unintended pregnancy. Hence, all governmental plans and initiatives of public policy must be regulated intelligently and logically aiming to make saving in public spending and reduce healthcare cost inflation.

  19. [Relationship between angular deformity and primary osteoarthritis of the knee. Review article].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-López, C A; García-Lorenzo, Y C

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis of the knee is a common disease and angular deformities are usually associated to this degenerative affection. Secondary causes of angular deformities are well known in the scientific literature, but there are not many articles about the relationship between angular deformities and primary osteoarthritis. To deepen in the relationship between angular deformities and primary osteoarthritis of the knee. We conducted a literature review of a total of 300 articles in PubMed, Medline and Hinari locator information by EndNote, 52 of them were used and selected quotes to do the review, 47 of them in the last five years, including five books. A revision of important biochemical and biomechanics aspects were made in regards to the relationship between angular deformities and primary osteoarthritis of the knee. Causes of deformities according to the sagittal, coronal and rotational axis were taken into account. Factors related to deformities could be osseous or soft tissues of the knee joint. Deformities of the knee in patients suffering from primary osteoarthritis are common and there are osseous and soft tissues causes to justified the presence of these deformities.

  20. Management of Synkinesis and Asymmetry in Facial Nerve Palsy: A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbasali pourmomeny

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The important sequelae of facial nerve palsy are synkinesis, asymmetry, hypertension and contracture; all of which have psychosocial effects on patients. Synkinesis due to mal regeneration causes involuntary movements during a voluntary movement. Previous studies have advocated treatment using physiotherapy modalities alone or with exercise therapy, but no consensus exists on the optimal approach. Thus, this review summarizes clinical controlled studies in the management of synkinesis and asymmetry in facial nerve palsy.   Materials and Methods: Case-controlled clinical studies of patients at the acute stage of injury were selected for this review article. Data were obtained from English-language databases from 1980 until mid-2013.   Results: Among 124 articles initially captured, six randomized controlled trials involving 269 patients were identified with appropriate inclusion criteria. The results of all these studies emphasized the benefit of exercise therapy. Four studies considered electromyogram (EMG biofeedback to be effective through neuromuscular re-education.   Conclusion:  Synkinesis and inconsistency of facial muscles could be treated with educational exercise therapy. EMG biofeedback is a suitable tool for this exercise therapy.

  1. Review Article: Ancient Galilee and the realities of the Roman Empire

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    Markus Cromhout

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This review article summarises and delivers comment on Religion, ethnicity and identity in Ancient Galilee: A region in transition, edited by Jürgen Zangenberg, Harold W. Attridge and Dale B. Martin and published by Mohr Siebeck in 2007. The majority of the articles in this volume testify of a ‘Jewish’ or rather Judean Galilee in the 1st century. It was a region that had cultural, economic, social, political and religious contact with surrounding areas and was thoroughly integrated into the realities of the Roman Empire. Whilst interregional contact and trade occurred freely, resistance and conflict occurred due to the proximity of ‘the Other’ that threatened the cultural and religio-political sensitivities of the Galileans. The Galileans also had strong attachments to aspects of their Judean identity, as evidenced by their enhanced musical culture, conservative epigraphic habit, participation in the revolt and the following of cultural practices also found in Judea. Based on this collection of articles, there are a few areas that need further investigation: how and when did the region fall under Hasmonean control and what was the exact nature of the local population at that time? At the time of Antipas, were Galilean peasants generally experiencing harsh economic conditions, or did his rule allow for economic participation to flourish? The exact context of Jesus’ ministry, therefore, is still a matter to be decided and invites further investigation.

  2. 77 FR 10479 - North American Free Trade Agreement, Article 1904; NAFTA Panel Reviews; First Request for Panel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement, Article 1904; NAFTA Panel Reviews; First... to Article 1904 of the North American Free Trade Agreement. Panel Review was requested of the U.S...-5438. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Chapter 19 of the North American Free Trade Agreement (``Agreement...

  3. WITHDRAWN: A Descriptive Review Article for Pump Initiation in a Pediatric Diabetes Centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roode, Angela; Smith, Monica

    2013-06-27

    The Publisher regrets that this article is an accidental duplication of an article that has already been published, DOI of original article:10.1016/j.pedn.2013.01.005. The duplicate article has therefore been withdrawn.

  4. Policy of national physical education journals on review articles/systematic reviews. DOI: 10.5007/1980-0037.2011v13n4p313

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Ricardo Schutz

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The large amount of scientific information that is produced and available in different areas, including physical education, requires the summary of contents. Different synthesis/review methods that lead to different answers are available. The objective of this study was to analyze the policy of national physical education journals on review articles, to quantify the reviews, and to classify them as systematic and narrative reviews based on established criteria. All journals (n=13 offer the possibility to publish review articles, but do not have specific standards/methods for this type of article. The production of review articles was high (n=429, with the publication of 371 (86% narrative reviews and 58 (14% systematic reviews. A priori, narrative reviews are used for the production of knowledge by internationally renowned scientific researchers. However, the volume of production of this type of review, as diverse as the issues in physical education are, does not seem to be proportional to the number of recognized researchers. This fact can lead to lower quality of the scientific production and rejection of these articles, as observed for journals in other areas. In view of the criteria and method employed, systematic reviews seem to be more valuable in situations in which no renowned researchers wants to produce review articles, avoiding a poor outcome. This type of review is characterized by more scientific rigor, whose production follows specific steps and standards, and also seems to be more appreciated by journal editors, with these reviews sometimes even being classified as original articles.

  5. Neurobiological effects of transcranial direct current stimulation: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Liciane Fernandes; de Souza, Izabel Cristina Custodio; Vidor, Liliane Pinto; de Souza, Andressa; Deitos, Alícia; Volz, Magdalena Sarah; Fregni, Felipe; Caumo, Wolnei; Torres, Iraci L S

    2012-01-01

    Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique that is affordable and easy to operate compared to other neuromodulation techniques. Anodal stimulation increases cortical excitability, while the cathodal stimulation decreases it. Although tDCS is a promising treatment approach for chronic pain as well as for neuropsychiatric diseases and other neurological disorders, several complex neurobiological mechanisms that are not well understood are involved in its effect. The purpose of this systematic review is to summarize the current knowledge regarding the neurobiological mechanisms involved in the effects of tDCS. The initial search resulted in 171 articles. After applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, we screened 32 full-text articles to extract findings about the neurobiology of tDCS effects including investigation of cortical excitability parameters. Overall, these findings show that tDCS involves a cascade of events at the cellular and molecular levels. Moreover, tDCS is associated with glutamatergic, GABAergic, dopaminergic, serotonergic, and cholinergic activity modulation. Though these studies provide important advancements toward the understanding of mechanisms underlying tDCS effects, further studies are needed to integrate these mechanisms as to optimize clinical development of tDCS.

  6. REVIEW-ARTICLE Intermediate alleles of Huntington's disease HTT gene in different populations worldwide: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apolinário, T A; Paiva, C L A; Agostinho, L A

    2017-04-05

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by a dynamic mutation due to the expansion of CAG repeats in the HTT gene (4p16.3). The considered normal alleles have less than 27 CAG repeats. Intermediate alleles (IAs) show 27 to 35 CAG repeats and expanded alleles have more than 35 repeats. The IAs apparently have shown a normal phenotype. However, there are some reported associations between individuals that bear an IA and clinical HD signs, such as behavioral disturbs. The association of IAs with the presence of clinical signs gives clinical relevance to these patients. We emphasized the importance of determining the frequency of IA alleles in the general population as well as in HD families. Therefore, the aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review, in order to investigate the frequency of IAs in the overall chromosomes of different ethnic groups and of families with HD history worldwide as well as the frequency of individuals who bear the intermediate alleles. We searched indexed articles from the following electronic databases: U.S. National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health (PubMed), Pubmed Central (PMC) and Virtual Health Library (VHL). Therefore, 488 articles were obtained and, of these, 33 had been published in more than one database. We accepted the article of only one database and ended up with 455 articles for this review. The frequency of IAs within the chromosomes of the general population ranged from 0.45 to 8.7% and of individuals with family history of HD ranged from 0.05 to 5.1%. The higher frequency of IAs in the general population (8.7%) was found in one Brazilian cohort.

  7. Invited Review Article: Review of post-process optical form metrology for industrial-grade metal additive manufactured parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavroulakis, P I; Leach, R K

    2016-04-01

    The scope of this review is to investigate the main post-process optical form measurement technologies available in industry today and to determine whether they are applicable to industrial-grade metal additive manufactured parts. An in-depth review of the operation of optical three-dimensional form measurement technologies applicable to metal additive manufacturing is presented, with a focus on their fundamental limitations. Looking into the future, some alternative candidate measurement technologies potentially applicable to metal additive manufacturing will be discussed, which either provide higher accuracy than currently available techniques but lack measurement volume, or inversely, which operate in the appropriate measurement volume but are not currently accurate enough to be used for industrial measurement.

  8. Invited Review Article: Review of post-process optical form metrology for industrial-grade metal additive manufactured parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavroulakis, P. I.; Leach, R. K.

    2016-04-01

    The scope of this review is to investigate the main post-process optical form measurement technologies available in industry today and to determine whether they are applicable to industrial-grade metal additive manufactured parts. An in-depth review of the operation of optical three-dimensional form measurement technologies applicable to metal additive manufacturing is presented, with a focus on their fundamental limitations. Looking into the future, some alternative candidate measurement technologies potentially applicable to metal additive manufacturing will be discussed, which either provide higher accuracy than currently available techniques but lack measurement volume, or inversely, which operate in the appropriate measurement volume but are not currently accurate enough to be used for industrial measurement.

  9. Lasers in esthetic treatment of gingival melanin hyperpigmentation: a review article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshi, Mahin; Rahmani, Somayeh; Rahmani, Ali

    2015-11-01

    The health and suitability of mouth components play an important role towards defining facial attractiveness. An important component of the oral cavity is the color of the gingival tissue. Gingival melanin hyperpigmentation is caused by several reasons and affects people across ethnicity, race, age, and both gender. Lasers are presently being used for gingival melanin depigmentation. In this article, we reviewed studies on laser parameters, duration of gingival healing, pain perception during and after the operation, scores used for the evaluation of gingival melanin hyperpigmentation, follow-up period, treatment results, and recurrence reports. We conclude that laser ablation for gingival depigmentation is one of the most pleasant, reliable, acceptable, and impressive techniques available for treating gingival melanin hyperpigmentation.

  10. The Potential Role of Music in Second Language Learning: A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ieva Zeromskaite

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of musical activities on non-musical domains have recently sparked much research. Whereas the benefits of music for native language abilities are well established, the effect on second language (L2 is not yet fully explored. This review discusses articles suggesting the transfer effect of music on L2 phonological and reading skills. Through the analysis of research literature, it examines; (1 the extent of transfer to specific L2 skills, the nature of necessary music training, the effect of native language on musicality and L2, and the role of working memory in the transfer effect. While the discussed papers provide promising insights into the music-L2 relationship, due to the little research done in this area it is difficult to generalize the results to overall L2 learning.

  11. Non-Parenteral Medications for Procedural Sedation in Children- A Narrative: Review Article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallah, Razieh; Ferdosian, Farzad; Shajari, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Procedural sedation may be needed in many diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in children. To make pediatric procedural sedation as safe as possible, protocols should be developed by institutions. Response to sedation in children is highly variable, while some become deeply sedated after minimal doses, others may need much higher doses. Child developmental status, clinical circumstances and condition of patient should be considered and then pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic interventions for sedation be selected. Drug of choice and administration route depend on the condition of the child, type of procedure, and predicted pain degree. The drugs might be administered parenteral (intravenous or intramuscular) or non parenteral including oral, rectal, sublingual, aerosolized buccal and intranasal. The use of intravenous medication such propofol, ketamine, dexmedetomidine, or etomidate may be restricted in use by pediatric anesthesiologist or pediatric critical care specialists or pediatric emergency medicine specialists. In this review article we discuss on non-parenteral medications that can be used by non- anesthesiologist.

  12. Review article: Emergency department data sharing to reduce alcohol-related violence: a systematic review of the feasibility and effectiveness of community-level interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droste, Nicolas; Miller, Peter; Baker, Tim

    2014-08-01

    The present paper aims to review current evidence for the effectiveness and/or feasibility of using inter-agency data sharing of ED recorded assault information to direct interventions reducing alcohol-related or nightlife assaults, injury or violence. Potential data-sharing partners involve police, local council, liquor licensing regulators and venue management. A systematic review of the peer-reviewed literature was conducted. The initial search discovered 19,506 articles. After removal of duplicates and articles not meeting review criteria, n = 8 articles were included in quantitative and narrative synthesis. Seven of eight studies were conducted in UK EDs, with the remaining study presenting Australian data. All studies included in the review deemed data sharing a worthwhile pursuit. All studies attempting to measure intervention effectiveness reported substantial reductions of assaults and ED attendances post-intervention, with one reporting no change. Negative logistic feasibility concerns were minimal, with general consensus among authors being that data-sharing protocols and partnerships could be easily implemented into modern ED triage systems, with minimal cost, staff workload burden, impact to patient safety, service and anonymity, or risk of harm displacement to other licensed venues, or increase to length of patient stay. However, one study reported a potential harm displacement effect to streets surrounding intervention venues. In future, data-sharing systems should triangulate ED, police and ambulance data sources, and assess intervention effectiveness using randomised controlled trials that account for variations in venue capacity, fluctuations in ED attendance and population levels, seasonal variations in assault and injury, and control for concurrent interventions.

  13. MANAGEMENT OF PATIENTS ON ANTICOAGULANT THERAPY UNDERGOING DENTAL SURGICAL PROCEDURES. Review Article.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atanaska Dinkova

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Dental treatment performed in patients receiving oral anticoagulant drug therapy is becoming increasingly common in dental offices.The aim of oral anticoagulant therapy is to reduce blood coagulability to an optimal therapeutic range within which the patient is provided some degree of protection from thromboembolic events. This is achieved at the cost of a minor risk of haemorrhage. Frequently raised questions concern the safety and efficacy of the various anticoagulation regimens and their accompanying thromboembolic and bleeding risks relative to invasive dental procedures.The aim of this literature review is to evaluate the available evidence on the impact of anticoagulant medications on dental treatment and highlight certain patient management issues closely interrelated to various aspects of dental treatment. For that purpose literature search in the electronic database of Medscape, Pubmed-Medline, Science Direct, and EBSCO host, in the data base of Medical University Plovdiv and specialised published books in general medicine and dentistry was made.A total of 33 publications between 1995 and 2013 were identified: 12 review articles, 11 randomized controlled and non-randomised studies, 6 guidelines and practical guides, 1 meta-analysis and 3 specialised books.

  14. Laser Therapy For Arteriosclerosis: Current Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dries, David J.; Pollock, Marc E.; Eugene, John

    1987-03-01

    Shortly after the ruby laser was introduced, in 1959, a study for the use of this ruby laser for the in-vitro dissolution of arteriosclerotic plaque was performed.' With subsequent advances in laser technology and with refined delivery techniques, laser applications to the treatment of arteriosclerosis in the coronary arteries and peripheral vascular system is a reality. This report reviews the disease process, arteriosclerosis, and the ef-forts towards laser treatment of this disease. We conclude with a review of the technical barriers to the routine application of laser energy in arteriosclerotic cardiovascular disease and the progress being made to overcome these obstacles.

  15. Weight Management, Energy Metabolism, and Endocrine Hor¬mones- Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed-Ali MOSTAFAVI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Energy expenditure is determined by basal metabolic rate, physical activity, and Thermic Effect of Foods (TEF. Some endocrine hormones have role in basal metabolism and hence in human energy expenditure. And some foods pose more thermic effects on the total body energy expenditure and therefore can influence body weight. This review was performed to discuss factors which may affect body metabolism and body weight. Latest medical databases and nutrition and metabolism books were reviewed. We used the following keywords in online databases: "Weight Management" and "Hormones"; "Energy Metabolism" and "dietary factors"; "Weight Management" and "dietary factors"; "Endocrine Hormones" and "energy expenditure"; "Basal Energy Expenditure" and "dietary factors"; " Thermic Effect of Foods" and "dietary factors". The best designed articles were used to perform this review. The results are presented bellow. Spicy foods, Caffeine, and alcohol are some dietary factors and Body Size, Body Composition, Age and Gender are the non-dietary factors which may affect the metabolism. Diet composition can also slightly influence the metabolism. This effect depends on how efficient a dietary component is metabolized in the body. Regular dietary pattern also can slightly increase TEF comparing with irregular dietary pattern. Thyroid hormones, Ghrelin, Epinephrine, Cortisol, Steroid hormones, Leptin, Growth hormone, and insulin are among the most important hormones which may influence on metabolism and body weight. Energy expenditure is the basis for measuring human energy requirement and is crucial for weight management. Various hormonal, dietary and non-dietary factors are engaged in total body energy expenditure and are important for weight management. Keywords: Weight Management, Energy Metabolism, Dietary factors, Endocrine Hormones

  16. Fruit and Vegetable Intake: Benefits and Progress of Nutrition Education Interventions- Narrative Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhandevi PEM

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sufficient intake of fruits and vegetables has been associated with a reduced risk of chronic diseases and body weight management but the exact mechanism is unknown. The World Health Organisation and Food and Agriculture of the United Nation reports recommend adults to consume at least five servings of fruits and vegetables per day excluding starchy vegetables. This review focuses on the importance of fruits and vegetables as well as the benefits and progress of nutrition education in improving intake.Methods: For this narrative review, more than 100 relevant scientific articles were considered from various databases (e.g Science Direct, Pub Med and Google Scholar using the keywords Fruit and vegetable, Nutrition education, Body weight, Obesity, Benefits and challenges.Results: Existing data suggests that despite the protective effects of fruits and vegetables, their intakes are still inadequate in many countries, especially developing ones. Consequently enhancing strategies to promote fruit and vegetable intake are essential for health promotion among population. A number of reviews confirm that a well planned and behaviour focused nutrition education intervention can significantly improve behaviour and health indicators.Conclusion: Despite challenges in nutrition education intervention programs, they are considered as a good investment in terms of cost benefit ratio. Rapid improvement in trends of nutrition education can be seen in many countries and majority of interventions has been successful in increasing fruits and vegetables intake. It is recommended that health professionals use multiple interventions to deliver information in several smaller doses over time to ensure improved outcomes. Keywords: Fruit and vegetable, Nutrition education intervention, Body weight, Obesity, Benefit and challenges.

  17. Comparison of SAR and induced current densities in adults and children exposed to electromagnetic fields from electronic article surveillance devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Búrdalo, M.; Sanchis, A.; Martín, A.; Villar, R.

    2010-02-01

    Electronic article surveillance (EAS) devices are widely used in most stores as anti-theft systems. In this work, the compliance with international guidelines in the human exposure to these devices is analysed by using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. Two sets of high resolution numerical phantoms of different size (REMCOM/Hershey and Virtual Family), simulating adult and child bodies, are exposed to a 10 MHz pass-by panel-type EAS consisting of two overlapping current-carrying coils. Two different relative positions between the EAS and the body (frontal and lateral exposures), which imply the exposure of different parts of the body at different distances, have been considered. In all cases, induced current densities in tissues of the central nervous system and specific absorption rates (SARs) are calculated to be compared with the limits from the guidelines. Results show that induced current densities are lower in the case of adult models as compared with those of children in both lateral and frontal exposures. Maximum SAR values calculated in lateral exposure are significantly lower than those calculated in frontal exposure, where the EAS-body distance is shorter. Nevertheless, in all studied cases, with an EAS driving current of 4 A rms, maximum induced current and SAR values are below basic restrictions.

  18. Rett Syndrome: A Review of Current Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Acker, Rick

    1991-01-01

    This review describes Rett syndrome as a disorder afflicting females and characterized by a progressive loss of cognitive and motor skills and development of stereotypic hand movements. The paper discusses its clinical manifestations, etiology, diagnostic criteria and differential diagnosis, prevalence, pathogenesis, treatment, and educational…

  19. Narcissistic personality disorder: a current review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronningstam, Elsa

    2010-02-01

    The diagnosis of narcissistic personality disorder in the DSM-IV has been criticized foremost for its limitations in capturing the range and complexity of narcissistic pathology. The attention to the narcissistic individual's external, symptomatic, or social interpersonal patterns--at the expense of his or her internal complexity and individual suffering--has also added to the diagnosis' low clinical utility and limited guidance for treatment. Recent studies and reviews have pointed to the need for change in the diagnostic approach to and formulation of narcissism. This review focuses specifically on studies of features that add to the identification, understanding, and treatment of patients with pathological narcissistic functioning and narcissistic personality disorder. They have been integrated into a regulatory model that includes the functions and fluctuations of internal control, self-esteem, perfectionism with accompanying self-criticism, shame, and empathic ability and functioning.

  20. Current Concepts of ARDS: A Narrative Review

    OpenAIRE

    Michele Umbrello; Paolo Formenti; Luca Bolgiaghi; Davide Chiumello

    2016-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by the acute onset of pulmonary edema of non-cardiogenic origin, along with bilateral pulmonary infiltrates and reduction in respiratory system compliance. The hallmark of the syndrome is refractory hypoxemia. Despite its first description dates back in the late 1970s, a new definition has recently been proposed. However, the definition remains based on clinical characteristic. In the present review, the diagnostic workup and the pat...

  1. Current surgery of retinal detachment recurrence. Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Zakharov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available this review presents a detailed analysis and an experience of surgical treatment of retinal detachment recurrence associated with light silicone oil tamponade of vitreous cavity. Approaches and variants of treatment were described in the historical aspect and till now. there are considered general and particular issues in case of retinal detachment recurrence appearance, expediency and volume of intraoperative manipulations, time of operation and choice of temporary substitute of vitreous body for a purpose of postoperative tamponade of vitreous cavity.

  2. Current surgery of retinal detachment recurrence. Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Zakharov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available this review presents a detailed analysis and an experience of surgical treatment of retinal detachment recurrence associated with light silicone oil tamponade of vitreous cavity. Approaches and variants of treatment were described in the historical aspect and till now. there are considered general and particular issues in case of retinal detachment recurrence appearance, expediency and volume of intraoperative manipulations, time of operation and choice of temporary substitute of vitreous body for a purpose of postoperative tamponade of vitreous cavity.

  3. [Avalanche emergencies. Review of the current situation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paal, P; Beikircher, W; Brugger, H

    2006-03-01

    In North America and Europe around 140 persons die every year due to avalanches, approximately 35 in North America, 100 in the European Alps, and 5 in other parts of Europe. Most of the victims are skiers and snowboarders. This article outlines the specific pathophysiology of avalanche burials, such as hypoxia, hypercapnia, and hypothermia and also other factors which influence survival. Strategies to minimize the mortality due to avalanches and the on-site treatment of buried persons are discussed. Finally, possibilities to reduce the number of avalanche deaths are pointed out.

  4. Review article: coffee consumption, the metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesil, A; Yilmaz, Y

    2013-11-01

    Coffee consumption may modulate the risk of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). To review the experimental, epidemiological and clinical studies investigating the association between coffee consumption and the risk of MetS and NAFLD. A literature search was conducted with the aim of finding original experimental, epidemiological and clinical articles on the association between coffee consumption, MetS and NAFLD. The following databases were used: PubMed, Embase, Scopus and Science Direct. We included articles written in English and published up to July 2013. Three experimental animal studies investigated the effects of coffee in the MetS, whereas five examined whether experimental coffee intake may modulate the risk of fatty liver infiltration. All of the animal studies showed a protective effect of coffee towards the development of MetS and NAFLD. Moreover, we identified eleven epidemiological and clinical studies that met the inclusion criteria. Of them, six were carried out on the risk of the MetS and five on the risk of NAFLD. Four of the six studies reported an inverse association between coffee consumption and the risk of MetS. The two studies showing negative results were from the same study cohort consisting of young persons with a low prevalence of the MetS. All of the epidemiological and clinical studies on NAFLD reported a protective effect of coffee intake. Coffee intake can reduce the risk of NAFLD. Whether this effect may be mediated by certain components of the MetS deserves further investigation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Review of Articles Related to Responsiveness as a Characteristic of Quality of Life Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rostam Jalali

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Responsiveness is a concept introduced in the mid-eighties by bio-medical researchers. It is considered as a fundamental feature of health-related quality of life questionnaires, which was different from reliability and validity. Responsiveness is defined as the ability of an instrument to detect the minimal clinically important differences. Most authors agree that responsiveness focuses on the ability of a criterion in measuring changes, but there is a wide variety of opinions about the nature of quantified change. This review study was performed to determine the responsiveness by using the valid and available articles. Methods: Keywords of "responsiveness" and "quality of life" were searched in Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL, ProQuest, PsycINFO, Science Direct, Scopus, and Medline databases. Results: Multiple definitions for responsiveness and different procedures for calculating it were investigated in various studies. A total of 30 articles were used as references. Responsiveness has been divided into two groups: External and internal. “Internal responsiveness” is defined as the ability of a measure to change over a specified time frame. “External responsiveness” reflects the extent to which changes in a measure over a specified time frame relate to corresponding changes in a reference measure of health status. Conclusion: Despite the fact that some authors consider the responsiveness as the most basic characteristics for assessment of a tool, its measurement methodology is different. Meanwhile, there are different methods to assess responsiveness, but the researchers used one of them, and in development and validation of quality of life questionnaires must be regarded.

  6. Migraine and Risk of Stroke: Review of Current Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeghi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Context Migraine is a kind of primary headache that affects 10% to 20% of people worldwide. Recent studies have shown that migraines can be involved in strokes incidences, especially ischemic strokes.Hence, the current study aimed to review evidence in relation to migraine and risk of stroke. Evidence Acquisition A literature search was done for related articles dated between 1993 and 2013 on PubMed, Science Direct, Embase, Web of Science and Scopus for both English and non-English language articles by entering “migraine”, “migraine with aura”, “headache” and “ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke” as keywords. Results In most evaluated studies, there was a positive association between migraine with aura (MA and strokes incidences, especially ischemic strokes. Moreover, patients with high frequency of migraine attacks had greater odds of having a stroke compared with those who had low frequency of migraine attacks. Also, the association between migraine and stroke was more significant in subjects under 45 years old. Some migraine symptoms such as vomiting and nausea had a protective role in the development of ischemic strokes. Conclusions Migraine, especially MA, is a risk factor for incidences of strokes, especially ischemic strokes. However, due to conflicting results on the association between different types of migraine and stroke, more studies are needed in this field.

  7. Does the South African Physiotherapy Journal fulfill the needs of its constituency? A retrospective article review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Frantz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Professional  journals  are  used  to  disseminate  the  knowledge of scholars in the profession and to provide clinicians with guidance for best practice.  This  article  aimed  to  retrospectively  review  the  role  of the  South African  Journal  of  Physiotherapy  and  its  contribution  to  the profession.  An archival  research  design  was  used  to  collect  information from  the  archives of  the  South  African  Society  of  Physiotherapy website.  The  information  was retrieved  using  a  data  capture  sheet and descriptive  statistics  were  used throughout  to  establish  frequencies  for the  relevant  information.  During  the identified period, 170 articles were published. The greatest number of papers originated in South Africa (81%, 8% from the rest of Africa and 11% written by international authors. Authors with a Masters degree contributed almost 50% of the papers and those with doctorates were responsible for at least 25% of the papers. Most of the papers presented original research (81% with secondary research such as reviews and scholarly papers accounting for 19% of the total. The most common speciality area addressed through research  was  linked  to musculoskeletal  conditions.  The  journal  appears  to  have  provided  an important  platform  for  South African academics and emerging researchers to publish their findings. It is suggested that the journal should give preference to papers that deal with issues that are unique to South Africa and sub-Saharan Africa, as these are the least likely to be published elsewhere. In addition, the journal should emphasise papers that will advance the profession.

  8. Review article: gastro-oesophageal reflux disease--the health economic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, J; Hungin, A P S

    2005-08-01

    For the vast majority of patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease appropriate care involves the management of symptoms with lifestyle advice and drugs. However, there is dissension about the appropriate use of endoscopy, whether drugs should be stepped up or down according to potency, how long drugs should be used for, the role of lifestyle advice, and, related to this, the role of patients' lifestyle choices. This exploration of the economics of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease reviews its cost burden to the UK, assesses published economic models for their strengths and weaknesses and examines current recommendations for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease management from a socioeconomic perspective. Drugs prescribed predominantly for dyspepsia cost the UK National Health Service a projected pound sterling 625 million in 2004, 7% of the primary care prescribing budget. When general practitioners consultations, endoscopies, over-the-counter sales and sickness absences are included the UK cost rises to pound sterling 1.5 billion: approximately half of this cost can be ascribed to gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Emphasis upon regular review and stepping down treatment (while maintaining adequate symptom relief) is both clinically appropriate and resource efficient. Other cost-effectiveness issues largely lack objective answers because investment in treatment for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease depends upon how much more, at the margin, society wishes to invest for further but diminishing symptom relief.

  9. Invited article: a review of haptic optical tweezers for an interactive microworld exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacoret, Cécile; Régnier, Stéphane

    2013-08-01

    This paper is the first review of haptic optical tweezers, a new technique which associates force feedback teleoperation with optical tweezers. This technique allows users to explore the microworld by sensing and exerting picoNewton-scale forces with trapped microspheres. Haptic optical tweezers also allow improved dexterity of micromanipulation and micro-assembly. One of the challenges of this technique is to sense and magnify picoNewton-scale forces by a factor of 10(12) to enable human operators to perceive interactions that they have never experienced before, such as adhesion phenomena, extremely low inertia, and high frequency dynamics of extremely small objects. The design of optical tweezers for high quality haptic feedback is challenging, given the requirements for very high sensitivity and dynamic stability. The concept, design process, and specification of optical tweezers reviewed here are focused on those intended for haptic teleoperation. In this paper, two new specific designs as well as the current state-of-the-art are presented. Moreover, the remaining important issues are identified for further developments. The initial results obtained are promising and demonstrate that optical tweezers have a significant potential for haptic exploration of the microworld. Haptic optical tweezers will become an invaluable tool for force feedback micromanipulation of biological samples and nano- and micro-assembly parts.

  10. Risk of Cerebral Embolization with Caseous Calcification of the Mitral Annulus: Review Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietl, Charles A.; Hawthorn, Christopher M.; Raizada, Veena

    2016-01-01

    Background: Caseous calcification of the mitral annulus (CCMA) is believed to have a benign prognosis. Several authors have recommended conservative management in asymptomatic patients. However, the prevalence of cerebrovascular events (CVE) in patients with CCMA has never been evaluated before. The aims of this study are to investigate whether patients with CCMA are at increased risk of cerebral embolization, and to determine whether elective surgical resection of CCMA should be considered to prevent a cardioembolic stroke. Methods: A comprehensive literature search was obtained from MEDLINE via PubMed.gov, ScienceDirect.com, and Google Scholar using the following search queries: caseous calcification of the mitral annulus, intracardiac pseudotumor, mitral annular calcification, and cardioembolic stroke. Results: From our initial search that yielded 1,502 articles, we identified a total of 130 patients with CCMA reported in 86 publications. Literature review revealed that the prevalence of CVE associated with CCMA is 19.2% (25 of 130) which is significantly higher than the prevalence of CVE reported with mitral annular calcification (MAC), 11.8% (214 of 1818) (range 4.8% to 24.1%) (P = 0.01796) (odds ratio = 1.78; 0.95 confidence interval = 1.1278 – 2.8239). Only four of 25 (16.0%) patients with CCMA who suffered a CVE had history of atrial fibrillation (AF). Conclusion: Based on our review, it would be reasonable to consider elective surgical resection of CCMA in asymptomatic patients who are good surgical candidates, because patients with CCMA may be at increased risk of embolic strokes, which are unrelated to AF. PMID:27990181

  11. Hormones in Dairy Foods and Their Impact on Public Health- A Narrative Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan MALEKINEJAD

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The presence of hormones in milk and dairy foods was discussed decades ago but rather more concerns attended to that with respect to finding hormones as biomarkers in milk for diseases and pregnancy diagnosis. Moreo-ver, considerable amount of studies demonstrated that existing of hormones in humans and animals milk are essential for infants growing and immunity. During the last couple of years, increasing body of evidence are indicating another property of hormones in dairy products as possible impact on human health including the role of some estrogens and insulin-like growth factor-1 in initiation and provoking of breast, prostate and endometrial tumours.Methods: Data was gathered from the published articles in database such as MEDLINE, science direct, Google scholar and web of science. We put no limitation on date of published date. Moreover, our own published and con-ducted methods and results also are presented. In this review we concentrated on several aspects of presence of hor-mones in dairy foods with especial emphasize on cow’s milk as a major source of consuming milk for humans espe-cially for children.Results: The collected data from other researchers and our own data are indicating that the presence of steroid hor-mones in dairy products could be counted as an important risk factor for various cancers in humans.Conclusion: Our gathered data in this review paper may suggest more sophisticate analytical detection methods for oestrogens determination and also could be considered as a remarkable concern for consumers, producers and public health authorities.

  12. Schizotypal personality disorder: a current review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell, Daniel R; Futterman, Shira E; McMaster, Antonia; Siever, Larry J

    2014-07-01

    The study of schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) is important clinically, as it is understudied, challenging to treat, often under-recognized or misdiagnosed, and associated with significant functional impairment. SPD also represents an intermediate schizophrenia-spectrum phenotype, and therefore, can provide a better understanding of the genetics, pathogenesis, and treatment of related psychotic illnesses. In this review we discuss recent findings of SPD related to epidemiology and functional impairment, heritability and genetics, working memory and cognitive impairments, social-affective disturbances, and neurobiology. Additionally, we examine the challenges associated with treating patients with SPD, as well as clinical recommendations. Finally, we address future directions and areas in need of further exploration.

  13. Microbial Fuel Cells, A Current Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly P. Nevin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Microbial fuel cells (MFCs are devices that can use bacterial metabolism to produce an electrical current from a wide range organic substrates. Due to the promise of sustainable energy production from organic wastes, research has intensified in this field in the last few years. While holding great promise only a few marine sediment MFCs have been used practically, providing current for low power devices. To further improve MFC technology an understanding of the limitations and microbiology of these systems is required. Some researchers are uncovering that the greatest value of MFC technology may not be the production of electricity but the ability of electrode associated microbes to degrade wastes and toxic chemicals. We conclude that for further development of MFC applications, a greater focus on understanding the microbial processes in MFC systems is required.

  14. Current Concepts of ARDS: A Narrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umbrello, Michele; Formenti, Paolo; Bolgiaghi, Luca; Chiumello, Davide

    2016-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by the acute onset of pulmonary edema of non-cardiogenic origin, along with bilateral pulmonary infiltrates and reduction in respiratory system compliance. The hallmark of the syndrome is refractory hypoxemia. Despite its first description dates back in the late 1970s, a new definition has recently been proposed. However, the definition remains based on clinical characteristic. In the present review, the diagnostic workup and the pathophysiology of the syndrome will be presented. Therapeutic approaches to ARDS, including lung protective ventilation, prone positioning, neuromuscular blockade, inhaled vasodilators, corticosteroids and recruitment manoeuvres will be reviewed. We will underline how a holistic framework of respiratory and hemodynamic support should be provided to patients with ARDS, aiming to ensure adequate gas exchange by promoting lung recruitment while minimizing the risk of ventilator-induced lung injury. To do so, lung recruitability should be considered, as well as the avoidance of lung overstress by monitoring transpulmonary pressure or airway driving pressure. In the most severe cases, neuromuscular blockade, prone positioning, and extra-corporeal life support (alone or in combination) should be taken into account. PMID:28036088

  15. Current Concepts of ARDS: A Narrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Umbrello

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS is characterized by the acute onset of pulmonary edema of non-cardiogenic origin, along with bilateral pulmonary infiltrates and reduction in respiratory system compliance. The hallmark of the syndrome is refractory hypoxemia. Despite its first description dates back in the late 1970s, a new definition has recently been proposed. However, the definition remains based on clinical characteristic. In the present review, the diagnostic workup and the pathophysiology of the syndrome will be presented. Therapeutic approaches to ARDS, including lung protective ventilation, prone positioning, neuromuscular blockade, inhaled vasodilators, corticosteroids and recruitment manoeuvres will be reviewed. We will underline how a holistic framework of respiratory and hemodynamic support should be provided to patients with ARDS, aiming to ensure adequate gas exchange by promoting lung recruitment while minimizing the risk of ventilator-induced lung injury. To do so, lung recruitability should be considered, as well as the avoidance of lung overstress by monitoring transpulmonary pressure or airway driving pressure. In the most severe cases, neuromuscular blockade, prone positioning, and extra-corporeal life support (alone or in combination should be taken into account.

  16. Current Concepts of ARDS: A Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umbrello, Michele; Formenti, Paolo; Bolgiaghi, Luca; Chiumello, Davide

    2016-12-29

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by the acute onset of pulmonary edema of non-cardiogenic origin, along with bilateral pulmonary infiltrates and reduction in respiratory system compliance. The hallmark of the syndrome is refractory hypoxemia. Despite its first description dates back in the late 1970s, a new definition has recently been proposed. However, the definition remains based on clinical characteristic. In the present review, the diagnostic workup and the pathophysiology of the syndrome will be presented. Therapeutic approaches to ARDS, including lung protective ventilation, prone positioning, neuromuscular blockade, inhaled vasodilators, corticosteroids and recruitment manoeuvres will be reviewed. We will underline how a holistic framework of respiratory and hemodynamic support should be provided to patients with ARDS, aiming to ensure adequate gas exchange by promoting lung recruitment while minimizing the risk of ventilator-induced lung injury. To do so, lung recruitability should be considered, as well as the avoidance of lung overstress by monitoring transpulmonary pressure or airway driving pressure. In the most severe cases, neuromuscular blockade, prone positioning, and extra-corporeal life support (alone or in combination) should be taken into account.

  17. Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy: A review of current trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olokoba, A B; Obateru, O A; Bojuwoye, M O

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori has been implicated in the formation of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and gastric cancer. Eradication of H. Pylori has been recommended as treatment and prevention for these complications. This review is based on a search of Medline, the Cochrane Database of Systemic Reviews, and citation lists of relevant publications. Subject heading and key words used include H. Pylori, current treatment and emerging therapy. Only articles in English were included. There has been a substantial decline in the H. pylori eradication rates over the years, despite the use of proton pump inhibitor and bismuth salts for triple and quadruple therapies respectively. The reasons for eradication failure are diverse, among them, antibiotic resistance is an important factor in the treatment failure. Primary resistance to clarithromycin or metronidazole significantly affects the efficacy of eradication therapy. This has led to the introduction of second line, third line "rescue," and sequential therapies for resistant cases. Subsequently, new antibiotic combinations with proton-pump inhibitors and bismuth salts are being studied in the last decade, to find out the antibiotics that are capable of increasing the eradication rates. Some of these antibiotics include Levofloxacin, Doxycycline, Rifaximin, Rifampicin, Furazolidone based therapies. Studies are ongoing to determine the efficacy of Lactoferrin based therapy.

  18. Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy: A review of current trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A B Olokoba

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori has been implicated in the formation of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and gastric cancer. Eradication of H. Pylori has been recommended as treatment and prevention for these complications. This review is based on a search of Medline, the Cochrane Database of Systemic Reviews, and citation lists of relevant publications. Subject heading and key words used include H. Pylori, current treatment and emerging therapy. Only articles in English were included. There has been a substantial decline in the H. pylori eradication rates over the years, despite the use of proton pump inhibitor and bismuth salts for triple and quadruple therapies respectively. The reasons for eradication failure are diverse, among them, antibiotic resistance is an important factor in the treatment failure. Primary resistance to clarithromycin or metronidazole significantly affects the efficacy of eradication therapy. This has led to the introduction of second line, third line "rescue," and sequential therapies for resistant cases. Subsequently, new antibiotic combinations with proton-pump inhibitors and bismuth salts are being studied in the last decade, to find out the antibiotics that are capable of increasing the eradication rates. Some of these antibiotics include Levofloxacin, Doxycycline, Rifaximin, Rifampicin, Furazolidone based therapies. Studies are ongoing to determine the efficacy of Lactoferrin based therapy.

  19. Review article: surgical, neo-adjuvant and adjuvant management strategies in biliary tract cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skipworth, J R A; Olde Damink, S W M; Imber, C; Bridgewater, J; Pereira, S P; Malagó, M

    2011-11-01

    The majority of patients with cholangiocarcinoma present with advanced, irresectable tumours associated with poor prognosis. The incidence and mortality rates associated with cholangiocarcinoma continue to rise, mandating the development of novel strategies for early detection, improved resection and treatment of residual lesions. To review the current evidence base for surgical, adjuvant and neo-adjuvant techniques in the management of cholangiocarcinoma. A search strategy incorporating PubMed/Medline search engines and utilising the key words biliary tract carcinoma; cholangiocarcinoma; management; surgery; chemotherapy; radiotherapy; photodynamic therapy; and radiofrequency ablation, in various combinations, was employed. Data on neo-adjuvant and adjuvant techniques remain limited, and much of the literature concerns palliation of inoperable disease. The only opportunity for long-term survival remains surgical resection with negative pathological margins or liver transplantation, both of which remain possible in only a minority of selected patients. Neo-adjuvant and adjuvant techniques currently provide only limited success in improving survival. The development of novel strategies and treatment techniques is crucial. However, the shortage of randomised controlled trials is compounded by the low feasibility of conducting adequately powered trials in liver surgery, due to the large sample sizes that are required. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Micro RNA: Small but full of mystery and use (review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Noori Daloii

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs form a class of small non-coding RNA molecules. With only 21-23 nucleutide in length, they have an important role in gene expression. These molecules bind to their target mRNA molecules and repress the protein expression via mRNA degradation or blocking the translation machine of the cell. From the advent of molecular biology microRNA molecules were out of focus, however huge amount of studies in the past few years revealed a lot of facts about their nature. Nowadays around 1600 different microRNA are discovered in human, animals, plant and even viruses. In this review article the most recent data in the history, genes, expression and process of these molecules are introduced. Furthermore, the findings about diverse roles of these molecules in normal and abnormal conditions, cancer in particular, are shown. Finally, the differences to siRNA molecules and the prospect of microRNA have been explained.

  1. Molecular Biomarkers of Colorectal Cancer: A Review of Published Articles From Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geramizadeh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Context Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide (the third most common cancer in the world and is especially more common in Western countries; however, its incidence has been increased significantly during the last few years in Eastern countries such as Iran and considered as one of the five common cancers in this country. According to molecular pathways, numerous biomarkers have been identified for colorectal cancers which help patients’ management. Evidence aquisition In this study, we tried to review published articles about the molecular biomarkers of colorectal cancer from Iran. We searched medical databases such as google scholar, Scopus, PubMed, Magiran, SID and Iran Medex for keywords of “colon cancer, KRAS, BRAF, mismatch repair gene, Microsatellite instability, molecular genetics, molecular pathogenesis, biomarker and Iran” to find studies published about colorectal cancers from Iran regarding molecular biomarkers. Conclusion This study showed that molecular biomarkers in colorectal cancer of Iranian patients are not so different from Western population.

  2. Adropin- A Novel Biomarker of Heart Disease: A Systematic Review Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    YOSAEE, Somaye; SOLTANI, Sepideh; SEKHAVATI, Eghbal; JAZAYERI, Shima

    2016-01-01

    Background: Heart disease is one of the most common chronic disease and leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Adropin, a newly identified protein, is important for energy homeostasis and maintaining insulin sensitivity, and has been referred to as a novel regulator of endothelial cells. Endothelial dysfunction is a key early event in atherogenesis and onset of HD. Therefore, this review gives a systematic overview of studies investigating plasma adropin level in patient with heart disease. Methods: Data carried out in PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Embase, Google scholar and MEDLINE, from the earliest available online indexing year through 2015. The search restricted to studies conducted in humans. The keyword search was adropin to apply in title, abstract and keywords. References lists of all original published articles were scanned to find additional eligible studies. Results: Heart failure (HF), coronary atherosclerosis acute myocardial infarction and Cardiac Syndrome X (CSX) were type of heart disease acknowledged in this study. Majority of evidences introduced low adropin as an independent risk factor of heart disease. In a case-control study, the plasma level of adropin increased with the severity of HF. Conclusion: Adropinmay be a potential serum biomarker for early diagnosis of HD. PMID:28053922

  3. Relevance and Applicability of Multi-objective Resource Constrained Project Scheduling Problem: Review Article

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    V. Oladokun

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Resource-Constrained Project Scheduling Problem (RCPSP is a Non Polynomial (NP - Hard optimization problem that considers how to assign activities to available resources in order to meet predefined objectives. The problem is usually characterized by precedence relationship between activities with limited capacity of renewable resources. In an environment where resources are limited, projects still have to be finished on time, within the approved budget and in accordance with the preset specifications. Inherently, these tend to make RCPSP, a multi-objective problem. However, it has been treated as a single objective problem with project makespan often recognized as the most relevant objective. As a result of not understanding the multi-objective dimension of some projects, where these objectives need to be simultaneously considered, distraction and conflict of interest have ultimately lead to abandoned or totally failed projects. The aim of this article is to holistically review the relevance and applicability of multi-objective performance dimension of RCPSP in an environment where optimal use of limited resources is important.

  4. Molecular genetic, diagnosis, prevention and gene therapy in prostatic cancer: review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noori Daloii MR

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available "nThe prostate is a small gland located below the bladder and upper part of the urethra. In developed countries prostate cancer is the second common cancer (after skin cancer, and also the second leading cause of cancer death (after lung cancer among men. The several studies have been shown prostate cancer familial aggregation. The main reason for this aggregation is inheritance included genes. The family history is an important risk factor for developing the disease. The genes AR, CYP17, SRD5A2, HSD3B1 and HSD3B2 are all intimately involved in androgen metabolism and cell proliferation in the prostate. Each shows intraspecific polymorphism and variation among racial-ethnic groups that is associated with the risk of prostate cancer. Some of genes expressed in the prostate are in association with the production of seminal fluid and also with prostate cancer. Epigenetic modifications, specifically DNA hypermethylation, are believed to play an important role in the down-regulation of genes important for protection against prostate cancer. In prostate cancer numerous molecular and genetic aberrations have been described. It is now well established that cancer cells exhibit a number of genetic defects in apoptotic pathways. In this review article, the most recent data in molecular genetic, prevention and especially gene therapy in prostate cancer are introduced.

  5. 77 FR 26252 - North American Free Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews; First Request for Panel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-03

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews; First... North American Free Trade Agreement (``Agreement'') established a mechanism to replace domestic judicial... States Section of the NAFTA Secretariat pursuant to Article 1904 of the North American Free Trade...

  6. 77 FR 66441 - North American Free Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews; First Request for Panel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews; First... Section of the NAFTA Secretariat pursuant to Article 1904 of the North American Free Trade Agreement... INFORMATION: Chapter 19 of the North American Free Trade Agreement (``Agreement'') established a mechanism to...

  7. "Counselor Education and Supervision" Golden Anniversary Publication Pattern Review: Author and Article Characteristics from 1985 to 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Stephanie A.; Byrd, Rebekah; Erford, Bradley T.; Hays, Danica G.

    2010-01-01

    Patterns of articles accepted for publication in "Counselor Education and Supervision" from the past 25 years were reviewed in this meta-study. Results were described and statistically analyzed to identify trends over time in author characteristics (sex, institutional classifications, employment setting, domicile) and article characteristics…

  8. Breast cancer pain management - A review of current & novel therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aanchal Satija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers amongst women in the world. Unfortunately, even after adequate treatment, some patients experience severe pain either due to disease progression or due to treatment related side effects. The persistent pain causes a negative physical and psychosocial impact on patients′ lives. Current rational pain management is patient-centred and requires a thorough psychological assessment. Usually adequate analgesia is achieved by adopting the WHO′s three step analgesic ladder. As the disease progresses, the pain experienced by the patient also increases. This necessitates the administration of opioids and adjuvant analgesics to the breast cancer patients experiencing severe pain. However, opioid use is associated with intolerable side effects like constipation, nausea, vomiting, fear of dependence, and tolerance. Concomitant medications are required to combat these unacceptable side effects. Adjuvant analgesics need to be added to provide adequate and satisfactory analgesia. These factors worsen the psychological state of patients and deteriorate their quality of life. Hence, there is a need to develop therapeutic modalities to provide adequate analgesia with minimum side effects. This review article focuses on the current treatments available for cancer pain management, their limitations, and novel targets and non-pharmacological measures under investigation which have the potential to produce a radical change in pain management measures for the breast cancer patients.

  9. Leishmaniases in Ecuador: Comprehensive review and current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Velez, Lenin N; Villegas, Nancy V; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Gomez, Eduardo A L; Kato, Hirotomo

    2017-02-01

    This article reviews current knowledge about leishmaniases in Ecuador, proceeding from 1920, when the first human case was described, to the present, mainly focusing on the recent research events published. Regarding basic situations, it appears that 23 of Ecuador's 24 provinces have leishmaniasis-case reports. The disease is one of the mandatory notification infectious diseases in the country since 2005. All the 21,305 cases notified to the Ministry of Public Health, during the period from 2001 through 2014, were said to involve different clinical features of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) but not visceral (VL). Eight Leishmania species, L. (Viannia) guyanensis, L. (V.) panamensis, L. (V.) braziliensis, L. (Leishmania) mexicana, L. (L.) amazonensis, L. (L.) major-like, L. (V.) naiffiand L. (V.) lainsoni were characterized. The last two species were most recently reported from the Ecuadorian Amazon regions. Of the 73 Ecuadorian Lutzomyia species (43 man-biting species) recorded, only four, Lu. trapidoi, Lu. gomezi, Lu. ayacuchensis, and Lu. tortura were incriminated as vectors of the Leishmania parasites. Current knowledge on the reservoir hosts of Leishmania in Ecuador is extremely poor. Recently, in Ecuador different kinds of molecular techniques were developed for diagnosis and mass screening of the disease, employing various materials derived from patients and sand fly vectors. These are PCR-RFLP, colorimetric FTA-LAMP etc. Brief comments and recommendations were also given, for future research and control of leishmaniases in Ecuador.

  10. Standards and pitfalls of focal ischemia models in spontaneously hypertensive rats: With a systematic review of recent articles

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    Yao Hiroshi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We reviewed the early development of various focal ischemia models in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR, and summarized recent reports on this topic. Among 6 focal ischemia models established in divergent substrains of SHR, distal middle cerebral artery occlusion is the most frequently used and relevant method of focal ischemia in the light of penumbra concept. We performed an online PubMed search (2001–2010, and identified 118 original articles with focal ischemia in SHR. Physiological parameters such as age, body weight, and even blood pressure were often neglected in the literature: the information regarding the physiological parameters of SHR is critical, and should be provided within the methodology section of all articles related to stroke models in SHR. Although the quality of recent studies on neuroprotective strategy is improving, the mechanisms underlying the protection should be more clearly recognized so as to facilitate the translation from animal studies to human stroke. To overcome the genetic heterogeneity in substrains of SHR, new approaches, such as a huge repository of genetic markers in rat strains and the congenic strategy, are currently in progress.

  11. Virtual smile design systems: a current review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Moritz; Mehl, Albert

    2015-01-01

    In the age of digital dentistry, virtual treatment planning is becoming an increasingly important element of dental practice. Thanks to new technological advances in the computer- assisted design and computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD/CAM) of dental restorations, predictable interdisciplinary treatment using the backward planning approach appears useful and feasible. Today, a virtual smile design can be used as the basis for creating an esthetic virtual setup of the desired final result. The virtual setup, in turn, is used to plan further treatment steps in an interdisciplinary team approach, and communicate the results to the patient. The smile design concept and the esthetic analyses required for it are described in this article. We include not only a step-by-step description of the virtual smile design workflow, but also describe and compare the several available smile design options and systems. Subsequently, a brief discussion of the advantages and limitations of virtual smile design is followed by a section on different ways to integrate a two-dimensional (2D) smile design into the digital three-dimensional (3D) workflow. New technological developments are also described, such as the integration of smile designs in digital face scans, and 3D diagnostic follow-up using intraoral scanners.

  12. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Review of Current Trends

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    Abdulfatai B. Olokoba

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM is a chronic metabolic disorder in which prevalence has been increasing steadily all over the world. As a result of this trend, it is fast becoming an epidemic in some countries of the world with the number of people affected expected to double in the next decade due to increase in ageing population, thereby adding to the already existing burden for healthcare providers, especially in poorly developed countries. This review is based on a search of Medline, the Cochrane Database of Systemic Reviews, and citation lists of relevant publications. Subject heading and key words used include type 2 diabetes mellitus, prevalence, current diagnosis, and current treatment. Only articles in English were included. Screening and diagnosis is still based on World Health Organization (WHO and American Diabetes Association (ADA criteria which include both clinical and laboratory parameters. No cure has yet been found for the disease; however, treatment modalities include lifestyle modifications, treatment of obesity, oral hypoglycemic agents, and insulin sensitizers like metformin, a biguanide that reduces insulin resistance, is still the recommended first line medication especially for obese patients. Other effective medications include non-sulfonylurea secretagogues, thiazolidinediones, alpha glucosidase inhibitors, and insulin. Recent research into the pathophysiology of type 2 DM has led to the introduction of new medications like glucagon-like peptide 1 analogoues: dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitors, inhibitors of the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 and 11ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1, insulin-releasing glucokinase activators and pancreatic-G-protein-coupled fatty-acid-receptor agonists, glucagon-receptor antagonists, metabolic inhibitors of hepatic glucose output and quick-release bromocriptine. Inhaled insulin was licensed for use in 2006 but has been withdrawn from the market because of low patronage.

  13. Review article: hyperammonaemic and catabolic consequences of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olde Damink, S W M; Dejong, C H C; Jalan, R

    2009-04-15

    Upper gastrointestinal (UGI) bleeding in patients with cirrhosis of the liver induces hyperammonaemia and leads to a catabolic cascade that precipitates life-threatening complications. The haemoglobin molecule is unique because it lacks the essential amino acid isoleucine and contains high amounts of leucine and valine. UGI bleed therefore presents the gut with protein of very low biologic value, which may be the stimulus to induce net catabolism. To describe the hyperammonaemic and catabolic consequences of UGI bleeding in cirrhosis. A semi-structured literature search was performed using PubMed and article references. It has recently been proven that ('simulation of ') a UGI bleed in patients with cirrhosis leads to impaired protein synthesis that can be restored by intravenous infusion of isoleucine. This may have therapeutic implications for the function of rapidly dividing cells and short half-life proteins such as clotting factors. Renal and small bowel ammoniagenesis were shown to be the most prominent causes for the hyperammonaemia that resulted from a UGI bleed. This provides an explanation for the therapeutic failure of the current clinical therapies that are aimed at large bowel-derived ammonia production. Isoleucine infusion did not diminish renal ammoniagenesis. New pharmacological therapies to diminish postbleeding hyperammonaemia should target the altered inter-organ ammonia metabolism and promote ammonia excretion and/or increase the excretion of precursors of ammoniagenesis, e.g. l-ornithine-phenylacetate.

  14. Teaching hydrogeology: a review of current practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Gleeson

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogeology is now taught in a broad spectrum of departments and institutions to students with diverse backgrounds. Successful instruction in hydrogeology thus requires a variety of pedagogical approaches depending on desired learning outcomes and the background of students. We review the pedagogical literature in hydrogeology to highlight recent advances and analyze a 2005 survey among 68 hydrogeology instructors. The literature and survey results suggest there are only ~ 15 topics that are considered crucial by most hydrogeologists and > 100 other topics that are considered crucial by some hydrogeologists. The crucial topics focus on properties of aquifers and fundamentals of groundwater flow, and should likely be part of all undergraduate hydrogeology courses. Other topics can supplement and support these crucial topics, depending on desired learning outcomes. Classroom settings continue to provide a venue for emphasizing fundamental knowledge. However, recent pedagogical advances are biased towards field and laboratory instruction with a goal of bolstering experiential learning. Field methods build on the fundamentals taught in the classroom and emphasize the collection of data, data uncertainty, and the development of vocational skills. Laboratory and computer-based exercises similarly build on theory, and offer an opportunity for data analysis and integration. The literature suggests curricula at all levels should ideally balance field, laboratory, and classroom pedagogy into an iterative and integrative whole. An integrated, iterative and balanced approach leads to greater student motivation and advancement of theoretical and vocational knowledge.

  15. Current pharmacotherapy for acromegaly: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biermasz, Nienke R; Romijn, Johannes A; Pereira, Alberto M; Roelfsema, Ferdinand

    2005-11-01

    Acromegaly is associated with considerable morbidity and excess mortality; however, after effective treatment, both morbidity and mortality risks improve. Growth hormone excess in acromegaly can be controlled in many patients by pharmacotherapy alone, and with a combination of transsphenoidal surgery and pharmacotherapy in almost all patients. Since the clinical introduction of pegvisomant, a growth hormone-receptor antagonist, the role of radiotherapy is restricted. This review focuses on the treatment options for acromegaly (e.g., surgery, radiotherapy and pharmacotherapy with the depot preparations of the somatostatin analogues octreotide long-acting release formulation, lanreotide slow-release formulation and lanreotide Autogel, the growth hormone antagonist pegvisomant and the dopamine agonist cabergoline). Pharmacological characteristics of these drugs and the clinical and adverse effects are discussed individually and in relation to the other treatment modalities. The evidence for biochemical goals aimed at during medical treatment and the costs of pharmacotherapy are discussed. A new treatment algorithm is proposed, in which the choice between primary medical treatment and primary surgery is individualised, dependent on adenoma size and extension, patient factors (age, preference for therapy, contraindication for surgery), surgical experience of the centre and octreotide sensitivity of the adenoma. The high cost of lifelong medical treatment, especially of pegvisomant, must be weighed against the cost of a single surgical procedure.

  16. Teaching hydrogeology: a review of current practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, T.; Allen, D. M.; Ferguson, G.

    2012-07-01

    Hydrogeology is now taught in a broad spectrum of departments and institutions to students with diverse backgrounds. Successful instruction in hydrogeology thus requires a variety of pedagogical approaches depending on desired learning outcomes and the background of students. We review the pedagogical literature in hydrogeology to highlight recent advances and analyze a 2005 survey among 68 hydrogeology instructors. The literature and survey results suggest there are only ~ 15 topics that are considered crucial by most hydrogeologists and > 100 other topics that are considered crucial by some hydrogeologists. The crucial topics focus on properties of aquifers and fundamentals of groundwater flow, and should likely be part of all undergraduate hydrogeology courses. Other topics can supplement and support these crucial topics, depending on desired learning outcomes. Classroom settings continue to provide a venue for emphasizing fundamental knowledge. However, recent pedagogical advances are biased towards field and laboratory instruction with a goal of bolstering experiential learning. Field methods build on the fundamentals taught in the classroom and emphasize the collection of data, data uncertainty, and the development of vocational skills. Laboratory and computer-based exercises similarly build on theory, and offer an opportunity for data analysis and integration. The literature suggests curricula at all levels should ideally balance field, laboratory, and classroom pedagogy into an iterative and integrative whole. An integrated, iterative and balanced approach leads to greater student motivation and advancement of theoretical and vocational knowledge.

  17. Estimating the Horizon of articles to decide when to stop searching in systematic reviews: an example using a systematic review of RCTs evaluating osteoporosis clinical decision support tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastner, Monika; Straus, Sharon; Goldsmith, Charlie H

    2007-10-11

    Researchers conducting systematic reviews need to search multiple bibliographic databases such as MEDLINE and EMBASE. However, researchers have no rational search stopping rule when looking for potentially-relevant articles. We empirically tested a stopping rule based on the concept of capture-mark-recapture (CMR), which was first pioneered in ecology. The principles of CMR can be adapted to systematic reviews and meta-analyses to estimate the Horizon of articles in the literature with its confidence interval. We retrospectively tested this Horizon Estimation using a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated clinical decision support tools for osteoporosis disease management. The Horizon Estimation was calculated based on 4 bibliographic databases that were included as the main data sources for the review in the following order: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and EBM Reviews. The systematic review captured 68% of known articles from the 4 data sources, which represented 592 articles that were estimated as missing from the Horizon.

  18. REVIEW ARTICLE: Photometry, radiometry and 'the candela': evolution in the classical and quantum world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwinkels, Joanne C.; Ikonen, Erkki; Fox, Nigel P.; Ulm, Gerhard; Rastello, Maria Luisa

    2010-10-01

    The metrological fields of photometry and radiometry and their associated units are closely linked through the current definition of the base unit of luminous intensity—the candela. These fields are important to a wide range of applications requiring precise and accurate measurements of electromagnetic radiation and, in particular, the amount of radiant energy (light) that is perceived by the human eye. The candela has been one of the base units since the inception of the International System of Units (SI) and is the only base unit that quantifies a fundamental biological process—human vision. This photobiological process spans an enormous dynamic range of light levels from a few-photon interaction involved in triggering the vision mechanism to a level of more than 1015 photons per second that is accommodated by the visual response under bright daylight conditions. This position paper, prepared by members of the Task Group on the SI of the Consultative Committee for Photometry and Radiometry Strategic Planning Working Group (CCPR WG-SP), reviews the evolution of these fields of optical radiation measurements and their consequent impact on definitions and realization of the candela. Over the past several decades, there have been significant developments in sources, detectors, measuring instruments and techniques, that have improved the measurement of photometric and radiometric quantities for classical applications in lighting design, manufacturing and quality control processes involving optical sources, detectors and materials. These improved realizations largely underpin the present (1979) definition of the candela. There is no consensus on whether this radiant-based definition fully satisfies the current and projected needs of the optical radiation community. There is also no consensus on whether a reformulation of the definition of the candela in terms of photon flux will be applicable to the lighting community. However, there have been significant recent

  19. Review article: MHD wave propagation near coronal null points of magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    McLaughlin, J A; De Moortel, I; 10.1007/s11214-010-9654-y

    2010-01-01

    We present a comprehensive review of MHD wave behaviour in the neighbourhood of coronal null points: locations where the magnetic field, and hence the local Alfven speed, is zero. The behaviour of all three MHD wave modes, i.e. the Alfven wave and the fast and slow magnetoacoustic waves, has been investigated in the neighbourhood of 2D, 2.5D and (to a certain extent) 3D magnetic null points, for a variety of assumptions, configurations and geometries. In general, it is found that the fast magnetoacoustic wave behaviour is dictated by the Alfven-speed profile. In a $\\beta=0$ plasma, the fast wave is focused towards the null point by a refraction effect and all the wave energy, and thus current density, accumulates close to the null point. Thus, null points will be locations for preferential heating by fast waves. Independently, the Alfven wave is found to propagate along magnetic fieldlines and is confined to the fieldlines it is generated on. As the wave approaches the null point, it spreads out due to the di...

  20. e-Research in the Social Sciences: The Possibilities and the Reality (A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Russell Searight

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to examine the current status as well as benefits and barriers to online research in the social sciences. With the rapid development of internet technology in the past decade, there has been growing interest in the application of on-line technologies to social science research. While there are a number of on-line sites for survey completion and centralized data sets for studying psychological, health, political and sociological issues, collaborative on-line research communities have not developed at the same pace as these other innovations. The few exploratory studies of e-research collaboration conducted to date suggest that while there are potential benefits, there are a number of social, ethical and professional barriers to its development in the social sciences. A recent curricular innovation, in which undergraduate students from different institutions work collaboratively on an on-line research project, suggests that with specific training, a number of these obstacles can be overcome. However, at this point, there appears to be more potential for collaborative online research than is being realized. Issues such as trust, ownership, and quality assurance will need to be addressed before collaborative on-line research in social science becomes a common practice.

  1. Current perspectives on post systems: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goracci, C; Ferrari, M

    2011-06-01

    This literature review summarizes the most recent and reliable evidence on post systems. A search was limited to review articles published over the last 10 years in dental journals with an impact factor. Papers cited in the initially retrieved review articles were also included if significant. Preservation of tooth tissue, presence of a ferrule effect, and adhesion are regarded as the most effective conditions for long-term success of post-endodontic restorations. Adhesively luted fibre-reinforced composite post restorations have demonstrated satisfactory survival rates over relatively long follow-up periods. The clinical effectiveness of such restorations has been mainly ascribed to the more biomimetic behaviour of fibre-reinforced composite posts that reduces the risk of vertical root fractures. The most common type of failure when using fibre posts is post debonding and it is generally agreed that achieving stable adhesion to intraradicular dentine is more challenging than to coronal dentine. Several factors related to endodontic treatment, root canal shape, post space preparation, post translucency, adhesive cement handling and curing may have an influence on the outcome of the luting procedure. The most reliable results in fibre post cementation are obtained by etch-and-rinse adhesives in combination with dual-cure resin cements. The use of self-adhesive resin cements has also been proposed. Simplification is an obvious advantage of these new materials. However, the durability of their bond still needs to be verified with long-term clinical studies. Several techniques for pre-treating the fibre-reinforced composite post surface have been tested with the aim of improving the bond strength at the post-core and post-cement interfaces. Silicoating followed by silanization currently appears to be the most effective and convenient method for this purpose. In conclusion, the available evidence validates the use of fibre posts as an alternative to metal posts and

  2. Mentoring and New Teacher Induction in the United States: A Review and Analysis of Current Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullough, Robert V., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, current practices were reviewed in mentoring and induction across three large states--New York, Texas, and California--and one small state, Utah. Patterns and trends are described in the United States, program results and evolving views of mentoring are discussed, gaps in the research literature are identified, and the future of…

  3. Astigmatism treatment during phacoemulsification: a review of current surgical strategies and their rationale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano de Oliveira Freitas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Preexisting corneal astigmatism, present at the time of cataract surgery, is reviewed in detail throughout this article on its most important aspects such as occurrence rates, clinical relevance and current treatment options. Special emphasis is given to the latter aspect. Each method's rationale, advantage and limitation ishigh lightened. Comparisons between treatment options, whenever possible, are also provided.

  4. The Politics of English, Language and Uptake: The Case of International Academic Journal Article Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillis, Theresa; Curry, Mary Jane

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on 95 text histories from a longitudinal project on writing for publication in 4 national contexts, this article analyses the language ideologies enacted in referees' and editors' comments on articles submitted for publication in English-medium "international" journals. It considers how orientations to "English,"…

  5. Nourodevelopmental follow-up in high-risk infants: review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farin Soleimani

    2015-02-01

    for it. The present review article aims to introduce the care process and tools that is used for following-up these babies, also introduces the application of screening tools for neuro-developmental care.

  6. Review Article: MHD Wave Propagation Near Coronal Null Points of Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, J. A.; Hood, A. W.; de Moortel, I.

    2011-07-01

    We present a comprehensive review of MHD wave behaviour in the neighbourhood of coronal null points: locations where the magnetic field, and hence the local Alfvén speed, is zero. The behaviour of all three MHD wave modes, i.e. the Alfvén wave and the fast and slow magnetoacoustic waves, has been investigated in the neighbourhood of 2D, 2.5D and (to a certain extent) 3D magnetic null points, for a variety of assumptions, configurations and geometries. In general, it is found that the fast magnetoacoustic wave behaviour is dictated by the Alfvén-speed profile. In a β=0 plasma, the fast wave is focused towards the null point by a refraction effect and all the wave energy, and thus current density, accumulates close to the null point. Thus, null points will be locations for preferential heating by fast waves. Independently, the Alfvén wave is found to propagate along magnetic fieldlines and is confined to the fieldlines it is generated on. As the wave approaches the null point, it spreads out due to the diverging fieldlines. Eventually, the Alfvén wave accumulates along the separatrices (in 2D) or along the spine or fan-plane (in 3D). Hence, Alfvén wave energy will be preferentially dissipated at these locations. It is clear that the magnetic field plays a fundamental role in the propagation and properties of MHD waves in the neighbourhood of coronal null points. This topic is a fundamental plasma process and results so far have also lead to critical insights into reconnection, mode-coupling, quasi-periodic pulsations and phase-mixing.

  7. The Impact of Density: The Importance of Nonlinearlity and Selection on Flight and Fight Responses: A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George H. Conklin

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The article "The Impact of Density" by Wendy C. Regoeczi is reviewed as part of Sociation Today's effort to place focus on important articles relating to core social science concepts. The effects of density on human behavior may have been underreported in the past due to the non-linear relationship between density and crowding and the fact that people self select out of dense situations.

  8. Normal tissue studies in radiation oncology: A systematic review of highly cited articles and citation patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieder, Carsten; Andratschke, Nicolaus H; Grosu, Anca L

    2014-09-01

    Radiation therapy is one of the cornerstones of modern multidisciplinary cancer treatment. Normal tissue tolerance is critical as radiation-induced side effects may compromise organ function and quality of life. The importance of normal tissue research is reflected by the large number of scientific articles, which have been published between 2006 and 2010. The present study identified important areas of research as well as seminal publications. The article citation rate is among the potential indicators of scientific impact. Highly cited articles, arbitrarily defined as those with ≥15 citations, were identified via a systematic search of the citation database, Scopus. Up to 608 articles per year were published between 2006 and 2010, however, distribution, clinical prevention or mitigation studies are critical and must receive higher priority, funding and attention.

  9. Normal tissue studies in radiation oncology: A systematic review of highly cited articles and citation patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Nieder, Carsten; Andratschke, Nicolaus H.; GROSU, ANCA L.

    2014-01-01

    Radiation therapy is one of the cornerstones of modern multidisciplinary cancer treatment. Normal tissue tolerance is critical as radiation-induced side effects may compromise organ function and quality of life. The importance of normal tissue research is reflected by the large number of scientific articles, which have been published between 2006 and 2010. The present study identified important areas of research as well as seminal publications. The article citation rate is among the potential...

  10. Strategic Evaluation of Web-based E-learning; a review on 8 articles

    OpenAIRE

    Shahriar Mohammadi; Sajad Homayoun

    2013-01-01

    Today electronic learning is an important educational topic, and choosing an appropriate, applicable approach in education is of great importance. We may encounter the question: why should we evaluate systems? Our answer can be one of these: (1) Instantaneous management of pros and cons; (2) designing a long-term strategy; (3) evaluation of managers’ performance. Our main issue in this article is that we evaluate systems based on strategy, goals as well as objectives. According to 8 articles...

  11. Review article: Effectiveness of ultra-brief interventions in the emergency department to reduce alcohol consumption: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinnes, Rosemary A; Hutton, Jennie E; Weiland, Tracey J; Fatovich, Daniel M; Egerton-Warburton, Diana

    2016-12-01

    To assess the effectiveness of ultra-brief interventions (ultra-BI) or technology-involved preventive measures in the ED to reduce alcohol harm and risky drinking. Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL and EBM reviews were searched for articles published between 1996 and 2015. Randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised trials, which compared an ultra-BI with screening, standard care or minimal intervention for adults and adolescents at risk for alcohol-related harm presenting to an ED, were included. Outcomes of interest were frequency of alcohol consumption, quantity of alcohol consumed, binge drinking and ED representation. Thirteen studies (nine single centre and four multicentre) were included. Six studies showed a significant reduction in the quantity consumed with intermediate effect size at 3 months (d = -0.40) and small effect size at 12 months (d = -0.15). Two studies showed a significant reduction in binge drinking with small effect size at 3 months (d = -0.12) and 12 months (d = -0.09). No studies showed an effect on frequency of alcohol consumption or ED representation. Heterogeneity in study design, definition of risky, harmful or hazardous alcohol use, intervention types, outcomes, outcome timeframes and outcome measures prevented the performance of quantitative meta-analysis. Despite its limited effectiveness in reducing alcohol use in the short-term, with the large number of people attending EDs with risky drinking, the use of an effective ultra-BI would have the potential to have a measurable population effect. © 2016 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  12. Induced pluripotent stem cells in research and therapy of diseases: review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Noori Daloii

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Differentiated cells can change to embryonic stem cells by reprograming. Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs has revolutionized the field of regenerative and personalized medicine. iPSCs can self-renew and differentiate into many cell types. iPSC cells offer a potentially unlimited source for targeted differentiation. Through the expression of a set of transcription factors, iPSCs can be generated from different kinds of embryonic and adult cells. This technology for the first time enabled the researchers to take differentiated cells from an individual, and convert them to another cell type of interest, which is particularly to that person. When the set of master transcription factors containing OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and MYC is expressed ectopically in somatic cells, the transcriptional network is propelled to organize itself in such a way as to maintenance a pluripotent state. Since iPSCs are similar to Embryonic Stem Cell (ESC, they can be considered as sources for modeling different diseases. iPSCs which are induced from somatic cells of patient can be useful for screening and drugs selection, and also introduce treatment via grafting the cells. Although this technology has been successful in different fields, the tumorigenesis of viral vectors during induction of reprogramming is a major challenge. Nevertheless, iPSCs are valuable for clinical applications and research. By discovery of these cells many challenges related to the safety, efficacy, and bioethics of ESCs are solved. Pluripotency is defined in two aspect of functional and molecular, by which functional regards the capacity of cell is generate three kinds of embryonic layers and germ line, and molecular aspect regards the identifying of molecules and genes that support functional features. Identification of these genes has been placed at the center of fields related to development and stem cell research. In this review, we discuss the process of generation of these

  13. Regeneration of musculoskeletal injuries using mesenchymal stem cells loaded scaffolds: review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ataie

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available An increase in the average age of the population and physical activities where the musculoskeletal system is involved as well as large number of people suffering from skeletal injuries which impose high costs on the society. Bone grafting is currently a standard clinical approach to treat or replace lost tissues. Autografts are the most common grafts, but they can lead to complications such as pain, infection, scarring and donor site morbidity. The alternative is allografts, but they also carry the risk of carrying infectious agents or immune rejection. Therefore, surgeons and researchers are looking for new therapeutic methods to improve bone tissue repair. The field of tissue engineering and the use of stem cells as an ideal cell source have emerged as a promising approach in recent years. Three main components in the field of tissue engineering include proper scaffolds, cells and growth factors that their combination leads to formation of tissue-engineered constructs, resulting in tissue repair and regeneration. The use of scaffolds with suitable properties could effectively improve the tissue function or even regenerate the damaged tissue. The main idea of tissue engineering is to design and fabricate an appropriate scaffold which can support cell attachment, proliferation, migration and differentiation to relevant tissue. Scaffold gives the tissue its structural and mechanical properties, for instance flexibility and stiffness that is related with the tissue functions. Biomaterials used to fabricate scaffolds can be categorized into natural or synthetic biodegradable or non-biodegradable materials. Polymers are the most widely used materials in tissue engineering. Growth factors are a group of proteins that cause cell proliferation and differentiation. Two main cell sources are specialized cells of desired tissue and stem cells. However, according to the low proliferation and limited accessibility to the cells of desired tissue, stem cells

  14. Review Article: A review and critical analysis of the efforts towards urban flood reduction in the Lagos region of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. C. Nkwunonwo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban flooding has been and will continue to be a significant problem for many cities across the developed and developing world. Crucial to the amelioration of the effects of these floods is the need to develop a knowledge base of the magnitude and frequency of these floods. Within the area of flood research, attempts are being made to gain a better understanding of the causes, impacts and pattern of urban flooding as an aid to reducing the risks it poses. This research reviews flood risk within the Lagos area of Nigeria over the period 1968–2012. During this period, floods have caused harm to millions of people physically, emotionally and economically. Arguably over this period the efforts of stakeholders to address the challenges appear to have been limited by, among other things, lack of reliable data, lack of awareness among the population affected, and lack of knowledge of flood risk mitigation. It is the aim of this research to assess the current understanding of flood risk and management in Lagos and to offer recommendations towards future guidance.

  15. Review article: Quantifying the human impact on water resources: a critical review of the water footprint concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenoweth, J.; Hadjikakou, M.; Zoumides, C.

    2013-07-01

    The water footprint is a consumption-based indicator of water use, referring to the total volume of freshwater used directly and indirectly by a nation or a company, or in the provision of a product or service. Despite widespread enthusiasm for the development and use of water footprints, some concerns have been raised about the concept and its usefulness. A variety of methodologies have been developed for water footprinting which differ with respect to how they deal with different forms of water use. The result is water footprint estimates which vary dramatically, often creating confusion. Despite these methodological qualms, the concept has had notable success in raising awareness about water use in agricultural and industrial supply chains, by providing a previously unavailable and (seemingly) simple numerical indicator of water use. Nevertheless, and even though a range of uses have already been suggested for water footprinting, its policy value remains unclear. Unlike the carbon footprint which provides a universal measure of human impact on the atmosphere's limited absorptive capacity, the water footprint in its conventional form solely quantifies a single production input without any accounting of the impacts of use, which vary spatially and temporally. Following an extensive review of the literature related to water footprints, this paper critically examines the present uses of the concept, focusing on its current strengths, shortcomings and promising research avenues to advance it.

  16. Surveys of current status in biomedical science grant review: funding organisations' and grant reviewers' perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroter, Sara; Groves, Trish; Højgaard, Liselotte

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this research were (a) to describe the current status of grant review for biomedical projects and programmes from the perspectives of international funding organisations and grant reviewers, and (b) to explore funders' interest in developing uniform requirements for grant review...... aimed at making the processes and practices of grant review more consistent, transparent, and user friendly....

  17. DNA Amplification Techniques for the Detection of Toxoplasma gondii Tissue Cysts in Meat Producing Animals: A Narrative Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farooq RIAZ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular parasite, which infects one-third population of world. Humans and animals acquire infection by ingesting oocytes from feces of cats or by meat of other animals having cysts that may lead to congenital, ocular or cephalic toxoplasmosis. Either it is important to detect T. gondii from meat of food animals from retail shops or directly at slaughterhouses, which is meant for export.Methods: The current research was done without time limitation using such terms as follows: “Toxoplasma gondii”, “Meat”, “Tissue cyst”, “PCR”, “LAMP”, “Screening” and “Immunological assay” alone or in combination, in English language. The used electronic databases for searching included as follows: PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Web of Science and Science Direct. The searches were limited to the published papers to English language.Results: Sensitivity of different molecular techniques for diagnosis of Toxoplasma is real-time PCR > LAMP > conventional PCR. In addition to these DNA analysis tools, bioassay in mice and cats is considered as “gold standard” to detect T. gondii. Conclusion: This review article will help the readers for grasping advantages and limitations of different diagnostic tools for screening meat samples for T. gondii. This review also makes bibliography about the type of meat sample to be processed for diagnosis and different primers or sequences to be targeted for T. gondii by number of researches for its detection from meat or tissue sample using DNA amplification techniques.

  18. Poorly cited articles in peer-reviewed cardiovascular journals from 1997 to 2007: analysis of 5-year citation rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranasinghe, Isuru; Shojaee, Abbas; Bikdeli, Behnood; Gupta, Aakriti; Chen, Ruijun; Ross, Joseph S; Masoudi, Frederick A; Spertus, John A; Nallamothu, Brahmajee K; Krumholz, Harlan M

    2015-05-19

    The extent to which articles are cited is a surrogate of the impact and importance of the research conducted; poorly cited articles may identify research of limited use and potential wasted investments. We assessed trends in the rates of poorly cited articles and journals in the cardiovascular literature from 1997 to 2007. We identified original articles published in cardiovascular journals and indexed in the Scopus citation database from 1997 to 2007. We defined poorly cited articles as those with ≤5 citations in the 5 years following publication and poorly cited journals as those with >75% of journal content poorly cited. We identified 164 377 articles in 222 cardiovascular journals from 1997 to 2007. From 1997 to 2007, the number of cardiovascular articles and journals increased by 56.9% and 75.2%, respectively. Of all the articles, 75 550 (46.0%) were poorly cited, of which 25 650 (15.6% overall) had no citations. From 1997 to 2007, the proportion of poorly cited articles declined slightly (52.1%-46.2%, trend Pjournal level, 44% of cardiovascular journals had more than three-fourths of the journal's content poorly cited at 5 years. Nearly half of all peer-reviewed articles published in cardiovascular journals are poorly cited 5 years after publication, and many are not cited at all. The cardiovascular literature and the number of poorly cited articles both increased substantially from 1997 to 2007. The high proportion of poorly cited articles and journals suggests inefficiencies in the cardiovascular research enterprise. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Review Article Exposure to biomass smoke as a risk factor for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    obstructive pulmonary disease, and 6% from lung cancer.2 ... biomass smoke may be contributing to the pathogenesis of these cancers. In this review, we .... DNA damage and oxidative stress,20,21 potential mechanisms ..... HIV infection and.

  20. Use of the Pelvic Organ Quantification System (POP-Q) in published articles of peer-reviewed journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Sarah S; O'Sullivan, David; Tulikangas, Paul

    2017-04-29

    The Pelvic Organ Quantification (POP-Q) system is a standardized technique used for staging POP. This study aimed to examine POP-Q use in peer-reviewed publications. Nine journals representative of urogynecology were reviewed for articles describing POP staging from January to December 2012 and 2015. Review articles, editorials, letters and articles with or without retractions in manuscript form were excluded. The primary outcome was frequency of POP-Q use. Secondary outcomes were POP-Q use by journal specialty, specialty of primary author, country of origin, and an anatomic definition of failure. Data were evaluated using chi-square tests. Results yielding p POP-Q was used in 88.4% in 2012 and 80% in 2015(not significant; p = 0.296). Urologists used the POP-Q least frequently, although its use was greater in 2015 (63.6%) than in 2012 (50%). In 2012, a definition for anatomic failure was present in 27% of articles; 23% of authors in the 2012 time frame reported using the POP-Q, and 17.8% used a specific POP-Q point. Between 2012 and 2015, the use of a specific point significantly decreased (17.8 vs. 7.8%, p = 0.033). POP-Q is the most common staging system used in published articles across studied subgroups. When used as an outcome measure, a greater number of authors use the recommended staging system rather than specific points.

  1. Motor (re) learning concepts used in technology assisted training of arm hand function in stroke: a review article.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, A.; Seelen, H.A.M.; Willmann, R.; Kingma, H.

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: It is the purpose of this article to review, which are possible criteria that rehabilitation technology should meet in order to offer upper limb training after stroke that is based on principles of motor learning. Methods: A computerised literature search was conducted in P

  2. In Search of Signature Pedagogy for PDS Teacher Education: A Review of Articles Published in "School-University Partnerships"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yendol-Hoppey, Diane; Franco, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    ''In Search of Signature Pedagogy for PDS Teacher Education'' is a review of articles published in "School-University Partnerships" which emerged in response to Shulman's critique that we do not possess powerful, consistent models of practice that we can define and have deeply studied. To these ends, we searched…

  3. THE PUERTO RICAN FAMILY AND THE ANTHROPOLOGIST--OSCAR LEWIS, "LA VIDA," AND THE CULTURE OF POVERTY. REVIEW ARTICLE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CORDASCO, FRANK M.

    QUESTIONS ARE RAISED IN THIS BOOK REVIEW OF "LA VIDA" ABOUT OSCAR LEWIS'S CONCEPT OF THE "CULTURE OF POVERTY" AND ABOUT THE TYPICALITY OF THE RIOS FAMILY, AN ISSUE CENTRAL TO THE VALIDITY OF THE BOOK'S CONCLUSIONS. FEARS ARE EXPRESSED ABOUT THE POPULARIZATION OF THE BOOK'S FINDINGS AND THEIR WIDESPREAD APPLICATION. THIS ARTICLE IS PUBLISHED IN…

  4. THE PUERTO RICAN FAMILY AND THE ANTHROPOLOGIST--OSCAR LEWIS, "LA VIDA," AND THE CULTURE OF POVERTY. REVIEW ARTICLE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CORDASCO, FRANK M.

    QUESTIONS ARE RAISED IN THIS BOOK REVIEW OF "LA VIDA" ABOUT OSCAR LEWIS'S CONCEPT OF THE "CULTURE OF POVERTY" AND ABOUT THE TYPICALITY OF THE RIOS FAMILY, AN ISSUE CENTRAL TO THE VALIDITY OF THE BOOK'S CONCLUSIONS. FEARS ARE EXPRESSED ABOUT THE POPULARIZATION OF THE BOOK'S FINDINGS AND THEIR WIDESPREAD APPLICATION. THIS ARTICLE IS PUBLISHED IN…

  5. 78 FR 45181 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews: Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel..., Washington, DC 20230, (202) 482-5438. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Chapter 19 of the North American Free Trade..., International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: On June 24, 2013, a Notice of Motion to...

  6. 77 FR 49781 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews: Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-17

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel..., Washington, DC 20230, (202) 482-5438. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Chapter 19 of the North American Free Trade..., International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: On August 9, 2012, a Motion to Terminate...

  7. 76 FR 77777 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904; Binational Panel Reviews: Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904; Binational Panel...) 482-5438. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Chapter 19 of the North American Free Trade Agreement..., International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: On December 6, 2011, a Motion to Terminate...

  8. Evaluating Effect of Albendazole on Trichuris trichiura Infection: A Systematic Review Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    AHMADI JOUYBARI, Toraj; NAJAF GHOBADI, Khadije; LOTFI, Bahare; ALAVI MAJD, Hamid; AHMADI, Nayeb Ali; ROSTAMI-NEJAD, Mohammad; AGHAEI, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study was assessment of defaults and conducted meta-analysis of the efficacy of single-dose oral albendazole against T. trichiura infection. Methods: We searched PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Science Direct, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and WHO library databases between 1983 and 2014. Data from 13 clinical trial articles were used. Each article was included the effect of single oral dose (400 mg) albendazole and placebo in treating two groups of patients with T. trichiura infection. For both groups in each article, sample size, the number of those with T. trichiura infection, and the number of those recovered following the intake of albendazole were identified and recorded. The relative risk and variance were computed. Funnel plot, Beggs and Eggers tests were used for assessment of publication bias. The random effect variance shift outlier model and likelihood ratio test were applied for detecting outliers. In order to detect influence, DFFITS values, Cook’s distances and COVRATIO were used. Data were analyzed using STATA and R software Results: The article number 13 and 9 were outlier and influence, respectively. Outlier is diagnosed by variance shift of target study in inferential method and by RR value in graphical method. Funnel plot and Beggs test did not show the publication bias (P=0.272). However, the Eggers test confirmed it (P=0.034). Meta-analysis after removal of article 13 showed that relative risk was 1.99 (CI 95% 1.71 – 2.31). Conclusion: The estimated RR and our meta-analyses show that treatment of T. trichiura with single oral doses of albendazole is unsatisfactory. New anthelminthics are urgently needed. PMID:28127355

  9. Poorly Cited Articles in Peer-Reviewed Cardiovascular Journals from 1997–2007: Analysis of 5-Year Citation Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranasinghe, Isuru; Shojaee, Abbas; Bikdeli, Behnood; Gupta, Aakriti; Chen, Ruijun; Ross, Joseph S.; Masoudi, Frederick; Spertus, John A.; Nallamothu, Brahmajee K.; Krumholz, Harlan M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The extent to which articles are cited is a surrogate of the impact and importance of the research conducted; poorly cited papers may identify research of limited use and potential wasted investments. We assessed trends in the rates of poorly cited articles and journals in the cardiovascular literature from 1997–2007. Methods and Results We identified original articles published in cardiovascular journals and indexed in the Scopus citation database from 1997–2007. We defined poorly cited articles as those with ≤5 citations in the 5 years following publication and poorly cited journals as those with >75% of journal content poorly cited. We identified 164,377 articles in 222 cardiovascular journals from 1997–2007. From 1997–2007, the number of cardiovascular articles and journals increased by 56.9% and 75.2% respectively. Of all the articles, 75,550 (46.0%) were poorly cited, of which 25,650 (15.6% overall) had no citations. From 1997–2007, the proportion of poorly cited articles declined slightly (52.1% to 46.2%, trend Pjournal level, 44% of cardiovascular journals had more than three quarters of the journal’s content poorly cited at 5 years. Conclusion Nearly half of all peer-reviewed articles published in cardiovascular journals are poorly cited 5 years after publication, and many are not cited at all. The cardiovascular literature, and the number of poorly cited articles, have both increased substantially from 1997–2007. The high proportion of poorly cited articles and journals suggest inefficiencies in the cardiovascular research enterprise. PMID:25812573

  10. Strategic Evaluation of Web-based E-learning; a review on 8 articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahriar Mohammadi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Today electronic learning is an important educational topic, and choosing an appropriate, applicable approach in education is of great importance. We may encounter the question: why should we evaluate systems? Our answer can be one of these: (1 Instantaneous management of pros and cons; (2 designing a long-term strategy; (3 evaluation of managers’ performance. Our main issue in this article is that we evaluate systems based on strategy, goals as well as objectives. According to 8 articles, we have made up a set of criteria to evaluate e-learning systems. The criteria are divided into four components or LISC: (1 Learning, (2 Interface, (3 Social, and (4 Content. Then we displayed the results as one visual stage diagram to demonstrate to managers.

  11. Review article: health benefits of some physiologically active ingredients and their suitability as yoghurt fortifiers

    OpenAIRE

    Fayed, A. E

    2014-01-01

    The article is concerned with health benefits of two main physiologically active ingredients namely, Isoflavones and γ-Aminobutyric acid, with emphasis on their fitness for fortification of yoghurt to be consumed as a functional food. Isoflavones (ISO) are part of the diphenol compounds, called “phytoestrogens,” which are structurally and functionally similar to estradiol, the human estrogen, but much less potent. Because of this similarity, ISO were suggested to have preventive effects for m...

  12. Bibliographic analysis of scientific research on selected topics in public health nutrition in West Africa: Review of articles published from 1998 to 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, Grant J; Wilson, Shelby E; Brown, Kenneth H

    2010-01-01

    Few countries in West Africa have the capacity for carrying out advanced training in nutrition and public health. To provide additional information on current regional applied nutrition research capacity and productivity, we analysed peer-reviewed articles on key public health nutrition topics that were published from 1998 to 2008. Using MEDLINE/PubMed, the following terms were searched: 'breast feeding', 'infant nutrition physiology' (comprising complementary feeding and weaning), 'protein energy malnutrition', 'nutrition and infection', 'vitamin A', 'iodine', 'zinc' and 'overweight', each linked with the term 'Western Africa'. In total, 412 unique articles (37±6 articles per year) were identified. Most research focused on infant and young child feeding practices, selected micronutrient deficiencies, and the emerging problem of overweight and obesity. The primary author of nearly half (46%) the publications was located in an institution outside of West Africa. Most articles were published in English (90%), and nearly half of all articles (41%) were cross-sectional studies. Our findings indicate that few peer-reviewed research studies are being published on key public health topics in the West African region, considering the magnitude of nutrition problems in this region. New approaches are needed to encourage and support research capacity and output in West Africa.

  13. Applications of Depleted Uranium in the first and second Persian Gulf Wars: a review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolhamid Behrouzi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Depleted uranium (DU is a byproduct of natural uranium enrichment process. Its unique characteristics (e.g. high density caused to use in civilian and military fields extensively. In the military fields, DU is used in the bullets and projectiles war hats. The munitions containing DU were used in the recent wars, more strikingly in the Middle East region (first and second Persian Gulf wars, and Afghanistan. Due to its biological impacts, this study aimed to assess biological effects of DU using scientometrics by investigating papers indexed in Pubmed from 1990-2008, to reveal the number and type of articles and also the important dimensions of DU biological impacts as well as the core issues. Methods: In this descriptive epidemiologic study, quantitative methods (counting frequency of words and scientometrics were used. Sample size was the total of the articles indexed in Pubmed during 1991- 2008, containing the terms "Gulf War" and "Depleted Uranium" in their title or keywords. Results: The most compromised body systems were urinary, nervous and cardiovascular. Other systems such as endocrine, musculoskeletal, immune and respiratory were also mentioned. Conclusion: Highly controversial results which have been stated in the surveyed articles about DU biological and environmental impacts caused the authors to recommend long term investigations for assessing its effects on recurrence to reveal potential late effects of DU.

  14. Brain Metastases Research 1990–2010: Pattern of Citation and Systematic Review of Highly Cited Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieder, Carsten; Grosu, Anca L.; Mehta, Minesh P.

    2012-01-01

    Background. High and continuously increasing research activity related to different aspects of prevention, prediction, diagnosis and treatment of brain metastases has been performed between 1990 and 2010. One of the major databases contains 2695 scientific articles that were published during this time period. Different measures of impact, visibility, and quality of published research are available, each with its own pros and cons. For this overview, article citation rate was chosen. Results. Among the 10 most cited articles, 7 reported on randomized clinical trials. Nine covered surgical or radiosurgical approaches and the remaining one a widely adopted prognostic score. Overall, 30 randomized clinical trials were published between 1990 and 2010, including those with phase II design and excluding duplicate publications, for example, after longer followup or with focus on secondary endpoints. Twenty of these randomized clinical trials were published before 2008. Their median number of citations was 110, range 13–1013, compared to 5-6 citations for all types of publications. Annual citation rate appeared to gradually increase during the first 2-3 years after publication before reaching high levels. Conclusions. A large variety of preclinical and clinical topics achieved high numbers of citations. However, areas such as quality of life, side effects, and end-of-life care were underrepresented. Efforts to increase their visibility might be warranted. PMID:23028253

  15. Spectroscopic Characterization of Poly(ortho-Aminophenol Film Electrodes: A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Tucceri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper refers to spectroscopic studies carried out to identify the products of o-aminophenol electro-oxidation and elucidate the structure of electrochemically synthesized poly(o-aminophenol (POAP films. Spectroscopic studies of the redox conversion of POAP are also reviewed.

  16. Beyond Peer-Reviewed Articles: Using Blogs to Enrich Students' Understanding of Scholarly Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deitering, Anne-Marie; Gronemyer, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Undergraduate students are expected to find, evaluate, and use peer-reviewed or scholarly literature, but they rarely learn about the process of creating new knowledge or the roles the literature plays in the work of scholars. A desired outcome of undergraduate education is the understanding that knowledge is created, evolving, and contextual…

  17. Beyond Peer-Reviewed Articles: Using Blogs to Enrich Students' Understanding of Scholarly Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deitering, Anne-Marie; Gronemyer, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Undergraduate students are expected to find, evaluate, and use peer-reviewed or scholarly literature, but they rarely learn about the process of creating new knowledge or the roles the literature plays in the work of scholars. A desired outcome of undergraduate education is the understanding that knowledge is created, evolving, and contextual…

  18. Universal Design for Instruction in Postsecondary Education: A Systematic Review of Empirically Based Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Kelly D.; Park, Hye Jin; Brown, Steven; Cook, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    Universal Design for Instruction (UDI) in postsecondary education is a relatively new concept/framework that has generated significant support. The purpose of this literature review was to examine existing empirical research, including qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods, on the use of UDI (and related terms) in postsecondary education.…

  19. Noise Induced Hearing Loss in Iran: (1997-2012: Systematic Review Article.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Soltanzadeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Noise-induced hearing loss, which is one of the 10 leading occupational diseases, is a debilitating and irreversible disease. During the recent 15-years period (1997-2012, several studies have investigated the association between noise, hearing damage and other side effects of noise in Iran. The aim of this study was to review systematically the relevant literature related to noise-induced hearing loss, lead to developing noise exposure limits. In this systematic review, two researchers independently extracted the data from 31 past studies that had considered noise-induced hearing loss (including hearing loss, temporary and permanent hearing threshold shift and auditory trauma. The data were then recorded in a modified form and Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS, version 16.0. In analyzed studies the weighted average equivalent sound pressure level [L Aeq ] was 90.29 dB(A and average hearing loss was 26.44 dB(A. The Highest degree of hearing loss in the right ear was associated at 4000 Hz, and the highest degree of hearing loss in the left ear was associated to 1000 and 4000 Hz. The majority of the reviewed studies have confirmed that exposure to a noise level above 85 dB (A can lead to an increased chance of hearing loss. Furthermore, the results of the present review indicated that as L Aeq increased up to 85 dB(A, so did the severity of the hearing loss.

  20. 15 review article biofilm, dental unit water line and its control

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Oboro VO

    Dental unit waterlines (DUWL) are an integral part of dental surgery equipment, supplying water as a ... At present, the goal of this review is to discuss various aspects of biofilm formation and .... in adhesion for both cell-surface and cell-cell.

  1. An assessment of the compliance of systematic review articles published in craniofacial surgery with the PRISMA statement guidelines: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidgeon, Thomas Edward; Wellstead, Georgina; Sagoo, Harkiran; Jafree, Daniyal J; Fowler, Alexander J; Agha, Riaz A

    2016-10-01

    Systematic review evidence is increasing within craniofacial surgery. Compliance with recognised reporting guidelines for systematic review evidence has not been assessed. To assess the compliance of systematic reviews published in craniofacial journals with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) reporting criteria. Thomson Reuters impact factor was used to identify three top craniofacial journals. A search for all systematic review articles published in these journals from 1st May 2010 to 30th April 2015 was conducted using MEDLINE PubMed. Two independent researchers assessed each study for inclusion and performed the data extraction. Data included the article reference information; the pathology and interventions examined and compliance of each review article with the PRISMA checklist. 97 studies were returned by the search. 62 studies proceeded to data extraction. The mean percentage of applicable PRISMA items that were met across all studies was 72.5% (range 28.6-96.2%). The area of poorest compliance was with the declaration of a study protocol (19.4% of studies). Only 37.1% of studies declared their source of funding. Compliance of systematic review articles within craniofacial surgery with areas of the PRISMA checklist could be improved. Copyright © 2016 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cognitive Behavioral Development in Children Following Maternal Postpartum Depression: A Review Article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirhosseini, Hamid; Moosavipoor, Seyed Ahmad; Nazari, Mohammad Ali; Dehghan, Ahmad; Mirhosseini, Sara; Bidaki, Reza; Yazdian-Anari, Pouria

    2015-12-01

    Mothers' constitute is a very important part of infants' social environment and mediate their experience with the surrounding world. Postpartum depression, which is considered one of the most common and important psychiatric disorders, affects 10-15% of mothers, its causes are different. By investigating various sources, some effects of this disorder have been observed on the cognitive development of children, particularly among boys, such as language, intelligence quotient (IQ), and behavioral problems. Thus, it is imperative to study the effects of postpartum depression on children's growth and development and to identify methods of reducing these effects. This review indicates that postpartum depression in mothers reduces children's cognitive performance. The adverse effects of postpartum depression on children's development seem to be mediated by the mother's interpersonal behavior and the infant gender. The review of previous studies shows that postpartum depression reduces children's cognitive performance by impairing maternal mental and behavioral care.

  3. The Helminths Causing Surgical or Endoscopic Abdominal Intervention: A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal UYSAL

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Helminths sometimes require surgical or endoscopic intervention. Helminths may cause acute abdomen, mechanical intestinal obstruction, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, perforation, hepatitis, pancreatitis, and appendicitis. This study aimed to determine the surgical diseases that helminths cause and to gather, analyze the case reports, case series and original articles about this topic in literature.Methods: This study was designed as a retrospective observational study. In order to determine the studies published in literature, the search limits in PubMed database were set to 1 Jan 1957 and 31 Mar 2016 (59 yr, and the articles regarding Helminth-Surgery-Endoscopy were taken into examination. Among 521 articles scanned, 337 specific ones were involved in this study.Results: The most common surgical pathology was found to be in Ascaris lumbricoides group. Enterobius vermicularis was found to be the parasite that caused highest amount of acute appendicitis. Anisakiasis was observed to seem mainly because of abdominal pain and mechanical intestinal obstruction. Strongyloides stercoraries causes duodenal pathologies such as duodenal obstruction and duodenitis. Taenia saginata comes into prominence with appendicitis and gastrointestinal perforations. Fasciola hepatica exhibits biliary tract involvement and causes common bile duct obstruction. Hookworms were observed to arise along with gastrointestinal hemorrhage and anemia. Trichuris trichiuria draws attention with gastrointestinal hemorrhage, mechanical intestinal obstruction.Conclusion: Helminths may lead to life-threatening clinic conditions such as acute abdomen, gastrointestinal perforation, intestinal obstruction, and hemorrhages. There is a relationship between surgery and helminths. It is very important for surgeons to consider and remember helminths in differential diagnoses during their daily routines.

  4. A Knowledge Map for Hospital Performance Concept: Extraction and Analysis: A Narrative Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader MARKAZI-MOGHADDAM

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Performance is a multi-dimensional and dynamic concept. During the past 2 decades, considerable studies were performed in developing the hospital performance concept. To know literature key concepts on hospital performance, the knowledge visualization based on co-word analysis and social network analysis has been used.Methods: Documents were identified through “PubMed” searching from1945 to 2014 and 2350 papers entered the study after omitting unrelated articles, the duplicates, and articles without abstract. After pre-processing and preparing articles, the key words were extracted and terms were weighted by TF-IDF weighting schema. Support as an interestingness measure, which considers the co-occurrence of the extracted keywords and "hospital performance" phrase was calculated. Keywords having high support with "hospital performance" are selected. Term-term matrix of these selected keywords is calculated and the graph is extracted.Results: The most high frequency words after “Hospital Performance” were “mortality” and “efficiency”. The major knowledge structure of hospital performance literature during these years shows that the keyword “mortality” had the highest support with hospital performance followed by “quality of care”, “quality improvement”, “discharge”, “length of stay” and “clinical outcome”. The strongest relationship is seen between “electronic medical record” and “readmission rate”.Conclusion: Some dimensions of hospital performance are more important such as “efficiency”, “effectiveness”, “quality” and “safety” and some indicators are more highlighted such as “mortality”, “length of stay”, “readmission rate” and “patient satisfaction”. In the last decade, some concepts became more significant in hospital performance literature such as “mortality”, “quality of care” and “quality improvement”. Keywords: Hospital performance

  5. Peer-reviewed articles on inclusive research: Do co-researchers with intellectual disabilities have a voice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strnadová, Iva; Walmsley, Jan

    2017-06-22

    Inclusive research is increasingly common in intellectual disabilities research, but ways in which voice of co-researchers with intellectual disabilities is presented remain underexplored in the literature. The authors conducted a literature review and analysis of peer-reviewed journal articles reporting on inclusive research. The aim was to explore the ways the voices of co-researchers with intellectual disabilities are represented in published peer-reviewed journal articles. The findings indicate that there are a wide range of ways in which inclusive research projects are reported in peer-reviewed journals. However, the experiences, views and opinions of co-researchers are often either absent or very selectively reported. The article concludes that although inclusive research has proliferated in the 21st century, more attention needs to be paid to the ways in which the voices of co-researchers with intellectual disabilities are heard in formal academic contexts. Guidelines for future practice are offered. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Writing peer-reviewed articles with diverse teams: considerations for novice scholars conducting community-engaged research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flicker, Sarah; Nixon, Stephanie A

    2016-07-31

    Given the growth of interdisciplinary and community-engaged health promotion research, it has become increasingly common to conduct studies in diverse teams. While there is literature to guide collaborative research proposal development, data collection and analysis, little has been written about writing peer-reviewed publications collaboratively in teams. This gap is particularly important for junior researchers who lead articles involving diverse and community-engaged co-authors. The purpose of this article is to present a series of considerations to guide novice researchers in writing for peer-reviewed publication with diverse teams. The following considerations are addressed: justifying the value of peer-reviewed publication with non-academic partners; establishing co-author roles that respect expertise and interest; clarifying the message and audience; using the article outline as a form of engagement; knowledge translation within and beyond the academy; and multiple strategies for generating and reviewing drafts. Community-engaged research often involves collaboration with communities that have long suffered a history of colonial and extractive research practices. Authentic engagement of these partners can be supported through research practices, including manuscript development, that are transparent and that honour the voices of all team members. Ensuring meaningful participation and diverse perspectives is key to transforming research relationships and sharing new insights into seemingly intractable health problems. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Origins of spatial, temporal and numerical cognition: Insights from comparative psychology [Review article

    OpenAIRE

    Haun, D.; Jordan, F.; G. Vallortigara; Clayton, N

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary comparative cognition has a large repertoire of animal models and methods, with concurrent theoretical advances that are providing initial answers to crucial questions about human cognition. What cognitive traits are uniquely human? What are the species-typical inherited predispositions of the human mind? What is the human mind capable of without certain types of specific experiences with the surrounding environment? Here, we review recent findings from the domains of space, time...

  8. Fruit and Vegetable Intake: Benefits and Progress of Nutrition Education Interventions- Narrative Review Article

    OpenAIRE

    PEM, Dhandevi; Jeewon, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sufficient intake of fruits and vegetables has been associated with a reduced risk of chronic diseases and body weight management but the exact mechanism is unknown. The World Health Organisation and Food and Agriculture of the United Nation reports recommend adults to consume at least five servings of fruits and vegetables per day excluding starchy vegetables. This review focuses on the importance of fruits and vegetables as well as the benefits and progress of nutrition educatio...

  9. Waters and forests: from historical controversy to scientific debate [review article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andréassian, Vazken

    2004-05-01

    This article presents an historical perspective of the controversy concerning the hydrological impact of forests, and shows how a mostly romantic and emotional confrontation finally evolved into a scientific debate. We first analyze the historical evolution of ideas, starting with the views of Pliny the Elder in the first century AD and ending with the debate on the 'Eaux et Forêts' in France in the 19th century. Then, we give an up-to-date overview of the paired-watershed experiments conducted throughout 20th century, and identify some research issues that should help forest hydrology science to move forward in the 21st century.

  10. Human Permanent Ectoparasites; Recent Advances on Biology and Clinical Significance of Demodex Mites: Narrative Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota LITWIN

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Demodex is a genus of mites living predominantly in mammalian pilosebaceous units. They are commonly detected in the skin of face, with increasing numbers in inflammatory lesions. Causation between Demodex mites and inflammatory diseases, such as rosacea, blepharitis, perioral and seborrhoeic dermatitis or chalazion, is controversially discussed. Clinical observations indicate a primary form of human Demodex infection. The aim of this review was to highlight the biological aspects of Demodex infestation and point out directions for the future research.Methods: We conducted a broad review based on the electronic database sources such as MEDLINE, PubMed and Scopus with regard to the characteristics of the Demodex species, methods of examination and worldwide epidemiology, molecular studies and its role in the complex human ecosystem.Results: Demodex mites are organisms with a worldwide importance as they act in indicating several dermatoses, under certain conditions. However, correlations between Demodex and other parasites or microorganisms occupying one host, as well as interactions between these arachnids and its symbiotic bacteria should be considered. There are few methods of human mites' examination depending on purpose of the study. Nevertheless, paying attention must be needed as polymorphism of Demodex species has been reported.Conclusion: Overall, the present review will focus on different aspects of Demodex mites’ biology and significance of these arachnids in human’s health.

  11. Communicable Disease Reporting Systems in the World: A System­atic Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali JANATI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Communicable disease reporting and surveillance system has poor infrastructure and supporters in most of countries. Its quality improvement is a challenge and requires an accurate and efficient care and reporting systems at all levels to achieve new and simple models. This study evaluates reporting systems of communicable diseases using systematic review.Methods: This was a systematic review study. For data collection, we used the following database and search engines: Proquest, Science direct, Pub MED, Scopes, Springer, and EBESCO. For Persian databases, we used SID, Iranmedex and Magiran. Our key words were "Communicable Diseases", "Notifiable Disease", "Disease Notification", "Reporting System"," Surveillance Systems" and "evaluation". Two independent researchers reviewed the resources and the results were classified in different domains.Results: From 1889 cases, only 66 resources were studied. The results were classified in several domains, including those who were reporting, reporting methods and procedures, responsibilities and reporting system characteristics, problems and solutions of the report, the reporting process, and receptor level.Conclusion: Disease-reporting system has similar problems in all parts of the world. Change, improve, update and continuous monitoring of the reporting system are very important. Although the reporting process can vary in different regions, but being perfect and timely are important principles in system design. Detailed explanations of tasks and providing appropriate instructions are the most important points to integrate an efficient reporting system. Keywords: Reporting, Diseases surveillance system, Disease control

  12. Communicable Disease Reporting Systems in the World: A Systematic Review Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    JANATI, Ali; HOSSEINY, Mozhgan; GOUYA, Mohammad Mehdi; MORADI, Ghobad; GHADERI, Ebrahim

    2015-01-01

    Background: Communicable disease reporting and surveillance system has poor infrastructure and supporters in most of countries. Its quality improvement is a challenge and requires an accurate and efficient care and reporting systems at all levels to achieve new and simple models. This study evaluates reporting systems of communicable diseases using systematic review. Methods: This was a systematic review study. For data collection, we used the following database and search engines: Proquest, Science direct, Pub MED, Scopes, Springer, and EBESCO. For Persian databases, we used SID, Iranmedex and Magiran. Our key words were “Communicable Diseases”, “Notifiable Disease”, “Disease Notification”, “Reporting System”,” Surveillance Systems” and “evaluation”. Two independent researchers reviewed the resources and the results were classified in different domains. Results: From 1889 cases, only 66 resources were studied. The results were classified in several domains, including those who were reporting, reporting methods and procedures, responsibilities and reporting system characteristics, problems and solutions of the report, the reporting process, and receptor level. Conclusion: Disease-reporting system has similar problems in all parts of the world. Change, improve, update and continuous monitoring of the reporting system are very important. Although the reporting process can vary in different regions, but being perfect and timely are important principles in system design. Detailed explanations of tasks and providing appropriate instructions are the most important points to integrate an efficient reporting system. PMID:26744702

  13. Current treatment of oral candidiasis: a literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia Cuesta, Carla; Sarrión Pérez, María Gracia; Bagán Sebastián, José Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Candidiasis or oral candidosis is one of the most common human opportunistic fungal infections of the oral cavity. This pathology has a wide variety of treatment which has been studied until these days. The present study offers a literature review on the treatment of oral candidiasis, with the purpose of establish which treatment is the most suitable in each case. Searching the 24 latest articles about treatment of candidiasis it concluded that the incidence depends on the type of the candidi...

  14. Current treatment of oral candidiasis: A literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia Cuesta, Carla; Sarrión Pérez, María Gracia; Bagán Sebastián, José Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Candidiasis or oral candidosis is one of the most common human opportunistic fungal infections of the oral cavity. This pathology has a wide variety of treatment which has been studied until these days. The present study offers a literature review on the treatment of oral candidiasis, with the purpose of establish which treatment is the most suitable in each case. Searching the 24 latest articles about treatment of candidiasis it concluded that the incidence depends on the type of the candidi...

  15. Thinking Collaboratively about the Peer-Review Process for Journal-Article Publication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumashiro, Kevin K.

    2005-01-01

    In this conversation, Kevin K. Kumashiro shares his reflections on challenges to publishing anti-oppressive research in educational journals. He then invites eight current and former editors of leading educational research journals--William F. Pinar, Elizabeth Graue, Carl A. Grant, Maenette K. P. Benham, Ronald H. Heck, James Joseph Scheurich,…

  16. Search for new targets of deep brain stimulation for epilepsy treatment [Review article

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, L.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van

    2016-01-01

    Although clinical trials in refractory epilepsy are currently carried out, the field of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in epilepsy is still at its initial stage. Little is known about where, when and how to stimulate and what would be the short and long consequences. Animal studies might provide clini

  17. Surveys of current status in biomedical science grant review: funding organisations' and grant reviewers' perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroter, Sara; Groves, Trish; Højgaard, Liselotte

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this research were (a) to describe the current status of grant review for biomedical projects and programmes from the perspectives of international funding organisations and grant reviewers, and (b) to explore funders' interest in developing uniform requirements for grant review...

  18. International publications about sustainability: a review of articles using the technique of qualitative content analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Froehlich

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify articles related to sustainability in international publications and analyze the categories that emerge from these studies through the use of the technique of qualitative content analysis in order to identify the main approaches, author contributions and theoretical gaps and suggestions for further studies. For application of the technique have been rising about 20 articles in Journals that feature sustainability impact factor relevant, and used the three basic steps for content analysis of the publications listed by Bardin (1977: (a pre-analysis; (b material exploration and; (c treatment data, inference and interpretation. The main results show that the major theories that are related to sustainability are: the resources and capabilities theory, institutional theory, stakeholders theory, the theory of market orientation, theory of supply chain and competitive advantage and both seek to help and explain the factors that facilitate or hinder the practice of corporate sustainability. In addition, some suggestions for further research were identified and analysis of the results presented in this study

  19. Marine aerosol production: a review of the current knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Dowd, C.D.; Leeuw, G. de

    2007-01-01

    The current knowledge in primary and secondary marine aerosol formation is reviewed. For primary marine aerosol source functions, recent source functions have demonstrated a significant flux of submicrometre particles down to radii of 20 nm. Moreover, the source functions derived from different tech

  20. Current view of mesenchymal stem cells biology (brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maslova O. A.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Although mesenchymal stem cells (MSC are in a focus of attention, some aspects of their biology are still unclear. This paper is a review of current research on MSC biology. The use of MSC in regenerative medicine is also briefly discussed.

  1. Review of coastal currents in Southern African waters

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Harris, TFW

    1978-08-01

    Full Text Available A review has been made of existing knowledge of the coastal currents in Southern African waters between Pretoria to Oudtshoorn on the northeast border, and the Orange River on the west coast. These waters have been divided into five sectors...

  2. Invited Review Article: An odor-sensing system--powerful technique for foodstuff studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymerski, T. M.; Chmiel, T. M.; Wardencki, W.

    2011-11-01

    This work examines gas sensor array technology combined with multivariate data processing methods and demonstrates a promising potential for rapid, non-destructive analysis of food. Main attention is focused on detailed description of sensor used in e-nose instruments, construction, and principle of operation of these systems. Moreover, this paper briefly reviews the progress in the field of artificial olfaction and future trends in electronic nose technology, namely, e-nose based on mass spectrometry. Further discussion concerns a comparison of artificial nose with gas chromatography-olfactometry and the application of e-nose instruments in different areas of food industry.

  3. The use of Pierre Bourdieu's distinction concepts in scientific articles studying food and eating: A narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Priscila de Morais; Gittelsohn, Joel; Unsain, Ramiro Fernandez; Roble, Odilon José; Scagliusi, Fernanda Baeza

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews and discusses scientific papers on eating practices that have used Pierre Bourdieu's concepts presented in Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste. It aims to synthesize and analyze theoretical and empirical studies on the theme in order to present Bourdieu's contributions to the field, advances in his theories, and directions for future research. Exclusion criteria were: not written in Portuguese, English, Spanish, or French; not published in a peer-reviewed journal; not analyzing food or eating; and not using Bourdieu's concepts as presented in Distinction as the main theoretical framework. In this narrative review, we found 38 articles, which were categorized main themes: food choice and provisioning, taste, social class, food symbolism, the body, and the scientific field of food and eating. The taste of luxury and the taste of necessity were broadly applied on the works found in this review and were observed among the lower and upper classes, manifesting differently in each class. These studies show that while Bourdieu's theories are still highly relevant to understanding contemporary social groups, they may be improved when combined with other frameworks and theorists. We highlight as directions for future research manners in which gender and the environment interact with the habitus and food choices. Finally, this review points to new areas of investigation that may help improve the use of Bourdieu's concepts in exploring health inequalities, such as differences in eating practices and habitus within populations with low socioeconomic status.

  4. Duration of Dual Antiplatelet Therapy in Coronary Artery Disease: a Review Article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Alex D; Collado, Fareed M; Volgman, Annabelle Santos; Schaer, Gary L; Snell, R Jeffrey

    2016-07-01

    Dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) following an acute coronary syndrome or after placement of a coronary artery stent is superior to aspirin alone for prevention of atherothrombotic events but carries an increased bleeding risk. DAPT should be continued for at least 12 months based on current guidelines. Recent randomized trials demonstrate reduced ischemic events including myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and death with continued DAPT for up to 30 months or longer, particularly in the post-MI population. However, this clinical benefit is accompanied by an increased risk of bleeding. Additional trials show mixed safety and efficacy with duration of DAPT of less than 12 months. The current data emphasizes the need to individualize DAPT duration at the patient level to balance the clinical benefits of a reduced risk of cardiovascular ischemic events with the greater risk of clinically significant bleeding. Patients at an increased risk of ischemic events and a lower risk of bleeding should be strongly considered for prolonged DAPT beyond the 1 year currently recommended in the practice guidelines.

  5. Dental Diseases of Acid Factory Workers Globally-Narrative Review Article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhanshu, Sanadhya; Pankaj, Aapaliya; Sorabh, Jain; Nidhi, Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Background Industrial growth is occurring exponentially, for unimpeded growth, industrial workers are recruited on a large scale globally. There are various sectors of industries present for which laborers are trained in accordance to their requirements. As workers possess the general health risk of occupational hazards, various labor laws, schemes and policies are undertaken by the government which are implemented by industries, but very few attention for oral health is being given because of which laborers are more progressing towards hidden adverse oral effects which can affect their working efficacy. Various studies on different sector workers were carried out focusing their oral health status but for acid factory workers it is neglected and therefore unrevealed to the society. For this purpose, in this article, though, paucity of literature, still, tries to enlighten the oral health status in acid factory industrial workers with available resources.

  6. A Collection of Articles Reprinted from Science & Technology Review on University Relations Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radousky, H; Rennie, G; Henke, A

    2006-08-23

    This month's issue has the following articles: (1) The Power of Partnership--Livermore researchers forge strategic collaborations with colleagues from other University of California campuses to further science and better protect the nation; (2) Collaborative Research Prepares Our Next-Generation Scientists and Engineers--Commentary by Laura R. Gilliom; (3) Next-Generation Scientists and Engineers Tap Lab's Resources--University of California Ph.D. candidates work with Livermore scientists and engineers to conduct fundamental research as part of their theses; (4) The Best and the Brightest Come to Livermore--The Lawrence Fellowship Program attracts the most sought-after postdoctoral researchers to the Laboratory; and (5) Faculty on Sabbatical Find a Good Home at Livermore--Faculty members from around the world come to the Laboratory as sabbatical scholars.

  7. Dental Diseases of Acid Factory Workers Globally-Narrative Review Article.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanadhya Sudhanshu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Industrial growth is occurring exponentially, for unimpeded growth, industrial workers are recruited on a large scale globally. There are various sectors of industries present for which laborers are trained in accordance to their requirements. As workers possess the general health risk of occupational hazards, various labor laws, schemes and policies are undertaken by the government which are implemented by industries, but very few attention for oral health is being given because of which laborers are more progressing towards hidden adverse oral effects which can affect their working efficacy. Various studies on different sector workers were carried out focusing their oral health status but for acid factory workers it is neglected and therefore unrevealed to the society. For this purpose, in this article, though, paucity of literature, still, tries to enlighten the oral health status in acid factory industrial workers with available resources.

  8. What Is Fitness Training? Definitions and Implications: A Systematic Review Article.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Paoli

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This review based upon studies searched from the major scientific libraries has the objective of clarifying what is fitness training in modern days, the implications that it has on health in both youth and elderly and finally discuss fitness training practical implications.The PRISMA statement was partially adopted and a number of 92 items were selected, according to the inclusion criteria. Results were discussed in 4 main sections: 1. Children and adolescents fitness levels; 2. Fitness training in the elderly; 3. Pathology prevention through fitness training; 4. Training through Fitness activities.This review pointed out the fact that nowadays there is a large variety of fitness activities available within gyms and fitness centers. Even though they significantly differ with each other, the common aim they have is the wellbeing of the people through the improvement of the physical fitness components and the psychological balance.Fitness instructors' recommendations should be followed in gym context and should be contingent upon an individual's objectives, physical capacity, physical characteristics and experience.

  9. Gastrointestinal Basidiobolomycosis, a Rare and Under-diagnosed Fungal Infection in Immunocompetent Hosts: A Review Article

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    Bita Geramizadeh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal Basidiobolomycosis (GIB is an unusual, rare, but emerging fungal infection in the stomach, small intestine, colon, and liver. It has been rarely reported in the English literature and most of the reported cases have been from US, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and Iran. In the last five years, 17 cases have been reported from one or two provinces in Iran, and it seems that it has been undiagnosed or probably unnoticed in other parts of the country. In this review, we explored the English literature from 1964 through 2013 via PubMed, Google, and Google scholar using the following search keywords: 1 Basidiobolomycosis 2 Basidiobolus ranarum 3 Gastrointestinal Basidiobolomycosis In this review, we attempted to collect all clinical, pathological, and radiological findings of the presenting patients; complemented with previous experiences regarding the treatment and prognosis of the GIB. Since 1964, only 71 cases have been reported, which will be fully described in terms of clinical presentations, methods of diagnosis and treatment as well as prognosis and follow up.

  10. Review article: moving towards common therapeutic goals in Crohn's disease and rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, P B; Olivera, P; Emery, P; Moulin, D; Jouzeau, J-Y; Netter, P; Danese, S; Feagan, B; Sandborn, W J; Peyrin-Biroulet, L

    2017-04-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) and rheumatoid arthritis are chronic, progressive and disabling conditions that frequently lead to structural tissue damage. Based on strategies originally developed for rheumatoid arthritis, the treatment goal for CD has recently moved from exclusively controlling symptoms to both clinical remission and complete mucosal healing (deep remission), with the final aim of preventing bowel damage and disability. To review the similarities and differences in treatment goals between CD and rheumatoid arthritis. This review examined manuscripts from 1982 to 2016 that discussed and/or proposed therapeutic goals with their supportive evidence in CD and rheumatoid arthritis. Proposed therapeutic strategies to improve outcomes in both rheumatoid arthritis and CD include: (i) evaluation of musculoskeletal or organ damage and disability, (ii) tight control, (iii) treat-to-target, (iv) early intervention and (v) disease modification. In contrast to rheumatoid arthritis, there is a paucity of disease-modification trials in CD. Novel therapeutic strategies in CD based on tight control of objective signs of inflammation are expected to change disease course and patients' lives by halting progression or, ideally, preventing the occurrence of bowel damage. Most of these strategies require validation in prospective studies, whereas several disease-modification trials have addressed these issues in rheumatoid arthritis over the last decade. The recent approval of new drugs in CD such as vedolizumab and ustekinumab should facilitate initiation of disease-modification trials in CD in the near future. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Vegetable oil based eco-friendly coating materials: A review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manawwer Alam

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable oils (VO constitute the single, largest, easily available, low cost, non-toxic, non-depletable, biodegradable family yielding materials that are capable of competing with fossil fuel derived petro-based products. The outstanding feature of VO is their unique chemical structure with to unsaturation sites, epoxies, hydroxyls, esters and other functional groups along with inherent fluidity characteristics. These enable them to undergo various chemical transformations producing low molecular weight polymeric materials with versatile applications, particularly as chief ingredients in paints and coatings. In this manuscript, we have briefly described important VO derived materials such as alkyds, polyesteramides, polyetheramides, polyurethanes, epoxies, polyols, along with their preparation and applications as protective coatings. A small portion of the review is also dedicated to the future perspectives in the field. Inspite of their extensive utilization in the world of coatings, literature survey revealed that in the past (from 1990s to date no review has come up describing the chemistry and applications of VO polymer based coating materials.

  12. Factors Influence on Geographic Distribution of Physicians in Selected Countries: A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Ashkan Nasiripour

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the most important inequalities of providing health services is misdistribution of human resources, especially physicians. Many factors contribute to the distribution of physicians in different regions. The present study was aimed to explore the effective factors in distributing physicians in different countries. Methods: This study is a systematic review, in which the data were gathered through literature review, online searches in multiple databases and relevant organizations’ websites. Later, the collected data were classified using content analysis method, and consequently, they were illustrated in comparative matrix. Results: The factors that influence the dispersion of the physicians are divided into 4 main groups. Firstly, Geographic and Demographic factors of the region such as, population, age, gender and climate. Secondly, Health factors of the region and the country such as, the number of hospitals, health centers and health indicators. Thirdly, Economic, Social and Political factors of the region such as, economic growth, culture and believes. And finally, the factors related to physicians' characteristics and motivation such as, age, gender and the compensation system. Conclusion: There are different reasons why physicians spread in different countries’ geographical regions. Regarding the unequal distribution of physicians in Iran, identifying these influential reasons and also the factors affecting the distribution of physicians, and the impact of each one of these, can lead to a fair and equal distribution of resources of the health sector.

  13. Photon, electron, magnon, phonon and plasmon mono-mode circuits [review article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasseur, J. O.; Akjouj, A.; Dobrzynski, L.; Djafari-Rouhani, B.; El Boudouti, E. H.

    2004-06-01

    Photon circuits are light conducting networks formed by joining several dielectric wave-guide channels for the transmission of light. Their production utilizes the most advanced surface technologies and represents one of the most important challenges for the next decade. These circuits are usually mono-mode when the lateral dimensions of the conducting wires are small as compared to the photon wavelength. Plasmon circuits are plasmon conducting networks, a plasmon being a collective excitation of an electron gas in a metal. Such circuits made out of nanometric metallic clusters and wires can also be tuned to work at light wavelength. Similarly, electron circuits can be designed with modern surface technologies in which the propagation of electrons is non-diffusive. Similar investigations also started recently for circuits in which the propagating excitations are phonons and magnons (spin waves). In this review paper, we deal with mono-mode circuits for propagating photons, non-diffusive ballistic electrons, magnons, phonons and plasmons. In all these circuits, the interfaces between the different wires out of which the circuits are made of, play a fundamental role. All such circuits exhibit a variety of interference effects in their transport properties. Emphasis in this review paper is placed on the network creations, which include barriers, stubs or resonators, closed loops, interconnecting branched networks and multiplexers. Results for the transmission and reflection properties of such circuits are discussed as a function of the wavelength of the excitations and the physical properties of the circuits.

  14. Review article: Hydrological modeling in glacierized catchments of central Asia - status and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yaning; Li, Weihong; Fang, Gonghuan; Li, Zhi

    2017-02-01

    Meltwater from glacierized catchments is one of the most important water supplies in central Asia. Therefore, the effects of climate change on glaciers and snow cover will have increasingly significant consequences for runoff. Hydrological modeling has become an indispensable research approach to water resources management in large glacierized river basins, but there is a lack of focus in the modeling of glacial discharge. This paper reviews the status of hydrological modeling in glacierized catchments of central Asia, discussing the limitations of the available models and extrapolating these to future challenges and directions. After reviewing recent efforts, we conclude that the main sources of uncertainty in assessing the regional hydrological impacts of climate change are the unreliable and incomplete data sets and the lack of understanding of the hydrological regimes of glacierized catchments of central Asia. Runoff trends indicate a complex response to changes in climate. For future variation of water resources, it is essential to quantify the responses of hydrologic processes to both climate change and shrinking glaciers in glacierized catchments, and scientific focus should be on reducing uncertainties linked to these processes.

  15. The current state of epilepsy guidelines: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauro, Khara M; Wiebe, Samuel; Dunkley, Colin; Janszky, Jozsef; Kumlien, Eva; Moshé, Solomon; Nakasato, Nobukazu; Pedley, Timothy A; Perucca, Emilio; Senties, Horacio; Thomas, Sanjeev V; Wang, Yuping; Wilmshurst, Jo; Jetté, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    The International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) Epilepsy Guidelines Task Force, composed of 14 international members, was established in 2011 to identify, using systematic review methodology, international epilepsy clinical care guidelines, assess their quality, and determine gaps in areas of need of development. A systematic review of the literature (1985-2014) was performed in six electronic databases (e.g. Medline, Embase) using a broad search strategy without initial limits to language or study design. Six gray literature databases (e.g., American Academy of Neurology [AAN], ILAE) were also searched to minimize publication bias. Two independent reviewers screened abstracts, reviewed full text articles, and performed data abstraction. Descriptive statistics and a meta-analysis were generated. The search identified 10,926 abstracts. Of the 410 articles selected for full text review, 63 met our eligibility criteria for a guideline. Of those included, 54 were in English and 9 were in other languages (French, Spanish, and Italian). Of all guidelines, 29% did not specify the target age groups, 27% were focused on adults, 22% included only children, and 6% specifically addressed issues related to women with epilepsy. Guidelines included in the review were most often aimed at guiding clinical practice for status epilepticus (n = 7), first seizure (n = 6), drug-resistant epilepsy (n = 5), and febrile seizures (n = 4), among others. Most of the guidelines were therapeutic (n = 35) or diagnostic (n = 16) in nature. The quality of the guidelines using a 1-7 point scale (7 = highest) varied and was moderate overall (mean = 4.99 ± 1.05 [SD]). We identified substantial gaps in topics (e.g., epilepsy in the elderly) and there was considerable heterogeneity in methodologic quality. The findings should offer a valuable resource for health professionals caring for people with epilepsy, since they will help guide the prioritization, development, and dissemination of future

  16. Anniversary Article--Interactional Feedback in Second Language Teaching and Learning: A Synthesis and Analysis of Current Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassaji, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    The role of interactional feedback has long been of interest to both second language acquisition researchers and teachers and has continued to be the object of intensive empirical and theoretical inquiry. In this article, I provide a synthesis and analysis of recent research and developments in this area and their contributions to second language…

  17. Review Article: Structures of phthalocyanine molecules on surfaces studied by STM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongfeng Wang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This review mainly focuses on progress recently achieved in the growth of phthalocyanine molecules on single-crystal surfaces of sub-monolayer up to few-monolayer thin films studied by scanning tunneling microscopy in our groups. On metallic surfaces such as Au(111, Ag(111 and Cu(111, molecular superstructures are determined by combining directional intermolecular interactions caused by symmetry reduction, molecule-substrate interactions and indirect long-range interactions due to quantum interference of surface state electrons. On semiconducting TiO2 surface, molecular assembling structures are dictated by the strong molecule-substrate interaction. However, on insulating NaCl film, molecule-molecule interaction dominates over the molecule-NaCl coupling, leading to molecular growth behavior. Knowledge obtained from these studies would help people better understand the physicochemical properties of the phthalocyanine molecules at surfaces so that their new applications could be further explored and uncovered in the future.

  18. Kinetic phenomena in organic conductors in high magnetic fields (Review Article)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peschansky, V. G.; Stepanenko, D. I.

    2016-11-01

    A review of experimental and theoretical studies of transport phenomena in strongly anisotropic organic conductors is presented. Considerable attention is paid to the phenomena that are specific to quasi-2D and quasi-1D conductive structures and have no analogues both in ordinary metals and in truly 2D or 1D conducting systems. Angular magnetoresistance oscillations, de Haas-van Alphen and Shubnikov-de Haas phenomena, high-temperature quantum oscillations of the magnetoresistance, and high-frequency resonances, including those arising due to the motion of electrons open trajectories, are discussed. The resonant angular oscillations of high-frequency conductivity and weakly damped electromagnetic waves in quasi-2D organic conductors under strong spatial dispersion are considered.

  19. Death Anxiety among Nurses and Health Care Professionals: A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Sharif Nia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Death anxiety, a negative affective state that is incited by mortality salience, may be experienced by nurses and other health care workers who are exposed to sickness, trauma, and violence. This paper examines death anxiety and management strategies among health providers in different health settings across cultures. A literature review of the research published since 2000 in the English language was conducted using PubMed, Science direct, CINAHL, and PsychInfo databases. Death anxiety is commonly experienced and is associated with more negative attitudes about caring for dying patients and their families. Performing educational and psychological interventions to help nurses build strong coping strategies for managing death anxiety are recommended to offset negative consequences such as leaving positions, poor communication, and decrements in personal health and quality of life.

  20. Death Anxiety among Nurses and Health Care Professionals: A Review Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nia, Hamid Sharif; Lehto, Rebecca H.; Ebadi, Abbas; Peyrovi, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Death anxiety, a negative affective state that is incited by mortality salience, may be experienced by nurses and other health care workers who are exposed to sickness, trauma, and violence. This paper examines death anxiety and management strategies among health providers in different health settings across cultures. A literature review of the research published since 2000 in the English language was conducted using PubMed, Science direct, CINAHL, and PsychInfo databases. Death anxiety is commonly experienced and is associated with more negative attitudes about caring for dying patients and their families. Performing educational and psychological interventions to help nurses build strong coping strategies for managing death anxiety are recommended to offset negative consequences such as leaving positions, poor communication, and decrements in personal health and quality of life. PMID:26793726

  1. Death Anxiety among Nurses and Health Care Professionals: A Review Article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nia, Hamid Sharif; Lehto, Rebecca H; Ebadi, Abbas; Peyrovi, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Death anxiety, a negative affective state that is incited by mortality salience, may be experienced by nurses and other health care workers who are exposed to sickness, trauma, and violence. This paper examines death anxiety and management strategies among health providers in different health settings across cultures. A literature review of the research published since 2000 in the English language was conducted using PubMed, Science direct, CINAHL, and PsychInfo databases. Death anxiety is commonly experienced and is associated with more negative attitudes about caring for dying patients and their families. Performing educational and psychological interventions to help nurses build strong coping strategies for managing death anxiety are recommended to offset negative consequences such as leaving positions, poor communication, and decrements in personal health and quality of life.

  2. Physics of solid-liquid interfaces: From the Young equation to the superhydrophobicity (Review Article)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormashenko, Edward

    2016-08-01

    The state-of-art in the field of physics of phenomena occurring at solid/liquid interfaces is presented. The notions of modern physics of wetting are introduced and discussed including: the contact angle hysteresis, disjoining pressure and wetting transitions. The physics of low temperature wetting phenomena is treated. The general variational approach to interfacial problems, based on the application of the transversality conditions to variational problems with free endpoints is presented. It is demonstrated that main equations, predicting contact angles, namely the Young, Wenzel, and Cassie-Baxter equations arise from imposing the transversality conditions on the appropriate variational problem of wetting. Recently discovered effects such as superhydrophobicity, the rose petal effect and the molecular dynamic of capillarity are reviewed.

  3. How to Trick Your Opponent: A Review Article on Deceptive Actions in Interactive Sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Güldenpenning

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Performing deceptive actions is a wide-spread phenomenon in sports and it is of considerable practical relevance to know whether or not a fake or a disguised action decreases the opponents’ performance. Therefore, research on deceptive actions for various sport disciplines (e.g., cricket, rugby, martial arts, soccer, and basketball has been conducted. This research is scattered, both across time and scientific disciplines. Here, we aim to systematically review the empirical work on deceptive actions in interactive sports and want to give an overview about several issues investigated in the last decades. Three main topics of the detected literature were discussed here: (1 the role of expertise for the recognition of deceptive actions, (2 the cognitive mechanisms underlying the processing of deceptive actions, and (3 the pros and cons of in situ research designs. None of these themes seems to be settled and therefore, they should be considered in future research agendas.

  4. Transmission of quasiparticle excitations through interfaces between two media (Review Article)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosevich, Yu. A.; Syrkin, E. S.; Tkachenko, O. Yu.

    2016-08-01

    The effect of the dynamic surface monolayer at the interface of a solid with superfluid helium on Kapitza thermal resistance is analyzed. A monolayer of impurity atoms adsorbed on a solid surface and weakly bound to the substrate is considered as a surface monolayer of this type. A resonance of phonons incident from the helium with oscillations in the two-dimensional system can cause a great increase in heat transfer through this kind of interface compared to an atomically clean boundary. Scalar and vector models of the interface are examined. New results from the macroscopic dynamics of an interface between two media are introduced in this review, with lattice anharmonicity (nonlinear effects) taken into account.

  5. Review article "On the origins of decadal climate variability: a network perspective"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Tsonis

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This review is a synthesis of work spanning the last 25 yr. It is largely based on the use of climate networks to identify climate subsystems/major modes and to subsequently study how their collective behavior explains decadal variability. The central point is that a network of coupled nonlinear subsystems may at times begin to synchronize. If during synchronization the coupling between the subsystems increases, the synchronous state may, at some coupling strength threshold, be destroyed shifting climate to a new regime. This climate shift manifests itself as a change in global temperature trend. This mechanism, which is consistent with the theory of synchronized chaos, appears to be a very robust mechanism of the climate system. It is found in the instrumental records, in forced and unforced climate simulations, as well as in proxy records spanning several centuries.

  6. Use of noninsulin anti diabetics for prevention and treatment of cancer- narrative review article.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadaf Raana

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological evidence shows that cancer and diabetes are major causes of death in the world. Type2 diabetes increases the risk of cancer-specific mortality. This review relates diabetic therapies, diabetes and cancer.All published papers in this field were searched, looking into such databases as Science Direct, ISI Web of Knowledge, PubMed and Scopus.In cancer patients, metformin improves patient outcome and reduces cancer risk. Sulfonylureas may increase risk of cancer, but decreased risk of cancer is associated with thiazolidinediones in type 2 diabetic subjects. Metformin lowers circulating insulin and it may be important for treatment of hyperinsulinemia-associated cancers, such as colon and breast cancer.However, laboratory investigations and large-scale population based studies are required for further investigation of association of cancer-preventive, anti-cancer and cancer-mortality of noninsulin antidiabetics.

  7. Quality Reporting of Multivariable Regression Models in Observational Studies: Review of a Representative Sample of Articles Published in Biomedical Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real, Jordi; Forné, Carles; Roso-Llorach, Albert; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M

    2016-05-01

    Controlling for confounders is a crucial step in analytical observational studies, and multivariable models are widely used as statistical adjustment techniques. However, the validation of the assumptions of the multivariable regression models (MRMs) should be made clear in scientific reporting. The objective of this study is to review the quality of statistical reporting of the most commonly used MRMs (logistic, linear, and Cox regression) that were applied in analytical observational studies published between 2003 and 2014 by journals indexed in MEDLINE.Review of a representative sample of articles indexed in MEDLINE (n = 428) with observational design and use of MRMs (logistic, linear, and Cox regression). We assessed the quality of reporting about: model assumptions and goodness-of-fit, interactions, sensitivity analysis, crude and adjusted effect estimate, and specification of more than 1 adjusted model.The tests of underlying assumptions or goodness-of-fit of the MRMs used were described in 26.2% (95% CI: 22.0-30.3) of the articles and 18.5% (95% CI: 14.8-22.1) reported the interaction analysis. Reporting of all items assessed was higher in articles published in journals with a higher impact factor.A low percentage of articles indexed in MEDLINE that used multivariable techniques provided information demonstrating rigorous application of the model selected as an adjustment method. Given the importance of these methods to the final results and conclusions of observational studies, greater rigor is required in reporting the use of MRMs in the scientific literature.

  8. Providing Healthcare Services at Home-A Necessity in Iran: A Narrative Review Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    NIKBAKHT-NASRABADI, Alireza; SHABANY-HAMEDAN, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Background: Increasing hospital costs and its social and cultural problems has led to the idea of providing healthcare services at home. Because of infrastructural and implementation problems, providing healthcare at home in Iran has not been initiated yet. Therefore, this study set out to elaborate the need for a comprehensive system in order to provide this service in Iran. Methods: All articles published in indexing sites with the defined keywords in English or Farsi were gathered. The indexing websites included Iran Medex, PubMed Central, Elsevier journals, WHO publications and Google scholar from 1985 to 2014 were surveyed. Other documents included the related books and regulations. Results: Despite of having dominant religious values and constitution laws related to stability of family relations and establishment of clinical services and health care at home in Iran, providing health care services faces some harsh challenges including ignoring entrepreneurship and lack of required infrastructures such as lack of required insurance regulations, the inappropriate and indifferent performance of some activists home services and absence of registration and identification system in this domain. Conclusion: Because of the increasing number of elderly people in Iran and healthcare costs becoming more and more expensive, establishing a system for providing healthcare at home is inevitable. PMID:27516992

  9. Review Essay: Twenty Important Journal Articles on Radicalisation to, and De-Radicalisation from, Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hofmann

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Keeping up-to-date with new research on terrorism can be challenging for both academic and non-academic researchers, with a multitude of books, articles and reports of varying degrees of quality being produced continuously. Andrew Silke noted that the publication of books on terrorism nearly jumped tenfold after 9/11, from 150 titles in 2000 to 1108 the following year, and 1767 in 2002 [1]. If one searches for books on terrorism with www.amazon.com one decade later, one gets over 30,000 results and the sub-genre ‘radicalisation’ already produces in excess of 300 books. Research on radicalisation took off in 2004 in response to the blowback from the American intervention in Iraq the year before. The London bombings in 2005 generated further interest in the phenomenon of “homegrown terrorism”, where apparently self-starting cells of radicalising individuals mobilized against their host countries with little or no material support from foreign terrorist entities. This has created a whole new field of empirical inquiry.

  10. Promotional tone in reviews of menopausal hormone therapy after the Women's Health Initiative: an analysis of published articles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriane Fugh-Berman

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Even after the Women's Health Initiative (WHI found that the risks of menopausal hormone therapy (hormone therapy outweighed benefit for asymptomatic women, about half of gynecologists in the United States continued to believe that hormones benefited women's health. The pharmaceutical industry has supported publication of articles in medical journals for marketing purposes. It is unknown whether author relationships with industry affect promotional tone in articles on hormone therapy. The goal of this study was to determine whether promotional tone could be identified in narrative review articles regarding menopausal hormone therapy and whether articles identified as promotional were more likely to have been authored by those with conflicts of interest with manufacturers of menopausal hormone therapy. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We analyzed tone in opinion pieces on hormone therapy published in the four years after the estrogen-progestin arm of the WHI was stopped. First, we identified the ten authors with four or more MEDLINE-indexed reviews, editorials, comments, or letters on hormone replacement therapy or menopausal hormone therapy published between July 2002 and June 2006. Next, we conducted an additional search using the names of these authors to identify other relevant articles. Finally, after author names and affiliations were removed, 50 articles were evaluated by three readers for scientific accuracy and for tone. Scientific accuracy was assessed based on whether or not the findings of the WHI were accurately reported using two criteria: (1 Acknowledgment or lack of denial of the risk of breast cancer diagnosis associated with hormone therapy, and (2 acknowledgment that hormone therapy did not benefit cardiovascular disease endpoints. Determination of promotional tone was based on the assessment by each reader of whether the article appeared to promote hormone therapy. Analysis of inter-rater consistency found moderate agreement

  11. Metamorphoses of electronic structure of FeSe-based superconductors (Review Article)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustovit, Yu. V.; Kordyuk, A. A.

    2016-11-01

    The electronic structure of FeSe, the simplest iron-based superconductor (Fe-SC), conceals a potential of dramatic increase of Tc that realizes under pressure or in a single layer film. This is also the system where nematicity, the phenomenon of a keen current interest, is most easy to study since it is not accompanied by the antiferromagnetic transition like in all other Fe-SC's. Here we overview recent experimental data on electronic structure of FeSe-based superconductors: isovalently doped crystals, intercalates, and single layer films, trying to clarify its topology and possible relation of this topology to superconductivity. We argue that the marked differences between the experimental and calculated band structures for all FeSe compounds can be described by a hoping selective renormalization model for a spin/orbital correlated state that may naturally explain both the evolution of the band structure with temperature and nematicity.

  12. Fast Food Pattern and Cardiometabolic Disorders: A Review of Current Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Bahadoran; Parvin Mirmiran; Fereidoun Azizi

    2016-01-01

    Background: There are growing concern globally regarding the alarming trend of fast food consump­tion and its related cardiometabolic outcomes including overweight and obesity. This study aimed to review the current evidences available in relation to adverse effects of fast food pattern on cardiometa­bolic risk factors. Methods: Relevant articles including epidemiological and clinical studies with appropriate design and good quality were obtained through searches of the Medline, PubMed, S...

  13. Ethical and professional conduct of medical students: review of current assessment measures and controversies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, K; Turner, J

    2004-01-01

    As medical education increasingly acknowledges the importance of the ethical and professional conduct of practitioners, and moves towards more formal assessment of these issues, it is important to consider the evidence base which exists in this area. This article discusses literature about the health needs and problems experienced by medical practitioners as a background to a review of the current efforts in medical education to promote ethical conduct and develop mechanisms for the detection and remediation of problems. PMID:15082823

  14. Fast Food Pattern and Cardiometabolic Disorders: A Review of Current Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Bahadoran; Parvin Mirmiran; Fereidoun Azizi

    2015-01-01

    Background: There are growing concern globally regarding the alarming trend of fast food consump­tion and its related cardiometabolic outcomes including overweight and obesity. This study aimed to review the current evidences available in relation to adverse effects of fast food pattern on cardiometa­bolic risk factors. Methods: Relevant articles including epidemiological and clinical studies with appropriate design and good quality were obtained through searches of the Medline, PubMed, S...

  15. Review article: immediate-release proton-pump inhibitor therapy--potential advantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howden, C W

    2005-12-01

    The absorption of most oral proton-pump inhibitors is delayed by the enteric coating required to protect the acid-labile proton-pump inhibitor from degradation in the stomach and, as a result, antisecretory effect is also delayed. This article provides an overview of the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of a new immediate-release omeprazole [(IR-OME) Zegerid power for oral suspension; Santarus Inc., San Diego, CA, USA] and its potential advantages over delayed-release proton-pump inhibitors. Immediate-release omeprazole has a higher mean peak plasma omeprazole concentration (C(max)) and a significantly shorter mean time to reach C(max) (t(max)) than delayed-release omeprazole. Immediate-release omeprazole 40 mg has a prolonged antisecretory effect with median intragastric pH above 4.0 for 18.6 h/day at steady-state, after 7 days of once daily dosing. The sodium bicarbonate in immediate-release omeprazole protects the uncoated omeprazole from degradation by gastric acid. The accelerated antisecretory action of immediate-release omeprazole compared with delayed-release omeprazole may be due to the activation of proton pumps by the rapid neutralization of intragastric acid by the sodium bicarbonate. The faster onset of action seen with immediate-release omeprazole is not achieved by using an antacid with a delayed-release proton-pump inhibitor, because administering antacids with conventional delayed-release proton-pump inhibitors does not significantly enhance absorption of the proton-pump inhibitor. In conclusion, immediate-release omeprazole is associated with rapid absorption of omeprazole and rapid onset of antisecretory effect, without compromising the duration of acid suppression.

  16. Review article: health benefits of some physiologically active ingredients and their suitability as yoghurt fortifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayed, A E

    2015-05-01

    The article is concerned with health benefits of two main physiologically active ingredients namely, Isoflavones and γ-Aminobutyric acid, with emphasis on their fitness for fortification of yoghurt to be consumed as a functional food. Isoflavones (ISO) are part of the diphenol compounds, called "phytoestrogens," which are structurally and functionally similar to estradiol, the human estrogen, but much less potent. Because of this similarity, ISO were suggested to have preventive effects for many kinds of hormone-dependent diseases. In nature, ISO usually occur as glycosides and, once deconjugated by the intestinal microflora, the ISO can be absorbed into the blood. At present, it seems convincing their possible protective actions against various cancers, osteoporosis and menopausal symptoms and high levels of blood cholesterol as well as the epidemiological evidence. Γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), it is an amino acid that has long been reported to lower blood pressure by intravenous administration in experimental animals and in human subjects. GABA is present in many vegetables and fruits but not in dairy products. GABA was reported to lower blood pressure in people with mild hypertension. It was suggested that low-dose oral GABA has a hypotensive effect in spontaneously hypertensive. Yoghurt beyond its ability to be probiotic food via its culturing with the gut strains, it could further carry more healthy benefits when it was fortified with physiological active ingredients, especially GABA versus ISO preferring, whether, bacteriologically or biochemically, a fortification level of 50 mg ISO/kg or 200 mg GABA/kg.

  17. Review article: Relationships between adipose tissue and psoriasis, with or without arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ERIC eTOUSSIROT

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis (Pso is a common chronic cutaneous inflammatory disease involving the skin that is associated with serious comorbidities. Comorbidities in Pso include psoriatic arthritis (PsA, reduced quality of life, malignancy, depression, but also a constellation of associated conditions that enhance the cardiovascular (CV risk. Indeed, obesity is common in patients with Pso or PsA and is considered to be a risk factor for the onset of these diseases. Patients with Pso and PsA share common obesity-related complications such as metabolic syndrome, dyslipidemia, diabetes or insulin resistance and CV diseases. Chronic inflammation in Pso and PsA partially explains the development of atherosclerosis and CV diseases. In parallel, body composition is disturbed in patients with Pso or PsA, as suggested by anthropometric measurements, while an excess of abdominal adiposity is observed in PsA, enhancing the risk of metabolic syndrome and CV diseases. Adipokines may link the adipose tissue to the obesity-related complications of Pso and PsA. Indeed, altered circulating levels of the adipokines leptin, adiponectin, visfatine, and resistin have been found in patients with Pso or PsA. In addition, an excess of adipose tissue may compromise the therapeutic response to traditional drugs or biological agents in Pso and PsA. This paper reviews the comorbidities that contribute to enhanced CV risk, the body composition results, and the potential role of adipokines in systemic inflammation and energetic balance in Pso and PsA.

  18. Review article: commercialization of whole-plant systems for biomanufacturing of protein products: evolution and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, H Maelor

    2010-10-01

    Technology for enabling plants to biomanufacture nonnative proteins in commercially significant quantities has been available for just over 20 years. During that time, the agricultural world has witnessed rapid commercialization and widespread adoption of transgenic crops enhanced for agronomic performance (herbicide-tolerance, insect-resistance), while plant-made pharmaceuticals (PMPs) and plant-made industrial products (PMIPs) have been limited to experimental and small-scale commercial production. This difference in the rate of commercial implementation likely reflects the very different business-development challenges associated with 'product' technologies compared with 'enabling' ('platform') technologies. However, considerable progress has been made in advancing and refining plant-based production of proteins, both technologically and in regard to identifying optimal business prospects. This review summarizes these developments, contrasting today's technologies and prospective applications with those of the industry's formative years, and suggesting how the PM(I)P industry's evolution has generated a very positive outlook for the 'plant-made' paradigm. © 2010 The Author. Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2010 Society for Experimental Biology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Potential plant poisonings in dogs and cats in southern Africa : review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.J. Botha

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant poisoning occurs less commonly in dogs and cats than in herbivorous livestock, but numerous cases have been documented worldwide, most of them caused by common and internationally widely cultivated ornamental garden and house plants. Few cases of poisoning of cats and dogs have been reported in southern Africa, but many of the plants that have caused poisoning in these species elsewhere are widely available in the subregion and are briefly reviewed in terms of toxic principles, toxicity, species affected, clinical signs, and prognosis. The list includes Melia azedarach (syringa, Brunfelsia spp. (yesterday, today and tomorrow, Datura stramonium (jimsonweed, stinkblaar, a wide variety of lilies and lily-like plants, cycads, plants that contain soluble oxalates, plants containing cardiac glycosides and other cardiotoxins and euphorbias (Euphorbia pulcherrima, E. tirucalli. Poisoning by plant products such as macadamia nuts, onions and garlic, grapes and raisins, cannabis (marijuana, dagga or hashish and castor oil seed or seedcake is also discussed. Many of the poisonings are not usually fatal, but others frequently result in death unless rapid action is taken by the owner and the veterinarian, underlining the importance of awareness of the poisonous potential of a number of familiar plants.

  20. The pharmacology of halogenated salicylanilides and their anthelmintic use in animals : review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.E. Swan

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available The halogenated salicylanilides are a large group of compounds developed mainly for their antiparasitic activity in animals. Several halogenated salicylanilides with potent antiparasitic activity have been synthesised of which only closantel, niclosamide, oxyclozanide, rafoxanide and resorantel are commercially available. Closantel and rafoxanide, which represent the most important drugs in the group, are used extensively for the control of Haemonchus spp. and Fasciola spp. infestations in sheep and cattle and Oestrus ovis in sheep in many parts of the world. Niclosamide is used extensively for its anticestodal activity in a wide range of animals. Antiparasitic activity of the halogenated salicylanilides has also been demonstrated against a large number of other internal parasites, in particular haematophagous helminths, and external parasites including ticks and mites, in a variety of animal species. Several cases of toxicity and mortality have been reported for closantel and rafoxanide in sheep and goats. Their unique pharmacokinetic behaviour appears to play an important role in the efficacy and safety of these compounds. The chemical and physical characteristics, mode of action, pharmacokinetics, antiparasitic activity and toxicity of the halogenated salicylanilides in animals are reviewed.

  1. Review article: Inferring permafrost and permafrost thaw in the mountains of the Hindu Kush Himalaya region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Stephan; Fleiner, Renate; Guegan, Emilie; Panday, Prajjwal; Schmid, Marc-Olivier; Stumm, Dorothea; Wester, Philippus; Zhang, Yinsheng; Zhao, Lin

    2017-01-01

    The cryosphere reacts sensitively to climate change, as evidenced by the widespread retreat of mountain glaciers. Subsurface ice contained in permafrost is similarly affected by climate change, causing persistent impacts on natural and human systems. In contrast to glaciers, permafrost is not observable spatially and therefore its presence and possible changes are frequently overlooked. Correspondingly, little is known about permafrost in the mountains of the Hindu Kush Himalaya (HKH) region, despite permafrost area exceeding that of glaciers in nearly all countries. Based on evidence and insight gained mostly in other permafrost areas globally, this review provides a synopsis on what is known or can be inferred about permafrost in the mountains of the HKH region. Given the extreme nature of the environment concerned, it is to be expected that the diversity of conditions and phenomena encountered in permafrost exceed what has previously been described and investigated. We further argue that climate change in concert with increasing development will bring about diverse permafrost-related impacts on vegetation, water quality, geohazards, and livelihoods. To better anticipate and mitigate these effects, a deepened understanding of high-elevation permafrost in subtropical latitudes as well as the pathways interconnecting environmental changes and human livelihoods are needed.

  2. Is it time to address survivorship in advanced breast cancer? A review article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lascio, Simona; Pagani, Olivia

    2017-02-01

    The outcome of advanced breast cancer has significantly improved over recent decades. As a consequence, the complex needs of patients living with the disease and their care-givers should be addressed not only in terms of supportive and palliative care but also of "survivorship" requirements. The multidisciplinary approach to advanced breast cancer should encompass - early in the history of the disease - not only physical but also functional, social, psychological and spiritual domains. It is important to clearly define the disease context with patients and families ("chronic" preferred to "incurable"), addressing the concept of uncertainty, and tailoring the treatment strategy according to both disease status and individual priorities. Specific psychosocial needs of young and elderly women and male patients - i.e. social security, job flexibility, rehabilitation (including sexuality), home and child care - should be recognized and supported. This review will address the key questions associated with survivorship in this disease context, recognizing the dearth of specific data and the urgent need for targeted clinical research and tailored interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Invited review article: IceCube: an instrument for neutrino astronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halzen, Francis; Klein, Spencer R

    2010-08-01

    Neutrino astronomy beyond the Sun was first imagined in the late 1950s; by the 1970s, it was realized that kilometer-scale neutrino detectors were required. The first such instrument, IceCube, is near completion and taking data. The IceCube project transforms 1 km(3) of deep and ultratransparent Antarctic ice into a particle detector. A total of 5160 optical sensors is embedded into a gigaton of Antarctic ice to detect the Cherenkov light emitted by secondary particles produced when neutrinos interact with nuclei in the ice. Each optical sensor is a complete data acquisition system including a phototube, digitization electronics, control and trigger systems, and light-emitting diodes for calibration. The light patterns reveal the type (flavor) of neutrino interaction and the energy and direction of the neutrino, making neutrino astronomy possible. The scientific missions of IceCube include such varied tasks as the search for sources of cosmic rays, the observation of galactic supernova explosions, the search for dark matter, and the study of the neutrinos themselves. These reach energies well beyond those produced with accelerator beams. The outline of this review is as follows: neutrino astronomy and kilometer-scale detectors, high-energy neutrino telescopes: methodologies of neutrino detection, IceCube hardware, high-energy neutrino telescopes: beyond astronomy, and future projects.

  4. Perspectives for Titanium-Derived Fillers Usage on Denture Base Composite Construction: A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidal W. Elshereksi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA is an extensively used material in dentistry because of its aesthetics, processability, and reparability. However, PMMA is still far from being ideal in fulfilling the mechanical requirements of prosthesis. PMMA-based denture base polymers exhibit low fracture resistance and radiopacity behavior. Efforts to improve the mechanical and radiopacity properties of denture base materials through inclusion of silica-based fillers are ongoing. Although silane-treated siliceous fillers are commonly used, they are not sufficiently strong. They also exhibit cracks, which either cut through the glass fillers or propagate around the filler particles. This defect occurs when the dental composites are placed in aqueous oral environment because of the hydrolytic degradation of silica-based fillers and silane-coupling agents. The clinical problem of using silanes in adhesion promotion is bond degradation over time in oral environment. In addition, silanes do not bond effectively to nonsilica-based dental restorative materials. This review presents titanium-derived fillers as alternatives to siliceous fillers. Titanate-coupling agents are found to be effective couplers in treating Ti-based fillers because of their chemical compatibility and relatively high stability in aqueous environment.

  5. Review article: prevention of stress-related mucosal bleeding with proton-pump inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maton, P N

    2005-12-01

    Stress-related gastric mucosal bleeding occurs in a substantial number of critically ill patients, with clinically important gastrointestinal bleeding prolonging intensive care stay and increasing mortality. This paper reviews the role of proton-pump inhibitors in the prevention of stress-related mucosal bleeding. Bleeding prophylaxis appears to be warranted in patients in intensive care units on mechanical ventilation or those who have coagulopathy. Intravenous histamine H2 receptor antagonists, particularly cimetidine, have demonstrated efficacy for the prevention of bleeding in critically ill patients. Standard delayed-release proton-pump inhibitors have not been extensively studied in this patient group, but there are some data to support their efficacy in increasing intragastric pH, and in the case of intravenous pantoprazole in preventing gastrointestinal bleeding. In a large, randomized controlled trial, immediate-release omeprazole [(IR-OME) Zegerid powder for oral suspension; Santarus Inc., San Diego, CA, USA] administered via gastric tube, was as effective as intravenous cimetidine in the prevention of clinically significant bleeding, and more effective in increasing gastric pH. Effective antisecretory therapy does not appear to increase the risk of nosocomial pneumonia. In conclusion, immediate-release omeprazole provides a safe and effective alternative to intravenous cimetidine for the prevention of stress-related mucosal bleeding in critically ill patients.

  6. Conflict in Neighboring Countries, a Great Risk for Malaria Elimination in Southwestern Iran: Narrative Review Article.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Molaee Zadeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The intensity of the conflict such as war is one of the determinants of the flow of migrants and refuges with consequence of introducing infectious disease to other countries. This paper investigates the relationship between malaria incidence and forced immigration due to war from neighboring countries in Dezful district, southwestern Iran. All available data and accessible archived documentary records on malaria cases in the period 1988-2011 in Dezful Health Centers were reviewed. Retrospective analysis of routine surveillance data from the Health authority of Dezful district was conducted to assess the trend of malaria incidence and prevalence in the last two decades. Malaria transmission dynamics was described using surveillance indicators viz, Annual Parasite Incidence (API, Slide Positivity Rate (SPR, Annual Blood Examination Rate (ABER and based on personal information of patients. Two peaks of malaria incidence occurred during past two decades. The first one arisen by Iran-Iraq war due to residential instability in Dezful while the API reached to 8 per 1000. The second peak happened after to civil war of Afghanistan began which caused large immigrates moved into the study area. During the second peak, API reached 1.7 per 1000 at maximum and the majority of patients were immigrants. This study describes the linkage between incidence and prevalence of malaria and immigration due to civil conflict. Therefore, malaria screening of immigrants and early warning programme are effective to prevent outbreak of disease in a potential risk area such Dezful.

  7. Review Article: A comparison of flood and earthquake vulnerability assessment indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruiter, Marleen C.; Ward, Philip J.; Daniell, James E.; Aerts, Jeroen C. J. H.

    2017-07-01

    In a cross-disciplinary study, we carried out an extensive literature review to increase understanding of vulnerability indicators used in the disciplines of earthquake- and flood vulnerability assessments. We provide insights into potential improvements in both fields by identifying and comparing quantitative vulnerability indicators grouped into physical and social categories. Next, a selection of index- and curve-based vulnerability models that use these indicators are described, comparing several characteristics such as temporal and spatial aspects. Earthquake vulnerability methods traditionally have a strong focus on object-based physical attributes used in vulnerability curve-based models, while flood vulnerability studies focus more on indicators applied to aggregated land-use classes in curve-based models. In assessing the differences and similarities between indicators used in earthquake and flood vulnerability models, we only include models that separately assess either of the two hazard types. Flood vulnerability studies could be improved using approaches from earthquake studies, such as developing object-based physical vulnerability curve assessments and incorporating time-of-the-day-based building occupation patterns. Likewise, earthquake assessments could learn from flood studies by refining their selection of social vulnerability indicators. Based on the lessons obtained in this study, we recommend future studies for exploring risk assessment methodologies across different hazard types.

  8. Review Article: A comparison of flood and earthquake vulnerability assessment indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. de Ruiter

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In a cross-disciplinary study, we carried out an extensive literature review to increase understanding of vulnerability indicators used in the disciplines of earthquake- and flood vulnerability assessments. We provide insights into potential improvements in both fields by identifying and comparing quantitative vulnerability indicators grouped into physical and social categories. Next, a selection of index- and curve-based vulnerability models that use these indicators are described, comparing several characteristics such as temporal and spatial aspects. Earthquake vulnerability methods traditionally have a strong focus on object-based physical attributes used in vulnerability curve-based models, while flood vulnerability studies focus more on indicators applied to aggregated land-use classes in curve-based models. In assessing the differences and similarities between indicators used in earthquake and flood vulnerability models, we only include models that separately assess either of the two hazard types. Flood vulnerability studies could be improved using approaches from earthquake studies, such as developing object-based physical vulnerability curve assessments and incorporating time-of-the-day-based building occupation patterns. Likewise, earthquake assessments could learn from flood studies by refining their selection of social vulnerability indicators. Based on the lessons obtained in this study, we recommend future studies for exploring risk assessment methodologies across different hazard types.

  9. Evidence-based practice: a deconstruction and postmodern critique: book review article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Peter

    2005-03-01

    This paper discusses the significance of postmodernism for healthcare practice, specifically the discourse known as 'evidence-based practice'. It considers two texts, both of which present postmodern analyses of contemporary issues. One text presents a deconstruction of evidence-based practice in an attempt to reveal its 'true' nature, which is portrayed as one that does not respect research paradigms other than the randomised controlled trial, merely pays lip service to expertise and fails to connect with the real nature of clinical practice. The second text considers the accusation that absolute relativism implied by postmodern approaches may permit an 'anything goes' mentality and provide succour to those advocating unacceptable practices. A 'defence' of postmodernism in relation to the accusation that it encourages holocaust denial is used to consider further the nature and limitations of postmodern critiques of evidence-based practice. This review concludes that postmodernism fundamentally challenges the apparent 'objectivity' of evidence-based practice but it does not challenge the fundamental rules for acquiring and testing evidence. Rather it is the selection of questions to be asked and answered by evidence-based practice/practitioners that is the true limitation. This is the ground upon which fruitful argument can be had about the significance of evidence without undermining the requirement that there be evidence and standards to judge such evidence.

  10. Reasoned opinion on the review of the existing maximum residue levels (MRLs for ethoxyquin according to Article 12 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available According to Article 12 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA has reviewed the Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs currently established at European level for the pesticide active substance ethoxyquin. Although this active substance is no longer authorised within the European Union, an MRL was established by the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CXL. Based on the assessment of the available data, EFSA assessed the CXL, and a consumer risk assessment was carried out. The CXL was found not to be adequately supported by data and a possible risk to consumers was identified. Hence, further consideration by risk managers is needed.

  11. Reasoned opinion on the review of the existing maximum residue levels (MRLs for indolylbutyric acid according to Article 12 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available According to Article 12 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA has reviewed the Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs currently established at European level for the pesticide active substance indolylbutyric acid. Considering that this active substance is not authorised for use on edible crops within the European Union, that no MRLs are established by the Codex Alimentarius Commission, and that no import tolerances were notified to EFSA, residues of indolylbutyric acid are not expected to occur in any plant or animal commodity. Available data were also not sufficient to derive a residue definition or a limit of quantification (LOQ for enforcement against potential illegal uses.

  12. Reasoned opinion on the review of the existing maximum residue levels (MRLs for acetochlor according to Article 12 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available According to Article 12 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA has reviewed the Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs currently established at European level for the pesticide active substance acetochlor. Considering that this active substance is no longer authorised within the European Union, that no MRLs are established by the Codex Alimentarius Commission, and that no import tolerances were notified to EFSA, residues of acetochlor are not expected to occur in any plant or animal commodity. Available data were also not sufficient to derive a residue definition or an LOQ for enforcement against potential illegal uses.

  13. Reasoned opinion on the review of the existing maximum residue levels (MRLs for cyanamide according to Article 12 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available According to Article 12 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA has reviewed the Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs currently established at European level for the pesticide active substance cyanamide. Considering that this active substance is no longer authorised within the European Union, that no MRLs are established by the Codex Alimentarius Commission, and that no import tolerances were notified to EFSA, residues of cyanamide are not expected to occur in any plant or animal commodity. Available data were also not sufficient to derive a residue definition or an LOQ for enforcement against potential illegal uses.

  14. Reasoned opinion on the review of the existing maximum residue levels (MRLs for trifluralin according to Article 12 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available According to Article 12 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA has reviewed the Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs currently established at European level for the pesticide active substance trifluralin. Considering that this active substance is no longer authorised within the European Union, that no MRLs are established by the Codex Alimentarius Commission, and that no import tolerances were notified to EFSA, residues of trifluralin are not expected to occur in any plant or animal commodity. Available data were also not sufficient to derive a residue definition or an LOQ for enforcement against potential illegal uses.

  15. Reasoned opinion on the review of the existing maximum residue levels (MRLs for asulam according to Article 12 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available According to Article 12 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA has reviewed the Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs currently established at European level for the pesticide active substance asulam. Considering that this active substance is no longer authorised within the European Union, that no MRLs are established by the Codex Alimentarius Commission, and that no import tolerances were notified to EFSA, residues of asulam are not expected to occur in any plant or animal commodity. Available data were also not sufficient to derive a residue definition or an LOQ for enforcement against potential illegal uses.

  16. Reasoned opinion on the review of the existing maximum residue levels (MRLs for dicloran according to Article 12 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available According to Article 12 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA has reviewed the Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs currently established at European level for the pesticide active substance dicloran. Although this active substance is no longer authorised within the European Union, MRLs were established by the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CXLs. Based on the assessment of the available data, EFSA assessed the CXLs, and a consumer risk assessment was carried out. Some CXLs were found not to be adequately supported by data and, for some CXLs, a possible acute risk to consumers was also identified. Hence, further consideration by risk managers is needed.

  17. Reasoned opinion on the review of the existing maximum residue levels (MRLs for quinoclamine according to Article 12 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available According to Article 12 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA has reviewed the Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs currently established at European level for the pesticide active substance quinoclamine. Considering that this active substance is not authorised for use on edible crops within the European Union, that no MRLs are established by the Codex Alimentarius Commission, and that no import tolerances were notified to EFSA, residues of quinoclamine are not expected to occur in any plant or animal commodity. Available data were also not sufficient to derive a residue definition or an LOQ for enforcement against potential illegal uses.

  18. Reasoned opinion on the review of the existing maximum residue levels (MRLs for guazatine according to Article 12 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available According to Article 12 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA has reviewed the Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs currently established at European level for the pesticide active substance guazatine. Considering that this active substance is no longer authorised within the European Union, that no MRLs are established by the Codex Alimentarius Commission, and that no import tolerances were notified to EFSA, residues of guazatine are not expected to occur in any plant or animal commodity. Available data were also not sufficient to derive a residue definition or an LOQ for enforcement against potential illegal uses.

  19. Reasoned opinion on the review of the existing maximum residue levels (MRLs for propargite according to Article 12 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available According to Article 12 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA has reviewed the Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs currently established at European level for the pesticide active substance propargite. Although this active substance is no longer authorised within the European Union, MRLs were established by the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CXLs. Based on the assessment of the available data, EFSA assessed the CXLs. CXLs were found not to be adequately supported by data and a consumer risk assessment could not be carried out. Hence, further consideration by risk managers is needed.

  20. Reasoned opinion on the review of the existing maximum residue levels (MRLs for 1,3-dichloropropene according to Article 12 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available According to Article 12 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA has reviewed the Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs currently established at European level for the pesticide active substance 1,3-dichloropropene. Considering that this active substance is no longer authorised within the European Union, that no MRLs are established by the Codex Alimentarius Commission, and that no import tolerances were notified to EFSA, residues of 1,3-dichloropropene are not expected to occur in any plant or animal commodity. Available data were also not sufficient to derive an LOQ for enforcement against potential illegal uses.