WorldWideScience

Sample records for current article describes

  1. articles: Describing migration spatial structure

    OpenAIRE

    Andrei Rogers; Frans Willekens; James Raymer; Jani Little

    2002-01-01

    The age structure of a population is a fundamental concept in demography and is generally depicted in the form of an age pyramid. The spatial structure of an interregional system of origin-destination-specific migration streams is, however, a notion lacking a widely accepted definition. We offer a definition in this article, one that draws on the log-linear specification of the geographer's spatial interaction model. We illustrate our definition with observed migration data, we discuss extens...

  2. Articles with short titles describing the results are cited more often

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Paiva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate some features of article titles from open access journals and to assess the possible impact of these titles on predicting the number of article views and citations. METHODS: Research articles (n = 423, published in October 2008 from all Public Library of Science (PLoS journals and from 12 Biomed Central (BMC journals were evaluated. Publication metrics (views and citations were analyzed in December 2011. The titles were classified according to their contents, namely methods-describing titles and results-describing titles. The number of title characters, title typology, the use of a question mark, reference to a specific geographical region, and the use of a colon or a hyphen separating different ideas within a sentence were analyzed to identify predictors of views and citations. A logistic regression model was used to identify independent title characteristics that could predict citation rates. RESULTS: Short-titled articles had higher viewing and citation rates than those with longer titles. Titles containing a question mark, containing a reference to a specific geographical region, and that used a colon or a hyphen were associated with a lower number of citations. Articles with results-describing titles were cited more often than those with methods-describing titles. After multivariate analysis, only a low number of characters and title typology remained as predictors of the number of citations. CONCLUSIONS: Some features of article titles can help predict the number of article views and citation counts. Short titles presenting results or conclusions were independently associated with higher citation counts. The findings presented here could be used by authors, reviewers, and editors to maximize the impact of articles in the scientific community.

  3. Systematic review of articles describing experience and supports of individuals with autism enrolled in college and university programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelbar, Nicholas W; Smith, Isaac; Reichow, Brian

    2014-10-01

    The increase in the number of higher-functioning individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is likely to lead to an increased interest in postsecondary opportunities including degree-granting college and university programs. To provide an understanding of the current evidence-base for supporting individuals with ASD in higher education, this article reports the results of a systematic review of the literature concerning college students with ASD. Overall, 20 articles describing 69 individuals met the inclusion criteria. This small number of articles and participants indicates the scarcity of research on this topic and only two of these studies were experimental in nature. These studies described a video-self modeling intervention and a counseling intervention respectively. Eighteen "case studies" were also present in the literature that described difficulties ranging from anxiety to housing concerns. This review deliniates the limitation of our understanding of effective college programming for individuals with ASD.

  4. Describing current and potential markets for alternative-fuel vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-26

    Motor vehicles are a major source of greenhouse gases, and the rising numbers of motor vehicles and miles driven could lead to more harmful emissions that may ultimately affect the world`s climate. One approach to curtailing such emissions is to use, instead of gasoline, alternative fuels: LPG, compressed natural gas, or alcohol fuels. In addition to the greenhouse gases, pollutants can be harmful to human health: ozone, CO. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 authorized EPA to set National Ambient Air Quality Standards to control this. The Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) was the first new law to emphasize strengthened energy security and decreased reliance on foreign oil since the oil shortages of the 1970`s. EPACT emphasized increasing the number of alternative-fuel vehicles (AFV`s) by mandating their incremental increase of use by Federal, state, and alternative fuel provider fleets over the new few years. Its goals are far from being met; alternative fuels` share remains trivial, about 0.3%, despite gains. This report describes current and potential markets for AFV`s; it begins by assessing the total vehicle stock, and then it focuses on current use of AFV`s in alternative fuel provider fleets and the potential for use of AFV`s in US households.

  5. Teaching the Scientific Method Using Current News Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Laura K.; Mahan, Carolyn G.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a short (less than 50 minutes) activity using news articles from sources such as "Science Daily" to teach students the steps of the scientific method and the difference between primary and secondary literature sources. The flexibility in choosing news articles to examine allowed us to tailor the activity to the specific interests of…

  6. Media Articles Describing Advances in Scientific Research as a Vehicle for Student Engagement Fostering Climate Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassell, S. C.

    2014-12-01

    "Records of Global Climate Change" enables students to fulfill the science component of an undergraduate distribution requirement in "Critical Approaches" at IU Bloomington. The course draws students from all disciplines with varying levels of understanding of scientific approaches and often limited familiarity with climate issues. Its discussion sessions seek to foster scientific literacy via an alternating series of assignments focused on a combination of exercises that involve either examination and interpretation of on-line climate data or consideration and assessment of the scientific basis of new discoveries about climate change contained in recently published media articles. The final assignment linked to the discussion sessions requires students to review and summarize the topics discussed during the semester. Their answers provide direct evidence of newly acquired abilities to assimilate and evaluate scientific information on a range of topics related to climate change. In addition, student responses to an end-of-semester survey confirm that the vast majority considers that their knowledge and understanding of climate change was enhanced, and unsolicited comments note that the discussion sessions contributed greatly to this advancement. Many students remarked that the course's emphasis on examination of paleoclimate records helped their comprehension of the unprecedented nature of present-day climate trends. Others reported that their views on the significance of climate change had been transformed, and some commented that they now felt well equipped to engage in discussions about climate change because they were better informed about its scientific basis and facts.

  7. Enlivening basic-science learning with current journal articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresford, W A

    1996-01-01

    Pre-clinical medical students are often unconvinced that the basic sciences are clinically valuable. Also, they are hesitant about formulating ideas on their own from non-textbook sources. First-year medical students taking histology or neurobiology were persuaded to consult articles from the current biomedical literature. I set brief short-answer and labeled-sketch questions well before the course theoretical examinations, where the answers counted toward the score. The answers could only be found by reading in articles made available in the laboratory. The articles were chosen to display basic-science knowledge in action in clinical contexts. The questions offer an additional curriculum that can be steered toward, for example, concerns of family practice, mechanisms of common diseases, and topics of fast-increasing clinical importance.

  8. Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-06-12

    Jun 12, 2009 ... under his microscope at home is outlined and used throughout the article. The analyses conclude ... (vi) preimplantation DNA tests to be carried out on a polar body of an ovum, ..... In general, what you study under your own ...

  9. Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-12-01

    Dec 1, 2012 ... to publish results; and the disclosure of conflicts of interest.3 There ... citizens may not have access to basic medical services. Article 32 of the DoH ... these guidelines is compulsory under the direction of the Director-. General ...

  10. THE ARTICLE DESCRIBES HOW TO SECURE A HOUSE BEFORE A SLOPING TREE USING STANDARD EQUIPMENT BEFORE THE LIFT WILL COME

    OpenAIRE

    Popis, Janusz

    2009-01-01

    Статья описывает каким образом можно защитить дом от наклонившегося дерева во время ожидания на подъёмник при использовании стандартного оснащения первого пожарного автомобиля.The article describes how to secure a house before a sloping tree using standard equipment before the lift will come.

  11. Systematic Review of Articles Describing Experience and Supports of Individuals with Autism Enrolled in College and University Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelbar, Nicholas W.; Smith, Isaac; Reichow, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The increase in the number of higher-functioning individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is likely to lead to an increased interest in postsecondary opportunities including degree-granting college and university programs. To provide an understanding of the current evidence-base for supporting individuals with ASD in higher education, this…

  12. Application of hydrographic and surface current data to describe water properties in the Porsangerfjorden, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieszyńska, Agata; Białogrodzka, Jagoda; Yngve Børsheim, Knut; Stramska, Małgorzata; Jankowski, Andrzej

    2016-04-01

    This presentation is a part of the NORDFLUX project, and describes some of the results from experimental work carried out in 2014 in the Porsangerfjorden located in the area of the European Arctic. The fjord borders the Barents Sea. This is a region of high climatic sensitivity and our interest in the basin stemmed from this fact. One of our long-term goals is to develop an improved understanding of the undergoing changes and interactions between this fjord and the large-scale atmospheric and oceanic conditions. In present work we focus on data sets collected with High Frequency (HF) radars monitoring surface currents in the outer part of the Porsnagerfjorden. In our analysis we also use data on water salinity and temperature collected as part of the NORDFLUX experiment, and data from sea level and meteorological station located in Honningsvaag. Analysis of data sets enabled us to describe water salinity, temperature, density distributions and their variability. What is more, we have related aforementioned results to tides, meteorological conditions, and sea surface currents speed and directions. During the poster session the Author will present the schemes of water masses movement in the area of interest. This work was funded by the Norway Grants through the Polish-Norwegian Research Programme, National Centre for Research and Development (contract No. 201985). Project title: 'Application of in situ observations, high frequency radars, and ocean color, to study suspended matter, particulate carbon, and dissolved organic carbon fluxes in coastal waters of the Barents Sea'.

  13. Article Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    undergraduate students at an identified institution. Unstructured interviews ... consultancy, community service and administration. Priorities have to ... for clinicians as they become lecturers in higher education is challenging. The current forms ...

  14. Review Article: "The Lagrangian description of aperiodic flows: a case study of the Kuroshio Current"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mendoza

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews several recently developed Lagrangian tools and shows how their combined use succeeds in obtaining a detailed description of purely advective transport events in general aperiodic flows. In particular, because of the climate impact of ocean transport processes, we illustrate a 2-D application on altimeter data sets over the area of the Kuroshio Current, although the proposed techniques are general and applicable to arbitrary time dependent aperiodic flows. The first challenge for describing transport in aperiodical time dependent flows is obtaining a representation of the phase portrait where the most relevant dynamical features may be identified. areas that are related to confinement regions. This representation is accomplished by using global Lagrangian descriptors that when applied for instance to the altimeter data sets retrieve over the ocean surface a phase portrait where the geometry of interconnected dynamical systems is visible. The phase portrait picture is essential because it evinces which transport routes are acting on the whole flow. Once these routes are roughly recognised, it is possible to complete a detailed description by the direct computation of the finite time stable and unstable manifolds of special hyperbolic trajectories that act as organising centres of the flow.

  15. Open access to journal articles in oncology: current situation and citation impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, F; Sun, H; Walsh, T; Glenny, A-M; Worthington, H

    2017-10-01

    Recent years have seen numerous efforts and resources devoted to the development of open access (OA), but the current OA situation of the oncology literature remains unknown. We conducted this cross-sectional study to determine the current share and provision methods of OA in the field of oncology, identify predictors of OA status (OA versus non-OA), and study the association between OA and citation counts. PubMed was searched for oncology-related, peer-reviewed journal articles published in December 2014. Google, Google Scholar, PubMed, ResearchGate, OpenDOAR and OAIster were manually checked to assess the OA status of each included article. Citation data were extracted from Web of Science, Scopus and Google Scholar. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the OA proportion (primary outcome) and OA provision methods. Multivariable logistic regression and multilevel generalized linear model analyses were performed to study predictors of OA status and the association between OA and citation counts, respectively. In a random sample of 1000 articles, 912 were deemed eligible and therefore included. Of these, the full-texts of 530 articles (58.1%; 95% CI: 54.9-61.3) were freely available online: 314 (34.4%) were available from publishers ('Gold road' to OA), 424 (46.5%) were available via self-archiving ('Green road' to OA). According to multivariable regression analyses, impact factor, publisher type, language, research type, number of authors, continent of origin, and country income were significant predictors of articles' OA status; OA articles received a citation rate 1.24 times the incidence rate for non-OA articles (95% CI: 1.05-1.47; P = 0.012). Based on our sample, in the field of oncology, 42% of recent journal articles are behind the pay-wall (non-OA) 1 year after publication; the 'Green road' of providing OA is more common than the 'Gold road'; OA is associated with higher citation counts.

  16. Current uses of nanomaterials in biocidal products and treated articles in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackevica, Aiga; Revilla Besora, Pau; Brinch, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Product Regulation (BPR) lays out a list of requirements that manufacturers of biocidal products have to comply with before they can place their products on the market. It is not entirely clear which commercially available articles in the EU have been treated with or incorporate NMs to provide biocidal...... and discuss how they are currently regulated under the BPR. Even though the BPR already entails nanospecific provisions, correct labelling of biocidal products containing NMs is virtually non-existent. By using The Nanodatabase, it was possible to identify 88 biocidal products containing NMs available...

  17. Invited Hand Article: Current Concepts in Treatment of Fracture-Dislocations of the Proximal Interphalangeal Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Steven C.; Chung, Kevin C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Proximal interphalangeal joint fracture-dislocations are common injuries that require expedient and attentive treatment for the best outcomes. Management can range from protective splinting and early mobilization to complex operations. In this review, the current concepts surrounding the managment of these injuries are reviewed. Methods A literature review was performed of all recent articles pertaining to proximal interphalangeal joint fracture-dislocation, with specific focus on middle phalangeal base fractures. Where appropriate, older articles, or articles on closely related injury types were included for completeness. The methodology and outcomes of each study were analyzed. Results When small avulsion fractures are present, good results are routinely obtained with reduction and early mobilization of stable injuries. Strategies for management of the unstable dorsal fracture-dislocation have evolved over time. To provide early stability, a variety of techniques have evolved, including closed, percutaneous, external, and internal fixation methods. Although each of these techniques can be successful in skilled hands, none have been subjected to rigorous, prospective, comparative trials. Volar dislocations fare less well, with significant loss of motion in many studies. Pilon fractures represent the most complicated injuries, and return of normal motion is not expected. Conclusion The best outcomes can be achieved by (1) establishing enough stability to allow early motion, (2) restoring gliding joint motion rather than non-congruent motion, and (3) restoring the articular surface congruity when possible. Although the majority of literature on this topic consists of expert opinion and retrospective case series, the consensus appears to favor less invasive techniques whenever possible. PMID:25415092

  18. Evidence-based orthodontics. Current statistical trends in published articles in one journal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Scott V; Chudasama, Dipak N; Rinchuse, Donald J

    2010-09-01

    To ascertain the number, type, and overall usage of statistics in American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial (AJODO) articles for 2008. These data were then compared to data from three previous years: 1975, 1985, and 2003. The frequency and distribution of statistics used in the AJODO original articles for 2008 were dichotomized into those using statistics and those not using statistics. Statistical procedures were then broadly divided into descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation, range, percentage) and inferential statistics (t-test, analysis of variance). Descriptive statistics were used to make comparisons. In 1975, 1985, 2003, and 2008, AJODO published 72, 87, 134, and 141 original articles, respectively. The percentage of original articles using statistics was 43.1% in 1975, 75.9% in 1985, 94.0% in 2003, and 92.9% in 2008; original articles using statistics stayed relatively the same from 2003 to 2008, with only a small 1.1% decrease. The percentage of articles using inferential statistical analyses was 23.7% in 1975, 74.2% in 1985, 92.9% in 2003, and 84.4% in 2008. Comparing AJODO publications in 2003 and 2008, there was an 8.5% increase in the use of descriptive articles (from 7.1% to 15.6%), and there was an 8.5% decrease in articles using inferential statistics (from 92.9% to 84.4%).

  19. New Lagrangian tools for describing transport in aperiodic time dependent flows: a case study of the Kuroshio current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancho, Ana M.; Mendoza, Carolina

    2009-11-01

    In recent years there has been a lot of progress in the application of dynamical systems concepts to the description of transport in oceanic flows. In these flows the classical dynamical system theory does not apply since they are aperiodic and finite-time defined. Recently, for describing these flows a new definition of distinguished trajectory has been proposed (Madrid & Mancho, Chaos, 2009). Distinguished trajectories act as organizing centres of the geometrical template of aperiodic time-dependent flows, like fixed points and periodic orbits do in time independent or periodic flows. The computation of distinguished trajectories makes use of a function M of which we show contains a lot of Lagrangian information. In this presentation I will discuss how the visualization of this function M, allows identifying relevant Lagrangian features at a glance. In particular we report an application to real altimetry data taken from satellite in the area of the Kuroshio current. The function M also determines the stable and unstable subspaces of the distinguished hyperbolic trajectories which are tangent to the invariant manifolds. From the computation of stable and unstable manifolds we report an accurate description of transport routes in this region.

  20. Current uses of nanomaterials in biocidal products and treated articles in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackevica, Aiga; Revilla Besora, Pau; Brinch, Anna;

    2016-01-01

    Product Regulation (BPR) lays out a list of requirements that manufacturers of biocidal products have to comply with before they can place their products on the market. It is not entirely clear which commercially available articles in the EU have been treated with or incorporate NMs to provide biocidal...

  1. Current Reading: A Scholarly and Pedagogical Bibliography of Articles and Books, Recent and Old, On Censorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donelson, Kenneth L., Ed.

    1969-01-01

    The 75 books and articles listed in this bibliography are divided into six categories: "Freedom and Censorship,""Histories of Censorship,""General Comments on Censorship,""Teaching and Censorship,""Sex and Censorship," and "A Brief and Basic Booklist for Readers Who Hate Long Bibliographies." The publication dates of the entries range from 1913…

  2. Review article: remission rates achievable by current therapies for inflammatory bowel disease

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background and Aim: To review remission rates with current medical treatments for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Methods We searched MEDLINE (source PUBMED, 1966 to January, 2011). Results Induction and maintenance of remission was observed in 20% (range, 9-29.5%) and 53% (range, 36.8-59.6%) of ulcerative colitis (UC) patients treated with oral 5-ASA derivatives. Induction of remission was noted in 52% (range, 48-58%) of Crohn?s disease (CD) patients and 54% of UC...

  3. [Active learning strategies have proved effective in changing behaviours and encouraging continuing professional development (CPD) in nursing. Narrative pedagogy in particular has demonstrated its usefulness in this regard. This article describes narrative pedagogy through the lens of learning activities conducted in the classroom and in the course of practicum and CPD experiences. It also examines the challenges associated with implementing such activities and how to meet them. This includes not determining the content of activities completely in advance, specifying that the content to be discussed is not entirely known, that additional research could be required and that different options are to be explored, allowing students to express themselves freely, and tolerating moments of silence. Current and future teachers are urged to experiment with this novel teaching and learning approach that is grounded in phenomenological research and shows strong potential for the development of nursing science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélanger, Louise; Porlier, Marie-Josée

    2017-08-17

    Active learning strategies have proved effective in changing behaviours and encouraging continuing professional development (CPD) in nursing. Narrative pedagogy in particular has demonstrated its usefulness in this regard. This article describes narrative pedagogy through the lens of learning activities conducted in the classroom and in the course of practicum and CPD experiences. It also examines the challenges associated with implementing such activities and how to meet them. This includes not determining the content of activities completely in advance, specifying that the content to be discussed is not entirely known, that additional research could be required and that different options are to be explored, allowing students to express themselves freely, and tolerating moments of silence. Current and future teachers are urged to experiment with this novel teaching and learning approach that is grounded in phenomenological research and shows strong potential for the development of nursing science.

  4. Comparison of SAR and induced current densities in adults and children exposed to electromagnetic fields from electronic article surveillance devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Búrdalo, M.; Sanchis, A.; Martín, A.; Villar, R.

    2010-02-01

    Electronic article surveillance (EAS) devices are widely used in most stores as anti-theft systems. In this work, the compliance with international guidelines in the human exposure to these devices is analysed by using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. Two sets of high resolution numerical phantoms of different size (REMCOM/Hershey and Virtual Family), simulating adult and child bodies, are exposed to a 10 MHz pass-by panel-type EAS consisting of two overlapping current-carrying coils. Two different relative positions between the EAS and the body (frontal and lateral exposures), which imply the exposure of different parts of the body at different distances, have been considered. In all cases, induced current densities in tissues of the central nervous system and specific absorption rates (SARs) are calculated to be compared with the limits from the guidelines. Results show that induced current densities are lower in the case of adult models as compared with those of children in both lateral and frontal exposures. Maximum SAR values calculated in lateral exposure are significantly lower than those calculated in frontal exposure, where the EAS-body distance is shorter. Nevertheless, in all studied cases, with an EAS driving current of 4 A rms, maximum induced current and SAR values are below basic restrictions.

  5. 'Limits and current knowledge of Pick's disease: its differential diagnosis'. A translation of the 1957 Delay, Brion, Escourolle article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibodeau, Marie-Pierre; Miller, Bruce L

    2013-01-01

    This article is a translation of a French article by Delay, Brion, and Escourolle. In a seminal article published in French in 1957 these authors summarized the work of previous researchers and reviewed a wide sample of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) cases formerly referred to as Pick's disease. The authors were among the first to define the critical clinical and anatomical differences between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and FTD and they even delineated distinctive FTD subtypes making possible the advances that now constitute the base of our studies. Reviewing their work allows us to appreciate the progress research has made.

  6. Specification of laboratory animal use in scientific articles: current low detail in the journals' instructions for authors and some proposals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro, V

    2005-09-01

    The scientific article communicates results of research to other investigators; therefore, it must contain a complete description of the experiment to help other researchers when designing their future investigations. However, poorly detailed data on laboratory animal use is given in published articles. Despite the well-known and important contribution of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) to standardize scientific writing and submission of manuscripts to biomedical journals, no specific instructions on the reporting of animal use are given in the ICMJE Uniform Requirements and, therefore, most journals do not detail this to the authors. Individual efforts from groups like the Working Committee for the Biological Characterizations of Laboratory Animals, the Boyd Group, or the Committee on Publication Ethics are commendable. These contributions should be incorporated into the ICMJE Uniform Requirements and, later, into the Instructions for Authors of peer-reviewed journals. This would be the only efficient way to instruct authors on how to report laboratory animal use in their submitted manuscripts. The present article relates some proposals for helping authors when reporting animal use in scientific articles. These proposals are not only based on previous guidelines for animal specifications, but also on Instructions for Authors from journals specialized in Laboratory Animal Science. These proposals are classified into major and minor issues, and they are located in the corresponding parts of the article, as defined by the Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion (IMRAD) method. (c) 2005 Prous Science. All rights reserved.

  7. Anniversary Article--Interactional Feedback in Second Language Teaching and Learning: A Synthesis and Analysis of Current Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassaji, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    The role of interactional feedback has long been of interest to both second language acquisition researchers and teachers and has continued to be the object of intensive empirical and theoretical inquiry. In this article, I provide a synthesis and analysis of recent research and developments in this area and their contributions to second language…

  8. Student Reviews of Selected Current Articles in Adolescent Psychology: Academics, Developmental Issues, Psychopathology, Sexual Behavior, Substance Abuse, and Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, H. Lee, Ed.; Sirmans, Amanda, Ed.

    Critical annotations of articles written in 1988 or 1989 and selected from "PSYCHSCAN: Clinical Psychology" are presented in this document. The annotations were written by college students in an undergraduate adolescent psychology class. The annotations are clustered under the following topics: (1) academics, including learning disabilities, sleep…

  9. Volume 8, Issue2 (April/June 2005)Articles in the Current Issue:Research ArticleBeyond NIMBYism: towards an integrated framework for understanding public perceptions of wind energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine-Wright, Patrick

    2005-04-01

    It is widely recognised that public acceptability often poses a barrier towards renewable energy development. This article reviews existing research on public perceptions of wind energy, where opposition is typically characterized by the NIMBY (not in my back yard) concept. The objectives of the article are to provide a critical assessment of past research and an integrated, multidimensional framework to guide future work. Six distinct strands of research are identified, summarized and critiqued: public support for switching from conventional energy sources to wind energy; aspects of turbines associated with negative perceptions; the impact of physical proximity to turbines; acceptance over time of wind farms; NIMBYism as an explanation for negative perceptions; and, finally, the impact of local involvement on perceptions. Research across these strands is characterized by opinion poll studies of general beliefs and case studies of perceptions of specific developments. In both cases, research is fragmented and has failed to adequately explain, rather than merely describe, perceptual processes. The article argues for more theoretically informed empirical research, grounded in social science concepts and methods. A multidimensional framework is proposed that goes beyond the NIMBY label and integrates previous findings with social and environmental psychological theory. Copyright

  10. Honorary authorship epidemic in scholarly publications? How the current use of citation-based evaluative metrics make (pseudo)honorary authors from honest contributors of every multi-author article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Jozsef

    2013-08-01

    The current use of citation-based metrics to evaluate the research output of individual researchers is highly discriminatory because they are uniformly applied to authors of single-author articles as well as contributors of multi-author papers. In the latter case, these quantitative measures are counted, as if each contributor were the single author of the full article. In this way, each and every contributor is assigned the full impact-factor score and all the citations that the article has received. This has a multiplication effect on each contributor's citation-based evaluative metrics of multi-author articles, because the more contributors an article has, the more undeserved credit is assigned to each of them. In this paper, I argue that this unfair system could be made fairer by requesting the contributors of multi-author articles to describe the nature of their contribution, and to assign a numerical value to their degree of relative contribution. In this way, we could create a contribution-specific index of each contributor for each citation metric. This would be a strong disincentive against honorary authorship and publication cartels, because it would transform the current win-win strategy of accepting honorary authors in the byline into a zero-sum game for each contributor.

  11. Pharmacobezoars described and demystified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Serge-Emile

    2011-02-01

    A bezoar is a concretion of foreign material that forms and persists in the gastrointestinal tract. Bezoars are classified by their material origins. Phytobezoars contain plant material, trichobezoars contain hair, lactobezoars contain milk proteins, and pharmacobezoars contain pharmaceutical products. Tablets, suspensions, and even insoluble drug delivery vehicles can, on rare occasions, and sometimes under specific circumstances, form pharmacobezoars. The goal of this review is to catalog and examine all of the available reports in the English language medical literature that convincingly describe the formation and management of pharmacobezoars. Articles included in this review were identified by performing searches using the terms "bezoar," "pharmacobezoar," and "concretion" in the following databases: OVID MEDLINE, PubMed, and JSTOR. The complete MEDLINE and JSTOR holdings were included in the search without date ranges. The results were limited to English language publications. Articles that described nonmedication bezoars were not included in the review. Articles describing phytobezoars, food bezoars, fecal impactions, illicit drug packet ingestions, enteral feeding material bezoars, and hygroscopic diet aid bezoars were excluded. The bibliographic references within the articles already accumulated were then examined in order to gather additional pharmacobezoar cases. The cases are grouped by pharmaceutical agent that formed the bezoar, and groupings are arranged in alphabetical order. Discussions and conclusions specific to each pharmaceutical agent are included in that agent's subheading. Patterns and themes that emerged in the review of the assembled case reports are reviewed and presented in a more concise format. Pharmacobezoars form under a wide variety of circumstances and in a wide variety of patients. They are difficult to diagnose reliably. Rules for suspecting, diagnosing, and properly managing a pharmacobezoar are highly dependent on the

  12. Communications article

    KAUST Repository

    Fariborzi, Hossein

    2017-07-20

    Seamless, covert communications using a communications system integrated or incorporated within an article of clothing is described. In one embodiment, the communications system is integrated or incorporated into a shoe insole and includes a haptic feedback mechanism, a communications module, a flexible pressure sensor, and a battery. The communications module includes a wireless communications module for wireless communications, a wired interface for wired communications, a microcontroller, and a battery charge controller. The flexible pressure sensor can be actuated by an individual\\'s toe, for example, and communication between two communications nodes can be achieved using coded signals sent by individuals using a combination of long and short presses on the pressure sensor. In response to the presses, wireless communications modules can transmit and receive coded signals based on the presses.

  13. Publishing International Counseling Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenshil, Thomas H.; Amundson, Norman E.

    2011-01-01

    This article begins with a rationale for including international articles in the "Journal of Counseling & Development." Then, 2 general categories of international articles are described. First are articles that provide a general overview of counseling in a particular country. The 2nd category is more general and might involve international…

  14. ARTICLES RECEIVED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    The following articles have been submitted for possible publication in Teaching English in China. For reasons of space or priority they have not been able to be included. If you are interested in further information about an article please contact the author direct at the address given below.

  15. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abundant component of the human leucocyte population and although essential for host .... ORIGINAL ARTICLES kinase,'6 an important enzyme in the signal transduction ... neutrophils from two different subjects. FMLP (!-)and PAF (¥).

  16. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. Cannabis and other drug use among trauma patients in three ... Department of Psychology, Stellenbosch University, W Cape. Charles D H ..... of cannabis and methaqualone on cognitive or psychomotor skills, including.

  17. A current reader's response to the article of 50 years ago by Karpman, B. (1949): "The principles and methods of objective psychotherapy".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luborsky, L

    2000-07-01

    The first aim is to describe the psychotherapy of 1949 in the light of today's psychotherapies. The old psychotherapy is suited to treating severely ill patients. It does not use free association, but rather is focused on current problems. It uses dreams, yet it also uses homework and bibliotherapy. The second aim is to critique the treatment. Consistent with its era. it does not make use of medications, and there is an absence of references to psychotherapy research, which was then just starting. The treatment relies over-heavily on the authority of the therapist. A third aim is to describe the changes in our field in the past 50 years and examine the predictions for the future. Although the treatment is called objective psychotherapy, it does not make use of the most up-to-date means of measuring accuracy of interpretations, such as the Core Conflictual Relationship Theme (CCRT) method and other methods like it.

  18. New Described Dermatological Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müzeyyen Gönül

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many advances in dermatology have been made in recent years. In the present review article, newly described disorders from the last six years are presented in detail. We divided these reports into different sections, including syndromes, autoinflammatory diseases, tumors, and unclassified disease. Syndromes included are “circumferential skin creases Kunze type” and “unusual type of pachyonychia congenita or a new syndrome”; autoinflammatory diseases include “chronic atypical neutrophilic dermatosis with lipodystrophy and elevated temperature (CANDLE syndrome,” “pyoderma gangrenosum, acne, and hidradenitis suppurativa (PASH syndrome,” and “pyogenic arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum, acne, and hidradenitis suppurativa (PAPASH syndrome”; tumors include “acquired reactive digital fibroma,” “onychocytic matricoma and onychocytic carcinoma,” “infundibulocystic nail bed squamous cell carcinoma,” and “acral histiocytic nodules”; unclassified disorders include “saurian papulosis,” “symmetrical acrokeratoderma,” “confetti-like macular atrophy,” and “skin spicules,” “erythema papulosa semicircularis recidivans.”

  19. Laminate article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert K.; Paranthaman, Mariappan; Chirayil, Thomas G.; Lee, Dominic F.; Goyal, Amit; Feenstra, Roeland

    2002-01-01

    A laminate article comprises a substrate and a biaxially textured (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer over the substrate, wherein 0article can include a layer of YBCO over the (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer. A layer of CeO.sub.2 between the YBCO layer and the (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer can also be include. Further included can be a layer of YSZ between the CeO.sub.2 layer and the (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer. The substrate can be a biaxially textured metal, such as nickel. A method of forming the laminate article is also disclosed.

  20. REVIEW ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1997-01-26

    Jan 26, 1997 ... review article, the authors will also refer to other relevant works in .... could tear down the entire politics not just regimes, ushering in civil ... powers are interested in the maintenance of status quo, which is the precondition for.

  1. ARTICLES RECEIVED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    The following articles have been submitted for possible publication in TEIC.For reasons of space ofpriority they have not been able to be included.If you are interested in further information about anarticle please contact the author directly at the address given below(if address given).

  2. ARTICLES RECEIVED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    The following articles have been submitted for possible publication in TEIC.For reasons of space orpriority they have not been able to be included.If you are interested in further information about anarticle please contact the author directly at the address given below (if address given).

  3. Research Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAMSUNG

    2016-06-05

    Jun 5, 2016 ... ... in this field have been still done neither in our country nor in abroad. In this article, we try to study LSF structures from the design and implementation ... production capacity of steel in the country and advantages such as high ...

  4. Research Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-01-01

    Jan 1, 2017 ... Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran. 3 ... Sorbic acid and sodium nitrate are currently used as food additives especially in ..... A trend of a molecule to release its proton is defined as acidity constant (PKa).

  5. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    improved diagnosis and management of these disorders, as ... Finally, 's' is for signs on physical ... evaluates and provides treatment for patients with psychiatric ..... Do you have a clear idea what clinical identity is described by the term ...

  6. _ ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    well as high-risk behaviour and attitudes towards HIY, in a group of South ... company. Outcome measures. HlV-related knowledge, attitudes and practices based on .... considered to. be representative of the current make-up of new recruits in the ... Eleven respondents (3.3%) noted that they were uncertain of any influence ...

  7. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    consisted of 242 children with reported asthma or multiple asthma symptoms on ... found: (f) to increase the use of current asthma treatment guidelines by ... This study was part of a larger project examining the prevalence of ... aged 7 - 8 years) on the class lists of the sample schools. The .... Exercise wheeze. TIght chest.

  8. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes the South African cause-of-death profile in 1996, the latest ... cause-of-death data being for the year 1996/ although Statistics South Africa is now ... A large proportion of deaths (14.7%) were from ill-defined natural causes.

  9. Research Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-18

    Jun 18, 2016 ... SamaUnite, Sari Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sari, Iran ... Author Correspondence, e-mail: Ngn.march@gmail.com ... sustainable architecture design describes architecture as full knowledge ... This study aiming to evaluate the ... attempted to study and analyze a sample of using Atrium in Bank of Hong ...

  10. Database Citation in Full Text Biomedical Articles

    OpenAIRE

    Şenay Kafkas; Jee-Hyub Kim; Johanna R. McEntyre

    2013-01-01

    Molecular biology and literature databases represent essential infrastructure for life science research. Effective integration of these data resources requires that there are structured cross-references at the level of individual articles and biological records. Here, we describe the current patterns of how database entries are cited in research articles, based on analysis of the full text Open Access articles available from Europe PMC. Focusing on citation of entries in the European Nucleoti...

  11. Review article

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsdal, M A; Krarup, H; Sand, J M B

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nearly 45% of all deaths are associated with chronic fibroproliferative diseases, of which the primary characteristic is altered remodelling of the extracellular matrix. A major difficulty in developing anti-fibrotic therapies is the lack of accurate and established techniques...... to estimate dynamics of fibrosis, regression or progression, in response to therapy. AIM: One of the most pressing needs in modern clinical chemistry for fibroproliferative disorders is the development of biomarkers for early diagnosis, prognosis, and early efficacy for the benefit of patients...... and to facilitate improved drug development. The aim of this article was to review the serological biomarkers that may assist in early diagnosis of patients, separate fast from slow- or nonprogressors, and possibly assist in drug development for fibroproliferative diseases, exemplified by liver fibrosis. The lack...

  12. Original article The risk of muscle dysmorphia and the perception of change in retrospective, current and ideal self-image – preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Mącik

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background A specific type of causes of extended training and gym exercises is muscle dysmorphia. People with this disorder think that their current appearance is not satisfactory, and the focus on the perceived defect is great. The perceived defect usually is connected with body and muscle mass and body shape. According to the conceptual model of dysmorphia proposed by Grieve (2007, the aim of the study was to verify the thesis that the risk of muscle dysmorphia is associated with the negative self-image generalized based on physical appearance. Participants and procedure Twelve women and 18 men, fulfilling the criteria of exercise addiction according to Pope, filled out the ACL scale, answering the questions concerning what kind of person they were before training, who they are now and what kind of person they would like to be. Also, they answered freely the questions concerning their feelings about training. Results A significant difference between perceived retrospective and current self-image was observed. The people examined became, in their opinion, more self-confident, more dominating and independent, and they described themselves in more positive categories. However, there still is relatively a lot of aggression and anxiety. The analysis of the ideal self-image indicates that the presented image performs – at least partly – the defence mechanism role. This is also confirmed by the analysis of the statements of the subjects examined, especially the question about the benefits resulting from the training. Conclusions The results confirm the role of the negative self-image in the risk of muscle dysmorphia. The exercises change self-assessment, but they do not solve the problems that were the reason for it. The characteristics of these problems in further research will facilitate therapy planning.

  13. Describe Your Favorite Teacher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, Isaac; Dill, Vicky

    1993-01-01

    A third grader describes Ms. Gonzalez, his favorite teacher, who left to accept a more lucrative teaching assignment. Ms. Gonzalez' butterflies unit covered everything from songs about social butterflies to paintings of butterfly wings, anatomy studies, and student haiku poems and biographies. Students studied biology by growing popcorn plants…

  14. Simple Waveforms, Simply Described

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John G.

    2008-01-01

    Since the first Lazarus Project calculations, it has been frequently noted that binary black hole merger waveforms are 'simple.' In this talk we examine some of the simple features of coalescence and merger waveforms from a variety of binary configurations. We suggest an interpretation of the waveforms in terms of an implicit rotating source. This allows a coherent description, of both the inspiral waveforms, derivable from post-Newtonian(PN) calculations, and the numerically determined merger-ringdown. We focus particularly on similarities in the features of various Multipolar waveform components Generated by various systems. The late-time phase evolution of most L these waveform components are accurately described with a sinple analytic fit. We also discuss apparent relationships among phase and amplitude evolution. Taken together with PN information, the features we describe can provide an approximate analytic description full coalescence wavefoRms. complementary to other analytic waveforns approaches.

  15. Blogs & Sponsored Articles

    OpenAIRE

    Sabat, Fabien

    2012-01-01

    I wrote this thesis to deepen my knowledge about the sponsored articles' market. Indeed, I'm working for one year in a company which is selling sponsored articles on blogs to announcers, it's why I decided to focus on the blogosphere to understand how its rising influence allowed the apparition of the sponsored articles' market. Moreover, I tried to propose solutions to improve the performance of my company on this market. In this paper, I describe what a blog is, how is it possible to classi...

  16. How Mathematics Describes Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teklu, Abraham

    2017-01-01

    The circle of life is something we have all heard of from somewhere, but we don't usually try to calculate it. For some time we have been working on analyzing a predator-prey model to better understand how mathematics can describe life, in particular the interaction between two different species. The model we are analyzing is called the Holling-Tanner model, and it cannot be solved analytically. The Holling-Tanner model is a very common model in population dynamics because it is a simple descriptor of how predators and prey interact. The model is a system of two differential equations. The model is not specific to any particular set of species and so it can describe predator-prey species ranging from lions and zebras to white blood cells and infections. One thing all these systems have in common are critical points. A critical point is a value for both populations that keeps both populations constant. It is important because at this point the differential equations are equal to zero. For this model there are two critical points, a predator free critical point and a coexistence critical point. Most of the analysis we did is on the coexistence critical point because the predator free critical point is always unstable and frankly less interesting than the coexistence critical point. What we did is consider two regimes for the differential equations, large B and small B. B, A, and C are parameters in the differential equations that control the system where B measures how responsive the predators are to change in the population, A represents predation of the prey, and C represents the satiation point of the prey population. For the large B case we were able to approximate the system of differential equations by a single scalar equation. For the small B case we were able to predict the limit cycle. The limit cycle is a process of the predator and prey populations growing and shrinking periodically. This model has a limit cycle in the regime of small B, that we solved for

  17. Spatial distribution of superconducting and charge-density-wave order parameters in cuprates and its influence on the quasiparticle tunnel current (Review Article)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabovich, Alexander M.; Voitenko, Alexander I.

    2016-10-01

    The state of the art concerning tunnel measurements of energy gaps in cuprate oxides has been analyzed. A detailed review of the relevant literature is made, and original results calculated for the quasiparticle tunnel current J(V) between a metallic tip and a disordered d-wave superconductor partially gapped by charge density waves (CDWs) are reported, because it is this model of high-temperature superconductors that becomes popular owing to recent experiments in which CDWs were observed directly. The current was calculated suggesting the scatter of both the superconducting and CDW order parameters due to the samples' intrinsic inhomogeneity. It was shown that peculiarities in the current-voltage characteristics inherent to the case of homogeneous superconducting material are severely smeared, and the CDW-related features transform into experimentally observed peak-dip-hump structures. Theoretical results were used to fit data measured for YBa2Cu3O7-δ and Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ. The fitting demonstrated a good qualitative agreement between the experiment and model calculations. The analysis of the energy gaps in high-Tc superconductors is important both per se and as a tool to uncover the nature of superconductivity in cuprates not elucidated so far despite of much theoretical effort and experimental progress.

  18. Review Article: Multi-criteria decision making for flood risk management: a survey of the current state-of-the-art

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brito, M. M.; Evers, M.

    2015-11-01

    This paper provides a review of Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) applications to flood risk management, seeking to highlight trends and identify research gaps. Totally, 128 peer-reviewed papers published from 1995 to June 2015 were systematically analysed and classified into the following application areas: (1) ranking of alternatives for flood mitigation, (2) reservoir flood control, (3) susceptibility, (4) hazard, (5) vulnerability, (6) risk, (7) coping capacity, and (8) emergency management. Additionally, the articles were categorized based on the publication year, MCDM method, whether they were or were not carried out in a participatory process, and if uncertainty and sensitivity analysis were performed. Results showed that the number of flood MCDM publications has exponentially grown during this period, with over 82 % of all papers published since 2009. The Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was the most popular technique, followed by Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to an Ideal Solution (TOPSIS), and Simple Additive Weighting (SAW). Although there is greater interest on MCDM, uncertainty analysis remains an issue and is seldom applied in flood-related studies. In addition, participation of multiple stakeholders has been generally fragmented, focusing on particular stages of the decision-making process, especially on the definition of criteria weights. Based on the survey, some suggestions for further investigation are provided.

  19. Trends in Current Tobacco Use, Smoking Rates and Quit Attempts among Saudi Population during Periods of 17 Years (1996-2012: Narrative Review Article.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid M Almutairi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the causes behind increase trends in smoking and extent of tobacco use in Saudi Arabia. We also explored the issues related to and its impact tobacco control research and policy in the Kingdom.Data were collected from various published articles, public data based such as WHO, Geneva and CDC Atlanta. Data were also obtained from surveys conducted by various institutions under The Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS for high school students and Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS for medical student. Tobacco importation data and death rates were estimated by various International Organizations.Tobacco importation in Saudi Arabia increased from 1996 to 2012. The proportion of smokers in the KSA almost doubled especially in males from 21% in 1996 to 37% in 2012. Mortality attributable to tobacco in the KSA was estimated to account for 280, 000 premature deaths over the same period (without accounting for smuggled tobacco. The economic burden of tobacco consumption over the last 10 years (2001-2010 in the KSA was 20.5 billion US dollars (based on 2011 prices. Anti-tobacco measures in KSA have been reinforced by the enactment of anti-tobacco laws and collaboration among different government agencies and ministries.If effective tobacco control strategies are not enacted, serious consequences, increasing premature mortality rates among them, will continue to threaten the KSA.

  20. Recompressed exfoliated graphite articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhamu, Aruna; Shi, Jinjun; Guo, Jiusheng; Jang, Bor Z

    2013-08-06

    This invention provides an electrically conductive, less anisotropic, recompressed exfoliated graphite article comprising a mixture of (a) expanded or exfoliated graphite flakes; and (b) particles of non-expandable graphite or carbon, wherein the non-expandable graphite or carbon particles are in the amount of between about 3% and about 70% by weight based on the total weight of the particles and the expanded graphite flakes combined; wherein the mixture is compressed to form the article having an apparent bulk density of from about 0.1 g/cm.sup.3 to about 2.0 g/cm.sup.3. The article exhibits a thickness-direction conductivity typically greater than 50 S/cm, more typically greater than 100 S/cm, and most typically greater than 200 S/cm. The article, when used in a thin foil or sheet form, can be a useful component in a sheet molding compound plate used as a fuel cell separator or flow field plate. The article may also be used as a current collector for a battery, supercapacitor, or any other electrochemical cell.

  1. Selected Current Acquisitions and Articles from Periodicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-01

    ROOSEVELT FAMILY. Collier, Peter. The Roosevelts : an American saga . New York Simon & Schuster, c1994. E747 .C66 1994 RULE OF THE ROAD AT SEA. Smith...A World Without Hegemony. Pakistan Horizon 46:9-16 Jul-Oct 󈨡. Holmes, Kim R. The New Twilight Struggle: Freedom and Power in the Post-Cold War Era...New World Order: The Clinton Administration and Foreign Policy in 1993. International Relations 12:109-127 Apr 󈨢. Holmes, Kim R. The New Twilight

  2. Teaching the English Article System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinnert, Carol; Hansen, Mark

    An effective, systematic approach to teaching English articles in English as a second language instruction is described, with specific exercises using the approach presented. Background information on count and non-count nouns and determiners in English is outlined. Four principles underlying the choice of definite or indefinite articles in…

  3. The status of Leptopelis barbouri Ahl, 1929 and eleven other nomina of the current tree-frog genus Leptopelis (Arthroleptidae) described from East Africa, with a redescription of Leptopelis grandiceps Ahl, 1929.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvoždík, Václav; Tillack, Frank; Menegon, Michele; Loader, Simon P

    2014-04-28

    An investigation of name-bearing types and other relevant type specimens of twelve nominal Leptopelis taxa described from or distributed in the Eastern Arc Mountains in East Africa was carried out. Our aim was to clarify their status and where necessary revise respective nomina. We suggest several nomenclatural and taxonomic actions: 1) Leptopelis barbouri Ahl, 1929 is transferred to the synonymy of Leptopelis flavomaculatus (Günther, 1864) as a junior subjective synonym; 2) Leptopelis grandiceps Ahl, 1929 is resurrected from the synonymy of Leptopelis uluguruensis Barbour & Loveridge, 1928 as a valid species conforming to the tree frogs which have been known as 'L. barbouri' and a lectotype is designated; 3) Leptopelis usambarae Ahl, 1929 is transferred from the synonymy of L. uluguruensis Barbour & Loveridge, 1928 to the synonymy of L. grandiceps Ahl, 1929 as a subjective synonym; 4) a lectotype of Leptopelis amaniensis Ahl, 1929 (synonym of L. uluguruensis), Hylambates johnstoni Boulenger, 1897 (synonym of L. flavomaculatus) and Leptopelis signifer Ahl, 1929 (synonym of L. vermiculatus) is designated to stabilize identity of the nomina; and 5) the type locality of Leptopelis martiensseni Ahl, 1929 and Leptopelis tanganus Ahl, 1929 is corrected.

  4. Chinese Modern Article Reading in College Entrance Examination:Current Situation and Reform%高考语文现代文阅读:现状与改革

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾之川

    2014-01-01

    Carrying out the research on Chinese modern article reading in college entrance examination could realize the mutual improvement of Chinese exams and Chinese course in middle school. The research could also promote the refinement of Chinese textbook compilation, increase the practical level of modern article teaching in middle school and improve the validity of modern article reading test. We need to balance the proportion of modern article, literature article and practical article in current college entrance exam; emphasize the evaluation of students’creative thinking ability;and complete the technique of composing reflection questions. Focusing on the last point above, we should add the evaluation of extra-curriculum reading ability and reading strategies, as well as widen the types of reading texts in exams.%开展高考语文现代文阅读研究,可以实现语文高考与中学语文课程的良性互动,促进语文教材编写进一步优化,增强中学现代文阅读教学的适用性,提高现代文阅读能力的考查效度。目前的高考现代文阅读,文学类阅读与实用类阅读考查不相匹配,在考查学生创新思维能力方面有待加强,探究题命制技术有待进一步完善。因此,在试卷结构上应尽快解决文学类与实用类不相匹配的问题,在考查目标上应更加强调考查创造性思维能力,在考查内容上应增加课外阅读与阅读方法的考查,在选材上则应扩大阅读文本类型。

  5. Selected Archery Articles. Sports Articles Reprint Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Margaret L., Ed.

    This is a collection of selected articles from "DGWS (Division for Girls and Women's Sports) Archery Guides" and the "Journal of Health, Physical Education, and Recreation." Included are materials on the historical background of archery, the selection and care of equipment, methods for improving skills at all levels, safety rules, archery…

  6. Clubfoot: An Orthopaedic Surgeon Describes Clubfoot and Current Treatment Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Michael

    2007-01-01

    As an orthopaedic surgeon who has treated numerous cases of clubfoot in his career, the author knows that it takes exceptional parents to deal with the challenges of having a child born with a clubfoot. However, it should be noted that a clubfoot diagnosis does not mean a life of pain, deformity, and disability for a child. Today's treatment…

  7. [Reading research articles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Graaf, Yolanda; Zaat, Joost

    2015-01-01

    Keeping up with the latest developments is not easy, but neither is reading articles on research. There are too many medical journals that contain information that is irrelevant to clinical practice. From this mass of articles you have to decide which are important for your own clinical practice and which are not. Most articles naturally fall into the latter category as spectacular findings with important consequences for medical practice do not occur every week. The most important thing in a research article is the research question. If you begin with this, then you can put aside much scientific literature. The methodology section is essential; reading this can save you a lot of time. In this article we take you step-by-step through the process of reading research articles. The articles in our Methodology series can be used as background information. These articles have been combined in a tablet app, which is available via www.ntvg.nl/methodologie.

  8. Five Describing Factors of Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamboer, Peter; Vorst, Harrie C. M.; Oort, Frans J.

    2016-01-01

    Two subtypes of dyslexia (phonological, visual) have been under debate in various studies. However, the number of symptoms of dyslexia described in the literature exceeds the number of subtypes, and underlying relations remain unclear. We investigated underlying cognitive features of dyslexia with exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. A…

  9. Five describing factors of dyslexia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamboer, P.; Vorst, H.C.M.; Oort, F.J.

    2016-01-01

    Two subtypes of dyslexia (phonological, visual) have been under debate in various studies. However, the number of symptoms of dyslexia described in the literature exceeds the number of subtypes, and underlying relations remain unclear. We investigated underlying cognitive features of dyslexia with

  10. Five Describing Factors of Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamboer, Peter; Vorst, Harrie C. M.; Oort, Frans J.

    2016-01-01

    Two subtypes of dyslexia (phonological, visual) have been under debate in various studies. However, the number of symptoms of dyslexia described in the literature exceeds the number of subtypes, and underlying relations remain unclear. We investigated underlying cognitive features of dyslexia with exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. A…

  11. Anterior cruciate ligament - updating article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinicius Malheiros Luzo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This updating article on the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL has the aim of addressing some of the most interesting current topics in this field. Within this stratified approach, it contains the following sections: ACL remnant; anterolateral ligament and combined intra and extra-articular reconstruction; fixation devices; and ACL femoral tunnel creation techniques.

  12. Anterior cruciate ligament - updating article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzo, Marcus Vinicius Malheiros; Franciozi, Carlos Eduardo da Silveira; Rezende, Fernando Cury; Gracitelli, Guilherme Conforto; Debieux, Pedro; Cohen, Moisés

    2016-01-01

    This updating article on the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) has the aim of addressing some of the most interesting current topics in this field. Within this stratified approach, it contains the following sections: ACL remnant; anterolateral ligament and combined intra and extra-articular reconstruction; fixation devices; and ACL femoral tunnel creation techniques.

  13. Commentary on the Creamers' Article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Charles C.; Jackson, G. Smith

    1988-01-01

    Comments on E. G. Creamer and Don G. Creamer's article "Predicting Successful Organizational Change: Case Studies." Notes one of the enlightening concepts is the observation of qualitatively different leader behaviors in successful change projects. Describes the omission of a clear delineation of change project goals for each institution and how…

  14. Indefinite articles and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Bruyn, B.S.W.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation challenges the standard view on indefinite articles as argument markers and determiners that block bare nominal arguments. It argues for a more fine-grained view in which articles are poor in their semantics but rich in their pragmatic competition with bare nominals and other deter

  15. Heilongjiang Pictorial (Selected Articles),

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    65 UNCLASSIFIED FIG S/9 Nt "’.7 1U*4 -6 FTD-ID(RS )T-0293-8s 0V FOREIGN TECHNOLOGY DIVISION HEILONGJIANG PICTORIAL (Selected Articles ) DITIC LJ. EECT... Articles ) English pages: 12 Source: Heilongjianghuavao, Nr. 4, 1984, pp. 1-4 Country of origin: China Acceqs , - Translated by: FLS, INC.NTSG

  16. ·: ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES educating the children and their families about optimal asthma ... underlies the need for doctors to improve their communication skills with both ..... Diagnostic and therapeutic strategies should take this into consideration.

  17. Scientific Journal Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    These are abstracts of peer-reviewed articles, authored by Office of Children's Health Protection staff. They cover topics including risk assessment for early life stages, inhalation dosimetry, and manganese in drinking water.

  18. Abstracts of Articles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    LU Bingfu, The semantic characteristics of event nouns in Chinese and English The article analyzes the eommonalities and differences of event nouns in Chinese and English. It points out that in both languages complex social events are most likely to be coded as social event nouns, which constitute the core of event nouns. However, peripheral event nouns in the two languages are very different. The article also discusses the various motivations for events to be coded as nouns.

  19. Describing Spirituality at the End of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Pam Shockey; Berry, Devon M

    2015-09-01

    Spirituality is salient to persons nearing the end of life (EOL). Unfortunately, researchers have not been able to agree on a universal definition of spirituality reducing the effectiveness of spiritual research. To advance spiritual knowledge and build an evidence base, researchers must develop creative ways to describe spirituality as it cannot be explicitly defined. A literature review was conducted to determine the common attributes that comprise the essence of spirituality, thereby creating a common ground on which to base spiritual research. Forty original research articles (2002 to 2012) focusing on EOL and including spiritual definitions/descriptions were reviewed. Analysis identified five attributes that most commonly described the essence of spirituality, including meaning, beliefs, connecting, self-transcendence, and value.

  20. Referent Salience Affects Second Language Article Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenkic, Danijela; Pongpairoj, Nattama

    2013-01-01

    The effect of referent salience on second language (L2) article production in real time was explored. Thai (-articles) and French (+articles) learners of English described dynamic events involving two referents, one visually cued to be more salient at the point of utterance formulation. Definiteness marking was made communicatively redundant with…

  1. Critiquing a research article

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, Gill [Division of Medical Imaging Sciences, St. Martin' s College, Lancaster LA1 3JD (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: g.marshall@ucsm.ac.uk

    2005-02-01

    This article explores certain concepts relating to critiquing research papers. These include considering the peer review process for publication, demonstrating the need for critiquing, providing a way to carefully evaluate research papers and exploring the role of impact factors. Whilst all these features are considered in this article, the focus is on presenting a systematic and comprehensive way of critiquing research papers. The information provided should be of use to the many radiographers, associated health professionals and undergraduate and postgraduate students embarking on research projects.

  2. Mobility Test Article (MTA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    A concept of a possible Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) built for NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). This Mobility Test Article (MTA) is one of many that provided data contributing to the design of the LRV, developed under the direction of MSFC. The LRV was designed to allow Apollo astronauts a greater range of mobility during lunar exploration missions.

  3. Mobility Test Article (MTA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    A concept of a possible Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) built for NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). This Mobility Test Article (MTA) is one of many that provided data contributing to the design of the LRV, developed under the direction of MSFC. The LRV was designed to allow Apollo astronauts a greater range of mobility during lunar exploration missions.

  4. The 100 most cited articles in metastatic spine disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jonathan; Alan, Nima; Zhou, James; Kojo Hamilton, D

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Despite the growing neurosurgical literature, a subset of pioneering studies have significantly impacted the field of metastatic spine disease. The purpose of this study was to identify and analyze the 100 most frequently cited articles in the field. METHODS A keyword search using the Thomson Reuters Web of Science was conducted to identify articles relevant to the field of metastatic spine disease. The results were filtered based on title and abstract analysis to identify the 100 most cited articles. Statistical analysis was used to characterize journal frequency, past and current citations, citation distribution over time, and author frequency. RESULTS The total number of citations for the final 100 articles ranged from 74 to 1169. Articles selected for the final list were published between 1940 and 2009. The years in which the greatest numbers of top-100 studies were published were 1990 and 2005, and the greatest number of citations occurred in 2012. The majority of articles were published in the journals Spine (15), Cancer (11), and the Journal of Neurosurgery (9). Forty-four individuals were listed as authors on 2 articles, 9 were listed as authors on 3 articles, and 2 were listed as authors on 4 articles in the top 100 list. The most cited article was the work by Batson (1169 citations) that was published in 1940 and described the role of the vertebral veins in the spread of metastases. The second most cited article was Patchell's 2005 study (594 citations) discussing decompressive resection of spinal cord metastases. The third most cited article was the 1978 study by Gilbert that evaluated treatment of epidural spinal cord compression due to metastatic tumor (560 citations). CONCLUSIONS The field of metastatic spine disease has witnessed numerous milestones and so it is increasingly important to recognize studies that have influenced the field. In this bibliographic study the authors identified and analyzed the most influential articles in the

  5. 133 ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    pediatric and surgical services, and is currently admitted that ..... resistance rate monitoring penicillin 95.73% in the year 2013 in ... prescription of medicines, particularly antibiotics. [19]. ... patterns for pathogens isolated from patients in Latin.

  6. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-15

    May 15, 2016 ... Z. Mohammadi ... currently the only solar power generation system which can have power generation applications as well as ... spectrum. Characteristics such as high transparency, conductivity and having a band gap close to.

  7. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-07-16

    Jul 16, 2016 ... proposed in the current research project which states that “whether ..... essential needs for the people who refer to the retailing shops, ...... center streets pedestrianisation”, BA dissertation paper, Shahid Beheshti University.

  8. Tweeting News Articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Toledo Bastos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article we investigate the impact of social media readership to the editorial profile of newspapers. We analyze tweets containing links to news articles from eight of the largest national newspapers in the United States, United Kingdom, Spain, Brazil, and Germany. The data collection follows the first two weeks of October 2012 and includes 2,842,699 tweets with links to news articles. Twitter-shortened links were resolved using a three-pass routine and assigned to 1 of the 21 newspaper sections. We found the concentration of links to news articles posted by top users to be lower than reported in the literature and the strategy of relaying headlines on Twitter via automatic news aggregators (feeds to be inefficient. The results of this investigation show which sections of a newspaper are the most and least read by readers in different parts of the world, with German readers placing greater emphasis on Politics and Economy; Brazilians on Sports and Arts; Spaniards on Local and National news; Britons and Americans on Opinion and World news. We also found that German and Spanish readers are more likely to read multiple national newspapers, while British readers more often resort to foreign sources of news. The results confirm that feedback to news items from a large user base is pivotal for the replication of content and that newspapers and news items can be clustered according to the editorial profile and principles of newsworthiness inherited from legacy media. The results of this investigation shed light onto the networked architecture of journalism that increasingly depends on readership agency.

  9. Romanian definite article revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Paliga

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available I shall attempt to resume a long, almost endless discussion: the origin of the Romanian definite article. Any grammar of Romanian or any comparative grammar the Romance languages (e. g. Tagliavini 1977 always observes that Romanian, an iso­ lated case in the Romance family, has an agglutinated definite article. The typology is not indeed rare: Bulgarian, Albanian, Armenian, Basque and Swedish witness the same mechanism. We cannot approach the topic by analysing all these languages, yet a comparative analysis would be finally useful. In our case, it is obvious that Romanian cannot be isolated from Albanian and Bulgarian. A potential solution must explain the situation in ALL these three "Balkanic" languages, even if Romanian is not Balkanic stricto sensu1. The paper shall focus on the deep roots of the Romanian and Albanian definite arti­ cle, its typological relations with other linguistic areas, and shall attempt to explain this isolated situation in the field of Romance linguistics. For sure, the Romanian definite article mainly reflects the Latin heritage. Nevertheless, by saying only this, the tableau is not complete: some forms are not Latin but Pre-Latin, Thracian. This paper will try to substantiate this assertion.

  10. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-07-16

    Jul 16, 2016 ... numerous advantages for companies and can be considered as ... Comparison of changes in recent three decades shows that they ... in information and communication domain paved the way to era of ... Resistance against change;. 5- ..... excellence in information technology, need to overcome the current ...

  11. 46 ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    Pulmonary infections are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV infected individuals. .... smoked or is currently smoking cigarette, any who presents .... e. r o. f p a tie n ts w ith sy p m to m s. Symptoms in presenting patients. FIGURE ...

  12. SUMMARY OF ARTICLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hou Shudong

    2012-01-01

    Two books published in 2007, Marxist History-Writing for the Twenty-First Century and Rod- ney Hilton's Middle Ages: An Exploration of Historical Themes, review the history and analyze current situation, summarize the practice and look forward to the future of western Marxist histori- ography from several fields and angles. Based' on the new situation and the new perspective,

  13. 222 ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    on the species and drug combination (2). Biofilms have .... Real- Time polymerase reaction: It was done to measure ... temperature as described previously (14). RNA was extracted using IQeasy TM plus CTB RNA. Extraction ... Reverse Transcription was done .... chemical structure of ndvB – dependent P. ... Genetic basis of.

  14. International Aviation (Selected Articles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-04-25

    Iigh-tl-iessness. DEVELOFHE1TS h ,TEST EQUI FMEIT Breakthroughs and developments in flight testing areintIzonnh tIed e:i.. .. .. ... J hIIt te .... I -2...zarea of surface simulation experimentation for engines, th’-e Flight Test Center: currently has the trial- run capability for a Ch i E -i*ngQ a v aiE...m.easuring equipment. This platform, was used for over 23 items of ~u~ ~research; over L~vEject on ts runs were carried’ out . To ensur e the e ff e c tiv

  15. Laser Journal (Selected Articles),

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-10

    OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF SINGLE CRYSTAL SULPHONATED SALICYLIC ACID Wang Gongming, Jiang Xiengmei) Wang Wencheng (Physics Department, Fudan University) A...laser is described. The apparatus structure and some experimental results are reported. MATERIAL AND ELEMENT MAGNETO-OPTIC PROPERTIES OF Pr dYb),(1oAI...Sinica) The 9,,.d of (BiPzGdyb0,(F!AI 1, single crystal thin film at 6328A is as high as 3.69-4.05’/dB . This property has been applied to optical

  16. Suggestions for Structuring a Research Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, James D.; Reiser, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers often experience difficulty as they attempt to prepare journal articles that describe their work. The purpose of this article is to provide researchers in the field of education with a series of suggestions as to how to clearly structure each section of a research manuscript that they intend to submit for publication in a scholarly…

  17. Abstracts of selected Articles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Meet Challenge and Enhance Cooperation for Energy Prosperity--Energy structural adjustment and strategic options --Speech by Dr. Wang Tao, Director of China National Committee of World Petroleum Council, at 2011 China International Energy Forum Abstract: The energy issue is highly concerned in the present-day world. Currently, global energy is under a new stage of conversion. The main trend for green and low carbon economic development has provided both opportunities and challenges for global energy development. Turbulence of global geopolitical situation, development and change of oil supply-demand relations, global ecological and environmental pressure, and concerns over Japanese nuclear accident have urgently called for our common efforts for establishment of new conceptions, new structure and new pattern for energy development.

  18. Learning Organization [reviewed article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonoaie, N.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available “The essence of LOs is effective organizational learning, but relevant academic disciplines, such as economics, anthropology, and social psychology, all entail different assumptions about what this might actually mean. Assorted analytical approaches such as population ecology and sociotechnical systems theory offer distinctly different vocabularies for describing what the LO might be or what it might do.” [Snell, 2007] The learning organization (LO is an idealized vision of an organization where the structures, routines, and working practices are open to continuous adaptation and improvement, where the individuals and teams engage in continuous learning, where the norms and values are supportive of continuous learning, and where strategic decision making is informed by and responsive to relevant data analysis and feedback.

  19. List of Article Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Section

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTENTS OF ARTICLES Premixed combustion of coconut oil in a hele-shaw cell DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.155-160 155-160 Hadi Saroso, I.N.G. Wardana, Rudy Soenoko, Nurkholis Hamidi   Analysing the potential of retrofitting ultra-low heat loss triple vacuum glazed windows to an existing UK solid wall dwelling DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.161-174 161-174 Saim Memon   Study of Gasohol as Alternative Fuel for Gasoline Substitution: Characteristics and Performances DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.175-183 175-183 Bardi Murachman, Dicky Pranantyo, Eddie Sandjaya Putra   Thermal effects investigation on electrical properties of silicon solar cells treated by laser irradiation DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.184-187 184-187 Ali Pourakbar Saffar, Bahman Deldadeh Barani   Synthesis of Trimethylolpropane Esters of Calophyllum Methyl Esters : Effect of Temperatur and Molar Ratio DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.188-192 188-192 Yeti Widyawati, Ani Suryani, Muhammad Romli, Sukardi Sukardi   Incorporating Root Crops under Agro-Forestry as the Newly Potential Source of Food, Feed and Renewable Energy DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.193-206 193-206 Yudi Widodo, St. A. Rahayuningsih, Nasir Saleh, Sri Wahyuningsih   Solmap: Project In India's Solar Resource Assessment DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.207-216 207-216 Indradip Mitra, Kaushal Chhatbar, Ashvini Kumar, Godugunur Giridhar, Ramdhan Vashistha, Richard Meyer, Marko Schwandt   Thermo-economic Optimization of Solar Assisted Heating and Cooling (SAHC System DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.217-227 217-227 A. Ghafoor, A. Munir   Combustion characteristics of diesel engine using producer gas and blends of Jatropha methyl ester with diesel in mixed fuel mode DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.228-235 228-235 Hifjur Raheman, Debasish Padhee    

  20. Abstracts of Major Articles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The Status Quo and Prospects of Entrepreneurship among Women in the Hometown of Overseas Chinese from Gender Prospective --Taking the Female Entrepreneurs in Quanzhou City as an Example LIU Yi-rong, ZHANG Xu (School of Public Administration, and Trade Union, Huaqiao University, Quanzhou 362021, China) Abstract:The paper analyses the current situation of entrepreneurship among women in the hometown of overseas Chinese, such as the female entrepreneurs' motivations to start a business, their business areas and management modes, as well as the relations between their career and family life. Based on the analy- sis, the authors thus point out some problems, such as the sexual discrimination those women may face during their business startups and their psychological misunderstandings. The paper also proposes that in order to promote women's entrepreneurial activities, people should develop advanced gender consciousness, bring into play Women's Federation and other social organizations, and further support female entrepreneurs. Key words:women, entrepreneurship, hometown of overseas Chinese, Quanzhou City

  1. Audio-Described Educational Materials: Ugandan Teachers' Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wormnaes, Siri; Sellaeg, Nina

    2013-01-01

    This article describes and discusses a qualitative, descriptive, and exploratory study of how 12 visually impaired teachers in Uganda experienced audio-described educational video material for teachers and student teachers. The study is based upon interviews with these teachers and observations while they were using the material either…

  2. Myotonic disorders: A review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Hahn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The myotonic disorders are a heterogeneous group of genetically determined diseases that are unified by the presence of myotonia, which is defined as failure of muscle relaxation after activation. The presentation of these disorders can range from asymptomatic electrical myotonia, as seen in some forms of myotonia congenita (MC, to severe disability with muscle weakness, cardiac conduction defects, and other systemic features as in myotonic dystrophy type I (DM1. In this review, we describe the clinical features and pathophysiology of the different myotonic disorders, their laboratory and electrophysiologic findings and briefly review the currently available treatments.

  3. Infantile Spasm: A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mahdi TAGHDIRI

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Taghdiri MM, Nemati H. Infantile Spasm: A Review Article. Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Summer;8(3: 1-5.AbstractObjectiveInfantile spasm (IS is a convulsive disease characterized by brief, symmetric axial muscle contraction (neck, trunk, and/or extremities. IS is a type of seizure that was first described by West in 1841, who witnessed the seizure in his own son. West’s syndrome refers to the classic triad of spasms, characteristic EEG, and neurodevelopmental regression. Most cases involve flexors and extensors,but either of the types may be involved independently.IS, as its name implies, most often occurs during the first year of life with an incidence of approximately 1 per 2000-4000 live births. Most, but not all, patients with this disorder have severe EEG abnormalities; this pattern was originallyreferred to as hypsarrhythmia by Gibbs and Gibbs. Cases with known etiology or signs of brain damage are considered as symptomatic. The Overall prognosis of the disease is poor. Peak onset age of the epileptic syndrome is 3 to 7 months, which mainly occurs before 2 years of age in 93% of patients. Hypsarrhythmia is the EEG hallmark of IS, which comprised a chaotic, bilaterally asynchronous high-voltage polyspike, and slow wave discharges interspersed with multifocal spikes and slow waves.Etiological classification is as follows: 1 Symptomatic: with identifiable prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal causes with developmental delay at the presentation time; 2 Cryptogenic: unknown underlying cause, normal development at the onset of spasms, normal neurological exam and neuroimaging, and no abnormality in the metabolic evaluation; 3 Idiopathic: pure functional cerebral dysfunction with complete recovery, no residual dysfunction, normal neuroimaging and normal etiologic evaluation, and normal neurodevelopment.ReferencesInfantile Spasms. In: Jean Aicardi: Disease of Nervous system in childhood. 3th ed. Mac Keith

  4. How to respond to referee comments for scientific articles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalemci, Mustafa Serdar; Turna, Burak

    2013-09-01

    Currently, the increasing number of article submissions to scientific journals forces editors to be more selective in their acceptance of papers. Consequently, editors have increased the frequency of their use of scientific referee mechanisms. For many researchers, the publication of a scientific article in a high impact factor journal is a gradual and difficult process. After preparation and submission of a manuscript, one of the most important issue is responding to the comments of referees. However, there is a paucity of published reports in the literature describing how to respond to these comments. The aim of this review is to assist researchers/authors in responding to referee comments as part of the publication process for scientific articles.

  5. Plans should abstractly describe intended behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfleger, K.; Hayes-Roth, B. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Planning is the process of formulating a potential course of action. How courses of action (plans) produced by a planning module are represented and how they are used by execution-oriented modules of a complex agent to influence or dictate behavior are critical architectural issues. In contrast to the traditional model of plans as executable programs that dictate precise behaviors, we claim that autonomous agents inhabiting dynamic, unpredictable environments can make better use of plans that only abstractly describe their intended behavior. Such plans only influence or constrain behavior, rather than dictating it. This idea has been discussed in a variety of contexts, but it is seldom incorporated into working complex agents. Experiments involving instantiations of our Adaptive Intelligent Systems architecture in a variety of domains have demonstrated the generality and usefulness of the approach, even with our currently simple plan representation and mechanisms for plan following. The behavioral benefits include (1) robust improvisation of goal-directed behavior in response to dynamic situations, (2) ready exploitation of dynamically acquired knowledge or behavioral capabilities, and (3) adaptation based on dynamic aspects of coordinating diverse behaviors to achieve multiple goals. In addition to these run-time advantages, the approach has useful implications for the design and configuration of agents. Indeed, the core ideas of the approach are natural extensions of fundamental ideas in software engineering.

  6. articles

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    2011-09-03

    HIVrev is a 72-item checklist of HIV/AIDS-specific physical ... to assess perceived social support,20 as used by Simbayi et al.21 The ..... Brock D, Sarason I, Sarason B, Pierce G. Simultaneous assessment of perceived global and.

  7. Article

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    2010-08-03

    Aug 3, 2010 ... cussed. Hypothetical examples of qualitative research on assessment will ..... mits comparison (i.e. when there are common characteristics in the theo- ... questions and the analytical framework for interpreting the findings.32.

  8. Article

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    2012-12-04

    Dec 4, 2012 ... the time was applied to a daily laboratory practical for developing and presenting draft ... of emotionally charged learning has been called 'hot-cognition'.11 This implies that thinking ... origin) could apply to contexts in Africa.

  9. ARTICLES

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    Center for Human Nutrition, Johns Hopkins School ofHygiene and Public Health,. BaWmore ... nursing shift, and at 12, 24 and 48 hours post-dosing by the caregiver of .... Findings. Of the 2 067 infants, vital status could be confirmed for 1 839.

  10. ARTICLE

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    Knee~height measurements were not significantly different between the two groups, but when used ... free from any physical constraint (for example being in a wheelchair ... at a 90° angle. The fixed ..... There is a mail shot on job opportunities ...

  11. Article

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    2010-08-17

    Aug 17, 2010 ... to the more student-focused method of reciprocal peer teaching, referred ... way that leads to better understanding and more effective learning. It is ... teaching teams should be created in a way that takes account of dif- ... 1 Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria.

  12. Article

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    pressures placed upon social capital by rapid modernisation and the decline in traditional social relationships and forms of family structure … Another factor ... Most admissions under the age of 20 reported cannabis or cannabis/mandrax as .... our youth; the more so, as it goes hand-in-hand with poverty, crime, reduced ...

  13. Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-06-07

    Jun 7, 2008 ... The principle of patient autonomy recognises the duty of health professionals to respect .... the right to practise their religion or culture or to speak their language39 (i.e. .... Medicine, dentistry, pharmacy and other health professions. .... 73. Carmichele v. Minister of Safety and Security 2001 (4) SA 938 (CC).

  14. Article

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    as a reminder of how often doctors and allied health care profes- sionals do what they .... the nurse was not talking, the medical history continued in her presence. .... best way around this is public health insurance, as this works on the basis of ...

  15. Article

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    ABIOLA SOKOYA

    The Internet as a useful tool that supports teaching and learning is not in full use in most ... which computer self-efficacy and computer attitude influence Internet use among senior ... (r=0.85), and Internet Use (IU) (r=0.78)) scales. ... relative contributions of the independent measures of Internet use were: CSE (β= .319, ...

  16. Article

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    Act makes smoking in a public place an offence and obliges em- ployers who permit ..... However, although one of the sen- ior managers advised ... employer was not complying with anti-smoking legislation. The applicant was .... sexual harassment, the case discloses that there was a smoking policy in place and that the ...

  17. Article

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    2012-06-15

    Jun 15, 2012 ... HIV testing in a wide variety of settings, including health facilities.3. Preliminary figures ... viduals to perform some or all aspects of the test in locations cho- .... als make voluntary decisions based on accurate and appropriate.

  18. Article

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    2012-06-20

    Jun 20, 2012 ... strategies to prevent vertical transmission of the disease and reduce the burden of ... oped nations, where the incidence of neonatal HIV has been virtu- ..... a significant role in women's sexual and reproductive decisions.

  19. Article

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    Jul 28, 2012 ... Results. Professionalism attributes considered most important included ... an occupation whose core element is work based upon the mastery of a ... means to harness professional behaviour is through the experience of.

  20. Article

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    Methods. This was an action research study using a participatory approach. Research .... analysis of the interview data, two meetings were held with the participants .... conventional research paradigms, such that a comparative discourse is ... Campbell J. A critical appraisal of participatory methods in development research.

  1. Article

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    compared for robustness of ethical protection of HBM in research. Key organisations, laws ... (HPCSA),19,20 and the Medical Research Council of South Africa. (SAMRC),21,22 ..... cells, embryos, zygotes and gametes. Regulation No.9699 ...

  2. Article

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    2012-12-01

    Dec 1, 2012 ... On World AIDS Day, 1 December 2009, President Jacob Zuma called ... signing the pledge wall, first-year students had the opportunity to ... The issue of whether the prizes unduly influenced the students' participation is ...

  3. Article

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    2012-07-15

    Jul 15, 2012 ... and understanding of physiology by medical students in South Africa. ... stimulated through using cases or problems, framework lectures ... whom attended the conference. ..... It is encouraging to note that despite this, medical.

  4. ARTICLES

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    white cell count in response to the release of cytokines such as tumour necrosis ... and oral temperatures are inadequate in ventilated unco- operative patients. .... surgery "an a contaminated peritoneal cavity has gained most popularity; however ... Mechanisms involve ischaemia, reperfusion injury, or pro- inflammatory ...

  5. Article

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    2011-06-18

    Jun 18, 2011 ... tomical lexicon the concept of unclaimed bodies, since these were viewed as the ... dissected as part of a public anatomy lecture. ... owed a great deal to his inspiration.2 .... risk. In addition, consent to autopsy explicitly includes consent to ... not considered appropriate to return the organs to the family this.

  6. Article

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    USER

    Information Impact | Journal of information and knowledge management. Page 104 ... In every enlightened society, information is organized in ... Page 105 graphic and non-graphic materials for .... The survey research design was adopted for.

  7. Article

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    The worst experiences included perceptions of the lack of standardisation in clinical exams and feelings of inadequacy in relation to pharmacology and microbiology. ... The placement of this evaluation at the conclusion of formal assessments may ... development, including bioethics and evidence-based medicine. Early.

  8. ARTICLES

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    Campbell Murn

    towns and one neighbouring Ugandan market centre to assess the occurrence and threats to this ... were only observed at open-air slaughterhouses or dumpsites. We conducted ..... Mass dog poisoning operation in Addis Ababa can have .... 1990s. All respondents said HVs were more common and would feed on meat.

  9. Article

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    rates low; funding to cover future claims and administrative costs has to be maintained ... have a vested interest in elevating the value of a claim introduce an uneasy ... The speed at which indemnity costs for obstetricians are rising is cause for ...

  10. Article

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    2012-12-02

    Dec 2, 2012 ... the risks of hazardous chemical and other exposures. He postulates ..... plc upon its listing on the London Stock Exchange in 1999. Industries .... Washington: Council on Foreign Relations, 2011. http://www.foreignaffairs.com/.

  11. Article

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    {Rommel}

    The use of computers in education has already been established for decades. .... questions, field simulation, labeling and .... school. (expanded ed.). Washington,. DC: National. Academy Press. Bloom ... learning in undergraduate medical.

  12. Article

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    2008-06-11

    Jun 11, 2008 ... raises many ethical and human rights dilemmas, principally because it trades off the human ..... value choices explicit, and forces the policymaker to seek evi- ..... ing infection control at home and the workplace to limit trans-.

  13. Article

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    Roland

    adopted a descriptive survey research design and used the stratified and simple random sampling techniques to ... A total of two hundred questionnaires was ... retrieve and evaluate information has ... on content, communication, analysis,.

  14. Article

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    2010-12-21

    Dec 21, 2010 ... integrated, and shared.1 OER has the potential to advance the delivery of health education by ... sations, project teams, associations and consortia, among others. There is no obligation to ... assessment quiz. This module has ...

  15. Article

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    The Economic and Political Studies(EPS)is a peer-reviewed academic journal.The EPS seeks to promote the studies of economics and politics by addressing issues concerning China and its interaction with the world,encouraging an interdisciplinary approach,while exploring critiques from various perspectives.The journal also provides an international forum for innovative theoretical and empirical work where the fields of economics and politics intersect.Both

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    2011-06-11

    Jun 11, 2011 ... Introduction. Communication difficulties between health care workers (HCWs) and ... ern Cape are black African Xhosa-speakers, many of whom are educated to primary or .... All health care and patient participants completed informed consent statements. .... J Midwifery. Women's Health 2002;47:80-96. 3.

  17. Article

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    2013-05-27

    May 27, 2013 ... An action research design was followed using the nominal group technique .... is dependent on the approaches, theoretical foundations, intentions and ..... Nieuwenhuis J. Qualitative research design and data gathering ...

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    satisfaction with the Act. ... as parents were being violated has implications for amendment of the Act. .... this stage of the life cycle would appear to be asexual and cannot ... ment while maintaining self-esteem and avoiding causing shame.

  19. Article

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    BODE OLAJIDE

    The purpose of this study is to explore the impact of usage of e-resources on the academic performance of the ... The population for this study includes the final year students of faculties of Social ..... Orlando, Florida. ... Teachers: A case study.

  20. Article

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    independent of 'any particular culture or religion'.12. In his defence ... that Baartman's story raises relate to the politics of 'race, gender, .... regime during World War II.20 The controversy continues on wheth- ... as if engaged in sexual intercourse. .... daily.com.cn/star/2001/0913/fe19-1.html (accessed 2 February 2012). 25.

  1. Article

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    User

    Jos Main Library. Survey research method was adopted for the study and questionnaire was used ... Keywords: Assessment, physical facilities, users' satisfaction, library resources ...... Assessing customer satisfaction at the NIST Research.

  2. Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-12-06

    Dec 6, 2011 ... grammes need clinical supervisors to teach undergraduate students in the ... knowledge for the teacher compared to self-study or lecture attendance. ... participants' motivation to do the course; whether the assignment was.

  3. ARTICLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    A Study on the European Nation State in the Context of State Transforma- tion;An Analysis of the French Nation State and Its Idea of Nation;The Evolution of the German Nation State. from a Cultural Community to a Post-classical Nation State;From a Catholic Community to a Frustrated Nation-state--A historical Review on Spain's State Building.

  4. Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-12-01

    Dec 1, 2012 ... The Act states that unfair, unreasonable or unjust contract terms are prohibited and that ... bodily or psychological injury caused by the fault of their staff, may be ... conflict with the principles of good faith, and that the admission.

  5. Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In health care, this principle means that a mentally competent patient has a right to ... ring the American rendering of autonomy to other cultural contexts, unmodified ..... pub/FactSheet/2008/sa08_soa_en.pdf (accessed 1 April 2010). 3. Varga C ...

  6. Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    The time allotted for the group assignment was about a week which did not give room for students to .... manual information systems (such as a ... Kuhlthau studied the learning processes of ... level of certainty based on focused perspective and hence deep involvement. ..... notes, real-time chat, videos, individual grades.

  7. articles

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    prevalence among township secondary school learners in four ... prevalence rates and age of initiation of substance use among ... The measurement tool for learners was a self-administered ... about the nature of the research and their right to refuse their child's ..... Validity of the CRAFFT Substance Abuse Screening Test.

  8. Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FAMILY

    Information Impact | Journal of information and knowledge management ... Library, Sir Kashim College of Education, and Ramat Polytechnic Library Maiduguri, in terms .... the quality of personnel than any other ..... and Computer Centre.

  9. Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-06-23

    Jun 23, 2009 ... This is referred to as euthanasia or mercy killing. Euthanasia means 'A good ... performing the act and may need assistance in the process. ... mum non nocere' is another famous adage that warns doctors at all costs not to ...

  10. Article

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    School of Nursing Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Kirana M Bhatt, MB ... requirement and was therefore observing them in her capacity as a student of ..... forms approved. However, the PGSs did not ensure that some of the basic el-.

  11. Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    analyses were made with GraphPad Prism (Version 4, GraphPad. Software Inc., San Diego, CA, ..... ance certificate, according to the Chair (M Blockman – personal ... As a first stage in planning for the future a SWOT analysis was done for the ...

  12. Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-06-22

    Jun 22, 2009 ... things, moral judgements and value weightings of a variety of kinds'.6 Two issues concerning ... that, whatever the definition of a trivial harm may be, it cannot pro- duce an outcome where .... fair harm. By continuing with the ...

  13. ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    care units (ICUs), it is not surprising that mortality rates often ... rate can be in excess of 40%. ... The clinical importance of micro-organisms isolated from ... analysis. Nevertheless, features of the revised anaesthetic policy include rigorous implementation of ... the frequency of change of breathing circuits, labour, and.

  14. articles

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pretoria, and Department of Psychology, University of Limpopo. (Turfloop Campus) ... to the burden of disease and disability in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs).2,3 ... For women the factors identified were lower education, no income ...

  15. ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    malaria, with less than 5% of pregnant women able to access treatment or effective ... uptake of SP were: inadequate drug availability, late presenta- tion of women for .... fusion over what happens when the first SP dose is given late were key ...

  16. ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Iron deficiency anaemia is a global public health problem as compelling and harmful .... existing food production and distribution systems. For these ... More recently Venezuela, Ecuador, Brazil and several other ... Linkages would then need.

  17. articles

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    image,9-12 health risk behaviours including sexual intercourse, damaging .... association between method choice and psychopathology. Choice of method is in fact .... the respondents were major depressive disorder (64%), conduct disorder ...

  18. articles

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-09-03

    Sep 3, 2011 ... Individuals with VCFS also display a distinct neuropsychological phenotype with deficits ... could not function in the open labour market. He had few friends .... short-term memory that is a flexible and dynamic memory resource.

  19. articles

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Psychiatric disorders as a cause of occupational disability are under-recognised and .... of which time, if recovery has not taken place, medical boarding may be recommended). ... get along with others, communicate clearly, participate in group activities ..... and contribute to a higher standard of practice.37. Many patients in ...

  20. articles

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    that influence help-seeking, and should therefore be investigated further. S Afr J Psych ... of various groups of healthcare professionals to help-seeking behaviour ..... the link with self-medication for underlying psychiatric problems and the ...

  1. ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    describedl.2 A further technological advance took place in 1967 when the placement of ... treatment of this problem and the new developments in the field. Most of these ..... aid of restriction-fragment length DNA subtyping. We were unable to ...

  2. Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-05-09

    May 9, 2013 ... The Supervision Course aims to develop clinical supervision skills of ... techniques of facilitating learning, assessment and feedback to students. ... literature, discussions and activities such as role play of the newly acquired.

  3. Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria. Charis O. Onuoha ... identify social media tools used in knowledge management (KM) practices; ascertain areas of knowledge ... innovation. ..... Technology & Entrepreneurship in. Africa ...

  4. Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    person, is diagnosed as being in the final phase of any terminal disease or ... lung cancer and after doctors have certified that he had very few months to live, that for .... See 'Parole only for terminally ill patients: Desai' sabcnews, 17 April 2007.

  5. Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-12-04

    Dec 4, 2012 ... to innovate learning and teaching, the BCMP programme has also ... As scholars in health science and higher education, we are aware of being .... is one of an array of theories on learning styles.8 It draws from research on.

  6. Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    that have the wherewithal are deeply resistant to expending the political capital and ... act, it is often more out of narrow self-interest or humanitarian in- stinct than a full sense .... duced financing needs over time as host countries increase their.

  7. Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-06-15

    Jun 15, 2011 ... that our teaching presentations have structure and that the content being ..... tion of Web-based tools for virtual collaborative clinical practice and education. ... environments using mixed reality, video games and simulations.

  8. ARTICLES -

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They stressed that although existing infection ... community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections. They refer to: ... mortality rates for Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae ... rather to a florid systemic inflammatory response syndrome with organ .... infections. In: Studies in Health and Human Sciences.

  9. Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-05-15

    May 15, 2013 ... An action research study design used an online survey to explore the .... Qualitative ... A poster campaign was designed using wordplay and the image of a popular movie. The 'First Class in Public Health: The Inner City Elective' poster was ... a clinical specialty such as paediatrics and in many cases more.

  10. Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-12-01

    Dec 1, 2012 ... with human subjects, as well as medical malpractice and licensing ... therapy and not stem cell research, where different legal and ethical ... neural (brain) stem cells were administered into his spinal cord.6 ... was scientifically proven, and that Biomark was simply making it ..... prescribed number of years.

  11. ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-09-02

    Sep 2, 2007 ... Vulture behaviours were correlated with dates and locations of ... refuse dump, feeding on remains of former carcasses or foraging in palm stands. King Vultures also ...... Journal of Raptor Research 35: 263-264. Schlee, M.A. ...

  12. Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    communities and with approval by an independent ethics review committee ... Guidelines for biomedical research involving human subjects require that research should be conducted in accordance with accepted ... Material and methods.

  13. articles: Links between rural development and crime

    OpenAIRE

    Terance J. Rephann

    1999-01-01

    Over the past few years, metropolitan crime has fallen in the United States while nonmetropolitan crime has continued to increase. This article examines nonmetropolitan crime during the period 1977-1995, and describes its characteristics and spatial dynamics. The article outlines eight categories of causal factors and investigates their role in nonmetropolitan county crime variation using regression analysis. This analysis shows that many variables commonly identified with "rural development"...

  14. The 100 most cited spine articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Michael R; Wang, Tianyi; Schroeder, Gregory D; Hsu, Wellington K

    2012-10-01

    Spine-related research has evolved dramatically during the last century. Significant contributions have been made by thousands of authors. A citation rank list has historically been used within a particular field to measure the importance of an article. The purpose of this article is to report on the 100 most cited articles in the field of spine. Science Citation Index Expanded was searched for citations in 27 different journals (as of 30 November 2010) chosen based on the relevance for all cited spine publications. The top 100 most cited articles were identified. Important information such as journal, date, country of origin, author, subspecialty, and level of evidence (for clinical research) were compiled. The top 100 publications ranged from 1,695 to 240 citations. Fifty-three articles were of the lumbar, 17 were of the thoracolumbar, and 15 of the cervical spine. Eighty-one of the articles were clinical and 19 were basic science in nature. Level of evidence varied for the clinical papers, however, was most commonly level IV (34 of 81 articles). Notably, the 1990-1999 decade was the most productive period with 43 of the top 100 articles published during this time. Identification of the most cited articles within the field of spine recognizes some of the most important contributions in the peer-reviewed literature. Current investigators may utilize the aspects of their work to guide and direct future spine-related research.

  15. Predatory Journals, Piracy and New Models of Publishing Scientific Articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk Smutný

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper responds to observed absurd impacts associated with predatory journals, both at the personal and institutional level. There is mentioned the basic procedure to identify predatory journal and how to find it in Beall’s list. Briefly are commented the consequences associated with the first study in the Czech Republic dealing with the number of articles published in predatory journals, which are inserted into the Information register of R&D results (RIV by research institutions. On this basis, a part of the funding for universities and research organizations in the Czech Republic is redistributed. Furthermore, there are commented approaches to financing journals and publishing articles, in particular, a new model of paying membership fees used by the publication platform PeerJ. Finally, the issue of the availability of scientific articles including piracy issues is discussed. Described development, which we are currently witnessing, transforms the current system of science and related publishing of scientific articles or knowledge sharing within the society.

  16. Finding and Recommending Scholarly Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Michael J.; Henneken, Edwin A.

    2014-05-01

    The rate at which scholarly literature is being produced has been increasing at approximately 3.5 percent per year for decades. This means that during a typical 40 year career the amount of new literature produced each year increases by a factor of four. The methods scholars use to discover relevant literature must change. Just like everybody else involved in information discovery, scholars are confronted with information overload. Two decades ago, this discovery process essentially consisted of paging through abstract books, talking to colleagues and librarians, and browsing journals. A time-consuming process, which could even be longer if material had to be shipped from elsewhere. Now much of this discovery process is mediated by online scholarly information systems. All these systems are relatively new, and all are still changing. They all share a common goal: to provide their users with access to the literature relevant to their specific needs. To achieve this each system responds to actions by the user by displaying articles which the system judges relevant to the user's current needs. Recently search systems which use particularly sophisticated methodologies to recommend a few specific papers to the user have been called "recommender systems". These methods are in line with the current use of the term "recommender system" in computer science. We do not adopt this definition, rather we view systems like these as components in a larger whole, which is presented by the scholarly information systems themselves. In what follows we view the recommender system as an aspect of the entire information system; one which combines the massive memory capacities of the machine with the cognitive abilities of the human user to achieve a human-machine synergy.

  17. Current Status of Acanthamoeba in Iran: A Narrative Review Article.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Niyyati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Free-living amoebae belonging to the genus Acanthamoeba have an environmental distribution. Amoebic keratitis due to these protozoan parasites continue to rise in Iran and worldwide. In Iran, there are various researches regarding both morphological and molecular identification of Acanthamoeba spp. in environmental and clinical samples. However, there is no thorough review about Acanthamoeba genotypes and their distribution in environmental sources such as water, dust and biofilm in Iran. Besides, according to increasing cases of Amoebic keratitis in the region awareness regarding the pathogenic potential of these sight-threatening amoebae is of utmost importance.We conducted a thorough review based on the database sources such as MEDLINE, PubMed and Google scholar. No restrictions were placed on study date, study design or language of publication. We searched all valuable and relevant information considering the occurrence of the Acanthamoeba in both environmental and clinical samples.According to our thorough review Acanthamoeba belonging to T4 genotype is the most prevalent type strain in environmental and clinical samples in several regions in Iran and worldwide, however, there are reports regarding Acanthamoeba belonging to other genotypes such as T2, T3, T5, T6 and T11 and the mentioned point could leads us to more researches with the goal of presenting the real genotype dominance of Acanthamoeba and related disease in the country.Overall, the present review will focus on present status of genotypes of Acanthamoeba in Iran during recent years.

  18. REVIEW ARTICLE Adrenal lesions encountered in current medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    poses a diagnostic and clinical dilemma to the radiologist, clinician and patient alike. ... catapulted to the forefront in the management of adrenal disease. With the .... Adrenocortical adenoma in a 45-year-old woman with Cushing syndrome.

  19. Bariatric surgery: a best practice article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Karl John Hans; le Roux, Carel W

    2013-02-01

    Bariatric surgery can effectively reduce body weight and treat obesity associated metabolic diseases such as diabetes mellitus. There are also benefits for an individual's functional status and psychological health. A multi-disciplinary evaluation should be offered to the individual as the first essential step in considering bariatric surgery as a treatment. This evaluation should include a thorough medical assessment, as well as psychological and dietetic assessments. In this best practice article, we outline the current recommendations for referral for bariatric surgery. We also present the data for pre-operative assessment before bariatric surgery, with particular reference to cardiovascular disease and obstructive sleep apnoea. We describe the literature on outcomes after bariatric surgery, including the results for mortality, weight loss, remission of diabetes and associated endocrine disorders such as hypogonadism. Within this review, we will illustrate the impact of bariatric surgery on self-image, psychological health and perceived health and functional status. Finally, we briefly detail the potential complications of bariatric surgery, and offer advice on post-operative care and surveillance.

  20. Article Omission across Child Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guasti, Maria Teresa; Gavarro, Anna; de Lange, Joke; Caprin, Claudia

    2008-01-01

    Article omission is known to be a feature of early grammar, although it does not affect all child languages to the same extent. In this article we analyze the production of articles by 12 children, 4 speakers of Catalan, 4 speakers of Italian, and 4 speakers of Dutch. We consider the results in the light of (i) the adult input the children are…

  1. Article Omission across Child Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guasti, Maria Teresa; Gavarro, Anna; de Lange, Joke; Caprin, Claudia

    2008-01-01

    Article omission is known to be a feature of early grammar, although it does not affect all child languages to the same extent. In this article we analyze the production of articles by 12 children, 4 speakers of Catalan, 4 speakers of Italian, and 4 speakers of Dutch. We consider the results in the light of (i) the adult input the children are…

  2. How to write a review article?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülpınar, Ömer; Güçlü, Adil Güçal

    2013-09-01

    In the medical sciences, the importance of review articles is rising. When clinicians want to update their knowledge and generate guidelines about a topic, they frequently use reviews as a starting point. The value of a review is associated with what has been done, what has been found and how these findings are presented. Before asking 'how,' the question of 'why' is more important when starting to write a review. The main and fundamental purpose of writing a review is to create a readable synthesis of the best resources available in the literature for an important research question or a current area of research. Although the idea of writing a review is attractive, it is important to spend time identifying the important questions. Good review methods are critical because they provide an unbiased point of view for the reader regarding the current literature. There is a consensus that a review should be written in a systematic fashion, a notion that is usually followed. In a systematic review with a focused question, the research methods must be clearly described. A 'methodological filter' is the best method for identifying the best working style for a research question, and this method reduces the workload when surveying the literature. An essential part of the review process is differentiating good research from bad and leaning on the results of the better studies. The ideal way to synthesize studies is to perform a meta-analysis. In conclusion, when writing a review, it is best to clearly focus on fixed ideas, to use a procedural and critical approach to the literature and to express your findings in an attractive way.

  3. What makes articles highly cited?

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    We examined drivers of article citations using 776 articles that were published from 1990-2012 in a broad-based and high-impact social sciences journal, The Leadership Quarterly. These articles had 1,191 unique authors having published and received in total (at the time of their most recent article published in our dataset) 16,817 articles and 284,777 citations, respectively. Our models explained 66.6% of the variance in citations and showed that quantitative, review, method, and theory artic...

  4. Top-cited articles in endodontic journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardi, Anastasia; Kodonas, Konstantinos; Gogos, Christos; Economides, Nikolaos

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the 100 top-cited articles published in journals dedicated to endodontology and analyze their characteristics to describe the quality and evolution of research in the field of endodontology. The Institute for Scientific Information Web of Knowledge Database and the Journal Citation Report Science Editions were used to retrieve the 100 most cited articles published in journals dedicated to endodontics. The top-cited articles were selected and analyzed with regard to journals, authors, institution, country of origin, publication title and year, number of citations, article type, study design, level of evidence, and field of study. The top 100 articles were cited between 87 and 554 times. These articles appeared in 4 different journals, with more than half in the Journal of Endodontics, followed by the journals Oral Surgery Oral Medicine Oral Pathology Oral Radiology and Endodontology, the International Endodontic Journal, and Endodontics & Dental Traumatology. Forty-eight articles were published between 1990 and 1999. All articles were published in English and primarily originated from the United States (n = 52). The majority of articles were basic science articles (n = 55), followed by clinical research studies (n = 28) and nonsystematic reviews (n = 17). Uncontrolled case series with level IV of evidence and narrative reviews with level V of evidence were the most frequent types of study design. The main topics covered by the top-cited articles were microleakage and endodontic microbiology. This analysis of citation rates reveals useful and interesting information about scientific progress in the field of endodontics. Basic research and observational studies published in high-impact endodontic journals had the highest citation rates. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. How Do Children Describe Spatial Relationships?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, M. V.; Richardson, J. Ryder

    1985-01-01

    Describes a study of children's production of locative prepositions in order to test H. Clark's hypotheses regarding the acquisition of spatial terms. Subjects were required to describe the spatial arrangement of two balls arranged in each of three spatial dimensions. (SED)

  6. Selected Fencing Articles. Sports Articles Reprint Series. First Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, Myrtis, Ed.

    This collection of articles on fencing is "The Division for Girls and Women's Sports (DGWS) Guides" 1946-1971 and the Second National Institute on Girls Sports. It is the latest in the American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation's Sports Articles Reprint Series, a special project of the Publications Area, DGWS.…

  7. SNS EXTRACTION KICKER SYSTEM AND FIRST ARTICLE BPFN TEST.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MI,J.; PAI,C.; DAVINO,D.; HAHN,H.; LAMBIASE,R.; LEE,Y.Y.; MENG,W.; SANDBERG,J.; TSOUPAS,N.; ZHANG,W.; WARBURTON,D.

    2002-06-03

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) extraction kicker system brings the proton beam from the accumulator ring through a beam transfer line into the target area. The 14 kicker magnets are located in one straight section. The kicker magnets are energized by 14 Blumlein type Pulse Forming Networks (BPFN). The first article of the SNS extraction kicker BPFN was assembled and tested at this laboratory. This paper describes the kicker BPFN system arrangement and parameters. The first article BPFN design and its main components used are explained. High voltage BPFN test results and the load current waveform are illustrated in this paper. Temperature measurements of the kicker ferrite blocks at full power showed only small or no heating. This paper discusses the modifications to the BPFN design, such as a saturating inductor and 25 Q termination, to minimize the transverse coupling impedance.

  8. Review Article: Instructed Second Language Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Norbert

    2008-01-01

    This article overviews current research on second language vocabulary learning. It concludes that a large vocabulary is necessary to function in English: 8000-9000 word families for reading, and perhaps as many as 5000-7000 families for oral discourse. In addition, a number of word knowledge aspects need to be learned about each lexical item.…

  9. An Auction Market for Journal Articles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prüfer, J.; Zetland, D.

    2007-01-01

    Economic articles are published very slowly. We believe this results from the poor incentives referees face. We recommend that an auction market replace the current, push system for submitting papers and demonstrate that our proposed market has a stable, Pareto-improving equilibrium. Besides the

  10. An Auction Market for Journal Articles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prüfer, J.; Zetland, D.

    2007-01-01

    Economic articles are published very slowly. We believe this results from the poor incentives referees face. We recommend that an auction market replace the current, push system for submitting papers and demonstrate that our proposed market has a stable, Pareto-improving equilibrium. Besides the ben

  11. An Auction Market for Journal Articles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prüfer, J.; Zetland, D.

    2007-01-01

    Economic articles are published very slowly. We believe this results mainly from the poor incentives referees face. We recommend that an auction market replace the current system for submitting papers and demonstrate a strict Pareto-improvement of equilibrium. Besides the benefits of speed, this mec

  12. Did goethe describe attention deficit hyperactivity disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonazza, Sara; Scaglione, Cesa; Poppi, Massimo; Rizzo, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    As early as 1846, the typical symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were described by Heinrich Hoffmann (1809-1894). However, in Goethe's masterpiece Faust (1832), the character of Euphorion strongly suggests ADHD diagnosis.

  13. describing a collaborative clothing design process between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    ISSN 0378-5254 Journal of Family Ecology and Consumer Sciences, Vol 43, 2015. Designing success: describing a ... PROCESS BETWEEN APPRENTICE DESIGNERS AND EXPERT DESIGN ...... decision-making. Thinking Skills and ...

  14. Development of a citation style language CSL to describe the formatting of citations, notes and bibliographies of agricultural scientific articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Cervantes Beyra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo de ficheros de estilos bibliográficos que puedan ser acoplados a gestores de información científica, es una opción viable para reducir los errores en forma de los artículos que se presentan en las revistas de corte agropecuario. En ocasiones, los comités editoriales se ven envueltos en tediosos trabajos de corrección bibliográfica que muchas veces terminan con la devolución de numerosos documentos por este motivo. Los estilos CSL (procesadores de citas, notas y bibliografías permiten realizar el asentamiento automático de las referencias utilizadas según las exigencias de cada revista y pueden ser cargados por una amplia gama gestores de reconocida preferencia; por lo que constituyen una potente e indispensable herramienta en la elaboración de documentos científicos. Es por ello que el objetivo de este trabajo fue confeccionar un lenguaje de estilo de citas CSL basado en la norma ISO 690:2010 para asentar la bibliografía de los artículos presentados en la Revista Ciencias Técnicas Agropecuarias (RCTA. Para la confección del mismo se utilizó el esquema CSL v1.0, con lenguaje XML, formato de codificación de caracteres utf-8 y tipo de citas en texto autor-año. Las operaciones de edición y validación se realizaron a través del editor de texto plano Notepad++ v4.7.5, el Visual CSL Editor (online y el Validator.nu (online. Como resultado se obtuvo un fichero CSL compatible con 25 gestores bibliográficos que permite asentar de manera automática la bibliografía de los artículos científicos agropecuarios de RCTA, según las directrices de la norma ISO 690:2010.

  15. What relates newspaper, definite, and clothing? An article describing deficits in convergent problem solving and creativity following hippocampal damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, David E; Kurczek, Jake; Duff, Melissa C

    2016-07-01

    Creativity relies on a diverse set of cognitive processes associated with distinct neural correlates, and one important aspect of creativity, divergent thinking, has been associated with the hippocampus. However, hippocampal contributions to another important aspect of creativity, convergent problem solving, have not been investigated. We tested the necessity of hippocampus for convergent problem solving using a neuropsychological method. Participants with amnesia due to hippocampal damage (N = 5) and healthy normal comparison participants (N = 5) were tested using a task that promoted solutions based on existing knowledge (Bowden and Jung-Beeman, 2003). During each trial, participants were given a list of three words (e.g., fly, man, place) and asked to respond with a word that could be combined with each of the three words (e.g., fire). The amnesic group produced significantly fewer correct responses than the healthy comparison group. These findings indicate that the hippocampus is necessary for normal convergent problem solving and that changes in the status of the hippocampus should affect convergent problem solving in the context of creative problem-solving across short intervals. This proposed contribution of the hippocampus to convergent problem solving is consistent with an expanded perspective on hippocampal function that acknowledges its role in cognitive processes beyond declarative memory. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Status and trends in the development of Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) - a review of international articles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Mads; Gertsen, Frank; Christiansen, Thomas Bøhm

    2004-01-01

    on extensive reviews of international research articles this article focuses on TPM as a conceptin order to detect the development process and current status of the concept. The first part is an introduction where TPM is compared with "TQM", "BPR" and Lean Manufacturing. The second part describes......Corporate continuous innovation efforts are often guided by (more or less) customized standard management concepts such as "TQM", "BPR" or "Lean". The focus of this article, Total Productive Maintenance (TPM), is a contemporary example of such a concept. Although the concept first appeared more...

  17. Do TEFL Articles Solve Problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edge, Julian

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the problem which English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) teacher trainees who are nonnative English speakers have in reading articles about EFL teaching methods. As a solution to this problem, the author produced a worksheet for the students to fill in while reading the articles which followed Hoey's…

  18. Quantum formalism to describe binocular rivalry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manousakis, Efstratios

    2009-11-01

    On the basis of the general character and operation of the process of perception, a formalism is sought to mathematically describe the subjective or abstract/mental process of perception. It is shown that the formalism of orthodox quantum theory of measurement, where the observer plays a key role, is a broader mathematical foundation which can be adopted to describe the dynamics of the subjective experience. The mathematical formalism describes the psychophysical dynamics of the subjective or cognitive experience as communicated to us by the subject. Subsequently, the formalism is used to describe simple perception processes and, in particular, to describe the probability distribution of dominance duration obtained from the testimony of subjects experiencing binocular rivalry. Using this theory and parameters based on known values of neuronal oscillation frequencies and firing rates, the calculated probability distribution of dominance duration of rival states in binocular rivalry under various conditions is found to be in good agreement with available experimental data. This theory naturally explains an observed marked increase in dominance duration in binocular rivalry upon periodic interruption of stimulus and yields testable predictions for the distribution of perceptual alteration in time.

  19. Recently described neoplasms of the sinonasal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Justin A

    2016-03-01

    Surgical pathology of the sinonasal region (i.e., nasal cavity and the paranasal sinuses) is notoriously difficult, due in part to the remarkable diversity of neoplasms that may be encountered in this area. In addition, a number of neoplasms have been only recently described in the sinonasal tract, further compounding the difficulty for pathologists who are not yet familiar with them. This manuscript will review the clinicopathologic features of some of the recently described sinonasal tumor types: NUT midline carcinoma, HPV-related carcinoma with adenoid cystic-like features, SMARCB1 (INI-1) deficient sinonasal carcinoma, biphenotypic sinonasal sarcoma, and adamantinoma-like Ewing family tumor.

  20. A3 Subscale Diffuser Test Article Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, G. P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper gives a detailed description of the design of the A3 Subscale Diffuser Test (SDT) Article Design. The subscale diffuser is a geometrically accurate scale model of the A3 altitude rocket facility. It was designed and built to support the SDT risk mitigation project located at the E3 facility at Stennis Space Center, MS (SSC) supporting the design and construction of the A3 facility at SSC. The subscale test article is outfitted with a large array of instrumentation to support the design verification of the A3 facility. The mechanical design of the subscale diffuser and test instrumentation are described here

  1. Two-dimensional ranking of Wikipedia articles

    CERN Document Server

    Zhirov, A O; Shepelyansky, D L

    2010-01-01

    The Library of Babel, described by Jorge Luis Borges, stores an enormous amount of information. The Library exists {\\it ab aeterno}. Wikipedia, a free online encyclopaedia, becomes a modern analogue of such a Library. Information retrieval and ranking of Wikipedia articles become the challenge of modern society. We analyze the properties of two-dimensional ranking of all Wikipedia English articles and show that it gives their reliable classification with rich and nontrivial features. Detailed studies are done for countries, universities, personalities, physicists, chess players, Dow-Jones companies and other categories.

  2. Disposition of recently described species of Penicillium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frisvad, Jens C.; Samson, Robert A.; Stolk, Amelia C.

    1990-01-01

    Hundred and twenty-two species, varieties, and new combinations of Penicillium, Eupenicillium, and Talaromyces described since 1977 have been studied taxonomically and screened for mycotoxin production. Only 48 taxa could be accepted: Eupenicillium angustiporcatum, E. cryptum, E. lineolatum, E. limo

  3. Disposition of recently described species of Penicillium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frisvad, Jens C.; Samson, Robert A.; Stolk, Amelia C.

    1990-01-01

    Hundred and twenty-two species, varieties, and new combinations of Penicillium, Eupenicillium, and Talaromyces described since 1977 have been studied taxonomically and screened for mycotoxin production. Only 48 taxa could be accepted: Eupenicillium angustiporcatum, E. cryptum, E. lineolatum, E. limo

  4. How Digital Native Learners Describe Themselves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Penny

    2015-01-01

    Eight university students from the "digital native" generation were interviewed about the connections they saw between technology use and learning, and also their reactions to the popular press claims about their generation. Themes that emerged from the interviews were coded to show patterns in how digital natives describe themselves.…

  5. Is the Water Heating Curve as Described?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveros, H. G.; Oliva, A. I.

    2008-01-01

    We analysed the heating curve of water which is described in textbooks. An experiment combined with some simple heat transfer calculations is discussed. The theoretical behaviour can be altered by changing the conditions under which the experiment is modelled. By identifying and controlling the different parameters involved during the heating…

  6. Published journal article with data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — published journal article. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Schumacher, B., J. Zimmerman, J. Elliot, and G. Swanson. The Effect of...

  7. Articles comprising ferritic stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakowski, James M.

    2016-06-28

    An article of manufacture comprises a ferritic stainless steel that includes a near-surface region depleted of silicon relative to a remainder of the ferritic stainless steel. The article has a reduced tendency to form an electrically resistive silica layer including silicon derived from the steel when the article is subjected to high temperature oxidizing conditions. The ferritic stainless steel is selected from the group comprising AISI Type 430 stainless steel, AISI Type 439 stainless steel, AISI Type 441 stainless steel, AISI Type 444 stainless steel, and E-BRITE.RTM. alloy, also known as UNS 44627 stainless steel. In certain embodiments, the article of manufacture is a fuel cell interconnect for a solid oxide fuel cell.

  8. A Dualistic Model To Describe Computer Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitezki, Peter; Engel, Michael

    1985-07-01

    The Dualistic Model for Computer Architecture Description uses a hierarchy of abstraction levels to describe a computer in arbitrary steps of refinement from the top of the user interface to the bottom of the gate level. In our Dualistic Model the description of an architecture may be divided into two major parts called "Concept" and "Realization". The Concept of an architecture on each level of the hierarchy is an Abstract Data Type that describes the functionality of the computer and an implementation of that data type relative to the data type of the next lower level of abstraction. The Realization on each level comprises a language describing the means of user interaction with the machine, and a processor interpreting this language in terms of the language of the lower level. The surface of each hierarchical level, the data type and the language express the behaviour of a ma-chine at this level, whereas the implementation and the processor describe the structure of the algorithms and the system. In this model the Principle of Operation maps the object and computational structure of the Concept onto the structures of the Realization. Describing a system in terms of the Dualistic Model is therefore a process of refinement starting at a mere description of behaviour and ending at a description of structure. This model has proven to be a very valuable tool in exploiting the parallelism in a problem and it is very transparent in discovering the points where par-allelism is lost in a special architecture. It has successfully been used in a project on a survey of Computer Architecture for Image Processing and Pattern Analysis in Germany.

  9. The scentscape: An integrative framework describing scents in servicescapes

    OpenAIRE

    Girard, Marc; Girard, Anna; Suppin, Anna-Caroline; Bartsch, Silke

    2016-01-01

    The systematic use of ambient scents is a trend in service companies that is accompanied by increasing research attention. However, we lack a theoretical framework that ad-dresses ambient scents' specific role in physical surroundings of services. Thus, this article develops the 'scentscape', a model that describes the process of olfactory stimulation and its impacts on customers and employees in service environments. The paper extends Bitner's servicescape model (1992) and combines it with G...

  10. LiveDescribe: Can Amateur Describers Create High-Quality Audio Description?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branje, Carmen J.; Fels, Deborah I.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The study presented here evaluated the usability of the audio description software LiveDescribe and explored the acceptance rates of audio description created by amateur describers who used LiveDescribe to facilitate the creation of their descriptions. Methods: Twelve amateur describers with little or no previous experience with…

  11. Sci-Hub: What Librarians Should Know and Do about Article Piracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Matthew B

    2017-01-01

    The high cost of journal articles has driven many researchers to turn to a new way of getting access: "pirate" article sites. Sci-Hub, the largest and best known of these sites, currently offers instant access to more than 58 million journal articles. Users attracted by the ease of use and breadth of the collection may not realize that these articles are often obtained using stolen credentials and downloading them may be illegal. This article will briefly describe Sci-Hub and how it works, the legal and ethical issues it raises, and the problems it may cause for librarians. Librarians should be aware of Sci-Hub and the ways it may change their patrons' expectations. They should also understand the risks Sci-Hub can pose to their patrons and their institutions.

  12. Frameworks for understanding and describing business models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian; Roslender, Robin

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides in a chronological fashion an introduction to six frameworks that one can apply to describing, understanding and also potentially innovating business models. These six frameworks have been chosen carefully as they represent six very different perspectives on business models ...... Maps (2001) • Intellectual Capital Statements (2003) • Chesbrough’s framework for Open Business Models (2006) • Business Model Canvas (2008)......This chapter provides in a chronological fashion an introduction to six frameworks that one can apply to describing, understanding and also potentially innovating business models. These six frameworks have been chosen carefully as they represent six very different perspectives on business models...... and in this manner “complement” each other. There are a multitude of varying frameworks that could be chosen from and we urge the reader to search and trial these for themselves. The six chosen models (year of release in parenthesis) are: • Service-Profit Chain (1994) • Strategic Systems Auditing (1997) • Strategy...

  13. Modeling Approaches for Describing Microbial Population Heterogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lencastre Fernandes, Rita

    , ethanol and biomass throughout the reactor. This work has proven that the integration of CFD and population balance models, for describing the growth of a microbial population in a spatially heterogeneous reactor, is feasible, and that valuable insight on the interplay between flow and the dynamics......Although microbial populations are typically described by averaged properties, individual cells present a certain degree of variability. Indeed, initially clonal microbial populations develop into heterogeneous populations, even when growing in a homogeneous environment. A heterogeneous microbial......) to predict distributions of certain population properties including particle size, mass or volume, and molecular weight. Similarly, PBM allow for a mathematical description of distributed cell properties within microbial populations. Cell total protein content distributions (a measure of cell mass) have been...

  14. On Gaussian Beams Described by Jacobi's Equation

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Steven Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Gaussian beams describe the amplitude and phase of rays and are widely used to model acoustic propagation. This paper describes four new results in the theory of Gaussian beams. (1) It is shown that the \\v{C}erven\\'y equations for the amplitude and phase are equivalent to the classical Jacobi Equation of differential geometry. The \\v{C}erven\\'y equations describe Gaussian beams using Hamilton-Jacobi theory, whereas the Jacobi Equation expresses how Gaussian and Riemannian curvature determine geodesic flow on a Riemannian manifold. Thus the paper makes a fundamental connection between Gaussian beams and an acoustic channel's so-called intrinsic Gaussian curvature from differential geometry. (2) A new formula $\\pi(c/c")^{1/2}$ for the distance between convergence zones is derived and applied to several well-known profiles. (3) A class of "model spaces" are introduced that connect the acoustics of ducting/divergence zones with the channel's Gaussian curvature $K=cc"-(c')^2$. The "model" SSPs yield constant Gauss...

  15. Exploring the evidence in pediatric hematology and oncology nursing through the "article of the month".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Lauri

    2010-01-01

    As the scope of pediatric hematology and oncology nursing expands, nurses are challenged with staying current in the evidence guiding their practice. Nurse-reported barriers to accessing and utilizing research include lack of time as well as difficulty in accessing, understanding, and synthesizing findings. Journal clubs provide a process to guide nurses in the review of current literature related to their practice and promote utilization of research and evidence-based practice among nurses. This article describes the transition of an in-person journal club to an electronically delivered "Article of the Month." The "Article of the Month" is offered six times each year and is posted on the service line's password-protected intranet website. Oversight of the "Article of the Month" is provided by the service line clinical nurse specialist who selects articles based on an annual learning needs assessment and develops a quiz to assess learning and promote critical thinking among nursing staff. Outcomes include anecdotal reports of increased staff confidence in managing emergent patient care needs and greater appreciation of nursing care issues for children with cancer. Areas for future development include exploring options for increasing in-person discussion of issues addressed in the "Article of the Month" among staff members, extending the "Article of the Month" to nurses in other service areas who care for children with cancer, and increasing staff participation in article selection and quiz item development. An ultimate goal is to develop formal evaluation strategies to link this educational strategy to clinical outcomes.

  16. Understanding shared services (Article 1 of 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Van der Linde

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Shared services is a viable business model that can be used by organisations to reduce costs and enhance efficiency and effectiveness in the organisation. The purpose of this trilogy of articles is to introduce shared services as a business model, and how to efficiently and effectively manage a shared services business unit. The purpose of the first article in the trilogy, introduces shared services as a business model, defines what shared services is, the transformation required to successfully implement a shared services business model, as well as the benefits that can be derived from implementing a shared services business model. Methodology: A comprehensive literature study was conducted in order to: - Define and describe shared services as a business model, - Compare shared services with centralisation and de-centralisation, - Determine and describe the transformation required to successfully implement shared services. Findings: In the article, a framework is generated to help organisations understand the business concept of shared services. This work has further potential: when applied correctly, there are both tangible and intangible benefits that can be accrued above cost savings. Implications: The findings of this article are important for organisations that are in the process of implementing or have implemented shared services, as it will assist the organisation in determining if shared services is the correct business model for them to implement. Value: This article provides an understanding of shared services and the business environment required to successfully implement a shared services business model. Value created by a shared services business model is further enhanced once the organisation has embarked on the successful implementation of a shared services business model, which is the primary objective of the second article, Implementation and continuous evolution in shared services.

  17. Developing a Conceptual Article for Publication in Counseling Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    This article seeks to help authors better understand the purpose, process, and procedures for developing a conceptual manuscript for publication in counseling journals. The author explains the basis of a conceptual article, discusses how authors may generate ideas for writing such articles, and describes a process for developing a conceptual…

  18. Learning to Read Empirical Articles in General Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sego, Sandra A.; Stuart, Anne E.

    2016-01-01

    Many students, particularly underprepared students, struggle to identify the essential information in empirical articles. We describe a set of assignments for instructing general psychology students to dissect the structure of such articles. Students in General Psychology I read empirical articles and answered a set of general, factual questions…

  19. Learning to Read Empirical Articles in General Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sego, Sandra A.; Stuart, Anne E.

    2016-01-01

    Many students, particularly underprepared students, struggle to identify the essential information in empirical articles. We describe a set of assignments for instructing general psychology students to dissect the structure of such articles. Students in General Psychology I read empirical articles and answered a set of general, factual questions…

  20. Using fundamental equations to describe basic phenomena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Arne; Rasmussen, Bjarne D.

    1999-01-01

    constraining the total charge of refrigerant in the system, which is missing.In traditional mathematical modelling of a refrigeration cycle/system, the influence from the total charge of refrigerant on the system behaviour is normally not modelled explicitly. Instead, parameters such as superheat......When the fundamental thermodynamic balance equations (mass, energy, and momentum) are used to describe the processes in a simple refrigeration system, then one finds that the resulting equation system will have a degree of freedom equal to one. Further investigations reveal that it is the equation...... and the before mentioned parameters. In doing so, a systematic use of control volumes for modelling a refrigeration system is outlined....

  1. Classification system to describe workpieces definitions

    CERN Document Server

    Macconnell, W R

    2013-01-01

    A Classification System to Describe Workpieces provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects and principles of coding. This book discusses the various applications of the classification system of coding.Organized into three chapters, this book begins with an overview of the requirements of a system of classification pertaining adequately and equally to design, production, and work planning. This text then examines the purpose of the classification system in production to determine the most suitable means of machining a component. Other chapters consider the optimal utilization of m

  2. Mining Related Articles for Automatic Journal Cataloging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqing Mao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper is an investigation of the effectiveness of the method of clustering biomedical journals through mining the content similarity of journal articles. Design/methodology/approach: 3,265 journals in PubMed are analyzed based on article content similarity and Web usage, respectively. Comparisons of the two analysis approaches and a citation-based approach are given. Findings: Our results suggest that article content similarity is useful for clustering biomedical journals, and the content-similarity-based journal clustering method is more robust and less subject to human factors compared with the usage-based approach and the citation-based approach. Research limitations: Our paper currently focuses on clustering journals in the biomedical domain because there are a large volume of freely available resources such as PubMed and MeSH in this field. Further investigation is needed to improve this approach to fit journals in other domains. Practical implications: Our results show that it is feasible to catalog biomedical journals by mining the article content similarity. This work is also significant in serving practical needs in research portfolio analysis. Originality/value: To the best of our knowledge, we are among the first to report on clustering journals in the biomedical field through mining the article content similarity. This method can be integrated with existing approaches to create a new paradigm for future studies of journal clustering.

  3. Dissertation to Journal Article: A Systematic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brychan Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to elucidate a systematic approach to convert a Masters dissertation into a journal article. This approach has involved a fundamental thematic review of the literature concerning the conversion of dissertations into journal articles. From these sources pertinent approaches, processes, lessons, and guidance have been noted and analysed. By undertaking this distillation of relevant material, to enable the efficient conversion of dissertations into journal articles, appropriate procedures and conclusions have been compiled. Findings present current thinking on the conversion of a dissertation into a journal paper in terms of how dissertations differ from journal articles, reframing for publication, rethinking the material, trimming the length, time taken to rewrite the material, specific lessons, and adapting for publication. Recommendations provided in the paper will enable staff to take this course of action when developing their publication portfolio to become more research active and to make an important contribution to the publication output of their department/school/faculty, especially with regard to assessment exercises such as the Research Excellence Framework. The value of the paper is that by following appropriate approaches, processes, and procedures it is possible to convert a good dissertation into a ranked journal article.

  4. Is an eclipse described in the Odyssey?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baikouzis, Constantino; Magnasco, Marcelo O

    2008-07-01

    Plutarch and Heraclitus believed a certain passage in the 20th book of the Odyssey ("Theoclymenus's prophecy") to be a poetic description of a total solar eclipse. In the late 1920s, Schoch and Neugebauer computed that the solar eclipse of 16 April 1178 B.C.E. was total over the Ionian Islands and was the only suitable eclipse in more than a century to agree with classical estimates of the decade-earlier sack of Troy around 1192-1184 B.C.E. However, much skepticism remains about whether the verses refer to this, or any, eclipse. To contribute to the issue independently of the disputed eclipse reference, we analyze other astronomical references in the Epic, without assuming the existence of an eclipse, and search for dates matching the astronomical phenomena we believe they describe. We use three overt astronomical references in the epic: to Boötes and the Pleiades, Venus, and the New Moon; we supplement them with a conjectural identification of Hermes's trip to Ogygia as relating to the motion of planet Mercury. Performing an exhaustive search of all possible dates in the span 1250-1115 B.C., we looked to match these phenomena in the order and manner that the text describes. In that period, a single date closely matches our references: 16 April 1178 B.C.E. We speculate that these references, plus the disputed eclipse reference, may refer to that specific eclipse.

  5. Using neural networks to describe tracer correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Lary

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Neural networks are ideally suited to describe the spatial and temporal dependence of tracer-tracer correlations. The neural network performs well even in regions where the correlations are less compact and normally a family of correlation curves would be required. For example, the CH4-N2O correlation can be well described using a neural network trained with the latitude, pressure, time of year, and methane volume mixing ratio (v.m.r.. In this study a neural network using Quickprop learning and one hidden layer with eight nodes was able to reproduce the CH4-N2O correlation with a correlation coefficient between simulated and training values of 0.9995. Such an accurate representation of tracer-tracer correlations allows more use to be made of long-term datasets to constrain chemical models. Such as the dataset from the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE which has continuously observed CH4  (but not N2O from 1991 till the present. The neural network Fortran code used is available for download.

  6. On Redundancy in Describing Linguistic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Borissov Pericliev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available On Redundancy in Describing Linguistic Systems The notion of system of linguistic elements figures prominently in most post-Saussurian linguistics up to the present. A “system” is the network of the contrastive (or, distinctive features each element in the system bears to the remaining elements. The meaning (valeur of each element in the system is the set of features that are necessary and jointly sufficient to distinguish this element from all others. The paper addresses the problems of “redundancy”, i.e. the occurrence of features that are not strictly necessary in describing an element in a system. Redundancy is shown to smuggle into the description of linguistic systems, this infelicitous practice illustrated with some examples from the literature (e.g. the classical phonemic analysis of Russian by Cherry, Halle, and Jakobson, 1953. The logic and psychology of the occurrence of redundancy are briefly sketched and it is shown that, in addition to some other problems, redundancy leads to a huge and unresolvable ambiguity of descriptions of linguistic systems (the Buridan’s ass problem.

  7. Linguistic terms describing different types of armour in Persian manuscripts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshtagh Khorasani, Manouchehr

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article investigates different terms describing armour and its diverse typology in Persian martial tradition taken from a selected number of 47 dated Persian manuscripts from the 10th to the 19th centuries C.E. Both human and animal armour used in battlefields are described.

    El presente artículo describe, a partir de 47 manuscritos persas datados entre el siglo X y el siglo XIX d.C., los diversos términos que han designado las armaduras y sus diversas tipologías en la tradición marcial persa, tanto en lo que se refiere a armaduras para hombres como aquellas elaboradas para los animales de batalla.

  8. Review article: medical education research: an overview of methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boet, Sylvain; Sharma, Saroo; Goldman, Joanne; Reeves, Scott

    2012-02-01

    This article provides clinician-teachers with an overview of the process necessary to move from an initial idea to the conceptualization and implementation of an empirical study in the field of medical education. This article will allow clinician-teachers to become familiar with educational research methodology in order to a) critically appraise education research studies and apply evidence-based education more effectively to their practice and b) initiate or collaborate in medical education research. This review uses relevant articles published in the fields of medicine, education, psychology, and sociology before October 2011. The focus of the majority of research in medical education has been on reporting outcomes related to participants. There has been less assessment of patient care outcomes, resulting in informing evidence-based education to only a limited extent. This article explains the process necessary to develop a focused and relevant education research question and emphasizes the importance of theory in medical education research. It describes a range of methodologies, including quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods, and concludes with a discussion of dissemination of research findings. A majority of studies currently use quantitative methods. This article highlights how further use of qualitative methods can provide insight into the nuances and complexities of learning and teaching processes. Research in medical education requires several successive steps, from formulating the correct research question to deciding the method for dissemination. Each approach has advantages and disadvantages and should be chosen according to the question being asked and the specific goal of the study. Well-conducted education research should allow progression towards the important goal of using evidence-based education in our teaching and institutions.

  9. Quality Improvement of Concrete Articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svatovskaya Larisa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper it is shown that quality of concrete articles and structures may be significantly improved by silica sol solution absorption. Improvements include increase of compressive strength, resistance to low temperatures, coefficient of constructive quality, decrease of water sorption, contraction. The reason of improvement is discussed.

  10. BALLISTIC RESISTANT ARTICLES COMPRISING TAPES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VAN DER EEM, JORIS; HARINGS, JULES; JANSE, GERARDUS; TJADEN, HENDRIK

    2015-01-01

    The invention pertains to a ballistic-resistant moulded article comprising a compressed stack of sheets comprising reinforcing tapes having a tensile strength of at least 1.0 GPa, a tensile modulus of at least 40 GPa, and a tensile energy-to-break of at least 15 J/g, the direction of the tapes withi

  11. BALLISTIC RESISTANT ARTICLES COMPRISING TAPES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VAN DER EEM, JORIS; HARINGS, JULES; JANSE, GERARDUS; TJADEN, HENDRIK

    2015-01-01

    The invention pertains to a ballistic-resistant moulded article comprising a compressed stack of sheets comprising reinforcing tapes having a tensile strength of at least 1.0 GPa, a tensile modulus of at least 40 GPa, and a tensile energy-to-break of at least 15 J/g, the direction of the tapes

  12. Acta Electronica Sinica (Selected Articles),

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-11-07

    ELECTRONICA SINICA’ (Selected Articles) ,_ "_ "-_ CD) .. " -81984 Approved for public release;, distribution unlimitd.. .ts.% .** ** **- ,-*** *o. *;. .s...34 - - - 20 FTD-ID(RST- 1227-84 EDITED TRANSLATION_ FTD-ID(RS )T- k227-84 7 November 1984 MICROFICHE NR: FTD-84-C-001068 ACTA ELECTRONICA SINICA

  13. Article choice in plural generics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farkas, D.F.; Swart, Henriëtte de

    2007-01-01

    We discuss two groups of languages where article use contrasts in generic plural sentences but is otherwise essentially similar. The languages in the first group (English and Dutch) use bare plurals in the expression of kind reference (‘Dinosaurs are extinct’) and in generic generalizations (‘Dogs a

  14. Stimulated recall interviews for describing pragmatic epistemology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubert, Christopher W.; Meredith, Dawn C.

    2015-12-01

    Students' epistemologies affect how and what they learn: do they believe physics is a list of equations, or a coherent and sensible description of the physical world? In order to study these epistemologies as part of curricular assessment, we adopt the resources framework, which posits that students have many productive epistemological resources that can be brought to bear as they learn physics. In previous studies, these epistemologies have been either inferred from behavior in learning contexts or probed through surveys or interviews outside of the learning context. We argue that stimulated recall interviews provide a contextually and interpretively valid method to access students' epistemologies that complement existing methods. We develop a stimulated recall interview methodology to assess a curricular intervention and find evidence that epistemological resources aptly describe student epistemologies.

  15. A Semantic Approach to Describe Geospatial Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Sidney Roberto

    Geographic information systems (GIS) are increasingly using geospatial data from the Web to produce geographic information. One big challenge is to find the relevant data, which often is based on keywords or even file names. However, these approaches lack semantics. Thus, it is necessary to provide mechanisms to prepare data to help retrieval of semantically relevant data. This paper proposes an approach to attack this problem. This approach is based on semantic annotations that use geographic metadata and ontologies to describe heterogeneous geospatial data. Semantic annotations are RDF/XML files that rely on a FGDC metadata schema, filled with appropriate ontology terms, and stored in a XML database. The proposal is illustrated by a case study of semantic annotations of agricultural resources, using domain ontologies.

  16. Does Guru Granth Sahib describe depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Gurvinder; Bhui, Kamaldeep; Bhugra, Dinesh

    2013-01-01

    Sikhism is a relatively young religion, with Guru Granth Sahib as its key religious text. This text describes emotions in everyday life, such as happiness, sadness, anger, hatred, and also more serious mental health issues such as depression and psychosis. There are references to the causation of these emotional disturbances and also ways to get out of them. We studied both the Gurumukhi version and the English translation of the Guru Granth Sahib to understand what it had to say about depression, its henomenology, and religious prescriptions for recovery. We discuss these descriptions in this paper and understand its meaning within the context of clinical depression. Such knowledge is important as explicit descriptions about depression and sadness can help encourage culturally appropriate assessment and treatment, as well as promote public health through education.

  17. Using default inheritance to describe LTAG

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, R; Weir, D; Evans, Roger; Gazdar, Gerald; Weir, David

    1995-01-01

    We present the results of an investigation into how the set of elementary trees of a Lexicalized Tree Adjoining Grammar can be represented in the lexical knowledge representation language DATR (Evans & Gazdar 1989a,b). The LTAG under consideration is based on the one described in Abeille et al. (1990). Our approach is similar to that of Vijay-Shanker & Schabes (1992) in that we formulate an inheritance hierarchy that efficiently encodes the elementary trees. However, rather than creating a new representation formalism for this task, we employ techniques of established utility in other lexically-oriented frameworks. In particular, we show how DATR's default mechanism can be used to eliminate the need for a non-immediate dominance relation in the descriptions of the surface LTAG entries. This allows us to embed the tree structures in the feature theory in a manner reminiscent of HPSG subcategorisation frames, and hence express lexical rules as relations over feature structures.

  18. Describing Ecosystem Complexity through Integrated Catchment Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shope, C. L.; Tenhunen, J. D.; Peiffer, S.

    2011-12-01

    Land use and climate change have been implicated in reduced ecosystem services (ie: high quality water yield, biodiversity, and agricultural yield. The prediction of ecosystem services expected under future land use decisions and changing climate conditions has become increasingly important. Complex policy and management decisions require the integration of physical, economic, and social data over several scales to assess effects on water resources and ecology. Field-based meteorology, hydrology, soil physics, plant production, solute and sediment transport, economic, and social behavior data were measured in a South Korean catchment. A variety of models are being used to simulate plot and field scale experiments within the catchment. Results from each of the local-scale models provide identification of sensitive, local-scale parameters which are then used as inputs into a large-scale watershed model. We used the spatially distributed SWAT model to synthesize the experimental field data throughout the catchment. The approach of our study was that the range in local-scale model parameter results can be used to define the sensitivity and uncertainty in the large-scale watershed model. Further, this example shows how research can be structured for scientific results describing complex ecosystems and landscapes where cross-disciplinary linkages benefit the end result. The field-based and modeling framework described is being used to develop scenarios to examine spatial and temporal changes in land use practices and climatic effects on water quantity, water quality, and sediment transport. Development of accurate modeling scenarios requires understanding the social relationship between individual and policy driven land management practices and the value of sustainable resources to all shareholders.

  19. Beyond captions: linking figures with abstract sentences in biomedical articles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph P Bockhorst

    Full Text Available Although figures in scientific articles have high information content and concisely communicate many key research findings, they are currently under utilized by literature search and retrieval systems. Many systems ignore figures, and those that do not typically only consider caption text. This study describes and evaluates a fully automated approach for associating figures in the body of a biomedical article with sentences in its abstract. We use supervised methods to learn probabilistic language models, hidden Markov models, and conditional random fields for predicting associations between abstract sentences and figures. Three kinds of evidence are used: text in abstract sentences and figures, relative positions of sentences and figures, and the patterns of sentence/figure associations across an article. Each information source is shown to have predictive value, and models that use all kinds of evidence are more accurate than models that do not. Our most accurate method has an F1-score of 69% on a cross-validation experiment, is competitive with the accuracy of human experts, has significantly better predictive accuracy than state-of-the-art methods and enables users to access figures associated with an abstract sentence with an average of 1.82 fewer mouse clicks. A user evaluation shows that human users find our system beneficial. The system is available at http://FigureItOut.askHERMES.org.

  20. Beyond captions: linking figures with abstract sentences in biomedical articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockhorst, Joseph P; Conroy, John M; Agarwal, Shashank; O'Leary, Dianne P; Yu, Hong

    2012-01-01

    Although figures in scientific articles have high information content and concisely communicate many key research findings, they are currently under utilized by literature search and retrieval systems. Many systems ignore figures, and those that do not typically only consider caption text. This study describes and evaluates a fully automated approach for associating figures in the body of a biomedical article with sentences in its abstract. We use supervised methods to learn probabilistic language models, hidden Markov models, and conditional random fields for predicting associations between abstract sentences and figures. Three kinds of evidence are used: text in abstract sentences and figures, relative positions of sentences and figures, and the patterns of sentence/figure associations across an article. Each information source is shown to have predictive value, and models that use all kinds of evidence are more accurate than models that do not. Our most accurate method has an F1-score of 69% on a cross-validation experiment, is competitive with the accuracy of human experts, has significantly better predictive accuracy than state-of-the-art methods and enables users to access figures associated with an abstract sentence with an average of 1.82 fewer mouse clicks. A user evaluation shows that human users find our system beneficial. The system is available at http://FigureItOut.askHERMES.org.

  1. DESCRIBING LYMPHEDEMA IN FEMALES WITH TURNER SYNDROME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothbauer, J; Driver, S; Callender, L

    2015-09-01

    Turner syndrome (TS) is a chromosomal condition affecting an estimated 1 in 2,500 girls where the second X chromosome is missing, or partially formed. This abnormality affects multiple body systems and can lead to short stature, cardiac, neural, and renal abnormalities. Due to the chronic, non-life threatening nature of lymphedema in comparison to other symptoms of TS, it is often ignored by girls and women with TS and their physicians. Consequently, little is known about how lymphedema affects girls and women with TS across the lifespan. Therefore, the objective of the study was to deliver an online survey for females with TS and caregivers in the US, UK, and Canada to provide a worldwide perspective on their current experience with lymphedema within the spectrum of TS. There were 219 participants who completed the survey, and we were able to identify incidence and characteristics of lymphedema across the lifespan. In addition, we found that females with 45,X karyotyping were more likely to report lymphedema symptoms. Lymphedema is not the most significant concern of females with TS, but education, physician evaluation, and assistance with referrals for treatment and management would improve the ease of managing lymphedema in girls and women with TS.

  2. Describing and Enhancing Collaboration at the Computer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Beatty

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Computer-based learning materials differ from classroom practice in that they seldom explicitly offer opportunities for collaboration. Despite this, students do collaborate, helping one another through the content and affordances of computer materials. But, in doing so, students meet with challenges. Paradoxically, these challenges can either inspire or discourage learning and second-language acquisition. This paper, based on research with twenty Hong Kong university students in a controlled experiment, evaluates challenges to collaboration at the computer as evidenced by discourse. The students were videotaped and their discourse transcribed and evaluated both qualitatively and quantitatively, according to a set of discourse markers created to describe collaborative, non-collaborative and ambiguous strategies. The paper begins by exploring the differences between collaboration and similar terms such as teamwork and cooperative learning then goes on to define collaboration in the context of computer-assisted learning. It ends by presenting practical suggestions for software designers, teachers and students to enhance collaboration at the computer.

  3. Can the genetic code be mathematically described?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Diego L

    2004-04-01

    From a mathematical point of view, the genetic code is a surjective mapping between the set of the 64 possible three-base codons and the set of 21 elements composed of the 20 amino acids plus the Stop signal. Redundancy and degeneracy therefore follow. In analogy with the genetic code, non-power integer-number representations are also surjective mappings between sets of different cardinality and, as such, also redundant. However, none of the non-power arithmetics studied so far nor other alternative redundant representations are able to match the actual degeneracy of the genetic code. In this paper we develop a slightly more general framework that leads to the following surprising results: i) the degeneracy of the genetic code is mathematically described, ii) a new symmetry is uncovered within this degeneracy, iii) by assigning a binary string to each of the codons, their classification into definite parity classes according to the corresponding sequence of bases is made possible. This last result is particularly appealing in connection with the fact that parity coding is the basis of the simplest strategies devised for error correction in man-made digital data transmission systems.

  4. Main Propulsion Test Article (MPTA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoddy, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Scope: The Main Propulsion Test Article integrated the main propulsion subsystem with the clustered Space Shuttle Main Engines, the External Tank and associated GSE. The test program consisted of cryogenic tanking tests and short- and long duration static firings including gimbaling and throttling. The test program was conducted on the S1-C test stand (Position B-2) at the National Space Technology Laboratories (NSTL)/Stennis Space Center. 3 tanking tests and 20 hot fire tests conducted between December 21 1 1977 and December 17, 1980 Configuration: The main propulsion test article consisted of the three space shuttle main engines, flightweight external tank, flightweight aft fuselage, interface section and a boilerplate mid/fwd fuselage truss structure.

  5. Bendix Mobility Test Article (MTA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    A concept of a possible Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) built by the Bendix Corporation for NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). This Mobility Test Article (MTA) is being inspected by a Bendix technician. The data provided by the MTA helped in designing the LRV, developed under the direction of MSFC. The LRV was designed to allow Apollo astronauts a greater range of mobility during lunar exploration missions.

  6. Grumman Mobility Test Article (MTA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    This Mobility Test Article (MTA) was a concept of a possible dual mode Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) built by the Grumman Industries for NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The data provided by the MTA helped in designing the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV), developed under the direction of MSFC. The LRV was designed to allow Apollo astronauts a greater range of mobility during lunar exploration missions.

  7. Exercise HIMALAYAN SERPENT: feedback article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, K; Mellor, A

    2015-01-01

    Exercise HIMALAYAN SERPENT was open to junior doctors from the United Kingdom (UK) Armed Forces and aimed to educate potential expedition doctors on aspects of high altitude and wilderness medicine as well as conducting adventurous training (AT) and medical research. This was the first time such an exercise had been undertaken and this article explores the views of those junior doctors taking part to assess whether the exercise met the aims and objectives it set out.

  8. Mass Observation Online (review article)

    OpenAIRE

    Hubble, N

    2010-01-01

    Copyright 2010 @ The Author. This article is shared under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike Licence Agreement. Under the terms of this Creative Commons licence (which applies only to the use of this work for non-commercial purposes), other parties are free to copy and distribute this work, and to make derivative works, under condition that the original author is given full credit, and that if this work is altered, transformed, or built upon, the resulting work may only ...

  9. Grumman Mobility Test Article (MTA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    This Mobility Test Article (MTA) was a concept of a possible dual mode Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) built by the Grumman Industries for NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The data provided by the MTA helped in designing the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV), developed under the direction of MSFC. The LRV was designed to allow Apollo astronauts a greater range of mobility during lunar exploration missions.

  10. Bendix Mobility Test Article (MTA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    A concept of a possible Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) built by the Bendix Corporation for NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). This Mobility Test Article (MTA) is being inspected by a Bendix technician. The data provided by the MTA helped in designing the LRV, developed under the direction of MSFC. The LRV was designed to allow Apollo astronauts a greater range of mobility during lunar exploration missions.

  11. Current possibilities for hip arthroplasty,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Cavalli Polesello

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Hip arthroscopy has been popularized over the last decade and, with technical advances regarding imaging diagnostics, understanding of the physiopathology or surgical techniques, several applications have been described. Both arthroscopy for intra-articular conditions and endoscopy for extra-articular procedures can be used in diagnosing or treating different conditions. This updated article has the objective of presenting the various current possibilities for hip arthroscopy.

  12. Can all neurobiological processes be described by classical physics?

    CERN Document Server

    Lisewski, A M

    1999-01-01

    We discuss results recently given in an article by M. Tegmark (quant-ph/9907009) where he argues that neurons can be described appropriately by pure classical physics. This letter is dedicated to the question if this is really the case when the role of dissipation and noise -- the two concurrent phenomena present in these biological structures -- is taken into account. We argue that dissipation and noise might well be of quantum origin and give also a possible reason why neural dynamics is not classical.

  13. Two-dimensional ranking of Wikipedia articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhirov, A. O.; Zhirov, O. V.; Shepelyansky, D. L.

    2010-10-01

    The Library of Babel, described by Jorge Luis Borges, stores an enormous amount of information. The Library exists ab aeterno. Wikipedia, a free online encyclopaedia, becomes a modern analogue of such a Library. Information retrieval and ranking of Wikipedia articles become the challenge of modern society. While PageRank highlights very well known nodes with many ingoing links, CheiRank highlights very communicative nodes with many outgoing links. In this way the ranking becomes two-dimensional. Using CheiRank and PageRank we analyze the properties of two-dimensional ranking of all Wikipedia English articles and show that it gives their reliable classification with rich and nontrivial features. Detailed studies are done for countries, universities, personalities, physicists, chess players, Dow-Jones companies and other categories.

  14. Online medical journal article layout analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jie; Le, Daniel; Thoma, George R.

    2007-01-01

    We describe a physical and logical layout analysis algorithm, which is applied to segment and label online medical journal articles (regular HTML and PDF-Converted-HTML files). For these articles, the geometric layout of the Web page is the most important cue for physical layout analysis. The key to physical layout analysis is then to render the HTML file in a Web browser, so that the visual information in zones (composed of one or a set of HTML DOM nodes), especially their relative position, can be utilized. The recursive X-Y cut algorithm is adopted to construct a hierarchical zone tree structure. In logical layout analysis, both geometric and linguistic features are used. The HTML documents are modeled by a Hidden Markov Model with 16 states, and the Viterbi algorithm is then used to find the optimal label sequence, concluding the logical layout analysis.

  15. Chronic prostatitis: Current concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Vaidyanathan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Chronic prostatitis (CP is a common condition. It causes significant suffering to the patients and constitutes a sizeable workload for the urologists. The purpose of this review is to describe the currently accepted concepts regarding the aspects of CP. Materials and Methods: Relevant papers on the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis, evaluation and management of CP were identified through a search of MEDLINE using text terms "prostatitis", "chronic prostatitis" and "chronic pelvic pain syndrome". The list of articles thus obtained was supplemented by manual search of bibliographies of the identified articles and also by exploring the MEDLINE option "Related Articles". Results: The salient points of the relevant articles on each aspect of CP have been summarized in the form of a non-systematic narrative review. Conclusion: Chronic prostatitis is caused by a variety of infective and non-infective factors and is characterized by a rather long remitting and relapsing clinical course. The diagnosis is based on symptoms comprising pain and nonspecific urinary and/or ejaculatory disturbances and microbiological tests to localize bacteria and/or leucocytes in segmented urinary tract specimens. The contemporary classification was proposed by the National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Diabetes Digestive Kidney Diseases (NIH/NIDDK. National Institutes of Health - Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI is the patient evaluation tool used extensively in clinical practice and research. Management should be individualized, multimodal and of an appropriate duration.

  16. Adventure Therapy: Current Status and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Dene

    1995-01-01

    Overviews articles in this issue that focus on the current status of adventure therapy and describe efforts aimed at defining a framework for conceptualizing adventure therapy. Notes changes in the field, including introduction of state laws requiring licensure of programs, the drive for program accreditation, and growing training opportunities in…

  17. Educational Technology: Effective Leadership and Current Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courville, Keith

    2011-01-01

    (Purpose) This article describes the basis for effective educational technology leadership and a few of the current initiatives and impacts that are a result of the aforementioned effective leadership. (Findings) Topics addressed in this paper include: (1) the role of the educational technology leader in an educational setting; (2) an examination…

  18. Dental ceramics: a current review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Nathaniel C; Burgess, John O

    2014-03-01

    Ceramics are used for many dental applications and are characterized in various ways, including by their hardness, brittleness, thermal and electrical insulation, and biocompatibility. The ceramics most commonly used in dentistry are oxides, particularly silicon dioxide (SiO2), or silica; aluminum oxide (Al2O3), or alumina; and zirconium dioxide (ZrO2), or zirconia. This article reviews the microstructure of current dental ceramic materials and how it relates to their mechanical properties, clinical techniques, and optical properties. Typical ceramics currently in use are described, and their clinically relevant properties such as strength, fracture, polishability, and wear are compared. Cementation methods are also discussed.

  19. Method of forming an HTS article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Raghu N.; Zhang, Xun; Selvamanickam, Venkat

    2014-08-19

    A method of forming a superconducting article includes providing a substrate tape, forming a superconducting layer overlying the substrate tape, and depositing a capping layer overlying the superconducting layer. The capping layer includes a noble metal and has a thickness not greater than about 1.0 micron. The method further includes electrodepositing a stabilizer layer overlying the capping layer using a solution that is non-reactive to the superconducting layer. The superconducting layer has an as-formed critical current I.sub.C(AF) and a post-stabilized critical current I.sub.C(PS). The I.sub.C(PS) is at least about 95% of the I.sub.C(AF).

  20. Mathematical Articles for the general public

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2003-01-01

    Report on an article competition for mathematical articles addressing the general public arranged by the European Mathematical Society.......Report on an article competition for mathematical articles addressing the general public arranged by the European Mathematical Society....

  1. Mathematical Articles for the general public

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2003-01-01

    Report on an article competition for mathematical articles addressing the general public arranged by the European Mathematical Society.......Report on an article competition for mathematical articles addressing the general public arranged by the European Mathematical Society....

  2. The 100 Most Influential Articles in Cervical Spine Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovrlj, Branko; Steinberger, Jeremy; Guzman, Javier Z; Overley, Samuel C; Qureshi, Sheeraz A; Caridi, John M; Cho, Samuel K

    2016-02-01

    Study Design Literature review. Objective To identify and analyze the top 100 cited articles in cervical spine surgery. Methods The Thomson Reuters Web of Knowledge was searched for citations of all articles relevant to cervical spine surgery. The number of citations, authorship, year of publication, journal of publication, country of publication, and institution were recorded for each article. Results The most cited article was the classic from 1991 by Vernon and Mior that described the Neck Disability Index. The second most cited was Smith's 1958 article describing the anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion procedure. The third most cited article was Hilibrand's 1999 publication evaluating the incidence, prevalence, and radiographic progression of symptomatic adjacent segment disease following anterior cervical arthrodesis. The majority of the articles originated in the United States (65), and most were published in Spine (39). Most articles were published in the 1990s (34), and the three most common topics were cervical fusion (17), surgical complications (9), and biomechanics (9), respectively. Author Abumi had four articles in the top 100 list, and authors Goffin, Panjabi, and Hadley had three each. The Department of Orthopaedic Surgery at Hokkaido University in Sapporo, Japan, had five articles in the top 100 list. Conclusion This report identifies the top 100 articles in cervical spine surgery and acknowledges those individuals who have contributed the most to the advancement of the study of the cervical spine and the body of knowledge used to guide evidence-based clinical decision making in cervical spine surgery today.

  3. Writing Science Fiction Stories to Motivate Analysis of Journal Articles

    CERN Document Server

    Kontur, F J

    2014-01-01

    For many students, college physics courses have little or even negative impact on their beliefs about the connection between physics and the everyday world. One way to help students see this connection is to incorporate analysis of science articles into the course. For introductory courses, one might have students discuss newspaper articles related to science or articles from popular science magazines while articles from peer-reviewed journals might be more appropriate for honors-level or upper-division courses. In this work, I describe a project done in a two-semester upper-division electricity and magnetism course at the United States Air Force Academy in which students were required to use the science from a peer-reviewed journal article to write a science fiction story. Although others have utilized science fiction stories in physics courses, this is the first article to describe a project in which students write their own science fiction stories in a physics course.

  4. Revised article: Business Ideas Competition

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    THIS ARTICLE REPLACES THAT PUBLISHED IN BULLETIN 27/2003, PAGE 8. "The Rainbow Seed Fund is a UK fund, which provides finance to support the commercialization of good ideas founded on scientific research; it is for the benefit of the UK industry in particular. To encourage ideas from CERN the Rainbow Seed Fund is running a business ideas competition. The winner of this competition will receive an immediate cash prize of GBP £1,000. In addition the Rainbow Seed Fund may well provide finance for market research, for protection of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) and for prototyping to take the idea forward. Further awards of GBP £750 will be made for ideas which gain investment from the Fund. Candidates will only be required to prepare a 2-4-page summary of their business idea, and not a full business plan. Full details and an entry form are available at http://www.rainbowseedfund.com." ALL Members of the Personnel seeking participation in the business ideas competition are asked to submit their ideas via ...

  5. ORIGINAL ARTICLE A semi-automated method for measuring ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A simple automated method of determining normal values of the. CC according to age is desirable ... with global white matter insults will have a wide clinical application. This article describes a .... until they intersected with the manual contours.

  6. DataSet for Passive Containment Journal Article

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data is for Figures 6 and 7 in the journal article. The data also includes the two EPANET input files used for the analysis described in the paper, one for the...

  7. What can article-level metrics do for you?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenner, Martin

    2013-10-01

    Article-level metrics (ALMs) provide a wide range of metrics about the uptake of an individual journal article by the scientific community after publication. They include citations, usage statistics, discussions in online comments and social media, social bookmarking, and recommendations. In this essay, we describe why article-level metrics are an important extension of traditional citation-based journal metrics and provide a number of example from ALM data collected for PLOS Biology.

  8. Utah Article Delivery: A New Model for Consortial Resource Sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochan, Carol A.; Lee, Daniel R.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the UTAD (Utah Article Delivery) Pilot Project, an innovative resource-sharing service that provides journal articles to the Utah higher education community, developed by the Utah Academic Library Consortium (UALC) in partnership with EBSCO Document Services. Highlights include goals, options considered, challenges, and evaluation. The…

  9. Grammaticalisation and the Internal Logic of the Indefinite Article

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herslund, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The West-European languages all develop an indefinite article by a grammaticalisation process of the numeral 'one'. The article describes the different outcomes of this process by distinguishing different patterns resulting from the interpretation of the numeral as a quantifier, a classifier or b...

  10. Measuring the quality of journals and journal articles: the impact factor tells but a portion of the story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaloro, Emmanuel J

    2008-02-01

    Much emphasis has been placed on the IMPACT FACTOR, a measure of journal article citation rates used as a surrogate marker of both journal and article quality. There is little doubt that the impact factor is an important audit of journal article usage, as it in essence provides a measure of the level of peer attention being given to articles within journals and (by extrapolation) of the level of attention being given to the journal containing those articles. However, the impact factor has its limitations and only tells a very small fraction of the overall story regarding the utility of journals and the articles within them. In addition, the impact factor can be easily manipulated. The current article includes a brief review of the current and past uses and abuses of the impact factor and describes some of its strengths and limitations. In addition, a review of past publications, primarily from this journal, has been undertaken to help show the potential use of alternative measures of journal utility, such as Internet-based journal sessions and article downloads. The evaluation of previously published articles also helps serve to illustrate, by example, some of the limitations to the use of the impact factor as the sole determinant of a journal's "quality."

  11. The ABSTRACTS OF SELECTED ARTICLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The Appreciation of RMB, the Behavior of Firms and the Export Trade: A Case Study Based on the Enterprise Data of a Large Specimen between 2005 and 2009 In this article, we have constructed a simplified dynamic discrete choice model to analyze, within the framework of the maximization of profit, the two-stage decision of firm' s export behavior and the effect of the exchange rate. We have, by the means of the specimen data on China' s industrial enterprises between 2005 and 2009 and by the use of Heckman selection model, evaluated the general impact of the appreciation of RMB (AORMB) on the export trade and the structural impact. The results of our study indicate that the AORMB has generated significant negative shock to firm ' s export through extensive margins and intensive margins. Meanwhile, the difference in operation strategy of heteroge- neous firms has resulted in the fact that the AORMB can hardly achieve the expected purpose of the survival of the fit- test; instead it has interrupted the optimization of the adjustment in the optimization of the structure of the main body of the export trade. The AORMB has, in a certain degree, driven the industry structure of export to develop to a higher phase. However, such positive effects have mainly rooted in the contribution of foreign-funded enterprises, but this pos- itive role has restricted the growth space of the local enterprises in the advanced manufacturing industry. Under the cir- cumstance of high uncertainty in foreign and domestic economy, in order to guarantee the steady transition of the eco- nomic transition, the AORMB should be slowed for the time being, and other more pertinent measures should be adopt- ed to drive the upgrade of the export trade and the adjustment of economic structure.

  12. Ruin Probabilities of a Surplus Process Described by PDMPs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-min He; Rong Wu; Hua-yue Zhang

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we mainly study the ruin probability of a surplus process described by a piecewise deterministic Markov process (PDMP). An integro-differentiai equation for the ruin probability is derived. Under a certain assumption, it can be transformed into the ruin probability of a risk process whose premiums depend on the current reserves. Using the same argument as that in Asmussen and Nielsen[2], the ruin probability and its upper bounds are obtained. Finally, we give an analytic expression for ruin probability and its upper bounds when the claim-size is exponentially distributed.

  13. A more robust Boolean model describing inhibitor binding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhaoqian Steven XIE; Chao TANG

    2008-01-01

    From the first application of the Boolean model to the cell cycle regulation network of budding yeast, new regulative pathways have been discovered, par-ticularly in the G1/S transition circuit. This discovery called for finer modeling to study the essential biology, and the resulting outcomes are first introduced in the ar-ticle. A traditional Boolean network model set up for the new G1/S transition circuit shows that it cannot correctly simulate real biology unless the model parameters are fine tuned. The deficiency is caused by an overly coarse-grained description of the inhibitor binding process, which shall be overcome by a two-vector model proposed whose robustness is surveyed using random perturba-tions. Simulations show that the proposed two-vector model is much more robust in describing inhibitor binding processes within the Boolean framework.

  14. Does classical mechanics always adequately describe "classical physical reality"

    CERN Document Server

    Shemi-zadeh, V E

    2002-01-01

    The article is dedicated to discussion of irreversibility and foundation of statistical mechanics "from the first principles". Taking into account infinitesimal and, as it seems, neglectful for classical mechanics fluctuations of the physical vacuum, makes a deterministic motion of unstable dynamic systems is broken ("spontaneous determinism breaking", "spontaneous stochastization"). Vacuum fluctuations play part of the trigger, starting the powerful mechanism of exponent instability. The motion of the dynamic systems becomes irreversible and stochastic. Classical mechanics turns out to be applicable only for a small class of stable dynamic systems with zero Kolmogorov-Sinay entropy $h=0$. For alternative "Stochastic mechanics" there are corresponding equations of motion and Master Equation, describing irreversible evolution of the initial distribution function to equilibrium state.

  15. Breast Cancer Epigenetics: Review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Abbasi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Stable molecular changes during cell division without change the sequence of DNA molecules is known as epigenetic. Molecular mechanisms involved in this process, including histone modifications, methylation of DNA, protein complex and RNA antisense. Cancer genome changes happen through a combination of DNA hypermethylation, long-term epigenetic silencing with heterozygosis loss and genomic regions loss. Different combinations of N-terminal changes cooperation with histone variants with have a specific role in gene regulation have led to load a setting histone that determine transcription potential of a particular gene or genomic regions. DNA methylation analysis in genome region using methylation-specific digital karyotyping of normal breast tissue detect gene expression patterns and DNA specific methylation can be found in breast carcinoma too. More than 100 genes in breast tumors or cell lines of breast cancer are reported hypermethylated. Important of DNA methylation on cancer has been concentrated CpG islands Hypermethylation. The most of the techniques are able to identify hypermethylated areas. Recent studies have showed the role of epigenetic silencing in the pathogenesis of breast cancer in which tumor suppressor genes have been changed by acetylation and DNA deacetylation. Histone deacetylase inhibitors have different roles in cancer cells and could show the ways of new treatment for breast cancer. In this review, various aspects of breast cancer epigenetics and its applications in diagnosis, prediction and treatment are described.

  16. Breast cancer epigenetics: review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Abbasi

    2016-11-01

    . Histone deacetylase inhibitors have different roles in cancer cells and could show the ways of new treatment for breast cancer. In this review, various aspects of breast cancer epigenetics and its applications in diagnosis, prediction and treatment are described.

  17. Top 50 most-cited articles on craniovertebral junction surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan, Nima; Cohen, Jonathan Andrew; Zhou, James; Pease, Matthew; Kanter, Adam S; Okonkwo, David O; Hamilton, David Kojo

    2017-01-01

    Craniovertebral junction is a complex anatomical location posing unique challenges to the surgical management of its pathologies. We aimed to identify the fifty most-cited articles that are dedicated to this field. A keyword search using the Thomson Reuters Web of Knowledge was conducted to identify articles relevant to the field of craniovertebral junction surgery. The articles were reviewed based on title, abstract, and methods, if necessary, and then ranked based on the total number of citations to identify the fifty most-cited articles. Characteristics of the articles were determined and analyzed. The earliest top-cited article was published in 1948. When stratified by decade, 1990s was the most productive with 16 articles. The most-cited article was by Anderson and Dalonzo on a classification of odontoid fractures. By citation rate, the most-cited article was by Herms and Melcher who described Goel's technique of atlantoaxial fixation using C1 lateral mass screws and C2 pedicle screws with rod fixation. Atlantoaxial fixation was the most common topic. The United States, Barrow Neurological Institute, and VH Sonntag were the most represented country, institute, and author, respectively. The significant majority of articles were designed as case series providing level IV evidence. Using citation analysis, we have provided a list of the most-cited articles representing important contributions of various authors from many institutions across the world to the field of craniovertebral junction surgery.

  18. Top 50 most-cited articles on craniovertebral junction surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan, Nima; Cohen, Jonathan Andrew; Zhou, James; Pease, Matthew; Kanter, Adam S; Okonkwo, David O; Hamilton, David Kojo

    2017-01-01

    Background: Craniovertebral junction is a complex anatomical location posing unique challenges to the surgical management of its pathologies. We aimed to identify the fifty most-cited articles that are dedicated to this field. Methods: A keyword search using the Thomson Reuters Web of Knowledge was conducted to identify articles relevant to the field of craniovertebral junction surgery. The articles were reviewed based on title, abstract, and methods, if necessary, and then ranked based on the total number of citations to identify the fifty most-cited articles. Characteristics of the articles were determined and analyzed. Results: The earliest top-cited article was published in 1948. When stratified by decade, 1990s was the most productive with 16 articles. The most-cited article was by Anderson and Dalonzo on a classification of odontoid fractures. By citation rate, the most-cited article was by Herms and Melcher who described Goel's technique of atlantoaxial fixation using C1 lateral mass screws and C2 pedicle screws with rod fixation. Atlantoaxial fixation was the most common topic. The United States, Barrow Neurological Institute, and VH Sonntag were the most represented country, institute, and author, respectively. The significant majority of articles were designed as case series providing level IV evidence. Conclusion: Using citation analysis, we have provided a list of the most-cited articles representing important contributions of various authors from many institutions across the world to the field of craniovertebral junction surgery. PMID:28250633

  19. English-Lithuanian-English Machine Translation lexicon and engine: current state and future work

    CERN Document Server

    Barisevičius, G

    2011-01-01

    This article overviews the current state of the English-Lithuanian-English machine translation system. The first part of the article describes the problems that system poses today and what actions will be taken to solve them in the future. The second part of the article tackles the main issue of the translation process. Article briefly overviews the word sense disambiguation for MT technique using Google.

  20. Article Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-06-20

    Jun 20, 2008 ... elsewhere in the public health care system for the benefit of those in ... ethics performance by means of an ethics programme rests on ... Firstly, effective ethics management requires an assessment ... An ethics risk assessment measures the ... training, or whistle-blowing hotline); stakeholders' perceptions.

  1. Article Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-12-03

    Dec 3, 2012 ... experiences as generally positive and valuable.8. However ... for patients who were examined by students (n=28), and quantitative tracking of patient-student ... value on the interaction with real patients that benefits outweighed the challenges. ... research on SPs may differ from that in the African context.

  2. Article Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-05-19

    May 19, 2013 ... Work-based experiences, especially during compulsory community service, ... Different ways of reflection would facilitate lifelong learning and growth ... findings from these studies included system and management ..... sees all the patients there at the same time .... prepare students for real-life work settings.

  3. articles articles

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-05-03

    May 3, 2012 ... and even to suicide.7 Children and adolescents are susceptible to sexual abuse ..... reasons for this finding could be that children, adolescents and their .... Health Sciences, University of the Free State, assisted the authors.

  4. articles articles

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-09-03

    Sep 3, 2011 ... of the 157 children (22.5%) as having a psychiatric disorder. A comparison of ... diagnosis, presence of mental health problems and psychiatric .... Anxiety-related disorders .... Measures to screen for social phobia in primary.

  5. Article Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-05-03

    May 3, 2013 ... A qualitative research design was used to examine the use of reflective blogging to ... learning experiences in ways that exposed the limits of their ... Department of Physiotherapy, University of the Western Cape, South Africa .... created this reflective process, creating a space for students to expose their.

  6. articles articles

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of adolescents (13 - 18 years) presenting with severe mental illness. A substantial ... relationship between choice of debut drug and ongoing drug use was ..... and crime.32 In our sample, however, only 28% reported interaction with the law ...

  7. Article Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-12-03

    Dec 3, 2012 ... used for teaching,1-2 the development of communication skills,2-3 and the ... those taught using inpatients6 and virtual patients.7 The use of the ..... the reality that principles taught in theory do not always translate into the.

  8. On Reviewing and Writing a Scholarly Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettis, Jerry L., Sr.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides guidelines for reviewing and writing scholarly articles for the professional who reads and writes them for his/her own work and/or for publication in scientific journals. It outlines the purpose and contents of each section of a research article and provides a checklist for reviewing and writing a research article. This…

  9. Article choice parameters in L2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guella, H.; Déprez, V.; Sleeman, P.; Slabakova, R.; Rothman, J.; Kempchinsky, P.; Gavruseva, E.

    2008-01-01

    This article concerns Ionin's (2003) Article Choice Parameter Hypothesis, which proposes a new semantic classification of languages. Article-based languages distribute articles on the basis of either a definiteness or a specificity parameter. Ionin's (2003) study shows that Russian and Korean (artic

  10. 27 CFR 46.208 - Unmerchantable articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unmerchantable articles... Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 Inventories § 46.208 Unmerchantable articles. Articles that the.... However, the dealer must segregate any such unmerchantable articles and include them in a separate...

  11. 42 CFR 35.35 - Unsalable articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unsalable articles. 35.35 Section 35.35 Public... HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT Disposition of Articles Produced by Patients § 35.35 Unsalable articles. Articles having no commercial value shall be stored, destroyed, or otherwise disposed of as the officer...

  12. Challenges for automatically extracting molecular interactions from full-text articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curran James R

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing availability of full-text biomedical articles will allow more biomedical knowledge to be extracted automatically with greater reliability. However, most Information Retrieval (IR and Extraction (IE tools currently process only abstracts. The lack of corpora has limited the development of tools that are capable of exploiting the knowledge in full-text articles. As a result, there has been little investigation into the advantages of full-text document structure, and the challenges developers will face in processing full-text articles. Results We manually annotated passages from full-text articles that describe interactions summarised in a Molecular Interaction Map (MIM. Our corpus tracks the process of identifying facts to form the MIM summaries and captures any factual dependencies that must be resolved to extract the fact completely. For example, a fact in the results section may require a synonym defined in the introduction. The passages are also annotated with negated and coreference expressions that must be resolved. We describe the guidelines for identifying relevant passages and possible dependencies. The corpus includes 2162 sentences from 78 full-text articles. Our corpus analysis demonstrates the necessity of full-text processing; identifies the article sections where interactions are most commonly stated; and quantifies the proportion of interaction statements requiring coherent dependencies. Further, it allows us to report on the relative importance of identifying synonyms and resolving negated expressions. We also experiment with an oracle sentence retrieval system using the corpus as a gold-standard evaluation set. Conclusion We introduce the MIM corpus, a unique resource that maps interaction facts in a MIM to annotated passages within full-text articles. It is an invaluable case study providing guidance to developers of biomedical IR and IE systems, and can be used as a gold-standard evaluation

  13. Text mining describes the use of statistical and epidemiological methods in published medical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meaney, Christopher; Moineddin, Rahim; Voruganti, Teja; O'Brien, Mary Ann; Krueger, Paul; Sullivan, Frank

    2016-06-01

    To describe trends in the use of statistical and epidemiological methods in the medical literature over the past 2 decades. We obtained all 1,028,786 articles from the PubMed Central Open-Access archive (retrieved May 9, 2015). We focused on 113,450 medical research articles. A Delphi panel identified 177 statistical/epidemiological methods pertinent to clinical researchers. We used a text-mining approach to determine if a specific statistical/epidemiological method was encountered in a given article. We report the proportion of articles using a specific method for the entire cross-sectional sample and also stratified into three blocks of time (1995-2005; 2006-2010; 2011-2015). Numeric descriptive statistics were commonplace (96.4% articles). Other frequently encountered methods groups included statistical inferential concepts (52.9% articles), epidemiological measures of association (53.5% articles) methods for diagnostic/classification accuracy (40.1% articles), hypothesis testing (28.8% articles), ANOVA (23.2% articles), and regression (22.6% articles). We observed relative percent increases in the use of: regression (103.0%), missing data methods (217.9%), survival analysis (147.6%), and correlated data analysis (192.2%). This study identified commonly encountered and emergent methods used to investigate medical research problems. Clinical researchers must be aware of the methodological landscape in their field, as statistical/epidemiological methods underpin research claims. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. An ontological approach to describing neurons and their relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, David J.; Shepherd, Gordon M.; Martone, Maryann E.; Ascoli, Giorgio A.

    2012-01-01

    The advancement of neuroscience, perhaps one of the most information rich disciplines of all the life sciences, requires basic frameworks for organizing the vast amounts of data generated by the research community to promote novel insights and integrated understanding. Since Cajal, the neuron remains a fundamental unit of the nervous system, yet even with the explosion of information technology, we still have few comprehensive or systematic strategies for aggregating cell-level knowledge. Progress toward this goal is hampered by the multiplicity of names for cells and by lack of a consensus on the criteria for defining neuron types. However, through umbrella projects like the Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF) and the International Neuroinformatics Coordinating Facility (INCF), we have the opportunity to propose and implement an informatics infrastructure for establishing common tools and approaches to describe neurons through a standard terminology for nerve cells and a database (a Neuron Registry) where these descriptions can be deposited and compared. This article provides an overview of the problem and outlines a solution approach utilizing ontological characterizations. Based on illustrative implementation examples, we also discuss the need for consensus criteria to be adopted by the research community, and considerations on future developments. A scalable repository of neuron types will provide researchers with a resource that materially contributes to the advancement of neuroscience. PMID:22557965

  15. An ontological approach to describing neurons and their relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Hamilton

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The advancement of neuroscience, perhaps the most information rich discipline of all the life sciences, requires basic frameworks for organizing the vast amounts of data generated by the research community to promote novel insights and integrated understanding. Since Cajal, the neuron remains a fundamental unit of the nervous system, yet even with the explosion of information technology, we still have few comprehensive or systematic strategies for aggregating cell-level knowledge. Progress toward this goal is hampered by the multiplicity of names for cells and by lack of a consensus on the criteria for defining neuron types. However, through umbrella projects like the Neuroscience Information Framework and the International Neuroinformatics Coordinating Facility, we have the opportunity to propose and implement an informatics infrastructure for establishing common tools and approaches to describe neurons through a standard terminology for nerve cells and a database (a Neuron Registry where these descriptions can be deposited and compared. This article provides an overview of the problem and outlines a solution approach utilizing ontological characterizations.

  16. Featured Article: Genotation: Actionable knowledge for the scientific reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahawatte, Panduka; Willis, Ethan; Sakauye, Mark; Jose, Rony; Chen, Hao; Davis, Robert L

    2016-06-01

    We present an article viewer application that allows a scientific reader to easily discover and share knowledge by linking genomics-related concepts to knowledge of disparate biomedical databases. High-throughput data streams generated by technical advancements have contributed to scientific knowledge discovery at an unprecedented rate. Biomedical Informaticists have created a diverse set of databases to store and retrieve the discovered knowledge. The diversity and abundance of such resources present biomedical researchers a challenge with knowledge discovery. These challenges highlight a need for a better informatics solution. We use a text mining algorithm, Genomine, to identify gene symbols from the text of a journal article. The identified symbols are supplemented with information from the GenoDB knowledgebase. Self-updating GenoDB contains information from NCBI Gene, Clinvar, Medgen, dbSNP, KEGG, PharmGKB, Uniprot, and Hugo Gene databases. The journal viewer is a web application accessible via a web browser. The features described herein are accessible on www.genotation.org The Genomine algorithm identifies gene symbols with an accuracy shown by .65 F-Score. GenoDB currently contains information regarding 59,905 gene symbols, 5633 drug-gene relationships, 5981 gene-disease relationships, and 713 pathways. This application provides scientific readers with actionable knowledge related to concepts of a manuscript. The reader will be able to save and share supplements to be visualized in a graphical manner. This provides convenient access to details of complex biological phenomena, enabling biomedical researchers to generate novel hypothesis to further our knowledge in human health. This manuscript presents a novel application that integrates genomic, proteomic, and pharmacogenomic information to supplement content of a biomedical manuscript and enable readers to automatically discover actionable knowledge.

  17. Incorporating 3-dimensional models in online articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevidanes, Lucia H. S.; Ruellasa, Antonio C. O.; Jomier, Julien; Nguyen, Tung; Pieper, Steve; Budin, Francois; Styner, Martin; Paniagua, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aims of this article were to introduce the capability to view and interact with 3-dimensional (3D) surface models in online publications, and to describe how to prepare surface models for such online 3D visualizations. Methods Three-dimensional image analysis methods include image acquisition, construction of surface models, registration in a common coordinate system, visualization of overlays, and quantification of changes. Cone-beam computed tomography scans were acquired as volumetric images that can be visualized as 3D projected images or used to construct polygonal meshes or surfaces of specific anatomic structures of interest. The anatomic structures of interest in the scans can be labeled with color (3D volumetric label maps), and then the scans are registered in a common coordinate system using a target region as the reference. The registered 3D volumetric label maps can be saved in .obj, .ply, .stl, or .vtk file formats and used for overlays, quantification of differences in each of the 3 planes of space, or color-coded graphic displays of 3D surface distances. Results All registered 3D surface models in this study were saved in .vtk file format and loaded in the Elsevier 3D viewer. In this study, we describe possible ways to visualize the surface models constructed from cone-beam computed tomography images using 2D and 3D figures. The 3D surface models are available in the article’s online version for viewing and downloading using the reader’s software of choice. These 3D graphic displays are represented in the print version as 2D snapshots. Overlays and color-coded distance maps can be displayed using the reader’s software of choice, allowing graphic assessment of the location and direction of changes or morphologic differences relative to the structure of reference. The interpretation of 3D overlays and quantitative color-coded maps requires basic knowledge of 3D image analysis. Conclusions When submitting manuscripts, authors can

  18. Analysis of citations to biomedical articles affected by scientific misconduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, Anne Victoria; Dailey, Rhonda K; Abrams, Judith

    2010-06-01

    We describe the ongoing citations to biomedical articles affected by scientific misconduct, and characterize the papers that cite these affected articles. The citations to 102 articles named in official findings of scientific misconduct during the period of 1993 and 2001 were identified through the Institute for Scientific Information Web of Science database. Using a stratified random sampling strategy, we performed a content analysis of 603 of the 5,393 citing papers to identify indications of awareness that the cited articles affected by scientific misconduct had validity issues, and to examine how the citing papers referred to the affected articles. Fewer than 5% of citing papers indicated any awareness that the cited article was retracted or named in a finding of misconduct. We also tested the hypothesis that affected articles would have fewer citations than a comparison sample; this was not supported. Most articles affected by misconduct were published in basic science journals, and we found little cause for concern that such articles may have affected clinical equipoise or clinical care.

  19. Automated indexing for making of a newspaper article database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamio, Tatsuo

    Automated indexing has been widely employed in the process of making newspaper article databases. It is essential to speed up the compiling time of the said databases for the large amount of articles come out daily, and save manpower involved in it, with the aid of computers. However, indexed terms which are extracted by the current automated indexing systems have no links with subject analysis, so that they are not considered to be keywords in a strict sense. Thus, the system of Nihon Keizai Shimbun KK enables to justify keywords to certain extent based on the two clues ; 1) at which location the extracted term occurred, and 2) whether or not subject area of the article corresponds to thesaurus class of the extracted term, by using characteristics peculiar to newspaper articles. Also the experiment of assigning keywords which are not occurred in articles was conducted. The fairly good result was obtained.

  20. Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement: A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A Siordia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR is a novel therapeutic intervention for the replacement of severely stenotic aortic valves in high-risk patients for standard surgical procedures. Since the initial PARTNER trial results, use of TAVR has been on the rise each year. New delivery methods and different valves have been developed and modified in order to promote the minimally invasive procedure and reduce common complications, such as stroke. This review article focuses on the current data on the indications, risks, benefits, and future directions of TAVR. Recently, TAVR has been considered as a standard-of-care procedure. While this technique is used frequently in high-risk surgical candidates, studies have been focusing on the application of this method for younger patients with lower surgical risk. Moreover, several studies have proposed promising results regarding the use of valve-in-valve technique or the procedure in which the valve is placed within a previously implemented bioprosthetic valve. However, ischemic strokes and paravalvular leak remain a matter of debate in these surgeries. New methods and devices have been developed to reduce the incidence of post-procedural stroke. While the third generation of TAVR valves (i.e., Edwards Sapien 3 and Medtronic Evolut R addresses the issue of paravalvular leak structurally, results on their efficacy in reducing the risk of paravalvular leak are yet to be obtained. Furthermore, TAVR enters the field of hybrid methods in the treatment of cardiac issues via both surgical and catheter-based approaches. Finally, while TAVR is primarily performed on cases with aortic stenosis, new valves and methods have been proposed regarding the application of this technique in aortic regurgitation, as well as other aortic pathologies. TAVR is a suitable therapeutic approach for the treatment of aortic stenosis in high-risk patients. Considering the promising results in the current patient population

  1. Tips and tricks in writing review article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syam, Ari Fahrial

    2007-01-01

    Review article or literature review actually is the simplest form of writing compared to a case report or study report. The writing process begins at pointing out topics to be written and informed to readers. The next step after the topic has been selected is to find literatures related to the article review writing. Principally, article writing plays an essential part in a doctor's life, whether as a specialist or consultant. And the most important is the desire to publish the article review.

  2. 22 CFR 120.6 - Defense article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Defense article. 120.6 Section 120.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.6 Defense article. Defense article means any item or technical data designated in § 121.1 of this...

  3. Hypergeometric language models for republished article finding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsagkias, M.; de Rijke, M.; Weerkamp, W.

    2011-01-01

    Republished article finding is the task of identifying instances of articles that have been published in one source and republished more or less verbatim in another source, which is often a social media source. We address this task as an ad hoc retrieval problem, using the source article as a query.

  4. Shared Responsibility under Article 80 CISG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    Article 80 exempts from liability in the situation where the promisor's failure to perform has been caused by the promisee. The Article has been insufficiently dealt with in the literature and has been overlooked in case law. The paper demonstrates that article 80 has an independent scope compare...

  5. Authoring Newspaper Science Articles: A Rewarding Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Espada, Wilson J.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author summarizes the rationale for using science articles in K-16 education and addresses some of its limitations. The author also encourages scientists and college science faculty to contribute contextually relevant articles that might include selected literary techniques to their local or state newspapers.

  6. Measuring the Interestingness of News Articles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pon, R K; Cardenas, A F; Buttler, D J

    2007-09-24

    An explosive growth of online news has taken place. Users are inundated with thousands of news articles, only some of which are interesting. A system to filter out uninteresting articles would aid users that need to read and analyze many articles daily, such as financial analysts and government officials. The most obvious approach for reducing the amount of information overload is to learn keywords of interest for a user (Carreira et al., 2004). Although filtering articles based on keywords removes many irrelevant articles, there are still many uninteresting articles that are highly relevant to keyword searches. A relevant article may not be interesting for various reasons, such as the article's age or if it discusses an event that the user has already read about in other articles. Although it has been shown that collaborative filtering can aid in personalized recommendation systems (Wang et al., 2006), a large number of users is needed. In a limited user environment, such as a small group of analysts monitoring news events, collaborative filtering would be ineffective. The definition of what makes an article interesting--or its 'interestingness'--varies from user to user and is continually evolving, calling for adaptable user personalization. Furthermore, due to the nature of news, most articles are uninteresting since many are similar or report events outside the scope of an individual's concerns. There has been much work in news recommendation systems, but none have yet addressed the question of what makes an article interesting.

  7. 48 CFR 225.104 - Nonavailable articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nonavailable articles. 225.104 Section 225.104 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM... Nonavailable articles. (a) DoD has determined that the following articles also are nonavailable in...

  8. 19 CFR 4.69 - Shipping articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shipping articles. 4.69 Section 4.69 Customs... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances § 4.69 Shipping articles. No vessel of the U.S... officer, of the shipping articles agreements, including any seaman's allotment agreement, required by 46...

  9. 19 CFR 148.4 - Accompanying articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accompanying articles. 148.4 Section 148.4 Customs... (CONTINUED) PERSONAL DECLARATIONS AND EXEMPTIONS General Provisions § 148.4 Accompanying articles. (a) Generally. Articles shall be considered as accompanying a passenger or brought in by him if the...

  10. 27 CFR 20.191 - Bulk articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bulk articles. 20.191... Users of Specially Denatured Spirits Operations by Users § 20.191 Bulk articles. Users who convey articles in containers exceeding one gallon may provide the recipient with a photocopy of subpart G of...

  11. 48 CFR 825.104 - Nonavailable articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nonavailable articles. 825... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Buy American Act-Supplies 825.104 Nonavailable articles. The following items are added to the list of nonavailable articles contained in FAR 25.104: Glass, lead...

  12. Review article: eplerenone: an underused medication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuannadi, Mohammad; O'Keefe, James H

    2010-12-01

    In this article, we review the evidence supporting the use of eplerenone for improving cardiovascular prognosis. Activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system plays a major role in the pathogenesis of heart disease, and blockage of this system has been shown to improve prognosis in several cardiovascular conditions. The 2 marketed aldosterone antagonists, spironolactone and eplerenone, improve prognosis in patients with left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and are effective antihypertensive medications. In addition, a potential role for aldosterone antagonists in the treatment of patients with heart failure and preserved LV function has been suggested and is currently being evaluated in clinical trials. In patients with myocardial infarction having LV dysfunction and evidence of heart failure, eplerenone improves cardiovascular outcomes and attenuates myocardial remodeling. In addition, eplerenone is effective for the treatment of hypertension, where it regresses both LV hypertrophy and proteinuria (2 powerful markers of increased cardiovascular risk). In contrast to spironolactone, eplerenone essentially lacks the sexual side effects that sometimes limit the use of spironolactone. Hyperkalemia is the main potential side effect of eplerenone, especially when used in combination with other medications that can cause hyperkalemia. Adequate patient selection and monitoring are therefore of utmost importance when using this medication. In conclusion, eplerenone is a medication that offers the cardiovascular therapeutic and prognostic benefits of aldosterone antagonism but with fewer side effects compared to spironolactone.

  13. How to write a materials and methods section of a scientific article?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdemir, Fikret

    2013-09-01

    In contrast to past centuries, scientific researchers have been currently conducted systematically in all countries as part of an education strategy. As a consequence, scientists have published thousands of reports. Writing an effective article is generally a significant problem for researchers. All parts of an article, specifically the abstract, material and methods, results, discussion and references sections should contain certain features that should always be considered before sending a manuscript to a journal for publication. It is generally known that the material and methods section is a relatively easy section of an article to write. Therefore, it is often a good idea to begin by writing the materials and methods section, which is also a crucial part of an article. Because "reproducible results" are very important in science, a detailed account of the study should be given in this section. If the authors provide sufficient detail, other scientists can repeat their experiments to verify their findings. It is generally recommended that the materials and methods should be written in the past tense, either in active or passive voice. In this section, ethical approval, study dates, number of subjects, groups, evaluation criteria, exclusion criteria and statistical methods should be described sequentially. It should be noted that a well-written materials and methods section markedly enhances the chances of an article being published.

  14. An Overview on Evaluating and Predicting Scholarly Article Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomei Bai

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Scholarly article impact reflects the significance of academic output recognised by academic peers, and it often plays a crucial role in assessing the scientific achievements of researchers, teams, institutions and countries. It is also used for addressing various needs in the academic and scientific arena, such as recruitment decisions, promotions, and funding allocations. This article provides a comprehensive review of recent progresses related to article impact assessment and prediction. The review starts by sharing some insight into the article impact research and outlines current research status. Some core methods and recent progress are presented to outline how article impact metrics and prediction have evolved to consider integrating multiple networks. Key techniques, including statistical analysis, machine learning, data mining and network science, are discussed. In particular, we highlight important applications of each technique in article impact research. Subsequently, we discuss the open issues and challenges of article impact research. At the same time, this review points out some important research directions, including article impact evaluation by considering Conflict of Interest, time and location information, various distributions of scholarly entities, and rising stars.

  15. THE ROLE OF ARTICLE LEVEL METRICS IN SCIENTIFIC PUBLISHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir TRAJKOVSKI

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Emerging metrics based on article-level does not exclude traditional metrics based on citations to the journal, but complements them. Article-level metrics (ALMs provide a wide range of metrics about the uptake of an individual journal article by the scientific community after publication. They include citations, statistics of usage, discussions in online comments and social media, social bookmarking, and recommendations. In this editorial, the role of article level metrics in publishing scientific papers has been described. Article-Level Metrics (ALMs are rapidly emerging as important tools to quantify how individual articles are being discussed, shared, and used. Data sources depend on the tool, but they include classic metrics indicators depending on citations, academic social networks (Mendeley, CiteULike, Delicious and social media (Facebook, Twitter, blogs, and Youtube. The most popular tools used to apply this new metrics are: Public Library of Science - Article-Level Metrics, Altmetric, Impactstory and Plum Analytics. Journal Impact Factor (JIF does not consider impact or influence beyond citations count as this count reflected only through Thomson Reuters’ Web of Science® database. JIF provides indicator related to the journal, but not related to a published paper. Thus, altmetrics now becomes an alternative metrics for performance assessment of individual scientists and their contributed scholarly publications. Macedonian scholarly publishers have to work on implementing of article level metrics in their e-journals. It is the way to increase their visibility and impact in the world of science.

  16. Advanced Mathematical Model to Describe the Production of Biodiesel Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmmed S. Ibrehem

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Advanced mathematical model was used to capture the batch reactor characteristics of reacting compounds. The model was applied to batch reactor for the production of bio-diesel from palm and kapok oils. Results of the model were compared with experimental data in terms of conversion of transesterification reaction for the production of bio-diesel under unsteady state. A good agreement was obtained between our model predictions and the experimental data. Both experimental and modeling results showed that the conversion of triglycerides to methyl ester was affected by the process conditions. The transesterification process with temperature of about 70 oC, and methanol ratio to the triglyceride of about 5 times its stoichiometry, and the NAOH catalyst of wt 0.4%, appear to be acceptable process conditions for bio diesel process production from palm oil and kapok oil. The model can be applied for endothermic batch process. © 2009 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved[Received: 12 August 2009, Revised: 15 October 2009; Accepted: 18 October 2009][How to Cite: A.S. Ibrehem, H. S. Al-Salim. (2009. Advanced Mathematical Model to Describe the Production of Biodiesel Process. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 4(2: 37-42.  doi:10.9767/bcrec.4.2.7109.37-42][How to Link/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.4.2.7109.37-42 || or local:  http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/7109 ] 

  17. Current measurement apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umans, Stephen D.

    2008-11-11

    Apparatus and methods are provided for a system for measurement of a current in a conductor such that the conductor current may be momentarily directed to a current measurement element in order to maintain proper current without significantly increasing an amount of power dissipation attributable to the current measurement element or adding resistance to assist in current measurement. The apparatus and methods described herein are useful in superconducting circuits where it is necessary to monitor current carried by the superconducting elements while minimizing the effects of power dissipation attributable to the current measurement element.

  18. The Bibliometric Properties of Article Readership Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Michael J.; Eichhorn, Guenther; Accomazzi, Alberto; Grant, Carolyn S.; Demleitner, Markus; Murray, Stephen S.; Martimbeau, Nathalie; Elwell, Barbara

    The NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS), along with astronomy's journals and data centers (a collaboration dubbed URANIA), has developed a distributed on-line digital library which has become the dominant means by which astronomers search, access and read their technical literature. Digital libraries such as the NASA Astrophysics Data System \\citep{2005JASIS.tmp....2K} permit the easy accumulation of a new type of bibliometric measure, the number of electronic accesses (``reads'') of individual articles. We explore various aspects of this new measure. We examine the obsolescence function as measured by actual reads, and show that it can be well fit by the sum of four exponentials with very different time constants. We compare the obsolescence function as measured by readership with the obsolescence function as measured by citations. We find that the citation function is proportional to the sum of two of the components of the readership function. This proves that the normative theory of citation is true in the mean. We further examine in detail the similarities and differences between the citation rate, the readership rate and the total citations for individual articles, and discuss some of the causes. Using the number of reads as a bibliometric measure for individuals, we introduce the read-cite diagram to provide a two-dimensional view of an individual's scientific productivity. We develop a simple model to account for an individual's reads and cites and use it to show that the position of a person in the read-cite diagram is a function of age, innate productivity, and work history. We show the age biases of both reads and cites, and develop two new bibliometric measures which have substantially less age bias than citations: SumProd, a weighted sum of total citations and the readership rate, intended to show the total productivity of an individual; and Read10, the readership rate for papers published in the last ten years, intended to show an individual's current

  19. Osteomyelitis: a current challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Souza Jorge

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 30 years, the pathogenesis of osteomyelitis has almost been totally elucidated, and many factors responsible for the persistence of this infection have been identified. Numerous antimicrobial agents with distinct spectrums of action, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics have been used in its treatment. Surgical techniques, including muscle grafts, the Ilizarov technique, and antibiotic bone cements, have been applied. However, bone infections are still a challenge. Despite the importance of isolation and identification of microorganisms to determine the antimicrobial treatment of bone infections, there are few systematic national studies about the etiological profile of these diseases. This article describes the current knowledge of osteomyelitis and summarizes published national data based on the experience of different Orthopedic and Traumatology Services. In general, S. aureus was described as an important etiological agent; however, the difference in design of national studies makes a comparison between the prevalence of bone infection, the associated risk factors, and the different therapeutic approaches difficult. In conclusion, effort is necessary in order to stimulate systematic national studies in different Orthopedics and Traumatology Services to obtain a better consensus on preventive measures and therapies of bone infections.

  20. 7 CFR 319.37-12 - Prohibited articles accompanying restricted articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibited articles accompanying restricted articles... Stock, Plants, Roots, Bulbs, Seeds, and Other Plant Products 1,2 § 319.37-12 Prohibited articles accompanying restricted articles. A restricted article for importation into the United States shall not...

  1. Articles on elderly in Serbian medical journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despotović Nebojša

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Population aging is a feature of all countries in the world. According to statistics, the Republic of Serbia is one of the countries with the majority of the elderly. Taking this into account, are articles on the elderly well represented in domestic medical journals? Objective The aim of the paper was to determine whether there was a sufficient number of articles on the elderly in domestic medical journals. Methods The articles on the elderly were searched using search engines in domestic and foreign medical journals for the last 5 years compared with the number of articles on children in the same publications for the same period. Results In the Serbian Citation Index, 11 articles on the topic of the elderly, and 487 on children were registered. In Srpski arhiv za celokupno lekarstvo, there was registered only one article on the topic of the elderly, and 30 on children. In Vojnosanitetski pregled, 2 articles on the elderly and 13 on children were registered (p<0001. For the last five years, in the New England Journal of Medicine, there were 593 articles on the elderly and 759 articles on children; in the JAMA, there were 63 articles on the elderly and 303 articles on children; and in The Lancet, in the last five years, 46 articles on the elderly and 148 articles on children were published. Conclusion The themes of the elderly were rarely represented in Serbian medical journals. This has reduced the interest of physicians in medical problems of this growing population of patients and further sent them away from making standards in the diagnosis and treatment of the elderly.

  2. Conceptual framework describing a child's total (built, natural ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The complexity of the components and their interactions that characterize children’s health and well-being are not adequately captured by current public health paradigms. Children are exposed to combinations of chemical and non-chemical stressors from their built, natural, and social environments at each lifestage and throughout their lifecourse. Children’s inherent characteristics (e.g., sex, genetics, pre-existing disease) and their activities and behaviors also influence their exposures to chemical and non-chemical stressors from these environments. We describe a conceptual framework that considers the interrelationships between inherent characteristics, activities and behaviors, and stressors (both chemical and non-chemical) from the built, natural, and social environments in influencing children’s health and well-being throughout their lifecourse. This framework is comprised of several intersecting circles that represent how stressors from the total environment interact with children’s inherent characteristics and their activities and behaviors to influence their health and well-being at each lifestage and throughout their lifecourse. We used this framework to examine the complex interrelationships between chemical and non-chemical stressors for two public health challenges specific to children: childhood obesity and general cognitive ability. One systematic scoping review showed that children’s general cognitive ability was influenced not only by

  3. Tense Use and Move Analysis in Journal Article Abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shih-ping; Tu, Pin-ning

    2014-01-01

    There has long been a growing interest in journal article (JA) abstract writing, and this pervading interest has boosted the exigency for further research. This current study therefore aims to investigate both the various applications of verb tense and the rhetorical structure within JA abstracts. A corpus of 1,000 JAs was collected from four…

  4. Rethinking Leadership: A Collection of Articles. K-College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergiovanni, Thomas J.

    This collection of articles looks at leadership strategies that are based on ideas, principles, and values rather than bureaucratic processes. The text is divided into three sections. Section 1 describes a morality-based leadership that emphasizes the bringing together of diverse people into a common cause. The section focuses on administering as…

  5. Research update for articles published in EJCI in 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agra, Rosa María; Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Badimon, Lina; Bodi, Vicente; Carbone, Federico; Chen, Mao; Cubedo, Judit; Dullaart, Robin P F; Eiras, Sonia; García-Monzón, Carmelo; Gary, Thomas; Gnoni, Antonio; González-Rodríguez, Águeda; Gremmel, Thomas; Hafner, Franz; Hakala, Tommi; Huang, Baotao; Ickmans, Kelly; Irace, Concetta; Kholová, Ivana; Kimer, Nina; Kytö, Ville; März, Winfried; Miazgowski, Tomasz; Møller, Søren; Montecucco, Fabrizio; Niccoli, Giampaolo; Nijs, Jo; Ozben, Serkan; Ozben, Tomris; Papassotiriou, Ioannis; Papastamataki, Maria; Reina-Couto, Marta; Rios-Navarro, Cesar; Ritsch, Andreas; Sabico, Shaun; Seetho, Ian W; Severino, Anna; Sipilä, Jussi; Sousa, Teresa; Taszarek, Aleksandra; Taurino, Federica; Tietge, Uwe J F; Tripolino, Cesare; Verloop, Willemien; Voskuil, Michiel; Wilding, John P H

    2016-01-01

    Our findings showed that p53 mRNA expression levels are upregulated in epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) from patients with heart failure (HF). This upregulation was also found in myocardium [2]. Our group have described its upregulation in EAT by sympathetic system. This article is protected by copyr

  6. "Psychosomatic": a systematic review of its meaning in newspaper articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Jon; Colyer, Matthew; Feltbower, Steve; Carson, Alan; Sharpe, Michael

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the authors describe the meaning of the word "psychosomatic" in U.S. and U.K. newspaper articles using a systematic text word search and a consensus rating of the contextual meaning of all articles published in 14 U.S. and U.K. newspapers between 1996 and 2002. The survey was limited to broadsheet newspapers. "Psychosomatic" had a pejorative meaning, such as "imaginary" or "made up," in 74 of 215 (34%) of the articles in which the meaning could be judged. Most commonly, "psychosomatic" was used to describe a problem that was psychological or in which the mind affects the body (56%) rather than as a reciprocal interaction (5%). "Psychosomatic medicine" is the new name for the seventh subspecialty of psychiatry. More needs to be done to educate the media about its actual meaning to make it attractive to patients.

  7. Tips for writing and publishing an article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahata, Milap C

    2008-02-01

    Peer reviewed publications are the primary source of important new information. This editorial provides tips for writing various sections of research papers, review articles, and case reports. Additional topics discussed include making decisions about authorship, selecting a journal for submission of an article, understanding the peer review process and expectations of editors and reviewers, and revising the article. Successful authors combine appropriate knowledge and experience, personal attributes, and effective collaborations to produce insightful and important contributions to the literature.

  8. The classic. Review article: Traffic accidents. 1966.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tscherne, H

    2013-09-01

    This Classic Article is a translation of the original work by Prof. Harald Tscherne, Der Straßenunfall [Traffic Accidents]. An accompanying biographical sketch of Prof. Tscherne is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-013-3011-x . An online version of the original German article is available as supplemental material. The Classic Article is reproduced with permission from Brüder Hollinek & Co. GesmbH, Purkersdorf, Austria. The original article was published in Wien Med Wochenschr. 1966;116:105-108. (Translated by Dr. Roman Pfeifer.).

  9. Biaxially textured articles formed by power metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2003-08-26

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100} orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  10. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2003-07-29

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100} orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  11. [Health information on oral malodor in Japanese newspaper articles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagisawa, Tomohito; Furukawa, Sayaka; Ueno, Masayuki; Shinada, Kayoko; Kawaguchi, Yoko

    2006-06-01

    Mass media is an important source for the general public to obtain health information. Newspapers especially have the advantages of providing a variety of information to a broad range of age groups, with wide regional coverage of both urban and rural areas. The purposes of this study were to review the oral malodor information in Japanese newspapers and to investigate peoples' knowledge on the causes of oral malodor. The Nikkei Database was used to select articles published in five major newspapers over a period of 12 years from 1993 to 2004. "Oral malodor" was used as a key search word. A total of 386 articles which contained oral malodor information were identified and used for the analysis. A questionnaire survey was conducted for the patients who visited a fresh breath clinic (n=295). The average number of articles per year was 32.2 +/- 7.3 and there was not a significant difference among years and months. There were only 25 articles (6.5%) with the central theme of oral malodor. More than half of the articles introduced anti-oral malodor products. The causes of oral malodor were described in 35% of the articles (n=134). Periodontal disease (n=57), tongue coating (n=35), otorhinolaryngological diseases (n=19), stomach problems (n=14) and psychological factors (n=21) were described as the causes of malodor. Only 35 articles (26%) described the treatment and prevention of halitosis. According to the questionnaire survey, 39% of the patients answered that they did not know the causes of malodor. Less than half knew that oral problems were related with malodor. It was revealed that the information about oral malodor in newspapers was not enough both quantitatively and qualitatively; people had little information about oral malodor. It is suggested that dental professionals should be aware of the importance of media advocacy to provide appropriate oral health information to the public.

  12. Excess success for psychology articles in the journal science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Gregory; Tanzman, Jay; Matthews, William J

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a systematic analysis of the relationship between empirical data and theoretical conclusions for a set of experimental psychology articles published in the journal Science between 2005-2012. When the success rate of a set of empirical studies is much higher than would be expected relative to the experiments' reported effects and sample sizes, it suggests that null findings have been suppressed, that the experiments or analyses were inappropriate, or that the theory does not properly follow from the data. The analyses herein indicate such excess success for 83% (15 out of 18) of the articles in Science that report four or more studies and contain sufficient information for the analysis. This result suggests a systematic pattern of excess success among psychology articles in the journal Science.

  13. Physicochemical Mechanics of Materials (Selected Articles),

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-03-05

    85 L4. Ln FOREIGN TECHNOLOGY DIVISION c- I DTIC _S 2LECTIE IIII 8~ ~~11 ---- - PHYSICOCHEMICAL MECHANICS OF MATERIALS - (Selected Articles) I""." .j...FTD-86-c-o01583 PHYSICOCHEMICAL MECHANICS OF MATERIALS (Selected Articles) English pages: 8 Source: Fiziko-Khimicheskaya Mekhanika Materialov, Nr. 4

  14. Article retracted, but the message lives on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greitemeyer, Tobias

    2014-04-01

    The retraction of an original article aims to ensure that readers are alerted to the fact that the findings are not trustworthy. However, the present research suggests that individuals still believe in the findings of an article even though they were later told that the data were fabricated and that the article was retracted. Participants in a debriefing condition and a no-debriefing condition learned about the scientific finding of an empirical article, whereas participants in a control condition did not. Afterward, participants in the debriefing condition were told that the article had been retracted because of fabricated data. Results showed that participants in the debriefing condition were less likely to believe in the findings than participants in the no-debriefing condition but were more likely to believe in the findings than participants in the control condition, suggesting that individuals do adjust their beliefs in the perceived truth of a scientific finding after debriefing-but insufficiently. Mediational analyses revealed that the availability of generated causal arguments underlies belief perseverance. These results suggest that a retraction note of an empirical article in a scientific journal is not sufficient to ensure that readers of the original article no longer believe in the article's conclusions.

  15. Textual Article Clustering in Newspaper Pages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aiello, Marco; Pegoretti, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    In the analysis of a newspaper page an important step is the clustering of various text blocks into logical units, i.e., into articles. We propose three algorithms based on text processing techniques to cluster articles in newspaper pages. Based on the complexity of the three algorithms and

  16. Textual Article Clustering in Newspaper Pages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aiello, Marco; Pegoretti, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    In the analysis of a newspaper page an important step is the clustering of various text blocks into logical units, i.e., into articles. We propose three algorithms based on text processing techniques to cluster articles in newspaper pages. Based on the complexity of the three algorithms and

  17. Citation as Persuasion in Research Articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Sarah; Hawes, Thomas

    1996-01-01

    A study of the use of citations (references to the work of previous researchers) in articles reporting research focuses on the writer's motivation in using them. It is suggested that citation is a rhetorical element that contributes considerably to the persuasive tone of the article, and that citations are introduced primarily to support or be…

  18. Review Articles for Continuing Education in Pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionne, Raymond A.

    1983-01-01

    A study of 196 dentists' comprehension of an article in a leading dental continuing education journal revealed about four-fifths gaining knowledge, and the remainder decreasing or showing no change in knowledge. Use of scholarly articles as an efficient continuing education method is recommended. (MSE)

  19. Teaching Critical Appraisal of Articles on Psychopharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Pavel; Hoschl, Cyril; Volavka, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Psychiatrists and other physicians sometimes read publications superficially, relying excessively on abstracts. The authors addressed this problem by teaching critical appraisal of individual articles. Method: The authors developed a 23-item appraisal instrument to assess articles in the area of psychopharmacology. The results were…

  20. Textual Article Clustering in Newspaper Pages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aiello, Marco; Pegoretti, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    In the analysis of a newspaper page an important step is the clustering of various text blocks into logical units, i.e., into articles. We propose three algorithms based on text processing techniques to cluster articles in newspaper pages. Based on the complexity of the three algorithms and experime

  1. Textual Article Clustering in Newspaper Pages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aiello, Marco; Pegoretti, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    In the analysis of a newspaper page an important step is the clustering of various text blocks into logical units, i.e., into articles. We propose three algorithms based on text processing techniques to cluster articles in newspaper pages. Based on the complexity of the three algorithms and experime

  2. 48 CFR 425.104 - Nonavailable articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nonavailable articles. 425.104 Section 425.104 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Buy American Act-Supplies 425.104 Nonavailable articles. Information...

  3. What makes a Scientific Article influential?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.P. van Dalen (Hendrik); K. Henkens

    2000-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we examine, by means of a citation analysis, which factors influence the impact of articles published in demography journals between 1990 and 1992. Several quantifiable characteristics of the articles (characteristics with respect to authors, visibility, content and journal

  4. Automatically assessing Wikipedia article quality by exploiting article-editor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, X.; Tang, J.; Wang, T.; Luo, Z.; de Rijke, M.; Hanbury, A.; Kazai, G.; Rauber, A.; Fuhr, N.

    2015-01-01

    We consider the problem of automatically assessing Wikipedia article quality. We develop several models to rank articles by using the editing relations between articles and editors. First, we create a basic model by modeling the article-editor network. Then we design measures of an editor’s

  5. Describing Earth System Simulations with the Metafor CIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. N. Lawrence

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Metafor project has developed a Common Information Model (CIM using the ISO1900 series formalism to describe the sorts of numerical experiments carried out by the earth system modelling community, the models they use, and the simulations that result. Here we describe the mechanism by which the CIM was developed, and its key properties. We introduce the conceptual and application versions and the controlled vocabularies developed in the context of supporting the fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5. We describe how the CIM has been used in experiments to describe model coupling properties and describe the near term expected evolution of the CIM.

  6. Describing Earth system simulations with the Metafor CIM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, B. N.; Balaji, V.; Bentley, P.; Callaghan, S.; DeLuca, C.; Denvil, S.; Devine, G.; Elkington, M.; Ford, R. W.; Guilyardi, E.; Lautenschlager, M.; Morgan, M.; Moine, M.-P.; Murphy, S.; Pascoe, C.; Ramthun, H.; Slavin, P.; Steenman-Clark, L.; Toussaint, F.; Treshansky, A.; Valcke, S.

    2012-11-01

    The Metafor project has developed a common information model (CIM) using the ISO19100 series formalism to describe numerical experiments carried out by the Earth system modelling community, the models they use, and the simulations that result. Here we describe the mechanism by which the CIM was developed, and its key properties. We introduce the conceptual and application versions and the controlled vocabularies developed in the context of supporting the fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). We describe how the CIM has been used in experiments to describe model coupling properties and describe the near term expected evolution of the CIM.

  7. Describing Earth system simulations with the Metafor CIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. N. Lawrence

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Metafor project has developed a common information model (CIM using the ISO19100 series formalism to describe numerical experiments carried out by the Earth system modelling community, the models they use, and the simulations that result. Here we describe the mechanism by which the CIM was developed, and its key properties. We introduce the conceptual and application versions and the controlled vocabularies developed in the context of supporting the fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5. We describe how the CIM has been used in experiments to describe model coupling properties and describe the near term expected evolution of the CIM.

  8. Cancer of the cervix: current management and new approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivnani, Anand T; Rimel, B J; Schink, Julian; Small, William

    2006-11-01

    This article summarizes the current management of patients with newly diagnosed cervical cancer. The topics range from the management of early-stage disease to the phase III randomized studies that have established the current standard of care for patients with locally advanced cancer of the cervix. New approaches to combined-modality therapy with the goal of improving outcomes and decreasing complications are also described.

  9. Citation advantage of open access articles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunther Eysenbach

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Open access (OA to the research literature has the potential to accelerate recognition and dissemination of research findings, but its actual effects are controversial. This was a longitudinal bibliometric analysis of a cohort of OA and non-OA articles published between June 8, 2004, and December 20, 2004, in the same journal (PNAS: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Article characteristics were extracted, and citation data were compared between the two groups at three different points in time: at "quasi-baseline" (December 2004, 0-6 mo after publication, in April 2005 (4-10 mo after publication, and in October 2005 (10-16 mo after publication. Potentially confounding variables, including number of authors, authors' lifetime publication count and impact, submission track, country of corresponding author, funding organization, and discipline, were adjusted for in logistic and linear multiple regression models. A total of 1,492 original research articles were analyzed: 212 (14.2% of all articles were OA articles paid by the author, and 1,280 (85.8% were non-OA articles. In April 2005 (mean 206 d after publication, 627 (49.0% of the non-OA articles versus 78 (36.8% of the OA articles were not cited (relative risk = 1.3 [95% Confidence Interval: 1.1-1.6]; p = 0.001. 6 mo later (mean 288 d after publication, non-OA articles were still more likely to be uncited (non-OA: 172 [13.6%], OA: 11 [5.2%]; relative risk = 2.6 [1.4-4.7]; p < 0.001. The average number of citations of OA articles was higher compared to non-OA articles (April 2005: 1.5 [SD = 2.5] versus 1.2 [SD = 2.0]; Z = 3.123; p = 0.002; October 2005: 6.4 [SD = 10.4] versus 4.5 [SD = 4.9]; Z = 4.058; p < 0.001. In a logistic regression model, controlling for potential confounders, OA articles compared to non-OA articles remained twice as likely to be cited (odds ratio = 2.1 [1.5-2.9] in the first 4-10 mo after publication (April 2005, with the odds ratio increasing to 2.9 (1

  10. Citing Journal Articles in Social Sciences Blogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Jamali

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze motivations behind social sciences blog posts citing journal articles in order to find out whether blog citations of scholarly journal articles are good indicators for the societal impact of research. A random sample of 300 social sciences blog posts (out of 1,233 blog posts from ResearchBlogging published between 01/01/2012 to 18/06/2014 were subjected to content analysis. An existing categorization scheme was used and modified inductively. The 300 blog posts had 472 references including 424 journal articles from 269 different journals. Sixty-one (22.68% of all journals cited were from the category of social sciences and most of the journals with high frequency were highly cited general science journals such as PNAS and Science. Seventy-five percent of all journals were referenced only once. The average age of articles cited was 5.8 years. The most frequent (38, 12.67% motivation was to ‘neutrally presenting details of a study’. Overall, social science blogs were rather subject-oriented than article oriented. This means a considerable number of blog posts were not driven simply by writing about an article, instead bloggers tend to write about their subject of interest and use references to support their argument. The study shows the potential of blog citations as an altmetric measure and as a proxy for assessing the research impact.

  11. Production of super-smooth articles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duchane, D.V.

    1981-05-29

    Super-smooth rounded or formed articles made of thermoplastic materials including various poly(methyl methacrylate) or acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymers are produced by immersing the articles into a bath, the composition of which is slowly changed with time. The starting composition of the bath is made up of at least one solvent for the polymer and a diluent made up of at least one nonsolvent for the polymer and optional materials which are soluble in the bath. The resulting extremely smooth articles are useful as mandrels for laser fusion and should be useful for a wide variety of other purposes, for example lenses.

  12. Editorial: Well Documented Articles Achieve More Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sönke Albers

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This issue offers for the first time supplementary material to articles. It consists of Excel files providing data the research is based on, calculation sheets, and optimization tools. Moreover, text files with pseudo code of algorithms and data of instances used for testing these algorithms as well as a video file with a demonstration of the use of a system in experiments are supplied for download. This material facilitates the understanding of the published articles and the replication of their findings to the benefit of scientific progress. And last but not least, such well documented articles will achieve much more impact.

  13. Content and bibliometric analysis of articles published in the Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado, Rogelio A; Wurtzel, Wendy A; Simon, Corey B; Riddle, Daniel L; George, Steven Z

    2011-12-01

    Descriptive bibliometric analysis. Content and bibliometric studies are useful for describing the publication patterns of a given profession, such as physical therapy, within the medical and allied health fields. However, few studies have conducted these analyses on specialty physical therapy journals. To conduct a content and bibliometric assessment of publications within the Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy (JOSPT) and report publication and citation trends over multiple years. All available JOSPT manuscripts published from 1980 through 2009 were reviewed. Only research reports, topical reviews, and case reports were included in the current analysis. Articles were coded by 2 independent reviewers based on type, participant characteristics, research design, purpose, clinical condition, and intervention. We obtained additional citation information (eg, authors and institutions) from a subset of articles published from 1992 through 2009 using bibliometric software. Of the 2233 available JOSPT publications, 1732 (77.6%) met criteria for inclusion. Of these, 1172 (67.7%) were research reports, 351 (20.3%) topical reviews, and 209 (12.1%) case reports. Over the last 30 years there has been a significant increase in the number of articles published and the percentage of research reports, systematic reviews, articles focused on prognosis, and articles including symptomatic participants. Percentage decreases were observed for topical or nonsystematic reviews and articles focused on anatomy/physiology. Top institutions, authors, and cited papers from 1992 through 2009 were identified in the bibliometric analyses. JOSPT has shown publication trends for increased percentage of experimental and clinically relevant research. However, there may be a need for increased publication of randomized controlled trials and studies focused on diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment, if goals of evidence-based practice are to be met.

  14. Head-Mounted Eye Tracking: A New Method to Describe Infant Looking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchak, John M.; Kretch, Kari S.; Soska, Kasey C.; Adolph, Karen E.

    2011-01-01

    Despite hundreds of studies describing infants' visual exploration of experimental stimuli, researchers know little about where infants look during everyday interactions. The current study describes the first method for studying visual behavior during natural interactions in mobile infants. Six 14-month-old infants wore a head-mounted eye-tracker…

  15. Top-cited articles in traumatic brain injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhanu eSharma

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A review of the top-cited articles in a scientific discipline can identify areas of research that are well established and those in need of further development, and may, as a result, inform and direct future research efforts. Our objective was to identify and characterize the top-cited articles in traumatic brain injury (TBI. We used publically available software to identify the 50 TBI articles with the most lifetime citations, and the 50 TBI articles with the highest annual citation rates. A total of 73 articles were included in this review, with 27 of the 50 papers with the highest annual citation rates common to the cohort of 50 articles with the most lifetime citations. All papers were categorized by their primary topic or focus, namely: predictor of outcome, pathology/natural history, treatment, guidelines and consensus statements, epidemiology, assessment measures, or experimental model of TBI. The mean year of publication of the articles with the most lifetime citations and highest annual citation rates was, respectively, 1990 ± 14.9 years and 2003 ± 6.7 years. The 50 articles with the most lifetime citations typically studied predictors of outcome (34.0%, 17/50 and were specific to severe TBI (38.0%, 19/50. In contrast, the most common subject of papers with the highest annual citation rates was treatment of brain injury (22.0%, 11/50, and these papers most frequently investigated mild TBI (36.0%, 18/50. These findings suggest an intensified focus on mild TBI, which is perhaps a response to the dedicated attention these injuries are currently receiving in the context of sports and war, and because of their increasing incidence in developing nations. Our findings also indicate increased focus on treatment of TBI, possibly due to the limited efficacy of current interventions for TBI. This review provides a cross-sectional summary of some of the most influential articles in TBI, and a bibliometric examination of the current status of TBI

  16. Top-cited articles in traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bhanu; Lawrence, David Wyndham

    2014-01-01

    A review of the top-cited articles in a scientific discipline can identify areas of research that are well established and those in need of further development, and may, as a result, inform and direct future research efforts. Our objective was to identify and characterize the top-cited articles in traumatic brain injury (TBI). We used publically available software to identify the 50 TBI articles with the most lifetime citations, and the 50 TBI articles with the highest annual citation rates. A total of 73 articles were included in this review, with 27 of the 50 papers with the highest annual citation rates common to the cohort of 50 articles with the most lifetime citations. All papers were categorized by their primary topic or focus, namely: predictor of outcome, pathology/natural history, treatment, guidelines and consensus statements, epidemiology, assessment measures, or experimental model of TBI. The mean year of publication of the articles with the most lifetime citations and highest annual citation rates was 1990 ± 14.9 years and 2003 ± 6.7 years, respectively. The 50 articles with the most lifetime citations typically studied predictors of outcome (34.0%, 17/50) and were specific to severe TBI (38.0%, 19/50). In contrast, the most common subject of papers with the highest annual citation rates was treatment of brain injury (22.0%, 11/50), and these papers most frequently investigated mild TBI (36.0%, 18/50). These findings suggest an intensified focus on mild TBI, which is perhaps a response to the dedicated attention these injuries are currently receiving in the context of sports and war, and because of their increasing incidence in developing nations. Our findings also indicate increased focus on treatment of TBI, possibly due to the limited efficacy of current interventions for brain injury. This review provides a cross-sectional summary of some of the most influential articles in TBI, and a bibliometric examination of the current status of

  17. Non-inductive current probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Christen Kjeldahl

    1977-01-01

    The current probe described is a low-cost, shunt resistor for monitoring current pulses in e.g., pulsed lasers. Rise time is......The current probe described is a low-cost, shunt resistor for monitoring current pulses in e.g., pulsed lasers. Rise time is...

  18. Fiches pratiques: Le circuit de l'herbe; Journal a plusieurs mains; Comment aborder l'economie d'une facon economique; Des articles d'autrefois aux determinants d'aujourd'hui (Practical Ideas: The Path of Grass; Group Diary; Approaching Economics in an Economical Way; From Yesterday's Articles to Today's Determiners).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vever, Daniel; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Four activities for the French language classroom are described, including a comprehension game based on the cow's digestive system, a group journal exercise using current events, an economics vocabulary development activity, and a grammar exercise focusing on the use of determiners in news articles. (MSE)

  19. Fiches pratiques: Le circuit de l'herbe; Journal a plusieurs mains; Comment aborder l'economie d'une facon economique; Des articles d'autrefois aux determinants d'aujourd'hui (Practical Ideas: The Path of Grass; Group Diary; Approaching Economics in an Economical Way; From Yesterday's Articles to Today's Determiners).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vever, Daniel; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Four activities for the French language classroom are described, including a comprehension game based on the cow's digestive system, a group journal exercise using current events, an economics vocabulary development activity, and a grammar exercise focusing on the use of determiners in news articles. (MSE)

  20. The Top 100 Cited Articles in Clinical Orthopedic Sports Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayar, Suresh K; Dein, Eric J; Spiker, Andrea M; Bernard, Johnathan A; Zikria, Bashir A

    2015-08-01

    Orthopedic sports medicine continues to evolve, owing much of its clinical management and practice to rigorous academic research. In this review, we identify and describe the top 100 cited articles in clinical sports medicine and recognize the authors and institutions driving the research. We collected articles (excluding basic science, animal, and cadaveric studies) from the 25 highest-impact sports medicine journals and analyzed them by number of citations, journal, publication date, institution, country, topic, and author. Mean number of citations was 408 (range, 229-1629). The articles were published in 7 journals, most in the 1980s to 2000s, and represented 15 countries. Thirty topics were addressed, with a heavy emphasis on anterior cruciate ligament injury and reconstruction, knee rating systems, rotator cuff reconstruction, and chondrocyte transplantation. The 3 most cited articles, by Insall and colleagues, Constant and Murley, and Tegner and Lysholm, addressed a knee, a shoulder, and another knee rating system, respectively. Several authors contributed multiple articles. The Hospital for Special Surgery and the University of Bern contributed the most articles (5 each). This study provides a comprehensive list of the past century's major academic contributions to sports medicine. Residents and fellows may use this list to guide their scholarly investigations.

  1. Rule-based deduplication of article records from bibliographic databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yu; Lin, Can; Meng, Weiyi; Yu, Clement; Cohen, Aaron M; Smalheiser, Neil R

    2014-01-01

    We recently designed and deployed a metasearch engine, Metta, that sends queries and retrieves search results from five leading biomedical databases: PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Because many articles are indexed in more than one of these databases, it is desirable to deduplicate the retrieved article records. This is not a trivial problem because data fields contain a lot of missing and erroneous entries, and because certain types of information are recorded differently (and inconsistently) in the different databases. The present report describes our rule-based method for deduplicating article records across databases and includes an open-source script module that can be deployed freely. Metta was designed to satisfy the particular needs of people who are writing systematic reviews in evidence-based medicine. These users want the highest possible recall in retrieval, so it is important to err on the side of not deduplicating any records that refer to distinct articles, and it is important to perform deduplication online in real time. Our deduplication module is designed with these constraints in mind. Articles that share the same publication year are compared sequentially on parameters including PubMed ID number, digital object identifier, journal name, article title and author list, using text approximation techniques. In a review of Metta searches carried out by public users, we found that the deduplication module was more effective at identifying duplicates than EndNote without making any erroneous assignments.

  2. Theme: Staying Current--Horticulture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shry, Carroll L., Jr.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This theme issue on staying current in horticulture includes articles on sex equity in horticulture, Future Farmers of America, career opportunities in horticulture, staying current with your school district's needs, staying current in horticulture instruction, staying current with landscape trade associations, emphasizing the basics in vocational…

  3. Describing an Academic and Nonprofit Organization Partnership to Educate At-Risk Adolescents about Cardiovascular Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzo, Steven J.; Skager, Cherie; Kraiger, Anneliese

    2014-01-01

    There is emerging evidence to suggest community-based interventions can change community-wide behaviors and attitudes toward cardiovascular health. This article describes a partnership between an academic institution and a community nonprofit organization to develop and implement a cardiovascular health promotion program targeting at risk high…

  4. Reading in the Australian Curriculum English: Describing the Effects of Structure and Organisation on Multimodal Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, Beryl; Cottrell, Amber

    2012-01-01

    The recently introduced "Australian Curriculum: English" (Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority (ACARA), 2012) requires students to "read" multimodal text and describe the effects of structure and organisation. We begin this article by tracing the variable understandings of what reading multimodal text might entail through the…

  5. Identifying and Describing Tutor Archetypes: The Pragmatist, the Architect, and the Surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harootunian, Jeff A.; Quinn, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors identify and anecdotally describe three tutor archetypes: the pragmatist, the architect, and the surveyor. These descriptions, based on observations of remedial mathematics tutors at a land-grant university, shed light on a variety of philosophical beliefs regarding and pedagogical approaches to tutoring. An analysis…

  6. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Investigation of Nonholonomic Mechanics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article, methods of modeling dynamic systems namely, Nonholonomic mechanics, Vakonomic mechanics and Chetaev methods for constrained dynamic system are investigated. The fact ..... Chaotic Dyn. 7(1).43–47. [6] Cortés J. (2002).

  7. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Endovascular treatment of cerebral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cerebral aneurysms is cost effective when compared with conventional .... However, the reality is that within our setting ... these, an article in the Quarterly journal of Medicine (204; 97: 637-643) examines the effect of traffic air pollution during.

  8. Newspaper Clippings and Articles (Weather-related)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weather-related newspaper articles and photos, almost exclusively from Baltimore, MD and nearby areas. Includes storm damage, rainfall reports, and weather's affect...

  9. Original Research Article Phytochemical, Proximate and Metal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Methods: The phytochemical analysis of Psidium guajava was carried out ... This article is available in Embase, Index Corpenicus, Scopus, PubsHub, Chemical Abstracts, Socolar, EBSCO, African ... Qualitative assay, for the presence of plant.

  10. ARTICLE 106 OF THE UNITED NATIONS CHARTER

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Theodore M Cooperstein

    2007-01-01

    Toward that end, Articles 42 and 43 of the United Nations Charter posit that member nations would train and dedicate armed forces to be placed at the disposal of the United Nations security Council...

  11. ARTICLES FOR THE BULLETIN: USERS' GUIDE

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    If you wish to publish information in the Weekly Bulletin or if you have an idea for an article, please follow this procedure:     An idea for an article in the front pages? You can send your suggestion by electronic mail to the following address Corinne.Menard@cern.ch Or by telephone : 79971 A seminar announcement or general information? Official news, general information, and seminar announcements must be sent before Tuesday 12.00 to : Weekly.Bulletin@cern.ch Tel. 73830 Building 510/1-002 ETT Division News from clubs? Articles about CERN clubs in the Staff Association part of the Bulletin must be sent before Tuesday 12.00 to: Staff.Bulletin@cern.ch Tel. 74224 Buildin 64/R-002 PE Division Texts (Word format) and pictures (pict, tiff, jpeg et eps) must be in a separate file. Photos furnished by the Clubs to illustrate their articles are welcome.

  12. ARTICLES FOR THE BULLETIN: USER'S GUIDE

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    If you wish to publish information in the Weekly Bulletin or if you have an idea for an article, please follow this procedure: An idea for an article on the first pages? You can send your suggestion by electronic mail at the following address : Corinne.Menard@cern.ch Or by telephone : 79971 A seminar announcement or general information? The official news, general information or seminar announcements must be sent before Tuesday 12.00 to : Weekly.Bulletin@cern.ch By internal mail : Christiane LEFEVRE, tel. 73830 Division ETT, number J02410 Building 510/1-002 News from clubs? Articles about CERN clubs in the Staff Association part of the Bulletin must be sent before Tuesday 12.00 to : Staff.Bulletin@cern.ch >Tel. 74224 Building 64/R-002 Division PE Texts (Word format) and pictures (pict, tiff, jpeg et eps) must be in a separate file. Photos furnished by the Clubs to illustrate their articles are welcome.

  13. Method of producing microchannel and nanochannel articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Urso, Brian R.

    2010-05-04

    A method of making an article having channels therethrough includes the steps of: providing a ductile structure defining at least one macro-channel, the macro-channel containing a salt; drawing the ductile structure in the axial direction of the at least one macro-channel to reduce diameter of the macro-channel; and contacting the salt with a solvent to dissolve the salt to produce an article having at least one microchannel.

  14. Predicting clicks of PubMed articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yuqing; Lu, Zhiyong

    2013-01-01

    Predicting the popularity or access usage of an article has the potential to improve the quality of PubMed searches. We can model the click trend of each article as its access changes over time by mining the PubMed query logs, which contain the previous access history for all articles. In this article, we examine the access patterns produced by PubMed users in two years (July 2009 to July 2011). We explore the time series of accesses for each article in the query logs, model the trends with regression approaches, and subsequently use the models for prediction. We show that the click trends of PubMed articles are best fitted with a log-normal regression model. This model allows the number of accesses an article receives and the time since it first becomes available in PubMed to be related via quadratic and logistic functions, with the model parameters to be estimated via maximum likelihood. Our experiments predicting the number of accesses for an article based on its past usage demonstrate that the mean absolute error and mean absolute percentage error of our model are 4.0% and 8.1% lower than the power-law regression model, respectively. The log-normal distribution is also shown to perform significantly better than a previous prediction method based on a human memory theory in cognitive science. This work warrants further investigation on the utility of such a log-normal regression approach towards improving information access in PubMed.

  15. [Health information on nutrition in newspaper articles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinada, Kayoko; Ariake, Motoko; Abe, Satoshi; Kawaguchi, Yoko

    2002-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to review health information on nutrition in Japanese newspaper articles. The Nikkei Database was used to select articles published in five major newspapers: Asahi, Sankei, Nikkei, Mainichi and Yomiuri. All these dailies have nationwide circulation. The search period was for 7 years, from January 1993 to December 1999. The keywords "diet," "health," and "nutrition" were used. Consequently, 182 articles were selected and analyzed by determining content and coverage. The articles were published to be targeted for the general population: 123 (67.6%), schoolchildren: 21 (11.5%), and elderly: 18 (9.9%). The main source of the newspaper articles on diet was health professionals, such as nutritionists and medical doctors. As diet related health problems, the lifestyle-related diseases, obesity, hypertension, and mental health were introduced in the newspapers. Few articles commented on the relationship between oral health and diet, and dental professionals were not much involved in providing health information on diet. The newspaper is a major source for the general public to obtain health information. It is clear that oral diseases and functional disorder influence daily eating habits. It was suggested that dental professionals should provide such information to the general public, using many occasions, such as conducting health guidance at dental clinics, health education at health centers or schools, and also through mass media.

  16. Tracking Multiple Topics for Finding Interesting Articles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pon, R K; Cardenas, A F; Buttler, D J; Critchlow, T J

    2007-02-15

    We introduce multiple topic tracking (MTT) for iScore to better recommend news articles for users with multiple interests and to address changes in user interests over time. As an extension of the basic Rocchio algorithm, traditional topic detection and tracking, and single-pass clustering, MTT maintains multiple interest profiles to identify interesting articles for a specific user given user-feedback. Focusing on only interesting topics enables iScore to discard useless profiles to address changes in user interests and to achieve a balance between resource consumption and classification accuracy. Also by relating a topic's interestingness to an article's interestingness, iScore is able to achieve higher quality results than traditional methods such as the Rocchio algorithm. We identify several operating parameters that work well for MTT. Using the same parameters, we show that MTT alone yields high quality results for recommending interesting articles from several corpora. The inclusion of MTT improves iScore's performance by 9% to 14% in recommending news articles from the Yahoo! News RSS feeds and the TREC11 adaptive filter article collection. And through a small user study, we show that iScore can still perform well when only provided with little user feedback.

  17. The use of religious metaphors by UK newspapers to describe and denigrate climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Ruth; Fernández, Ana; Coen, Sharon

    2012-04-01

    British newspapers have denigrated anthropogenic climate change by misrepresenting scientific consensus and/or framing climate change within unsympathetic discourses. One aspect of the latter that has not been studied is the use of metaphor to disparage climate change science and proponents. This article analyses 122 British newspaper articles published using a religious metaphor between summer 2003 and 2008. Most were critical of climate change, especially articles in conservative newspapers The Daily Telegraph, Daily Mail and The Times. Articles used religion as a source of metaphor to denigrate climate change in two ways: (1) undermining its scientific status by presenting it as irrational faith-based religion, and proponents as religious extremists intolerant of criticism; (2) mocking climate change using notions of sin, e.g. describing 'green' behaviours as atonement or sacrifice. We argue that the religious metaphor damages constructive debate by emphasizing morality and how climate change is discussed, and detracting attention from the content of scientific data and theories.

  18. Describing Service-Oriented Architecture by Extended Darwin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Tao; SHEN Mei-e; YING Shi; YE Peng; LIANG Zao-qing

    2005-01-01

    Describing Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) is critical in the development of Web-based system. In this paper, an approach for describing SOA by extended Darwin is proposed. The requirements for describing SOA, which are different from that of ordinary architecture, are highlighted firstly, and then a solution for extending Darwin is presented. Using the extended Darwin, service components and connectors can be described explicit by the extended construct, as well as precise operational semantics of SOA by the π-calculus. Finally an example of supply-chain management system is given for manifesting the effect of the extended Darwin.

  19. Article 27 of Competition Law and What Lies Beneath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perdana A. Saputro

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discuss about Article 27 of Law No. 5 Year 1999 on the Restriction of Monopoly Practices and Unfair Business Practices (“Competition Law”. One may wonder the rigorousness to the application of Article 27 which arguably could ban any merger which meets market test without conducting any competitive assessment. For this, the law has been presumed that the acquisition or controlling of large market share from merger is per se illegality. Further, the effects of Article 27 would be discussed in this paper. A merger review itself is not an easy task and tends to bring complex issues that one needs to be dealt with. Things get more complicated when one deals with the merger application in developing countries since there are various aspects that need to be taken account by the respective antitrust authority (including Indonesia Obviously, every country needs to set up its competition law in accordance with its own economic characteristics and conditions. Many have argued as to point out the severe condition in market as a result of high concentration of competition. But more of them argued otherwise, as it could positively pushed on the market. This article would also include best practices from US and EU competition law practices regarding the issue at hand, as well as the relationship of merger control and practices in developing countries. The article offers suggestion with regard to the current approach to Article 27 of the Competition Law and from EU and US best practice which could be used for the benefit of Indonesia’s competition law especially to the application of Article 27.

  20. Rhetorical Structure of Research Article Methods in Agricultural Science

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石慧敏; Anchalee Wannaruk

    2012-01-01

      Currently, there has been a growing interest in the study of academic writing; focusing on the structural organization of academic text or specific linguistic features. However, very few studies have been done on the structural organization of the Methods and the linguistic features link to each move. Thus, the purpose of this study is to identify rhetorical structure of the Methods of agricultural science research articles and to explore the linguistic features linked to each identified move, by analyzing thirty research articles based on Kanoksilapatham’s (2005) framework. Altogether, five moves were found in the Methods, showing that rhetorical structure of Methods in agricultural science has its own format. The moves and linguistic features realizing rhetorical functions may help novice researchers or learners write the Methods of science research articles effectively and professionally

  1. The Janus Head Article - On Quality in the Documentation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Andersen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The god Janus in Greek mythology was a two-faced god; each face had its own view of the world. Our idea behind the Janus Head article is to give you two different and maybe even contradicting views on a certain topic. In this issue the topic is quality in the documentation process. In the first half of this issue’s Janus Head Article translators from the international company Grundfos give us their view of quality and how quality is managed in the documentation process at Grundfos. In the second half of the Janus Head Article scholars from the University of Southern Denmark describe and discuss quality in the documentation process at Grundfos from a researcher’s point of view.

  2. Type specimens of Pectinidae (Bivalvia) described by Ignaz von Born

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, H.H.

    2009-01-01

    Born described in two publications (1778, 1780) the molluscs in the collection of Empress Maria Theresa (1717-1780), now in the Natural History Museum at Vienna. In this paper the Pectinidae type material is described. Ten new species were introduced of which Argopecten nucleus (Born, 1778) and Minn

  3. Type specimens of Pectinidae (Bivalvia) described by Ignaz von Born

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, H.H.

    2009-01-01

    Born described in two publications (1778, 1780) the molluscs in the collection of Empress Maria Theresa (1717-1780), now in the Natural History Museum at Vienna. In this paper the Pectinidae type material is described. Ten new species were introduced of which Argopecten nucleus (Born, 1778) and Minn

  4. Launching the CUSBEA Article Series in SCIENCE CHINA Life Sciences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG ZengYi

    2010-01-01

    @@ As a CUSBEA (China-United States Biochemistry Examination and Administration) Program fellow of Class Ⅳ (1985), I am very excited to announce the official launch of the CUSBEA Article Series in SCIENCE CHINA Life Sciences, a journal in which I am currently serving as Executive Vice-Editor-in-Chief.A couple of months ago, I initially proposed this idea to the Editor-in-Chief of SCIENCE CHINA Life Sciences, Professor Wang Da-Cheng and to the Editor General of SCIENCE CHINA Life Sciences, Professor Zhu Zuoyan, both of whom responded very positively.The article contributed by Dr.Luo Liqun [1],CUSBEA fellow of Class Ⅵ (1987) and currently professor in the Department of Biology at Stanford University, as well as Investigator at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, marks the official beginning of this series.

  5. Using Triage Figuratively to Describe Effective Teaching in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    This article presents critical outcomes for physical education in a "triage" framework by comparing the process of determining the severity of injuries at the scene of an accident to the process of prioritizing decisions in the classroom. The intent is to reduce all possible outcomes of effective teaching to six nonnegotiable outcomes…

  6. Theorizing and Describing Preservice Teachers' Images of Families and Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graue, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    This article examines how prospective teachers just beginning a professional education program think about working with parents. Through interviews with students in an elementary teacher education program, I explore how biography shapes dispositions toward families by setting expectations for the roles and the activities of participants. Merging…

  7. How Do Family Caregivers Describe Their Needs for Professional Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yedidia, Michael J.; Tiedemann, Amy

    2008-01-01

    How aligned are the needs of family caregivers with the professional supports available to them? This article presents the results of the first phase of a study, in which four focus group interviews were conducted with a total of 40 family caregivers to elicit their views of the kinds of assistance they expect from nurses and social workers. The…

  8. Review article: Emergency Department implications of the TASER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, Megan; Close, Benjamin; Furyk, Jeremy; Aitken, Peter

    2009-08-01

    The TASER is a conducted electricity device currently being introduced to the Australian and New Zealand police forces as an alternative to firearms in dealing with violent and dangerous individuals. It incapacitates the subject by delivering rapid pulses of electricity causing involuntary muscle contraction and pain. The use of this device might lead to cardiovascular, respiratory, biochemical, obstetric, ocular and traumatic sequelae. This article will summarize the current literature and propose assessment and management recommendations to guide emergency physicians who will be required to review these patients.

  9. [How to write an article: formal aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral de la Calle, M A; Encinas de la Iglesia, J

    2013-06-01

    Scientific research and the publication of the results of the studies go hand in hand. Exquisite research methods can only be adequately reflected in formal publication with the optimum structure. To ensure the success of this process, it is necessary to follow orderly steps, including selecting the journal in which to publish and following the instructions to authors strictly as well as the guidelines elaborated by diverse societies of editors and other institutions. It is also necessary to structure the contents of the article in a logical and attractive way and to use an accurate, clear, and concise style of language. Although not all the authors are directly involved in the actual writing, elaborating a scientific article is a collective undertaking that does not finish until the article is published. This article provides practical advice about formal and not-so-formal details to take into account when writing a scientific article as well as references that will help readers find more information in greater detail.

  10. Tracking Multiple Topics for Finding Interesting Articles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pon, R K; Cardenas, A F; Buttler, D J; Critchlow, T J

    2008-01-03

    We introduce multiple topic tracking (MTT) for iScore to better recommend news articles for users with multiple interests and to address changes in user interests over time. As an extension of the basic Rocchio algorithm, traditional topic detection and tracking, and single-pass clustering, MTT maintains multiple interest profiles to identify interesting articles for a specific user given user-feedback. Focusing on only interesting topics enables iScore to discard useless profiles to address changes in user interests and to achieve a balance between resource consumption and classification accuracy. iScore is able to achieve higher quality results than traditional methods such as the Rocchio algorithm. We identify several operating parameters that work well for MTT. Using the same parameters, we show that MTT alone yields high quality results for recommending interesting articles from several corpora. The inclusion of MTT improves iScore's performance by 25% in recommending news articles from the Yahoo! News RSS feeds and the TREC11 adaptive filter article collection. And through a small user study, we show that iScore can still perform well when only provided with little user feedback.

  11. Cyprus; Staff Report for the 2002 Article IV Consultation

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2003-01-01

    This 2002 Article IV Consultation highlights that after four years of strong growth, economic activity in Cyprus has tailed off since late 2001, affected by the global economic slowdown. The authorities estimate growth for 2002 to have declined to 2.3 percent, with falling tourist arrivals and weakening consumer and business confidence. Inflation has risen to 2.9 percent year-over-year in December on account of indirect tax increases, but core inflation remains low. The current account defici...

  12. Text analysis methods, text analysis apparatuses, and articles of manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Paul D; Willse, Alan R; Lopresti, Charles A; White, Amanda M

    2014-10-28

    Text analysis methods, text analysis apparatuses, and articles of manufacture are described according to some aspects. In one aspect, a text analysis method includes accessing information indicative of data content of a collection of text comprising a plurality of different topics, using a computing device, analyzing the information indicative of the data content, and using results of the analysis, identifying a presence of a new topic in the collection of text.

  13. Reflective article having a sacrificial cathodic layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabagambe, Benjamin; Buchanan, Michael J.; Scott, Matthew S.; Rearick, Brian K.; Medwick, Paul A.; McCamy, James W.

    2017-09-12

    The present invention relates to reflective articles, such as solar mirrors, that include a sacrificial cathodic layer. The reflective article, more particularly includes a substrate, such as glass, having a multi-layered coating thereon that includes a lead-free sacrificial cathodic layer. The sacrificial cathodic layer includes at least one transition metal, such as a particulate transition metal, which can be in the form of flakes (e.g., zinc flakes). The sacrificial cathodic layer can include an inorganic matrix formed from one or more organo-titanates. Alternatively, the sacrificial cathodic layer can include an organic polymer matrix (e.g., a crosslinked organic polymer matrix formed from an organic polymer and an aminoplast crosslinking agent). The reflective article also includes an outer organic polymer coating, that can be electrodeposited over the sacrificial cathodic layer.

  14. Abstracts and Key Words of Major Articles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Abstracts and Key Words of Major Articles The Standardization of Rules and Forms of Metrical Poetry in the Tang Dynasty WANG Xiang-feng (College of Liberal Arts, Liaoning University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110036) Abstract: The "modem style" poetry or metrical poetry composed by the poets in the Tang Dynasty is considered as artistic wonders in both content and artistic creation. In metrical application it has become the stylistic norm of the later generations and been regarded as practical standards in the following one thousand years and more. The author of this article makes comparisons between Pingshui Rhyme of the Tang Dynasty and the New Rhyme of the Modem Chinese. The article presents unique opinions on how the present people should write classical poems, and how they should realize and deal with some questions in the rules and forms of metrical poetry.

  15. DisArticle: a web server for SVM-based discrimination of articles on traditional medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Kyun; Nam, SeJin; Kim, SangHyun

    2017-01-28

    Much research has been done in Northeast Asia to show the efficacy of traditional medicine. While MEDLINE contains many biomedical articles including those on traditional medicine, it does not categorize those articles by specific research area. The aim of this study was to provide a method that searches for articles only on traditional medicine in Northeast Asia, including traditional Chinese medicine, from among the articles in MEDLINE. This research established an SVM-based classifier model to identify articles on traditional medicine. The TAK + HM classifier, trained with the features of title, abstract, keywords, herbal data, and MeSH, has a precision of 0.954 and a recall of 0.902. In particular, the feature of herbal data significantly increased the performance of the classifier. By using the TAK + HM classifier, a total of about 108,000 articles were discriminated as articles on traditional medicine from among all articles in MEDLINE. We also built a web server called DisArticle ( http://informatics.kiom.re.kr/disarticle ), in which users can search for the articles and obtain statistical data. Because much evidence-based research on traditional medicine has been published in recent years, it has become necessary to search for articles on traditional medicine exclusively in literature databases. DisArticle can help users to search for and analyze the research trends in traditional medicine.

  16. 7 CFR 301.45-7 - Assembly and inspection of regulated articles and outdoor household articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assembly and inspection of regulated articles and outdoor household articles. 301.45-7 Section 301.45-7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-7 Assembly and inspection of regulated articles and outdoor...

  17. Electrifying Current Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Philip

    1980-01-01

    The author describes how he has adapted the television quiz show format of "College Bowl" to current events study for junior high school students. An insert explains use of the same technique with fourth graders. (SJL)

  18. Altmetric: Top 50 dental articles in 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolahi, J; Khazaei, S

    2016-06-10

    Introduction Altmetrics is a new and emerging scholarly tool that measures online attention surrounding journal articles. Altmetric data resources include: policy documents, news outlets, blogs, online reference managers (eg Mendeley and CiteULike), post-publication peer-review forums (eg PubPeer and Publons), social media (eg Twitter, Facebook, Weibo, Google(+), Pinterest, Reddit), Wikipedia, sites running Stack Exchange (Q&A), and reviews on F1000 and YouTube.Methods To identify the top 50 dental articles in 2014, PubMed was searched using the following query "("2014/1/1"[PDAT]:"2014/12/31"[PDAT]) and jsubsetd[text]" in December, 2015. Consequently, all PubMed records were extracted and sent to Altmetric LLP (London, UK) as a CSV file for examination. Data were analysed by Microsoft Office Excel 2010 using descriptive statistics and charts.Results Using PubMed searches,15,132 dental articles were found in 2014. The mean Altmetric score of 50 top dental articles in 2014 was 69.5 ± 73.3 (95% CI: -74.14 to 213.14). The British Dental Journal (48%) and Journal of Dental Research (16%) had the maximum number of top articles. Twitter (67.13%), Mendeley (15.89%) and news outlets (10.92%) were the most popular altmetric data resources.Discussion Altmetrics are intended to supplement bibliometrics, not replace them. Altmetrics is a fresh and emerging arena for the dental research community. We believe that dental clinical practitioners, research scientists, research directors and journal editors must pay more attention to altmetrics as a new and rapid tool to measure the social impact of scholarly articles.

  19. Controlling chaos in dynamical systems described by maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crispin, Y.; Marduel, C. [Embry-Riddle Aeronautical Univ., Daytona Beach, FL (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The problem of suppressing chaotic behavior in dynamical systems is treated using a feedback control method with limited control effort. The proposed method is validated on archetypal systems described by maps, i.e. discrete-time difference equations. The method is also applicable to dynamical systems described by flows, i.e. by systems of ordinary differential equations. Results are presented for the one-dimensional logistic map and for a two-dimensional Lotka-Volterra map describing predator-prey population dynamics. It is shown that chaos can be suppressed and the system stabilized about a period-1 fixed point of the maps.

  20. Recommendations to write better scientific articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Threlfall (Author

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Disseminate results is one of the functions of the scientists, and we all must have approach to the knowledge to carry it a greater number of people. This is done by writing and publishing scientific articles. But though we all have good intentions and ours goals are the best, not always we get our papers are accepted and published in scientific journals. With the aim of providing assistance to achieve greater efficiency and effectiveness in our work, in this article the translation of some interesting recommendations for best writing scientific papers is presented.

  1. Student-Led Engagement of Journal Article Authors in the Classroom Using Web-Based Videoconferencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockman, Brian J.

    2015-01-01

    The learning environment described here uses Web-based videoconferencing technology to merge the traditional classroom journal article discussion with student-led interviews of journal article authors. Papers that describe recent applications of a given technique are selected, with the author engagement occurring at the end of a three or four week…

  2. The Top 50 Articles on Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virk, Sohrab S; Yu, Elizabeth

    2017-04-01

    Bibliometric study of current literature. To catalog the most important minimally invasive spine (MIS) surgery articles using the amount of citations as a marker of relevance. MIS surgery is a relatively new tool used by spinal surgeons. There is a dynamic and evolving field of research related to MIS techniques, clinical outcomes, and basic science research. To date, there is no comprehensive review of the most cited articles related to MIS surgery. A systematic search was performed over three widely used literature databases: Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar. There were four searches performed using the terms "minimally invasive spine surgery," "endoscopic spine surgery," "percutaneous spinal surgery," and "lateral interbody surgery." The amount of citations included was averaged amongst the three databases to rank each article. The query of the three databases was performed in November 2015. Fifty articles were selected based upon the amount of citations each averaged amongst the three databases. The most cited article was titled "Extreme Lateral Interbody Fusion (XLIF): a novel surgical technique for anterior lumbar interbody fusion" by Ozgur et al and was credited with 447, 239, and 279 citations in Google Scholar, Web of Science, and Scopus, respectively. Citations ranged from 27 to 239 for Web of Science, 60 to 279 for Scopus, and 104 to 462 for Google Scholar. There was a large variety of articles written spanning over 14 different topics with the majority dealing with clinical outcomes related to MIS surgery. The majority of the most cited articles were level III and level IV studies. This is likely due to the relatively recent nature of technological advances in the field. Furthermore level I and level II studies are required in MIS surgery in the years ahead. 5.

  3. Locating and parsing bibliographic references in HTML medical articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jie; Le, Daniel; Thoma, George R

    2010-06-01

    The set of references that typically appear toward the end of journal articles is sometimes, though not always, a field in bibliographic (citation) databases. But even if references do not constitute such a field, they can be useful as a preprocessing step in the automated extraction of other bibliographic data from articles, as well as in computer-assisted indexing of articles. Automation in data extraction and indexing to minimize human labor is key to the affordable creation and maintenance of large bibliographic databases. Extracting the components of references, such as author names, article title, journal name, publication date and other entities, is therefore a valuable and sometimes necessary task. This paper describes a two-step process using statistical machine learning algorithms, to first locate the references in HTML medical articles and then to parse them. Reference locating identifies the reference section in an article and then decomposes it into individual references. We formulate this step as a two-class classification problem based on text and geometric features. An evaluation conducted on 500 articles drawn from 100 medical journals achieves near-perfect precision and recall rates for locating references. Reference parsing identifies the components of each reference. For this second step, we implement and compare two algorithms. One relies on sequence statistics and trains a Conditional Random Field. The other focuses on local feature statistics and trains a Support Vector Machine to classify each individual word, followed by a search algorithm that systematically corrects low confidence labels if the label sequence violates a set of predefined rules. The overall performance of these two reference-parsing algorithms is about the same: above 99% accuracy at the word level, and over 97% accuracy at the chunk level.

  4. Storyboard GALILEO CRUISE SCIENCE OPPORTUNITIES describes asteroid encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Storyboard with mosaicked image of an asteroid and entitled GALILEO CRUISE SCIENCE OPPORTUNITIES describes asteroid objectives. These objectives include: first asteroid encounter; surface geology, composition size, shape, mass; and relation of primitive bodies to meteorites.

  5. US Forest Service Survey parcels described by metes and bounds

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting survey parcels described by a metes and bounds description. Examples include: land lots, housing subdivision lots, mineral...

  6. On the Cauchy Problem Describing an Electron-Phonon Interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jo(a)o-Paulo DIAS; Mário FIGUEIRA; Filipe OLIVEIRA

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a model is derived to describe a quartic anharmonic interatomic interaction with an external potential involving a pair electron-phonon. The authors study the corresponding Cauchy Problem in the semilinear and quasilinear cases.

  7. Digital data sets describing metropolitan areas in the conterminous US

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set describes metropolitan areas in the conterminous United States, developed from U.S. Bureau of the Census boundaries of Consolidated Metropolitan...

  8. Zulma Ageitos de Castellanos: Publications and status of described taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorelli, Javier H; Urteaga, Diego; Teso, Valeria

    2015-10-28

    Zulma Ageitos de Castellanos was an Argentinian malacologist working in the "Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo" at La Plata University where she taught invertebrate zoology between 1947 and 1990. Her scientific publications are listed in chronological order. Described genus-group and species-group taxa are listed. Information about the type locality and type material, and taxonomic remarks are also provided. Finally, type material of all described taxa was requested and, when located, illustrated.

  9. Model checking biological systems described using ambient calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardare, Radu Iulian; Priami, Corrado; Qualia, Paola;

    2005-01-01

    Model checking biological systems described using ambient calculus. In Proc. of the second International Workshop on Computational Methods in Systems Biology (CMSB04), Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics 3082:85-103, Springer, 2005.......Model checking biological systems described using ambient calculus. In Proc. of the second International Workshop on Computational Methods in Systems Biology (CMSB04), Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics 3082:85-103, Springer, 2005....

  10. Describing spatiotemporal couplings in ultrashort pulses using coupling coefficients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeng Shu-Guang; Dan You-Quan; Zhang Bin; Sun Nian-Chun; Sui Zhan

    2011-01-01

    Three coupling coefficients are defined to describe spatiotemporal coupling in ultrashort pulses.With these coupling coefficients,the first-order spatiotemporal couplings of Gaussian pulse and beam are described analytically.Also,the first-order and the second-order spatiotemporal couplings caused by angular dispersion elements are studied using these coupling coefficients.It can be shown that these coupling coefficients are dimensionless and normalized,and readily indicate the severity of spatiotemporal coupling.

  11. Describing the Elephant: Framing a Discussion on Command and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    July–August 2014 Air & Space Power Journal | 17 From the Guest Editor Describing the Elephant Framing a Discussion on Command and Control Col Henry...DATE JUL 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Describing the Elephant: Framing a Discussion on...path ahead for better understanding and op- erational performance in this complex core function. To move down this path requires a common frame of

  12. The Coriolis Effect Further Described in the Seventeenth Century

    CERN Document Server

    Graney, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    Claude Francis Milliet Dechales described the Coriolis effect in his 1674 Cursus seu Mundus Mathematicus. Dechales discussed and illustrated the deflection of both falling bodies and of projectiles launched toward the poles that should occur on a rotating Earth. Interestingly, this was done as an argument against the Earth's rotation, the deflections not having been observed at the time. Dechales's work follows on that of Giovanni Battista Riccioli, who had also described the effect in his Almagestum Novum of 1651.

  13. Passage-Based Bibliographic Coupling: An Inter-Article Similarity Measure for Biomedical Articles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rey-Long Liu

    Full Text Available Biomedical literature is an essential source of biomedical evidence. To translate the evidence for biomedicine study, researchers often need to carefully read multiple articles about specific biomedical issues. These articles thus need to be highly related to each other. They should share similar core contents, including research goals, methods, and findings. However, given an article r, it is challenging for search engines to retrieve highly related articles for r. In this paper, we present a technique PBC (Passage-based Bibliographic Coupling that estimates inter-article similarity by seamlessly integrating bibliographic coupling with the information collected from context passages around important out-link citations (references in each article. Empirical evaluation shows that PBC can significantly improve the retrieval of those articles that biomedical experts believe to be highly related to specific articles about gene-disease associations. PBC can thus be used to improve search engines in retrieving the highly related articles for any given article r, even when r is cited by very few (or even no articles. The contribution is essential for those researchers and text mining systems that aim at cross-validating the evidence about specific gene-disease associations.

  14. Passage-Based Bibliographic Coupling: An Inter-Article Similarity Measure for Biomedical Articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rey-Long

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical literature is an essential source of biomedical evidence. To translate the evidence for biomedicine study, researchers often need to carefully read multiple articles about specific biomedical issues. These articles thus need to be highly related to each other. They should share similar core contents, including research goals, methods, and findings. However, given an article r, it is challenging for search engines to retrieve highly related articles for r. In this paper, we present a technique PBC (Passage-based Bibliographic Coupling) that estimates inter-article similarity by seamlessly integrating bibliographic coupling with the information collected from context passages around important out-link citations (references) in each article. Empirical evaluation shows that PBC can significantly improve the retrieval of those articles that biomedical experts believe to be highly related to specific articles about gene-disease associations. PBC can thus be used to improve search engines in retrieving the highly related articles for any given article r, even when r is cited by very few (or even no) articles. The contribution is essential for those researchers and text mining systems that aim at cross-validating the evidence about specific gene-disease associations.

  15. Definite Article Usage across Varieties of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahid, Ridwan

    2013-01-01

    This paper seeks to explore the extent of definite article usage variation in several varieties of English based on a classification of its usage types. An annotation scheme based on Hawkins and Prince was developed for this purpose. Using matching corpus data representing Inner Circle varieties and Outer Circle varieties, analysis was made on…

  16. Writing Feature Articles with Intermediate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Denise N.

    2010-01-01

    Students need regular opportunities to write expository text. However, focusing on report writing often leaves students without strong examples to study or analyze to guide and grow their own writing. Writing and studying feature articles, meant to inform and explain, can become an alternative to report writing, as they can easily be located in…

  17. Broadsheet English: Teaching English through Newspaper Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdemir, Ahmet Selcuk; Barin, Muzaffer; Demiroz, Hakan

    2012-01-01

    In this study it is aimed to debate whether newspaper articles can be used as speaking materials in foreign language courses as they include most actual and living language patterns by all means. A quasi-experimental study has been carried out at Vocational School of Tourism and Hotel Services of Erzincan University. Thirty-eight preparatory…

  18. The Gifted Enigma: A Collection of Articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vialle, Wilma, Ed.; Geake, John, Ed.

    Twenty-one research articles originally published in the "Australasian Journal of Gifted Education" over the past decade are collected in this book and address aspects of gifted education including pedagogy and curriculum, policy and practice, social and emotional needs, school and family, neuropsychology and cognition, and special…

  19. High-Molecular Compounds (Selected Articles).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-30

    34 07 250 HIGH-MOLECULAR COMPOUNIDS (SELECTED ARTICLES)(U) FOREIGN Il TECNOLOGY DIV WIGT-PATTERtSON RFD ON 30 OCT 6? FTD-ID(RS)T- M 2-97 UNCLASSIFIED...vinyl monomers [i, 23. However, there is little information in the literature on polymerization of monomers with allyl additives during chemical

  20. The Gifted Enigma: A Collection of Articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vialle, Wilma, Ed.; Geake, John, Ed.

    Twenty-one research articles originally published in the "Australasian Journal of Gifted Education" over the past decade are collected in this book and address aspects of gifted education including pedagogy and curriculum, policy and practice, social and emotional needs, school and family, neuropsychology and cognition, and special…

  1. Topical Articles: Teaching Psychological Science through Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, David G.

    2007-01-01

    The teaching of psychological science occurs face-to-face in classrooms and also through writing via op-ed essays, magazine articles, trade books, Web sites, and textbooks. I discuss the teaching of psychological science through such outlets, offer some practical suggestions for writing, and reflect on what I have found motivating, helpful, and…

  2. Interactional Metadiscourse in Research Article Abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillaerts, Paul; Van de Velde, Freek

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with interpersonality in research article abstracts analysed in terms of interactional metadiscourse. The evolution in the distribution of three prominent interactional markers comprised in Hyland's (2005a) model, viz. hedges, boosters and attitude markers, is investigated in three decades of abstract writing in the field of…

  3. Brief Articles for Latino Parents, 1999 Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Rural Education and Small Schools, Charleston, WV.

    This packet contains six briefs developed specifically for Spanish-speaking Latino parents, and English translations of the briefs. These briefs state what researchers and practitioners have learned about various ways parents can help their children do well in school. Earlier editions of brief articles for parents have been used in various ways by…

  4. Qualitative Research Articles: Guidelines, Suggestions and Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescentini, Alberto; Mainardi, Giuditta

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to give ideas and suggestions to avoid some typical problems of qualitative articles. The aim is not to debate quality in qualitative research but to indicate some practical solutions. Design/methodology/approach: The paper discusses the design of qualitative research and the structure of a qualitative article…

  5. Introductions in Research Articles: Variation across Disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samraj, B.

    2002-01-01

    Reports on an analysis of research article introductions from two related fields, Wildlife Behavior and Conservation Biology, using Swales' (1990), "Genre Analysis. English in Academic and Research Settings." Results of the analysis reveal disciplinary variation in the structure of this genre, which has important pedagogical implications.…

  6. Spin current

    CERN Document Server

    Valenzuela, Sergio O; Saitoh, Eiji; Kimura, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    In a new branch of physics and technology called spin-electronics or spintronics, the flow of electrical charge (usual current) as well as the flow of electron spin, the so-called 'spin current', are manipulated and controlled together. This book provides an introduction and guide to the new physics and application of spin current.

  7. Merging of plasma currents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmans, J.; Schep, T. J.

    2001-01-01

    The merging process of current filaments in a strongly magnetized plasma is described. The evolution is calculated using a contour dynamics method, which accurately tracks piecewise constant distributions of the conserved quantities. In the interaction of two screened currents, both develop dipolar

  8. The Bransfield Gravity Current

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sangrà, P.; Stegner, A.; Hernández-Arencibia, Mónica; Márrero-Díaz, A.; Salinas, C.; Aguiar-González, B.; Henríquez-Pastene, C.H.; Mouriño-Carballido, B.

    2017-01-01

    Using in situ data and laboratory experiments, we show that the circulation of the Bransfield Current (BC) around the South Shetland Islands (SSI) may be characterized in terms of a propagating buoyant gravity current. First, we describe the SSI hydrography and some drifter trajectories, paying spec

  9. Direct current transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, S. M.; Urban, E. W. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A direct current transformer in which the primary consists of an elongated strip of superconductive material, across the ends of which is direct current potential is described. Parallel and closely spaced to the primary is positioned a transformer secondary consisting of a thin strip of magnetoresistive material.

  10. The Bransfield Gravity Current

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sangrà, P.; Stegner, A.; Hernández-Arencibia, Mónica; Márrero-Díaz, A.; Salinas, C.; Aguiar-González, B.; Henríquez-Pastene, C.H.; Mouriño-Carballido, B.

    2017-01-01

    Using in situ data and laboratory experiments, we show that the circulation of the Bransfield Current (BC) around the South Shetland Islands (SSI) may be characterized in terms of a propagating buoyant gravity current. First, we describe the SSI hydrography and some drifter trajectories, paying

  11. Volume 89, Issue4 (September 2004)Articles in the Current Issue:Original PaperSpatial Analysis of Twaite Shad, Alosa fallax (Lacepède, 1803), in the Southern North Sea: Application of Non-Linear Geostatistics as a Tool to Search for Special Areas of Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzenmüller, Vanessa; Maynou, Francesc; Ehrich, Siegfried; Zauke, Gerd-Peter

    2004-09-01

    This study aims to evaluate the suitability of non-linear geostatistics and indicator kriging (IK) as a tool in environmental impact assessment and nature conservation, in particular to search for potential Special Areas of Conservation (SAC) for the endangered fish species twaite shad, Alosa fallax (Lacepède, 1803) within the German Exclusive Economical Zone (EEZ) of the North Sea. To analyse the spatial distribution of this fish species, data on standardised biomass index (catch per unit effort, c.p.u.e., kg × 30 min-1) from 1996 to 2001 were used, regarding the third and fourth quarters of each year, respectively. Thereby we assume that the spatial distribution can be described as a time-invariant process. This assumption is supported by information on annual sampling effort, allocation of hauls and spatial distribution of the positive catches. All indicator variograms obtained for different c.p.u.e. cut-off values displayed distinct spatial structures, clearly indicating that the indicator variables were spatially autocorrelated. Gaussian models were fitted by least-squares methods and were evaluated with a goodness-of-fit statistic. Subsequently, IK was employed to estimate the probability of exceeding the c.p.u.e. cut-off values for the twaite shad in the investigation area. These were highest in the Weser- and Elbe-estuary, probably because of migrations of twaite shad to and from estuaries at the time of investigation due to spawning, while within the German EEZ of the North Sea no such areas with increased probabilities could be discerned. Thus, although available data did not allow to identify and implement any SAC in the German EEZ, the methods employed here can be regarded as a promising management tool in biological conservation issues. (

  12. Status of the names of some hydroid species (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa), described from the Atlantic coast of Patagonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Thaís P; Cunha, Amanda F; Marques, Antonio C

    2016-09-29

    Thirty new species of benthic leptothecate hydroids were described and named from Patagonia in a 1991 PhD dissertation by Mohamed El Beshbeeshy. Although constituting nomina nuda under provisions of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN), the names of some species were used in several scientific publications between 1991 and 2011. In 2011, the dissertation of El Beshbeeshy was published in accordance with Article 8 of the ICZN. Several species-group names appearing in that work nevertheless fail to fully comply with certain articles of the code. The goal of this contribution is to review the nomenclatural availability of the names of those 30 new taxa, and to clearly establish the current status of El Beshbeeshy's material. Two of them were made available in 1999 as part of studies other than those of El Beshbeeshy, and correct authorship and date is here noted. Twenty-one of the nomina nuda were made available in a work published by El Beshbeeshy in 2011, although some constitute junior synonyms. Six of the new species-group names appearing in both the 1991 and 2011 works, established following a literature review of Patagonian species, were proposed without re-description, or designation of name-bearing types, or locations of such types. Most of them do not meet criteria of availability and remain nomina nuda. The status of each is discussed to avoid additional nomenclatural errors and continued taxonomic confusion.

  13. Collagen cross linking: Current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas K Rao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Keratoconus is a common ectatic disorder occurring in more than 1 in 1,000 individuals. The condition typically starts in adolescence and early adulthood. It is a disease with an uncertain cause and its progression is unpredictable, but in extreme cases, vision deteriorates and can require corneal transplant surgery. Corneal collagen cross-linking (CCL with riboflavin (C3R is a recent treatment option that can enhance the rigidity of the cornea and prevent disease progression. Since its inception, the procedure has evolved with newer instrumentation, surgical techniques, and is also now performed for expanded indications other than keratoconus. With increasing experience, newer guidelines regarding optimization of patient selection, the spectrum of complications and their management, and combination procedures are being described. This article in conjunction with the others in this issue, will try and explore the uses of collagen cross-linking (CXL in its current form.

  14. [Acromegaly: current view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kršek, Michal

    2015-10-01

    Acromegaly is a rare disorder caused by autonomous oversecretion of growth hormone mostly by pituitary adenoma. Untreated acromegaly leads to significantly increased morbidity and mortality and impaired quality of life. Early diagnosis and treatment is therefore essential for improvement of patients prognosis and management of acromegaly should be concentrated in specialized centres. Present article summarizes current view on diagnosis and treatment of acromegaly.

  15. Algorithm describing pressure distribution of non-contact TNT explosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosław Kiciński

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available [b]Abstract[/b]. The aim of this study is to develop a computational algorithm, describing the shock wave pressure distribution in the space induced by non-contact TNT explosion. The procedure describes pressure distribution on a damp surface of the hull. Simulations have been carried out using Abaqus/CAE. The study also shows the pressure waveform descriptions provided by various authors and presents them in charts. The formulated conclusions convince efficiency of the algorithm application.[b]Keywords:[/b] Underwater explosion, shock wave, CAE, TNT, Kobben class submarine

  16. Dynamic modelling of pectin extraction describing yield and functional characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nina Marianne; Cognet, T.; Santacoloma, P. A.

    2017-01-01

    A dynamic model of pectin extraction is proposed that describes pectin yield, degree of esterification and intrinsic viscosity. The dynamic model is one dimensional in the peel geometry and includes mass transport of pectin by diffusion and reaction kinetics of hydrolysis, degradation and de-esterification....... The model takes into account the effects of the process conditions such as temperature and acid concentration on extraction kinetics. It is shown that the model describes pectin bulk solution concentration, degree of esterification and intrinsic viscosity in pilot scale extractions from lime peel...

  17. Describing baseball pitch movement with right-hand rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahill, A Terry; Baldwin, David G

    2007-07-01

    The right-hand rules show the direction of the spin-induced deflection of baseball pitches: thus, they explain the movement of the fastball, curveball, slider and screwball. The direction of deflection is described by a pair of right-hand rules commonly used in science and engineering. Our new model for the magnitude of the lateral spin-induced deflection of the ball considers the orientation of the axis of rotation of the ball relative to the direction in which the ball is moving. This paper also describes how models based on somatic metaphors might provide variability in a pitcher's repertoire.

  18. An autocatalytic kinetic model for describing microbial growth during fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarz, Albert; Augusto, Pedro E D

    2015-01-01

    The mathematical modelling of the behaviour of microbial growth is widely desired in order to control, predict and design food and bioproduct processing, stability and safety. This work develops and proposes a new semi-empirical mathematical model, based on an autocatalytic kinetic, to describe the microbial growth through its biomass concentration. The proposed model was successfully validated using 15 microbial growth patterns, covering the three most important types of microorganisms in food and biotechnological processing (bacteria, yeasts and moulds). Its main advantages and limitations are discussed, as well as the interpretation of its parameters. It is shown that the new model can be used to describe the behaviour of microbial growth.

  19. A Quark Transport Theory to describe Nucleon--Nucleon Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Kalmbach, U; Biro, T S; Mosel, U

    1993-01-01

    On the basis of the Friedberg-Lee model we formulate a semiclassical transport theory to describe the phase-space evolution of nucleon-nucleon collisions on the quark level. The time evolution is given by a Vlasov-equation for the quark phase-space distribution and a Klein-Gordon equation for the mean-field describing the nucleon as a soliton bag. The Vlasov equation is solved numerically using an extended testparticle method. We test the confinement mechanism and mean-field effects in 1+1 dimensional simulations.

  20. Newly Described Tumor Entities in Sinonasal Tract Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Justin A

    2016-03-01

    Surgical pathology of the sinonasal tract (nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses) is extremely challenging due in part to the tremendous diversity of tumor types that may arise in this region. Compounding the difficulty, a number of new sinonasal tumor entities have been recently described, and pathologists may not yet be familiar with these neoplasms. This manuscript will review the clinicopathologic features of some of the newly described sinonasal tumor types: NUT midline carcinoma, HPV-related carcinoma with adenoid cystic-like features, SMARCB1 (INI-1) deficient sinonasal carcinoma, biphenotypic sinonasal sarcoma, and renal cell-like adenocarcinoma.

  1. 730-IJBCS-Article- Raj Stephy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR GATSING

    organisms and biomagnification in them describes the processes and pathways of these pollutants from one .... Arsenic. Arsenic is the most common cause of acute heavy metal poisoning in adults and is .... avoid sources of aluminum received.

  2. 1802-IJBCS-Article-Donatien Gatsing+

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    Phytochemical screening was performed using standard methods. Acute toxicity study of the various ... 2000), antioxidant (Kouam et al., 2005), as .... using standard methods described by. Harborne ..... However, in vivo antimicrobial study and.

  3. Fungi Encountered on Footwear and Defence Articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Sharma

    1980-10-01

    Full Text Available A study of mycoflora on footwears and defence articles from Agra city was made. In all 38 fungi belonging to different genera were recorded. Out of these, 17 fungal species were isolated for the first on these articles. A new variety i.e., Aspergillus sydowii var. agraii Sharma and Sharma was also created. Species of Aspergillus, Penicillium, Paecilomyces, Drechslera, Alternaria, Fusarium and Trichoderma were found to be dominant in all the cases. Maximum species were recorded from gents footwear and books ankle in comparison to ladies footwear. All these fungi were grouped as (i active (15 isolates, (iimoderate (15 isolates and (iii slow leather deteriogens (8 isolates on the basis of screening.

  4. Solid Propellant Test Article (SPTA) Test Stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    This photograph shows the Solid Propellant Test Article (SPTA) test stand with the Modified Nasa Motor (M-NASA) test article at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The SPTA test stand, 12-feet wide by 12-feet long by 24-feet high, was built in 1989 to provide comparative performance data on nozzle and case insulation material and to verify thermostructural analysis models. A modified NASA 48-inch solid motor (M-NASA motor) with a 12-foot blast tube and 10-inch throat makes up the SPTA. The M-NASA motor is being used to evaluate solid rocket motor internal non-asbestos insulation materials, nozzle designs, materials, and new inspection techniques. New internal motor case instrumentation techniques are also being evaluated.

  5. Siemens SOFC Test Article and Module Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierre, Joseph F.

    2011-03-31

    Preliminary design studies of the 95 kWe-class SOFC test article continue resulting in a stack architecture of that is 1/3 of 250 kWe-class SOFC advanced module. The 95 kWeclass test article is envisioned to house 20 bundles (eight cells per bundle) of Delta8 cells with an active length of 100 cm. Significant progress was made in the conceptual design of the internal recirculation loop. Flow analyses were initiated in order to optimize the bundle row length for the 250 kWeclass advanced module. A preferred stack configuration based on acceptable flow and thermal distributions was identified. Potential module design and analysis issues associated with pressurized operation were identified.

  6. Hotel to Phase out Disposable Articles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Several hotels in Changsha, Shanghai and Kunming have recently staged a Green Hotel campaign: hotels will not offer disposable toothbrushes, toothpaste, slippers, combs or bottled shampoo and body lotion to their guests unless requested. Meanwhile a Green Hotel Standard has been issued, proscribing "disposable articles, such as toothbrushes, soap, combs and slippers," and stipulating that "textiles, such as bathrobes, towels and pillowslips, in hotel rooms are to be changed strictly at the request of guests,

  7. Reducing the open porosity of pyroboroncarbon articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyushov, G. G.; Zakharevich, A. M.; Pichkhidze, S. Ya.; Koshuro, V. A.

    2016-02-01

    It is established that a decrease in the open porosity of pyroboroncarbon, a pyrolytic glassy composite material of interest for manufacturing prosthetic heart valves (PHVs), can be achieved via impregnation of articles with an alcohol solution of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane and subsequent thermal treatment. The maximum roughness height and linear size of open pores on the surface of PHV parts made of pyroboroncarbon can additionally be reduced by final mechanical processing of a silicon oxide film formed on the surface.

  8. Republic of Kazakhstan; 2013 Article IV Consultation

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the Republic of Kazakhstan’s 2013 Article of Consultation. The IMF report focuses on vision of developing Kazakhstan into a leading emerging market economy requires concerted efforts to strengthen the policy architecture. It highlights the importance of enhancing the diversification strategy by strengthening institutions, the business environment, and human capital, while carefully managing the country’s oil wealth. It also discusses that the unification of the pension...

  9. 1268-IJBCS-Article-Larwanou Mahamane

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    Cet article présente les impacts de la Régénération Naturelle Assistée ... le changement induit à travers la pratique de la Régénération Naturelle .... Le climat est de type sahélien avec une ... du village, leur volume, ainsi que les espèces ..... Tableau 3 : Répartition des du type d'usages de bois dans les ménages au niveau.

  10. On Writing Scientific Articles in English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JamesHartley

    2003-01-01

    If we examine the text of scientific articles it is clear that there is a generally accepted way of writing them. Scientific prose in English stereotypically uses the third person, the passive tense, complex terminology, and various footnoting and referencing systems. Scientific prose is not known for discursive anecdotes, humour, pictures, colour, bizarre typography or exclamation marks! Often the written text appears quite impersonal-the human element is removed.

  11. The Bibliometric Properties of Article Readership Information

    OpenAIRE

    Kurtz, Michael J.; Eichhorn, Guenther; Accomazzi, Alberto; Grant, Carolyn S.; Demleitner, Markus; Murray, Stephen S.; Martimbeau, Nathalie; Elwell, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS), along with astronomy's journals and data centers (a collaboration dubbed URANIA), has developed a distributed on-line digital library which has become the dominant means by which astronomers search, access and read their technical literature. Digital libraries such as the NASA Astrophysics Data System permit the easy accumulation of a new type of bibliometric measure, the number of electronic accesses (``reads'') of individual articles. We explore vari...

  12. On Academic Conflict in Medical Research Articles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-mei; CHEN Ning; NIE Wen-xin

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the distribution of academic conflicts, if any, in medical research articles. Methods: Twenty-seven and 25 medical research articles in the field of internal medicine were selected from English and Chinese respectable jour⁃nals, respectively. Then, the speech acts that reflected a conflict between a scientist’s knowledge claim and another scientist’s knowledge claim were manually searched and recorded in each paper. Data were analyzed using non-parametric Chi-test. Results:There were 123 academic conflicts recorded in the English corpus and 49 Academic Conflicts in the Chinese corpus. Significant difference was observed in the overall frequency of academic conflicts between the English and Chinese medical discourse (p=0.001). Besides, as for the distribution within research articles, introduction and discussion sections were the sections where Aca⁃demic Conflict speech acts were most likely to occur in both corpra. Conclusion: The Chinese scholars are less likely to criticize peers. Introduction and discussion sections were the sections where Academic Conflict speech acts were most likely to occur. Our results are in agreement with previous results and confirmed the claim that highly different cultures vary in their discourse prefer⁃ences. Our findings are of pedagogical significance.

  13. [Ethics in articles published in medical journals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Humberto; Palma, Joaquín; Andresen, Max

    2007-04-01

    Authors of clinical articles have similar motivations and rules than authors in other scientific fields. In addition, medical research must obey specific ethical rules that apply to studies involving human subjects, including biological samples, tissues, cellular or sub cellular samples obtained from them. When submitting their reports for publication, authors must declare that they have followed such ethical rules and also should declare any possible conflict of interest that may have arisen. External peer reviewers and the editors should also conform to limitations by eventual conflicts of interest. Authors should respect specific ethical norms that apply to the process of submitting, publishing and reproducing their manuscripts. In recent years, the editors of Revista Médica de Chile have become aware of five instances of misconduct committed by authors of articles submitted or already published. Four correspond to redundant publications and one exhibits overt plagiarism in the text and syntax. Appropriate actions have been taken following recommendations published by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, the World Association of Medical Editors and other groups. The present article stresses that authors and their sponsoring institutions must be aware of the importance of following ethical rules when reporting scientific work.

  14. A survey of retracted articles in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Túlio Eduardo; Gonçalves, Andréia Souza; Leles, Cláudio Rodrigues; Batista, Aline Carvalho; Costa, Luciane Rezende

    2017-07-06

    Publication retraction is a mechanism to preserve the scientific literature against publications that contain seriously flawed or erroneous data, redundant publication, plagiarism, unethical research, and other features that compromise the integrity of science. An increase in the occurrence of retractions in recent years has been reported. Nevertheless, there is scarce information on this topic concerning publications in dentistry and related specialties. Thus, this study aimed to investigate retracted papers published in dental journals. Data collection included an exploratory search in PubMed and a specific search in SCImago Journal Rank indexed journals, complemented by the cases reported on the Retraction Watch website and in PubMed. All 167 dental journals included in SCImago were searched for identification of retracted articles up to March 2016. The selected retracted articles and their corresponding retraction notices were recorded and assessed for classification according to the reason for retraction and other additional information. Forty of the 167 journals scrutinised at SCImago (23.9%) had at least one retracted article, and four additional journals were identified from the Retraction Watch website. A total of 72 retracted found were retracted for the reasons: redundant publication (20.8%), plagiarism (18.1%), misconduct (13.8%), overlap (13.6%) and honest error (9.7%). Higher number of retractions were reported in those journals with cites/doc retractions were mostly due to the authors' malpractice and were more frequently related to journals with less impact.

  15. Teachers Describe Epistemologies of Science Instruction through Q Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Caitlin; Angle, Julie; Montgomery, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Creating scientifically literate students is a common goal among educational stakeholders. An understanding of nature of science is an important component of scientific literacy in K-12 science education. Q methodology was used to investigate the opinions of preservice and in-service teachers on how they intend to teach or currently teach science.…

  16. Adolescents with lesbian mothers describe their own lives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gartrell, N.; Bos, H.M.W.; Peyser, H.; Deck, A.; Rodas, C.

    2012-01-01

    Empirical research on the everyday life experiences of adolescents reared by lesbian mothers is limited. The current study gathered self-report descriptive data from 78 adolescents enrolled in the largest, longest-running, prospective longitudinal study of planned lesbian families, with a 93% retent

  17. A Vision-Based Methodology to Dynamically Track and Describe Cell Deformation during Cell Micromanipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimirad, Fatemeh; Shirinzadeh, Bijan; Yan, Wenyi; Fatikow, Sergej

    2013-02-01

    The main objective of this article is to mechanize the procedure of tracking and describing the various phases of deformation of a biological circular cell during micromanipulation. The devised vision-based methodology provides a real-time strategy to track and describe the cell deformation by extracting a geometric feature called dimple angle. An algorithm based on Snake was established to acquire the boundary of the indenting cell and measure the aforementioned feature. Micromanipulation experiments were conducted for zebrafish embryos. Experimental results were used to characterize the deformation of the manipulating embryo by the devised geometric parameter. The results demonstrated the high capability of the methodology. The proposed method is applicable to the micromanipulation of other circular biological embryos such as injection of the mouse oocyte/embryo. Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of the International Journal of Optomechatronics to view the supplemental files.

  18. Describing dengue epidemics: Insights from simple mechanistic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Maíra; Stollenwerk, Nico; Kooi, Bob W.

    2012-09-01

    We present a set of nested models to be applied to dengue fever epidemiology. We perform a qualitative study in order to show how much complexity we really need to add into epidemiological models to be able to describe the fluctuations observed in empirical dengue hemorrhagic fever incidence data offering a promising perspective on inference of parameter values from dengue case notifications.

  19. Superintendents Describe Their Leadership Styles: Implications for Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, James J.; Wang, Chuang

    2013-01-01

    Superintendents from eight southeastern United States school districts self-described their leadership styles across the choices of autocratic, laissez-faire, democratic, situational, servant, or transformational. When faced with this array of choices, the superintendents chose with arguable equitableness, indicating that successful leaders can…

  20. Comparing Theoretical Perspectives in Describing Mathematics Departments: Complexity and Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beswick, Kim; Watson, Anne; De Geest, Els

    2010-01-01

    We draw on two studies of mathematics departments in 11-18 comprehensive maintained schools in England to compare and contrast the insights provided by differing theoretical perspectives. In one study, activity theory was used to describe common features of the work of three departments. In the other, a mathematics department was viewed and…

  1. Describing Elementary Certification Methods across the Elementary Music Career Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svec, Christina L.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe elementary music method choice and certification method choice overall and across the elementary music career cycle. Participants (N = 254) were categorized as Level I or Elementary Division in a southwestern music education association database. The questionnaire included 25 four-point Likert-type items…

  2. Icosahedral symmetry described by an incommensurately modulated crystal structure model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolny, Janusz; Lebech, Bente

    1986-01-01

    A crystal structure model of an incommensurately modulated structure is presented. Although six different reciprocal vectors are used to describe the model, all calculations are done in three dimensions making calculation of the real-space structure trivial. Using this model, it is shown that both...

  3. Describing, Instantiating and Evaluating a Reference Architecture : A Case Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avgeriou, Paris

    2003-01-01

    The result of a domain maturing is the emergence of reference architectures that offer numerous advantages to software architects and other stakeholders. However there is no straightforward way to describe a reference architecture and in sequence to design instances for specific systems, while at th

  4. The Tortricidae described by J. C. Fabricius (Lepidoptera)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baixeras, Joaquin; Karsholt, Ole

    2011-01-01

    The identity and nomenclature of the 88 species of Tortricidae (Lepidoptera) described by J. C. Fabricius are reviewed. Type material deposited in the Natural History Museum Denmark is illustrated. Lectotypes for Tinea compositella (Fabricius, 1775), Pyralis rivellana (Fabricius, 1775) and P...

  5. Digital data set describing surficial geology in the conterminous US

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set describes surficial geology of the conterminous United States. The data set was generated from a U.S. Geological Survey 1:7,500,000-scale map...

  6. Describing the Corneal Shape after Wavefront-Optimized Photorefractive Keratectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Tim; Wijdh, Robert H. J.; Koopmans, Steven A.; Jansonius, Nomdo M.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To develop a procedure for describing wavefront-optimized photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) corneas and to characterize PRK-induced changes in shape. METHODS: We analyzed preoperative and postoperative corneal elevation data of 41 eyes of 41 patients (mean [±SD] age, 38 [±11] years) who und

  7. An Evolving Framework for Describing Student Engagement in Classroom Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Flavio S.; diSessa, Andrea A.; Sherin, Bruce L.

    2012-01-01

    Student engagement in classroom activities is usually described as a function of factors such as human needs, affect, intention, motivation, interests, identity, and others. We take a different approach and develop a framework that models classroom engagement as a function of students' "conceptual competence" in the "specific content" (e.g., the…

  8. Avicenna, the first to describe thyroid-related orbitopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabipour, Iraj; Burger, Albert; Moharreri, Muhammad-Reza; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2009-01-01

    The history of the association of goiter and orbital disease is discussed. Although Graves and Basedow are credited with the first descriptions of this association, it was described many years earlier between AD 1000 and 1110 by two Persian physicians and philosophers, Avicenna and Al-Jurjani.

  9. Interpersonal Problems of People Who Describe Themselves as Lonely.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Rita de Sales; Horowitz, Leonard M.

    1979-01-01

    The complaint "I am lonely" summarizes specific interpersonal difficulties in socializing. The UCLA Loneliness Scale identifies lonely and not-lonely students who described their major interpersonal problems by performing a Q-sort with a standardized set of problems. Results show that lonely people consistently report problems of…

  10. Collective learning in schools described: building collective learning capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbiest, Eric; Teurlings, C.; Ansems, E.; Bakx, A.; Grootswagers, A.; Heijmen-Versteegen,; Jongen,; Uphoff,

    2005-01-01

    Processes of collective learning are expected to increase the professionalism of teachers and school leaders. Little is known about the processes of collective learning which take place in schools and about the way in which those processes may be improved. This paper describes a research into proces

  11. A Framework for Describing Variations in State Early Intervention Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiker, Donna; Hebbeler, Kathleen; Wagner, Mary; Cameto, Renee; McKenna, Patti

    2000-01-01

    Information about the early intervention service systems in 20 states was gathered and organized into dimensions of a framework for describing early intervention systems at the state and local levels. Results indicate considerable variation exists on eligibility criteria, agencies involved in early intervention, and models of intake and service…

  12. Global forces and local currents in Argentina's science policy crossroads: restricted access or open knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Javier Etchichury

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the tensions between two competing approaches to scientific policy in Argentina. The traditional vision favors autonomous research. The neoliberal conception fosters the link between science and markets. In the past few years, a neodevelopmentalist current also tries to stress relevance of scientific research. Finally, the article describes how the Open Access movement has entered the debate. The World Bank intervention and the human rights dimension of the question are discussed in depth. The article introduces the notion of open knowledge as a guiding criterion to design a human-rights based scientific policy.

  13. Halo current diagnostic system of experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, D. L.; Shen, B.; Sun, Y.; Qian, J. P., E-mail: jpqian@ipp.ac.cn; Wang, Y.; Xiao, B. J. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei 230031 (China); Granetz, R. S. [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    The design, calibration, and installation of disruption halo current sensors for the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak are described in this article. All the sensors are Rogowski coils that surround conducting structures, and all the signals are analog integrated. Coils with two different cross-section sizes have been fabricated, and their mutual inductances are calibrated. Sensors have been installed to measure halo currents in several different parts of both the upper divertor (tungsten) and lower divertor (graphite) at several toroidal locations. Initial measurements from disruptions show that the halo current diagnostics are working well.

  14. Halo current diagnostic system of experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, D. L.; Shen, B.; Granetz, R. S.; Sun, Y.; Qian, J. P.; Wang, Y.; Xiao, B. J.

    2015-10-01

    The design, calibration, and installation of disruption halo current sensors for the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak are described in this article. All the sensors are Rogowski coils that surround conducting structures, and all the signals are analog integrated. Coils with two different cross-section sizes have been fabricated, and their mutual inductances are calibrated. Sensors have been installed to measure halo currents in several different parts of both the upper divertor (tungsten) and lower divertor (graphite) at several toroidal locations. Initial measurements from disruptions show that the halo current diagnostics are working well.

  15. Structure of Moves in Research Article Abstracts in Applied Linguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seden Can

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available An abstract summarizes the accompanying article in order to promote it. While many move-analysis studies of abstracts in applied linguistics (AL have used similar coding frameworks and demonstrated similar rhetorical organizations, their findings have not yet been aggregated to show the overall picture. The present study aimed to both examine move structures in AL abstracts and compare the results with previous studies both synchronically and diachronically. Fifty abstracts were collected from articles published in the journal English for Specific Purposes (ESP between 2011 and 2013. Sentences were coded using a five-move scheme adapted from previous studies. Combining the results from previous research and the present study showed that most AL abstracts give information on the purpose, methodology, and findings of the associated article, while about half of the articles omit introduction of the topic and discussion of the findings. It was also found that authors frequently violate the move sequence expected by current schemes. These findings consistent with previous research suggest that future researchers informed by move analyses should explore the connection between the findings of move analyses and teaching materials for academic writing.

  16. ON THE LINGUISTIC STATUS OF THE GERMAN ARTICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goryunova Yuliya Nikolaevna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is dedicated to the critical analysis of the present points of views about the lexical and grammatical essence of the German article. The author adduces the arguments for the inability of the most common opinion, pursuant to the German article is described as an analytical tool, which doesn't have its own lexical meaning. It is proved that the analyzed linguistic unit is an independent pronominal word, which forms a special lexical and grammatical class of deictic words with the demonstrative, possessive and indefinite pronouns. The German native speakers use this word class for the realization of the special semantic category of correlation. The gist of this category is that the same noun can be used for the nomination of different essences, such as an only possible object, a class of the similar objects, all members of the same class or subclass of objects or a concept. For all that, the choice of one or another article is regulated with the realized type of correlation. Grammatical characteristics of the German article, that is the distribution, form change and semantic function, identify it as an adjective, which holds a peripheral position in the field structure of this part of speech.

  17. A visual metaphor describing neural dynamics in schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico J M van Beveren

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In many scientific disciplines the use of a metaphor as an heuristic aid is not uncommon. A well known example in somatic medicine is the 'defense army metaphor' used to characterize the immune system. In fact, probably a large part of the everyday work of doctors consists of 'translating' scientific and clinical information (i.e. causes of disease, percentage of success versus risk of side-effects into information tailored to the needs and capacities of the individual patient. The ability to do so in an effective way is at least partly what makes a clinician a good communicator. Schizophrenia is a severe psychiatric disorder which affects approximately 1% of the population. Over the last two decades a large amount of molecular-biological, imaging and genetic data have been accumulated regarding the biological underpinnings of schizophrenia. However, it remains difficult to understand how the characteristic symptoms of schizophrenia such as hallucinations and delusions are related to disturbances on the molecular-biological level. In general, psychiatry seems to lack a conceptual framework with sufficient explanatory power to link the mental- and molecular-biological domains. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we present an essay-like study in which we propose to use visualized concepts stemming from the theory on dynamical complex systems as a 'visual metaphor' to bridge the mental- and molecular-biological domains in schizophrenia. We first describe a computer model of neural information processing; we show how the information processing in this model can be visualized, using concepts from the theory on complex systems. We then describe two computer models which have been used to investigate the primary theory on schizophrenia, the neurodevelopmental model, and show how disturbed information processing in these two computer models can be presented in terms of the visual metaphor previously described. Finally, we describe the

  18. Why do nursing homes close? An analysis of newspaper articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Andrew; Castle, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Using Non-numerical Unstructured Data Indexing Searching and Theorizing (NUD'IST) software to extract and examine keywords from text, the authors explored the phenomenon of nursing home closure through an analysis of 30 major-market newspapers over a period of 66 months (January 1, 1999 to June 1, 2005). Newspaper articles typically represent a careful analysis of staff impressions via interviews, managerial perspectives, and financial records review. There is a current reliance on the synthesis of information from large regulatory databases such as the Online Survey Certification And Reporting database, the California Office of Statewide Healthcare Planning and Development database, and Area Resource Files. Although such databases permit the construction of studies capable of revealing some reasons for nursing home closure, they are hampered by the confines of the data entered. Using our analysis of newspaper articles, the authors are able to add further to their understanding of nursing home closures.

  19. Analysis of Japanese newspaper articles on genetic modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuma Shineha

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The rapid spread of technologies involving the application of “Genetic Modification (GM” raised the need for science communication on this new technology in society. To consider the communication on GM in the society, an understanding of the current mass media is required. This paper shows the whole picture of newspaper discourses on GM in Japan. For the Japanese public, newspapers represent one of the major sources of information on GM. We subjected the two Japanese newspapers with the largest circulation, the Asahi Shimbun and Yomiuri Shimbun, to an analysis of the full text of approximately 4000 articles on GM published over the past to perform an assessment of the change of reportage on GM. As for the most important results, our analysis shows that there are two significant shifts with respect to the major topics addressed in articles on GM by Japanese newspapers.

  20. New models for describing outliers in meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Rose; Jackson, Dan

    2016-09-01

    An unobserved random effect is often used to describe the between-study variation that is apparent in meta-analysis datasets. A normally distributed random effect is conventionally used for this purpose. When outliers or other unusual estimates are included in the analysis, the use of alternative random effect distributions has previously been proposed. Instead of adopting the usual hierarchical approach to modelling between-study variation, and so directly modelling the study specific true underling effects, we propose two new marginal distributions for modelling heterogeneous datasets. These two distributions are suggested because numerical integration is not needed to evaluate the likelihood. This makes the computation required when fitting our models much more robust. The properties of the new distributions are described, and the methodology is exemplified by fitting models to four datasets. © 2015 The Authors. Research Synthesis Methods published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2015 The Authors. Research Synthesis Methods published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Galactic Rotation Described with Bulge+Disk Gravitational Models

    CERN Document Server

    Gallo, C F

    2008-01-01

    Observations reveal that mature spiral galaxies consist of stars, gases and plasma approximately distributed in a thin disk of circular shape, usually with a central bulge. The rotation velocities quickly increase from the galactic center and then achieve a constant velocity from the core to the periphery. The basic dynamic behavior of a mature spiral galaxy, such as the Milky Way, is well described by simple models balancing Newtonian gravitational forces against the centrifugal forces associated with a rotating thin axisymmetric disk. In this research, we investigate the effects of adding central bulges to thin disk gravitational models. Even with the addition of substantial central bulges, all the critical essential features of our thin disk gravitational models are preserved. (1) Balancing Newtonian gravitational and centrifugal forces at every point within the disk yields computed radial mass distributions that describe the measured rotation velocity profiles of mature spiral galaxies successfully. (2) T...

  2. Oculoectodermal syndrome: twentieth described case with new manifestations*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiras, Daniela de Almeida; Leal, Deborah Maria de Castro Barbosa; Kozmhinsky, Valter; Querino, Marina Coutinho Domingues; Regueira, Marina Genesia da Silva; Studart, Maria Gabriela de Morais

    2016-01-01

    Oculoectodermal syndrome is a rare disease characterized by the association of aplasia cutis congenita, epibulbar dermoids, and other abnormalities. This report describes the twentieth case of the disease. We report a 4-year-old female child who presented with the classical features of the syndrome: aplasia cutis congenita and epibulbar dermoids. Our case expands the clinical spectrum of the disease to include: diffuse hyperpigmentation (some following the Blaschko´s lines); hypopigmented skin areas on the trunk; arachnoid cyst on the right fronto-parietal border; rounded left side of the hippocampus; and dermoid cyst underlying the bulb-medullary transition. Our patient also reported infantile hemangioma on the right wrist and verrucous hemangioma on the left leg, the latter not previously described in the literature.

  3. A six-parameter space to describe galaxy diversification

    CERN Document Server

    Fraix-Burnet, Didier; Chattopadhyay, Asis Kumar; Davoust, Emmanuel; Thuillard, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Galaxy diversification proceeds by transforming events like accretion, interaction or mergers. These explain the formation and evolution of galaxies that can now be described with many observables. Multivariate analyses are the obvious tools to tackle the datasets and understand the differences between different kinds of objects. However, depending on the method used, redundancies, incompatibilities or subjective choices of the parameters can void the usefulness of such analyses. The behaviour of the available parameters should be analysed before an objective reduction of dimensionality and subsequent clustering analyses can be undertaken, especially in an evolutionary context. We study a sample of 424 early-type galaxies described by 25 parameters, ten of which are Lick indices, to identify the most structuring parameters and determine an evolutionary classification of these objects. Four independent statistical methods are used to investigate the discriminant properties of the observables and the partitioni...

  4. Statistical models describing the energy signature of buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik; Thavlov, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Approximately one third of the primary energy production in Denmark is used for heating in buildings. Therefore efforts to accurately describe and improve energy performance of the building mass are very important. For this purpose statistical models describing the energy signature of a building, i.......e. the heat dynamics of the building, have been developed. The models can be used to obtain rather detailed knowledge of the energy performance of the building and to optimize the control of the energy consumption for heating, which will be vital in conditions with increasing fluctuation of the energy supply...... or varying energy prices. The paper will give an overview of statistical methods and applied models based on experiments carried out in FlexHouse, which is an experimental building in SYSLAB, Risø DTU. The models are of different complexity and can provide estimates of physical quantities such as UA...

  5. Double sigmoidal models describing the growth of coffee berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tales Jesus Fernandes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study aimed to verify if the growth pattern of coffee berries, considering fresh mass accumulation over time, is double sigmoid and to select the most suitable nonlinear model to describe such behavior. Data used consisted of fourteen longitudinal observations of average fresh mass of coffee berries obtained in an experiment with the cultivar Obatã IAC 1669-20. The fits provided by the Logistic and Gompertz models were compared in their single and double versions. Parameters were estimated using the least squares method using the Gauss-Newton algorithm implemented in the nls function of the R software. It can be concluded that the growth pattern of the coffee fruit, in fresh mass accumulation, is double sigmoid. The double Gompertz and double Logistic models were adequate to describe such a growth curve, with a superiority of the double Logistic model.

  6. Which number system is "best" for describing empirical reality?

    CERN Document Server

    Visser, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Eugene Wigner's much discussed notion of the "unreasonable effectiveness of mathematics" in describing the physics of empirical reality is simultaneously both trivial and profound. After all, the relevant mathematics was, (in the first instance), originally developed in order to be useful in describing empirical reality. On the other hand, certain aspects of the mathematical superstructure have now taken on a life of their own, with at least some features of the mathematical superstructure greatly exceeding anything that can be directly probed or verified, or even justified, by empirical experiment. Specifically, I wish to raise the possibility that the real number system, (with its nevertheless pragmatically very useful tools of real analysis, and mathematically rigorous notions of differentiation and integration), may nevertheless constitute a "wrong turn" when it comes to modelling empirical reality. Without making any definitive recommendation, I shall discuss several alternatives.

  7. Curie law for systems described by kappa distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livadiotis, George

    2016-01-01

    We derive the magnetization of a system, Pierre Curie's law, for paramagnetic particles out of thermal equilibrium described by kappa distributions. The analysis uses the theory and formulation of the kappa distributions that describe particle systems with a non-zero potential energy. Among other results, emphasis is placed on the effect of kappa distribution on the phenomenon of having strong magnetization at high temperatures. At thermal equilibrium, high temperature leads to weak magnetization. Out of thermal equilibrium, however, strong magnetization at high temperatures is rather possible, if the paramagnetic particle systems reside far from thermal equilibrium, i.e., at small values of kappa. The application of the theory to the space plasma at the outer boundaries of our heliosphere, the inner heliosheath, leads to an estimation of the ion magnetic moment for this space plasma, that is, μ ≈ 138+/-7 \\text{eV/nT} .

  8. A geostatistical approach for describing spatial pattern in stream networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganio, L.M.; Torgersen, C.E.; Gresswell, R.E.

    2005-01-01

    The shape and configuration of branched networks influence ecological patterns and processes. Recent investigations of network influences in riverine ecology stress the need to quantify spatial structure not only in a two-dimensional plane, but also in networks. An initial step in understanding data from stream networks is discerning non-random patterns along the network. On the other hand, data collected in the network may be spatially autocorrelated and thus not suitable for traditional statistical analyses. Here we provide a method that uses commercially available software to construct an empirical variogram to describe spatial pattern in the relative abundance of coastal cutthroat trout in headwater stream networks. We describe the mathematical and practical considerations involved in calculating a variogram using a non-Euclidean distance metric to incorporate the network pathway structure in the analysis of spatial variability, and use a non-parametric technique to ascertain if the pattern in the empirical variogram is non-random.

  9. Describing spatial pattern in stream networks: A practical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganio, L.M.; Torgersen, C.E.; Gresswell, R.E.

    2005-01-01

    The shape and configuration of branched networks influence ecological patterns and processes. Recent investigations of network influences in riverine ecology stress the need to quantify spatial structure not only in a two-dimensional plane, but also in networks. An initial step in understanding data from stream networks is discerning non-random patterns along the network. On the other hand, data collected in the network may be spatially autocorrelated and thus not suitable for traditional statistical analyses. Here we provide a method that uses commercially available software to construct an empirical variogram to describe spatial pattern in the relative abundance of coastal cutthroat trout in headwater stream networks. We describe the mathematical and practical considerations involved in calculating a variogram using a non-Euclidean distance metric to incorporate the network pathway structure in the analysis of spatial variability, and use a non-parametric technique to ascertain if the pattern in the empirical variogram is non-random.

  10. The first fossil cephalopod statoliths to be described from Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, M. R.; MADDOCK, LINDA; Steurbaut, E.

    1980-01-01

    Statoliths of cephalopods are small, hard calcareous stones which lie within the cartilaginous skulls of octopods, sepioids and teuthoids1. Fossil statoliths, clearly belonging to genera which are alive today, have previously been described from 11 Cenozoic deposits spanning from the Eocene to the Pleistocene in North America2–5. Such statoliths are of particular interest because they provide a means of studying the evolution of living cephalopod groups which have no calcareous shells, includ...

  11. New model describing the dynamical behaviour of penetration rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, Tohru; Minagawa, Hiroe; Chiba, Michiko

    2013-02-01

    We propose a hierarchical logistic equation as a model to describe the dynamical behaviour of a penetration rate of a prevalent stuff. In this model, a memory, how many people who already possess it a person who does not process it yet met, is considered, which does not exist in the logistic model. As an application, we apply this model to iPod sales data, and find that this model can approximate the data much better than the logistic equation.

  12. [Describe and convince: visual rhetoric of cinematography in medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panese, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    The tools of visualisation occupy a central place in medicine. Far from being simple accessories of glance, they literally constitute objects of medicine. Such empirical acknowledgement and epistemological position open a vast field of investigation: visual technologies of medical knowledge. This article studies the development and transformation of medical objects which have permitted to assess the role of temporality in the epistemology of medicine. It firstly examines the general problem of the relationships between cinema, animated image and medicine and secondly, the contribution of the German doctor Martin Weiser to medical cinematography as a method. Finally, a typology is sketched out organising the variety of the visual technology of movement under the perspective of the development of specific visual techniques in medicine.

  13. Ancient sea reptile found at Syncrude formally described

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2008-05-15

    This article provided details of an ancient reptile that once swam in ancient seas near the present location of Alberta's oil sands region. The plesiosaur has now been named after a curator at the Royal Tyrrell Museum who was also a renowned paleontologist. The nearly complete remains of one of the oldest plesiosaur fossils were recovered at a Syncrude Canada mine near Fort McMurray in 1994. Paleontologists from the University of Calgary have recently published a paper on the prehistoric aquatic predator in a German research journal. A plaster cast of the plesiosaur found at the Syncrude site is now on display at the Oil Sands Discovery Centre in Fort McMurray. 1 fig.

  14. On the problems of describing joint axis alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Kevin A; Greiner, Thomas M

    2008-01-01

    Each three-dimensional joint possesses at least one potentially oblique axis of rotation. Several systems are used to express joint axis alignment. One system, designated the plane projection (PP) method, describes angles based on orthogonal projections onto two, of the three, anatomical planes. Alternatively, a joint axis may be described in two different ways using two sequential Cardan angle rotations. These expression systems all lay claim to similar descriptive labels, such as deviation and elevation. Difficulties arise as researchers use these various methods to compare their own data to the results of others. A joint axis alignment, described as 27 degrees deviation and 41 degrees elevation in PP, differs by as much as 6 degrees when expressed as Cardan angles. Differences among expression systems increase as the joint axis alignment becomes more oblique -- eventually differing by as much as 75 degrees . This paper explores implications for this lack of congruence among the joint axis expression systems. Effective steps in dealing with these issues begin with recognizing the existence and extent of the problem. The paper provides a common set of algorithms to illustrate and alleviate the possible problems associated with the exchange of joint axis alignment data.

  15. On Differential Equations Describing 3-Dimensional Hyperbolic Spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jun-Yi; DING Qing; Keti Tenenblat

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce the notion of a (2+1)-dimensional differential equation describing threedimensional hyperbolic spaces (3-h.s.). The (2+1)-dimensional coupled nonlinear Schrodinger equation and its sister equation, the (2+1)-dimensional coupled derivative nonlinear Schrodinger equation, are shown to describe 3-h.s. The (2+1)-dimensional generalized HF model: St = (1/2i [S, Sy] + 2iσS)x, σx = 1-4itr(SSxSy), in which S ∈ GLC(2)/GLC(1)×GLC(1),provides another example of (2+1)-dimensional differential equations describing 3-h.s. As a direct consequence, the geometric construction of an infinite number of conservation laws of such equations is illustrated. Furthermore we display a new infinite number of conservation laws of the (2+1)-dimensional nonlinear Schrodinger equation and the (2+1)odimensional derivative nonlinear Schrodinger equation by a geometric way.

  16. How to write a review article?

    OpenAIRE

    Gülpınar, Ömer; Güçlü, Adil Güçal

    2013-01-01

    In the medical sciences, the importance of review articles is rising. When clinicians want to update their knowledge and generate guidelines about a topic, they frequently use reviews as a starting point. The value of a review is associated with what has been done, what has been found and how these findings are presented. Before asking ‘how,’ the question of ‘why’ is more important when starting to write a review. The main and fundamental purpose of writing a review is to create a readable sy...

  17. Silicon carbide fibers and articles including same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnier, John E; Griffith, George W

    2015-01-27

    Methods of producing silicon carbide fibers. The method comprises reacting a continuous carbon fiber material and a silicon-containing gas in a reaction chamber at a temperature ranging from approximately 1500.degree. C. to approximately 2000.degree. C. A partial pressure of oxygen in the reaction chamber is maintained at less than approximately 1.01.times.10.sup.2 Pascal to produce continuous alpha silicon carbide fibers. Continuous alpha silicon carbide fibers and articles formed from the continuous alpha silicon carbide fibers are also disclosed.

  18. Buffer layers and articles for electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranthaman, Mariappan P.; Aytug, Tolga; Christen, David K.; Feenstra, Roeland; Goyal, Amit

    2004-07-20

    Materials for depositing buffer layers on biaxially textured and untextured metallic and metal oxide substrates for use in the manufacture of superconducting and other electronic articles comprise RMnO.sub.3, R.sub.1-x A.sub.x MnO.sub.3, and combinations thereof; wherein R includes an element selected from the group consisting of La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, and Y, and A includes an element selected from the group consisting of Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, and Ra.

  19. Hedging in Popular Scientific Articles on Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csongor Alexandra

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study is to investigate the process of rewriting medical research papers for the lay public. The latest findings of medical research often appear in the popular media. It is interesting to see what happens to a scientific text when it is transmitted to a new audience. Hedging is usually interpreted as a characteristic feature of scientific discourse. This study focuses on hedging, which also tends to be applied in popularized articles in the field of medicine.

  20. [Current state of competence assessment in nursing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmann-Finck, Ingrid; Reuschenbach, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    Competency measurement is central to the optimisation of outcome oriented educational processes in nursing, similar to the concept of evidence based practice. The classification of measurement tools provides the basis for describing the current state of research and development in relation to competence measurement in nursing science, and any gaps are identified. The article concludes with questioning the importance of outcome oriented quality orientation in order to achieve an increase in quality during training. Further methodological developments and qualitative studies are needed to examine the context specific processes of interaction and learning, beyond competence diagnostics. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier GmbH.